WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha-tocopherol beta-carotene cancer

  1. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Crystal N; Michaud, Dominique S; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Mayne, Susan T; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2002-09-15

    Findings from several beta-carotene supplementation trials were unexpected and conflicted with most observational studies. Carotenoids other than beta-carotene are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables and may play a role in this important malignancy, but previous findings regarding the five major carotenoids are inconsistent. The authors analyzed the associations between dietary beta-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin A, serum beta-carotene, and serum retinol and the lung cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of male smokers conducted in southwestern Finland between 1985 and 1993. Of the 27,084 male smokers aged 50-69 years who completed the 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline, 1,644 developed lung cancer during up to 14 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (relative risk = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.86, highest vs. lowest quintile). Lower risks of lung cancer were observed for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of lycopene (28%), lutein/zeaxanthin (17%), beta-cryptoxanthin (15%), total carotenoids (16%), serum beta-carotene (19%), and serum retinol (27%). These findings suggest that high fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly a diet rich in carotenoids, tomatoes, and tomato-based products, may reduce the risk of lung cancer.

  2. Effects of α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene Supplementation on Cancer Incidence and Mortality: 18-Year Post-Intervention Follow-Up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Phil R; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu; Utriainen, Meri; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Huttunen, Jussi; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the post-intervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers. Neither supplemen...

  3. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Moore, Steven C.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Evans, Anne M.; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood.

  4. Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmersson, Johanna; Arnlöv, Johan; Larsson, Anders; Basu, Samar

    2009-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including CVD. A part of these effects seen could be linked to anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, although this has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on in vivo biomarkers of inflammation (PGF2alpha, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and IL-6 formation) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane formation), the two important factors associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. The dietary intake of 704 participants in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) at age 70 years was registered and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified 7 years later. The registered dietary intakes of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were negatively associated linearly and in quartiles with both PGF2alpha, hsCRP, IL-6 and F2-isoprostanes, where ascorbic acid intake generally was more strongly associated. Dietary intake of beta-carotene was only significantly negatively associated with F2-isoprostanes. In conclusion, the present study is the first to suggest that the intake of food rich in antioxidants is associated with reduced cyclo-oxygenase- and cytokine-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress at 7 years of follow-up. These associations could be linked to the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetables observed on CVD.

  5. Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Beta-Carotene in Relation to Common Cold Incidence in Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Heinonen Olli P; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, as well as long-term vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation, on the incidence of common cold episodes. A cohort of 21,796 male smokers was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, which examined the effects of 50 mg per day vitamin E and 20 mg per day beta-carotene on lung cancer. Diet and background characteristics were recorded at the study entry, and subjects were queried three time...

  6. Serum beta-carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Thompson, S G; Densem, J W; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A

    1988-01-01

    In the BUPA Study, a prospective study of 22,000 men attending a screening centre in London, serum samples were collected and stored. The concentration of beta-carotene was measured in the stored serum samples from 271 men who were subsequently notified as having cancer and from 533 unaffected controls, matched for age, smoking history and duration of storage of the serum samples. The mean beta-carotene level of the cancer subjects was significantly lower than that of their matched controls (...

  7. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia. Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene ... One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version ...

  8. The Effect of Beta-Carotene Intake on Lung Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Brar, Rondeep Singh

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, comprising nearly 30% of all cancer-related mortality. Investigation into nutritional supplementation with beta-carotene as a means of reducing lung cancer incidence remains an active and intriguing area of research. The present review summarizes the salient findings in the literature to date. Although a number of observational studies have suggested an association between carotenoid consumption and reduced...

  9. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  10. DNA repair genotype and lung cancer risk in the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Jennifer A; Sakoda, Lori C.; Loomis, Melissa M; Barnett, Matt J.; Julianto, Liberto; Thornquist, Mark D; Neuhouser, Marian L; Weiss, Noel S.; Goodman, Gary E.; Chen, Chu

    2013-01-01

    Many carcinogens in tobacco smoke cause DNA damage, and some of that damage can be mitigated by the actions of DNA repair enzymes. In a case-control study nested within the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a randomized chemoprevention trial in current and former heavy smokers, we examined whether lung cancer risk was associated with variation in 26 base excision repair, mismatch repair, and homologous recombination repair genes. Analyses were limited to Caucasians (744 cases, 1477 co...

  11. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  12. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kasperzyk, Julie L. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sesso, Howard D. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gaziano, John Michael [Division of Aging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Veterans' Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ma, Jing [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87-95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84-93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  13. Dual Association of beta-carotene with risk of tobacco-related cancers in a cohort of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intervention studies have demonstrated that, in smokers, beta-carotene supplements had a deleterious effect on risk of lung cancer and may have a deleterious effect on digestive cancers as well. We investigated a potential interaction between beta-carotene intake and smoking on the risk of tobacco-related cancers in women. METHODS: A total of 59,910 women from the French Etude Epid?ologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle G?rale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective investigation we...

  14. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Bosin, E; Feldman, B; Giat, Y; Miinster, A; Danilenko, M; Sharoni, Y

    1995-01-01

    The antiproliferative properties of lycopene, the major tomato carotenoid, were compared with those of alpha- and beta-carotene. Lycopene, delivered in cell culture medium from stock solutions in tetrahydrofuran, strongly inhibited proliferation of endometrial (Ishikawa), mammary (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H226) human cancer cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 1-2 microM; alpha- and beta-carotene were far less effective inhibitors. For example, in Ishikawa cells, a 4-fold higher concentration of alpha-carotene or a 10-fold higher concentration of beta-carotene was needed for the same order of growth suppression. The inhibitory effect of lycopene was detected after 24 hours of incubation, and it was maintained for at least three days. In contrast to cancer cells, human fibroblasts were less sensitive to lycopene, and the cells gradually escaped growth inhibition over time. In addition to its inhibitory effect on basal endometrial cancer cell proliferation, lycopene also suppressed insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth. Insulin-like growth factors are major autocrine/paracrine regulators of mammary and endometrial cancer cell growth. Therefore, lycopene interference in this major autocrine/paracrine system may open new avenues for research on the role of lycopene in the regulation of endometrial cancer and other tumors. PMID:8610045

  15. Association between beta-carotene and acute myocardial infarction depends on polyunsaturated fatty acid status. The EURAMIC Study. European Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Kardinaal, Alwine F; Aro, Antti; Kark, Jeremy D; Riemersma, Rudolph A; van't Veer, Pieter; Gomez-Aracena, Jorge; Kohlmeier, Lenore; Ringstad, Jetmund; Martin, Blaise C; Mazaev, Vladimir P; Delgado-Rodriguez, Miguel; Thamm, Michael; Huttunen, Jussi K; Martin-Moreno, José M; Kok, Frans J.

    1995-01-01

    Because antioxidants may play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease by inhibiting the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the combined association of diet-derived antioxidants and PUFAs with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated. This multicenter case-control study included 674 patients and 725 control subjects in eight European countries and Israel. Fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene levels were determined in adipose tissue...

  16. Plasma retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Boreham, J.; Hayward, J L; Bulbrook, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective study of 5,004 women in Guernsey, plasma samples were collected and stored. Retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels were later measured in the samples from 39 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and from 78 controls who did not develop cancer. Plasma retinol levels were not related to the risk of breast cancer, mean levels among cases and controls being 485 micrograms l-1 and 479 micrograms l-1 respectively. Plasma vitamin E levels showed a clear association, l...

  17. Vitamins C and E, retinol, beta-carotene and dietary fibre in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, D. T.; Assen, N.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Dorant, E.; van't Veer, P; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R. J.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Association between breast cancer risk and the intake of vitamins C and E, retinol, beta (beta)-carotene, dietary fibre, vegetables, fruit and potatoes was examined in The Netherlands Cohort Study, for 62,573 women aged 55-69 years. After 4.3 years of follow-up, 650 incident breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, breast cancer risk was not influenced by the intake of beta-carotene, vitamin E, dietary fibre, supplements with vitamin C, vegetables or ...

  18. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Victoria A.; Hayes, Richard B; Mayne, Susan T; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Subar, Amy F; Dixon, L. Beth; Albanes, Demetrius; Gerald L. Andriole; Urban, Donald A.; Peters, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers Dietary item or component studied: Vitamin E, caroteniods, vitamin COutcome studied (cancer or cancer biomarker): prastate cancerStudy type (in vitro, animals, humans): humansStudy design (if human): cross-sectionalStudy size (if human):29361 menMode of exposure (if in vivo): through normal diet (no administration)Impact on outcome (including dose-response): inverse association between β-carotene intake and prostate cancer risk (RR for >2000μg...

  19. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, A.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Ross, R K; Henderson, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of 11,580 residents of a retirement community initially free from cancer were followed from 1981 to 1989. A total of 1,335 incident cancer cases were diagnosed during the period. Relative risks of cancer were calculated for baseline consumption of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, dietary vitamin C, and vitamin supplements. After adjustment for age and smoking, no evidence of a protective effect was found for any of the dietary variables in men. However, an inverse association was o...

  20. The Effects of Combined Antioxidant Supplementation on Antioxidant Capacity, DNA Single-Strand Breaks and Regulation of Insulin Growth Factor-1/IGF-Binding Protein 3 in the Ferret Model of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its major binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) are implicated in lung cancer and other malignancies. We have previously shown that the combination of three major antioxidants [beta-carotene (BC), alpha-tocopherol (AT) and ascorbic acid (...

  1. Beta - caroteno e câncer Beta - carotene and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Há mais de vinte anos tem-se pesquisado sobre a relação entre β-caroteno e câncer. Inúmeros trabalhos têm tentado esclarecer a hipótese, formulada a partir de achados epidemiológicos e experimentais, de que o carotenóide poderia agir como anticarcinogênico de origem alimentar. Estudos epidemiológicos observacionais, tipo caso-controle e coorte, sugerem que o consumo elevado de frutas e vegetais ricos em β-caroteno reduz o risco de câncer, especialmente de pulmão. Estudos de intervenção em humanos, administrando doses farmacológicas crônicas a milhares de indivíduos, têm demonstrado resultados contraditórios. Pesquisas em animais experimentais e em cultura de células apontam o carotenóide como quimiopreventivo, agindo sobretudo como retinóides, através de conversão metabólica extra-intestinal e como antioxidante de membrana. Conclui-se que o β-caroteno pode proteger contra o câncer, quando suplementado em doses fisiológicas, isto é, cerca de 4 a 6mg/dia. Doses farmacológicas crônicas não estão recomendadas para indivíduos saudáveis e particularmente para tabagistas.The subject β-carotene and cancer has been studied for more than twenty years, through epidemiologic and experimental researches.Observational epidemiologic studies, both prospective and retrospective, have suggested strongly that high intake of vegetables and fruits which are sources of β-carotene is associated with reduced risk of cancer, specially of lung cancer. However, the results of intervention trials do not demonstrate a preventive potential of β-carotene. Nevertheless, in many studies in experimental animals and in cell cultures, this carotenoid had been shown to act as a potent cancer chemopreventive agent and mechanisms have been proposed to explain this protective effect on biological systems. Researchers suggest that β-carotene protects against cancer, in the amounts easily attained by the consumption of a wide variety of diets

  2. Pigmentation-related phenotypes and risk of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation exposure has been inversely related to prostate cancer incidence and mortality, possibly mediated through vitamin D status. Pigmentation-related traits influence endogenous vitamin D synthesis and may alter risk of prostate cancer. Methods: We examined prostate cancer in relation to hair and eye colour, and skin phototype in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Incident cancer was diagnosed in 1982 out of 20 863 men. Multi...

  3. Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori and risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoqin; Murphy, Gwen; Michel, Angelika; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; Pawlita, Michael; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori seropositivity has been inconsistently associated with pancreatic cancer. We, therefore, investigated the association between H. pylori seropositivity and pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) cohort of male Finnish male smokers. Pancreatic cancer cases (n=353) and control subjects (n=353) were matched on date of baseline serum collection, age at randomization, and follow-up time (up to 23.9 y...

  4. Serum Retinol and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Watters, Joanne L; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of to...

  5. Circulating Thyroxine, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Hypothyroid Status and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Tracey Bosworth; Remaley, Alan T.; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer inc...

  6. 1-stearoylglycerol is associated with risk of prostate cancer: results from serum metabolomic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Moore, Steven C.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Männistö, Satu; Sampson, Joshua N.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    Although prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in developed populations, recent recommendations against routine prostate-specific antigen screening have cast doubt on its utility for early detection. We compared the metabolomic profiles of prospectively collected fasting serum from 74 prostate cancer cases and 74 controls selected from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of male smokers. Circulating 1-stearoylglycerol (1-SG, or 1-monost...

  7. Associations Between α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, and Retinol and Prostate Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Watters, Joanne L; Gail, Mitchell H.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carotenoids and tocopherols (vitamin E compounds) may be inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, yet little is known about how they affect prostate cancer progression and survival. We investigated whether serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol concentrations, or the α-tocopherol and β-carotene trial supplementation, affected survival of men diagnosed with prostate cancer during the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a ran...

  8. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risks of Colon and Rectal Cancer in Finnish Men

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yu, Kai; Horst, Ronald L.; Ashby, Jason; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Prospective investigations of circulating vitamin D concentrations suggest inverse associations with colorectal cancer risk, although inconsistencies remain and few studies have examined the impact of season. The authors conducted a prospective case-control study of 239 colon cancer cases and 192 rectal cancer cases (diagnosed in 1993–2005) and 428 controls matched on age and blood collection date within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort study of Finnish ma...

  9. Prediagnostic Adiponectin Concentrations and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Weinstein, Stephanie; Pollak, Michael; Tao, Yuzhen; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, has insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. The authors conducted a nested case-control study in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort, a cohort of male Finnish smokers aged 50–69 years at baseline, to test whether prediagnostic adiponectin concentrations are associated with pancreatic cancer. Between January 1985 and October 2004, 311 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cas...

  10. Association of variants in two vitamin E transport genes with circulating vitamin E concentrations and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Peters, Ulrike; Gunter, Marc J; Moore, Steven C.; Lawson, Karla A.; Yeager, Meredith; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence and mortality were observed in men randomized to receive 50 mg supplemental vitamin E (α-tocopherol) per day in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We hypothesized that variation in key vitamin E transport genes might directly affect prostate cancer risk or modify the effects of vitamin E supplementation. Associations between prostate cancer risk and 13 polymorphisms in two genes – TTPA and SEC14L2 – were exam...

  11. LINE1 methylation levels associated with increased bladder cancer risk in pre-diagnostic blood DNA among US (PLCO) and European (ATBC) cohort study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Karami, Sara; Ruth M Pfeiffer; Hurwitz, Lauren; Liao, Linda M; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2013-01-01

    Global methylation in blood DNA has been associated with bladder cancer risk in case-control studies, but has not been examined prospectively. We examined the association between LINE1 total percent 5-methylcytosine and bladder cancer risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (299 cases/676 controls), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) cohort of Finnish male smokers (391 cas...

  12. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  13. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning

  14. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta}-carotene

  15. Abiotic stress modifies the synthesis of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in phytoplankton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häubner, Norbert; Sylvander, Peter; Vuori, Kristiina; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-08-01

    We performed laboratory experiments to investi-gate whether the synthesis of the antioxidants α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene in phytoplankton depends on changes in abiotic factors. Cultures of Nodularia spumigena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Prorocentrum cordatum, and Rhodomonas salina were incubated at different tempe-ratures, photon flux densities and salinities for 48 h. We found that abiotic stress, within natural ecological ranges, affects the synthesis of the two antioxidants in different ways in different species. In most cases antioxidant production was stimulated by increased abiotic stress. In P. tricornutum KAC 37 and D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591, both good producers of this compound, α-tocopherol accumulation was negatively affected by environmentally induced higher photosystem II efficiency (Fv /Fm ). On the other hand, β-carotene accumulation was positively affected by higher Fv /Fm in N. spumigena KAC 7, P. tricornutum KAC 37, D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591 and R. salina SCCAP K-0294. These different patterns in the synthesis of the two compounds may be explained by their different locations and functions in the cell. While α-tocopherol is heavily involved in the protection of prevention of lipid peroxidation in membranes, β-carotene performs immediate photo-oxidative protection in the antennae complex of photosystem II. Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidant pool of natural aquatic ecosystems, which can be subject to short-term temperature, photon flux density and salinity fluctuations. The antioxidant levels in natural phytoplankton communities depend on species composition, the physiological condition of the species, and their respective strategies to deal with reactive oxygen species. Since α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as well as many other nonenzymatic antioxidants, are exclusively produced by photo-synthetic organisms, and are required by higher trophic levels through dietary intake, regime shifts in the phytoplankton as a result of large-scale environmental changes, such as climate change, may have serious consequences for aquatic food webs. PMID:26988459

  16. Beta-carotene supplementation in smokers reduces the frequency of micronuclei in sputum.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppel, G. van; Kok, F. J.; Hermus, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    beta-carotene has been hypothesised to reduce lung cancer risk. We studied the effect of 14 weeks of beta-carotene supplementation (20 mg d-1) on the frequency of micronuclei in sputum in 114 heavy smokers in a double-blind trial. Micronuclei reflect DNA damage in exfoliated cells and may thus provide a marker of early-stage carcinogenesis. Pre-treatment blood levels of cotinine, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins C and E were similar in the placebo group (n = 61) and the treatment group (n ...

  17. Lycopene and beta-carotene ameliorate catechol estrogen-mediated DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Muzandu, Kaampwe; El. Bohi, Khlood; Shaban, Zein; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi; KAZUSAKA, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of various ailments, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, are natural constituents of edible plants and may protect against disease. In this study, the influence of lycopene and beta-carotene on DNA damage caused by catechol-estrogens in vitro is examined. One possible mechanism by which catechol estrogens such as 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 2-hydroxyestradi...

  18. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof;

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  19. Estimated Phytanic Acid Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 particip...

  20. Serum Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Satu Männistö; Demetrius Albanes

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and colorectal cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the molar ratio of 25(OH)D to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary 25(OH)D transport protein, and whether DBP modified the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk. Methods In a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, controls were 1∶1 match...

  1. Influence of vitamin D binding protein on the association between circulating vitamin D and risk of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, A M; Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is little research investigating the role of vitamin D binding protein (DBP) in the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and disease risk. Methods: Within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, 250 bladder cancer cases were randomly sampled and matched 1:1 to controls on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of bladder cancer were estimated by quartiles of DBP (measured by ELISA), 25(OH)...

  2. Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, D S; Pietinen, P.; Taylor, P R; Virtanen, M; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2002-01-01

    We examined the relation between dietary fruit and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamin intakes and the risk of bladder cancer among male smokers in a prospective cohort study. Over a median of 11 years, we followed 27 111 male smokers aged 50–69 years who were initially enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. During this period, 344 men developed bladder cancer. All of these men had completed a 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional h...

  3. Insulin-like growth factors and risk of kidney cancer in men

    OpenAIRE

    Major, J M; Pollak, M N; Snyder, K; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase kidney growth, glomerular filtration rate, and renal function. Methods: In the prospective Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study of 29 133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, serum concentrations of IGF were measured in samples collected in 1985–1988. A total of 100 men with kidney cancer diagnosed ⩾5 years after blood collection through 1997 were compared with a subcohort of 400 men; logis...

  4. Fish, Vitamin D, and Flavonoids in Relation to Renal Cell Cancer Among Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Robin Taylor; Wang, Jiangyue; Chinchilli, Vernon; Richie, John P.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Moore, Lee E.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Fish, vitamin D, flavonoids, and flavonoid-containing foods may have cardiovascular benefits and therefore may also reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. Risk was prospectively assessed in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1985–2002) cohort (N = 27,111; 15.2 mean person-years of follow-up). At enrollment, demographic, health, and dietary history information was recorded. Individuals who smoked less than 5 cigarettes/day, with chronic renal insufficiency or prior canc...

  5. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  6. Ameliorating effect of wheat bran, Beta-carotene and Curcumin on K-ras gene mutations and expression of ntioxidant enzymes in rat colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, colon cancer has unique characterises differ than other countries, more than third cases happen in people under 40 years, with advanced stage, high grade tumors that carry more mutations . This may be return to increase pollution in food and water. The aim of the present study, is the investigation of the role of some natural products approaches for colorectal carcinoma including curcumin, wheat bran and β-Carotene. Accordingly, animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) and/or dually exposed to ionizing radiation to induce colorectal cancer. The frequency of mutation of K-ras gene, the level activity of SOD, GpX antioxidant enzymes and expression of SOD1, SOD2 and GpX1 in tissue of 120 colon rats from 10 different treated groups were studied. Curcumin, wheat bran and D-carotene have inhibition effect on formation of colon cancer and decrease the mutations in K-ras gene. Moreover, they have ameliorating effect on antioxidants enzymes activities and expressions. The present study revealed that wheat bran and D-carotene have better effect than curcumin.

  7. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  8. Beta-carotene metabolites enhance inflammation-induced oxidative DNA damage in lung epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    van Helden, Yvonne G. J.; Keijer, Jaap; Knaapen, Ad M; Heil, Sandra G.; Briede, Jacob J.; Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene (BC) intake has been shown to enhance lung cancer risk in smokers and asbestos-exposed subjects (according to the ATBC and CARET studies), but the mechanism behind this procarcinogenic effect of BC is unclear. Both smoking and asbestos exposure induce an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the airways, which results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and formation of promutagenic DNA lesions. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects o...

  9. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    OpenAIRE

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; PALOU, A.; Franssen-Hal, van, N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes it may increase the risk for lung cancer in at risk individuals (heavy smokers, asbestos workers and alcohol users). To establish the window of benefit, it is necessary to identify early markers of...

  10. : beta-carotene, alpha-linolenate and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Virginie; Hoinard, Claude; Arab, Khelifa; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Bougnoux, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content alters the effect of beta-carotene on mammary carcinogenesis, we conducted a chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis experiment in rats randomly assigned to four nutritional groups (15 rats per group) varying in beta-carotene supplementation and ALA content. Two oil formula-enriched diets (15 %) were used: one with 6 g ALA/kg diet in an essential fatty acids (EFA) ratio of linoleic acid:ALA of 5:1 w/w (EFA 5 diet), the other w...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1245 - Beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular formula C40H56. It is synthesized by saponification of vitamin A acetate. The resulting alcohol is either reacted to form vitamin A Wittig reagent or oxidized to vitamin A aldehyde. Vitamin A Wittig reagent and vitamin A aldehyde are reacted together to form beta-carotene. (b) The ingredient meets...

  12. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce growth inhibition and proapoptotic effects on ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália F Haddad

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and increased expression of p27(kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.

  13. Retinol and Alpha-Tocopherol Levels Among Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatif M. Abd El Maksoud*, Asmaa M. Abd Allah*, Waleed Massoud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma retinol, alpha tocopherol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 40 patients aged 27-65 years, under regular hemodialysis (HD for 1.8-13 years at Ahmed Maher teaching Hospital and in 28 healthy age and sex matched control. Predialysis and postdialysis measurements were also, done for a subset of 13 hemodialytic patients. Among hemodialytic patients ,all values ( Plasma retinol ,alpha- tocopherol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher ( p 100 ug /dl except for one patient . On the other hand ,alpha-tocopherol level in hemodialytic patients was ranged between deficiency ( 1080 ug/dl. Comparing predialysis and postdialysis measurements , the hemodialytic patients showed non significant difference concerning retinol level , while alpha tocopherol was significantly decreased in postdialytic state .In conclusion ; further studies are needed to answer, if hemodialytic patients are at risk for symptomatic vitamin A toxicity?. Even with normal or low plasma vitamin E, it is needed as an antioxidant accessory therapy in hemodialytic patients.

  14. beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

    OpenAIRE

    Goralczyk, Regina; Bachmann, Heinrich; Wertz, Karin; Lenz, Barbara; Riss, Georges; Buchwald Hunziker, Petra; Greatrix, Brad; Aebischer, Claude-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers; Dietary modulation of carcinogenesis-related pathways. Dietary item or component studied: beta-carotene Outcome studied: lung adenoma; gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung. Study type: A/J-mice Tissue/biological material/sample size: lung; blood. Mode of exposure: dietaryImpact on outcome (including dose-response): Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was n...

  15. Effects of quercetin and beta-carotene supplementation on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Yeon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Aruoma, Okezie I; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers. Dietary item or component studied: quercetin; beta-carotene. Outcome studied: aberrant crypt foci in colon; colon tumor incidence; colonic mucosa levels of iNOS and COX-2 proteins and PGE2 levels. Study type: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats. Tissue/biological material/sample size: colon; blood. Mode of exposure: dietary. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): Quercetin or beta-carotene supplementation reduced the number of ACF only in an...

  16. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  17. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    impact. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7 day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987......OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...... with higher estrogen content. CONCLUSIONS: OC use seems to be strongly related to serum beta-carotene levels, particularly among women above the age of 35. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of this association and its implications for health risks of OC use....

  18. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Natália F Haddad; Anderson J Teodoro; Felipe Leite de Oliveira; Nathália Soares; Rômulo Medina de Mattos; Fábio Hecht; Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne; Leandro Vairo; Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg; Flávia Carvalho Alcântara Gomes; Denise Pires de Carvalho; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Luiz Eurico Nasciutti; Leandro Miranda-Alves

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apopto...

  19. Beta-carotene from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves improves vitamin A status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; de Vargas, Rodrigo Martins; de Souza, Elizabeth Maria Talá

    2007-01-01

    The bioavailability of beta-carotene from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves was assayed in vitamin A deficient Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were separated into three groups and fed with a modified AIN-93G--vitamin A deficient--diet. Deficient rat received this diet without any additional vitamin A source. Controls received the diet with 7200 microg of synthetic beta-carotene (control), while experimentals (test) received 19.5 g of cassava leaves powder per kg of diet. The cassava leaves with beta-carotene promotes similar growth and tissue weight in rats to the synthetic beta-carotene. The relative bioavailability, estimated as the Retinol Accumulation Factor (RAF), was 16.5 and 27.5 for control and test groups, respectively, indicating that control and test rats should have an intake of 16.5 microg or 27.5 microg of beta-carotene from synthetic form or cassava leaves powder for each 1 microg of hepatic retinol stored, respectively. The cassava leaves beta-carotene bioavailability was lower than the synthetic beta-carotene probably because the beta-carotene from the leaf matrix may be bounded to protein complex or inside organelles, which impair carotenoid absorption. Our findings showed that beside the hepatic retinol recovery, cassava leaf beta-carotene could maintain rat growth and avoid vitamin A deficient symptoms.

  20. Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein (α-TTP): Insights from Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yunsook; Traber, Maret G.

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a liver cytosolic transport protein that faciliates α-tocopherol (α-T) transfer into liver secreted plasma lipoproteins. Genetic defects in α-TTP, like dietary vitamin E deficiency, are associated with infertility, muscular weakness and neurological disorders. Both human and α-TTP deficient (α-TTP-/-) mice exhibit severe plasma and tissue vitamin E deficiency that can be attenuated by sufficient dietary α-T supplementations. In this review, we summ...

  1. Gene expression of beta carotene genes in transgenic biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Telengech, P. K.; Maling’a, J. N.; Nyende, A. B.; Gichuki, S. T.; Wanjala, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is an important food for millions of people around the world. However, cassava is deficient in protein, iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Cassava biofortified with pro-vitamin A can help reduce Vitamin A Deficiency among the undernourished communities that rely upon it for sustenance. BioCassava Plus project has developed transgenic cassava that expresses beta carotene in roots using root specific patatin promoter. This study aimed at confirming expression of nptII, crtB and DX...

  2. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of Dunali

  3. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan;

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  4. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization. PMID:3027282

  5. The effect of solar radiation on beta-carotene and other carotenoid content in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three following cultivars of carrot - Napoli F1, Fantazja, Kazan F1 - were grown in the years 1998-00. The seeds were sown in ridges from the end of April until the beginning of June. Throughout the growth period the total solar radiation was recorded by an automatic system. Every 2 weeks, the leaf area index and the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were calculated. Correlation was found between solar radiation and beta-carotene as well as other carotenoid content in carrot roots. It was found that beta-carotene content depended mainly on the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by single carrot plants, and not by area unit. Differences in beta-carotene content in carrot cultivars were caused by the time of root formation, rate of beta-carotene production, and total absorbed PAR (PARa)

  6. Enhancing beta-carotene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-08-01

    Beta-carotene is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological and nutraceutical benefits to human health. Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been attracting the interest of many researchers. A previous work has shown that S. cerevisiae successfully integrated with phytoene synthase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous could produce beta-carotene. In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae through specific site optimization of crtI and crtYB, in which five codons of crtI and eight codons of crtYB were rationally mutated. Furthermore, the effects of the truncated HMG-CoA reductase (tHMG1) from S. cerevisiae and HMG-CoA reductase (mva) from Staphylococcus aureus on the production of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae were also evaluated. Our results indicated that mva from a prokaryotic organism might be more effective than tHMG1 for beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23718229

  7. Influence of parenteral application of beta-carotene on fertility in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Holstein breed cows from the breeding stock of high yielding dairy cattle were selected for testing. The cows were selected during their high gravidity and fell into two groups. The i.m beta-carotene, Carofertin, of 20 ml (200 mg of beta-carotene was applied to the experimental group (n=15 two weeks before the expected parturition date. Another injection of the beta-carotene preparation was applied to the experimental group two weeks after parturition. Simultaneously, a physiological solution of 20 ml was injected i.m to the experimental group (n=15. The blood samples for testing of the beta-carotene and vitamin A concentration were taken during high gravidity and in the early puerperium two days after the beta-carotene application and on the day of parturition. Two-of parenteral application of beta-carotene before parturition does not have an impact significantly on the frequency of the occurrence of retained placenta in experimental cows comparing to the cows of the control group (x=33.3 % and x=20.0 % and length of the service period (x =97.20±31.64 and x=98.8±35.8 days. Based on the results obtained during this research, it can be concluded that the parenteral application of the beta-carotene (Carofertin as 200 mg per cow, which is meant for protection of the reproductive disorders of cows, does not affect the level of carotinemia when its concentration in the blood serum is within the physiological limits. Therefore, no significant discrepancy in values of the reproduction figures between the cows of the experimental and control group was found. All in all, its usage is advisable only during scarce feeding.

  8. Disposition of {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene following delivery with autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, Stephen R. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616 (United States) and Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States)]. E-mail: srdueker@vitaleascience.com; Le Thuy Vuong [Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Faulkner, Brian [Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Vogel, John S. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616 (United States); Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Following ingestion, a fraction of {beta}-carotene is cleaved into vitamin A in the intestine, while another is absorbed intact and distributed among tissues and organs. The extent to which this absorbed {beta}-carotene serves as a source of vitamin A is unknown in vivo. In the present study we use the attomole sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for {sup 14}C to quantify the disposition of {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene (930 ng; 60.4 nCi of activity) after intravenous injection with an autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction in a single volunteer. Total {sup 14}C was quantified in serial plasma samples and also in triglyceride-rich, and low density lipoprotein, subfractions. The appearance of {sup 14}C-retinol, the circulating form of vitamin A in plasma, was determined by chromatographic separation of plasma retinol extracts prior to AMS analysis. The data showed that {sup 14}C concentrations rapidly decayed within the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions after injection, whereas low density lipoprotein {sup 14}C began a significant rise in {sup 14}C 5 h post dose. Plasma {sup 14}C-retinol also appeared at 5 h post dose and its concentrations were maintained above baseline for >88 days. Based upon comparisons of {sup 14}C-retinol concentrations following an earlier study with orally dosed {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene, a molar vitamin A value of the absorbed {beta}-carotene of 0.19 was derived, meaning that 1 mole of absorbed {beta}-carotene provides 0.19 moles of vitamin A. This is the first study to show that infused {beta}-carotene contributes to the vitamin A economy in humans in vivo.

  9. alpha-Tocopherol modulates liver toxicity of the pyrethroid cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, L; Tsutsumi, V; Craigmill, A; Silveira, M I; Gonzalez de Mejia, E

    2001-12-15

    The objective of the current study was to analyze the hepatotoxic effect caused by cypermethrin (CYP) in rats, and to evaluate the possible protective effect of the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Fifty male Wistar rats were given daily i.p. doses of 300 mg/kg per day of CYP during 7 days. Half of them were administered three previous doses of 100 mg/kg per day of alpha-T, followed by seven subsequent oral doses of 40 mg/kg per day of alpha-T. The levels of biochemical indicators and histological liver damage were determined, as well as DCVA in urine. CYP altered the lipid metabolism. Such alterations were inhibited 32% by alpha-T, except for LDL. Alterations in AST were modulated in 29%. In the histology, alpha-T reduced mitochondria damage, and swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cells. The results suggest that alpha-T can modify CYP metabolism, changing the lipidic profile and the histological analysis.

  10. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  11. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  12. Inverted hexagonal and cubic phases induced by alpha-tocopherol in fully hydrated dispersions of dilauroylphosphatidylethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Quinn, P J

    1999-08-01

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol on the thermotropic phase behaviour and structure of aqueous dispersions of 1,2-di-lauryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine was examined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The pure phospholipid exhibited a lamellar gel to liquid-crystal phase transition at 30 degrees C on heating at 3 degrees C min(-1) between 10 degrees C and 90 degrees C. The transition was reversible with a temperature hysteresis of 0.3 degrees C on cooling. At temperatures less than 10 degrees C only lamellar gel phase of the pure phospholipid was seen in co-dispersions of up to 20 mol % alpha-tocopherol. The presence of 2.5 mol % alpha-tocopherol caused the appearance of inverted hexagonal phase at temperatures just below the main phase transition temperature that co-existed with the lamellar gel phase. The intensity of scattering from the hexagonal-II phase increased with increasing proportion of alpha-tocopherol in the mixture and in proportions greater than 10 mol % it persisted at temperatures above the main transition and co-existed with the lamellar liquid-crystal phase of the pure phospholipid. At higher temperatures all co-dispersions containing up to 15 mol % alpha-tocopherol showed the presence of cubic phases. These phases indexed a Pn3m or Pn3 space grouping. When the proportion of alpha-tocopherol was increased to 20 mol % the only non-lamellar phase observed was inverted hexagonal phase. This phase co-existed with lamellar gel and liquid-crystal phases of the pure phospholipid, but was the only phase present at temperatures >60 degrees C. The X-ray diffraction data were used to construct a partial phase diagram of the lipid mixture in excess water between 10 degrees and 90 degrees C and up to 20 mol % alpha-tocopherol in phospholipid. PMID:17030321

  13. Plasma alpha-tocopherol, total lipids and total cholesterol in wild rockhopper, magellanic and gentoo penguins before and after moulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G; Ghebremeskel, K; Keymer, I F; Horsley, D T

    1989-06-01

    Post moult rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes crestatus) had significantly higher plasma alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations than their pre-moult counterparts. In the magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) there were post moult increases in total lipid, cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol concentrations, but only the increase in alpha-tocopherol was significant. Plasma alpha-tocopherol, total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations in post moult gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) chicks were similar to those in non-moulting adult gentoos. Species differences in the levels of these nutrients in plasma may be due to differences in their dietary habits. PMID:2773196

  14. Ustilago maydis accumulates beta-carotene at levels determined by a retinal-forming carotenoid oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro F; Brefort, Thomas; Mengel, Carina; Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Alder, Adrian; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier

    2009-10-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, has emerged as a model organism for dimorphism and fungal phytopathogenicity. In this work, we line out the key conserved enzymes for beta-carotene biosynthesis encoded by the U. maydis genome and show that this biotrophic fungus accumulates beta-carotene. The amount of this pigment depended on culture pH and aeration but was not affected by light and was not increased by oxidative stress. Moreover, we identified the U. maydis gene, cco1, encoding a putative beta-carotene cleavage oxygenase. Heterologous overexpression and in vitro analyses of purified enzyme demonstrated that Cco1 catalyzes the symmetrical cleavage of beta-carotene to yield two molecules of retinal. Analyses of beta-carotene and retinal contents in U. maydiscco1 deletion and over-expression strains confirmed the enzymatic function of Cco1, and revealed that Cco1 determines the beta-carotene content. Our data indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in U. maydis is carried out to provide retinal rather than to deliver protective pigments. The U. maydis genome also encodes three potential opsins, a family of photoactive proteins that use retinal as chromophore. Two opsin genes showed different light-regulated expression patterns, suggesting specialized roles in photobiology, while no mRNA was detected for the third opsin gene in the same experiments. However, deletion of the cco1 gene, which should abolish function of all the retinal-dependent opsins, did not affect growth, morphology or pathogenicity, suggesting that retinal and opsin proteins play no relevant role in U. maydis under the tested conditions.

  15. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Palou, A.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes

  16. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,150-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1-/-) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our mai

  17. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; Naber, T.H.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, c

  18. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates cypermethrin-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabdtis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, Shivaiah; Rajini, P S

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress and other effects induced by cypermethrin (CYP, 15 mM) and their amelioration by alpha-tocopherol (400 microM) was studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The worms exposed for 4 h to CYP showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (46%), H2O2 (37%) and protein carbonyls (29%), accompanied by decreased lifespan and brood size. However, exposure to both CYP and alpha-tocopherol resulted in diminution of above alterations with the worms exhibiting relatively lower levels of ROS (30%), H2O2 (15%), protein carbonyls (14%), altered antioxidant enzyme activities and normal lifespan and brood size. The results suggest that CYP induces oxidative stress in C. elegans and the strategy of intervention with alpha-tocopherol could be exploited to offset this induced oxidative stress.

  19. Role of Frizzled6 in the molecular mechanism of beta-carotene action in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Carotene (BC) is omnipresent in our diet, both as natural food component as well as an additive. BC and its metabolites have important biological functions. For this reason, BC is generally considered to be a health promoting compound. Two human trials, however, have described adverse effects in lung tissue, increasing the risk of lung cancer. We previously applied transcriptomic analyses in a unique animal model, beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1−/−) mice that are, like humans, able to accumulate intact BC. In our search to unravel the molecular action of BC in the lung, we previously identified two genes particularly strongly down-regulated by BC in lung tissue of the male Bcmo1−/− mice: frizzled homologue 6 (Fzd6) and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). In the present study, our aim was to further elucidate the role of FZD6 in lung epithelial cells and to provide a mechanistic explanation for BC increased lung cancer risk in humans. We performed whole genome microarray analysis on silenced FZD6 in non-tumor human type II bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using RNAi. To directly link FZD6 to BC-effects on the lung, we compared the FZD6-silenced BEAS-2B gene expression profile to the BC-dependent gene expression profile of Bcmo1−/− mouse lungs. A number of relevant genes were regulated in the same direction in FZD6− BEAS-2B and in BC-exposed lungs of Bcmo1−/− mice and revealed enrichment of the Gene Ontology terms “oncogenes”, “cell proliferation” and “cell cycle”, which suggests a mediating role of FZD6 in BC-induced uncontrolled proliferation of lung cells

  20. Organ specificity of beta-carotene induced lung gene-expression changes in Bcmo 1-/- mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Scope - Whole genome transcriptome analysis of male and female beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase knockout (Bcmo1-/-) and Bcmo1+/+ (wild-type) mice with or without 14 wk of BC supplementation was done. We previously showed that only 1.8% of the genes regulated by BC in lung were also regulated in li

  1. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis: a rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Kurklu, Mustafa; Yildiz, Cemil; Kose, Ozkan; Yurttas, Yuksel; Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Serdar, Muhittin; Deveci, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-tocopherol on distraction osteogenesis. Materials and methods Right tibias of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were distracted at a rate of 0.5 mm/day for 20 days with a circular external fixator. Experimental group rabbits (n = 15) were administered i.m. 20 mg/kg/day alpha-tocopherol for 30 days. Radiographic examinations were performed at the 20th, 30th and 40th days. Bone scintigraphy was performed at the 5th and 20th days....

  2. [Endogenous opioid system in the realization of the analgesic effect of alpha-tocopherol in reference to algomenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Bakuleva, L P; Luzina, N L; Vinogradov, V A; Iarygin, K N

    1988-02-01

    Beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity was studied in 7 patients with algomenorrhea during pain attack and 15 minutes after alpha-tocopherol administration with a therapeutic aim (till the analgetic effect was reached). There was an increase in beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity after alpha-tocopherol administration. Naloxone administration to 9 patients with algomenorrhea of various etiology resumed the pain. The effect of alpha-tocopherol application for pain relief depended on the pathogenesis of algomenorrhea. At the same time naloxone administration failed to resume the pain in patients, in whom alpha-tocopherol had a strong analgetic effect. It is assumed that the endogenous opioid system participates in alpha-tocopherol effect on pain relief in patients with algomenorrhea. PMID:2964879

  3. Alpha-Tocopherol modulates transcriptional activities that affect essential biological processes in Bovine Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha-tocopherol is the major isoform of vitamin E. after nearly 100 years of research and countless publications, the physiological functions of vitamin E remain mysterious to a certain degree. Nevertheless, vitamin E is one of the most commonly used single nutrient supplements. Recent data has su...

  4. Effects of alpha-tocopherol associated with lovastatin on brain tissue and memory function in SHRSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Murad, Leonardo Borges; Paganelli, Aline; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Basílio; Vianna, Lucia Marques Alves

    2015-10-01

    Strokes are preceded by oxidative stress and inflammation, two processes linked to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Statins have been widely employed to control atherosclerosis; however, there could be neurological implications to its use—including cognitive impairment. Thus,we aimed to determine whether alpha-tocopherol is capable of reversing the neurological side effects of statins and enhancing its anti-inflammatory properties. To assess these effects, 15-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs) were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): alpha-tocopherol (AT), lovastatin (LoV), alpha-tocopherol + lovastatin (AT + LoV), and control (C).We administered 120 IU of alpha-tocopherol diluted in 0.1 ml of coconut oil,whereas the dose of lovastatin was administered at a ratio of 1 mg/kg of rat body weight. The control group received 0.1 ml coconut oil. All animals received the treatments via orogastric gavage.We assessed body weight, diuresis, food and water intake, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels), the total cellular injury marker (lactate dehydrogenase), short and long-term memory, cognition, and histopathological changes in the hippocampus. The results demonstrated that lovastatin treatment did not negatively affect the memory of our animal model. In fact, the animals treated with AT and LoV showed improvement in memory and cognition. Additionally, both treatments decrease lactate dehydrogenase and oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, our study also demonstrated hippocampal tissue preservation in the treated groups.

  5. Low Plasma alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espe, Katharina M.; Raila, Jens; Henze, Andrea; Blouin, Katja; Schneider, Andreas; Schmiedeke, Daniel; Krane, Vera; Pilz, Stefan; Schweigert, Florian J.; Hocher, Berthold; Wanner, Christoph; Drechsler, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Trials with the antioxidant vitamin E have failed to show benefit in the general population. Considering the different causes of death in ESRD, this study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and specific clinical outcomes in diabet

  6. Alpha-tocopherol and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis--association and prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin I Løken-Amsrud

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alpha-tocopherol is the main vitamin E compound in humans, and has important antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to study alpha-tocopherol concentrations and their relationship to disease activity in Norwegian multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 88 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients, originally included in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids (the OFAMS study, before and during treatment with interferon beta. The patients were followed for two years with repeated 12 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and nine serum measurements of alpha-tocopherol. RESULTS: During interferon beta (IFNB treatment, each 10 µmol/L increase in alpha-tocopherol reduced the odds (CI 95% for simultaneous new T2 lesions by 36.8 (0.5-59.8 %, p = 0.048, and for combined unique activity by 35.4 (1.6-57.7 %, p = 0.042, in a hierarchical regression model. These associations were not significant prior to IFNB treatment, and were not noticeably changed by gender, age, body mass index, HLA-DRB1*15, treatment group, compliance, or the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, retinol, neutralising antibodies against IFNB, or the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The corresponding odds for having new T1 gadolinium enhancing lesions two months later was reduced by 65.4 (16.5-85.7 %, p = 0.019, and for new T2 lesions by 61.0 (12.4-82.6 %, p = 0.023. CONCLUSION: During treatment with IFNB, increasing serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were associated with reduced odds for simultaneous and subsequent MRI disease activity in RRMS patients.

  7. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab. G.M. Top

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO, palm plein (PO, Corn Oil (CO and Coconut Oil (COC]. Results: The results showed that RPO contained the highest amount of vitamin E and β-carotene compared to the other three types of vegetable oils studied. Conclusion: The RPO can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol and β-carotene.

  8. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  9. Concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a herd of high-productive dairy cows of the Holstein breed, 40 cows were selected for an experiment. The animals were chosen at the period of advanced gravidity. Data on mean values of beta-carotene concentrations in blood serum of the cows show that significantly higher values (p<0.01 were established in advanced gravidity (x=9.53± 3.49 μmol/l in comparison with the values on calving day (x=5.69±3.14 μmol/l and in early puerperium (x=2.25±1.00 μmol/l. The average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows varied approximately the same as the concentration of beta-carotene. The highest average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows was determined in advanced gravidity (x=1.856±0.52 μmol/l, and the lowest in early puerperium (x=0.988±0.31 μmol/l (p<0.05. It can be concluded on the grounds of the results obtained in this work that the average concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving is within the limits of physiological values and in keeping with the values cited in literature, and that concentrations of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows two weeks after calving are significantly lower than the values obtained in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving and are lower than the physiological values most often reported in literature for this animal specie.

  10. Vibrationally coherent crossing and coupling of electronic states during internal conversion in beta-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Liebel, Matz; Schnedermann, Christoph; Kukura, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wavepacket dynamics during the S2-S1 internal conversion in beta-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direc...

  11. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  12. {beta}-Carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alster, J. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Polivka, T. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Arellano, J.B. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Chabera, P. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Vacha, F. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Psencik, J., E-mail: psencik@karlov.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-19

    Carotenoids are together with bacteriochlorophylls important constituents of chlorosomes, the light-harvesting antennae of green photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of bacteriochlorophyll molecules form self-assembling aggregates inside the chlorosomes. Aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with optical properties similar to those of chlorosomes can also be prepared in non-polar organic solvents or in aqueous environments when a suitable non-polar molecule is added. In this work, the ability of {beta}-carotene to induce aggregation of bacteriochlorophyll c in aqueous buffer was studied. Excitation relaxation and energy transfer in the carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll assemblies were measured using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A fast, {approx}100-fs energy transfer from the S{sub 2} state of {beta}-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c was revealed, while no evidence for significant energy transfer from the S{sub 1} state was found. Picosecond formation of the carotenoid triplet state (T{sub 1}) was observed, which was likely generated by singlet homo-fission from the S{sub 1} state of {beta}-carotene.

  13. Improved simultaneous determination method of beta-carotene and retinol with saponification in human serum and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Keisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2003-07-01

    Among the many simultaneous determination methods for carotenoid and retinoid, there are only a few reports including the saponification process. However, the yields of beta-carotene and retinol were higher when using this process. In this study, the analytical conditions, including saponification, were investigated. The extraction solvent was n-hexane and the sample solvent was HPLC mobile phase in the beta-carotene and retinol analysis. BHT as an antioxidant was added at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.025%, respectively, to ethanol and n-hexane phase in the extraction process for serum. The recovery rates were 99.7, 93.7 and 98.3% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in serum, respectively, and 107.1, 92.8 and 98.8% for beta-carotene, retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver, respectively. The within-day coefficients of variation (C.V.) were 6.0% for serum and 4.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, 7.1% for serum, and 5.1% for liver in the case of retinol. The between-day coefficients of variation were 2.7% for serum and 2.7% for liver in the case of beta-carotene, and for retinol, 6.4% for serum and 2.7% for liver.

  14. Spectral difference method applied in determination of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b from irradiated seeds of Calendula Officinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is part of the class of the carotenoid pigments that have a special function in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. These pigments are essential in photosynthesis where they are retaining energy and are photoprotectors by forming the redox system. They are also precursors of vitamin A, pigments involved in the process of seeing. Beta-carotene is responsible for the growth and development of organisms, for the protection and recovery of epithelial tissue, etc. Next to chlorophyll, carotenoids are the major components of the complex pigment-protein from the thylacoide membrane, and some of them, such as beta-carotene, were for a long time considered to be protecting the membrane against destructive events caused by the over excitement of the chlorophyll. This paper presents spectral difference method for physico-chemical characterisation of three components (beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b) from Calendula officinalis leaves and stalks, after irradiation of germinated seeds. The germinated seeds of Calendula officinalis has been irradiated at 8 different doses ( 1 k Rad, 3 k Rad, 5 k Rad, 10 k Rad, 20 k Rad, 50 k Rad, 100 k Rad, 500 krad), one set of seeds remaining unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of beta-carotene was performed through thin layer chromatography. The chemical concentrations of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b were determined by spectral difference method. (authors)

  15. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  16. Redox Cycles of Caffeic Acid, alpha-Tocopherol, and Ascorbate: Implications for Protection of Low-Density Lipoproteins Against Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjinha, João; Cadenas, Enrique

    1999-01-01

    This study addresses the dynamic interactions among alpha-tocopherol, caffeic acid, and ascorbate in terms of a sequence of redox cycles aimed at accomplishing optimal synergistic antioxidant protection. Several experimental models were designed to examine these interactions: UV irradiation of alpha-tocopherol-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, one-electron oxidations catalyzed by the hypervalent state of myoglobin, ferrylmyoglobin, and autoxidation at appropriate pHs. These models w...

  17. The hepatic alpha tocopherol transfer protein (TTP): ligand-induced protection from proteasomal degradation†

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Varsha; Morley, Samantha; Manor, Danny

    2010-01-01

    There are eight naturally occurring forms of the dietary antioxidant vitamin E. Of these, only α-tocopherol is retained at high levels in vertebrate plasma and tissues. This selectivity is achieved in part by the action of the hepatic alpha tocopherol transfer protein (TTP), which facilitates the selective incorporation of dietary α-tocopherol into circulating lipoproteins. We examined the effects of vitamin E on TTP expression in cultured hepatocytes. Treatment with vitamin E brought about a...

  18. Role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subacute apap induced renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys In subacute Acetaminophen (APAP)- induced renal damage. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Army Medical College, Rawalpindi; in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabd for one week in June 2009. Material and Methods: Sixty young adult (4-6 weeks old) Sprague -Dawley rats of both sexes weighing 180-240 g were randomized into three groups. Experimental group A was treated with 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP orally once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experimental group B was administered beta carotene 30 mg/kg body weight once daily one hour before 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP once daily for 7 consecutive days. Control group C animals were fed NIH laboratory diet. Kidney specimens were collected 24 hours after the last dose. Five micron thick sections of kidney were stained with H and E for histomorphological study. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the variables p-values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: Microscopic examination in experimental group A demonstrated tubular necrosis of level 2 (35% animals) and level 3 (65% animals). Mild vacuolar degeneration was also observed in 90% of the experimental group A animals. In experimental group B, there was statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001 in levels of renal tubular necrosis (15% animals) and grades of vacuolar degeneration (5% animals) as compared to experimental group A.Findings in experimental group B were not significantly different from that of control group C. Conclusion: Beta carotene has protective role on histomorphology of kidneys in subacute APAP-induced renal damage in rats. (author)

  19. Protective effects of plasma alpha-tocopherols on the risk of inorganic arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Ting [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic plays an important role in producing oxidative stress in cultured cells. To investigate the interaction between high oxidative stress and low arsenic methylation capacity on arsenic carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the indices of oxidative stress, such as urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyquanine (8-OHdG), as well as plasma micronutrients and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma micronutrient levels were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study showed a significant protective effect of plasma alpha-tocopherol on UC risk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to urinary total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic percentage (InAs%), and significantly positively related to dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%). There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. Study participants with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher urinary total arsenic, higher InAs%, higher MMA%, and lower DMA% had a higher UC risk than those with higher alpha-tocopherol and lower urinary total arsenic, lower InAs%, lower MMA%, and higher DMA%. These results suggest that plasma alpha-tocopherol might modify the risk of inorganic arsenic-related UC. - Research Highlights: {yields} Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to UC risk. {yields} There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. {yields} People with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher total arsenic had increased UC risk.

  20. Protective effects of plasma alpha-tocopherols on the risk of inorganic arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic plays an important role in producing oxidative stress in cultured cells. To investigate the interaction between high oxidative stress and low arsenic methylation capacity on arsenic carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the indices of oxidative stress, such as urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyquanine (8-OHdG), as well as plasma micronutrients and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma micronutrient levels were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study showed a significant protective effect of plasma alpha-tocopherol on UC risk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to urinary total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic percentage (InAs%), and significantly positively related to dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%). There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. Study participants with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher urinary total arsenic, higher InAs%, higher MMA%, and lower DMA% had a higher UC risk than those with higher alpha-tocopherol and lower urinary total arsenic, lower InAs%, lower MMA%, and higher DMA%. These results suggest that plasma alpha-tocopherol might modify the risk of inorganic arsenic-related UC. - Research Highlights: → Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to UC risk. → There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. → People with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher total arsenic had increased UC risk.

  1. Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Mackerras, D; Irwig, L.; Simpson, J M; Weisberg, E; Cardona, M.; Webster, F.; Walton, L.; Ghersi, D

    1999-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, factorial study using a daily oral administration of 30 mg beta-carotene and/or 500 mg vitamin C was conducted in 141 women with colposcopically and histologically confirmed minor squamous atypia or cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) I. Over approximately 2 years of follow-up, 43 lesions regressed to normal and 13 progressed to CIN II. The regression rate was slightly higher, but not significantly so, in those randomized to beta-carotene ...

  2. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  3. Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Pereira, Raimundo L; Costa, Maria do S; Braga, Maria Flaviana B M; Limaverde, Paulo W; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Balbino, Valdir Q; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure. PMID:27298617

  4. Vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; West, C.E.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Siebelink, E.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.; Lieshout, M. van; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Naber, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (microg) of beta-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral-faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted

  5. Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation during boar semen cryopreservation on sperm characteristics and expression of apoptosis related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Song, Hye-Jin; Kang, Eun-Ju; Ock, Sun-A; Kumar, B Mohana; Balasubramanian, S; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2009-04-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and sensitive to peroxidative damage due to high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids of the plasma membrane and the relatively low antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma. The present study evaluated the influence of alpha-tocopherol supplementation at various concentrations in the boar semen extender during cryopreservation on post-thawed sperm motility characteristics (total sperm motility, MOT; local motility, LCM; curvilinear velocity, VCL; straight linear velocity, VSL; and average path velocity, VAP), sperm qualities (viability, acrosomal integrity and apoptosis), expression of stress protein (HSP70), and the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2l and Bcl-xl) genes. Semen collected from 10 Duroc boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 microM) using the straw-freezing procedure and stored at -196 degrees C for a minimum period of one month. In frozen-thawed groups, sperm motility was significantly (Psperm. In fresh sperm, HSP70 immunoreactivity expression was observed in the equatorial region, but in frozen-thawed groups, expressions were mostly observed in the sperm head. Higher apoptosis rates were observed in 600 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups. In alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups immediately after thawing, the expression was similar to that of fresh group. But after incubation at 37 degrees C for 3h, the expression in 200 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented groups was higher than that of others. Expression of pro-apoptotic genes was significantly higher and anti-apoptotic genes was significantly (Psperm group. In conclusion, alpha-tocopherol, supplemented at 200 microM concentration in boar semen extender during cryopreservation had a positive effect on post-thawed sperm survivability. PMID:19141297

  6. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol protect against amitriptyline toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since amitriptyline is a very frequently prescribed antidepressant drug, it is not surprising that amitriptyline toxicity is relatively common. Amitriptyline toxic systemic effects include cardiovascular, autonomous nervous, and central nervous systems. To understand the mechanisms of amitriptyline toxicity we studied the cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline treatment on cultured primary human fibroblasts and zebrafish embryos, and the protective role of coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol, two membrane antioxidants. We found that amitriptyline treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction in amitriptyline treatment was characterized by reduced expression levels of mitochondrial proteins and coenzyme Q10, decreased NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity, and a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, and as a consequence of these toxic effects, amitriptyline treatment induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell death activating mitochondrial permeability transition. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol supplementation attenuated ROS production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress affecting cell membrane components is involved in amitriptyline cytotoxicity. Furthermore, amitriptyline-dependent toxicity and antioxidant protection were also evaluated in zebrafish embryos, a well established vertebrate model to study developmental toxicity. Amitriptyline significantly increased embryonic cell death and apoptosis rate, and both antioxidants provided a significant protection against amitriptyline embryotoxicity

  7. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and. alpha. -tocopherol content of stored potato tubers. [Solanum tuberosum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spychalla, J.P.; Desborough, S.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Activated oxygen or oxygen free radical mediated damage to plants has been established or implicated in many plant stress situations. The extent of activated oxygen damage to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during low temperature storage and long-term storage is not known. Quantitation of oxygen free radical mediated damage in plant tissues is difficult. However, it is comparatively easy to quantitate endogenous antioxidants, which detoxify potentially damaging forms of activated oxygen. Three tuber antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol were assayed from four potato cultivars stored at 3{degree}C and 9{degree}C for 40 weeks. Tubers stored at 3{degree}C demonstrated increased superoxide dismutase activities (up to 72%) compared to tubers stored at 9{degree}C. Time dependent increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol occurred during the course of the 40 week storage. The possible relationship between these increases in antioxidants and the rate of activated oxygen production in the tubers is discussed.

  8. Diet and subsequent survival in women with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, D

    1994-01-01

    Our findings from a previous study, that increased consumption of beta-carotene and vitamin C is associated with favourable prognostic indices in patients with breast cancer, have been borne out by our current study of patient survival over a 6-year period. The results of the current study point to beta-carotene consumption as the dietary variable most significantly associated with improved survival. Only one death occurred in the group with the highest consumption of beta-carotene, while the...

  9. Alpha-tocopherol disappearance rates from plasma depend on lipid concentrations: Studies using deuterium labeled collard greens in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about alpha-tocopherol's bioavailability as a constituent of food or its dependence on a subject's age. To evaluate the alpha-tocopherol bioavailability from food, we used collard greens grown in deuterated water (2H collard greens) as a source of deuterium-labeled (2H) alpha-tocophe...

  10. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  11. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.;

    1999-01-01

    In vitamin A-replete populations, increased concentrations of serum carotenoids have been associated with a decreased risk of degenerative diseases. The mechanism of action of carotenoids in determining antioxidant activity is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to examine the effect...... of carotenoid supplementation and spinach intake on erythrocyte enzyme antioxidant activities, serum or plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations, and concentrations of oxidatively damaged amino acids in plasma; Subjects received for 3 wk a basic diet (n = 10), a basic diet with a carotenoid supplement (n...... and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P activity and lower (P activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...

  12. [The effect of vitamin- and beta-carotene-enriched products on the vitamin A allowance and the concentration of different carotenoids of the blood serum in victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushina, L M; Taranova, A G; Pokrovskaia, G R; Shatniuk, L N; Spirichev, V B

    1996-01-01

    The results of clinical trials of efficiency of foods enriched by vitamins and beta-carotene in people suffered from Chernobyl's accident are presented. The level of beta-carotene in clinical diets was the same during trial. Daily consumption of enriched food supplying ingestion of 4-5 mg of beta-carotene increased the level of beta-carotene in serum by 2-4 times. The concentration of total carotenoides in serum was increased by 1.6 times practically at the expense of beta-carotene.

  13. Sensory profile of warmed-over flavour in tenderloin from steers supplemented with alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of warmed-over flavour (WOF in cooked tenderloin and the influence of alpha-tocopherol on its inhibition. A total of 24 animals were confined, 12 of which received 1200 mg/head/day of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 90 days. Longissimus dorsi muscle cuts (tenderloin were obtained for sensory profile assessment by nine trained tasters. The tasters evaluated the taste of the meat based on four general and 18 specific attributes. The results of the evaluations were analysed with ANOVA, post-hoc tests of the means (Tukey tests, and principal component analysis (PCA. There was no significant difference in the WOF between the cuts of meat from the supplemented and non-supplemented animals. However, as the refrigeration period increased, there was a decrease in the intensity of the umami and sweet taste attributes and the flavour and aroma of the roast meat as well as an increase in the intensity of the oxidised vegetable oil flavour and the aromas of fish, hard-boiled egg, flaxseed oil, and oxidised vegetable oil. The samples that had been stored for one day were characterised by PCA as having sweet and umami tastes and the flavour and aroma of roast meat, whereas after three days, the samples were classified as having sour and bitter tastes, the flavour of chicken and nuts, and the aroma of fish. The typical sensory attributes desirable for roasted meat decreased in intensity during the three days of storage after cooking, whereas the intensity of unpleasant (oxidative attributes for the consumer increased.

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  15. HPLC Analysis of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Beta-Carotene in Collard Greens: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate and quantitate beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b originating from collard greens. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are discussed. (JN)

  16. Short-term intake of beta-carotene-supplemented diets enhances ovarian function and progesterone synthesis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Rodriguez, G; Meza-Herrera, C A; Rodriguez-Martinez, R; Dionisio-Tapia, R; Hallford, D M; Mellado, M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of beta-carotene supplementation upon luteal activity, measured as number (CLT) and volume (VLT) of corpus luteum, and P4 synthesis in goats, was evaluated. Goats (n = 22, 34 months) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (i) beta-carotene [Beta, n = 10; body weight (BW = 44.8 +/- 1.45 kg), body condition score (BCS = 3.25 +/- 0.07)], and (ii) Control (Control, n = 12; BW = 45.30 +/- 1.32 kg, BCS = 3.33 +/- 0.06). Upon oestrus synchronization, the Beta group received 50 mg of beta-carotene per day during 35 days pre- and 17 days post-ovulation. The day 4, 8, 12 and 16 post-ovulation, blood samples were collected for quantification of serum P4 concentrations by radioimmmunoassay, and transrectal ultrasonographic scanning was performed at day 18 for evaluating CLT and VLT. Overall, CLT and VLT mean were 3.10 and 2211.1 mm(3) respectively. The Beta-goats depicted both the largest values for CLT (p = 0.07) and serum P4 levels (p = 0.05), with no differences (p = 0.53) for VLT between treatments. Results suggest a higher efficiency within the cellular-enzymatic groups defining the steroidogenic pathways in the beta-carotene-supplemented goats, generating a larger P4 synthesis. The last is essential for ovulation of healthy oocytes, maintenance of uterine quiescence, nourishment and survival of the embryo around implantation; all of them of paramount significance during the maternal recognition of pregnancy process. PMID:19141099

  17. Comparative actions of clomazone on beta-carotene levels and growth in rice (Oryza sativa) and watergrasses (Echinochloa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrook, Patti L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-06-01

    Seedlings of rice, early watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively), and late watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively) were hydroponically exposed to clomazone at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 7.9 microM. Whole-plant growth (mg fresh wt) and beta-carotene concentrations (microg g(-1) fresh wt) were measured after a 7-day exposure period. For growth, the no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 7.9, 0.21, 0.21, 0.46 and 0.46 microM clomazone for rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), respectively, while the concentrations causing 25% inhibition in response (IC25) were 5.6 (+/-1.6), 0.46 (+/-0.06), 0.42 (+/-0.08), 0.92 (+/-0.45) and 0.79 (+/-0.08) microM clomazone, respectively. Clomazone inhibits beta-carotene synthesis via inhibition of the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthetic pathway. For assessment of clomazone effects, beta-carotene levels proved to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than growth. For rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), the beta-carotene NOECs were 0.21, clomazone respectively, while IC25 values were 0.42 (+/-0.26), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.33 (+/-0.09) and 0.54 (+/-0.15) microM, respectively. No evidence was found that the thiobencarb-resistance mechanisms present in early and late watergrasses impart resistance to clomazone. Due to similar sensitivity between rice and late watergrass, use of clomazone in rice culture will require the use of a safening technique.

  18. Ultrafast optical responses of {beta}-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M. [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Gall, A.; Robert, B. [CEA, Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, and CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Cogdell, R.J. [IBLS, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, H., E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to {beta}-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between {beta}-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  19. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar+ laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm-1, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm2. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group

  20. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  1. Circulating thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypothyroid status and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Mondul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer incidence in male smokers, 402 prostate cancer cases were sampled. Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prostate cancer were estimated for quintiles of serum total and free thyroxine (T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroid-binding globulin (TBG, and by categories of thyroid status. RESULTS: Men with serum higher TSH had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to men with lower TSH (Q5 vs. Q1-4: OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97, p = 0.03. When the T4 and TSH measurements were combined to define men as hypothyroid, euthyroid or hyperthyroid, hypothyroid men had a lower risk of prostate cancer compared to euthyroid men (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.81, p = 0.006. We observed no association between hyperthyroid status and risk, although the number of hyperthyroid men with prostate cancer was small (n = 9. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of smokers, men with elevated TSH and those classified as being in a hypothyroid state were at decreased risk of prostate cancer. Future studies should examine the association in other populations, particularly non-smokers and other racial/ethnic groups.

  2. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Albanes Demetrius; Virtamo Jarmo; Haukka Jari; Partonen Timo; Hakkarainen Reeta; Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a...

  3. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  4. Neuroprotective effects of low-concentration alpha-tocopherol Confocal laser microscopy observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weilun Liang; Huiling Huang; Qiaoli Wu; Chen Wang; Wenzhi Zhang; Xin Su; Dashi Zhi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-tocopherol (α -tocopherol) can effectively relieve neuronal damage induced by oxygen-centered free radicals. However, the effective dose remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of low-concentration α -tocopherol on neuronal membranes.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Contrast observation and in vitro study, performed at Laboratory of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital between April and September 2006.MATERIALS: Fetal cortical neurons were derived from two 14-day pregnant SD rats, and α -tocopherol was provided by Sigma, USA.METHODS: The neurons were randomly assigned to six groups: (1) normal: neurons were cultured under normal conditions; (2) oxidative damage: oxidative free radicals was damaged using the Fenton reaction; (3) u -tocopherol: neurons were cultured in different concentrations of α -tocopherol- 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/L for 2 hours, respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuronal membrane damage was observed using a confocal laser microscope, and malonaldehyde production was detected using the thiobarbituric acid method.RESULTS: At normal, biological concentrations (10 mg/L), α -tocopherol induced no change in the damaged neurons (P > 0.05). However, at a concentration of 80 mg/L, the number of damaged neurons was significantly reduced, compared with the damage group (P < 0.05).Malonaldehyde levels following 80 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment were less than the oxygen free radical damage group (P < 0.05), but greater than the control group (P < 0.01 ).CONCLUSION: A concentration of 80 mg/L a -tocopherot can effectively protect the neuronal cell membrane from oxidative damage.

  5. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Determinacao de alpha-tocoferol em alho irradiado utilizando cromatografia liquida de alta frequencia (CLAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: riosmagda@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the {alpha}-tocopherol concentration were studied. The {alpha}-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The {alpha}-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic {alpha}-tocopherol content. (author)

  6. Determination of beta-carotene and lutein available from green leafy vegetables by an in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2005-04-20

    Green leafy vegetables (Spinacea oleracea, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, and Solanum americanum) contain a high amount of beta-carotene (27-52 mg/100 g of dry sample) and lutein (140-193 mg/100 g of dry sample). The amount of beta-carotene and lutein released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes ranged from 22 to 67% and from 27 to 77%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the enzymatic release of carotenoids (lutein + beta-carotene) and the content of Klason lignin, nonstarch polysaccharides, and resistant protein. The carotenoids released by the in vitro colonic fermentation ranged from 2 to 11%, and part of them (0.251-4.03 mg/100 g of original dry sample) remained intact in the fermentation media and could be potentially absorbed in the colon. A significant part of carotenoids seems to be unavailable in the intestinal tract (16% in S. oleracea to 58% in C. aconitifolius). PMID:15826042

  7. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aryaeian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  8. 7-ketocholesterol incorporation into sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched (lipid raft) domains is impaired by vitamin E: a specific role for alpha-tocopherol with consequences on cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Marie-Charlotte; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Desrumaux, Catherine; Monier, Serge; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Athias, Anne; Néel, Dominique; Lagrost, Laurent

    2009-06-01

    Cholesterol oxides, in particular 7-ketocholesterol, are proatherogenic compounds that induce cell death in the vascular wall when localized in lipid raft domains of the cell membrane. Deleterious effects of 7-ketocholesterol can be prevented by vitamin E, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, unlike gamma-tocopherol, the alpha-tocopherol vitamin E form was found to prevent 7-ketocholesterol-mediated apoptosis of A7R5 smooth muscle cells. To be operative, alpha-tocopherol needed to be added to the cells before 7-ketocholesterol, and its anti-apoptotic effect was reduced and even suppressed when added together or after 7-ketocholesterol, respectively. Both pre- and co-treatment of the cells with alpha-tocopherol resulted in the redistribution of 7-ketocholesterol out of the sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched (lipid raft) domains. In turn, fewer amounts of alpha-tocopherol associated with lipid rafts on 7-ketocholesterol-pretreated cells compared with untreated cells, with no prevention of cell death in this case. In further support of the implication of lipid raft domains, the dephosphorylation/inactivation of Akt-PKB was involved in the 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis. Akt-PKB dephosphorylation was prevented by alpha-tocopherol, but not gamma-tocopherol pretreatment. PMID:19351882

  9. Downregulation of Fzd6 and Cthrc1 and upregulation of olfactory receptors and protocadherins by dietary beta-carotene in lungs of Bcmo1-/- mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Heil, S.G.; Bunschoten, A.; Hessel, S.; Amengual, J.; Bonet, M L; Lintig, von, J.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2010-01-01

    An ongoing controversy exists on beneficial versus harmful effects of high beta-carotene (BC) intake, especially for the lung. To elucidate potential mechanisms, we studied effects of BC on lung gene expression. We used a beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (Bcmo1) knockout mouse (Bcmo1-/-) model, unable to convert BC to retinoids, and wild-type mice (Bcmo1+/+) mice to dissect the effects of intact BC from effects of BC metabolites. As expected, BC supplementation resulted in a higher BC acc...

  10. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Cawthon, Richard M; Purdue, Mark P; Hu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Yi; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Ji, Bu-Tian; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hosgood, H Dean; Bassig, Bryan A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Min, Shen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Berndt, Sonja I; Kim, Christopher; Lim, Unhee; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between telomere length and lung cancer in a pooled analysis from three prospective cohort studies: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, conducted among men and women in the United States, and previously published data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Trial conducted among male smokers in Finland, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), which is comprised primarily of never-smokers. The pooled population included 847 cases and 847 controls matched by study, age, and sex. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by a monochrome multiplex qPCR assay. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between telomere length and lung cancer risk, adjusted for age and pack-years of smoking. Longer telomere length was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the pooled analysis [OR (95% CI) by quartile: 1.00; 1.24 (0.90-1.71); 1.27 (0.91-1.78); and 1.86 (1.33-2.62); P trend = 0.000022]. Findings were consistent across the three cohorts and strongest for subjects with very long telomere length, i.e., lung cancer risks for telomere length [OR (95% CI)] in the upper half of the fourth quartile were 2.41 (1.28-4.52), 2.16 (1.11-4.23), and 3.02(1.39-6.58) for the PLCO trial, the ATBC trial, and the SWHS, respectively. In addition, the association persisted among cases diagnosed more than 6 years after blood collection and was particularly evident for female adenocarcinoma cases. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA may be a biomarker of future increased risk of lung cancer in diverse populations.

  11. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Cawthon, Richard M; Purdue, Mark P; Hu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Yi; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Ji, Bu-Tian; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hosgood, H Dean; Bassig, Bryan A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Min, Shen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Berndt, Sonja I; Kim, Christopher; Lim, Unhee; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between telomere length and lung cancer in a pooled analysis from three prospective cohort studies: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, conducted among men and women in the United States, and previously published data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Trial conducted among male smokers in Finland, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), which is comprised primarily of never-smokers. The pooled population included 847 cases and 847 controls matched by study, age, and sex. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by a monochrome multiplex qPCR assay. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between telomere length and lung cancer risk, adjusted for age and pack-years of smoking. Longer telomere length was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the pooled analysis [OR (95% CI) by quartile: 1.00; 1.24 (0.90-1.71); 1.27 (0.91-1.78); and 1.86 (1.33-2.62); P trend = 0.000022]. Findings were consistent across the three cohorts and strongest for subjects with very long telomere length, i.e., lung cancer risks for telomere length [OR (95% CI)] in the upper half of the fourth quartile were 2.41 (1.28-4.52), 2.16 (1.11-4.23), and 3.02(1.39-6.58) for the PLCO trial, the ATBC trial, and the SWHS, respectively. In addition, the association persisted among cases diagnosed more than 6 years after blood collection and was particularly evident for female adenocarcinoma cases. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA may be a biomarker of future increased risk of lung cancer in diverse populations. PMID:24853549

  12. Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.

  13. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  14. Red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene in a school biscuit used to address vitamin A deficiency in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stuijvenberg, M E; Faber, M; Dhansay, M A; Lombard, C J; Vorster, N; Benadé, A J

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene was compared with the effect of a biscuit with beta-carotene from a synthetic source on the vitamin A status of primary school children in a randomised controlled trial. Children aged 5-11 years (n = 265) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) placebo biscuit; (2) biscuit with synthetic beta-carotene as a vitamin A fortificant; and (3) biscuit with red palm oil as a source of beta-carotene. The two non-placebo biscuits were designed to provide 34% of the RDA for vitamin A per serving (4 x 15 g biscuits). The biscuits were distributed daily during the school week and compliance was closely monitored and recorded. Children were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Mean serum retinol in all three groups increased significantly compared to baseline (P palm oil group. There was no significant treatment effect compared to the control group in either the synthetic beta-carotene or red palm oil group. The increase in the control group was probably due to a school feeding scheme (providing 33% of the RDA for vitamin A) introduced during the latter part of the study. Our results were thus confounded and the 'true' effect of the red palm oil biscuit on vitamin A status could not be established. The study has, however, shown that red palm oil can be incorporated in a biscuit and that the end product with regard to taste and appearance was well accepted by the school children. A follow-up study in a school where there is no school feeding is indicated.

  15. Effect of supplementing sows' feed with alpha-tocopherol acetate and vitamin C on transfer of alpha-tocopherol to piglet tissues, colostrum, and milk: aspects of immune status of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli-Saavedra, A; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Hernández, J; Valenzuela, R; Scaife, J R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sows with alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA) and vitamin C on deposition of alpha-tocopherol (AT) in piglet lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, and spleen at birth and at weaning, as well as on indicators of immune response in piglets. Sows were given the following treatment diets: control, vitamin C 10 g/day, ATA 500 mg/kg feed, and combined vitamins (ATA 500+Vit-C 10). Supplementation with vitamins started at the beginning of pregnancy and lasted until weaning at 21+/-3 days of age. AT was determined in colostrum, milk, piglet plasma (cord blood) and tissues at birth and on day 21. Immunoglobulins were measured in piglet plasma, milk, and colostrum. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHA and ConA was determined in sow and piglet blood. ATA supplementation resulted in a significant increase (Ppiglet plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow, and spleen at weaning. The AT content of colostrum and milk significantly (Ppiglet plasma and tissues at weaning (day 21). Total Ig and IgG concentrations in piglet plasma were significantly increased in piglets given the combined vitamin treatment. No effect of AT supplementation was observed on IgG and IgA in colostrum and milk. In sows, vitamin C given alone significantly increased lymphocyte response to ConA and PHA; whereas, in piglets, there was no significant effect of treatments on lymphocyte response to PHA and ConA.

  16. Effect of D-Alpha Tocopherol Therapy towards Malondialdehyde Level and Histology of Kidney in Rattus norvegicus with MLD-STZ Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Agnestiansyah Mahardhian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Nephropathy is a kidney disease which occurs due to complication of diabetes mellitus  as a consequence of the damage of the kidney endothelial cells. Hyperglicemia condition in patients with diabetes mellitus that induces an oxidative stress, were related to endothelial cell damage. Oxidative stress as a result of hyperglycemia will activate a number of signal transduction pathways resulting in increase of  free radicals. D-alpha tocopherol as one of antioxidant substance, that can act as an inhibitor of free radical chain reactions, play an important role in the reduction of the oxidative stress effect. Effect of D-alpha-tocopherol in reducing oxidative stress is identified by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in kidney and histology of kidney. This study used five groups mice; they were a control group, a diabetic group which was induced with MLD-STZ, and a therapeutic groups with a varieties doses of D-alpha tocopherol (100 mg/kgBW, 200 mg/kgBW and 300 mg/kgBW. The results showed that the D-alpha tocopherol was able to reduce the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and repair the histology of kidney of mice induced by MLD-STZ.

  17. Physical exercise-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase-1 in human leukocytes: effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, A M; Sommer, M; Schneider, M; Angres, C; Tschositsch, K; Golly, I C; Battenfeld, N; Northoff, H; Biesalski, H K; Dickhuth, H H; Fehrenbach, E

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (500 IU/day, 8 days) on in vivo cytokine response and cytoplasmic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the antioxidant stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human leukocytes after exhaustive exercise. Thirteen men were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with a wash-out period of 28 days. The exercise procedure consisted of an incremental treadmill test followed by a continuous run until exhaustion at 110% of the individual anaerobic threshold (total duration 28.5 +/- 0.8 min). HO-1 and iNOS protein were assessed in mono- (M), lympho-, and granulocytes (G) using flow cytometry. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. IL-6 rose significantly whereas IL-8 did not exhibit significant changes after exercise. Changes of IL-6 were not affected by RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Exercise induced an increase of iNOS protein primarily in M and G. A small, but significant, increase of HO-1 protein was measured in M and G. RRR-alpha-Tocopherol did not show any significant effects on cytoplasmic expression of iNOS and HO-1 at rest and after exercise. In conclusion, exhaustive exercise induces expression of iNOS and HO-1 in human leukocytes by a mechanism that is not sensitive to RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation. PMID:11232592

  18. High levels of dietary unsaturated fat decrease alpha-tocopherol content of whole body, liver, and plasma of chickens without variations in intestinal apparent absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, C; Baucells, M D; Manzanilla, E G; Barroeta, A C

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effect of dietary unsaturated fat inclusion level on alpha-tocopherol apparent absorption and deposition in broiler chickens at 2 ages (20 and 39 d). The dietary fat was a mixture of linseed and fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The experimental treatments were the result of 4 levels of supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg; E0, E100, E200, and E400 treatments, respectively) and 4 dietary oil inclusion levels (2, 4, 6, and 8%; O2, O4, O6, and O8 treatments respectively). Almond husk was used as an energy dilutor in the high-fat diets. Apparent absorption of total fatty acids was high in all treatments averaging 88% and was higher with high fat dietary inclusion level. alpha-Tocopheryl acetate hydrolysis and apparent absorption of alpha-tocopherol were similar in both ages and were not affected by fat inclusion level, except for a reduction of the absorption in the low-fat diet (O2) in the E100 treatment at 20 d of age. Despite this lack of differences in hydrolysis and absorption, higher-fat PUFA diets induced lower concentrations of free alpha-tocopherol in the excreta, at high alpha-tocopherol doses, suggesting an increase in the destruction of alpha-tocopherol by lipid oxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, total and hepatic alpha-tocopherol deposition was lower in the birds fed high-PUFA diets in the E200- and E400-supplemented birds, possibly due to a destruction of vitamin E when protecting these PUFA from lipid peroxidation. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in liver and, to a lesser extent, in plasma was a useful indicator of the degree of response of this vitamin to different factors that can affect its bioavailability; however, in the present experiment, CV were too high to use liver and plasma concentrations as estimators of total body vitamin E. PMID:18281576

  19. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of Veliten (rutine, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auteri, A; Pasqui, A L; Bruni, F; Di Renzo, M; Bova, G; Chiarion, C; Delchambre, J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of Veliten in 12 patients affected by chronic venous insufficiency. In particular, the pharmacokinetics of two components of Veliten, namely rutine and alpha-tocopherol, were considered, while with respect to pharmacodynamics, studies were made of venous function, haemocoagulative and fibrinolytic balance, and haemorheological parameters. Correlation between such changes and plasma drug levels was also evaluated. We found a significant increase of venous tone, venous capacity and venous distension after drug intake, as well as a significant activation of fibrinolysis (globally evaluated with euglobulin lysis time), related to a slight increase of plasminogen tissue activator. These changes appeared concomitantly with maximal plasma levels of rutine. We did not find any modifications of coagulative and haemorheological parameters.

  20. Bioavailability of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices in the presence of absorption modifiers: in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Olmedilla-Alonso, B

    2009-02-01

    The food industry is playing an increasing role in the development and marketing of new products although little is known regarding the bioavailability of the phytochemicals they contain. Our aim was to assess the effect of the presence of absorption modifiers (milk and iron) on the in vitro bioaccessibility and the serum response in vivo of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices. Thirty-two young women participated in a three-period (21 d each) supplementation study with a 2-week wash-out in between. Subjects consumed consecutively 2 x 250 ml/d vitamin C-fortified juices supplied as fruit juice, fruit juice containing milk and fruit juice containing milk and iron. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after each supplementation period. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol was assessed by a static digestion model. Vitamin E and carotenoids from both studies were determined by HPLC. In vitro, xanthophyll ester hydrolysis and transference of free xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol into the micellar phase were higher in the presence of absorption modifiers. In vivo, consumption of the fruit juices provoked significant increments (within-subject) of alpha-tocopherol and some carotenoids in serum. Dose-adjusted increments in serum of some carotenoids were higher when subjects consumed juices with milk and milk plus iron, although differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the presence of milk and milk plus iron do not influence the bioavailability of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices in vivo. Our results support the use of in vitro models to assess food-related factors affecting bioavailability of carotenoids and tocopherols from foods. PMID:18616839

  1. Superparamagnetic iron oxide--loaded poly(lactic acid)-D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate copolymer nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, Chandrasekharan; Dipak, Maity; Yang, Chang-Tong; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jun, Ding; Feng, Si-Shen

    2010-07-01

    We developed a strategy to formulate supraparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) in nanoparticles (NPs) of biodegradable copolymer made up of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for medical imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high contrast and low side effects. The IOs-loaded PLA-TPGS NPs (IOs-PNPs) were prepared by the single emulsion method and the nanoprecipitation method. Effects of the process parameters such as the emulsifier concentration, IOs loading in the nanoparticles, and the solvent to non-solvent ratio on the IOs distribution within the polymeric matrix were investigated and the formulation was then optimized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed direct visual evidence for the well dispersed distribution of the IOs within the NPs. We further investigated the biocompatibility and cellular uptake of the IOs-PNPs in vitro with MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast in close comparison with the commercial IOs imaging agent Resovist. MRI imaging was further carried out to investigate the biodistribution of the IOs formulated in the IOs-PNPs, especially in the liver to understand the liver clearance process, which was also made in close comparison with Resovist. We found that the PLA-TPGS NPs formulation at the clinically approved dose of 0.8 mg Fe/kg could be cleared within 24 h in comparison with several weeks for Resovist. Xenograft tumor model MRI confirmed the advantages of the IOs-PNPs formulation versus Resovist through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect of the tumor vasculature. PMID:20434210

  2. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  3. Stimulation or inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis by irradiation with γ-rays of Calendula Officinalis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to see what is the effect of irradiation with gamma rays of Calendula officinalis (marigolds) seeds. Could it be a stimulation or a inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis? This paper presents results of irradiation of germinated seeds of marigolds. It was carried out irradiation of seeds at 8 different doses ( 1 kRad, 3.3 kRad, 10 kRad, 25 kRad, 50 kRad, 100 kRad, 200 kRad, 500 krad), one set of seeds being unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of β-carotene was realized through thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chemical concentrations of β-carotene in leaves and stalks of marigolds had been determined by Varian spectrophotometer. Quantitative determination of β-carotene was carried out through spectral analysis using a standard spectrum of carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b. (authors)

  4. Intensive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress and reproductive dysfunction in male wistar rats: protective role of alpha-tocopherol succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Indranil; Jana, Kuladip; Samanta, Prabhat Kumar

    2004-04-01

    In the present study, 30 male rats (age 3 mos, Wt 128.6 +/- 3.7 g) were randomly divided into Control group (CG), Experimental group (EG), and Supplemented group (SG), 10 per group. An exercise protocol (3 hrs swimming per day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks) was followed in EG and SG, with no exercise in CG. In SG, alpha-tocopherol succinate was injected sub-cutaneously at a dose of 50 mg x kg(- 1) per body weight per day. After 4 weeks of exercise, significant diminutions (p Intensive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress causes dysfunction in the male reproductive system, which can be protected by alpha-tocopherol succinate. PMID:15064426

  5. Microencapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins with different fatty acid composition: Kinetic stability of astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andrés; Masson, Lilia; Velasco, Joaquín; del Valle, José Manuel; Robert, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a natural source of astaxanthin (AX). However, AX loses its natural protection when extracted from this microalga. In this study, a supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of H. pluvialis was obtained and added to oils with different fatty acid compositions (sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO)). The oleoresins of H. pluvialis ((SO+SFE) and (HOSO+SFE)) were encapsulated with Capsul by spray drying. The stability of the oleoresins and powders were studied at 40, 50 and 70° C. AX and alpha-tocopherol (AT) degradation followed a zero-order and first-order kinetic model, respectively, for all systems. The encapsulation of oleoresins improved the stability of AX and AT to a greater extent in oleoresins with a monounsaturated fatty acid profile, as shown by the significantly lowest degradation rate constants and longest half-lives. Therefore, the encapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins is an alternative to developing a functional ingredient for healthy food design. PMID:26213069

  6. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range.

  7. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range. PMID:27130544

  8. Impact of style of processing on retention and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in cassava (Manihot esculanta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sagar K; Huo, Tianyao; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Failla, Mark L

    2009-02-25

    We previously demonstrated that the quantity of beta-carotene (BC) partitioning in mixed micelles during simulated small intestinal digestion, i.e., the bioaccessibility, of boiled cassava is highly correlated with the BC content of different cultivars. However, cassava is also traditionally prepared by fermentation and roasting. These different methods of preparation have the potential to affect both the retention and bioaccessibility of BC. Here, we first compared retention of BC in boiled cassava, gari (fermentation followed by roasting), and fufu (fermentation followed by sieving and cooking into a paste) prepared from roots of three cultivars. BC content in unprocessed cultivars ranged from 6-8 microg/g wet weight, with cis isomers accounting for approximately one-third of total BC. Apparent retention of BC was approximately 90% for boiled cassava and fufu. In contrast, roasting fermented cassava at 195 degrees C for 20 min to prepare gari decreased BC content by 90%. Retention was increased to 63% when temperature was decreased to 165 degrees C and roasting was limited to 10 min. Processing was also associated with a decline in all-trans-BC and concomitant increase in 13-cis-BC. The efficiency of micellarization of all-trans and cis isomers of BC during simulated digestion was 25-30% for boiled cassava and gari and independent of cultivar. However, micellarization of BC isomers during digestion of fufu was only 12-15% (P cassava products prepared according to traditional processing methods suggest that gari and fufu may provide less retinol activity equivalents than isocaloric intake of boiled cassava.

  9. Nonlinear optical parameters of 7-prime,7-prime-dicyano-7-prime-apo-beta-carotene in hexane by self-action techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Sheng, Wen; Venkateswarlu, P.; Witherow, William K.; Frazier, Don O.; Chandra Sekhar, P.; George, M. C.; Kispert, Lowell; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the nonlinear refractive index coefficient n(2) and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility chi(3) for a solution of 7-prime,7-prime-dicyano-7-prime-apo-beta-carotene (DCAC) in hexane have been measured at different concentrations. The measurements have been performed by both the self-trapping and self-phase modulation techniques using a CW Ar(+) laser. The results show that DCAC has a relatively large nonlinearity, attributed to a thermal mechanism, with n(2) of the order of 10 exp 9 times that of CS2.

  10. Phospholipid hydroperoxide accumulation in liver of rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride and its inhibition by dietary alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, T; Suzuki, T; Fujimoto, K; Kaneda, T

    1990-05-01

    The formation and accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, especially of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH), a primary peroxidation product of phosphatidylcholine (PC), in livers of carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats was investigated. PCOOH in liver and blood plasma was measured by a chemiluminescence-high-performance liquid chromatography procedure originally developed by Miyazawa et al. (Anal. Lett. 20, 915, 1987; Free Radical Biol. Med. 7, 209, 1989). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 g body wt., 5 weeks of age) were used in the experiments. The amount of PCOOH in the liver of control rats (CCl4-untreated) was 160 +/- 20 pmol/100 mg protein (mean +/- SD) and the PCOOH/PC molar ratio was 1.1 +/- 0.1 X 10(-5). In CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g body wt.)-dosed rats, the liver PCOOH was 289 +/- 65 pmol/100 mg protein (PCOOH/PC = 2.4 +/- 0.4 X 10(-5], 764 +/- 271 pmol/100 mg protein (PCOOH/PC = 5.2 +/- 1.7 X 10(-5], and 856 +/- 165 pmol/100 mg protien (PCOOH/PC = 6.0 +/- 0.8 X 10(-5] at 6 h, 24 h, and 1 week after the dose, respectively. Under such conditions, the liver phosphatidylethanolamine hydroperoxide (PEOOH) level was not altered and the concentration was less than 100 pmol/100 mg protein even after the dose. The increments of liver PCOOH were suppressed 56% by the oral supplementation of DL-alpha-tocopherol (5 mg/100 g body wt./day) for a week before CCl4 administration. A relatively larger amount of PEOOH was found after stimulation of PC hydroperoxidation in the liver of rats with a large amount of CCl4 (0.25 ml/100 g body wt.) rather than with the small amount of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g body wt.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol on leukocyte expression of HSP72 in response to exhaustive treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, A M; Fehrenbach, E; Schlotz, E; Sommer, M; Angres, C; Tschositsch, K; Battenfeld, N; Golly, I C; Biesalski, H K; Northoff, H; Dickhuth, H H

    2002-08-01

    Previous research revealed an increased expression of HSP72 in leukocytes after vigorous endurance exercise. We questioned whether more intensive but shorter exercise also induces leukocyte HSP72 synthesis. To delineate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in exercise-related HSP72 induction, we additionally examined the effect of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toc) on HSP72 expression using a double-blind placebo (P) controlled cross-over design. After supplementation with alpha-toc (500 I.U. daily) or P for 8 days, 9 male subjects performed a combined exhaustive treadmill protocol (total duration 29.4 +/- 2.0 min). HSP72 was assessed on mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein levels (flow cytometry). HSP72 mRNA rose 3 h after exercise only in the P group, but individual differences (alpha-toc - P) did not reveal significant treatment effects. A moderate but significant rise of HSP72 protein occurred in granulocytes up to 48 h after exercise. Three hours post-exercise, granulocyte HSP72 protein was lower when subjects received alpha-toc, but this effect vanished 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Exhaustive treadmill exercise augments HSP72 mRNA in leukocytes and induced a moderate but prolonged response of granulocyte HSP72 protein. These exercise effects are lower when compared to earlier findings obtained after vigorous endurance exercise. ROS seem to be involved, but do not play the major role in the induction of granulocyte HSP72 synthesis after exhaustive exercise. PMID:12215965

  12. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  13. Evaluation and comparison of bond strength to 10% carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Thapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare composite bond strength to carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty premolars were divided into six groups. Groups I and VI served as unbleached and bleached controls respectively. Groups II, III, IV and V served as the experimental groups and were subjected to 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching followed by 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 10% and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions, respectively. Following composite bonding, shear bond strength was determined and the results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey highest significant difference test. Results: Only Group IV showed significantly lower bond strength when compared to Group I (unbleached control. When compared to Group VI (bleached control, except Group IV, groups II, III and V showed significantly higher bond strength. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups corresponding to 10% and 25% and similar concentrations of sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions. Conclusion: Following 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching, except 10% alpha tocopherol, 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions significantly improves the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel.

  14. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    BIANCHINI Rute; Marilene de Vuono Camargo PENTEADO

    1999-01-01

    Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1) e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de ...

  15. Genome-wide association study of circulating retinol levels

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Yu, Kai; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Hong; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Major, Jacqueline M.; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Männistö, Satu; Hazra, Aditi; Hsing, Ann W.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Eliassen, Heather; Tanaka, Toshiko; Reding, Douglas J.; Hendrickson, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Retinol is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin A and is hypothesized to influence a wide range of human diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases and cancer. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 5006 Caucasian individuals drawn from two cohorts of men: the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We identified two independent single-nucl...

  16. Toxic effects of methamidophos on paraoxonase 1 activity and on rat kidney and liver and ameliorating effects of alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoud, Manel; Neffeti, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Khaled, Lamia; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Kenani, Abderraouf; Houas, Zohra

    2016-07-01

    The role of alpha-tocopherol on nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by methamidophos (MT) was investigated in wistar rats. Animals were given via gavage, for four weeks, a low dose of MT (MT1), a high dose of MT (MT2), vitamin E (200 mg/kg of bw) or both MT2 plus vitamin E (Vit E) and control group was given distillate water. MT treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the body weight of MT2-treated group. Moreover, MT-treated groups had significantly lower butyrylcholinesterase (p control group (p levels (p control group. However, significant low uric acid level (p < 0.05) was noted in MT2 plus vit E-treated rats compared with MT2-treated group. Histopathological changes in organ tissues were observed in both MT-treated groups and MT2 plus vit E-treated rats. However, the damage was reduced in MT2 plus vit E-treated rats. Therefore, this study deduces that alpha-tocopherol administration may ameliorate the adverse effects of subacute exposure to MT on rat liver and kidney and this antioxidant can protect PON1 from oxidative stress induced by this organophosphorus pesticide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 842-854, 2016. PMID:25535039

  17. Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} state in all-trans-{beta}-carotene explored by one- and two-photon pump-probe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosumi, Daisuke, E-mail: kosumi@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Abe, Kenta; Karasawa, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masazumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Center, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Hideki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yoshizawa, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2010-07-19

    Femtosecond one- and two-photon pump-probe dispersive spectroscopic measurements have been applied to the investigation of the vibrational relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} (2{sup 1}A{sub g}{sup -}) state in {beta}-carotene, combining a higher sensitive detection system with tunable visible and infrared excitation pulses. The two-photon excitation measurements enable the preferential detection of the dark S{sub 1} state. The tunable infrared excitation pulses allowed selective excitation to a different vibrational level of S{sub 1}. The S{sub 1} dynamics at early delay times depend strongly on excitation energy. A dependence of the initial S{sub 1} dynamics on excitation energy is discussed in term of the vibrational relaxation of S{sub 1}.

  18. Streamlining IRB review in multisite trials through single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements: experience of the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornquist, Mark D; Edelstein, Cim; Goodman, Gary E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2002-02-01

    With their extensive data and specimen repositories, clinical trials are a long-term, valuable resource to health researchers. However, assuring protection of participants' rights can be challenging, particularly when such trials are conducted at multiple sites with multiple Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). One little-used mechanism that can streamline IRB review in multisite trials while maintaining participants' protections is the single-study IRB Cooperative Agreement. This agreement is entirely different from reciprocity agreements between institutions. Beginning in 1996, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial established single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements among its performance sites, which reduced the average time to complete IRB approval from over 6 months to 1 month for each of many substudies. We describe our experience and make recommendations for other multisite clinical trials.

  19. Age and heat exposure-dependent changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in rat's liver and brain mitochondria: role of alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovski, V; Hadzi-Petrushev, N; Ilieski, V; Sopi, R; Gjorgoski, I; Mitrov, D; Jankulovski, N; Mladenov, M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the role of mitochondrial antioxidant capacity during increased susceptibility to heat accompanied by the aging, young and aged Wistar rats were exposed on heat for 60 min. After heat exposure, hepatic and brain mitochondria were isolated. Our results revealed changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver and brain mitochondria from young and to a greater extent in aged rats. Our measurements of MnSOD, GPx and GR activity indicate greater reactive oxygen species production from the mitochondria of aged heat exposed in comparison to young heat exposed rats. Also in the aged rats, the effect of alpha-tocopherol treatment in the prevention of oxidative stress occurred as a result of heat exposure, is less pronounced. Taken together, our data suggest that mitochondria in aged rats are more vulnerable and less able to prevent oxidative changes that occur in response to acute heat exposure.

  20. Modification of the Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on the Mortality of Male Smokers by Age and Dietary Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study (1985–1993) recruited 29,133 Finnish male cigarette smokers, finding that vitamin E supplementation had no overall effect on mortality. The authors of this paper found that the effect of vitamin E on respiratory infections in ATBC Study participants was modified by age, smoking, and dietary vitamin C intake; therefore, they examined whether the effect of vitamin E supplementation on mortality is modified by the same variables....

  1. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  2. LINE1 methylation levels associated with increased bladder cancer risk in pre-diagnostic blood DNA among US (PLCO) and European (ATBC) cohort study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Karami, Sara; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hurwitz, Lauren; Liao, Linda M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Silverman, Debra T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E

    2014-03-01

    Global methylation in blood DNA has been associated with bladder cancer risk in case-control studies, but has not been examined prospectively. We examined the association between LINE1 total percent 5-methylcytosine and bladder cancer risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (299 cases/676 controls), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) cohort of Finnish male smokers (391 cases/778 controls). Logistic regression adjusted for age at blood draw, study center, pack-years of smoking, and sex was used to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using study- and sex-specific methylation quartiles. In PLCO, higher, although non-significant, bladder cancer risks were observed for participants in the highest three quartiles (Q2-Q4) compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.96 -1.92). The association was stronger in males (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.00-2.20) and statistically significant among male smokers (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.95). No association was found among females or female smokers. Findings for male smokers were validated in ATBC (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.62-3.30) and a highly significant trend was observed (P = 8.7 × 10(-7)). After determining that study data could be combined, pooled analysis of PLCO and ATBC male smokers (580 cases/1119 controls), ORs were significantly higher in Q2-Q4 compared with Q1 (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.52-2.72), and a trend across quartiles was observed (P = 0.0001). These findings suggest that higher global methylation levels prior to diagnosis may increase bladder cancer risk, particularly among male smokers. PMID:24316677

  3. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  4. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  5. Convenient solvatochromic probes for the determination of solvent properties: {beta}-carotene and 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoud, Omar A. El; Pires, Paulo A.R.; Loffredo, Carina; Imran, Muhammad; Pulcini, Paolo D.; Correa, Michelle F.; Mustafa, Rizwana, E-mail: elseoud@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-15

    Solvent dipolarity/polarizability (SDP) has been previously calculated from the UV-Vis spectra of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-7-nitro-9H-fluorene and 2-fluoro-7-nitro-9H- fluorene. Based on theoretical calculations (23 solvents) and experimental data (56 solvents), it is shown that 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene (commercially available) can be conveniently employed for the calculation of this property, instead of its 2-fluoro-7-nitro counterpart. The splitting of SDP into its components (solvent dipolarity (SD) and polarizability (SP)) requires the use of a synthetic polyene compound whose synthesis is laborious, involving 15 steps. Our research group has recently shown that the natural dye {beta}-carotene can be conveniently employed for the determination of SP, allowing the calculation of SD. Using these solvatochromic probes, SDP, SP and SD for a series of 1-bromo alkanes were calculated. For several homologous series, the dependence of solvent SDP (SD and SP for one series) on the number of carbon atoms in the 1-alkyl- or acyl-group was calculated and discussed. (author)

  6. The influence of magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate in comparison with probucol, alpha-tocopherol and trolox on copper-induced oxidation of human low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögl, C; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1994-06-15

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the presence of magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate (MPPG), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP), alpha-tocopherol, probucol or trolox is more resistant against copper-induced oxidation as control-LDL in vitro. The efficiency of the drugs is: probucol > MPPG > trolox > alpha-tocopherol > PP. LDL oxidation is determined by its increasing negative surface charge, fragmentation of apolipoprotein B-100 and changes of the fatty acid content of LDL. The protection of the drugs depends on their concentration and incubation time. Different experiments point to the fact that copper-induced oxidation of LDL in vitro starts with the binding of copper at the apolipoprotein B-100, resulting in an increasing negative surface charge and fragmentation of the apolipoprotein B-100. Afterwards a decrease of LDL-bound linoleic acid (18:2) is measurable. PMID:8031313

  7. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  8. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  9. Randomised β-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I-M; Cook, N R; Manson, J E; Buring, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of 513 women with cancer; 130 with cardiovascular disease and equal numbers of controls, we found no effect of randomised beta-carotene on risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease within any quartile of baseline plasma beta-carotene, nor was there a trend across quartiles (P for trend 0.15 and 0.62, respectively). British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 698–701. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600147 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

  10. Protective Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol Isomer from Vitamin E against the H2O2 Induced Toxicity on Dental Pulp Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Silveira Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of different concentrations of vitamin E alpha-tocopherol (α-T isomer against the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on dental pulp cells. The cells (MDPC-23 were seeded in 96-well plates for 72 hours, followed by treatment with 1, 3, 5, or 10 mM α-T for 60 minutes. They were then exposed or not to H2O2 for 30 minutes. In positive and negative control groups, the cells were exposed to culture medium with or without H2O2 (0.018%, respectively. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests; α=5%. Significant reduction of cell viability (58.5% was observed in positive control compared with the negative control. Cells pretreated with α-T at 1, 3, 5, and 10 mM concentrations and exposed to H2O2 had their viability decreased by 43%, 32%, 25%, and 27.5%, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those observed in the positive control, thereby showing a protective effect of α-T against the H2O2 toxicity. Overall, the vitamin E α-T isomer protected the immortalized MDPC-23 pulp cells against the toxic effects of H2O2. The most effective cell protection was provided by 5 and 10 mM concentrations of α-T.

  11. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling (Tor tambra fingerlings fed a formulated diet with different doses of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlisin Zainal A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol in the diet of keureling, Tor tambra (Val. fingerlings for optimal growth performance and feed utilization. Five doses of vitamin E were tested: 0 mg kg−1 feed (control; 150 mg kg−1 feed; 300 mg kg−1 feed; 450 mg kg−1 feed; 600 mg kg−1. The feed ratio was 5% body weight, which was delivered twice daily at 08:00 and 17:00 for 60 days. The results showed that higher growth performance, feeding conversion ratios, feed efficiency, protein retention, and protein digestibility were obtained at 600 mg kg−1 feed, but the value was not significantly different from the other doses. The optimal dose in terms of the hepatosomatic index and survival rate was 300 mg kg−1. Hence, it was concluded that the optimum, most economical dose of vitamin E supplement for keureling (T. tambra was 150 mg kg−1 feed, because this value was not significantly different from the doses of 300 and 600 mg kg−1 feed.

  12. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option. PMID:16488912

  13. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  14. Effects of micronutrient antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) on skin thickening and lung function in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Predrag; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2011-08-01

    To assess the effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on skin thickening and lung function in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc), thirteen patients with early diffuse SSc, with positive anti-topoisomerase-I antibody, high skin thickening progression rate (STPR ≥ 12/year) and decreased lung diffusing capacity (DLCO ≤ 75%) were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two subgroups: Subgroup A-six patients, treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide (CyP) (500 mg/m(2) of body surface monthly) and antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol 400 IU/day and ascorbic acid 1,000 mg/day), and Subgroup B-seven patients, who received CyP without antioxidants. In both subgroups, effects of treatment on skin thickening and lung function were evaluated by comparison of the modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS), STPR, forced vital capacity (FVC), transfer-factor (DLCO) and diffusing coefficient for carbon monoxide (DLCO/VA) at baseline and 1 month after the sixth pulse of CyP. The mean MRSS did not change from baseline to the end of the follow-up in subgroup A (15.7 vs. 16.4, P = 0.50), but it increased significantly in subgroup B (17.9 vs. 23.6, P = 0.03). Although the mean STPR decreased notably in both subgroups of patients (in subgroup A-from 18.9/year to 2.2/year, P = 0.03, and in subgroup B-from 17.5/year to 8.6/year, P = 0.03), the mean STPR at the end of the treatment period was significantly lower in subgroup A (2.2/year vs. 8.6/year, P = 0.04). The mean value of FVC did not change either in subgroup A (91.0-87%, P = 0.2) or in subgroup B (from 101.2 to 99.7%, P = 0.7). Parameters of lung diffusing capacity improved somewhat in subgroup A (DLCO from 55.7 to 62.0% and DLCO/VA from 68.7 to 74.2%) and decreased in subgroup B (DLCO from 66.2 to 60.6% and DLCO/VA from 76.9 to 71.6%), but differences were not statistically significant. After 6 months of therapy, patients treated with CyP and antioxidants had a significantly lower STPR, compared to

  15. In Vivo Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide and Antioxidants (Ascorbic Acid and Alpha-Tocopherol) on Apoptotic, Cytotoxic, and Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Hernández-Cortés, Lourdes Montserrat; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), ascorbic acid (AA), and alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH) on apoptotic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Groups of five Hsd:ICR mice were treated with the following: (a) vehicle, distilled water; (b) vehicle, corn oil; (c) AA, 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip); (d) α-TOH, 20 mg/kg by gavage; (e) V2O5, 40 mg/kg by ip injection; (f) AA + V2O5; and (g) α-TOH + V2O5. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) obtained from the caudal vein at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatments. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed at 48 h after treatment in nucleated cells of peripheral blood. Treatment with AA alone reduced basal MN-PCE, while V2O5 treatment marginally increased MN-PCE at all times after injection. Antioxidants treatments prior to V2O5 administration decreased MN-PCE compared to the V2O5 group, with the most significant effect in the AA + V2O5 group. The apoptotic cells increased with all treatments, suggesting that this process may contribute to the elimination of the cells with V2O5-induced DNA damage (MN-PCE). The necrotic cells only increased in the V2O5 group. Therefore, antioxidants such as AA and α-TOH can be used effectively to protect or reduce the genotoxic effects induced by vanadium compounds like V2O5. PMID:27413422

  16. Effect of. cap alpha. -tocopherol, butylated-hydroxytoluene and hydroxy-anisole on the activation and binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ to macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ih, J.J.; Biedrzycka, D.; Devlin, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidants, ..cap alpha..-tocopherol(TPA), butylated-hydroxy-toluene(BHT) and hydroxyanisole(BHA) inhibit the carcinogenic and toxic effects of a variety of chemical compounds, their effect on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) activation and binding was examined utilizing rat liver microsomes and cells. With a NADPH generating system, oxygen, microsomes, (/sup 3/H)-AFB/sub 1/, 2.2 pmoles/h/mg protein was activated and bound to macromolecules. In hepatocytes, 3.4 and 1.4 pmoles of AFB/sub 1/ per 10/sup 6/ cells were taken up and bound to macromolecules, whereas the nucleic acid fraction contained 0.19 pmoles of bound AFB/sub 1/. Moderate decreases of AFB/sub 1/ activation and binding were observed when TPA was present in both cell-free and hepatocytes systems. Only in hepatocytes, BHT inhibited the AFB/sub 1/ uptake and binding to nucleic acids. BHA, however, inhibited microsomal activation of AFB/sub 1/ by 73%; maximum inhibition was reached at 1 mM. AFB/sub 1/ uptake, and binding to nucleic acids were inhibited by 65% and 79% by BHA. GSH-transferase activity of cells treated with these agents was not altered. The effect of BHA at various concentrations on AFB activation was compared with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors; the ED/sub 50/ of SKF 525A, BHA and metyrapone was 9 uM, 80 uM and 380 uM respectively. The data suggest that TPA, BHA and BHT exert their effect by different mechanisms.

  17. Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Yaun, S.S.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Adami, H.O.; Albanes, D.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Harnack, L.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data

  18. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  19. Binding and uptake of 125iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: comparison of the effects of alpha-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, D; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of 125iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called "scavenger receptor" is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG > PP > alpha-Toc > Prob. PMID:9090072

  20. Binding and uptake of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of {alpha}-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5`-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate-glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik; Schneider, W. [Steigerwald Arzneimittel, Darmstadt (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5`-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called `scavenger receptor` is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>{alpha}-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  1. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  2. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C Ruth; Hempenstall, Sarah; Royle, Nick J; Selman, Colin; Willis, Sheridan; Rapkin, James; Blount, Jon D; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus. PMID:26783958

  3. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruth Archer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus.

  4. Atividade antioxidante do beta-caroteno e da vitamina A. Estudo comparativo com antioxidante sintético beta-carotene and vitamin A antioxidant activity. Comparative study with synthetic antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso PASSOTTO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade antioxidante da vitamina A na forma de acetato de retinol e de seu principal precursor, o beta-caroteno, adicionados a um sistema de óleo de soja previamente sensibilizado à oxidação. Os parâmetros utilizados como grau de atividade oxidativa foram: índice de peróxidos, teores de malonaldeído durante os intervalos de 24 a 72 horas, e perfil dos ácidos linoléico e linolênico após 144 horas de oxidação. Pelos resultados pode-se verificar que o retinol apresentou atividade antioxidante superior ao beta-caroteno. As determinações das atividades antioxidantes foram comparadas à do butilhidroxitolueno (BHT. A eficiência antioxidante da vitamina A e do beta-caroteno foram proporcionais às suas resistências à decomposição no sistema oxidativo. O acetato de retinol, a exemplo do BHT, mostrou uma rápida interação com os radicais ativos, pois já no início de sua adição ao óleo de soja, reduziu o nível da oxidação em relação ao respectivo controle.In soybean oil suceptible to oxidation the authors studied the antioxidant activity of the vitamin A as retinol acetate and the beta-carotene was studied. The oxidation index of the system was determined by peroxide and malonaldehyde values during the intervals from 24 to 72 hours and profile of the linoleic and linolenic acids after 144 hours of oxidation. It was observed that the retinol acetate had an antioxidant activity greater than beta-carotene. The antioxidant activity of retinol acetate and beta-carotene were compared to the butyl hidroxi toluene (BHT and was observed that the antioxidant efficiency was directly proportional to degradation resistance of them in the oxidative system. The retinol acetate, as such BHT, showed a fast interaction with actives radicals, in the beginning of the addition to the soybean oil, reducing the oxidation level when compared to the control.

  5. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12 e normotensos (n=12 com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica diária, durante 14 dias para cada dose, intercaladas por um período de wash-out de 7 dias; os grupos controle receberam apenas o veículo (óleo de coco. Foram ainda submetidos à avaliação ectoscópica para possível detecção de efeitos tóxicos ou interação entre nutrientes, e à análise dos parâmetros biológicos; a pressão sistólica foi aferida por pletismografia duas vezes na semana, em dias alternados. Após o período de suplementação os animais foram sacrificados, e tiveram o peso do fígado determinado pelo método de Scherle. RESULTADOS: A administração de beta-caroteno não levou a alterações dos parâmetros biológicos dos animais, assim como não foi detectado efeito tóxico. Quanto à pressão arterial sistólica, as duas linhagens apresentaram redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate if supplementation with supraphysiological doses of beta-carotene has a positive effect on controlling hypertension and detect possible adverse effects of this supplementation. METHODS: 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=12 and normotensive rats (n=12 were submitted to a basal period of 10 days, then divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and supplemented daily by orogastric gavage with beta-carotene in 3 different doses: 2.5mg, 3.75mg and 5.0mg/animal during 14 days for each dose that was inserted by a seven day wash-out period; control groups received only coconut oil. Animals were submitted to ectoscopic evaluation to

  6. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  7. Physical Activity and the Risk of Pneumonia in Male Smokers Administered Vitamin E and β-Carotene

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that moderate exercise may enhance the immune system. We evaluated whether physical activity at work or at leisure is associated with the risk of pneumonia, and whether the antioxidants vitamin E and β-carotene affect pneumonia risk in physically active people. A cohort of 16 804 male smokers aged 50 – 69 years and working at study entry was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, which examined the effect of vitamin E, 50 mg/day,...

  8. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Thahir2); Asep Sopian; Tien R. Muchtadi 2)

    2005-01-01

    Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer) on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanchi...

  9. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  10. An optimized and validated RP-HPLC/UV detection method for simultaneous determination of all-trans-retinol (vitamin A) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in human serum: comparison of different particulate reversed-phase HPLC columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abad; Khan, Muhammad I; Iqbal, Zafar; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Watson, David G

    2010-09-01

    A novel, simple and fast reversed-phase HPLC/UV method was developed, optimized for various chromatographic conditions, and validated according to international guidelines for simultaneous determination of all-trans-retinol and alpha-tocopherol in human serum using retinyl acetate as internal standard in the concentration of 0.5 microg/ml. A liquid-phase extraction was applied to the 250 microl of serum with n-hexane-dichloromethane mixture (70:30, v/v), in two steps, using ethanol-methanol mixture (95:5, v/v) for protein precipitation and BHT (butylated hydroxy toluene) as stabilizer for sample preparation. Both analytes were analyzed on Kromasil 100 C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), Brownlee analytical (Perkin Elmer) C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), and Supelco (Supelcosil) LC-18 column (150 mm x 3 mm, 3 microm), protected by a Perkin Elmer C(18) (30 mm x 4.6 mm, 10 microm; Norwalk, USA) pre-column guard cartridge, at 292 nm wavelength, using methanol-water (99:1, v/v), in isocratic mode as mobile phase applied at flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and 1 ml/min for both 5 microm and 3 microm columns, respectively. Complete separation of all the analytes was achieved in 3 and 6 min on 3 microm and 5 microm columns, respectively by injecting 20 microl of sample into the HPLC system by autosampler, keeping column oven temperature at 25 degrees C. Different particulate reversed-phase chromatographic columns were evaluated in order to select the best column in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, resolution and short run time of both the analytes and it was concluded that 3 microm columns are better to be used in clinical set up as well as in laboratories for the separation of these analytes in a shorter time as compared with 5 microm columns. The method was validated and applied for the analysis of all-trans-retinol and alpha-tocopherol in the serum of human volunteers.

  11. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality: do we have evidence for lack of harm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bjelakovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias. METHODS: The present study is based on our 2012 Cochrane systematic review analyzing beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in adults. Using random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression analyses, and trial sequential analyses, we examined the association between beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E, and mortality according to their daily doses and doses below and above the recommended daily allowances (RDA. RESULTS: We included 53 randomized trials with low risk of bias (241,883 participants, aged 18 to 103 years, 44.6% women assessing beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Meta-regression analysis showed that the dose of vitamin A was significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality. Beta-carotene in a dose above 9.6 mg significantly increased mortality (relative risk (RR 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.02 to 1.09, I(2 = 13%. Vitamin A in a dose above the RDA (> 800 µg did not significantly influence mortality (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.19, I(2 = 53%. Vitamin E in a dose above the RDA (> 15 mg significantly increased mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.05, I(2 = 0%. Doses below the RDAs did not affect mortality, but data were sparse. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-carotene and vitamin E in doses higher than the RDA seem to significantly increase mortality, whereas we lack information on vitamin A. Dose of vitamin A was significantly associated with increased mortality in meta-regression. We lack information on doses below the RDA. BACKGROUND: All essential compounds to stay healthy cannot be synthesized in our body. Therefore, these compounds must be taken through our diet or obtained in other ways [1]. Oxidative stress has been

  12. Total and individual antioxidant intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gifkins Dina; Olson Sara H; Paddock Lisa; King Melony; Demissie Kitaw; Lu Shou-En; Kong Ah-Ng; Rodriguez-Rodriguez Lorna; Bandera Elisa V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Limiting oxidative stress to the ovarian epithelium has been proposed as a first-line defense against ovarian cancer. Although evidence for an association between individual dietary antioxidant intake and ovarian cancer risk is conflicting, the combined evidence suggests a modest inverse association. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and individual antioxidant intakes (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, lutein,...

  13. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS AND THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: A DOSE-RESPONSE META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa V Bandera; Gifkins, Dina M.; Moore, Dirk F.; McCullough, Marjorie L; Lawrence H Kushi

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins may reduce cancer risk by limiting oxidative DNA damage. To summarize and quantify the current epidemiologic evidence of an association between antioxidant vitamin intake and endometrial cancer we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. One cohort and 12 case-control studies presenting relevant risk estimates were identified by conducting bibliographical searches through June 2008. Dose-response meta-analyses were conducted for beta-carotene, vitamin C...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation (ID 1669) and protection, of the skin from UV-induced damage (ID 1669) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...

  15. Analytical and microscopical studies on the protective effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and beta-carotene against the toxicityinduced by fenitrothion on the liver of female albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram F. Hashim and Kadry Weshahy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphate insecticide feneitrothion is a contact insecticide and selective acaricide. It is used as a fly, mosquito and cockroach, residual contact spray for farms and public health programs. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity of fenitrothion on the female rate and the possible protective effects of ascorbic acid (vitamine C and beta­carotene as antioxidant agents against the toxicity induced by fenitrothion. Sixty of adult female albino rats were randomly assigned to six equal groups including control group and groups treat­!"successive days. Ingestion of fenitrtothion caused a significant increase in ALT (alanine transferase, AST (aspartate transferase, and AP (alkaline phosphatase. It decreased signifiantly GL (glucose level, AchE (acetyle cholinesterase and GSH (glutathion reductase activities, while, it had insignificant effects on TB (total bilirubine and a slight decrease in TP (total protein. The histological study of female rat liver tissues by Hx & Eosin,P.A.S, and Methyl Green Pyronine revealed that, fenitrothion showed vascular and degenrative changes in the hepatic cells, Also, it caused a significant decrease in glycogen contents and depletion in of nucleic acids in hepatic cells. Treatments with ascorbic acid and beta­carotene plus fenitrothion hasn't been caused any significant changes in all parameters in serum of female rats. Treatment with ascorbic acid plus fenitrothion resulted a significant improvement in all parameters tested regarding to the histological study, while, beta-carotene plus fenitrothion showed the same improvement except in glycogen content in hepatic cells . Key Words : Fenitrothion ­ Toxicity ­ ALT ­ AST ­ GL ­ AChE ­ Rats ­ Histological ­ beta ­ carotene ­ Ascorbic acid .

  16. [Nutrition and physical activity: two targets for cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Dupertuis, Yves M; Belabed, Linda; Pichard, Claude

    2010-05-26

    The links between nutrition and cancer onset are now well established by epidemiological studies. The scientific evidence is presented in a report of the World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF). Protective factors towards overall cancer risk are fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Overweight and obesity, intakes of alcoholic beverage, fat, salt, high temperature cooked and processed red meat, increase cancer risk. In addition, beta-carotene systematic supplementation could increase lung cancer risk in smokers. As optimal controlling of these risk factors can decrease cancer mortality by 25%, nutritional counselling must be integrated in the global strategy of primary and secondary prevention of cancers.

  17. Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported a significant positive association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, and prostate cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the influence of vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary transporter of vitamin D compounds in the circulation. Prediagnostic serum concentrations of DBP were assayed for 950 cases and 964 matched controls with existing 25(OH)D measurements within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-C...

  18. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  19. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  20. Nutritional supplements and cancer: potential benefits and proven harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Large-scale, randomized cancer prevention trials have mainly been negative, with some notable adverse and beneficial effects. For example, these trials showed that beta-carotene increases the risk of lung and stomach cancer, vitamin E increases prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma, and selenium reduces gastric and lung cancer in populations with low selenium levels but increase rates in those with higher levels. Both beta-carotene and vitamin E supplementation increase overall mortality. This article reviews phase II and III trials that examine the effects of multivitamins, antioxidants, vitamin D, and n-3 supplements on outcome and toxicity from cancer treatments. Although vitamin E and beta-carotene reduce toxicity from radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancer, it has been found to increase recurrence, especially among smokers. Antioxidants have mixed effects on chemotherapy toxicity, but there are no data on outcome. Vitamin D deficiency is relatively common among patients with cancer, and ongoing phase III trials are studying the effect of vitamin D on outcome as well as optimum vitamin D and calcium intakes for bone health. Docosahexanoic and eicosopentanoic acid supplements have mixed effects on cachexia and are currently being tested as potential adjuncts to maximize response to chemotherapy. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  1. Concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno séricos e perfil nutricional de crianças em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, and nutritional status of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilane Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações séricas de retinol e beta-caroteno de pré-escolares em Teresina, Piauí, com caracterização do perfil antropométrico e do consumo alimentar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 135 crianças em creche municipal, com avaliação do estado nutricional pelos métodos: bioquímico (concentração sérica de retinol e beta-caroteno, antropométrico (índices de peso para estatura - P/E e estatura para idade - E/I e dietético (freqüência de consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA de 8,9% (IC95%: 4,7 - 15,0% e existência de associação entre suplementação anterior e concentrações de retinol, com maior proporção de crianças com níveis normais de retinol entre as suplementadas (p = 0,025. As concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno mostraram-se correlacionadas, porém com força leve a moderada (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate their anthropometric profile and consumption of food sources of vitamin A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 135 children from 36 to 83 months of age who attended a public child day care center. Nutritional status was evaluated by: biochemical (serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, anthropometric (weight for height - W/H and height for age - H/A indexes, and dietary (frequency of consumption of food sources of vitamin A methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD was 8.9% (95%CI: 4.7-15.0%. An association between previous supplementation with vitamin A and serum concentrations of retinol was observed, with a higher proportion of children with normal concentrations of retinol among those supplemented (p=0.025. There was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, (p<0.021. The prevalence of low W/H and low H

  2. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging antioxidant

  3. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  4. Dietary factors and breast-cancer risk in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertz, M; Gill, C

    1990-11-15

    The influence of dietary factors, in particular the intake of fat and beta-carotene, on breast-cancer risk was evaluated in a case-control study including 1,486 breast cancer cases diagnosed over a 1 year period in Denmark. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of 1,336 women from the general population. Data on usual diet prior to the breast cancer diagnosis were collected by self-administered questionnaires of the semi-quantitative food frequency type. A highly significant trend (p less than 0.001) of increasing risk was observed with increasing fat intake, the RR for the highest quartile being 1.45 (95% Cl 1.17-1.80) compared with the lowest. However, information was not available to allow adjustment for the possible confounding effect of energy intake. The risk of breast cancer was not associated with consumption of vegetables rich in beta-carotene, multi-vitamin tablets or other dietary supplements, coffee, tea, sugar or artificial sweeteners. PMID:2228305

  5. Cross-sectional study with multiple measurements of biological markers for assessing stomach cancer risks at the population level.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugane, S; Tsuda, M; Gey, F; Watanabe, S.

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine correlations between measurable biologic markers and mortality from stomach cancer was performed in various areas of Japan. Blood and urine were collected from randomly selected 40- to 49-year-old men and their spouses in four areas with different rates of mortality from stomach cancer. The samples were analyzed for levels of the micronutrients vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, and lycopene in plasma and for levels of NaCl, nitrate, and N-nitrosamino ac...

  6. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  7. The expression and significance of alpha-tocopherol associated protein in human prostate cancer%生育酚结合蛋白在前列腺癌组织的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温星桥; 刘勇; 黄文涛; 周祥福; 蔡育彬; 高新

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨生育酚结合蛋白(α-TAP)在良恶性前列腺组织的表达差异及意义.方法 构建TAP-N端的质粒并转化到大肠杆菌BL21-Condon Plus,以1 mmol/L IPTG诱导3 h表达蛋白,用Ni-NTA琼脂糖柱纯化TAP蛋白并免疫兔生产抗体.将pGEM-T-easy质粒酶切线性化,37℃体外转录120 min合成地高辛标记的TAP-RNA探针.免疫组织化学和原位杂交法测定TAP在分别40例良性前列腺增生(BPH)与前列腺癌(Pca)的表达.结果 制备到毫克量的TAP-N端蛋白、特异性TAP抗体和RNA探针.TAP主要表达于前列腺上皮,很少位于基质成分.BPH组TAP表达阳性率(37例,92.5%)比Pca组高(7例,17.5%),两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).无TAP表达的33例Pca患者术前PSA水平(12.5±3.3)μg/L、Gleason评分(7.3±1.4)分均高于其余7例TAP阳性患者(P<0.05),后者PSA为(6.7±2.6)μg/L、Gleason评分为(4.6±2.1)分.TAP阴性的Pca患者术后出现复发时间(32.5±6.2)个月小于TAP阳性患者(78.5±12.6)个月(P<0.05).结论 TAP在前列腺癌的表达比在良性前列腺增生组织明显下调,无TAP表达的前列腺癌患者术前PSA和Gleason评分高于TAP阳性患者.

  8. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human buccal mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y S; Peng, Y M

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that some micronutrients, including various carotenoids, retinoids, and alpha-tocopherol, may have chemopreventive activity against certain types of human cancer. In order to define the role of these micronutrients in cancer prevention, it is necessary to measure their concentrations in the target tissues, since these are critical to the chemopreventive effect. We have developed a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the simultaneous determination of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol in an easily accessible human target tissue, the buccal mucosal cells. This procedure used a gradient of two mobile phases which consisted of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1% ammonium acetate, and butylated hydroxytoluene (in v/v/v/v/w): mobile phase A, 85:5:5:5:0.05; mobile phase B, 55:35:5:5:0.05. The run time, including reequilibration, was 47 min: from 100% A to 100% B in 27 min, remaining at that mobile phase for 10 min, then back to 100% A at 43 min at a constant flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. The high-performance liquid chromatography effluent was monitored at 300, 325, and 452 nm for tocopherols, retinoids, and carotenoids, respectively, with a photodiode array detector. The average recovery was 83% for lycopene and > 92% for others. The precision of the assay for all the compounds was less than 10% in a 1-month period. The micronutrients were extracted by incubating the cells with protease, followed by vortex mixing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in ethanol containing 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene, and, finally, hexane extraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1305470

  9. Can vitamin A modify the activity of docetaxel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Lemancewicz; Ewa Czeczuga-Semeniuk; Slawomir Wolczyński

    2008-01-01

    Docetaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. On the other hand, the vitamin A family compounds play the essential roles in many biological processes in mammary gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of all-trans retinol, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene) and retinoids (9-cis, 13-cis and all-trans retinoic acid) on the activity of docetaxel and to compare these effects with the estradiol and tamoxifen actions on human ...

  10. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, unpulped, the pulp was storaged in polietilin bags (100 g, frozen, kept in a freezer at -20 °C, and evaluated every 30 days for 12 months. The experiment was carried out with experimental delineament totally casualized in a factorial scheme 6 x 13 (clones x time, with 3 repetitions. The concentration of beta-carotene in the Cereja clone was stable, while the other ones were decreased during the whole time of the experiment. There was a small decrease in the ascorbic acid level in all the clones in the study during the storage, probably due to the high acidity of the pulp, which helps maintain its nutrient. The total anthocyanins level were stable in the Frutacor and Sertaneja clones, however, it decreased in the other ones. The II 47/1 clone was, among all the studied clones, the one that presented the highest levels of ascorbic acid C and total anthocyanins, keeping these characteristics during the whole storage. In conclusion, the clones that presented the lowest level of beta-carotene, showed the highest concentrations of total anthocyanins.

  11. Histological and biochemical serum effects of alpha-tocopherol on ischemia/reperfusion-related injuries induced in the pelvic limb of rats Efeitos histológicos e bioquímicos séricos do alfa-tocoferol na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão em membro pélvico de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the protective action of alpha-tocopherol in ischemia/reperfusion injuries of pelvic member of rats. METHODS: Thirty adult male rats of the Wistar strain were randomized into three experimental groups of 10: Group I - control group with no ischemia or reperfusion. Groups II and III - four hours of ischemia and of hours of reperfusion by means of clamping of the infrarenal aorta. The animals of Group II were treated with saline and those of Group III were treated with i.v. alpha-tocopherol (50 mg/kg. Parameters studied were biopsies of the soleus muscle, dosing of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, calcium and arterial blood gasometry. RESULTS: The results of biopsies of the soleus muscles studied by optical microscopy, were not significant in terms of presence of edema among the three groups studied. Variables inflammation and necrosis were not observed, therefore cannot be statistically analyzed. As to dosing of calcium and lactate dehydrogenase, the pH, pO2 and pCO2 values were not significant for all groups studied. We observed that the levels of potassium (Group II > Group I, Fcalculated = 5.84; Fcritical = 3.33, creatine phosphokinase (Group II > Groups I and III, Hcalculated = 13.92; Hcritical = 5.99 and bicarbonate (Groups I and III > Group II, Hcalculated = 11.98; Hcritical = 5.99 presented significant results among groups. CONCLUSION: From the serum biochemical perspective, the treatment with alpha-tocopherol has attenuated the metabolic injuries in the ischemia/reperfusion syndrome in this experimental model.OBJETIVO: Avaliar ação protetora do alfa-tocoferol na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão em membro pélvico de ratos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos machos adultos da linhagem wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, em três grupos experimentais, com 10 animais cada: Grupo I - Grupo controle sem isquemia ou reperfusão. Grupos II e III - quatro horas de isquemia e duas horas de reperfus

  12. Papel da lipoperoxidação na intensificação da remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto Rol de la lipoperoxidación en la intensificación de la remodelación ocasionada por el betacaroteno tras infarto Role of lipoperoxidation in the remodeling intensification induced by beta-carotene after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle e BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control y BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5%. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control and BC (500mg/kg/regimen. After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5% significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001 and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption and cancer mortality in the Caerphilly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, M G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Fehily, A M; Sweetnam, P M; Elwood, P C; Kromhout, D

    1996-09-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of fruit and vegetables lowered cancer mortality in a cohort of 2112 Welsh men ages 45-69 years (The Caerphilly Study), which was followed-up for 13.8 years. At baseline (between 1979 and 1983), participants completed a 56-item food frequency questionnaire from which the consumption of fruit and vegetables was calculated. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with Cox proportional hazard analysis, with death from various types of cancer as a dependent variable, and fruit, vegetables, vitamin C, beta-carotene, dietary fiber, and potential confounders as independent variables. Mean consumption of vegetables and fruit at baseline was 118 g/day and 83 g/day, respectively. During follow-up 114 men died from cancer, including 51 men who died from respiratory tract cancer and 45 men who died from digestive tract cancer. Fruit consumption and the intake of dietary fiber were inversely related to respiratory tract cancer, but after adjustment for potential confounders including age, smoking, and social class, the association with fruit consumption became nonsignificant. Vegetable and fruit consumption was, independently from other risk factors, inversely related to mortality from cancer of the digestive tract (P for trend = 0.021), mainly due to an inverse association with fruit consumption (RR for the highest quartile versus the lowest was 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8). Vitamin C, beta-carotene, and dietary fiber were not significantly associated with cancers of the digestive tract. Vegetable and fruit consumption was also inversely related to all-cause cancer mortality, and the strongest association was observed for fruit consumption (RR in the highest versus lowest quartile was 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0). Consumption of vegetables and particularly the consumption of fruit could considerably lower the risk of dying from cancer in middle-aged men.

  14. In vitro cancer cell growth inhibition and antioxidant activity of Bombax ceiba (Bombacaceae) flower extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Rashed, Khaled; Said, Ataa; Menichini, Francesco; Loizzo, Monica R

    2014-05-01

    The flowers of Bombax ceiba were investigated for their chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antiproliferative activity against seven human cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative responses of diethyl ether (DE) and light petroleum (PE) extracts were evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against MCF-7, HeLa, COR-L23, C32, A375, ACHN, and LNCaP cells in comparison with a human normal cell line, 142BR. Moreover, extracts were characterized by GC-MS analysis and tested for their antioxidant properties by different in vitro systems, namely DPPH, Fe-chelating activity and beta-carotene bleaching test. Both PE and DE extracts showed the highest antiproliferative activity against human renal adenocarcinoma (ACHN) in a concentration-dependent manner. PE extract showed the highest radical scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, while DE extract was more active in the beta-carotene bleaching test. The presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids may contribute to the bioactivity of B. ceiba flower extracts.

  15. A case-control study of diet and lung cancer in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; Xu, T; Lin, Q; Wang, C; Zhao, F; Wang, G; Chen, Y; Yang, Y

    1997-06-11

    A case-control study involving interviews with 227 lung-cancer cases and 227 matched hospital controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province in northeast China to examine the influence of dietary factors on the risk of developing lung cancer. Lung-cancer cases were all incident cases judged to be suitable candidates for tumor removal by surgery. Controls were selected among hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic and non-lung disease. The overall male lung-cancer risks associated with cigarette smoking were similar to those reported in other Chinese studies but quite low compared to risks in Western countries. However, the subjects in this study were relatively young (average age 53.2), had started to smoke on average at a relatively old age (21.3 years), and only smoked an average of 18.7 cigarettes per day. Lung-cancer risk was not strongly associated with any of the nutrients examined, when all cases were compared to all controls. However, the data were suggestive of differences in the relationship of diet to risk among smokers and non-smokers. Cautious interpretation is required because of the wide confidence intervals due to limited sample size. Among the smokers, only higher beta-carotene was associated with estimates suggesting a lowered risk. Among non-smokers, the evidence suggested that increased vegetable consumption might reduce risk, consumption of any fruit might reduce risk but beta-carotene was unrelated to risk. The differences observed in the relationship of diet to lung-cancer risk between Chinese smokers and non-smokers warrant further study.

  16. Intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Binns, Colin W

    2007-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the role of carotenoids in the chemoprevention of cancer. However, few studies have examined the association between intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and the results for carotenoids have been inconclusive. To investigate whether the intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, and lycopene is inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk, a case-control study was conducted in China during 1999-2000. The cases were 254 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer and 652 age-matched controls were randomly recruited during the same period. Habitual dietary intake and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable FFQ. The US Department of Agriculture nutrient composition database was used to calculate the intake of specific carotenoids. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI, accounting for age, locality, education, BMI, smoking, tea drinking, parity, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, menopausal status, family history of ovarian cancer, physical activity and energy intake. Compared with the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake, the adjusted OR were 0.39 (95 % CI 0.23, 0.66) for alpha-carotene, 0.51 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.84) for beta-carotene, 0.51 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.83) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 (0.27, 0.76) for lutein and zeaxanthin, and 0.33 (95 % CI 0.20, 0.56) for total carotenoids, with statistically significant tests for trend. It is concluded that a higher intake of carotenoids can reduce the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17367574

  17. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  18. Chemoprevention--history and general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangwei; Patterson, Sherri; Hawk, Ernest

    2011-08-01

    Our current understanding of tumourigenesis suggests that cancer develops as a series of cumulative genetic and epigenetic derangements across time culminating in a clone of cells differing from its population of origin in terms of cellular identity, growth control, and its contextual relationship to its environment. Our increasing knowledge of the timing, sequence, frequency, and specific implications of these changes provides unique opportunities for earlier identification of aberrations and preventive interventions. Here we discuss the fundamentals of cancer prevention including the targets, cohorts, agents, endpoints, mechanistic biomarkers, designs, and strategies employed in preventive drug development. There have been many notable successes in this field such as the identification and development of tamoxifen and raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction, instillational BCG and valrubicin for treatment of preinvasive bladder cancer, and a variety of topical and systemic agents that effectively treat preinvasive neoplastic lesions of the skin. A variety of null or negative developmental endeavours have occurred as well, including trials of beta-carotene for lung cancer prevention, nutritional modifications for colorectal adenoma prevention, and most recently, selenium and alpha-tocopherol for prostate cancer prevention. A third category of prevention trials can be summarized as investigationally successful, but not achieving regulatory success. The development of finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention, and celecoxib for colorectal neoplasia prevention fall into this category. In less than four decades, cancer chemoprevention has transformed from a concept to an achievable reality. PMID:22122762

  19. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Poppel H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hendrik Van Poppel1, Bertrand Tombal21Department of Urology, University Hospital, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Service d’Urologie, Cliniques Universtaires Saint Luc, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic.Keywords: alpha-tocopherol, chemoprevention, isoflavones, lycopene, polyphenols, prostate cancer, selenium

  20. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e leite materno de puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte Levels of alpha-tocopherol in the serum and breast-milk of child-bearing women attending a public maternity hospital in the city of Natal , in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Rejane Siqueira Garcia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e leite materno em diferentes estágios de lactação de puérperas e verificar a adequação nutri cional de vitamina E do leite oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 32 parturientes adultas com idade média de 25 anos. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro, em condição de jejum, para análise dos níveis de alfa tocoferol. Entre 10 e 15 dias pós-parto foram coletados mais 2 mL de leite. As amostras foram analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. A adequação nutricional do leite para a vitamina E foi calculada pelo produto do volume estimado de ingestão de leite com a concentração de α-tocoferol no leite e por comparação direta desse produto com o valor de referência para ingestão do nutriente (4 mg/dia. RESULTADOS: os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no sangue foram 29 ± 0,9 µmol/L (Média ± Erro padrão e no colostro e leite de transição foram 28,7 ± 4,7 µmol/L e 7,8 ± 1,0 µmol/L, respectivamente. O consumo estimado de colostro forneceu 241% da recomendação dietética e o de leite de transição atingiu 66%. CONCLUSÕES: o grupo de mulheres estudadas apresentou um estado nutricional satisfatório de vitamina E, refletido no leite materno, principalmente no colostro, cujos valores foram capazes de suprir mais do que o dobro do requerimento nutricional do lactente.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate levels of alpha-tocopherol in the serum and breast-milk of women at various stages in lactation and to confirm whether nutritio nally appropriate levels of vitamin E are present in the milk given to the babies. METHODS: thirty-two child-bearing women with an average age of 25 years took part in the study. 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected, under fasting conditions, for the purposes of analyzing the levels of alpha-tocopherol. Between 10 to 15 days after childbirth, a further 2 mL of breast-milk was collected. The samples were

  1. Níveis de proteína e de vitamina E para matrizes de frango de corte. 2. Efeito sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol na gema e nos tecidos e balanço de nitrogênio Protein and vitamin E levels for broiler breed hens. 2. Effects on yolk and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentration and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.T. Barreto

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 16 matrizes de frangos de corte com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de proteína bruta (NPB, 14 e 16%, e dois níveis de vitamina E (NVE, 25 e 250mg/kg, na dieta sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol (AT na gema, no fígado, no soro sangüíneo e na excreta, e sobre a retenção de AT e de nitrogênio (N. O período experimental foi de 25 dias, sendo 15 dias para a adaptação das aves à dieta e 10 dias para a coleta de ovos e da excreta para análise de vitamina E (VE e N. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, formado por quatro tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 (NVE × NPB, constituído cada um por quatro repetições, e cada unidade experimental representada por uma ave. Houve aumento linear (PSixteen broiler breed hens were used with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation of two crude protein (14 and 16% CP and two vitamin E levels (25 and 250mg VE/kg in the diet on the alpha-tocopherol (AT concentration in the egg yolk, liver, blood serum and feces, and on the AT and nitrogen (N retentions. The experiment lasted 25 days, in which 15 days were used for hens adaptation and 10 days for egg and fecal collection for AT and N analyses. The experimental design was a complete randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (CP × VE levels with four repetitions per treatment. The increasing of VE in the diet resulted in increase (P0.05. Thus, it could be concluded that the increasing of VE levels in the diet increased the AT concentrations in the egg yolk and body tissues, and decreased the AT and increased the N retention in broiler breed hens during the laying peak period.

  2. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  3. The role of carotenoids on the risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Kenneth R

    2003-02-01

    Smoking prevention and cessation remain the primary methods of reducing the incidence of lung cancer. The limited success of efforts towards smoking cessation have led to increasing interest in the role of nutrition in lung cancer prevention. One class of nutrients that has attracted attention as potential chemopreventive agents is the carotenoids, especially beta-carotene, due to their antioxidant properties. In vitro, carotenoids exert antioxidant functions and inhibit carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation, inhibit plasma membrane lipid oxidation, and cause upregulated expression of connexin 43. These in vitro results suggest that carotenoids have intrinsic cancer chemopreventive action in humans. Many cohort and case-control study data have shown an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer, although several more recent studies have cast doubt on these findings. Different effects of various dietary nutrients on lung cancer risk have been observed. Several prospective intervention trials were undertaken to examine the effect of supplementation on the risk of lung cancer. Some of these studies demonstrated an increased incidence and mortality from lung cancer in those receiving supplementation. Many hypotheses have emerged as to the reasons for these findings.

  4. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  5. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions: potential role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P; Berger, J; Avallone, S

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, oxidative stress has been described as a deleterious phenomenon contributing to numerous noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancers. As many authors ascribed the healthy effect of fruit and vegetable consumption mainly to their antioxidant contents, it has been hypothesized that their protection could occur from the gut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and physiological model of nanoemulsions to study lipid peroxidation within the intestine and to assess the properties of potential antioxidants in this setting. Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic antioxidants. Hemin and myoglobin were also tested as relevant potential oxidants. Fatty acid (FA) peroxidation was monitored by gas chromatography while malondialdehyde and antioxidant contents were measured by HPLC. Investigated nanoemulsions were composed of spherical or cylindrical mixed micelles, the latter being the least resistant to oxidation. In the experimental conditions, AAPH was the only efficient oxidant. Alpha-tocopherol and lutein significantly slowed FA degradation from 4 to 1 μM, respectively. On the contrary, beta-carotene did not show any protective capacity at 4 μM. In conclusion, the tested nanoemulsions were appropriate to assess antioxidant capacity during the intestinal phase of digestion.

  6. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of [beta]-carotene measured using 13C-labeled [beta]-carotene and retinol; studies in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in many developing countries. Improved vitamin A status can reduce morbidity and mortality by one-third in developing countries. Vitamin A occurs in food as preformed vitamin A (retinol), present in animal foods and breastmilk, and as provitamin A car

  7. Plasma antioxidant status in healthy smoking and non-smoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraca, A; Skibska, B

    2005-01-01

    Human serum contains many different antioxidants which may be important in the maintenance of an antioxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lipid peroxidation and total plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy smoking and non-smoking young and elderly subjects. Plasma concetrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were detected by HPLC. Additionally, in the in vitro experiments, the effects of exogenous compounds (ascorbic acid, uric acid, Trolox) on total ferric reducing activity of plasma were tested. We demonstrated that total antioxidant capacity of plasma obtained from healthy non-smoking young subjects was significantly higher than plasma antioxidant capacity of smoking elderly subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.001) in young non-smoking volunteers was lower than that in young smokers. The concentration of TBARS in elderly non-smoking volunteers was lower than in elderly smokers. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were significantly lower in elderly smokers than in elderly non-smokers of same age. No difference in plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were found in 22-year-old smoking and non-smoking subjects. In vitro addition of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or Trolox to plasma samples significantly increased their total antioxidant capacity. Decrease of FRAP values and increase of TBARS concentra-' tions is a significant physiologic condition of aging process. Supplementation of antioxidants could be useful for the enhancement of plasma antioxidant status (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref: 35).

  8. A Case—Contrl Study of Dietary Factors in Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGCHENGYU; ZHANGXIUQUAN; 等

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to investigate association of dietary factors with the risk of lung cancer in Sichuan,China.The cases consisted of 135 patients with preinvasive lung cancer which had been confirmed with histopathology,fiber bronchoscope,CT and X-ray film in three provincial hospitals in the recent one year.Controls were healthy subjects who went to one of these hospitals for health check-up;patients with pulmonary diseases was exluded.Controls were matched to cases for sex and age with a ratio of 1:1.Nutrient intakes, the eating habit and other relevant factors were investigated.The data analyzed with the conditional logistic regression model indicated,that dietary beta-carotene intakes had a significantly inverse association with the risk of lung cancer.Vitamin Chad a less significantly inverse association with the risk.Association of protein,fat,energy,retinol intakes of dietbalance index with the risk was not significant.Association of tea,alcohol,garlic or mushroom,respectively,with the risk was also not observed.Consumption of more processed foods and deep-fried foods were found to be risk factors.Smoking and air pollution from coal burning stoves were also observed as independent risk factors of lung cancer in the present study.The mental stress incidence in the case was significantly higher than that in the control.

  9. Vitamin A family compounds, estradiol, and docetaxel in proliferation, apoptosis and immunocytochemical profile of human ovary endometrioid cancer cell line CRL-11731.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lemancewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid carcinoma represents approximately 10% of cases of the malignant ovarian epithelial tumors. According to literature, the vitamin A (carotenoids and retinoids plays an essential role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in both normal and neoplastic ovarian tissues. Apart from that, the retinoids alter a cytotoxic effect of chemiotherapeutics, i.e. docetaxel, on ovarian cancer cell lines. Retinoids act on cancer cells throughout different mechanism than taxanes, so they may be the potential candidates for the new treatment strategies of ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of vitamin A family compounds (retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, all-trans -, 9-cis - and 13-cis retinoic acid on the growth and proliferation of CRL-11731 endometrioid ovary cancer cell line and on docetaxel and estradiol activity in this culture. The assay was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA- and Ki 67-positive cells. The apoptotic index and expression of the Bcl-2 and p53 antigens in CRL-11731 cells were also studied. Among vitamin A family compounds retinol and carotenoids, but not retinoids, inhibited the growth of cancer cells in dose dependent manner. Only the concentration of 100 muM of docetaxel inhibited incorporation [3H] thymidine into CRL-11731 cancer cells. Retinol (33.4%+/-8.5, carotenoids (beta-carotene 20 muM 4.7%+/-2.9, 50 muM 2.2%+/-0.9; lycopene 10 muM 7.6%+/-0.8, 20 muM 5.2%+/-2.5, 50 muM 2.9%+/-1.2, and 13-cis retinoic acid (19.7%+/-2.2 combined with docetaxel (100 muM significantly decreased the percentage of proliferating cells (p<0.0001. The antiproliferative action of lycopene alone and in combination with docetaxel was also confirmed in immunohistochemical examination (decreased the percentage of PCNA and Ki67 positive cells. Also retinol (10 muM and lycopene (20 and 50 muM combined with estradiol (0.01 muM statistically decreased the percentage of

  10. Beta-carotene reduces body adiposity of mice via BCMO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Amengual

    Full Text Available Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that β-carotene-(BC-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1 and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2 are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into β-10'-apocarotenal and β-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mice. To genetically dissect the roles of Bcmo1 and Bcdo2 in this process, we used wild-type and Bcmo1(-/- mice for this study. In wild-type mice, BC was converted into retinoids. In contrast, Bcmo1(-/- mice showed increased expression of Bcdo2 in adipocytes and β-10'-apocarotenol accumulated as the major BC derivative. In wild-type mice, BC significantly reduced body adiposity (by 28%, leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis of inguinal white adipose tissue revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. Despite β-10'-apocarotenoid production, this effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1(-/- mice, demonstrating that it was dependent on the Bcmo1-mediated production of retinoids. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPARγ activity in adipocytes.

  11. Hot compressed water extraction curve for palm oil and beta carotene concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharizan, M. S. M.; Azian, M. N.; Yoshiyuki, Y.; Kamal, A. A. M.; Che Yunus, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Hot compressed water extraction (HCWE) is a promising green alternative for palm oil milling. The kinetic characteristic of HCWE for palm oil and it β-carotene concentration was experimentally investigated in this study at the different temperature and pressure. Semi-batch HCW extractor from 120 to 180 oC and 30 to 50 bar was used to evaluated the process for 60 mins of extraction in 10 mins interval. The results obtain using the HCWE process was compared with other extraction method. The oil extraction achieved the maximum extraction rate within 20 mins of extraction in most of the condition and starting to decrease until 60 mins of extraction time. The extraction rate for β-carotene was achieved the maximum rate in 10 mins and starting to decrease until 30 mins. None of β-carotene concentration had been extracted out from the palm oil mesocarp after 30 mins of extraction in all condition. The oil recovery of using HCWE was relatively low compare with the mechanical screw press, subcritical R134b, supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extraction due to the oil loses in the oil-water emulsion. However, the β-carotene concentration in extracted oil using HCWE was improved compare with commercial crude palm oil (CPO) and subcritical R134a extraction.

  12. Beta-carotene Reduces Body Adiposity of Mice Via BCMO1

    OpenAIRE

    Amengual, J.; Gouranton, E.; Helden, Y.G.J.; Keijer, J.; Kramer, E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that ß-carotene-(BC)-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1) and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2) are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into ß-10'-apocarotenal and ß-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mic...

  13. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present on-farm study was to analyse vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage and to analyze milk vitamin content when feeding the roughage to dairy cows. Roughages produced at five organic dairy farms were monitored at harvest and several times during winter as...... of α-tocopherol was 876 mg per cow–431 mg from roughages, 89 mg from concentrates and 356 mg from a vitamin supplement. Milk yield was 25.9 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per day with α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (μg/ml) of 0.82 and 0.17. The study additionally showed the following...... tendency, but due to few observations no final conclusions could be drawn: •For grass–clover silage there were generally no losses of vitamins during the ensiling process and during storage, but there were huge variations between farms. •For wholecrop silage there was a loss of vitamins during the ensiling...

  14. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren K; Sehested, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase our knowledge about the vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage on organic commercial farms and to analyze the vitamin content in the milk. Roughages produced at the five organic dairy farms were monitored from harvest when the silage was laid in the silo and until the roughage was fed during the winter. The roughages had average α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents during the feeding period of, respectively, 30 mg and 21 mg per k...

  15. An investigation of anti-oxidant properties of salvia, conducting beta-carotene bleaching assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Fatemeh; ABEDPOUR, Marziyeh; ABDOSHEIKHI, Meysam; AHMADI, Elmira; ABEDI, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Due to the large amount of oils, Salvia (officinalis species) has always been one of the most popular medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. In this theses, the aerial parts of the plant Salvia officinalis were collected from greenhouses of Shiraz city and dried in shade for 15 days. Its essential oil was extracted using Clevenger method and analyzed using Gas Chromatography –Mass Spectrometer. Twenty compound was analyzed in the essential oil of salvia as the main compounds...

  16. Sensitized Triplet Formation of Chlorophyll-A and beta-Carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nina Mejlhede; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1980-01-01

    The naphthalene-sensitized formation of triplet excited chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and all-transß-carotene has been studied by pulse radiolysis. The rate constants for transfer of triplet energy from naphthalene to Chl-a and all-transß-carotene in benzene at 25°C are (3.6 ± 0.6)·109M-1 s-1 and (10.7 ± 1...

  17. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poppel, Hendrik; Tombal, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa) will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic. PMID:21629831

  18. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on fracture resistance after endodontic treatment, bleaching and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cristina Fagundes JORDÃO-BASSO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of 10% alphatocopherol on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth subjected to tooth bleaching with hydrogen peroxide and immediately restored with composite resin. Fifty bovine incisors were selected, including 10 sound teeth that constituted the control group (G1 (C. The remaining 40 teeth, which were endodontically treated, were divided into four groups (n = 10: G2 (CR, consisting of teeth immediately restored with composite resin; G3 (HP + CR, consisting of teeth subjected to tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide and immediately restored with composite resin; G4 (HP + SA + CR, which received treatment similar to that used for G3, but with 10% sodium ascorbate gel applied after the bleaching protocol; and G5 (HP + AT + CR, which was similar to G4 but included 10% alphatocopherol gel as an antioxidant. After 24 h, composite restorations were performed, and teeth were subjected to a fracture resistance test at a speed of 0.5 mm/min in an electromechanical testing machine. The axial force was applied with an angle of incidence of 135° relative to the long axis of the root. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05. G1 exhibited the highest fracture resistance (p < 0.05. No significant differences among the other experimental groups were observed. The 10% sodium ascorbate and 10% alphatocopherol gels did not improve the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth subjected to bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros S. Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers.METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05.RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50. However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01. No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups.CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum.

  20. Alpha-Tocopherol Counteracts the Cytotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Primary Porcine Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Elenora; Rebucci, Raffaella; Pecorini, Chiara;

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine the half-lethal concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) as well as the levels of lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA in primary porcine fibroblasts, and to examine the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting its toxicity....... Cells showed a dose-, time- and origin-dependent (ear vs. embryo) sensitivity to ochratoxin A. Pre-incubation for 3 h with 1 nM α-tocopherol significantly (P

  1. Rectal administration of d-alpha tocopherol for active ulcerative colitis: A preliminary report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Amir Mirbagheri; Behtash Ghazi Nezami; Solmaz Assa; Mannan Hajimahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-neutrophil recruitment effects of rectal d-alpha (d-α) tocopherol administration on mild and moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Fifteen patients with mild and moderately active ulcerative colitis were enrolled in an open-label study of d-α tocopherol enema (8000 U/d) for 12 wk. All patients were receiving concomitant therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives (5-ASA) and/or immunomodulator medications. Endoscopic evaluation was performed at baseline and after 4th and 12th weeks. Disease activity was measured with the Mayo disease activity index (DAI) and remission was defined as DAI of≤2 with no blood in stool. Clinical response was defined as a DAI reduction of≥2.RESULTS: At the end of 12th week, the average DAI score significantly decreased compared to the beginning of the study (2.3±0.37 vs 8±0.48, P < 0.0001). One patient was withdrawn after 3 wk for being unavailable to follow-up. On the 4th week of therapy, 12 patients showed clinical response, 3 of whom (21.4%) achieving remission. After 12 wk, all 14 patients responded clinically to the therapy and remission was induced in 9 of them (64%). No patient reported adverse events or was hospitalized due to worsened disease activity.CONCLUSION: This preliminary report suggests that rectal d-α tocopherol may represent a novel therapy for mild and moderately active UC. The observed results might be due to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of vitamin E.

  2. Alpha -tocopherol supplementation on chromium toxicity : a study on rat liver and kidney cell membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Membrane damage is one of the important consequence of chromium, an environmental toxicant, to produce cytotoxicity. α-tocopherol, a membrane protectant can be used to reduce the chromium-induced membrane damage. In the present study, the impact of chromium in presence and absence of α-tocopherol was studied on plasma membrane of liver and kidney in male Wistar rats (80 - 100g body weight). Significant increase in membrane cholesterol level as well as significant decrease in membrane phospholipid level in chromium exposed ( 0.8 mg /100g body weight/d, i.p., for 4 weeks) animals suggest structural alteration of both liver and kidney plasma memebrane. The alkaline phosphatase, total ATPase and Na+-K+-ATPase activities of plasma membrane were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney after chromium treatment. However, α-tocopherol (30 mg / 100g diet) supplementation can restrict the changes in these membrane-bound enzyme activities. Thus, the usefulness of dietary supplementation of α-tocopherol to restrain the chromium-induced membrane damage is suggested.

  3. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikuo Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods:Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results:AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine, though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion:According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS.

  4. Risk factors for male breast cancer in Canada, 1994-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K C; Pan, S; Mao, Y

    2002-06-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the aetiology of male breast cancer and the current understanding of female breast cancer, primarily related to reproductive events, cannot be readily transferred to understanding the cancer in males. However, since male breast cancer occurs in the absence of factors related to childbearing and menstruation, its aetiology may provide special insights into the causes of breast cancer in women. We examined lifestyle risk factors for male breast cancer as part of a Canadian, multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Eighty-one newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases and 1905 male controls aged 42-74 were analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Increased risks were found for men with a mother or sister with breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.62-8.19). Higher physical activity levels (moderate, and strenuous recreational plus occupational) were associated with a decreased risk of male breast cancer (highest quartile, adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.91). Similarly, higher risks were associated with higher weight 2 years before interview (2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43), maximum weight (OR 2.66) and higher body mass index (OR 1.60). Higher vegetable consumption and coffee consumption were associated with decreased risk, whereas higher beta-carotene, vitamin E and calcium supplementation were associated with statistically significant increased risk. The small number of cases and multiple comparisons preclude strong conclusions, but our study is consistent with studies suggesting obesity and family history increase risk, and physical activity decreases risk of breast cancer. PMID:12131659

  5. The role of nutritional lipids and antioxidants in UV-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S

    2015-06-01

    Two dietary tenets of the free radical theory of cancer require refinement. The first was dietary reduction of vulnerable free-radical targets, e.g., polyunsaturated lipids. The second was the addition of one or more antioxidants to the diet. Further, it was reported in 1939 that high levels of dietary fat exacerbated UV-carcinogenesis. Both lines of enquiry (dietary lipid and antioxidant effects on UV-carcinogenesis) were investigated. Both dietary lipids and antioxidants modified carcinogenic expression. Increasing levels of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exacerbated UV-carcinogenesis. However, omega-3 PUFA dramatically inhibited carcinogenic expression. It is probable that the action of omega-6 and-3 PUFA rests with differential metabolic intermediates, both tumor promoting and immune-modulating, that each PUFA generates through lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Antioxidant supplementation with butylated hydroxytoluene or beta-carotene demonstrated that each exerted its own specific antioxidant mechanism(s). When introduced into the complex milieu of the cell with its own intricate and complex antioxidant defense system, detrimental effects may ensue. These results point to oversimplification of these dietary suggestions to reduce cancer risk and the necessity to refine these dietary recommendations.

  6. The role of nutritional lipids and antioxidants in UV-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S

    2015-01-01

    Two dietary tenets of the free radical theory of cancer require refinement. The first was dietary reduction of vulnerable free-radical targets, e.g., polyunsaturated lipids. The second was the addition of one or more antioxidants to the diet. Further, it was reported in 1939 that high levels of dietary fat exacerbated UV-carcinogenesis. Both lines of enquiry (dietary lipid and antioxidant effects on UV-carcinogenesis) were investigated. Both dietary lipids and antioxidants modified carcinogenic expression. Increasing levels of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exacerbated UV-carcinogenesis. However, omega-3 PUFA dramatically inhibited carcinogenic expression. It is probable that the action of omega-6 and-3 PUFA rests with differential metabolic intermediates, both tumor promoting and immune-modulating, that each PUFA generates through lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Antioxidant supplementation with butylated hydroxytoluene or beta-carotene demonstrated that each exerted its own specific antioxidant mechanism(s). When introduced into the complex milieu of the cell with its own intricate and complex antioxidant defense system, detrimental effects may ensue. These results point to oversimplification of these dietary suggestions to reduce cancer risk and the necessity to refine these dietary recommendations. PMID:25961684

  7. A Survey on Relationship between Nonsmokers and Lung Cancer%非吸烟者与肺癌关系的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑素华; 张成敏; 焦风华; 吴新悦

    2001-01-01

    肺癌是由多因素造成的疾病,多种因素的协同作用使其发病。在非吸烟者中,被动吸烟是增加患肺癌的一种重要因素.在细胞组织学类型上其主要诱发腺癌。此外,室内及厨房的小环境污染、精神压力、家族肿瘤遗传史、肺部既往疾病史、激素分泌水平等可能是肺癌发病的危险因素,而食用含β-胡萝卜素的食物、绿色蔬菜及饮茶等可能是肺癌发病的保护因素。%The lung cancer is caused bv the cooperation of muliple factors.The passive smoking in nonsmokers was a main oncogenesis in lung cancer. Adenocarcinoma of the lung was possibly induced by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) . The risk factors of lung cancer in nonsmokers may be indoor air pollution,mentality stress, the family with a record of cancer, history of lung disease, the change of hormone, etc. The protective factors of lung eancer in nonsmokers may be frequent consumption of beta-carotene,green vegetable and drinking tea ete.

  8. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  9. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  10. The association between selenium and other micronutrients and thyroid cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. RESULTS: With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76; P(trend, <0.01, we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92-1.65; P(trend, 0.26 or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSION: Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  11. The Association between Selenium and Other Micronutrients and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. Methods We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health – American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50–71 years in 1995–1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. Results With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02–1.76; Ptrend, <0.01), we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92–1.65; Ptrend, 0.26) or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. Conclusion Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:25329812

  12. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Shishodia, Shishir

    2006-05-14

    While fruits and vegetables are recommended for prevention of cancer and other diseases, their active ingredients (at the molecular level) and their mechanisms of action less well understood. Extensive research during the last half century has identified various molecular targets that can potentially be used not only for the prevention of cancer but also for treatment. However, lack of success with targeted monotherapy resulting from bypass mechanisms has forced researchers to employ either combination therapy or agents that interfere with multiple cell-signaling pathways. In this review, we present evidence that numerous agents identified from fruits and vegetables can interfere with several cell-signaling pathways. The agents include curcumin (turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, peanuts and berries), genistein (soybean), diallyl sulfide (allium), S-allyl cysteine (allium), allicin (garlic), lycopene (tomato), capsaicin (red chilli), diosgenin (fenugreek), 6-gingerol (ginger), ellagic acid (pomegranate), ursolic acid (apple, pears, prunes), silymarin (milk thistle), anethol (anise, camphor, and fennel), catechins (green tea), eugenol (cloves), indole-3-carbinol (cruciferous vegetables), limonene (citrus fruits), beta carotene (carrots), and dietary fiber. For instance, the cell-signaling pathways inhibited by curcumin alone include NF-kappaB, AP-1, STAT3, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), caspases, PARP, IKK, EGFR, HER2, JNK, MAPK, COX2, and 5-LOX. The active principle identified in fruit and vegetables and the molecular targets modulated may be the basis for how these dietary agents not only prevent but also treat cancer and other diseases. This work reaffirms what Hippocrates said 25 centuries ago, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food. PMID:16563357

  13. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Arteaga, James R; Zhang, Qifeng; Huerta, Sergio; Go, Vay Liang W; Heber, David

    2005-01-01

    Although the avocado is known as a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, there has been far less attention given to its content of other bioactive substances including carotenoids, which might contribute to cancer preventive properties similar to those attributed to other fruits and vegetables. The yellow-green color of the avocado prompted us to study the carotenoid content of this fruit using established methods in our laboratory. The California Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill.) was selected for study, because it is the most commonly consumed variety in the southwest United States. These avocados were found to contain the highest content of lutein among commonly eaten fruits as well as measurable amounts of related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene). Lutein accounted for 70% of the measured carotenoids, and the avocado also contained significant quantities of vitamin E. An acetone extract of avocado containing these carotenoids and tocopherols was shown to inhibit the growth of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Incubation of PC-3 cells with the avocado extract led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein expression. Lutein alone did not reproduce the effects of the avocado extract on cancer cell proliferation. In common with other colorful fruits and vegetables, the avocado contains numerous bioactive carotenoids. Because the avocado also contains a significant amount of monounsaturated fat, these bioactive carotenoids are likely to be absorbed into the bloodstream, where in combination with other diet-derived phytochemicals they may contribute to the significant cancer risk reduction associated with a diet of fruits and vegetables.

  14. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Arteaga, James R; Zhang, Qifeng; Huerta, Sergio; Go, Vay Liang W; Heber, David

    2005-01-01

    Although the avocado is known as a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, there has been far less attention given to its content of other bioactive substances including carotenoids, which might contribute to cancer preventive properties similar to those attributed to other fruits and vegetables. The yellow-green color of the avocado prompted us to study the carotenoid content of this fruit using established methods in our laboratory. The California Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill.) was selected for study, because it is the most commonly consumed variety in the southwest United States. These avocados were found to contain the highest content of lutein among commonly eaten fruits as well as measurable amounts of related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene). Lutein accounted for 70% of the measured carotenoids, and the avocado also contained significant quantities of vitamin E. An acetone extract of avocado containing these carotenoids and tocopherols was shown to inhibit the growth of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Incubation of PC-3 cells with the avocado extract led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein expression. Lutein alone did not reproduce the effects of the avocado extract on cancer cell proliferation. In common with other colorful fruits and vegetables, the avocado contains numerous bioactive carotenoids. Because the avocado also contains a significant amount of monounsaturated fat, these bioactive carotenoids are likely to be absorbed into the bloodstream, where in combination with other diet-derived phytochemicals they may contribute to the significant cancer risk reduction associated with a diet of fruits and vegetables. PMID:15629237

  15. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  16. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  17. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diets rich in fruits and vegetables and nutrients from these diets, such as vitamin C, vitamin A, and... diets rich in fruits and vegetables, including but not necessarily limited to dietary fiber, vitamin A (as beta-carotene) and vitamin C, to displacement of fat from such diets, or to intakes of...

  18. Transcriptional-metabolic networks in beta-carotene-enriched potato tubers: the long and winding road to the Golden phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Al-Babili, Salim; Tavazza, Raffaela; Scossa, Federico; Papacchioli, Velia; Migliore, Melania; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in a large number of countries. Biofortification of major staple crops (wheat [Triticum aestivum], rice [Oryza sativa], maize [Zea mays], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) with β-carotene has the potential to alleviate this nutritional problem. Previously, we engineered transgenic "Golden" potato tubers overexpressing three bacterial genes for β-carotene synthesis (CrtB, CrtI, and CrtY, encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene β-cyclase, respectively) and accumulating the highest amount of β-carotene in the four aforementioned crops. Here, we report the systematic quantitation of carotenoid metabolites and transcripts in 24 lines carrying six different transgene combinations under the control of the 35S and Patatin (Pat) promoters. Low levels of B-I expression are sufficient for interfering with leaf carotenogenesis, but not for β-carotene accumulation in tubers and calli, which requires high expression levels of all three genes under the control of the Pat promoter. Tubers expressing the B-I transgenes show large perturbations in the transcription of endogenous carotenoid genes, with only minor changes in carotenoid content, while the opposite phenotype (low levels of transcriptional perturbation and high carotenoid levels) is observed in Golden (Y-B-I) tubers. We used hierarchical clustering and pairwise correlation analysis, together with a new method for network correlation analysis, developed for this purpose, to assess the perturbations in transcript and metabolite levels in transgenic leaves and tubers. Through a "guilt-by-profiling" approach, we identified several endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis likely to play a key regulatory role in Golden tubers, which are candidates for manipulations aimed at the further optimization of tuber carotenoid content. PMID:20671108

  19. Efficacy of beta-carotene rich sweet potato to improve vitamin a status of Bangladeshi women - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children, which also increases the risk of disease and death from severe infections. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is a good source of pro-vitamin A and has been successfully tried in African countries as an effective means to ensure adequate intake of pro-vitamin A by mothers and children. We have conducted a randomized controlled trial in an urban poor community of Bangladesh to examine the efficacy of two different preparations of OFSP in women with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The subjects (n=120) were aged between 18-35 years with serum retinol 90 g/L and CRP 2H4]-retinyl acetate) was given orally to determine total body vitamin A pool size. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatment groups to receive 6 d/wk for 60 days: (1) boiled white-fleshed sweet potatoes (WFSP); (2) 600 μg RAE as boiled OFSP; (3) 600 μg RAE as fried OFSP; or (4) 600 μg RAE as a retinyl palmitate capsule, and boiled WFSP. Night vision of the subjects was assessed, as a proxy for vitamin A status, before and after intervention by performing 'dark adaptation test'. Blood samples collected before and after intervention were light-protected and stored on ice until plasma was separated, and then stored at - 20C until shipment to University of California Davis under frozen condition. The samples will be analyzed in UC Davis for plasma isotopic ratios using GC-MS following the isolation of retinol from plasma with HPLC, to determine vitamin A pool size before and after supplementation. The preliminary results from partial analysis of the available data will be presented. (author)

  20. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Wang, J.; Meijnen, J.P.; Visser, H.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these g

  1. Serum retinol of Chadian nomadic pastoralist women in relation to their livestocks' milk retinol and beta-carotene content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Daoud, Saada; Schierle, Josef; Hofmann, Peter; Diguimbaye, Colette; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Ndoutamia, Guelmbaye; Knopf, Lea; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel

    2002-07-01

    Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% were moderately retinol-deficient (0.35 mol/L livestock milk retinol levels (partial slope 0.23; 95% CI: 0.008-0.47). Our study supports the use of goat and cow milk as an important source of vitamin A in pastoral nomadic settings. However, the levels still require to be complemented further by promoting green leafy vegetables, fruits, and supplements. PMID:12214559

  2. Effect of light intensity on Beta-carotene production and extraction by Dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Application of two-phase bioreactors is a useful technique for improvement of the productivity of fermentations. Fermentative extraction of the products in situ is performed in this technique. The effect of light intensity on the extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina, in the fermentative e

  3. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition. PMID:17147745

  4. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of β-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). β-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that β-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in β-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  5. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  6. Diet and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study: does the threat of disease have an influence on recall bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, S; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, M; Kataja, V; Uusitupa, M

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that recall bias may explain the discrepant results between case-control and cohort studies on diet and the risk of breast cancer. Two control groups were used for this case-control study of 25 to 75-year-old breast cancer cases (n = 310). The first group consisted of population controls drawn from the Finnish National Population Register (n = 454). The second group consisted of women who were referred to the same examinations as were the cases because of clinical suspicion of breast disease but who were later diagnosed as healthy (referral controls; n = 506). Because the diagnosis was unknown at the time of interview, it was possible to assess by comparing the two control groups whether the self-reporting of diet changed under the threat of disease. Dietary habits were examined using a validated, self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Premenopausal women misreported their consumption of liquid milk products, tea, and sugar. Reporting bias was also associated with the intake of fat and vitamins. Postmenopausal women misreported consumption of milk products. When recall bias was taken into consideration, milk was associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer, whereas high consumption of poultry or high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and vitamin E were related to lower risk. The study suggested that oil, milk, cheese, coffee and beta-carotene may act as protective factors in postmenopausal women, whereas butter and cream may be risk factors for breast cancer. In summary, it is possible that some food items may be overreported or underreported under the threat of disease in health-conscious population. However, most of the results in this study were not modified by recall bias. PMID:10360338

  7. Primary porcine fibroblasts: Ochratoxin A cytotoxicity and role of all-trans-retinol and alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species and it is a contaminant of food and feeds (O’Brien et al., 2001. OTA is a nephrotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic compound and one of the most sensible species among domestic animals is the pig (JECFA, 2001. Production of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS leading to lipid peroxidation was suggested to be one of the mechanisms by which OTA damages the cell (Rahimtula et al., 1988.

  8. Protective effects of carnosine alone and together with alpha-tocopherol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus ethanol-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaz, Esra Betül; Aydın, A Fatih; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Çoban, Jale; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carnosine (CAR) alone and together with vitamin E (Vit E) on alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) in rats. ASH was induced by ethanol (3 times; 5 g/kg; 12 h intervals, via gavage), followed by a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg; i.p.). CAR (250 mg/kg; i.p.) and Vit E (200 mg D-α-tocopherol/kg; via gavage) were administered 30 min before and 90 min after the LPS injection. CAR treatment lowered high serum transaminase activities together with hepatic histopathologic improvements in rats with ASH. Reactive oxygen species formation, malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activities and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and collagen 1α1 (COL1A1) expressions were observed to decrease. These improvements were more remarkable in CAR plus Vit E-treated rats. Our results indicate that CAR may be effective in suppressing proinflammatory, prooxidant, and profibrotic factors in the liver of rats with ASH. PMID:26773358

  9. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Hu

    Full Text Available Vitamin E (VitE only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE's cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after myocardial ischemia reperfusion(MI/R. VitE may significantly improved cardiac function in young male mice and aged female mice by enhancing ERK1/2 activity and reducing JNK activity. Enhanced expression of HSP90 and Bcl-2 were also seen in young male mice. No changes in cardiac function and cardiac proteins were detected in aged male mice and VitE was even liked to exert a reverse effect in cardiac function in young mice by enhancing JNK activity and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Those effects were in accordance with the changes of myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group of mice. VitE may reduce MI/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis in young male mice and aged female mice but not in aged male mice. VitE was possibly harmful for young female mice, shown as increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Thus, we speculated that the efficacy of VitE in cardiac protection was associated with age and gender.

  10. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Functional and Structural Radiation Injury in the Rat Heart by Pentoxifylline and Alpha-Tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a severe side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. This study examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) and α-tocopherol on cardiac injury in a rat model of RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received fractionated local heart irradiation with a daily dose of 9 Gy for 5 days and were observed for 6 months after irradiation. Rats were treated with a combination of PTX, 100 mg/kg/day, and α-tocopherol (20 IU/kg/day) and received these compounds either from 1 week before until 6 months after irradiation or starting 3 months after irradiation, a time point at which histopathologic changes become apparent in our model of RIHD. Results: Radiation-induced increases in left ventricular diastolic pressure (in mm Hg: 35 ± 6 after sham-irradiation, 82 ± 11 after irradiation) were significantly reduced by PTX and α-tocopherol (early treatment: 48 ± 7; late treatment: 53 ± 6). PTX and α-tocopherol significantly reduced deposition of collagen types I (radiation only: 3.5 ± 0.2 μm2 per 100 μm2; early treatment: 2.7 ± 0.8; late treatment: 2.2 ± 0.2) and III (radiation only: 13.9 ± 0.8; early treatment: 11.0 ± 1.2; late treatment: 10.6 ± 0.8). On the other hand, radiation-induced alterations in heart/body weight ratios, myocardial degeneration, left ventricular mast cell densities, and most echocardiographic parameters were not significantly altered by PTX and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: Treatment with PTX and α-tocopherol may have beneficial effects on radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function, both when started before irradiation and when started later during the process of RIHD

  12. Photostability of alpha-tocopherol ester derivatives in solutions and liposomes. Spectroscopic and LC-MS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunert, Grazyna; Szwengiel, Artur; Walejko, Piotr; Witkowski, Stanislaw; Polewski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    α-Tocopherol (Toc) is known to degrade to the tocopheroxyl radicals (Toc) by exposure to UV light irradiation. In the present study, the stability of Toc ester derivatives exposed to UV light was investigated and compared with Toc in organic solution and in phospholipid vesicles. To follow the depletion of Toc and its esters the absorbance and fluorescence methods were applied whereas degradation products were detected using LC-MS method. The irradiation with UVB light of air-equilibrated solutions of di-α-Tocopheryl malonate (DTMO), α-Tocopheryl malonate (TMO) and α-Tocopheryl succinate (TS) strongly modifies their absorption and fluorescence spectra. Upon UVB irradiation, absorption band at 279/285nm becomes less pronounced indicating the photodegradation of esters. During irradiation, the fluorescence maximum of esters at 305nm shifts to 326nm, a maximum characteristic for Toc. Photorecovery of Toc from its esters derivatives was finally confirmed by LC-MS method. Among studied esters, only α-tocopheryl nicotinate (TN) did not undergo depletion and appeared resistant to UVB radiation. Kinetic studies indicated that photoinduced transformation occurs through the first order consecutive reaction chain mechanism. The photodissociation of Toc esters in the liposomes occurred with one order of magnitude slower than in organic solvents. Using MS/MS method it was found that final stable product of irradiation was α-tocopheryl quinone (TQ), an animal and plant metabolite of Toc. PMID:27107331

  13. Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), alpha-tocopherol and lipid levels in plasma of captive wild mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Uehlein-Harrell, S; von Hegel, G; Wiesner, H

    1991-02-01

    Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), vitamin E and lipids were determined in a wide variety of wild mammals and birds held in captivity. In mammals plasma levels of vitamin A were generally below 500 ng/ml and those of vitamin E were highly variable (0.1-2 micrograms/ml). In primates, vitamin E levels were 3 to 8 micrograms/ml. Whereas in Marsupialia, Chiroptera, primates, Rodentia, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla only retinol was found, retinyl esters (basically retinol palmitate/oleate) represented 10 to 50% of the total plasma vitamin A in some birds of the order Ciconiiformes and Falconiformes. Retinol levels in birds were higher compared to mammals (500-2,000 ng/ml). The same was true for lipids as well as for vitamin E levels (1-26 micrograms/ml) in the plasma of birds. PMID:1905864

  14. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiao-Xia; Fu, Li; Li, Yan; Lin, Ze-Bang; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Yang-xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE’s cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardi...

  15. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, T.Ø.; Jakobsen, Jette; Sonne, C.;

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins A and E content of inner organs, among these the kidneys, are increasingly being used as an indicator of adverse effects caused to the organism by e.g. environmental contaminants. In general, only a renal sub sample is used for analyses, and it is thus essential to know which part...... of the organ to sample in order to get a representative value for this important biomarker. The aim here was to assess the distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) within the polar bear multireniculate kidney (i.e. polar vs. medial position) and also within the cortex vs. medulla of each...... separate renculi. The results showed no significant difference between the medial and polar renculi with regards to either retinol (p=0.44) or α-tocopherol (p=0.75). There were, however, significant differences between cortex and medulla for both vitamins (retinol, p=0.0003; α-tocopherol, p...

  16. Maternal dietary loads of alpha-tocopherol increase synapse density and glial synaptic coverage in the hippocampus of adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Glia-synapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant glia-synapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning.

  17. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  18. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  19. Plasma Carotenoids and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with prior Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally believed protective against several chronic diseases. One suggested mechanism is a reduction in oxidative stress. The carotenoids, nutrients found in colored fruits and vegetables, possess antioxidant properties in vitro, but their role in humans is less well documented. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationships between the most abundant plasma carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin, as well as grouped carotenoids (total xanthophylls, carotenes and carotenoids, and urinary excretion of the F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs, stable and specific biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids. Two F2-IsoP measures were utilized: total F2-IsoPs and 8-iso-PGF2α. The study population (N = 52 was drawn from a study among patients curatively treated for early-stage head and neck cancer. Unadjusted linear regression analyses revealed significant inverse associations between plasma lutein, total xanthophylls and both F2-IsoP measures at baseline. After control for potential confounders, all individual and grouped xanthophylls remained inversely associated with the F2-IsoP measures, but none of these associations achieved significance. The carotenes were not inversely associated with total F2-IsoPs or 8-iso-PGF2a concentrations. The finding of consistent inverse associations between individual and grouped xanthophylls, but not individual and grouped carotenes, and F2-IsoPs is intriguing and warrants further investigation.

  20. Total and individual antioxidant intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifkins Dina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limiting oxidative stress to the ovarian epithelium has been proposed as a first-line defense against ovarian cancer. Although evidence for an association between individual dietary antioxidant intake and ovarian cancer risk is conflicting, the combined evidence suggests a modest inverse association. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and individual antioxidant intakes (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, lutein, and lycopene and ovarian cancer risk. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study in New Jersey. Cases were women ages 21 years and older with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer who resided in six counties of New Jersey. Controls were women in the same age range who resided in the same geographic area. A total of 205 ovarian cancer cases and 390 controls were included. Dietary intake was ascertained using the Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and TAC indices were constructed by linking FFQ-derived estimates to two standardized antioxidant capacity databases, the USDA Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC Database, and the University of Olso’s Antioxidant Food Database. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals while controlling for major ovarian cancer risk factors. Results We found a strong inverse association with selenium from food sources (OR: 0.41; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.85, for the highest vs. lowest tertile of dietary selenium intake. However, there was little evidence of an association with dietary TAC or the others individual antioxidants. In contrast, compared to non-users, supplement users had significant increased risk for all micronutrients, but no statistically significant increased risk was observed for combined intake from foods and supplements of any of these antioxidants. Conclusions This study found an inverse association between selenium

  1. Influence of postharvest hot water treatment on nutritional and functional properties of kumquat (Fortunella japonica Lour. Swingle Cv. Ovale) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Minello, Elisabeth V; Melis, Marinella; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-01-23

    The present study investigated the influence of a hot water dip (HWD) for 2 min at 50 degrees C, a standard and effective treatment for postharvest decay control of citrus fruit, on the nutritional and health-related properties of kumquats. The results show that most of the parameters examined, including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, maturity index, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, beta-carotene, zeaxantin, rhoifolin, and antioxidant activity, were not significantly affected by treatment. The levels of beta-cryptoxanthin, narirutin, and total flavonoids increased after HWD, whereas lutein and total phenols decreased. The concentration of the essential oil and the relative percentage of the individual components of the essential oil were not affected by HWD except for the minor compound p-menta-1,5-dien-1-ol, which increased after HWD. After storage, lower levels of glucose, total sugars, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein were recorded in HWD fruit. A decrease in antioxidant activity and increases in alpha-tocopherol and total vitamin E were found both in control and HWD fruit. The influence of HWD at 50 degrees C for 2 min on individual nutraceuticals and health-related properties was thus generally low and may depend on storage conditions.

  2. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  3. Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration among older Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Ishida, Susumu; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kikuchi, Yuriko; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Hosoda, Kanae; Ishigami, Ai; Iwasawa, Satoko; Nakano, Makiko; Takebayashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of human nutrition, the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through diet control is feasible and desirable. We investigated the relationship between serum antioxidants and AMD in the community-dwelling older Japanese eating a typical Japanese diet. In this study, 722 subjects aged 65 years or older (297 males and 425 females) who had gradable fundus photographs were included. The subjects were divided into three groups of early or late AMD or non-maculopathy. Serum antioxidants (alpha-, gamma-tocopherols, retinol, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, and lutein and zeaxanthin) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. To clarify the combined effect as the group of the antioxidants, we defined the carotene family (alpha-, beta-carotenes and lycopene) and carotenoid family (beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin). Tertiles of each serum antioxidant were obtained and the prevalence of early or late AMD was compared with univariate or multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of early AMD was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.1-6.2) and late AMD was 1.1% (0.5-2.2). Only alpha-tocopherol and beta-cryptoxanthin were related to late AMD as single antioxidants. On the other hand, the carotene and carotenoid families as a combination of antioxidants were protectively associated with late AMD. No relationship was found between serum antioxidants and early AMD. Our findings support the hypothesis that a combination of serum antioxidants obtained from the traditional Japanese diet is protective for late AMD, but not for early AMD. PMID:19329388

  4. New Advances in Diet,Nutrition and Cancer Prevention%膳食、营养与癌症预防的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许雅文

    2016-01-01

    当前多方面研究及临床大量癌症病理分析证实,癌症病发诱因与外环境因素密切相关,对此癌症是能够有效预防或避免的。其外环境因素中膳食营养所占因素相对较高,如膳食营养可导致肥胖或机体营养不良等问题,增加各类病症癌变风险。当前临床中对于癌症的预防及抑制方面多重视脂肪酸效果,并在膳食抗氧化剂抗癌方面研究证实,β-胡萝卜素与维生素C在癌症防御方面效果尚不明显,而富含丰富维生素E与硒的果蔬食物抗癌效果相对良好。因此抗癌新进展方面也从过去的营养素为基础的膳食转向食物为基础的膳食指南。%A large number of research and clinical pathological analysis confirmed that the cause of cancer is closely related to the external environmental factors, which can be effectively prevented or avoided. The external environment factors in the relatively high proportion of dietary nutrition,such as diet and nutrition,resulting in obesity or malnutrition and other issues,increase the risk of various diseases and cancer. Current clinical for the prevention and suppression of cancer pay much attention to the effect of fatty acid,and confirmed the research on dietary antioxidants against cancer,beta carotene prime and vitamin C in cancer prevention effect is not obvious,and rich in vitamin E and selenium fruit and vegetable food anti-cancer effect is relatively good. So the new progress of cancer has also shifted from the past to the diet based diet to food based dietary guidelines.

  5. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  6. Secondary Analyses of the Effects of Lutein/Zeaxanthin on Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression AREDS2 Report No.3

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Y Chew; Clemons, Traci E.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Danis, Ronald P; Ferris, Frederick L.; Elman, Michael J.; Antoszyk, Andrew; Ruby, Alan; Orth, David; Bressler, Susan B.; Fish, Gary; Hubbard, Baker; Klein, Michael; Chandra, Suresh; Blodi, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation for treatment of age-related macular degeneration contains vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) assessed the value of substituting lutein/zeaxanthin in the AREDS formulation because of the demonstrated risk of lung cancer from beta-carotene in smokers and former smokers. As previously reported in a secondary analysis, AREDS2 participants taking lutein/zeaxanthin with or without omega-3...

  7. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables. PMID:10377477

  8. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of bioavailability and bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan Wang,; Xiaoying Xu,; Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Lugtenburg, J.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI LC-MS) was developed for the quantification of the bioavailability of retinyl palmitate and -carotene and the bioconversion of -carotene to retinol in humans. Following oral admi

  9. Strong and weak plasma response to dietary carotenoids identified by cluster analysis and linked to beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thomas T Y; Edwards, Alison J; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms as well the genetics underlying the bioavailability and metabolism of carotenoids in humans remain unclear. To begin to address these questions, we used cluster analysis to examine individual temporal responses of plasma carotenoids from a controlled-diet study of subjects who consumed carotenoid-rich beverages. Treatments, given daily for 3 weeks, were watermelon juice at two levels (20-mg lycopene, 2.5-mg β-carotene, n=23 and 40-mg lycopene, 5-mg β-carotene, n=12) and tomato juice (18-mg lycopene, 0.6-mg β-carotene, n=10). Cluster analysis revealed distinct groups of subjects differing in the temporal response of plasma carotenoids and provided the basis for classifying subjects as strong responders or weak responders for β-carotene, lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene. Individuals who were strong or weak responders for one carotenoid were not necessarily strong or weak responders for another carotenoid. Furthermore, individual responsiveness was associated with genetic variants of the carotenoid metabolizing enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. These results support the concept that individuals absorb or metabolize carotenoids differently across time and suggest that bioavailability of carotenoids may involve specific genetic variants of β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. PMID:23517913

  10. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  11. A dietary oxidative balance score of vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron intakes and mortality risk in male smoking Belgians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoydonck, van P.G.A.; Temme, E.H.M.; Schouten, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in smokers, whether the oxidative balance of their dietary pattern affected mortality risk. To evaluate the oxidative balance of the dietary pattern, an oxidative balance score was constructed that summarized the combined intake of dietary antioxidants (

  12. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (psolar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (psolar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention. PMID:15477192

  13. A Consensus Linkage Map that Identifies Genomic Regions Controlling Beta-Carotene Quantity and Fruit Maturity in Melon (Cucumis Melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value and yield potential of U.S. Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.) could be improved through the introgression of genes for early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of the quantity of B-carotene (QBC) in fruit mesocarp (i.e., orange mesocarp). Therefore, a set of 116 F3...

  14. Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library

    OpenAIRE

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Kassim, Amelia; Loh, Chye Ying; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the nutritional quality of the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp oil is superior to that of African oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) mesocarp oil. Therefore, it is of important to identify the genetic features for its superior value. This could be achieved through the genome sequencing of the oil-palm. However, the genome sequence is not available in the public domain due to commercial secrecy. Hence, we constructed a cDNA library and generated expres...

  15. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    2005. Forage was wilted to a dry-matter (DM) content of 273 g kg−1 and ensiled without additive or with an inoculant or acid. Wilting decreased α-tocopherol concentration by 30% in the Bft + Ti mixture (P = 0·015). Untreated Bft + Ti silage had higher α-tocopherol content than red clover silages (56......·9 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015). The α-tocopherol concentration of Bft + Ti forages increased during ensiling from 41·1 mg kg−1 DM in wilted herbage to 56·9, 65·2 and 56·8 mg kg−1 DM in untreated, inoculated and acid-treated silage respectively (P = 0·015). The inoculant increased α......-tocopherol content in the red clover silages (50·1 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015) compared with untreated red clover silages. Red clover mixtures had lower β-carotene content than Bft + Ti (32·3 vs. 46·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·016), averaged over treatments. In conclusion, wilting had small effects but the use...

  16. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  17. Antioxidant effect of onion oil (Allium cepa. Linn) on the damages induced by nicotine in rats as compared to alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen, A; Krishnakumar, K; Vijayammal, P L; Augusti, K T

    2000-07-27

    The beneficial effects of onion oil as an antioxidant has been assessed in nicotine administered rats by studying whether the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine can be effectively combated with the onion oil and the effects compared to vitamin E, a highly efficient antioxidant. Lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant defence system have been studied in liver, lungs, and heart. The rats were injected with nicotine (0.6 mg/kg body wt.) and simultaneously given onion oil (100 mg/kg body wt.) or vitamin E (100 mg/kg body wt.) for 21 days. Concentration of free fatty acids, TBA reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides were significantly increased in the tissues of nicotine treated rats as compared to normal rats. Onion oil supplemented to nicotine treated rats showed increased resistance to lipid peroxidation and the effect was near to that of vitamin E fed rats. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased in nicotine treated rats. Antioxidants-glutathione content, vitamin C and retinol showed no significant difference but liver vitamin E content significantly decreased in nicotine treated rats. On onion oil or vitamin E supplementation, the concentration of antioxidants were significantly raised in all the tissues studied, however, a significantly increased concentration of glutathione, vitamin E and retinol was noticed in vitamin E+nicotine treated rats. Thus, these results indicate that onion oil is an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage caused by nicotine as compared to vitamin E. PMID:10906423

  18. The effects of L-carnitine and alpha-tocopherol on acid excretion defect during the acute ureteral obstruction in anaesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtiyani SC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Ureteral obstruction has been shown to induce renal oxidative stress, suppressed energy metabolism and defected acid excretion. This study was aimed to examine the improving effects of L-carnitine, a facilitating cofactor for mitochondrial oxidation of fatty-acids as well as a scavenger of free-radicals, and a-tocopherol as the most potent antioxidant on these renal disorders at early hours following release of unilateral ureteral obstruction. "n"nMethods: The left ureter was ligated in 60 anaesthetised rats, L-carnitine, a-tocopherol, or their vehicles (normal saline and olive oil, respectively were injected (i.p. in four groups. Each rat was re-anesthetized and cannulated, and ureteral legation was released at exactly 24h after UUO-induction. A 30-min clearance period performed to separately collect urine from both kidneys. The collected urine and arterial blood samples were given to pH-gas analyzer and autoanalyzer, and malondialdehyde (MDA, ATP and ADP levels were assessed in preserved kidneys. There were also sham and control groups (n=8-10 in each."n"nResults: In the post-obstructed kidney of vehicle-treated groups with respect to the equivalent kidney of sham group, there were increases in MDA (p<0.001, ADP (p<0.01, urinary pH (p<0.001, absolute (p<0.05 and fractional bicarbonate excretions (p<0.01, but decreases in ATP, ATP/ADP (both p<0.001, and urinary PCO2 (p<0.01. a-tocopherol could normalize MDA level but did not affect the altered amounts of energy metabolic indices and acid-base excretions, while L-carnitine improved all of them except of decreased urinary PCO2."n"nConclusions: Increased bicarbonate-excretion in post-obstructed kidney is due to defected acid-secretion at collecting duct, which is not related to ureteral obstruction-induced renal oxidative stress and suppressed energy metabolism.

  19. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.J.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Heijst, P.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants a

  20. Kost og lungekraeft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder G; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and large well-designed original articles were preferred to form the basis of the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and in persons who have never smoked......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews....... Vitamin A, C and E supplements and beta-carotene offer no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, in two major randomised intervention trials beta-carotene supplement has resulted in increased mortality. Smoking remains by far the leading cause of lung cancer and the adverse...

  1. Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Hongsibsong, Surat; Biesalski, Hans-Konrad

    2010-05-26

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) were analyzed in hand-pressed juice and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) grown in northern Thailand. The tangerines were collected from a citrus cluster of small orchard farmers and were cultivated as either agrochemical-based (AB), agrochemical-safe (AS), or organic grown fruits. Juice samples were also measured on contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols. The peel-deriving PMFs tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin were found with high concentrations in juice as a result of simple squeezing, whereas amounts of those PMFs were negligibly low in peeled tangerine fruit. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the FGs narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin were several fold higher in peeled fruit than in tangerine juice and significantly higher in organic than AS and AB tangerines. Narirutin and hesperidin in juice from organic produces as well as narirutin in juice from AS produces were significantly higher than respective mean concentrations in juice from AB produces. beta-Cryptroxanthin was the predominant carotenoid beside zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tangerine juice. Ascorbic acid concentrations were not predicted by the type of cultivation, whereas alpha-tocopherol was significantly higher in juice from organic than AS produces. In summary, hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:20420369

  2. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  3. Cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  4. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  5. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial of vitamin E and pentoxifylline in patients with chronic arm lymphoedema and fibrosis after surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Treatment-induced arm lymphoedema is a common and distressing complication of curative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. A number of studies testing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and pentoxifylline suggest evidence of clinical regression of superficial radiation-induced fibrosis but there is only very limited evidence from randomised trials. Arm lymphoedema after lymphatic radiotherapy and surgery has been used in the present study as a clinical system for testing these drugs in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-eight eligible research volunteers with a minimum 20% increase in arm volume at a median 15.5 years (range 2-41) after axillary/supraclavicular radiotherapy (plus axillary surgery in 51/68 (75%) cases) were randomised to active drugs or placebo. All volunteers were given dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate 500 mg twice a day orally plus pentoxifylline 400 mg twice a day orally, or corresponding placebos, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was volume of the ipsilateral limb measured opto-electronically using a perometer and expressed as a percentage of the contralateral limb volume. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of arm volume. Absolute change in arm volume at 12 months was 2.5% (95% CI -0.40 to 5.3) in the treatment group compared to 1.2% (95% CI -2.8 to 5.1) in the placebo group. The difference in mean volume change between randomisation groups at 12 months was not statistically significant (P=0.6), -1.3% (95% CI -6.1 to 3.5), nor was there a significant difference in response at 6 months (P=0.7), where mean change in arm volume from baseline in the treatment and placebo groups was -2.3% (95% CI -7.9 to 3.4) and -1.1% (95% CI -3.9 to 1.7), respectively. There were no significant differences between randomised groups in terms of secondary endpoints, including tissue induration

  6. Carotenóides: uma possível proteção contra o desenvolvimento de câncer Carotenoids: a possible protection against cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as possibilidades de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer, proporcionadas por carotenóides provenientes da alimentação, com base em uma revisão da literatura. Os carotenóides têm demonstrado uma ação protetora contra a carcinogênese, tanto em estudos in vitro como in vivo, com animais e humanos. Entre eles, a beta-criptoxantina, a fucoxantina, a astaxantina, a capsantina, a crocetina e o fitoeno, têm sido pouco explorados, e a literatura ainda se mostra extremamente limitada e pouco conclusiva. Estudos experimentais com humanos demonstraram não haver efeito, ou efeito reverso, do beta-caroteno, no entanto, não incluíram anteriormente variáveis intervenientes e interativas que deveriam ter sido controladas. A partir da evidência científica, baseada em estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios experimentais recentes, e da elucidação dos mecanismos de atuação de fitoquímicos relacionados à maior proteção contra o câncer, conclui-se que a alimentação rica em carotenóides provenientes das frutas, legumes e verduras, representa um possível fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer.This study is a literature review that discusses the likelihood of dietary carotenoids offering protection against cancer. Carotenoids have been demonstrating a protective action against carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, in animals and humans. Among them, beta-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin, crocetin and phytoene have been little explored and literature is still very lacking and little conclusive. Experimental studies with humans have shown beta-carotene to have no effect or reverse effect; however, they have never included intervenient and interactive variables that should have been controlled. Scientific evidence based on epidemiological studies and recent experimental assays and the elucidation of phytochemical activity mechanisms associated with greater protection against

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  9. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  10. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  12. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  13. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  14. Carotenoids and retinol: their possible importance in determining longevity of primate species.

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Aging and cancer share a number of characteristics. This has led to the hypothesis that species' differences in longevity may be governed in part by the same mechanisms as those processes governing species' differences in their age-dependent probability of developing cancer. Much evidence has indicated that beta-carotene and retinol may be important natural anticarcinogens. Accordingly, they also may be important antiaging agents. This possibility has been tested by determining if a positive ...

  15. Effects of vitamin antioxidant supplementation on cell kinetics of patients with adenomatous polyps.

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, R J; O'Sullivan, K R; Mathias, P M; Beattie, S.; Hamilton, H; O'Morain, C

    1993-01-01

    Colonic crypt cell proliferation is used as an indicator of risk of colorectal carcinoma. Subjects with adenomatous polyps and cancer have an increased cell proliferation and a shift of the proliferative zone towards the apex of the crypt. Epidemiological and in vitro studies have confirmed a link between vitamins A, E, C, beta-carotene, and colorectal cancer. In vitro bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with vitamin E (1...

  16. Supplementation with fruit and vegetable soups and beverages increases plasma carotenoid concentrations but does not alter markers of oxidative stress or cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Elaine; Gordon, Michael H; Niwat, Chutamat; George, Trevor W; Parr, Laura; Waroonphan, Saran; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2006-11-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether an increase of 5 portions of fruits and vegetables in the form of soups and beverages has a beneficial effect on markers of oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The study was a single blind, randomized, controlled, crossover dietary intervention study. After a 2-wk run-in period with fish oil supplementation, which continued throughout the dietary intervention to increase oxidative stress, the volunteers consumed carotenoid-rich or control vegetable soups and beverages for 4 wk. After a 10-wk wash-out period, the volunteers repeated the above protocol, consuming the other intervention foods. Both test and control interventions significantly increased the % energy from carbohydrates and decreased dietary protein and vitamin B-12 intakes. Compared with the control treatment, consumption of the carotenoid-rich soups and beverages increased dietary carotenoids, vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, potassium, and folate, and the plasma concentrations of alpha-carotene (362%), beta-carotene (250%) and lycopene (31%) (P oxidative stress were not affected by treatment. Consumption of fruit and vegetable soups and beverages makes a useful contribution to meeting dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption.

  17. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N. (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India))

    1990-10-01

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of ({sup 14}C)glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D{sub 2}O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D{sub 2}O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation.

  18. Markers of protein oxidation by hydroxyl radical and reactive nitrogen species in tissues of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuwenburgh, C; Hansen, P; Shaish, A; Holloszy, J O; Heinecke, J W

    1998-02-01

    Many lines of evidence implicate oxidative damage in aging. Possible pathways include reactions that modify aromatic amino acid residues on proteins. o-Tyrosine is a stable marker for oxidation of protein-bound phenylalanine by hydroxyl radical, whereas 3-nitrotyrosine is a marker for oxidation of protein-bound tyrosine by reactive nitrogen species. To test the hypothesis that proteins damaged by hydroxyl radical and reactive nitrogen accumulate with aging, we used isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure levels of o-tyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver from young adult (9 mo) and old (24 mo) female Long-Evans/Wistar hybrid rats. We also measured these markers in young adult and old rats that received antioxidant supplements (alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, butylated hydroxytoluene, and ascorbic acid) from the age of 5 mo. We found that aging did not significantly increase levels of protein-bound o-tyrosine or 3-nitrotyrosine in any of the tissues. Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the levels of protein-bound o-tyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine in either young or old animals. These observations indicate that the o-tyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine do not increase significantly in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver in old rats, suggesting that proteins damaged by hydroxyl radical and reactive nitrogen species do not accumulate in these tissues with advancing age. PMID:9486304

  19. Nutritional value of the Chilean seaweeds Cryptonemia obovata and Rhodymenia corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jaime; Vivanco, Juan; Jiménez, Paula; Leiva, Moisés; Ramírez, Leslie; Bustamante, Andrés

    2010-10-01

    Some nutritional components of the edible seaweeds Cryptonemia obovata and Rhodymenia corallina were determined. The amino acid content ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.3 to 4174.2 +/- 14.2 mg 100 g(-1) dry wt in C. obovata and between 0.9 +/- 0.3 and 2657.0 +/- 13.5 mg 100 g(-1) dry wt in R. corallina. The most abundant fatty acid in C. obovata was palmitic acid, reaching a value of 36.5 +/- 0.2%, while in Rhodymenia corallina the main fatty acid was oleic acid, reaching a value of 24.7 +/- 0.07%. Both seaweeds showed an important content of EPA (C20:5omega3). In C. obovata, alpha-tocopherol was the principal tocol (138.5 +/- 4.9 mg kg(-1) lipid), while in R. corallina, it was gamma-tocotrienol (850.3 +/- 9.4 mg kg(-1) lipid). Furthermore, beta-carotene was the main carotenoid pigment found in C. obovata. PMID:21121265

  20. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  2. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  5. Natural protection against harmful oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although still not conclusive, the studies described indicate that topically applied vitamin E can provide protection against ultraviolet radiation when applied alone or in combination with other antioxidants. The general consensus is that, although less stable than the tocopherol esters when used in cosmetic systems, the alcohol form of alpha-tocopherol is the most effective topically-applied skin protectant. Increased UV protection potentially reduces the risk of skin cancer. However, the debate continues regarding the skin’s ability to hydrolyse ester forms of alpha-tocopherol, which are used commercially because of their greater stability during processing and over time in these products. Further research is therefore needed in order to provide more definitive data on what potential benefits or possible disadvantages may be associated with use of the ester forms in these topical applications.

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Photo: AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  11. [Gradation in the level of vitamin consumption: possible risk of excessive consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M

    2014-01-01

    The ratio between the levels of consumption of certain vitamins and minerals [recommended daily allowance for labelling purposes Vitamin A and beta-carotene maximum supplement levels coincides with UL, and recommended daily allowance for these micronutrients coincides with the maximal level of consumption through dietary supplements and/or multivitamins. Except for vitamin A and beta-carotene recommended daily allowance for other vitamins adopted in Russia are considerably lower than the upper safe level of consumption. For vitamin A and beta-carotene there is a potential risk for excess consumption. According to the literature data (meta-analysis) prolonged intake of high doses of antioxidant vitamins (above the RDA) both alone and in combination with two other vitamins or vitamin C [> 800 microg (R.E.) of vitamin A, > 9.6 mg of beta-carotene, > 15 mg (T.E.) of vitamin E] do not possess preventive effects and may be harmful with unwanted consequences to health, especially in well-nourished populations, persons having risk of lung cancer (smokers, workers exposed to asbestos), in certain conditions (in the atmosphere with high oxygen content, hyperoxia, oxygen therapy). Proposed mechanisms of such action may be due to the manifestation of prooxidant action when taken in high doses, shifting balance with other important natural antioxidants, their displacement (substitution), interference with the natural defense mechanisms. Athletes are the population group that requires attention as used antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, both individually and in combination in extremely high doses. In summary, it should be noted that intake of physiological doses which are equivalent to the needs of the human organism, as well as diet inclusion of fortified foods not only pose no threat to health, but will bring undoubted benefits, filling the existing lack of vitamins in the ration.

  12. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  13. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  14. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. ... developing testicular cancer increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals Family history of ...

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  16. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  17. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  18. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  19. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  20. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  1. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  2. Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-02-12

    Whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, triacylglyerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-carotene. The total lipid contents in the whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% (on a fresh weight basis), respectively. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by oleic acid as the second major fatty acid. Palmitic and stearic acids were the major saturates. In pulp/peel oil, the fatty acid profile was characterized by higher amounts of saturates, monoenes, and trienes than in whole berry and seed oils. Neutral lipids comprised >95% of total lipids in whole berry oil and seed oil, while neutral lipids separated in lower level in pulp/peel oil. Triacylglycerols were the predominant neutral lipid subclass and constituted ca. 81.6, 86.6, and 65.1% of total neutral lipids in whole berry, seed, and pulp/peel oils, respectively. Nine triacylglycerol molecular species were detected, wherein three species, C54:3, C52:2, and C54:6, were presented to the extent of approximately 91% or above. The highest level of phytosterols was estimated in pulp/peel oil that contained the highest level of unsaponifiables. In both whole berry and seed oils, campesterol and beta-sitosterol were the sterol markers, whereas Delta5-avenasterol and campesterol were the main 4-desmethylsterols in pulp/peel oil. The tocopherols level was much higher in pulp/peel oil than in whole berry and seed oils. beta- and gamma-tocopherols were the major components in whole berry and seed oils, whereas gamma- and alpha-tocopherols were the main constituents in pulp/peel oil. beta-Carotene and vitamin K(1) were also measured in markedly high levels in pulp/peel oil followed by whole berry oil and seed oil, respectively. Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of goldenberry oil and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw

  3. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  4. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  5. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  6. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreads in different ways, and each is treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body. Learn more about non-small cell lung cancer. Learn ...

  7. Aerodigestive cancers: laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Cancers of the larynx account for approximately 12,000 new cancer cases per year in the United States. The most common risk factors are tobacco and alcohol use, but human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified in 26.6% of laryngeal cancers. Symptoms develop as the tumor infiltrates the vocal cords and/or surrounding structures, and patients commonly present with hoarseness or cough. Histologically, the vast majority of tumors are squamous cell carcinomas, which, for staging purposes, are categorized by subsite. These develop most often from the glottis, followed by the supraglottis and subglottis. Survival rates for early- and late-stage disease range from 56% to 93% and 29% to 56%, respectively. Unlike with other head and neck cancers, the prognostic significance of HPV-related laryngeal cancer is unclear. Advances in organ-preserving surgical techniques allow patients to maintain physiologic functions without compromising survival rates, especially for early-stage disease. Patients requiring more intensive treatment, including total laryngectomy and chemoradiation, will experience significant morbidity and lifestyle changes. The ability to communicate using a voice prosthesis is of primary importance, and the prosthesis must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. For patients with metastatic or nonresectable disease, palliative care should be considered. PMID:25198384

  8. Prostate cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  11. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  12. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  15. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  17. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  18. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  19. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous growths Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding Seal nerve endings after ...

  20. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  1. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Carcinogens NIOSH Pocket Guide Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Recent NIOSH Research on Cancer Risk Factors Regulation and Policy OSHA Standards Surveillance NIOSH Data & Statistics by Industry Sector - Cancer Click on one ...

  2. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  3. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  4. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The virus spreads through sexual contact. Most women's bodies are able to fight HPV infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer. You're at higher risk ...

  5. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  6. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  7. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  8. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  9. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  10. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  11. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  12. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  13. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  14. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  15. Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eggener, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, many elements regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer remain enigmatic. In this Prostate Cancer special issue, o...

  16. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  17. Free radical generation and antioxidant content in chloroplasts from soybean leaves expsoed to ultraviolet-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galatro, A.; Simontacchi, M.; Puntarulo, S. [Univ. of Buenos Aires, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Physical Chemistry, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure on oxidative status in chloroplasts isolated from soybean (Glycine max cv. Hood). Chloroplasts were isolated from soybean leaves excised from either control seedlings or those exposed to 30 and 60 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} of UV-B radiation for 4 days. Chloroplastic oxidative conditions were assessed as carbon-centered radical, carbonyl groups and ascorbyl radical content. Treatment with UV-B increased the carbon-centered radical-dependent EPR signal significantly by 55 and 100% in chloroplasts from leaves exposed to 30 and 60 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B, respectively, compared to radical content in chloroplasts from control leaves. The content of carbonyl groups increased by 37 and 62% in chloroplasts isolated from soybean leaves irradiated for 4 days with 30 and 60 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B, respectively. The content of soluble metabolites in isolated chloroplasts should not be taken as absolute in vivo values; however, these data are valuable for comparative studies. UV-B exposure did not significantly affect ascorbyl radical content compared to controls. The content of ascorbic acid and thiols in chloroplasts isolated from leaves exposed to 60 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B was increased by 117 and 20.8%, respectively, compared to controls. Neither the content of total carotene nor that of {beta}-carotene or {alpha}-tocopherol was affected by the irradiation. The results: presented here suggest that the increased content of lipid radicals and oxidized proteins in the chloroplasts isolated from leaves exposed to UV-B could be ascribed to both the lack of antioxidant response in the lipid soluble fraction and the modest increase in the soluble antioxidant content. (au)

  18. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  19. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  20. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  1. [Plasma antioxidant activity--a test for impaired biological functions of endoecology, exotrophy, and inflammation reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Krylin, V V; Dmitriev, V A; Iashin, Ia I

    2010-07-01

    The authors discuss the diagnostic value of a test for total serum antioxidant activity determined by an electrochemistry method on a liquid chromatograph (without a column), by using an amperometric detector, as well as the composition of the endogenously synthesized hydrophilic and hydrophobic acceptors of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Uric acid is a major hydrophilic acceptor of ROS; monoenic oleic fatty acid acts as its major lipophilic acceptor. The constant determined by the authors for of 03 oleic acid oxidation during automatic titration in the organic medium is an order of magnitude higher than that for alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and linoleic fatty acid; its concentration is also an order of magnitude higher. In oxidative stress, the adrenal steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone initiates oleic acid synthesis via expression of palmitoyl elongase and steatoryl desaturase. In early steps of phylogenesis in primates, spontaneous mutation resulted in ascorbic acid synthesis gene knockout; phylogenetically, further other mutation knocked out the gene encoding the synthesis of uricase and the conversion of uric acid to alantoin. In primates, uric acid became not only a catabolite of purine bases in vivo, but also the major endogenous hydrophilic acceptor of ROS. This philogenetic order makes it clear why the epithelium in the proximal nephron tubule entirely reabsorbs uric acid (a catabolite?) from primary urine and then secretes it again to urine depending on the impairment of biological functions of endoecology (the intercellular medium being contaminated with biological rubbish), the activation of a biological inflammatory reaction, the cellular production of ROS, and the reduction in serum total antioxidant activity. With each biological reaction, there was an increase in the blood content of uric acid as a hydrophilic acceptor of ROS, by actively lowering its secretion into urine. Uric acid is a diagnostic test of inflammation, or rather compensatory

  2. Vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract reduce nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustekin, Kenan; Taysi, Seyithan; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Aktas, Omer; Oztasan, Nuray; Akcay, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis; Akar, Sedat; Dane, Senol; Gul, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of vitamin E and Hippophea rhamnoides L. extract (HRe-1) on nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat heart were investigated. There were eight rats per group and supplementation period was 3 weeks. The groups were: nicotine [0.5 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intraperitoneal (i.p.)]; nicotine plus vitamin E [75 mg kg(-1)day(-1), intragastric (i.g.)]; nicotine plus HRe-1 (250 mg kg(-1)day(-1), i.g.); and the control group (receiving only vehicles). Nicotine increased the malondialdehyde level, which was prevented by both vitamin E and HRe-1. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was higher than the others. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group was increased compared with the control group. Catalase activity was higher in nicotine group compared with others. GPx activity in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group was elevated compared with the others. Total and non-enzymatic superoxide scavenger activities in nicotine plus vitamin E supplemented group were lower than nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in nicotine plus HRe-1 supplemented group compared with others. Glutathione reductase activity and nitric oxide level were not affected. Increased SOD and GST activities might have taken part in the prevention of nicotine-induced oxidative stress in HRe-1 supplemented group in rat heart. Flavonols such as quercetin, and isorahmnetin, tocopherols such as alpha-tocopherol and beta-tocopherol and carotenoids such as alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, reported to be present in H. rhamnoides L. extracts may be responsible for the antioxidant effects of this plant extract. PMID:20517898

  3. Oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant micronutrients in humans with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, J P; Aghdassi, E; Chau, J; Salit, I; Walmsley, S

    1998-01-01

    Increased lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species may play a role in the stimulation of HIV replication. In this study we compared lipid peroxidation indexes and plasma antioxidant micronutrients between 49 nonsmoking HIV-positive patients with no active opportunistic infection (25 asymptomatic and 24 with AIDS) and 15 age-matched seronegative control subjects. Breath-alkane output, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant vitamins, and trace elements were measured. Vitamin C (40.7 +/- 3.02 compared with 75.7 +/- 4.3 mumol/L, P < 0.005), alpha-tocopherol (22.52 +/- 1.18 compared with 26.61 +/- 2.60 mumol/L, P < 0.05), beta-carotene (0.23 +/- 0.04 compared with 0.38 +/- 0.04 mumol/L, P < 0.05), and selenium (0.37 +/- 0.05 compared with 0.85 +/- 0.09 mumol/L, P < 0.005) concentrations were significantly lower in the HIV-positive patients. Lipid peroxides (50.7 +/- 8.2 compared with 4.5 +/- 0.8 mumol/L, P < 0.005), breath pentane (9.05 +/- 1.23 compared with 6.06 +/- 0.56 pmol.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.05), and ethane output (28.1 +/- 3.41 compared with 11.42 +/- 0.55 pmol.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the HIV-positive patients. These results showed an increase in oxidative stress and a weakened antioxidant defense system in HIV-positive patients. Whether supplementation of antioxidant vitamins will reduce this oxidative stress is still unknown. PMID:9440389

  4. Colon cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Financial Toxicity ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What ... Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents ...

  8. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  10. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Information on Prostate Cancer What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American ... of page Additional Resources of Information on Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Medical ...

  11. What is Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » What is prostate cancer? Share ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland ...

  12. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  13. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... the Precision Medicine Initiative® Cancer Moonshot Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  16. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  17. Cancer Triptych.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    The author uses personal narrative to show how the cold cloak of cancer covered her family during the polar vortex of 2013-2014. The use of a triptych form hinges together related themes of containment, coping, communicative responses, and social support after a cancer diagnosis. This narrative demonstrates the multiple responses and communicative coping strategies to a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26752448

  18. Pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Alrawashdeh, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in higher-income countries, with 5-year survival only 10% (range 7%–25%), even in people presenting with early-stage cancer. Risk factors include age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, a family history, and dietary factors. Diabetes mellitus may also increase the risk.

  19. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks ... the risk. Women who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested ...

  20. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  1. THE BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FERRET CAROTENE-9', 10'-MONOOXYGENASE CATALYZING CLEAVAGE OF CAROTENOIDS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that beta -carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO1) catalyzes the cleavage of beta -carotene at the central carbon 15, 15’-double bond, but cleaves lycopene with much lower activity. However, expressing the mouse carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO2) in beta-carotene/lycopene...

  2. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  3. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  4. Cancer cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu Dhanapal; T R Saraswathi; N Govind Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.

  5. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  6. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... on YouTube. Barbara’s attitude since her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer? No doctor is going to tell her how ...

  8. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  9. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our document called Osteosarcoma . Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma (KON-droh-sar-KOH-muh) is a cancer of cartilage cells. ... AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & ...

  10. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy and stem cell transplant for testicular cancer Chemotherapy for testicular cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  11. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  19. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  20. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  5. Children's cancer centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  6. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  8. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  11. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  12. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... the affected area). Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and ... a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop ...

  13. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Effets biologiques des anti-oxydants : les données de l’étude SU.VI.MAX

    OpenAIRE

    Favier Alain; Hercberg Serge; Galan Pilar

    2006-01-01

    The SU.VI.MAX study is a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial testing, for 8 years, the effect of a combination of antioxidant vitamins and minerals, at doses considered to be nutritional (120 mg vitamin C, 30 mg vitamin E, 6mg beta-carotene, 100 lg selenium and 20 mg zinc) in reducing cancer and ischaemic vascular disease incidence in a general population (12,741 middleaged). After 7.5 years, low-dose antioxidant supplementation had no effect on vascular disease incidence. This...

  15. Cancer world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author attempts to point out the relationships between various factors of our environment favouring disease (profession, chemicals, air pollution, nuclear power plants, ultra-violet rays etc.) respectively our ways of living (nutrition, drink, smoking), and the incidence and frequence of cancer. In his opinion, cancer is the toll man has to pay for industrialization and the destruction of the environment, and cancer therapy must begin long before the patient's treatment by changing that same einvironment. The different carcinogenous factors are discussed in detail and each chapter concludes with recommendations to those concerned and request for legislation. (MG)

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ...

  17. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  18. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  20. Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam and a biopsy. Treatment varies, depending on your overall health and ...

  1. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  2. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  3. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  4. Surviving Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his or her health status, when diagnosed with cancer may have an effect on their survival and recovery. Older adults are more likely to have other health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Managing these conditions can complicate ...

  5. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  6. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  7. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions ...

  10. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? Cancer of the pancreas is a genetic ... found in cigarette smoke. The genetics of hereditary pancreatic cancer is a focus of research at Johns Hopkins. ...

  11. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  12. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  13. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  14. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  16. American Cancer Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about why this happens. Fight Breast Cancer with Fashion Shop Lane Bryant's cause collection and 10% of ... Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An inset shows cancer cells in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, ... c) cancer cells are found in the pelvic peritoneum. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Ovarian Cancer ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primary peritoneal cancer) shows cancer in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the cervix and vagina. In ... peritoneal cancer, cancer is found in the pelvic peritoneum and has not spread there from another part ...

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  20. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  1. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  2. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  3. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  4. Cancer of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will die of this disease. Who Gets This Cancer? Prostate cancer occurs only in men, and it is ... Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is most frequently diagnosed among men aged ...

  5. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  8. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  10. Dealing with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schoolwork and Hospital Stays Chemotherapy Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy When Cancer Keeps You Home Can I Have Children After Cancer Treatments? Steroids and Cancer Treatment Cancer ...

  11. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  13. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  14. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unneeded cells. Cancer cells may be able to influence the normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that ... Cancers . We also have collections of information on childhood cancers and cancers in adolescents and young adults . ...

  15. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative NCI and ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  17. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... daily. Lower your intake of processed meats, smoked, nitrite-cured, and salt-preserved foods; emphasize plant-based ...

  18. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  19. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  20. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... but these effects are uncommon ( 1 , 3 , 7 ). Diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting ... a standard treatment for cancer ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). Many clinical trials are ...

  1. Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  2. [Gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka

    2004-08-01

    Although their sensitivity is not high, SCC, TPA and IAP are useful for esophageal cancer. The sensitivity of CEA, CA 19-9, is relatively high, especially in well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis. AFP is specific to liver metastasis from gastric cancer, and CA 125 is also specific to peritoneal dissemination. CA 72-4 and NCC-ST-439 are useful markers for advanced staging. CEA, CA 19-9, is useful for colon cancer, especially for predicting preoperative staging. Half-life and doubling time of tumor markers is useful in some cases for the evaluation of operation and chemotherapy. We showed our data concerning postoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation for gastric cancer in 120 recurrent patients. Positivities of CEA and CA 19-9 for recurrence were 65.8% and 85.0%, respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the preoperative sensitivities (28.3% and 45.0%, respectively). In most patients with high levels of preoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9, these tumor markers increased again at recurrence. Recurrent diseases were detected between 5 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 12 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean of 3.1+/-3.6 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) and between 10 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 13 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean 2.2+/-3.9 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) by CEA and CA 19-9 monitorings, respectively. These results suggest that CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation was useful to predict the recurrence of gastric cancer, especially in almost all the patients with high preoperative levels of these markers.

  3. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  4. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  5. Cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Philipp

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years many efforts of researchers and clinicians were made to improve our knowledge of cachexia syndrome. Not only cancer, but also many chronic or end-stage diseases such as AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis and Crohn's disease are associated with cachexia, a condition of abnormally low weight, weakness, and general bodily decline which deteriorates quality of life and reduces the prognosis of the patients who suffer from it. In the present editorial we will focus cachexia related on cancer and provide some insight into this prognosis-limiting syndrome.

  6. [Cervix cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointreau, Y; Ruffier Loubière, A; Denis, F; Barillot, I

    2010-11-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated.

  7. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  8. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  9. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir United States Cancer Statistics The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS): Incidence and ...

  10. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  11. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  12. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  13. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of lung cancer. Before the treatment the histological samples allowing the diagnosis as well as its histological variety. The diagnosis include techniques such as bronchoscopy, ultrasound, tomography, puncture and endoscopic thoracotomy. The chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main techniques used for the treatment

  14. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  15. Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancers of the oropharynx are common lesions. Their treatment often includes radiation therapy either exclusively or in combination with chemotherapy or after surgery. The definition of target volumes is made difficult by the complex anatomy of this area. The aim of this work is to clarify the principles of 3D conformal radiation illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  16. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  17. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer

  18. Antioxidants, infections and environmental factors in health and disease in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, P

    1998-07-01

    Recent studies have identified several factors which may affect human health and life expectancy in northern Finland. They have shown that antioxidants, infections, genetic or environmental factors may affect the development of and morbidity/mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus and other diseases in the northern provinces of this country. Both the occurrence and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) is low in the northernmost part of the country, i.e. Mountain Lapland or the Saami area, compared with that in whole country or a neighbouring region to the south in central Lapland. The mortality from all diseases is also low in communities in Mountain Lapland, and high in central Lapland in communities such as Kittilä and Kolari. High scrum antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), albumin and selenium levels have been measured in men living in the northernmost part of the country, where the death rate from CHD is low. Low serum alpha-tocopherol and albumin levels were typical of men living in rural communities with high CHD mortality, e.g. Kittilä community. Serum antioxidant levels were related to the diet; alpha-tocopherol increased with the consumption of reindeer meat and selenium with fish consumption. Our earlier studies have also identified a low Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA antibody titer in men living in Mountain Lapland compared with men in the neighboring region to the south in central Lapland with high CHD mortality. An elevated Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA antibody titer was associated with low serum alpha-tocopherol level. The people of Saami origin, an ethnic minority living in northernmost Finland, have a high apolipoprotein (apo) E e4 allele frequency and high serum cholesterol. They also have more apo A-IV-2 allele than most of the studied populations, and their HDL cholesterol levels are higher in apo A-IV-2/1 than in apo A-IV-1/1 phenotypes. Our earlier studies indicate that people living in northeastern Finland

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...