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Sample records for alpha-tocopherol beta-carotene cancer

  1. Serum Trimethylamine N-oxide, Carnitine, Choline, and Betaine in Relation to Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Li, Xinmin S; Graubard, Barry I; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Goedert, James J; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Sinha, Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    Background: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Methods: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine, and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We measured biomarker concentrations in baseline fasting serum samples from 644 incident colorectal cancer cases and 644 controls using LC/MS-MS. Logistic regression models estimated the ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) for colorectal cancer by quartile (Q) of serum TMAO, choline, carnitine, and betaine concentrations. Results: Men with higher serum choline at ATBC baseline had approximately 3-fold greater risk of developing colorectal cancer over the ensuing (median ± IQR) 14 ± 10 years (in fully adjusted models, Q4 vs. Q1, OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.24-4.61; P trend colorectal cancer was similarly robust for proximal, distal, and rectal colon cancers (all P colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant ( P = 0.25, 0.71, and 0.61, respectively). Conclusions: Higher serum choline concentration (but not TMAO, carnitine, or betaine) was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Impact: Serum choline levels showed strong prognostic value for prediction of incident colorectal cancer risk across all anatomical subsites, suggesting a role of altered choline metabolism in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Predictors of Sustained Smoking Cessation: A Prospective Analysis of Chronic Smokers From the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Erik M.; Wanke, Kay L.; Rogers, Scott; Bergen, Andrew W.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Synder, Kirk; Albanes, Demetrius; Taylor, Phil R.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Because US smoking rates have not declined during the past decade, there is a renewed need to identify factors associated with smoking cessation. Using a nested case–control design, we explored the association between ability to sustain cessation over an extended period and demographic, smoking, medical, and behavioral variables. Methods. We selected a sample of 1379 sustained quitters (abstinent from smoking for at least 40 months) and 1388 relapsers (abstinent for more than 8 months before relapse) from participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a nutritional intervention study involving Finnish men aged 50 to 69 years at baseline. Contingency table and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate potential differences between the 2 groups on baseline variables. Results. Compared with sustained quitters, relapsers were more likely to report symptoms of emotional distress and higher levels of nicotine dependence, to drink more alcohol, and to report more medical conditions. Conclusions. Factors associated with both tobacco use and comorbid conditions impact an individual’s ability to maintain long-term smoking cessation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action and potential common pathways among these factors may help to improve smoking cessation therapies. PMID:17600267

  3. Influence of fasting on circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Effect of short-term supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Molin, F; van Beusekom, CM; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of fasting on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, and on plasma beta-carotene. Six apparently healthy adults were subjected to 17-h feed-fasting experiments at various days before, during and after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol

  4. Effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH3HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of alpha......Cl/l of drinking water. High dietary alpha-tocopherol protected against CH3HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the alpha-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH3HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, alpha...

  5. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  6. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce symptoms of breathing disorders such as asthma and exercise-induced asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... seem to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. Asthma attacks triggered by exercise. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to prevent ...

  7. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kasperzyk, Julie L. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sesso, Howard D. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gaziano, John Michael [Division of Aging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Veterans' Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ma, Jing [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87-95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84-93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  8. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Martin, Neil E.; Sesso, Howard D.; Gaziano, John Michael; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  9. Epidemiological evidence for beta-carotene in prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G. van

    1996-01-01

    Objective and conclusions: This article gives an overview of observational and experimental epidemiological studies relating β-carotene to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Observational epidemiological studies have consistently shown that a diet rich in β-carotenerich fruits and vegetables

  10. Dual role of beta-carotene in combination with cigarette smoke aqueous extract on the formation of mutagenic lipid peroxidation products in lung membranes: dependence on pO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozza, P; Serini, S; Trombino, S; Lauriola, L; Ranelletti, F O; Calviello, G

    2006-12-01

    Results from some intervention trials indicated that supplemental beta-carotene enhanced lung cancer incidence and mortality in chronic smokers. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that high concentrations of the carotenoid, under the pO2 present in lung (100-150 mmHg), may exert deleterious effects through a prooxidant mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interactions of beta-carotene and cigarette smoke condensate (tar) on the formation of lipid peroxidation products in rat lung microsomal membranes enriched in vitro with varying beta-carotene concentrations (from 1 to 10 nmol/mg prot) and then incubated with tar (6-25 microg/ml) under different pO2. As markers of lipid peroxidation, we evaluated the levels of conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde, possessing mutagenic and pro-carcinogenic activity. The exposure of microsomal membranes to tar induced a dose-dependent enhancement of lipid peroxidation, which progressively increased as a function of pO2. Under a low pO2 (15 mmHg), beta-carotene acted clearly as an antioxidant, inhibiting tar-induced lipid peroxidation. However, the carotenoid progressively lost its antioxidant efficiency by increasing pO2 (50-100 mmHg) and acted as a prooxidant at pO2 ranging from 100 to 760 mmHg in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with this finding, the addition of alpha-tocopherol (25 microM) prevented the prooxidant effects of the carotenoid. beta-Carotene auto-oxidation, measured as formation of 5,6-epoxy-beta,beta-carotene, was faster at high than at low pO2 and the carotenoid was more rapidly consumed in the presence of tar. These data point out that the carotenoid may enhance cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and exert potential deleterious effects at the pO2 normally present in lung tissue.

  11. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003571.htm Beta-carotene blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Carotene test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Carotene - serum. In: ...

  12. Effect of the main dietary antioxidants (carotenoids, gamma-tocopherol, polyphenols, and vitamin C) on alpha-tocopherol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, E; Thap, S; Perrot, E; Amiot, M-J; Lairon, D; Borel, P

    2007-10-01

    (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin generally ingested with other dietary antioxidants. The objective of this study was to assess whether the main dietary antioxidant classes, that is carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C and gamma-tocopherol, affect the intestinal absorption of alpha-tocopherol. METHODS, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We evaluated first the effect of different combinations of antioxidants on (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol absorption by a human intestinal cell line (Caco-2 clone TC7). Then we compared the effect of two doses of a dietary antioxidant (lutein) on the postprandial chylomicron alpha-tocopherol responses to an alpha-tocopherol-rich meal. Eight healthy men ate two similar meals in a random order at a 1 month interval. The meals contained 24 mg alpha-tocopherol in sunflower oil plus either 18 or 36 mg lutein. Blood samples were collected during the postprandial periods to compare chylomicron alpha-tocopherol responses. A mixture of polyphenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and naringenin) and a mixture of carotenoids (lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein) significantly impaired alpha-tocopherol absorption in Caco-2 cells (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). The inhibitory effect of gamma-tocopherol was close to significance (P=0.055). In contrast, vitamin C had no significant effect (P=0.158). Naringenin was the only polyphenol that significantly impaired alpha-tocopherol absorption. Postprandial alpha-tocopherol response was weakest at the highest dose of lutein (616+/-280 nmol/l h vs 1001+/-287 nmol/l h). The observed extent of reduction (-38%, P=0.069) supported the inhibitory effect of carotenoids observed in the Caco-2 experiments. Naringenin, carotenoids and probably gamma-tocopherol can impair alpha-tocopherol absorption whereas vitamin C and phenolic acids have no effect.

  13. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  14. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta}-carotene

  15. Characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of ice creams incorporated with beta-carotene encapsulated in solid lipid microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gobbi de LIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract The feasibility of incorporating beta-carotene-loaded solid lipid microparticles (BCSLM into vanilla ice creams was investigated, through the physico-chemical characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of the products products. The BCSLM were produced with palm stearin as the lipid phase, hydrolyzed soy protein isolate as the surfactant, and xanthan gum as the thickener. The results showed similar values of proximate composition, total soluble solids, pH, and overrun for all formulations. On the other hand, colorimetric evaluations showed that the ice cream produced with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol presented a more intense color, while in the product with non-encapsulated beta-carotene, a fast degradation of carotenoid was confirmed, highlighting the importance of the encapsulation techniques. The results of the sensorial analysis of the products were highly satisfactory and showed that the panelists preferred the ice creams produced with BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol and with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol, confirming the feasibility of incorporating BCSLM into ice creams to reduce the application of artificial dyes to the product.

  16. Vitamin E analogue, D-alpha tocopherol succinate, enhances x-ray induced growth delay of human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.; Ottesen, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of d-alpha Tocopherol succinate (alpha-TS) in modifying radiation-induced viability reduction and apoptosis occurrence in the model for normal and cancer cells. Our hypothesis was that alpha-TS enhances the growth-inhibitory effect of x-irradiation in cancer cells and that the effect is more pronounced in these cells than in normal cells. Murine NIH 3T3 Swiss albino embryonic cells and HT29 human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells were used in the experiments. Alpha-TS was added to the cultures 1 h prior to irradiation with doses of 2 or 5Gy of x-ray. After irradiation cells were incubated for 73 h. Trypan blue exclusion viability test and estimation of apoptosis and necrosis were made. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were counted in fluorescence microscope using fluorescence dyes: propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. For experiments with the dose of 5 Gy at least five series of experiments were performed. At lower doses (up to approximately 25μM/ml) treatment with alpha-TS alone enhanced growth of both cell lines. At higher doses treatment with alpha-TS alone delayed the growth of the cell cultures, accompanied by 20-25% necrosis. At the concentrations higher than 25μM/mL alpha-TS alone caused growth delay of both cell cultures, being much more pronounced for the cancer cell line HT29. At the concentrations of 50 μM/mL, responsible for about 30-60% of growth delay, there was observed a synergy effect for x-rays and alpha-TS for both cell lines. The effect was more pronounced for HT29 cells (DMF=0.48 for HT29 versus DMF=0.73 for NIH 3T3). These results may confirm the views of the literature reports suggesting that use of vitamin E together with radiation could be favorable for colon cancer treatment; however, more experiments using more advanced techniques are needed

  17. 21 CFR 184.1245 - Beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beta-carotene. 184.1245 Section 184.1245 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1245 Beta-carotene. (a) Beta-carotene (CAS Reg. No. 7235-40-7) has the... reagent and vitamin A aldehyde are reacted together to form beta-carotene. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  18. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  19. Retention levels of vegetable extractable beta-carotene preserved in virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungai, Z. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus spp. are known to be good sources of beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid with highly potent antioxidant property. As an antioxidant, beta-carotene scavenges for electron and thus terminates chain reactions, prevents recurrence and formation of unstable oxygen which otherwise initiate a chain reaction leading to such cases as cancer. While beta-carotene is supplied from consuming vegetables to provide vitamin A, it is also given as a supplement in cases of deficiency. However, it is highly degraded in the presence of light, heat, and oxygen posing a challenge to the methods of its preservation. Coconut oil and honey are popularly consumed in many countries facing vitamin A deficiency as good antioxidants and yet their role in preservation is largely unknown. The study reports the retention of beta-carotene extracted from Amaranthus spp. and separately preserved in virgin coconut oil (VCO and unadulterated honey for up to six months. HPLC and DPPH assay were used to determine beta-carotene and antioxidant activity respectively. Virgin coconut oil and honey had significantly different (p<0.001 antioxidant activities of 65.12±0.70 and 81.51±1.39 % radical scavenging activity respectively that compared well with those of BHT and ascorbic acid. The concentration of beta-carotene preserved in VCO and unadulterated honey degraded by 90%, though the final retention provided higher than the recommended daily allowance of retinol (0.216±0.001 and 0.312±0.003 retinol activity equivalent respectively when 100 mg is consumed. Virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey can preserve beta-carotene if high amounts are used.

  20. Ascorbic Acid and Beta-Carotene Alleviate Oxidative Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic Acid and Beta-Carotene Alleviate Oxidative Effect of London King Size® Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Lipids. ... Malondialdehyde production in the tissues was reduced by ascorbic acid and or beta-carotene given daily to the rats. It is implied that ascorbic acid or ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njhbs.v2i1.11451.

  1. Changes in microstructure, beta carotene content and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes {OFSP} (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) contain high levels of beta carotene, an important provitamin A carotenoid. Stored sweet potato roots undergo many physiological changes that affect their beta carotene content and bioaccessibility as well as the tissue microstructure. This study ...

  2. Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, D S; Pietinen, P; Taylor, P R; Virtanen, M; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2002-01-01

    We examined the relation between dietary fruit and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamin intakes and the risk of bladder cancer among male smokers in a prospective cohort study. Over a median of 11 years, we followed 27?111 male smokers aged 50?69 years who were initially enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. During this period, 344 men developed bladder cancer. All of these men had completed a 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional h...

  3. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  4. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  5. Enrichment of tomato paste with 6% tomato peel increases lycopene and beta-carotene bioavailability in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Borel, Patrick; Mikail, Céline; Abou, Lydia; Charbonnier, Monique; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Goupy, Pascale; Portugal, Henri; Lairon, Denis; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2005-04-01

    A high intake of tomato products is associated with a lower incidence of upper aerodigestive tract and prostate cancers. This beneficial effect might be explained by a higher intake of carotenoids such as lycopene and/or beta-carotene. Because tomato peels, usually eliminated during tomato processing, are a valuable source of these carotenoids, we designed a study to examine whether a tomato paste enriched in tomato peels (ETP, 6% peel) increases the absorption of these carotenoids compared to a classically made tomato paste (CTP). Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using an in vitro digestion model by measuring the amount of carotenoids transferred from the pastes to micelles. Carotenoid absorption by human intestinal cells (Caco-2) was evaluated after the addition of carotenoid-rich micelles (obtained from the in vitro digestion of the 2 pastes). Carotenoid bioavailability in humans was assessed by measuring chylomicron carotenoid responses in a postprandial experiment in which 8 healthy men consumed 2 meals containing either the ETP or the CTP. ETP contained 47.6 mg lycopene (58% more than CTP) and 1.75 mg beta-carotene (99% more than CTP) per 100 g of paste. In micelles, 30% more lycopene and 81% more beta-carotene were recovered after ETP than after CTP in vitro digestion. The amount of carotenoids absorbed by Caco-2 cells was 75% greater (P < or = 0.05) for lycopene and 41% greater (P < or = 0.05) for beta-carotene after the addition of micelles from ETP than from CTP. After ETP intake the chylomicron beta-carotene response was 74% greater than after CTP intake, and the lycopene response tended to be greater (34.1%, P = 0.093). Peel enrichment of tomato paste with tomato peel is an interesting option for increasing lycopene and beta-carotene intakes.

  6. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...

  7. Self-reported adherence and biomarker levels of CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitolins MZ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mara Z Vitolins,1 L Douglas Case,1 Stephen R Rapp,2 Mark O Lively,3 Edward G Shaw,4 Michelle J Naughton,5 Jeffrey Giguere,6 Glenn J Lesser7 1Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine-Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 5Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 6Greenville Community Oncology Research Program of the Carolinas, Greenville, SC, USA; 7Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Purpose: Women with breast cancer were randomized to receive coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plus Vitamin E or placebo in a clinical trial. The objective of this evaluation is to examine the association between participant self-reported adherence to the study supplements and changes in plasma biomarker levels.Patients and methods: Correlation coefficients quantified the association between changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels and the association between self-reported adherence and changes in biomarkers. Participants were categorized by self-reported adherence; Kruskal–Wallis tests compared changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels between self-reported adherence groups.Results: Women (N=155 provided baseline and post-treatment biomarkers; 147 completed at least one diary. While changes in alpha-tocopherol and CoQ10 levels were moderately correlated, correlations ranged from 0.40 to 0.48, association between self-reported adherence and plasma alpha-tocopherol or CoQ10 levels was weak; correlations ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 at weeks 8, 16, and 24. Some participants with high self-reported adherence actually

  8. Correlation of repressed transcription of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein with serum alpha-tocopherol during hepatocarcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C. G.; Hoek, F. J.; Groenink, M.; Reitsma, P. H.; van Deventer, S. J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Using a subtraction-enhanced display technique, we identified a rodent alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) cDNA which exhibited markedly lower messenger RNA (mRNA) amounts in rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy controls. Several lines of evidence have substantiated that

  9. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  10. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    with higher estrogen content. CONCLUSIONS: OC use seems to be strongly related to serum beta-carotene levels, particularly among women above the age of 35. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of this association and its implications for health risks of OC use.......OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...... impact. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7 day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987...

  11. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and tocopherol succinate on lipid peroxidation in equine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Juliana; Ball, Barry A

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of alpha-tocopherol and its ester, alpha tocopherol succinate, on lipid peroxidation and motility of equine spermatozoa. In experiment one, spermatozoa were incubated with dl-alpha-tocopherol (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM), DL-alpha tocopherol succinate (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM) or vehicle (0.5% ethanol) at 38 degrees C, and sperm motility was determined at 30, 60 and 120 min. In experiment two, spermatozoa loaded with the lipophilic probe, C11BODIPY(581/591), were incubated with dl-alpha-tocopherol (50 and 100 microM), DL-alpha-tocopherol succinate (50 and 100 microM) or ethanol (0.5%) and with the promoters cumene hydroperoxide, Fe2SO4, and ascorbate at 38 degrees C in 5% CO2. Lipid peroxidation was determined by changes in fluorescence of C11BODIPY(581/591), and motility was determined by CASA at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min. In experiment three, spermatozoa loaded with C11BODIPY(581/591) were incubated with dl-alpha-tocopherol (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM), DL-alpha-tocopherol succinate (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM) or ethanol (0.5%) at 38 degrees C and then submitted to a 4-hour incubation at room temperature. Motility and lipid peroxidation were determined at 1 and 4 h. In experiment four, the effect of DL alpha tocopherol (5, 25 or 500 microM), DL-alpha-tocopherol succinate (5, 25 or 500 microM) or ethanol (0.5%) on lipid peroxidation and motility were evaluated during storage at 5 degrees C in a skim-milk based extender. Although dl-alpha-tocopherol succinate appeared more effective than DL-alpha-tocopherol in preventing lipid peroxidation during short-term incubations, the succinate ester suppressed sperm motility compared to dl-alpha-tocopherol alone.

  12. Deficiency of alpha-Tocopherol in Seminal Fluid as a Probable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the level of alpha-Tocopherol in seminal fluid of patients with low fertility, forty subjects with low fertility (17 with asthenospermia and 32 with oligoasthenospermia) and 21 subjects with normal sperm parameters were recruited into this study for assessing their alpha-Tocopherol seminal fluid level. The mean ...

  13. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  14. Effects of Alpha- Tocopherol on the Velocity of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Cupric Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol on in vitro cupric ions induced oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL. Human native LDL (50 µg protein/ml oxidation was induced by 10 µmol/L of CuSO4. Conjugated dienes were measured spectrophotometrically for up to 440 minutes. The length of the lag phase (Tlag, maximum velocity of the reaction (Vmax and the maximum amount of generated dienes were obtained from kinetic data. Alpha-tocopherol increased Tlag and decreased Vmax with a dependence upon concentration (0-100 µmol/L. There was no difference between the Dmax obtained with cupric ions alone or in the presence of the various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. The results suggest that alpha-tocopherol may decrease free radicals presence in LDL and thus decrease velocity of LDL oxidation by cupric ions. This mechanism may be a reason for alpha-tocopherol effect in ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  15. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of

  16. Protective effect of exercise and alpha tocopherol on atherosclerosis promotion in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Mudhir S.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of exercise training (Moderate and severe) and alpha tocopherol on lipid profiles and organ weights in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) and atherosclerotic lesions were induced by feeding the male rabbits the standard chow supplemented with 1% cholesterol (atherogenic diet) for 36 days. Experimental rabbits were divided into seven groups: normal (T1), HC control (T2), HC plus alpha tocopherol (0.5mg /animal/day) (T3), HC plus moderate exercise 40 minutes/day (0.5km/day) 5 days/week (T4), HC plus severe exercise 40 minutes/day (1km/day) 5 days/week (T5), HC plus alpha tocopherol plus moderate exercise (T6) and HC plus alpha tocopherol plus severe exercise (T7). After the treatment period of 36th day, blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, High-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, serum glucose, body and organ weights were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol produced significant reduction (Pgroup showed no significant change in all lipid profiles. However, the decrement in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in combination of severe exercise with alpha tocopherol. The results suggest that the combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol can be exploited for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  17. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  18. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...... with the control group. Consumption of the carotenoid supplement led to lower alpha-tocopherol responses (P = 0.02) compared with the basic diet only. Our data suggest that the short-term changes in erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration can be attributed...

  19. Cleavage of beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, H; Langhoff, S; Scheibner, M; Berger, R G

    2003-09-01

    More than 50 filamentous fungi and yeasts, known for de novo synthesis or biotransformation of mono-, sesqui-, tri-, or tetraterpenes, were screened for their ability to cleave beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds. Ten strains discolored a beta,beta-carotene-containing growth agar, indicating efficient degradation of beta,beta-carotene. Dihydroactinidiolide was formed as the sole conversion product of beta,beta-carotene in submerged cultures of Ganoderma applanatum, Hypomyces odoratus, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, and Trametes suaveolens. When mycelium-free culture supernatants from five species were applied for the conversions, nearly complete degradation of beta,beta-carotene was observed after 12 h. Carotenoid-derived volatile products were detected in the media of Ischnoderma benzoinum, Marasmius scorodonius, and Trametes versicolor. beta-Ionone proved to be the main metabolite in each case, whereas beta-cyclocitral, dihydroactinidiolide, and 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone were formed in minor quantities. Using a photometric bleaching test, the beta,beta-carotene cleaving enzyme activities of M. scorodonius were partially characterized.

  20. Influence of Malaria on Serum Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tocopherol levels in children with malaria is significantly reduced. Further studies, possibly including clinical trials, are recommended to further evaluate these observations of ours. (Key Words: Serum alpha-tocopherol, malaria, children. Sahel Medical ...

  1. Beta-carotene in Golden Rice is as good as beta-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which can lead to blindness and increased morbidity and mortality, affects 190 million preschool children in developing countries. To combat VAD, Golden Rice (GR) was developed to provide dietary beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid. Understanding the conversion ef...

  2. Influence of parenteral application of beta-carotene on fertility in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Holstein breed cows from the breeding stock of high yielding dairy cattle were selected for testing. The cows were selected during their high gravidity and fell into two groups. The i.m beta-carotene, Carofertin, of 20 ml (200 mg of beta-carotene was applied to the experimental group (n=15 two weeks before the expected parturition date. Another injection of the beta-carotene preparation was applied to the experimental group two weeks after parturition. Simultaneously, a physiological solution of 20 ml was injected i.m to the experimental group (n=15. The blood samples for testing of the beta-carotene and vitamin A concentration were taken during high gravidity and in the early puerperium two days after the beta-carotene application and on the day of parturition. Two-of parenteral application of beta-carotene before parturition does not have an impact significantly on the frequency of the occurrence of retained placenta in experimental cows comparing to the cows of the control group (x=33.3 % and x=20.0 % and length of the service period (x =97.20±31.64 and x=98.8±35.8 days. Based on the results obtained during this research, it can be concluded that the parenteral application of the beta-carotene (Carofertin as 200 mg per cow, which is meant for protection of the reproductive disorders of cows, does not affect the level of carotinemia when its concentration in the blood serum is within the physiological limits. Therefore, no significant discrepancy in values of the reproduction figures between the cows of the experimental and control group was found. All in all, its usage is advisable only during scarce feeding.

  3. Interfacial oxidation of alpha-tocopherol and the surface properties of its oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, G S; Cornwell, D G

    1978-05-01

    dl-alpha-Tocopherol spread on an acidic subphase as a gaseous monolayer was oxidized slowly to a derivative that was identified by thin-layer chromatography as alpha-tocopherylquinone. The derivative generated the same II-A isotherm as alpha-tocopherylquinone. When the subphase contained gold chloride, alpha-tocopherol was oxidized rapidly and quantitatively to alpha-tocopherylquinone. dl-alpha-Tocopherol spread on a basic subphase as a gaseous monolayer was oxidized slowly to a mixture that contained alpha-tocopherol, a quinone, and a nonpolar derivative. The mixture generated a II-A isotherm with an inflection point below the equilibrium spreading pressure of either alpha-tocopherol or alpha-tocopherylquinone. When potassium ferricyanide was added to the alkaline subphase, alpha-tocopherol was oxidized rapidly to a mixture that contained both the nonpolar derivative (major product) and the quinone (minor product). The nonpolar derivative was isolated by thin-layer chromatography and identified as the spirodienone ether by ultraviolet, infrared, and chemical ionization mass spectra. The spirodienone ether had a low equilibrium spreading pressure that explained the inflection point in the II-A isotherm generated by alpha-tocopherol on an alkaline subphase. Surface area data showed that dl-alpha-tocopherol formed immiscible films with stearyl alcohol and miscible films with oleyl alcohol. II-A isotherms showed that alpha-tocopherol in both immiscible and miscible mixtures was oxidized rapidly on an alkaline potassium ferricyanide subphase to the spirodienone ether. Collapse pressure data showed that the spirodienone ether formed an immiscible film with stearyl alcohol and a miscible film with oleyl alcohol. Interfacial oxidation experiments showed that alpha-tocopherol is oxidized either to tocopherylquinone (acidic subphase) or to the spirodienone ether (alkaline subphase). The natural occurrence of both tocopherylquinone and the spirodienone ether suggests that

  4. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, K.; Morrissey, P.A.; Buckley, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  5. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with a low-dose of beta-carotene and vitamin C supplements: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Toru; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Nakamura, Tomoyasu; Kato, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Fukano, Hideo; Suzuki, Koji; Shimozato, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Management of oral leukoplakia-a potentially malignant disorder-is currently not evidence-based. Of the few randomized trials that have been reported, most have negative data. Therefore, a multi-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the use of low-dose beta-carotene combined with vitamin C supplements for the treatment and to prevent malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. 46 Japanese participants with oral leukoplakia were allocated randomly either to an experimental arm (10 mg day(-1) of beta-carotene and 500 mg day(-1) of vitamin C) or placebo arm (50 mg day(-1) of vitamin C). Current or ex-smokers within 3 months of cessation were excluded. The supplements were continued over a period of 1 year. The primary endpoint was clinical remission at 1-year and the likelihood of malignant transformation during a 5-year follow-up period as a secondary endpoint. The overall clinical response rate in the experimental arm was 17.4% (4/23) and 4.3% (1/23) in the placebo arm (p = 0.346). During the median 60-month follow-up period, two subjects in the experimental arm and three in the control arm developed oral cancer. Under the intention-to-treat principle, relative risk by supplementing with beta-carotene and vitamin C was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.28-1.89) (p = 0.580) by the Cox proportional hazards model. No unfavorable side-effects were noted. Beta-carotene (10 mg day(-1) ) and vitamin C were neither effective for clinical remission, nor for protection against the development of cancer. Data from this RCT does not support the hypothesis that chemoprevention with this treatment is effective for oral leukoplakia. © 2014 UICC.

  6. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  7. The effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporotic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlina Mohamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fractures and may impair fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alpha-tocopherol can improve the late-phase fracture healing of osteoporotic bones in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: In total, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. The first group was sham-operated, and the other two groups were ovariectomized. After two months, the right femora of the rats were fractured under anesthesia and internally repaired with K-wires. The sham-operated and ovariectomized control rat groups were administered olive oil (a vehicle, whereas 60 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol was administered via oral gavage to the alpha-tocopherol group for six days per week over the course of 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed, and the femora were dissected out. Computed tomography scans and X-rays were performed to assess fracture healing and callus staging, followed by the assessment of callus strengths through the biomechanical testing of the bones. RESULTS: Significantly higher callus volume and callus staging were observed in the ovariectomized control group compared with the sham-operated and alpha-tocopherol groups. The ovariectomized control group also had significantly lower fracture healing scores than the sham-operated group. There were no differences between the alpha-tocopherol and sham-operated groups with respect to the above parameters. The healed femora of the ovariectomized control group demonstrated significantly lower load and strain parameters than the healed femora of the sham-operated group. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation was not able to restore these biomechanical properties. CONCLUSION: Alpha-tocopherol supplementation appeared to promote bone fracture healing in osteoporotic rats but failed to restore the strength of the fractured bone.

  8. RRR- and SRR-alpha-tocopherols are secreted without discrimination in human chylomicrons, but RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially secreted in very low density lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Burton, G.W.; Ingold, K.U.; Kayden, H.J. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Five subjects ingested in a single oral dose containing 50 mg each of 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5,7-(C2H3)2)tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) with natural stereochemistry, and of 2S,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5-C2H3)tocopheryl acetate (d3-SRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate). These are two of eight stereoisomers in synthetic vitamin E. By day 1 the plasma and red blood cells were enriched fourfold with d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (P less than 0.004). The ratio of d6-RRR-/d2-SRR- further increased over the succeeding 4 days, because the d3-SRR- decreased at a faster rate than did the d6-RRR-stereoisomer. Plasma and lipoproteins were isolated at intervals during the first day, and daily for 3 days, from four additional subjects fed a mixture of equal amounts of the deuterated tocopherols. The plasma contained similar concentrations of the two forms until 11 h, when the d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentration became significantly greater (P less than 0.05). The chylomicrons contained similar concentrations of the two deuterated tocopherols, but the VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) became preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol by 11 h. The pattern of the deuterated tocopherols shows that during chylomicron catabolism all of the plasma lipoproteins were labeled equally with both tocopherols, but that during the subsequent VLDL catabolism the low and high density lipoproteins became enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These results suggest the existence of a mechanism in the liver for assembling VLDL preferentially enriched in RRR- relative to SRR-alpha-tocopherol.

  9. Influence of beta-carotene on fertility in rabbits when using embryo transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenfelder, U; Solti, L; Seregi, J; Brem, G

    1993-05-01

    The effect of beta-carotene on reproduction traits in rabbits was studied in 509 (superovulated and normally ovulated) donors and 239 recipients by using embryo/gene transfer performed at 2 different locations. All of the bucks and the half of the females were fed a diet supplemented with 40 mg synthetic beta-carotene (Rovimix((R)))/kg feed. Embryos at the pronucleus stage were collected 19 to 21 hours after induction of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); they were then microinjected into the male pronucleus and transferred to synchronized recipients. Data were obtained from the time when the donors and recipients were caged, until the pups resulting from the embryo transfers were weaned. Supplemented beta-carotene did not affect most of the 30 traits that were analyzed. However superovulated donors in Project 2 that received the beta-carotene enriched diet had a 14% lighter ovary weight (P<0.05) and less than half of the oocytes were unfertilized (P<0.05). In Project 1 (beta-carotene group) there was a greater number of pups born (36%, P<0.05) and more of these pups were born alive (53%, P<0.05).

  10. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of beta-carotene and retinoic acid oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithsiri Wijeratne, E M; Liu, Manping X; Kantipudi, Narendra B; Brochini, Claudia B; Leslie Gunatilaka, A A; Canfield, Louise M

    2006-12-01

    Synthesis of the beta-carotene oxidation product, 2,3-dihydro-5,8-endoperoxy-beta-apo-carotene-13-one (1) was achieved in six steps starting from beta-ionone. Photo-oxygenation of all trans-retinoic acid (8) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (9) produced a mixture of 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (10) and 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (11). Methylation of the crude photo-oxygenation mixture afforded the corresponding methyl esters 12 and 13, respectively, both of which underwent ready aerial oxidation yielding hitherto unknown oxidation products of retinoic acid identified as methyl 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (14) and methyl 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (15). Evaluation of 1, all trans-retinoic acid (8), 13-cis-retinoic acid (9), and the photo-oxygenation products 10-15 in a panel of five cancer cell lines showed 1 to be inactive and that 11 is significantly cytotoxic compared with the other retinoic acid analogs suggesting the requirement of the carboxylic acid moiety and the cis-geometry of the 13(14) double bond for cytotoxic activity.

  11. Effects of Alpha- Tocopherol on the Velocity of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Cupric Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nWe studied the effect of different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol on in vitro cupric ions induced oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL. Human native LDL (50 µg protein/ml oxidation was induced by 10 µmol/L of CuSO4. Conjugated dienes were measured spectrophotometrically for up to 440 minutes. The length of the lag phase (Tlag, maximum velocity of the reaction (Vmax and the maximum amount of generated dienes were obtained from kinetic data. Alpha-tocopherol increased Tlag and decreased Vmax with a dependence upon concentration (0-100 µmol/L. There was no difference between the Dmax obtained with cupric ions alone or in the presence of the various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. The results suggest that alpha-tocopherol may decrease free radicals presence in LDL and thus decrease velocity of LDL oxidation by cupric ions. This mechanism may be a reason for alpha-tocopherol effect in ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  12. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on immune status and alpha-tocopherol in plasma of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, M; Batra, T R; Farnworth, E R; Markham, F

    1995-01-01

    Twelve (Yorkshire) gilts were assigned to 2 dietary fat supplement groups starting at 57 d of gestation. Group 1 received no fat and Group 2 was supplemented with 5% Canola oil. Each group was supplemented with 0.1 ppm Se and 22 IU of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg of feed. Colostrum (d 0) and milk (7, 14, 21 and 28 d post partum) were sampled from gilts. At farrowing 3 piglets from each gilt of both groups were injected with alpha-tocopherol at birth (500 IU) and at 7 and 14 d (1,000 IU) of age and 3 piglets were injected with saline and used as control. Blood samples were taken from the newborn piglets at birth and at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of age. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of gilts was significantly higher than in the milk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and antibody titres to Key-hole limpet haemocyanin of piglets injected with vitamin E were significantly higher than the control piglets. Vitamin E injected piglets had significantly higher alpha-tocopherol concentrations in spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung and hip muscle than the control piglets.

  13. Alpha-tocopherol levels in milk of exclusively breast-feeding mothers in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadin, Okoeguale Michael; Osubor, Chijindu Christopher; Onoberhie, Peter Ajokpoghene

    2009-06-01

    The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating mothers practicing exclusive breast-feeding on term infants. The cross sectional study was carried out between May 1st and 30th, 2005 at the University of Benin/University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City among lactating mothers. Employing the Quaife's method, mean alpha-tocopherol values were determined in spot samples of breast milk. Though not significant mean Breast-milk (BM) alpha-tocopherol tended to decline with maternal age (p > 0.05) parity (p > 0.05) and duration of breastfeeding. Similarly, family socio-economic status did not significantly influence mean BM alpha-tocopherol levels. Exclusive and or prolonged breast feeding do not predispose the infant to low vitamin E supplies through the breast milk. Further studies are advocated to evaluate the effects of other biosocial variables on the levels of BM anti-oxidant vitamins including alpha-tocopherol.

  14. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Palou, A.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes

  15. Correlation of vitamin A nutritional status on alpha-tocopherol in the colostrum of lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Lima, Mayara Santa Rosa; de Medeiros, Jovilma Maria Soares; da Silva, Isabelle Ferreira; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The adequate supply of vitamins A and E to newborns is essential. However, factors such as maternal nutritional status and nutrient interaction may limit its bioavailability. The aim of this study was to establish nutritional status for vitamins A and E and evaluate the correlation of retinol on colostrum alpha-tocopherol in lactating women. A total of 103 lactating women were recruited at a Brazilian public maternity hospital. Fasting serum and colostrum samples were collected in the immediate post-partum. Retinol and alpha-tocopherol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and nutritional status for these vitamins was defined from specific cut-off points for serum and colostrum. Mean serum and colostrum retinol (1.49 µmol L(-1) , 2.18 µmol L(-1) ) and alpha-tocopherol (26.4 µmol L(-1) , 26.1 µmol L(-1) ) indicated satisfactory biochemical status. However, we found a prevalence of subclinical deficiency of vitamin A and vitamin E in serum (15.5% and 16%) and colostrum (50% and 60%). Lactating women with serum retinol ≥ 1.05 µmol L(-1) showed an inverse correlation between serum retinol and alpha-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum (P = 0.008, r = -0.28). This association was not observed in serum level nutritional status of lactating women for vitamins A and E was adequate, although there is a risk of subclinical deficiency. The negative correlation of serum retinol on alpha-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum must be carefully evaluated in situations of vitamin A supplementation, because alpha-tocopherol bioavailability in maternal milk may be compromised. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Thiamin, riboflavin and alpha-tocopherol retention in processed and stored irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Thayer, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Combination treatments for preservation of irradiated pork were investigated with respect to vitamin loss. Ground pork was prepared under nitrogen and packaged in anaerobic foil. The samples were enzyme denatured by heating before and after irradiation, then cooked and stored. Irradiation resulted in thiamin loss, but neither riboflavin nor alpha-tocopherol was affected. Neither thiamin nor riboflavin was affected by heat denaturation, cooking or storage, but heating and cooking increased the measured alpha-tocopherol. The lack of loss of the vitamins was attributed to the exclusion of oxygen

  17. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo (n = 64) or alpha-tocopherol (400 IU

  18. Beta-Carotene production enhancement by UV-A radiation in Dunaliella bardawil cultivated in laboratory reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogedas, B.; Casal, C.; Forjan, E.; Vilchez, C.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene is an antioxidant molecule of commercial value that can be naturally produced by certain microalgae that mostly belong to the genus Dunaliella. So far, nitrogen starvation has been the most efficient condition for enhancing beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella. However, while nitrogen starvation promotes beta-carotene accumulation, the cells become non-viable; consequently under such conditions, continuous beta-carotene production is limited to less than 1 week. In this study, the use of UV-A radiation as a tool to enhance long-term beta-carotene production in Dunaliella bardawil cultures was investigated. The effect of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) added to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) on growth and carotenoid accumulation of D. bardawil in a laboratory air-fluidized bed photobioreactor was studied. The results were compared with those from D. bardawil control cultures incubated with PAR only. The addition of 8.7 W/square m UV-A radiation to 250 W/square m PAR stimulated long-term growth of D. bardawil. Throughout the exponential growth period the UV-A irradiated cultures showed enhanced carotenoid accumulation, mostly as beta-carotene. After 24 days, the concentration of beta-carotene in UV-A irradiated cultures was approximately two times that of control cultures. Analysis revealed that UV-A clearly induced major accumulation of all-trans beta-carotene. In N-starved culture media, beta-carotene biosynthesis in UV-A irradiated cultures was stimulated. We conclude that the addition of UV-A to PAR enhances carotenoid production processes, specifically all-trans beta-carotene, in D. bardawil cells without negative effects on cell growth

  19. Beta-carotene encapsulated in food protein nanoparticles reduces peroxyl radical oxidation in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC) was encapsulated by sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) by the homogenization-evaporation method forming nanoparticles of 78, 90 and 370 nm diameter. Indices of the chemical antioxidant assays, the reducing power, DPPH radical scave...

  20. Milking microalga Dunaliella salina for Beta-carotene production in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Holwerda, E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed for production of beta-carotene from Dunaliella salina. Cells were grown in low light intensity and then transferred to a production bioreactor illuminated at a higher light intensity. It was a two-phase bioreactor consisting of an aqueous and a biocompatible organic

  1. Optimization of {beta}-carotene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles preparation using a high shear homogenization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael D., E-mail: triplettm@battelle.or [Battelle Memorial Institute, Health and Life Sciences Global Business (United States); Rathman, James F. [The Ohio State University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Using statistical experimental design methodologies, the solid lipid nanoparticle design space was found to be more robust than previously shown in literature. Formulation and high shear homogenization process effects on solid lipid nanoparticle size distribution, stability, drug loading, and drug release have been investigated. Experimentation indicated stearic acid as the optimal lipid, sodium taurocholate as the optimal cosurfactant, an optimum lecithin to sodium taurocholate ratio of 3:1, and an inverse relationship between mixing time and speed and nanoparticle size and polydispersity. Having defined the base solid lipid nanoparticle system, {beta}-carotene was incorporated into stearic acid nanoparticles to investigate the effects of introducing a drug into the base solid lipid nanoparticle system. The presence of {beta}-carotene produced a significant effect on the optimal formulation and process conditions, but the design space was found to be robust enough to accommodate the drug. {beta}-Carotene entrapment efficiency averaged 40%. {beta}-Carotene was retained in the nanoparticles for 1 month. As demonstrated herein, solid lipid nanoparticle technology can be sufficiently robust from a design standpoint to become commercially viable.

  2. Solubility of beta-Carotene in Supercritical CO2 and the Effect of Entrainers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R. S.; Galushko, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2001), s. 195-203 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : beta-carotene * supercritical carbon dioxide * solubility Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.975, year: 2001

  3. Impact of castration with or without alpha-tocopherol supplementation on the urethral sphincter of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Kracochansky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of low levels of testosterone induced by orchiectomy and the effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on oxidative stress in the urethral sphincter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were divided into four groups with 10 each: Sham group; Orchiectomy group: bilateral orchiectomy; Orchiectomy-pre-Tocopherol group: bilateral orchiectomy preceded by alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks; Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol group: bilateral orchiectomy with alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure and for eight weeks afterwards. At the protocol end, animals were euthanized and had the sphincter analyzed stereologically focusing on collagen and muscle fibers percentage. Oxidative stress levels were determined using 8-epi-PGF2. RESULTS: The 8-epi-PGF2 levels were statistically higher (p < 0.0003 in the Orchiectomy group compared to others groups while Sham and Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol groups presented statistically similar values (p = 0.52. Collagen volumetric densities were significantly lower in Sham and Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol groups (p < 0.022. Sham group presented statistically greater muscle fiber percent. CONCLUSION: Castration caused oxidative stress in the urethral sphincter complex, with increased collagen deposition. Alpha-tocopherol had a protective effect and its supplementation for twelve weeks provided the greatest protection.

  4. Effect of different levels of Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate on Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different levels of alpha-tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E) on growth performance, visceral fat and proximate composition of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was investigated for 58 days. The results showed that final weight and total length was higher in fingerlings fed 300 mg/kgof vitamin E diet, while mean body ...

  5. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2005-05-30

    May 30, 2005 ... Breast-Feeding Mothers in Benin City, Nigeria. Okoeguale ... feeding. Similarly, family socio-economic status did not significantly influence mean BM alpha- tocopherol levels. Exclusive and or prolonged breast feeding do not predispose the infant to low vitamin E .... obtained in teenage mothers. It is.

  6. Effects of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and ...

  7. Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Milk of Exclusively Breast-Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of prolonged breastfeeding on breast-milk alpha tocopherol was assessed in 112 lactating mothers practicing exclusive breast-feeding on term infants. The cross sectional study was carried out between May 1st and 30th, 2005 at the University of Benin/University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City among ...

  8. Study of Alpha Tocopherol, Celecoxib Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solgui R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chronic, unbridled oxidative damages have been known as the culprits behind many chronic diseases, including cancers, atherosclerosis, diabetes and Alzheimer’s. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2-the main enzyme involved in inducing these processes- plays an important role in tumor development and progression. COX-2 inhibitors should be used at high doses for a long time in order to bring about chemoprevention and induction of anti-tumor effects. For example, celecoxib prevents colorectal tumor growth and induces apoptosis in both in vitro and in vivo models. Disregulation of COX-2 expression coincides with the development of gastrointestinal malignancy in humans and in animal models of colorectal cancer. Increased COX-2 expression in human colorectal adeno-carcinomas has been elucidated when compared with normal adjacent colonic mucosa. The capacity of vitamin E, particularly in α form, to quench free radical damage, induces apoptosis and impact expression of oncogenes makes it an appropriate choice for chemotherapeutic strategies. Studies have shown that carcinogenesis and DNA damage due to UV are inhibited by vitamin E. The goal of this study was to investigate alpha tocopherol and celecoxib induced apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell line.Methods: In this study, HT29 cells were exposed to different concentrations of tocopherol (5, 10, and 20µM and celecoxib (25, 50, 75, 100µM followed by DNA extraction and fragmentation for demonstrating cell death process. Results: The results indicated that celecoxib at lower doses (25, and 50µM could not induce cell death, but at higher doses (75, and 100 µM, DNA fragmentation results typically resembled programmed cell death.Conclusion: ocopherol (5, 10, and 20µM in combination with celecoxib improved the impact of celecoxib on cell death induction and made it the rational notion to be combined with vitamin E in clinical practice.

  9. {alpha}-Tocopherol impact on oxy-radical induced free radical decomposition of DMSO: Spin trapping EPR and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzykiewicz, Maria, E-mail: Mariaj@wchuwr.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14 F. Joliot-Curie St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Cwielag-Piasecka, Irmina; Witwicki, Maciej; Jezierski, Adam [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14 F. Joliot-Curie St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-05-26

    Graphical abstract: {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibits the oxidation of {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3}. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol does not inhibit the oxidation of DMSO to {center_dot}CH{sub 3}. {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibits the oxidation of {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3}. {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol does not inhibit the oxidation of PBN. {yields} The structures of observed spin adducts were theoretically confirmed. - Abstract: EPR spin trapping and theoretical methods such as density functional theory (DFT) as well as combined DFT and quadratic configuration interaction approach (DFT/QCISD) were used to identify the radicals produced in the reaction of oxy-radicals and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the presence and absence of {alpha}-tocopherol. Additionally, the mixtures of {alpha}-tocopherol with linolenic acid and glyceryl trilinoleate as well as bioglycerols (glycerol fractions from biodiesel production) were tested. {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibited oxidation of the main decomposition product of DMSO, {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3} but did not prevent the transformation process of N-t-butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN) into 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP). Theoretical investigations confirmed the structures of proposed spin adducts and allowed to correlate the EPR parameters observed in the experiment with the spin adducts electronic structure.

  10. [Effects of ionol and alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation in the liver of dogs with acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipenko, P S; Saliĭ, I S; Potapov, G V

    2008-01-01

    We studied effects of natural (alpha-tocopherol) and synthetic (ionol) antioxidants on lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver of dogs with acute experimental pancreatitis (AEP). In the first three days of experiment formation of DK was more strongly inhibited by alpha-tocopherol but after day 6--by ionol. Alpha-tocopherol more effectively inhibits formation of intermolecular connections of lipid peroxides at transition of DK in intermediate (MDA) and end-products of POL. Ionol shows this effect on hour 8-24 and day 6-20. Fat-soluble antioxidants act directly in the lipid bilayer of plasma and cell membranes by interacting with membrane lipophilic components.

  11. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  12. [Separation and identification of beta-carotene and its cis isomers by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo de Padilla, F

    1996-06-01

    The separation and identification by HPLC of the cis isomers of beta-carotene was studied. A 1.26 mg/ml beta-carotene solution previously isomerized with iodine as a catalyst, was eluted with 2% acetone in hexane, from a Ca(OH)2 chromatographic column in three bands. The fractions were identified by spectrophotometry and the retention times of 2.05, 2.4 and 2.8 min for the 13 cis, all-trans, and 9 cis beta-carotene isomers, determined by HPLC, with 1% acetone in hexane as movil phase. 22.13 mg % of all-trans beta-carotene were found in a sample of canned carrots. It is recommended the analyses of a greater number of samples, the determination of the method's sensitivity, reproductibility, and the use of a standard of reference of a response factor for calculations.

  13. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan_markovic57@yahoo.co [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of {beta}-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). {beta}-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that {beta}-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in {beta}-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  14. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  15. Increased humoral immunity by DNA vaccination using an alpha-tocopherol-based adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    DNA vaccines induce broad immunity, which involves both humoral and strong cellular immunity, and can be rapidly designed for novel or evolving pathogens such as influenza. However, the humoral immunogenicity in humans and higher animals has been suboptimal compared to that of traditional vaccine...... approaches. We tested whether the emulsion-based and alpha-tocopherol containing adjuvant Diluvac Forte® has the ability to enhance the immunogenicity of a naked DNA vaccine (i.e., plasmid DNA). As a model vaccine, we used plasmids encoding both a surface-exposed viral glycoprotein (hemagglutinin......). The animals received two intracutaneous immunizations spaced 3 weeks apart. When combined with Diluvac Forte® or the emulsion containing alpha-tocopherol, the DNA vaccine induced a more potent and balanced immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG2c response, and both IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced...

  16. [Treatment of accidental extravasation of antitumor agents with dimethylsulfoxide and alpha-tocopherol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetblanc, J M; Bordessoule, D; Fayol, J; Amici, J M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test topical applications of dimethylsulfoxide and alpha-tocopherol for the prevention of ulcerations after antimitotic extravasation. An open prospective study was conducted in 10 patients in 4 different chemotherapy wards who had experienced infusion accidents leading to phlebitis (4 cases) or cellulitis (8 cases) including 2 at implant sites. Topical application of the dimethylsulfoxide alpha-tocopherol combination was initiated within the first hours and continued for 3 to 15 days. One patient was given dimethylsulfoxide alone. Necrosis was never observed. The implant sites were preserved and remained functional. The absence of secondary ulcerations and the preservation of the implant sites are clear advantages of this topical combination which should be used as first line treatment. Favorable results have been reported in the literature while other techniques used depend on the antimitotic agent and give variable results.

  17. Two approaches in preparation for cogeneration alpha-tocopherol and biodiesel from cottonseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Q.-L.; Zang, L.-Y.; Zhang, L.; Yun, Z. [Nanjing University of Technology (China)

    2012-02-15

    Vitamin E is a group of lipid soluble antioxidants that is widely used in the food, cosmetic and medical industries. It is comprised of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols, i.e. alpha, beta, gamma and delta, which are characterized by a chromanol ring structure with a distinct substitution pattern of methyl groups. This paper presents two approaches in preparation for co-generation of alpha-tocopherol and biodiesel from cottonseed. The approaches are a two-step process and a direct alkaline trans-esterification process. Using single factor experiments and an orthogonal design method, the effects of certain factors on the alpha-tocopherol recovery and conversion of cottonseed oil to biodiesel in both processes was systematically studied. In the two-step process, biodiesel and alpha-tocopherol were produced using a two-phase solvent combined with base-catalyzed trans-esterification. It was observed that 95.5% cottonseed oil was converted to biodiesel. In the direct-alkaline trans-esterification process, 98.3% cottonseed oil was converted to biodiesel.

  18. Modeling of alpha-tocopherol loss and oxidation products formed during thermoxidation in triolein and tripalmitin mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleyen, T; Kamal-Eldin, A; Dobarganes, C; Verhe, R; Dewettinck, K; Huyghebaert, A

    2001-07-01

    The degradation of alpha-tocopherol and the formation of alpha-tocopherol and triacylglycerol oxidation products at high temperatures (150-250 degrees C) over a heating period (0-4 h) for a model system ranging between triolein and tripalmitin were modeled by use of an experimental design. The oxidation products of alpha-tocopherol formed under these conditions were alpha-tocopherolquinone (1 .4-7.7%) and epoxy-alpha-tocopherolquinones (4.3-34.8%). The results indicate a very high susceptibility of alpha-tocopherol to capture peroxyl radicals upon oxidation, leading to the formation of polar tocopherol oxidation products. Both alpha-tocopherolquinone and epoxy-alpha-tocopherolquinones were not stable upon prolonged heating and were further degraded to other unknown oxidation products. The kinetics of alpha-tocopherol oxidation were significantly influenced by the triolein/tripalmitin ratio. By increasing the level of triacylglycerol unsaturation the rate of alpha-tocopherol recovery after heating increased significantly from 2.2 to 44.2% whereas in the meantime triacylglycerol polymerization increased from 0 to 3.7%.

  19. Protective Effects of Enalapril on Reducing Sensorimotor Dysfunctions of Ischemic Stroke is enhanced by Its Combination with Alpha Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Panahpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ischemic stroke has complex pathophysiology and its treatment with single neuroprotective drugs has so far failed. Combination therapy could produce amplified protective effects via different mechanisms. We examined the neuroprotective effects of enalapril and/or alpha tocopherol against sensorimotor dysfunctions of ischemic stroke. Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8: sham, control ischemic, enalapril (0.03 mg/kg, alpha tocopherol (30mg/kg and enalapril plus alpha tocopherol treated groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery that followed by 24 h reperfusion periods. Infarct volumes were detected by TTC coloring technique and sensorimotor dysfunctions investigated by rotarod, grip strength and hotplate tests. Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced severe neurological sensorimotor deficits in conjunction with considerable cerebral infarctions. Compared with the enalapril or alpha tocopherol groups, the combined treatment significantly improved neurological motor and sensory functions (p=0.038 and p=0.034, respectively and also reduced the infarct volume (p=0.032. Conclusion: Administration of alpha tocopherol increased protective effects of enalapril. Enalapril combined with alpha tocopherol can produce an augmented protection against ischemic brain injury, and improvement in sensorimotor dysfunctions.

  20. Study of Alpha Tocopherol, Celecoxib Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Solgui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Chronic, unbridled oxidative damages have been known as the culprits behind many chronic diseases, including cancers, atherosclerosis, diabetes and Alzheimer’s. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2-the main enzyme involved in inducing these processes- plays an important role in tumor development and progression. COX-2 inhibitors should be used at high doses for a long time in order to bring about chemoprevention and induction of anti-tumor effects. For example, celecoxib prevents colorectal tumor growth and induces apoptosis in both in vitro and in vivo models. Disregulation of COX-2 expression coincides with the development of gastrointestinal malignancy in humans and in animal models of colorectal cancer. Increased COX-2 expression in human colorectal adeno-carcinomas has been elucidated when compared with normal adjacent colonic mucosa. The capacity of vitamin E, particularly in α form, to quench free radical damage, induces apoptosis and impact expression of oncogenes makes it an appropriate choice for chemotherapeutic strategies. Studies have shown that carcinogenesis and DNA damage due to UV are inhibited by vitamin E. The goal of this study was to investigate alpha tocopherol and celecoxib induced apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    Methods: In this study, HT29 cells were exposed to different concentrations of tocopherol (5, 10, and 20µM and celecoxib (25, 50, 75, 100µM followed by DNA extraction and fragmentation for demonstrating cell death process.

    Results: The results indicated that celecoxib at lower doses (25, and 50µM could not induce cell death, but at higher doses (75, and 100 µM, DNA fragmentation results typically resembled programmed cell death.

  1. Effect of D-alpha-tocopherol on tubular nephron acidification by rats with induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nascimento Gomes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if treatment of diabetic rats with D-alpha-tocopherol could prevent the changes in glomerular and tubular function commonly observed in this disease. Sixty male Wistar rats divided into four groups were studied: control (C, control treated with D-alpha-tocopherol (C + T, diabetic (D, and diabetic treated with D-alpha-tocopherol (D + T. Treatment with D-alpha-tocopherol (40 mg/kg every other day, ip was started three days after diabetes induction with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, ip. Renal function studies and microperfusion measurements were performed 30 days after diabetes induction and the kidneys were removed for morphometric analyses. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Glomerular filtration rate increased in D rats but decreased in D + T rats (C: 6.43 ± 0.21; D: 7.74 ± 0.45; D + T: 3.86 ± 0.18 ml min-1 kg-1. Alterations of tubular acidification observed in bicarbonate absorption flux (JHCO3 and in acidification half-time (t/2 in group D were reversed in group D + T (JHCO3, C: 2.30 ± 0.10; D: 3.28 ± 0.22; D + T: 1.87 ± 0.08 nmol cm-2 s-1; t/2, C: 4.75 ± 0.20; D: 3.52 ± 0.15; D + T: 5.92 ± 0.19 s. Glomerular area was significantly increased in D, while D + T rats exhibited values similar to C, suggesting that the vitamin prevented the hypertrophic effect of hyperglycemia (C: 8334.21 ± 112.05; D: 10,217.55 ± 100.66; D + T: 8478.21 ± 119.81µm². These results suggest that D-alpha-tocopherol is able to protect rats, at least in part, from the harmful effects of diabetes on renal function.

  2. Bioefficacy of beta-carotene is improved in rats after solubilized as equimolar dose of beta-carotene and lutein in phospholipid-mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisiddaiah, Raju; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2009-08-01

    beta-Carotene (BC) is a potent dietary source of vitamin A for populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency, yet its bioavailability is influenced by several factors such as dietary fat, carotenoids type, and other components. We hypothesize that type of micellar phospholipids influence bioefficacy of carotenoids and activity of carotenoid metabolizing enzymes. This study determined the BC bioefficacy in rats (n = 5/time point) after an equimolar dose of BC and lutein (Lut) solubilized in micelles containing either phosphatidylcholine (PC) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or no phospholipid (NoPL). Results show that no BC and Lut was detected in the plasma of rats at 0 hour, but after gavage, the mean (SD) area under the curve (AUC; in picomoles per milliliter) of plasma BC for 6 hours in PC, LPC, and NoPL groups were 1145 (132), 965 (199), and 2136 (112), respectively. The AUC value of plasma Lut in LPC group (183 +/- 23 pmol mL(-1) h(-1)) was higher than the other 2 groups. Similarly, liver BC and Lut levels in the LPC group were significantly higher than the other groups. The activity of BC 15,15'-monooxygenase in the intestinal mucosa of LPC and PC groups was higher than NoPL group. Plasma retinyl palmitate level in LPC (AUC, 647 +/- 89 pmol mL(-1) h(-1)) group was 2-fold higher than that of PC and NoPL groups. Results indicate that phospholipids enhanced the BC and Lut absorption. beta-Carotene uptake was not affected by Lut when given with micellar phospholipids, but reduced plasma Lut level was observed, which may be due to the conversion of absorbed Lut into its metabolites.

  3. Role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subacute apap induced renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, T.; Butt, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys In subacute Acetaminophen (APAP)- induced renal damage. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Army Medical College, Rawalpindi; in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabd for one week in June 2009. Material and Methods: Sixty young adult (4-6 weeks old) Sprague -Dawley rats of both sexes weighing 180-240 g were randomized into three groups. Experimental group A was treated with 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP orally once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experimental group B was administered beta carotene 30 mg/kg body weight once daily one hour before 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP once daily for 7 consecutive days. Control group C animals were fed NIH laboratory diet. Kidney specimens were collected 24 hours after the last dose. Five micron thick sections of kidney were stained with H and E for histomorphological study. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the variables p-values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: Microscopic examination in experimental group A demonstrated tubular necrosis of level 2 (35% animals) and level 3 (65% animals). Mild vacuolar degeneration was also observed in 90% of the experimental group A animals. In experimental group B, there was statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001 in levels of renal tubular necrosis (15% animals) and grades of vacuolar degeneration (5% animals) as compared to experimental group A.Findings in experimental group B were not significantly different from that of control group C. Conclusion: Beta carotene has protective role on histomorphology of kidneys in subacute APAP-induced renal damage in rats. (author)

  4. Protective effects of plasma alpha-tocopherols on the risk of inorganic arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Ting [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic plays an important role in producing oxidative stress in cultured cells. To investigate the interaction between high oxidative stress and low arsenic methylation capacity on arsenic carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the indices of oxidative stress, such as urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyquanine (8-OHdG), as well as plasma micronutrients and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma micronutrient levels were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study showed a significant protective effect of plasma alpha-tocopherol on UC risk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to urinary total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic percentage (InAs%), and significantly positively related to dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%). There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. Study participants with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher urinary total arsenic, higher InAs%, higher MMA%, and lower DMA% had a higher UC risk than those with higher alpha-tocopherol and lower urinary total arsenic, lower InAs%, lower MMA%, and higher DMA%. These results suggest that plasma alpha-tocopherol might modify the risk of inorganic arsenic-related UC. - Research Highlights: {yields} Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to UC risk. {yields} There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. {yields} People with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher total arsenic had increased UC risk.

  5. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... of carotenoid supplementation and spinach intake on erythrocyte enzyme antioxidant activities, serum or plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations, and concentrations of oxidatively damaged amino acids in plasma; Subjects received for 3 wk a basic diet (n = 10), a basic diet with a carotenoid supplement (n...

  6. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation on chick growth, immune status and behaviour in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, M; Guasco, B; Malacarne, G; Ottonelli, R

    2006-11-01

    Carotenoids are important for various functions during chick development. Since these pigments cannot be synthesized, they can be considered limited resources that the mother optimally allocates between herself and her offspring (maternal effect). Some studies have examined the effects of carotenoids on growth and immune function but little is known about their role in behaviour. In this study of the grey partridge, we conducted two supplementation experiments: (1) laying females were fed with beta-carotene enriched or impoverished diets; (2) chicks were fed directly with beta-carotene enriched or impoverished diets. We then evaluated the effects of this carotenoid on chick growth, immunocompetence and anti-predator behaviour (reactions to a raptor model). In the first experiment, the beta-carotene enriched diet given to mothers did not cause any difference in chick physiology. In the second experiment, beta-carotene supplementation of chicks had a significant beneficial effect on their growth and immune response, although their behavioural reactions did not differ in relation to the diet. Therefore, beta-carotene supplementation had beneficial effects on growth and immunocompetence only when directly supplied to chicks. The beneficial effect reported in other species for begging or pecking behaviours was not confirmed for the anti-predator behaviour of grey partridge chicks.

  7. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  8. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  9. Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Pereira, Raimundo L; Costa, Maria do S; Braga, Maria Flaviana B M; Limaverde, Paulo W; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Balbino, Valdir Q; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure.

  10. Thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol content of exotic meats and loss due to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakritz, L; Fox, J B; Thayer, D W

    1998-12-01

    Changes in thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations due to gamma irradiation were followed in alligator, caiman, bison, and ostrich (exotic) meats. The proximate composition showed that the exotic meats generally had lower fat content than domestic animal meats and that the thiamin content of the reptiles was lower. The changes in the vitamins due to irradiation were similar to those previously observed for domestic species. The results indicate that the loss of vitamins in these species is negligible insofar as the American diet is concerned, and that the concept of "chemiclearance" is applicable to exotic meats.

  11. Zone II flexor tendon repair: effects of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, D P; Sharzer, L A; Padawer, J; Levenson, S M; Seifter, E

    1990-07-01

    Ninety-six adult Leghorn chickens each had the flexor profundus tendon in each middle toe sharply divided in Zone II with immediate repair (pentobarbital, ketamine anesthesia). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive unsupplemented standard chick chow or the chow supplemented with vitamin A (150,000 IU/kg chow), Vitamin E (1000 IU/kg chow), or beta-carotene (90 mg/kg chow). Eight animals from each of the four groups were examined at 7, 30, or 45 days post repair. After sacrifice, in situ composite wound breaking strength was measured in the amputated toe by constant speed tensiometry. Vitamin A-supplemented animals demonstrated breaking strength more than double that of control at each postoperative test day, while those animals receiving supplemental Vitamin E had breaking strength less than half that of control at Day 7 and Day 45. These results are statistically significant. Tensiometry curves differed markedly at all time points among the groups: Vitamin A curves being broader, higher, and having more spikes. These differences in the tensiometry curves, both qualitative and quantitative, may be due to differences in intrinsic tendon healing or to differences in adhesion formation or a combination of both. beta-Carotene supplementation had modest effect. We conclude that supplemental dietary vitamin A increases the breaking strength of composite tendon wounds and that supplemental dietary vitamin E decreases it.

  12. Increase in serum beta-carotene following dark green leafy vegetable supplementation in Mebendazole-treated school children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, V; Ahmed, F; Gebre-Medhin, M; Greiner, T

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of consumption of dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and sweet pumpkin on serum beta-carotene and retinol concentrations in children treated for Ascaris lumbricoides. Experimental study with a randomised design. A total of 110 primary school children aged 8-12 y in northwestern Bangladesh. All children were de-wormed and 2 weeks later randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive for 6 days per week, for 6 weeks, one complete meal containing either: (1) 4.4 mg beta-carotene from DGLV (n=37, after 18 dropouts); (2) 1.5 mg beta-carotene from sweet pumpkin (n=36, 18 dropouts); or (3) vegetables containing virtually no beta-carotene (control) (n = 37, 18 dropouts). Significant increases (P < 0.001) in mean serum beta-carotene concentrations were seen in all three study groups, with a statistically higher increase (micromol/l) in the DGLV group (0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32, 0.55) compared to the control group (0.20; 95% CI 0.14, 0.26; P = 0.002). The increase in serum retinol (micromol/l) was statistically significant (P=0.04) only in the DGLV group (mean 0.066; 95% CI 0.002, 0.13), but this increase was not different from the increase in the control group. In children successfully treated for Ascaris lumbricoides, a substantial increase in serum beta-carotene was seen after feeding with a moderately high cumulative dose of DGLV for 6 weeks.

  13. Study of alpha-tocopherol as a protector of damages induced to the skin by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, M.J.; Vigo, J.; Leon, M.J.; Sanchez, J.A.; Martin, F.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in animals for determining the characteristics of alpha-tocopherol protection against lesions caused by free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. Two different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were applied on the same exposed sample. A linear electron accelerator of 6 MeV was used for the production of free radicals and a dose of 2800 cGy. The lesions were submitted to clinical studies for anatomic pathologies. The conclusion of this study is that alpha-tocopherol applied to skin before and immediately after the exposure to ionizing radiation has the capability to protect it, developing a perfectly differentiated epidermis and of greater thickness than normally considered

  14. [Antioxidant effectiveness of short-chain alpha-tocopherol acetate in acute paracetamol poisoning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiakhmetova, H M; Kovalenko, V M; Bondarenko, L B; Kuz'menko, I V

    2000-01-01

    In the experiments in vivo on white rats possibility of paracetamol hepatotoxic effects correction with synthetic short-chain alpha-tocopherol derivative and pharmacopeial preparation of vitamin E has been studied. Levels of superoxide anion generation in liver mitochondria fraction, catalase activity and reduced glutathione, serum aminotransferase and alcaline phosphatase activities and liver subcellular fractions lipid contents were investigated. It was shown that the short-chain vitamin E derivative and pharmacopeial preparation had a membranotropic effect, normalizing free and total cholesterol levels in liver mitochondria fraction and decreasing serum aminotransferase activity level. Investigated compounds also decreased levels of superoxide anions generation, increased catalase activity and level of reduced glutathione in liver. Antioxidative properties of this derivative and pharmacopeial preparation were demonstrated both at the primary (dienes, trienes) and at final steps of lipid peroxidation (TBA-products formation). This antioxidative activity of alpha-tocopherol acetate and its derivative depended on the structure of chromane cycle but not on the length of side chain.

  15. A pharmacological analysis elucidating why, in contrast to (-)-deprenyl (selegiline), alpha-tocopherol was ineffective in the DATATOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-04-25

    The Parkinson Study Group who conducted the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) trial designed their study in the belief that the MAO inhibitor (-)-deprenyl (selegiline), the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol, and the combination of the two compounds will slow the clinical progression of the disease to the extent that MAO activity and the formation of oxygen radicals contribute to the pathogenesis of nigral degeneration. In fact, (-)-deprenyl only delayed the onset of disability associated with early, otherwise untreated Parkinson's disease, however, in contrast to the expectation of the authors, alpha-tocopherol proved to be ineffective in the DATATOP study. Enhancer substances, (-)-deprenyl, (-)-1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane [(-)-PPAP] the (-)-deprenyl analogue free of MAO inhibitory potency, and R-(-)1-(benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane [(-)-BPAP] the presently known most potent enhancer substance, are peculiar stimulants. They enhance the impulse propagation mediated release of the catecholamines in the brain. Due to their enhancer effect, the amount of catecholamines released from selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus) is significantly higher in rats treated with an enhancer substance than in saline treated rats. We compared the effect of (-)-deprenyl 0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, (-)-PPAP 0.1 mg/kg, (-)-BPAP 0.0001 mg/kg, and alpha-tocopherol 25 and 50 mg/kg, in this test. The doses of (-)-deprenyl and alpha-tocopherol were selected to be in compliance with the dose given in the DATATOP study. Compared to saline treated rats, the enhancer substances significantly increased the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and tuberculum olfactorium and the amount of norepinephrine released from the locus coeruleus; alpha-tocopherol was ineffective. The results indicate that alpha-tocopherol was ineffective, because, unlike (-)-deprenyl it dose not enhance

  16. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  17. Golden Rice: introducing the beta-carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim; Ye, Xudong; Lucca, Paola; Schaub, Patrick; Welsch, Ralf; Potrykus, Ingo

    2002-03-01

    To obtain a functioning provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway in rice endosperm, we introduced in a single, combined transformation effort the cDNA coding for phytoene synthase (psy) and lycopene beta-cyclase (beta-lcy) both from Narcissus pseudonarcissus and both under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin promoter together with a bacterial phytoene desaturase (crtI, from Erwinia uredovora under constitutive 35S promoter control). This combination covers the requirements for beta-carotene synthesis and, as hoped, yellow beta-carotene-bearing rice endosperm was obtained in the T(0)-generation. Additional experiments revealed that the presence of beta-lcy was not necessary, because psy and crtI alone were able to drive beta-carotene synthesis as well as the formation of further downstream xanthophylls. Plausible explanations for this finding are that these downstream enzymes are constitutively expressed in rice endosperm or are induced by the transformation, e.g., by enzymatically formed products. Results using N. pseudonarcissus as a model system led to the development of a hypothesis, our present working model, that trans-lycopene or a trans-lycopene derivative acts as an inductor in a kind of feedback mechanism stimulating endogenous carotenogenic genes. Various institutional arrangements for disseminating Golden Rice to research institutes in developing countries also are discussed.

  18. Cellular uptake of beta-carotene from protein stabilized solid lipid nano-particles prepared by homogenization-evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cel...

  19. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) production by the marine microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta and Tetraselmis suecica in batch cultuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo Cárdenas, E.C.; Phan Minh Thu, T.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Batch experiments with Dunaliella tertiolecta and Tetraselmis suecica were performed to investigate alpha-tocopherol (a-T) production in time, in order to assess the effect of light availability per cell on the production of this antioxidant. In D. tertiolecta a-T content increased during growth, in

  20. Kinetics, bioavailability, and metabolism of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in humans supports lower requirement for vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic models enable nutrient needs and kinetic behaviors to be quantified and provide mechanistic insights into metabolism. Therefore, we modeled and quantified the kinetics, bioavailability and metabolism of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in 12 healthy adults. Six men and six women, aged 27 ± 6 y, each i...

  1. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilaga Rati Selvaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF is an extract of palm oil, which consists of 25% alpha tocopherol (α-TCP and 75% tocotrienols. TRF has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotection, and cholesterol lowering activities. Glutamate is the main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalian, which can be excitotoxic, and it has been suggested to play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this present study, the effects of vitamin E (TRF and α-TCP in protecting astrocytes against glutamate injury were elucidated. Astrocytes induced with 180 mM of glutamate lead to significant cell death. However, glutamate mediated cytotoxicity was diminished via pre and post supplementation of TRF and α-TCP. Hence, vitamin E acted as a potent antioxidant agent in recovering mitochondrial injury due to elevated oxidative stress, and enhanced better survivability upon glutamate toxicity.  

  2. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in male smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, G Y; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; McGlynn, K A; Virtamo, J; Sinha, R; Freedman, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease as reported in previous studies, including prospective ones conducted in Asian populations where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) and hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) are the dominant risk factors. Yet, prospective studies in Western populations with lower HBV and HCV prevalence are sparse. Also, although preparation methods affect coffee constituents, it is unknown whether different methods affect disease associations. Methods: We evaluated the association of coffee intake with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality in 27 037 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, who recorded their coffee consumption and were followed up to 24 years for incident liver cancer or chronic liver disease mortality. Multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Coffee intake was inversely associated with incident liver cancer (RR per cup per day=0.82, 95% CI: 0.73–0.93; P-trend across categories=0.0007) and mortality from chronic liver disease (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63; P-trendcoffee. Conclusion: These findings suggest that drinking coffee may have benefits for the liver, irrespective of whether coffee was boiled or filtered. PMID:23880821

  3. Demonstration of specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitabchi, A.E.; Wimalasena, J.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (/sup 3/H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for /sup 3/H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane.

  4. Demonstration of specific binding sites for 3H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabchi, A.E.; Wimalasena, J.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for 3 H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol ( 3 H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for 3 H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for 3 H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane

  5. Sensory profile of warmed-over flavour in tenderloin from steers supplemented with alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of warmed-over flavour (WOF in cooked tenderloin and the influence of alpha-tocopherol on its inhibition. A total of 24 animals were confined, 12 of which received 1200 mg/head/day of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 90 days. Longissimus dorsi muscle cuts (tenderloin were obtained for sensory profile assessment by nine trained tasters. The tasters evaluated the taste of the meat based on four general and 18 specific attributes. The results of the evaluations were analysed with ANOVA, post-hoc tests of the means (Tukey tests, and principal component analysis (PCA. There was no significant difference in the WOF between the cuts of meat from the supplemented and non-supplemented animals. However, as the refrigeration period increased, there was a decrease in the intensity of the umami and sweet taste attributes and the flavour and aroma of the roast meat as well as an increase in the intensity of the oxidised vegetable oil flavour and the aromas of fish, hard-boiled egg, flaxseed oil, and oxidised vegetable oil. The samples that had been stored for one day were characterised by PCA as having sweet and umami tastes and the flavour and aroma of roast meat, whereas after three days, the samples were classified as having sour and bitter tastes, the flavour of chicken and nuts, and the aroma of fish. The typical sensory attributes desirable for roasted meat decreased in intensity during the three days of storage after cooking, whereas the intensity of unpleasant (oxidative attributes for the consumer increased.

  6. Effects of beta-carotene on adult immune condition and antibacterial activity in the eggs of the Grey Partridge, Perdix perdix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Marco; Guasco, Beatrice; Malacarne, Giorgio; Ottonelli, Roberta

    2007-08-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary constituents in birds. Their functions are numerous and complex, and breeding females are potentially faced with an optimal allocation of these resources between themselves and offspring. We conducted a dietary experiment (low and high supply of beta-carotene) to examine the effect of beta-carotene on health and immune response of 64 reproducing pairs of Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix L.) and on the quality of their eggs, as revealed by the measurement of biochemical components in yolk and albumen, the egg hatching rate and chick survival. We found a beneficial effect of beta-carotene on the erythrosedimentation rate and immune response of females (PHA reaction), while the diet did not significantly affect these variables in males. In both sexes, the plasma level of carotenoids was not related to the quantity of beta-carotene supplied. A higher quantity of beta-carotene in the diet did not induce a variation of egg nutrients (proteins and lipids), nor an increase of yolk beta-carotene concentration. We detected a higher concentration of lysozyme, an enzyme with antibacterial activity, in the albumen of eggs laid by females with a high supply of beta-carotene. These eggs showed higher hatching rates. The present study indicates that although carotenoid supplementation does not influence blood and yolk carotenoid levels, it results in better immune conditions of females, eventually translated into increased antibacterial activity of the eggs. The broad range of beneficial effects of carotenoids is discussed.

  7. Comparison of non-toxic methods for creating beta-carotene encapsulated in PMMA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzanski, Christopher D.

    Nano/microcapsules are becoming more prevalent in various industries such as drug delivery, cosmetics, etc. Current methods of particle formation often use toxic or carcinogenic/mutagenic/reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals. This study intends to improve upon existing methods of particle formation and compare their effectiveness in terms of entrapment efficiency, mean particle size, and yield utilizing only non-toxic chemicals. In this study, the solvent evaporation (SE), spontaneous emulsification, and spontaneous emulsion solvent diffusion (SESD) methods were compared in systems containing green solvents ethyl acetate, dimethyl carbonate or acetone. PMMA particles containing encapsulated beta carotene, an ultraviolet sensitive substance, were synthesized. It was desired to produce particles with minimum mean size and maximum yield and entrapment of beta carotene. The mass of the water phase, the mass of the polymer and the pumping or blending rate were varied for each synthesis method. The smallest particle sizes for SE and SESD both were obtained from the middle water phase sizes, 200 g and 100 g respectively. The particles obtained from the larger water phase in SESD were much bigger, about 5 microns in diameter, even larger than the ones obtained from SE. When varying the mass of PMMA used in each synthesis method, as expected, more PMMA led to larger particles. Increasing the blending rate in SE from 6,500 to 13,500 rpm had a minimal effect on average particle size, but the higher shear resulted in highly polydisperse particles (PDI = 0.87). By decreasing the pump rate in SESD, particles became smaller and had lower entrapment efficiency. The entrapment efficiencies of the particles were generally higher for the larger particles within a mode. Therefore, we found that minimizing the particle size while maximizing entrapment were somewhat contradictory goals. The solvent evaporation method was very consistent in terms of the values of mean particle size, yield, and

  8. Comparative actions of clomazone on beta-carotene levels and growth in rice (Oryza sativa) and watergrasses (Echinochloa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrook, Patti L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-06-01

    Seedlings of rice, early watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively), and late watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively) were hydroponically exposed to clomazone at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 7.9 microM. Whole-plant growth (mg fresh wt) and beta-carotene concentrations (microg g(-1) fresh wt) were measured after a 7-day exposure period. For growth, the no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 7.9, 0.21, 0.21, 0.46 and 0.46 microM clomazone for rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), respectively, while the concentrations causing 25% inhibition in response (IC25) were 5.6 (+/-1.6), 0.46 (+/-0.06), 0.42 (+/-0.08), 0.92 (+/-0.45) and 0.79 (+/-0.08) microM clomazone, respectively. Clomazone inhibits beta-carotene synthesis via inhibition of the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthetic pathway. For assessment of clomazone effects, beta-carotene levels proved to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than growth. For rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), the beta-carotene NOECs were 0.21, <0.08, <0.08, 0.08 and 0.46 microM clomazone respectively, while IC25 values were 0.42 (+/-0.26), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.33 (+/-0.09) and 0.54 (+/-0.15) microM, respectively. No evidence was found that the thiobencarb-resistance mechanisms present in early and late watergrasses impart resistance to clomazone. Due to similar sensitivity between rice and late watergrass, use of clomazone in rice culture will require the use of a safening technique.

  9. Effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in yellow-fleshed cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. BRS Jari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Godoy, Ronoel; Pacheco, Sidney; Carvalho, José; Nutti, Marília

    2013-03-01

    The effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of all-trans-beta-carotene in biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots have not been investigated, although these are conventional methods of cassava preparation. The aims of the present study were to investigate beta-carotene micellarization efficiency of yellow-fleshed BRS Jari cassava roots after boiling and frying, as an indicator of the bioaccessibility of this carotenoid, and to apply fluorescence microscopy to investigate beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction. Uncooked, boiled, and fried cassava roots were digested in vitro for the evaluation, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), of the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-beta-carotene in BRS Jari cassava roots. Fluorescence microscopy of the micellar fraction was used to confirm the presence of beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction and to observe the structure of the microemulsion from the boiled and fried cassava samples. Fried cassava roots showed the highest (p < .05) micellarization efficiency for total carotenoids and all-trans-beta-carotene (14.1 +/- 2.25% and 14.37 +/- 2.44%, respectively), compared with boiled and raw samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that after in vitro digestion there were no carotenoid crystals in the micellar fraction, but rather that this fraction presented a biphasic system compatible with emulsified carotenoids, which was consistent with the expected high bioavailability of beta-carotene in this fraction. Increased emulsification and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from fried biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots compensates for chemical losses during preparation, indicating that this preparation is suitable for home use of BRS Jari cassava roots and might represent a relatively good food source of bioavailable provitamin A.

  10. The antiproliferative effect of beta-carotene requires p21waf1/cip1 in normal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, L A; Savio, M; Quarta, S; Scotti, C; Cazzalini, O; Rossi, L; Scovassi, I A; Pizzala, R; Melli, R; Bianchi, L; Vannini, V; Prosperi, E

    2000-04-01

    In normal human fibroblasts, beta-carotene induces a cell-cycle delay in the G1 phase independent of its provitamin A activity via a mechanism not yet elucidated. In this study we provide biochemical evidence showing that delayed progression through the G1 phase occurs concomitantly with: an increase in both nuclear-bound and total p21waf1/cip1 protein levels; an increase in the amount of p21waf1/cip1 associated with cdk4; the inhibition of cyclin D1-associated cdk4 kinase activity; and a reduction in the levels of hyperphosphorylated forms of retinoblastoma protein, and particularly, in phosphorylated Ser780. The role of p21waf1/cip1 in the antiproliferative effect of the carotenoid was further supported by genetic evidence that neither changes in cell-cycle progression nor in the phosphorylation status of retinoblastoma protein were observed in p21waf1/cip1-deficient human fibroblasts treated with beta-carotene. These results clearly demonstrate that p21waf1/cip1 is involved directly in the molecular pathway by which beta-carotene inhibits cell-cycle progression.

  11. Rapid and simultaneous determination of lycopene and beta-carotene contents in tomato juice by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, Thais; Shiroma-Kian, Cecilia; Halim, Yuwana; Francis, David; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2009-02-25

    The rapid quantification of lycopene and beta-carotene in tomato juices by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated. Two sample preparation methods were compared: a direct measurement of the tomato paste and an extraction method using hexane to isolate carotenoids. HPLC was used as the reference method. Cross-validated (leave-one-out) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to create calibration models to predict these phytonutrient concentrations in blind test samples. The infrared spectra showed unique marker bands at 957 and 968 cm(-1) for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the infrared spectral data gave correlation coefficients (r values) of >0.9 between the ATR-IR predicted and HPLC reference values, and standard errors of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.5 and 0.04 mg/100 g of juice for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively. ATR-IR could provide the tomato industry with a simple, rapid, and high-throughput technique for the determination of tomato quality.

  12. Vegetable-borne lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene compete for incorporation into chylomicrons, with no adverse effect on the medium-term (3-wk) plasma status of carotenoids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssandier, Viviane; Cardinault, Nicolas; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Grolier, Pascal; Bouteloup, Corinne; Azais-Braesco, Véronique; Borel, Patrick

    2002-03-01

    The results of epidemiologic studies have consistently shown associations between dietary intake or plasma carotenoid status and incidence of cancers and cardiovascular and eye diseases. The aim was to assess whether vegetable-borne carotenoids (lycopene, lutein, and beta-carotene) compete for intestinal absorption and whether this affects the plasma status of carotenoids in the medium term (ie, after 3 wk). During 3-wk periods separated by 3-wk washout periods, 20 women were supplemented with either 96 g tomato purée/d (14.98 mg lycopene + 1.50 mg beta-carotene), 92 g cooked chopped spinach/d (11.93 mg lutein + 7.96 mg beta-carotene), 96 g tomato purée/d + 92 g chopped spinach/d, 96 g tomato purée/d + 2 lutein pills (12 mg lutein), or 92 g chopped spinach/d + 1 lycopene pill (15 mg lycopene). Plasma carotenoids were measured before and after each supplementation period. The subjects also participated in postprandial experiments in which they ingested meals containing double amounts of the supplements described above. Carotenoids were measured in chylomicrons to assess the interaction of carotenoids on absorption. Adding a second carotenoid to a meal that provided a first carotenoid diminished the chylomicron response to the first carotenoid. However, cosupplementation with a second carotenoid of a diet supplemented with a first carotenoid did not diminish the medium-term plasma response to the first carotenoid. Consumption of carotenoids from different vegetable sources does not diminish plasma carotenoid concentrations in the medium term, despite the finding in postprandial testing of competitive inhibitory interactions among different carotenoids.

  13. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.

  14. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  15. Very high alpha-tocopherol diet diminishes oxidative stress and hypercoagulation in hypertensive rats but not in normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenoux, Jean-Marie R; Noirot, Beatrice; Prost, Emmanuelle D; Madani, Sihem; Blond, Jean Paul; Belleville, Jacques L; Prost, Josiane L

    2002-10-01

    Oxidative stress is closely related to cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Increasing dietary antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol, may prevent these diseases. However, in some pathologies, such as hypertension, oxidative stress is enhanced, thus alpha-tocopherol requirements may be raised. In eleven-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, we investigated the effects of a four-week very high alpha-tocopherol dietary enrichment (1,200 mg/kg diet, VH) on blood pressure, resistance to free radical aggression, and VLDL+LDL resistance to lipid peroxidation. Platelet aggregation and plasma lipid profile were also investigated. With either diet, hypertensive rats were more protected against oxidative stress than normotensive rats. Their capacity to withstand free radical aggression was better, and their VLDL+LDL particles were less sensitive to lipid peroxidation. In either group, the VH diet did not modify blood pressure values when resistance to free radical aggression was increased, but not the resistance of VLDL+LDL to lipid peroxidation. With the control diet, platelet aggregation was faster and higher in hypertensive rats vs. normotensive rats. It was decreased with the VH diet in hypertensive rats but increased in normotensive rats, when compared to their respective controls. Whatever the diet, plasma triacylglycerol, phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations were lower in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. Only cholesterol concentrations were diminished with the VH diet in hypertensive rats, but not in normotensive rats. These results indicate that very high alpha-tocopherol dietary amounts decrease cardiovascular risk in hypertensive rats with high oxidative stress, but have less effect on normotensive rats.

  16. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  17. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation on adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Fuster, Antonia; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-12-01

    We previously described that the intake of pharmacological doses of beta-carotene (BC) resulted in higher body weight gain in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo), an animal model that resembles human subjects in terms of intestinal BC absorption and metabolism. These results were some way unexpected considering the condition of BC as a vitamin A precursor and the previous data in rodents showing these compounds as thermogenic activators. Here, we aimed to characterise in the ferret whether the mentioned changes in body weight could be explained by changes in adipose tissue thermogenic capacity. We studied the effects of 6-month supplementation with BC (0.8 and 3.2 mg/kg per d) on adipose tissue morphology and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content. BC supplementation resulted in higher body weight (the high dose), induced depot- and dose-dependent hypertrophy of white adipocytes, decreased the amount of brown-like multilocular adipocytes in the retroperitoneal depot and decreased UCP1 content in different fat depots. To ascertain whether BC effects could be mediated by retinoic acid (RA), 1 week supplementation with RA (0.25 and 25 mg/kg per d) was also studied. RA treatment resulted in a slight decrease in adiposity, decreased cell lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 content, suggesting that the effects of BC on thermogenic capacity are not through RA. In conclusion, RA, but not BC, may have in the ferret comparable effects with those described in rodents, whereas differences concerning BC and RA treatments may be attributable to the different BC metabolism in the present animal model with a lower conversion of BC to RA compared with rodents.

  18. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  19. Alpha-tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors mitigate radiation combined injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijay K.; Wise, Stephen Y.; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O.; Beattie, Lindsay A.; Ducey, Elizabeth J.; Seed, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5–12.5 Gy) of 60 Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans. (author)

  20. Effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in healthy and osteoartheritic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdurahman S.; Alballa, Sulaiman R.; Mustafa, Ali A.; Al-Tuwajiri, Ali S.; Al-Humayyad, M.S.; Al-Dalaan, Abdullah N.

    2004-01-01

    To ivestigate the effects of diclofenac alone or when combined with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in healthy and osteoartheritic (OA) patients. The study was carried out at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, KIgdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period 1999 to 2000. 12 healthy controls and 12 osteoartheritic patients were recruited to the study. They were given diclofenac 50mg thricedaily orally, initially for 5 days then alpha-tocopherol at 200mg thrice daily orally, was added for another 5 days. Blood samples were drawn before the start of study and at 5 days following treatmentwith diclofenac alone and 10 days following treatment with diclophenac and alpha-tocopherol. Chemiluminescence (CL)reponse was measured for wohle blood and isolated (PMNs) on all samples. Diclofenac enhanced CL response of whole blood and PMNs of healthy controls when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan (OPZ). Cotreatment with alpha-tocopherol resulted in no appreciable change in the CL response of whole blood when stimulated with PMA or OPZ but a further significant enhancement of CL response of isolated PMNs when these cells were stimulated by either PMA or OPZ. In osteoartheritic patients, diclofenac alone and when combined with alpha-tocopherol showed no significant change in CL response of the whole blood.The CL response of PMNs from OA patients was decreased by diclofenac alone. However the inhibitory effect was not observed when alpha-tocopherol was used together with diclofenac. The effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol did not produce a consistent effect on the CL response of whole blood or isolated PMNs of healthy or osteoartheritic patients. (author)

  1. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Determinacao de alpha-tocoferol em alho irradiado utilizando cromatografia liquida de alta frequencia (CLAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: riosmagda@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the {alpha}-tocopherol concentration were studied. The {alpha}-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The {alpha}-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic {alpha}-tocopherol content. (author)

  2. Determination of beta-carotene and lutein available from green leafy vegetables by an in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2005-04-20

    Green leafy vegetables (Spinacea oleracea, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, and Solanum americanum) contain a high amount of beta-carotene (27-52 mg/100 g of dry sample) and lutein (140-193 mg/100 g of dry sample). The amount of beta-carotene and lutein released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes ranged from 22 to 67% and from 27 to 77%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the enzymatic release of carotenoids (lutein + beta-carotene) and the content of Klason lignin, nonstarch polysaccharides, and resistant protein. The carotenoids released by the in vitro colonic fermentation ranged from 2 to 11%, and part of them (0.251-4.03 mg/100 g of original dry sample) remained intact in the fermentation media and could be potentially absorbed in the colon. A significant part of carotenoids seems to be unavailable in the intestinal tract (16% in S. oleracea to 58% in C. aconitifolius).

  3. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by {alpha}-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.H. [Busan Regional Food and Drug Administration, Busan 608-829 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Song, H.P. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and {alpha}-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm {alpha}-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of {alpha}-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of {alpha}-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and {alpha}-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of {alpha}-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation.

  4. Atrophic Gastritis and the Risk of Incident Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Kamangar, Farin; Marcus, Pamela M.; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous studies evaluating whether risk factors for gastric cancer are also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results. We prospectively examined the association of atrophic gastritis, a pre-malignant condition for gastric cancer and long-term sequelae common to many exposure factors, and the risk of incident CRC. Methods A total of 20,928 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, who were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) had serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) levels measured. Participants with low SPGI levels (gastritis was histologically confirmed in 1,006 (95.0%) participants. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the risk of incident CRC. Results During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (236,258 person-years), 425 incident CRC were diagnosed. The incidence rates were 1.82, 1.48, and 1.82 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up for participants with normal SPGI (≥25 µg/l), low SPGI, and histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal SPGI, there was no increased risk of CRC among subjects with low SPGI (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.47–1.05) and among those with histologically-confirmed atrophic gastritis (Adjusted HR = 0.86; 95%CI: 0.55–1.34). Conclusions Atrophic gastritis is not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer among male smokers. PMID:19838812

  5. Plants for human health: Stable isotope approaches to assess the vitamin A value of biofortified Golden Rice and high beta-carotene maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem, especially in populations of the developing world where staple foods, such as rice, wheat, and maize, make up a significant portion of daily caloric intake. Seeds of these crops contain little to no provitamin A carotenoids (e.g., beta-carotene...

  6. Effect of home processing and storage on ascorbic acid and beta-carotene content of Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of selected processing and storage methods on the concentration of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in Bathua and fenugreek leaves. Methods included storage of leaves with or without polythene bags for 24 and 48 h in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C; at 30 degrees C in polythene bags; drying (sun and oven); blanching (5, 10, 15 min); open pan and pressure cooking. Ascorbic acid content of fresh leaves was 220.97 to 377.65 mg and beta-carotene content was 19.00 to 24.64 mg/100 g, DW. The percent loss of ascorbic acid ranged from 2.03 to 8.77 and 45.15 to 66.9 while lower losses (0.0 to 1.75 and 1.63 to 2.84) of beta-carotene were observed in leaves stored in the refrigerator and at 30 degrees C, respectively. A markedly greater reduction in ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was observed in dried, blanched and cooked leaves. The study data suggest that storage of leaves in refrigeration, drying in oven, blanching for a short time and cooking in a pressure cooker results in better retention of these two vitamins.

  7. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  8. Beta-Cryptoxanthin- and alpha-carotene-rich foods have greater apparent bioavailability than beta-carotene-rich foods in Western diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Beta-carotene (BC), beta-cryptoxanthin (CX) and alpha-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form vitamin A (VA). Conversion ratios for VA formation have been set at 12:1 for BC- and 24:1 for CX- and AC-rich foods, respectively. These conversion ratios are based on chemical structure...

  9. Effects of bioactive compounds from carrots (Daucus carota L.), polyacetylenes, beta-carotene and lutein on human lymphoid leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana G; Brandt, Kirsten; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2012-07-01

    New therapies for leukaemia are urgently needed. Carrots have been suggested as a potential treatment for leukaemia in traditional medicine and have previously been studied in other contexts as potential sources of anticancer agents. Indicating that carrots may contain bioactive compounds, which may show potential in leukaemia therapies. This study investigated the effects of five fractions from carrot juice extract (CJE) on human lymphoid leukaemia cell lines, together with five purified bioactive compounds found in Daucus carota L, including: three polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and two carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein). Their effects on induction of apoptosis using Annexin V/PI and Caspase 3 activity assays analysed via flow cytometry and inhibition of cellular proliferation using Cell Titer Glo assay and cell cycle analysis were investigated. Treatment of all three lymphoid leukaemia cell lines with the fraction from carrot extracts which contained polyacetylenes and carotenoids was significantly more cytotoxic than the 4 other fractions. Treatments with purified polyacetylenes also induced apoptosis in a dose and time responsive manner. Moreover, falcarinol and falcarindiol-3-acetate isolated from Daucus carota L were more cytotoxic than falcarindiol. In contrast, the carotenoids showed no significant effect on either apoptosis or cell proliferation in any of the cells investigated. This suggests that polyacetylenes rather than beta-carotene or lutein are the bioactive components found in Daucus carota L and could be useful in the development of new leukemic therapies. Here, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of polyacetylenes have been shown to be exerted via induction of apoptosis and arrest of cell cycle.

  10. Effect of D-Alpha Tocopherol Therapy towards Malondialdehyde Level and Histology of Kidney in Rattus norvegicus with MLD-STZ Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Agnestiansyah Mahardhian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Nephropathy is a kidney disease which occurs due to complication of diabetes mellitus  as a consequence of the damage of the kidney endothelial cells. Hyperglicemia condition in patients with diabetes mellitus that induces an oxidative stress, were related to endothelial cell damage. Oxidative stress as a result of hyperglycemia will activate a number of signal transduction pathways resulting in increase of  free radicals. D-alpha tocopherol as one of antioxidant substance, that can act as an inhibitor of free radical chain reactions, play an important role in the reduction of the oxidative stress effect. Effect of D-alpha-tocopherol in reducing oxidative stress is identified by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in kidney and histology of kidney. This study used five groups mice; they were a control group, a diabetic group which was induced with MLD-STZ, and a therapeutic groups with a varieties doses of D-alpha tocopherol (100 mg/kgBW, 200 mg/kgBW and 300 mg/kgBW. The results showed that the D-alpha tocopherol was able to reduce the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and repair the histology of kidney of mice induced by MLD-STZ.

  11. The alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E reverses age-associated susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection by modulating pulmonary neutrophil recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus pneumonia infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. Uncontrolled neutrophil-driven pulmonary inflammation exacerbates this disease. To test whether the alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) form of vitamin E, a regulator of immunity, can modulate neutrophil...

  12. Trolox, a Water-Soluble Analogue of alpha-Tocopherol, Photoprotects the Surface-Exposed Regions of the Photosystem II Reaction Center in Vitro. Is This Physiologically Relevant?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arellano, J.B.; Li, H.; Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Gutierrez, J.; Melo, T.B.; Vácha, František; Naqvi, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 39 (2011), s. 8291-8301 ISSN 0006-2960 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : SINGLET OXYGEN SCAVENGER * PHOTOSENSITIZED OXIDATION * BETA-CAROTENE Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.422, year: 2011

  13. Production of antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E, by two-step culture of Euglena gracilis Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, H; Kanamaru, A; Yoshino, Y; Kakuta, H; Kawamura, Y; Matsunaga, T

    1997-01-20

    Euglena gracilis Z is one of the few microorganisms which simultaneously produces antioxidant vitamins such as beta-carotene and vitamins C and E. Photoheterotrophically cultured E. gracilis Z produced larger levels of biomass but with a lower content of antioxidant vitamins than photoautotrophically grown cultures. For efficient production of these vitamins, a two-step culture was performed. Cells were grown photoheterotrophically and then transferred to photoautotrophic conditions. When E. gracilis Z cells were grown in fed-batch culture under photoheterotrophic conditions, their density reached 19 g/L after 145 h. Subsequent transfer of these cells to photoautotrophic conditions increased vitamin content, enhancing the total vitamin yields, which were 71.0 mg/L of beta-carotene, 30.1 mg/L of vitamin E, and 86.5 mg/L of vitamin C. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extracts from tomatoes, papaya and orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammed, M.A.; Bello, I.A.; Oladoye, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric equation model for the simultaneous determination of lycopene and Beta-carotene concentrations in a mixture of carotenoids is proposed. Lycopene could be exclusively determined (with the relative accuracy of more than 95%) using the absorbance data at 502 nm. Because quantifying the Beta-carotene concentration in a carotenoid minture using the sole absorbance at 450 nm is prone to error, an equation to determine the concentration of this compound from the absorbances data at two wavelengths was modeled. Using the modeled equations to re-check the molar absorptivity of lycopene at 472 nm, the value obtained was about 98% close to the value reported in literature. The relative accuracy of the predicted concentrations of two carotenoids using the modeled equations is a function of the ratio of these carotenoids in the samples. (author)

  15. Estimating rapidly and precisely the concentration of beta carotene in mango homogenates by measuring the amplitude of optothermal signals, values of chromaticity indices and the intensities of Raman peaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Dimitrovski, D.; Luterotti, S.; Tiwisk, van C.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Doka, O.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative information about the micronutrients (including beta carotene) in mango fruit is often desired. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry (SP), the two widely used methods in practice to quantify carotenoids, both require a time consuming and expensive

  16. Changes in levels of serum beta-carotene, vitamin A and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assessed for serum vitamin A, β - carotene and total cholesterol levels with their matched control (n = 20). The mean age and standard deviation of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients was 34.75± 6.57 while the mean age and standard deviation for controls was ...

  17. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with Beta-carotene, vitamin a, and vitamin e singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias.......Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias....

  18. The administration of beta carotene to prevent and regress oral carcinoma in the hamster cheek pouch and the associated enhancement of the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L; Shklar, G; Flynn, E; Trickler, D

    1990-01-01

    In the past four years this laboratory has utilized the hamster cheek pouch tumor model to investigate the anticancer activities of antioxidants, such as beta carotene. These molecules, which have exhibited no evidence of toxicity, have been administered systemically (oral ingestion), and locally to the tumor site in the hamster cheek pouch. The results have been either the inhibition of tumor growth, or the regression of tumor. Adjacent to the degenerating tumors a dense inflammatory infiltrate was observed. Specifically, the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta, have been immunohistochemically localized to the site of regressed oral carcinoma. Recently, liposomes composed of phosphaditylcholine, phosphaditylserine, and phosphodityelanolamine were combined with beta carotene and injected locally to oral squamous cell carcinoma of the hamster. The results indicated that tumor cells accumulated the liposomes and were lysed while normal mucosal cells did not demonstrate this effect. Therefore antioxidants such as beta carotene can be localized to a tumor site, without a toxic response. Future studies on the anticancer activity of the antioxidants need to focus on the cellular and molecular changes produced in the immune effectors and in the mucosal cells following administration of the antioxidants.

  19. Redox-sensitive self-assembled nanoparticles based on alpha-tocopherol succinate-modified heparin for intracellular delivery of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoye; Cai, Xiaoqing; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2017-06-15

    To remedy the problems riddled in cancer chemotherapy, such as poor solubility, low selectivity, and insufficient intra-cellular release of drugs, novel heparin-based redox-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles were developed. The amphiphilic polymer, heparin-alpha-tocopherol succinate (Hep-cys-TOS) was synthesized by grafting hydrophobic TOS to heparin using cystamine as the redox-sensitive linker, which could self-assemble into nanoparticles in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with low critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values ranging from 0.026 to 0.093mg/mL. Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles were prepared via a dialysis method, exhibiting a high drug-loading efficiency of 18.99%. Physicochemical properties of the optimized formulation were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Subsequently, the redox-sensitivity of Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles was confirmed by the changes in size distribution, morphology and appearance after dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Besides, the in vitro release of PTX from Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles also exhibited a redox-triggered profile. Also, the uptake behavior and pathways of coumarin 6-loaded Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles were investigated, suggesting the nanoparticles could be taken into MCF-7 cells in energy-dependent, caveolae-mediated and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis manners. Later, MTT assays of different PTX-free and PTX-loaded formulations revealed the desirable safety of PTX-free nanoparticles and the enhanced anti-cancer activity of PTX-loaded Hep-cys-TOS nanoparticles (IC 50 =0.79μg/mL). Apoptosis study indicated the redox-sensitive formulation could induce more apoptosis of MCF-7 cells than insensitive one (55.2% vs. 41.7%), showing the importance of intracellular burst release of PTX. Subsequently, the hemolytic toxicity confirmed the safety of the nanoparticles for intravenous administration. The results

  20. Prospective study of serum cysteine and cysteinylglycine and cancer of the head and neck, esophagus, and stomach in a cohort of male smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranti, Eugenia H; Freedman, Neal D; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Abnet, Christian C; Selhub, Jacob; Murphy, Gwen; Diaw, Lena; Männistö, Satu; Taylor, Philip R; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2016-09-01

    The nonessential amino acid cysteine is known to be involved in many antioxidant and anticarcinogenic pathways. Cysteinylglycine is a pro-oxidant metabolite of glutathione and a precursor of cysteine. To examine the relation between serum cysteine and cysteinylglycine and risk of gastric adenocarcinomas, esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention study of male Finnish smokers aged 50-69 y at baseline. In total, 170 gastric adenocarcinomas, 68 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 270 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry) were matched one-to-one with cancer-free control subjects on age and the date of serum collection. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs with the use of a multivariate-adjusted conditional logistic regression. Cysteine had a U-shaped association with gastric adenocarcinomas; a model that included a linear and a squared term had a significant global P-test (P = 0.036). Serum cysteinylglycine was inversely associated with adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia (OR for above the median compared with below the median: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.70; n = 38 cases) but not for other sites. Both cysteine and cysteinylglycine were not associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We observed associations between serum cysteine and cysteinylglycine with upper gastrointestinal cancer risk. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings. This trial was registered at clininicaltrials.gov as NCT00342992. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Study of the antioxidant effect of {alpha}-tocopherol on low-density lipoprotein peroxidation induced at low and high {gamma}-radiation dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Abdelouahed [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)]. E-mail: abdelouahed.khalil@usherbrooke.ca; Milochevitch, Christelle [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    It is well known that vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol, {alpha}-toc) is a very efficient lipid soluble antioxidant and several studies showed its beneficial action in the prevention and reduction of atherosclerosis. However, some in vitro studies suggest a prooxidant role of vitamin E, which could occur under given circumstances. This study was thus designed to investigate the antioxidant vs. prooxidant effect of vitamin E with regards to LDL peroxidation induced under different oxidative stress conditions. LDL was enriched with {alpha}-tocopherol and different {alpha}-toc/LDL ratios were studied (8.0{+-}2.5, 14.3{+-}3.0, 33.3{+-}3.7, 42.7{+-}3.5 and 48.2{+-}4.5 molecules of {alpha}-toc/LDL particle). Enriched and control LDL were oxidized by action of {sup {center_dot}}OH and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} free radicals produced by {gamma}-radiolysis at different dose rates. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was examined by the measure of conjugated diene and TBARS formation as well as LDL endogenous {alpha}-toc disappearance. Increasing LDL {alpha}-toc concentration reduced the LDL susceptibility to oxidation and their oxidizability. {alpha}-toc disappearance rates were comprised between 43 and 8.3x10{sup -10} M s{sup -1} and decreased with the radiation dose rate. Our results support an antioxidant role for {alpha}-tocopherol at high and low oxidative stress conditions.

  2. Microencapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins with different fatty acid composition: Kinetic stability of astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andrés; Masson, Lilia; Velasco, Joaquín; Del Valle, José Manuel; Robert, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a natural source of astaxanthin (AX). However, AX loses its natural protection when extracted from this microalga. In this study, a supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of H. pluvialis was obtained and added to oils with different fatty acid compositions (sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO)). The oleoresins of H. pluvialis ((SO+SFE) and (HOSO+SFE)) were encapsulated with Capsul by spray drying. The stability of the oleoresins and powders were studied at 40, 50 and 70° C. AX and alpha-tocopherol (AT) degradation followed a zero-order and first-order kinetic model, respectively, for all systems. The encapsulation of oleoresins improved the stability of AX and AT to a greater extent in oleoresins with a monounsaturated fatty acid profile, as shown by the significantly lowest degradation rate constants and longest half-lives. Therefore, the encapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins is an alternative to developing a functional ingredient for healthy food design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. beta-carotene attenuates the paradoxical effect of tobacco smoke on the mortality of rats after experimental myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Sergio A R; Novo, Rosangela; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Matsubara, Luiz S; Azevedo, Paula S; Minicucci, Marcos F; Campana, Alvaro O; Zornoff, Leonardo A M

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke (ETS) in rats that were or were not supplemented with dietary beta-carotene (BC), on ventricular remodeling and survival after myocardial infarction (MI). Rats (n = 189) were allocated to 4 groups: the control group, n = 45; group BC administered 500 mg/kg diet, n = 49, BC supplemented rats; group ETS, n = 55, rats exposed to tobacco smoke; and group BC+ETS, n = 40. Wistar rats weighing 100 g were administered one of the treatments until they weighed 200 to 250 g (approximately 5 wk). The ETS rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 min 4 times/d, in a chamber connected to a smoking device. After reaching a weight of 200-250 g, rats were subjected to experimental MI (coronary artery occlusion) and mortality rates were determined over the next 105 d. In addition, echocardiographic, isolated heart, morphometrical, and biochemical studies were performed. Mortality data were tested using Kaplan-Meyer curves and other data by 2-way ANOVA. Survival rates were greater in the ETS group (58.2%) than in the control (33.3%) (P = 0.001) and BC+ETS rats (30.0%) (P = 0.007). The groups did not differ in the other comparisons. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter normalized to body weight was greater and maximal systolic pressures were lower in the ETS groups than in non-ETS groups. Previous exposure to tobacco smoke induced a process of cardiac remodeling after MI. There is a paradoxical protector effect with tobacco smoke exposure, characterized by lower mortality, which is offset by BC supplementation.

  4. Imidazole and beta-carotene photoprotection against photodynamic therapy evaluated by synchrotron infrared microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, Gabriela N.; Parisi, Julieta; García Einschlag, Fernando S.; Mártire, Daniel O.

    2018-04-01

    In order to better understand the role of β-carotene and imidazole on the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) mechanism, synchrotron infrared microscopy was used to detect the associated intracellular biochemical modifications following the visible light irradiation of HeLa cells incubated with these compounds as typical hydrophobic and hydrophilic singlet oxygen quenchers, respectively. For this purpose, PDT was performed employing the hydrophilic sensitizer 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridinio) porphyrin tetra (p-toluenesulfonate), TMPyP, and the hydrophobic sensitizer 5-(4-Methoxycarboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin. The single cell IR spectra of PDT-treated, PDT plus quencher-treated and control HeLa cells were recorded at the SOLEIL Synchrotron Infrared SMIS beamline targeting specifically the cell nucleus. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assess the IR spectral changes. PCA revealed that there is a frequency shift of the protein Amide I vibrational band for the assays with the TMPyP sensitizer, indicating changes in the protein secondary structures of the PDT-treated cancer cells compared to the controls. In addition, the scores in those cells treated with both quenchers appear to be similar to the controls indicating a photoprotective effect. Comparative experiments carried out with SKMEL-28 and HaCat cells showed non- significant photoprotective effects of β-carotene and imidazole.

  5. Antioxidant potentials of Iranian Carica papaya juice in vitro and in vivo are comparable to alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Sanaz; Yasa, Narges; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Khorasani, Reza; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2006-07-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated throughout the world and is used as a food and also as a traditional medicine, particularly as an antiseptic and contraceptive. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological and antioxidant potential of dried C. papaya juice in vitro and in vivo. The oral LD(50) of the juice of C. papaya was determined, and the antioxidant potentials determined by DPPH and FRAP tests. In vivo examination was performed after oral administration of dried papaya juice to rats for 2 weeks at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood TBARS and FRAP assays were used to determine the potential of the juice to act against oxidative stress. The acute toxicity test (LD(50)) demonstrated that papaya juice is not lethal up to a dose of 1500 mg/kg after oral administration and thus is considered nontoxic. In treated groups, no sign of toxicity was observed. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant effects of papaya showed that the highest antioxidant activity (80%) was observed with a concentration of 17.6 mg/mL. Blood lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly after administration of all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 35.5%, 39.5% and 40.86% of the control, respectively, compared with a value of 28.8% for vitamin E. The blood total antioxidant power was increased significantly by all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 11.11%, 23.58% and 23.14% of the control, respectively. The value for vitamin E was 18.44%. This preliminary study indicates the safety and antioxidative stress potential of the juice of C. papaya, which was found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha-tocopherol.

  6. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...

  7. EFFECTS OF L-ASCORBIC ACID AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SWIMMING-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SERUM OF GUINEA PIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać-Mitrović, Marija; Milovanović, Dragan R; Mitić, Radoslav; Jovanović, Danijela; Sovrlić, Miroslav; Vasiljević, Perica; Tomović, Jovica; Manojlović, Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase in the serum of guinea pigs. The experimental measurements of intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase were done in the serum of guinea pigs. The animals were exposed to the test load to achieve exhaustion and the test was terminated when the animal for the third time to sink into the water. The results of this study demonstrated that endurance exercise of guinea pigs induced oxidative stress response in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and activity of xanthine oxidase in the serum of experimental animals. Our study investigated the antioxidant activity of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol also measuring three protective markers in the serum: total antioxidant activity, content of glutathione and activity of catalase. The results obtained show that the vitamins influence the concentrations of above mentioned biochemical parameters, which points out their protective effect of swimming-induced oxidative stress. Single or combined administration of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol caused significant inhibition of these markers indicating the important antioxidant activity of the vitamins. Results lead to conclude that the combined treatments with vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise showed the clear synergistic effect..

  8. A quantitative approach to the free radical interaction between alpha-tocopherol and the coantioxidants eugenol, resveratrol or ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoma, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Mariko; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2006-01-01

    The regeneration of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E; VE) by coantioxidants such as phenolics and ascorbate has been studied in homogeneous hydrocarbon solution and in biological systems. However, VE phenoxyl radicals (VE*) may be sufficiently reactive to cooxidize phenolic compounds and ascorbates. The coantioxidant behavior of some relevant phenols such as eugenol (EUG), isoeugenol (IsoEUG), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (DTBMP), trans-resveratrol (RES) and L-ascorbyl-2,6-dibutyrate (ASDB; an ascorbate derivative) with the antioxidant VE at a molar ratio of 1:1 was investigated by the induction period (IP) method in the kinetics of polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN; a source of alkyl radicals, R*) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO; a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO*) under nearly anaerobic conditions. Synergism, implying regeneration of VE by the coantioxidant, was observed with only two of these combinations, VE/EUG with PhCOO* and VE/DTBMP with R*. For other mixtures of VE with a phenolic coantioxidant, VE was able to cooxidize the phenolic. Regeneration can only be observed if the bond dissociation energy (BDE) of the coantioxidant is lower than, or at least close to, that of VE. The driving force for regeneration of VE by EUG may be removal of the semiquinone radical of EUG by VE, leading to the formation of VE and EUG-quinonemethide, even though the BDE value of EUG is greater by 5.8 kcal/mol than that of VE. Further evidence for this mechanism of regeneration is provided by the value of approximately 2 for the stoichiometric factor (n) of EUG induced by PhCOO*, but not by R*, again implying the formation of EUG-quinonemethide. The regeneration of VE by DTBMP in the R* system may result from their much smaller difference in BDE (0.1-1.3 kcal/mol). Since VE is rapidly oxidized by PhCOO*, regeneration of VE by DTBMP was not found in this system. The observed IP for the VE

  9. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in patients with Behçet's disease: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, A; Ozsoy, E; Biberoğlu, G; Bilgihan, A; Hasanoğlu, A; Yis, M O; Atahan, C; Oruk, S

    2003-11-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystemic disease characterized by activation and remission periods. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known; a genetic defect in the immunoregulatory system induced by infectious agents, like viruses and bacteria, is thought to cause the disease. In this study, we examine the serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in Behçet's disease patients and investigate the relationship between these serum levels and the activation of the disease. We conclude that adding vitamin E to the treatment of Behçet's disease patients and its effects on the prognosis of the disease need to be further investigated by controlled studies.

  10. Effects of the Combination Therapy with ‍Candesartan and Alpha Tocopherol on Brain injury and Edema Following Brain Ischemia in Experimental Model of Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Panahpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Stroke is third leading cause of death and disability in the most of human communities. Several experimental studies have shown that combination therapy with drugs that act via different mechanisms can produce amplified protective effects. We examined the effects of combination therapy with candesartan and alpha tocopherol against cerebral ischemia. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=24: sham, control ischemic, candesartan treated (0.3 mg/kg, alpha tocopherol treated (30 mg/kg and combined treated ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 90-min-long occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery followed by 24-h-long reperfusion. Neurological deficit score was evaluated at the end of the reperfusion period. Thereafter, the animals were randomly used for measurement of the infarct volumes and investigation of ischemic brain edema formation using a wet/dry method. Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia produced considerable brain infarction in conjunction with severely impaired motor functions and edema formation. Combined treatment with candesartan and alpha tocopherol significantly reduced the infarct volume and lowered the water content in the ischemic lesioned hemisphere. These effects on brain edema and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly more than the monotherapy with candesartan. Conclusion: The combination therapy with candesartan and alpha tocopherol can noticeably decrease ischemic brain injury and attenuate edema formation likely via increasing the antioxidant activity.

  11. The Effect of Vitamin Supplementation on Oxidative Stress During Strenuous Cold Weather Training at Moderate Altitude

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Donald

    1999-01-01

    ...) 500 mg ascorbic acid; (2) 400 lU alpha-tocopherol; (3) 20,000 U Beta-carotene; (4) 500 mg ascorbic acid, 400 U alpha- tocopherol, 20,000 U Beta-carotene, 100 microng selenium, and 30 mg zinc; or (5...

  12. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  13. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  14. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation trial in Bangladesh: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Massie, Allan; Schulze, Kerry; Hackman, Andre; West, Keith P

    2011-04-21

    We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE)), beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE) or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and infectious morbidity, infant infectious morbidity

  15. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  16. Acceleration of lipid peroxidation in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein-knockout mice following the consumption of drinking water containing a radical initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasukazu; Hayakawa, Mieko; Cynshi, Osamu; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Niki, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    To assess the antioxidative role of vitamin E (VE) in a mouse model of severe VE deficiency by using biomarkers, alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP(-/-))-knockout mice were maintained on a VE-deficient diet for 28 weeks [KO group, n = 6]. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a diet containing 0.002% alpha-tocopherol [WT group, n = 6]. The animals were housed individually in a metabolic cage from the age of 9 weeks (Week 0) to 27 weeks. Urine was collected every week, and the levels of total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), 7-hydroxycholesterol (t7-OHCh), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha)(t8-isoPGF(2alpha)), which are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation, were measured by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. From the age of 21 weeks (Week 12), three mice in each group were provided drinking water containing the water-soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl)propane] dihydrochloride (AIPH) until the end of the study (Week 19). Blood and tissue samples were collected, and the levels of the abovementioned biomarkers therein were assessed. AIPH consumption clearly elevated the plasma and erythrocyte levels of tHODE and t8-isoPGF(2alpha) in both the WT and KO groups except for the erythrocyte level of tHODE in the WT group. Furthermore, this elevation was more prominent in the KO group than in the WT group. Interestingly, AIPH consumption reduced the stereoisomer ratio of HODE (ZE/EE), which is reflective of the efficacy of a compound as an antioxidant in vivo; this suggests that free radical-mediated oxidation reduces the antioxidant capacity in vivo. The urine levels of tHODE, t7-OHCh, and t8-isoPGF(2alpha) tended to increase with AIPH consumption, but these individual levels fluctuated. It was clearly demonstrated by the proposed biomarkers that maintaining alpha-TTP(-/-) mice on a VE-deficient diet results in a severe VE deficiency and promotes lipid peroxidation.

  17. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH DALAM PEMBUATANBISKUIT KACANG KAYA BETA KAROTEN [Utilization of Red Palm Oil To Produce BetaCarotene-Rich Nuts Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyansyah Robiyansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to get formulation of red palm oil and cooking oil to produce nuts biscuits with the best organoleptic properties. The formula consisted of red palm oil and cooking oil mixture with 6 comparisons: (0:100, (20:80, (40:60, (60:40, (80:20 and (100:0. These formula were then used as basis to produce nuts biscuits. Observation was done on the organoleptic properties (aroma, texture, taste and color for all biscuits for all samples, while  proximates test (water, fat,protein,ash content and betacarotene content were done only for the best formulation. The data were descriptively analyzed and presented in tables and graphs. The best organoleptic properties of these betacarotene rich nuts biscuits was formulation of 20:80. This biscuits had water content 1,42%, ash content 1,21%, fat content 32,60%, protein content 12,59%, and the total of beta carotene 347,15 ppm, with the less normal for aroma (4,55, less crunchy for the texture (4,40, distinctive flavor beans for the taste (4,28, and yellowish for the color (4,50. Keywords: β-carotene, nuts biscuits,red palm oil.

  18. Trans-resveratrol and beta-carotene from sunscreens penetrate viable skin layers and reduce cutaneous penetration of UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J V; Praça, F S G; Bentley, M V L B; Gaspar, L R

    2015-04-30

    Cutaneous permeation is a critical parameter when topical application of sunscreens containing antioxidants is considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cutaneous penetration of most marketed UV-filters combined with trans-resveratrol (RES) and beta-carotene (BTC) since few studies report skin penetration when such compounds are applied. Formulations containing octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, avobenzone and bemotrizinole were prepared and supplemented or not with BTC, or with RES, or with both compounds in combination. Penetration studies were performed using Franz vertical diffusion cells and porcine ear skin as the biological membrane. The quantification of UV-filters and antioxidants in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis plus dermis and receptor fluid was performed by HPLC. Results suggested that UV-filters and antioxidants did not permeate the skin but were retained for 12h post application. About 90% and 80%, respectively, of the total penetrated amount of UV-filters and antioxidants was found in the SC. Interestingly, it was observed that BTC, alone or combined with RES, reduced the skin retention of UV-filters on average by 63%. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the combination of antioxidants and UV-filters in sunscreens is advantageous for cutaneous penetration, since BTC and BTC+RES improved sunscreen safety by reducing delivery of the four UV-filters in the study into SC and viable epidermis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Convenient solvatochromic probes for the determination of solvent properties: {beta}-carotene and 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoud, Omar A. El; Pires, Paulo A.R.; Loffredo, Carina; Imran, Muhammad; Pulcini, Paolo D.; Correa, Michelle F.; Mustafa, Rizwana, E-mail: elseoud@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-15

    Solvent dipolarity/polarizability (SDP) has been previously calculated from the UV-Vis spectra of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-7-nitro-9H-fluorene and 2-fluoro-7-nitro-9H- fluorene. Based on theoretical calculations (23 solvents) and experimental data (56 solvents), it is shown that 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene (commercially available) can be conveniently employed for the calculation of this property, instead of its 2-fluoro-7-nitro counterpart. The splitting of SDP into its components (solvent dipolarity (SD) and polarizability (SP)) requires the use of a synthetic polyene compound whose synthesis is laborious, involving 15 steps. Our research group has recently shown that the natural dye {beta}-carotene can be conveniently employed for the determination of SP, allowing the calculation of SD. Using these solvatochromic probes, SDP, SP and SD for a series of 1-bromo alkanes were calculated. For several homologous series, the dependence of solvent SDP (SD and SP for one series) on the number of carbon atoms in the 1-alkyl- or acyl-group was calculated and discussed. (author)

  20. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a radioactive gas that comes from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... show that living in areas with higher levels of air pollution increases the risk of lung cancer. Beta carotene ...

  1. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling (Tor tambra fingerlings fed a formulated diet with different doses of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlisin Zainal A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol in the diet of keureling, Tor tambra (Val. fingerlings for optimal growth performance and feed utilization. Five doses of vitamin E were tested: 0 mg kg−1 feed (control; 150 mg kg−1 feed; 300 mg kg−1 feed; 450 mg kg−1 feed; 600 mg kg−1. The feed ratio was 5% body weight, which was delivered twice daily at 08:00 and 17:00 for 60 days. The results showed that higher growth performance, feeding conversion ratios, feed efficiency, protein retention, and protein digestibility were obtained at 600 mg kg−1 feed, but the value was not significantly different from the other doses. The optimal dose in terms of the hepatosomatic index and survival rate was 300 mg kg−1. Hence, it was concluded that the optimum, most economical dose of vitamin E supplement for keureling (T. tambra was 150 mg kg−1 feed, because this value was not significantly different from the doses of 300 and 600 mg kg−1 feed.

  2. Comparison between lipolysis and compendial dissolution as alternative techniques for the in vitro characterization of alpha-tocopherol self-emulsified drug delivery systems (SEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hazem; Nazzal, Mahmoud; Zaghloul, Abdel-Azim A; Nazzal, Sami

    2008-03-20

    In vitro characterization of alpha-tocopherol SEDDS formulations was performed by (1) lipolysis in bio-relevant media, and (2) physical assessment by dissolution, particle size, and turbidity analyses. Both methods were statistically correlated using a 25-run, five-factor multiple-level d-optimal mixture design. Independent variables were SEDDS composition [vitamin E (12.5-25%), Tween 80 (10-40%), labrasol (0-10%), alcohol (0-10%), and captex 355 (20-50%)]. Measured responses were percent lipolysis, percent vitamin E retained in the aqueous layer of the digestion medium, and percent vitamin E dissolved in the dissolution medium. Percent lipolysis ranged from 0% to 66.3%. Percent vitamin E retrieved in the aqueous layer of the digestion and dissolution media ranged from 3% to 29.3% and from 25.9% to 101.7%, respectively. Turbidity ranged from 28 to 403JTU and the average droplet size was >1.0 microm. All formulation ingredients had significant (p<0.05) effect on percent lipolysis. Only two factors, Tween and vitamin E had significant effect on vitamin retention in the aqueous layer post-lipolysis. Tween, labrasol, and captex 355 had significant effect on vitamin E dissolution. Poor correlation was observed between the responses. Formulation ingredients influenced each response differently; and therefore, each method can only reveal distinctive characteristics of the SEDDS formulation and may not be used interchangeably.

  3. Incorporation of Sunflower Oil and d-alpha-tocopherol Effect on Mechanical Properties and Permeability of Corn Starch Composite Edible Film

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    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work sunflower oil (SO and vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol at three levels each (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/vtotal and (0.18%, 0.36% and 0.54% (w/vtotal were incorporated into corn starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR properties. The addition of SO and vitamin E increased elongation at break of starch-based film while decreased tensile strength and WVTR of starch-based film. The best edible film obtained on addition of sunflower oil concentration of 0.15% and 0.54%, vitamin E with a value of 0.121 mm thickness, tensile strength of 65.38 kg/cm2, elongation at break 14.17% and WVTR 1144 g/m2 24 hours.

  4. Gamma-tocopherol supplementation alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol alters biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Leonard, Scott; Traber, Maret G; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2008-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prospective clinical trials with alpha-tocopherol (AT) have not yielded positive results. Because AT supplementation decreases circulating gamma-tocopherol (GT), we evaluated supplementation with GT (800 mg/day), AT (800 mg/day), the combination or placebo for 6 weeks alone AT and GT concentrations, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and inflammation in subjects with MetS (n=20/group). Plasma AT and GT levels increased following supplementation with AT alone or GT alone or in combination. AT supplementation significantly decreased GT levels. Urinary alpha- and gamma-CEHC, metabolites of the respective Ts, also increased correspondingly, i.e., alpha-CEHC with AT and gamma-CEHC with GT supplementation, compared to placebo. HsCRP levels significantly decreased in the combined AT+GT group. LPS-activated whole blood release of IL-1 and IL-6 did not change. There was a significant decrease in TNF with AT alone or in combination with GT. Plasma MDA/HNE and lipid peroxides were significantly decreased with AT, GT, or in combination. Nitrotyrosine levels were significantly decreased only with GT or GT+AT but not with AT compared to placebo. Thus, the combination of AT and GT supplementation appears to be superior to either supplementation alone on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and needs to be tested in prospective clinical trials to elucidate its utility in CVD prevention.

  5. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option.

  6. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  7. Cor, betacaroteno e colesterol em gema de ovos obtidos de poedeiras que receberam diferentes dietas Color, beta-caroten and cholesterol in yolks of eggs by different diets of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marino e Biscaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é um alimento considerado nutricionalmente completo, e contém quantidade significativa de nutrientes. Para os consumidores, a qualidade deste alimento está relacionada com o prazo de validade do produto e com as características sensoriais, como cor da gema e da casca. Poucos estudos foram efetuados no Brasil sobre a utilização de agentes pigmentantes e seus efeitos sobre a coloração das gemas e proporção e qualidade química dos componentes do ovo. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com este trabalho relacionar diferentes dietas com cor, quantidade de betacaroteno e teor colesterol das gemas dos ovos. Foram coletados ovos de poedeiras que receberam 4 diferentes tipos de ração. A cor foi medida em colorímetro Minolta, o beta-caroteno separado em coluna e medido em espectrofotômetro e o colesterol extraído com clorofórmio e quantificado por método colorimétrico. Os resultados mostraram que não há relação entre a cor e aumento do teor de betacaroteno das gemas dos ovos, mas a alimentação alterou a cor da gema. O teor de colesterol foi diferente (pEgg is a nutritional complete food, and content significant quantity of nutrients. For the consumers, the food quality is related with validity date of product and with sensorial characteristics, like yolk color and hull. Few studies were done in Brazil about utilization of colorfull agents and theirs effects in yolk color and chemical quality of egg compounds. The objective of this research was related different feeds with the color, beta-carotene and cholesterol amount of egg yolk. Eggs were caught of laying hens that received 4 feed types. The color measure was done by Minolta colorimeter, beta-carotene separated by column and spectrophotometer and cholesterol separated with chloroform and measured by colorimetric method. The results showed that there is not a relation between the color an increase of beta-carotene amount in the yolks, but feed altered the yolk color. Cholesterol

  8. Concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de adolescentes e adultas Levels of alpha-tocopherol in maternal serum and colostrum of adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de puérperas adolescentes e adultas e verificar a adequação nutricional de vitamina E do colostro oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 72 puérperas, sendo 25 adolescentes e 47 adultas. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro em condição de jejum para análise dos níveis de alfa-tocoferol. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A adequação nutricional do colostro para a vitamina E foi calculada pelo produto do volume estimado de ingestão de leite com a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro e por comparação direta desse produto com o valor de referência para ingestão do nutriente (4 mg/dia. RESULTADOS: os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro de puérperas adolescentes e adultas foram, respectivamente, 30,8±9,8 e 34,1±9,5 µmol/L (média±DP. No colostro, as adolescentes apresentaram concentração de alfa-tocoferol de 32,9±15,8 µmol/L e as adultas de 30,4 ± 18,0 µmol/L, não sendo encontrada diferença significativa entre as concentrações séricas, assim como no colostro dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Tanto as puérperas adolescentes quanto as adultas apresentaram um estado nutricional satisfatório de vitamina E refletido no colostro cujos valores foram capazes de suprir o requerimento nutricional do lactente, sugerindo que a idade materna não influencia os níveis de alfa-tocoferol do colostro humano.PURPOSE: to assess the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the serum and colostrum of adolescent and adult mothers and to determine the nutritional adequacy of vitamin E in the colostrum offered to infants. METHODS: in total, 72 pregnant women participated in the study, 25 adolescents and 47 adults. An amount of 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected under fasting conditions for the analysis of alpha-tocopherol levels. The samples were analyzed by means of high

  9. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  10. Binding and uptake of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of {alpha}-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5`-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate-glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik; Schneider, W. [Steigerwald Arzneimittel, Darmstadt (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5`-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called `scavenger receptor` is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>{alpha}-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  11. The Alpha-Tocopherol Form of Vitamin E Boosts Elastase Activity of Human PMNs and Their Ability to Kill Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Elsa N. Bou Ghanem

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia. Using an aged mouse infection model, we previously showed that oral supplementation with the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E (α-Toc decreases pulmonary inflammation, in part by modulating neutrophil migration across lung epithelium into alveolar spaces, and reverses the age-associated decline in resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia. The objective of this study was to test the effect of α-Toc on the ability of neutrophils isolated from young (22–35 years or elderly (65–69 years individuals to migrate across epithelial cell monolayers in response to S. pneumoniae and to kill complement-opsonized pneumococci. We found that basal levels of pneumococcal-induced transepithelial migration by PMNs from young or elderly donors were indistinguishable, suggesting that the age-associated exacerbation of pulmonary inflammation is not due to intrinsic properties of PMNs of elderly individuals but rather may reflect the inflammatory milieu of the aged lung. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory activity, α-Toc treatment diminished PMN migration regardless of donor age. Unexpectedly, unlike previous studies showing poor killing of antibody-opsonized bacteria, we found that PMNs of elderly donors were more efficient at killing complement-opsonized bacteria ex vivo than their younger counterparts. We also found that the heightened antimicrobial activity in PMNs from older donors correlated

  12. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Hua; Lu, Ta-Jung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  13. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  14. Effect of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and alpha-Tocopherol Administration on Endogenous Antioxidant Protection of Liver DNA and RNA and plasma Lipid Profile in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Ashry, O.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study wasundertaken to evaluate the combined antioxidative capacity of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 120 mg/100g b. wt) and alpha tocopherol (10mg/100g b. wt.) injected intra peritoneally one h before irradiation of male rats. Whole body gamma irradiation (2Gy) induced significant elevation in liver DNA and significant drop in liver protein content, while liver RNA showed no significant changes. Triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol elevated significantly after irradiation, whereas no significant changes were observed in total cholesterol, while HDL-cholesterol significantly decreased. Blood and liver glutathione were significantly decreased, whereas plasma MDA was significantly increased. NAC and alpha-tocopherol injection elevated RNA and blood glutathione levels compared to control and depressed total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, as well as MDA in the liver. The combined treatment prior to irradiation decreased DNA, elevated RNA and normalized liver protein content. Triglycerides were decreased after 1 and 3 days and total cholesterol dropped significantly on the 1 st and 7 th days. LDL was ameliorated while HDL was significantly declined then elevated after 7 days. Blood glutathione was normalized while liver glutathione was significantly elevated and MDA was reduced both in liver and plasma. This combined treatment has proven to be recommended to enhance the natural defenses against deleterious effects of oxidative stress

  15. Efeito da suplementação com vitamina E sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro humano Effect of vitamin E supplementation on alpha-tocopherol levels in human colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro humano em condições de suplementação com cápsulas de vitamina A acrescidas de vitamina E sintética. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutadas para o estudo 30 parturientes saudáveis atendidas em uma maternidade pública. Após jejum noturno, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e de colostro (2 mL das parturientes. Após a primeira coleta, as mesmas receberam suplemento na forma de uma cápsula de palmitato de retinila (200000 UI ou 60 mg acrescido de vitamina E sintética (49,4 mg de dl-alfa-tocoferol. Após 24 horas da suplementação, foi realizada nova coleta de 2 mL de colostro, também em jejum. RESULTADOS: A concentração sérica de alfa-tocoferol foi de 1 042,9 ± 319,0 μg/dL. Os teores de alfa-tocoferol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 1155,4 ± 811,0 μg/dL, vs. 1396,3 ± 862,2 μg/dL 24 horas depois da suplementação (P > 0,05. Foi encontrada correlação entre o alfa-tocoferol do colostro na condição de jejum antes da suplementação e 24 horas após a suplementação (P = 0,001; r = 0,58, mas não entre soro e o colostro em nenhuma das condições acima citadas. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve aumento na concentração de alfa-tocoferol do colostro 24 horas após a suplementação. Isso indica que não é vantajoso suplementar a mãe com vitamina E sintética. Entretanto, os resultados também sugerem que, se o estado nutricional prévio à suplementação estiver adequado, mais tocoferol será encontrado no colostro após a suplementação. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para investigar o efeito da suplementação com a forma natural do alfa-tocoferol.OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of alpha-tocopherol in human colostrum following supplementation with capsules containing vitamin A plus synthetic vitamin E. METHODS: Thirty healthy women about to give birth were recruited from a public maternity hospital. After overnight fasting, blood samples as well as colostrum

  16. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12 e normotensos (n=12 com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica diária, durante 14 dias para cada dose, intercaladas por um período de wash-out de 7 dias; os grupos controle receberam apenas o veículo (óleo de coco. Foram ainda submetidos à avaliação ectoscópica para possível detecção de efeitos tóxicos ou interação entre nutrientes, e à análise dos parâmetros biológicos; a pressão sistólica foi aferida por pletismografia duas vezes na semana, em dias alternados. Após o período de suplementação os animais foram sacrificados, e tiveram o peso do fígado determinado pelo método de Scherle. RESULTADOS: A administração de beta-caroteno não levou a alterações dos parâmetros biológicos dos animais, assim como não foi detectado efeito tóxico. Quanto à pressão arterial sistólica, as duas linhagens apresentaram redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate if supplementation with supraphysiological doses of beta-carotene has a positive effect on controlling hypertension and detect possible adverse effects of this supplementation. METHODS: 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=12 and normotensive rats (n=12 were submitted to a basal period of 10 days, then divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and supplemented daily by orogastric gavage with beta-carotene in 3 different doses: 2.5mg, 3.75mg and 5.0mg/animal during 14 days for each dose that was inserted by a seven day wash-out period; control groups received only coconut oil. Animals were submitted to ectoscopic evaluation to

  17. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope

    2009-11-25

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.

  18. Influência da temperatura na solubilidade de beta-caroteno em solventes orgânicos à pressão ambiente Effect of temperature on the solubility of beta-carotene in organic solvents under ambient pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Três

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reporta dados experimentais de solubilidade em pressão ambiente de beta-caroteno em solventes orgânicos puros (etanol, acetona, acetato de etila e diclorometano e em misturas de tais solventes no intervalo de temperatura de 10 a 60 °C. Para este fim, adotou-se o método gravimétrico para a determinação da solubilidade, utilizando células encamisadas de equilíbrio. Os resultados mostraram que valores mais elevados de solubilidade são obtidos quando foram empregados solventes com parâmetros de solubilidade mais próximos daquele do soluto. Verificou-se que o aumento da temperatura, tanto para solventes puros, como para as misturas de solventes, acarretou num aumento da solubilidade do beta-caroteno para todas as condições experimentais. Observou-se ainda, que nas condições experimentais investigadas, não houve sinergismo significativo para as misturas de solventes quando comparadas aos valores de solubilidade obtidos para os solventes puros. O modelo UNIFAC se mostrou útil na previsão qualitativa dos resultados de solubilidade.This work reports experimental data of the solubility of beta-carotene in pure acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol and dichloromethane and in mixtures of these organic solvents in the temperature range of 10 to 60 °C under ambient pressure. The gravimetric method was employed to determine the solubility, using glass equilibrium cells. The results showed that the best solvents were those having solubility parameter values close to that of the solute. It was found that raising the temperature caused the solute solubility values for both pure and solvent mixtures to increase under all the experimental conditions. Moreover, no synergetic effects were observed on the solubility of beta-carotene in solvent mixtures compared to pure solvents in the temperature range investigated. The UNIFAC model proved to be useful in predicting the solubility data.

  19. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  20. Comparative Modulation of Levels of Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Treated Wistar Rats by Vitamin B12, Beta-Carotene, and Spirulina fusiformis: Role of NF-κB, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Martin, Sherry; Evan Prince, Sabina

    2017-11-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) are known hepatotoxic agents. We compared the efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis and its active components vitamin B12 and beta-carotene in attenuating INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity. We also tried to elucidate the inflammatory mechanism behind anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity. INH and RIF were administered to Wistar albino rats for 28 days to induce hepatotoxicity. S. fusiformis, vitamin B12, and beta-carotene were co-administered with INH and RIF and their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory roles were studied through blood and liver analysis. Changes induced by INH and RIF in antioxidants, cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) and expression of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) and Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) were also studied. Supplement treatment caused restoration of liver function parameters to normal levels along with reversal of inflammatory changes in IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Liver PCNA, iNOS, and NF-κB expression were reduced in the supplement treated tissues compared to INH and RIF treated rats as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Correlation of IL-6 levels, PCNA, and iNOS with NF-κB showed its pivotal role in the inflammatory process. Study shows the pivotal role of NF-kB and the equivalence in antioxidant efficacy of vitamin B12 and beta-carotene compared to Spirulina fusiformis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3825-3833, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Alpha-tocopherol transfer factor (aTTF) from rat liver mediates the transfer of d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol from liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts and exhibits saturation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdon, C.P.; Blumberg, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    aTTF was observed to transfer d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol (/sup 3/HaT) from egg lecithin liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts (EG). aTTF may be associated with the 32,000-35,000 MW alpha-Tocopherol Binding Protein previously described to transfer /sup 3/HaT from liposomes to rat liver microsomes and mitochondria prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation of rat liver cytosol followed by dialysis against 50 mM TRIS-HCl/1 mM EDTA buffer, pH 7.4. Assay for aTTF activity consisted of incubating liposomal /sup 3/HaT and EG in the presence of aTTF or buffer blank for various time periods at 37/sup 0/C, then counting the resulting radioactivity in washed EG after pelleting by centrifugation. Liposomes were prelabeled-with non-exchangable glycerol-(/sup 14/C)-trioleate to correct for liposomes adhering to pelleted EG. Greater than 50% of the tritium found with the EG pellet was recovered by HPLC as /sup 3/HaT. aTTF activity increased with increasing liposomal /sup 3/HaT concentration before reaching a plateau. aTTF activity was similarly saturated by increasing EG concentrations. The same assay conditions with buffer blank along resulted in negligible transfer activity.

  2. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  3. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro de lactantes e associação com variáveis maternas Alpha-tocopherol level in serum and colostrum of breastfeeding women and association with maternal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diagnosticar bioquimicamente o estado nutricional de vitamina E de lactantes por meio da análise do alfa-tocoferol no soro e no colostro, verificar sua associação com variáveis maternas e determinar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina E nessas mulheres. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 103 puérperas que foram classificadas quanto às seguintes variáveis maternas: idade, estado nutricional pré-gestacional, ganho de peso gestacional, paridade e tipo de parto. Amostras de soro e colostro foram coletadas em jejum no pós-parto imediato e o alfa-tocoferol foi analisado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Para definir o estado nutricional de vitamina E, foi adotado ponto de corte sérico (697,7 μg/dL. A análise estatística foi realizada com o uso do teste t de Student para amostras independentes e correlação de Pearson. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando pPURPOSE: To determine the nutritional status of vitamin E in breastfeeding women through the analysis of alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum, to analyze its relation with maternal variables and to determine the prevalence of vitamin E deficiency in these women. METHODS: The study included 103 mothers who were classified according to maternal variables: age, nutritional status before pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity and mode of delivery. Colostrum and serum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. Alpha-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A serum cutoff of 697.7 μg/dL was adopted to define the nutritional status of vitamin E. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t test for independent samples and Pearson's correlation. Differences were significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The average concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 1.125±551.0 μg/dL in colostrum and 1,138.6±346.0 μg/dL in serum, indicating adequate

  4. An Investigation into Some Effective Factors on Encapsulation Efficiency of Alpha-Tocopherol in MLVs and the Release Profile from the Corresponding Liposomal Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Hosseinali; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a natural antioxidant very useful for preventing the harmful effects of UV sun rays as skin aging and cancers. In this study, different MLV formulations were made using egg lecithin and varying molar ratios of α-tocopherol and/or cholesterol, and their encapsulation efficiencies were determined. The best liposomal product was incorporated into a carbomer 980 gel. The resulting preparation was then studied with regard to the rheology and release profile using r(2) values and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The encapsulation efficiency was dramatically decreased when using α-tocopherol at molar ratios of 1:10 or more, which is suggested to be due to the defect in regular linear structure of the bilayer membrane. Addition of cholesterol to formulations caused a decrease in encapsulation efficiency directly related to its molar ratio, which is due to the condensation of the bilayer membrane as well as competition of cholesterol with α-tocopherol. The liposomal gel showed a yield value of 78.5 ± 1.8 Pa and a plastic viscosity of 27.35 ± 2.3 cp. The release showed a two-phase pattern with the zero-order model being the best fitted model for the first phase. However, the "n" and r(2) values suggested a minor contribution of Higuchi model due to some diffusion of α-tocopherol from the outermost bilayers of the MLVs to the gel. The second phase showed a non-Fickian release indicating a more prominent role for diffusion. This combinational release profile provides a high initial concentration of α-tocopherol followed by a slow release throughout a 10 h period.

  5. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  6. Biochemical parameters as biomarkers for the early recognition of environmental pollution on Scots pine trees. II. The antioxidative metabolites ascorbic acid, glutathione, {alpha}-tocopherol and the enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Haertling, S. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Halle (Germany). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Field investigations with Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) were performed in eastern Germany, where ambient SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} concentrations differed significantly in 1992-99 at three sites, namely Neuglobsow (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 9 {mu}g m{sup -3}), Taura (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 54 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and Roesa (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 73 {mu}g m{sup -3}). To investigate the effects of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} on antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione, glutathione reductase, {alpha}-tocopherol) and pigments including chlorophyll fluorescence as well as visible damage symptoms in the form of needle yellowing and tip necroses, needles of the 1st and 2nd age class from young and mature trees were collected at the sites every October. Eight years after the start of the field study in 1992, the ambient SO{sub 2} concentrations had decreased significantly at Neuglobsow (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 4 {mu}g m{sup -3}), Taura (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 5 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and Roesa (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 5 {mu}g m{sup -3}). NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} differed less at the three sites and showed no temporal variations. Whole needle glutathione continuously decreased, although concentrations were higher in needles of the 1st and 2nd age class from the polluted sites Taura and Roesa than the unpolluted site Neuglobsow. The activities of glutathione reductase exhibited the same site-related differences and temporal variations and were correlated with concentrations of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In contrast, the activities of the enzyme superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of whole needle ascorbic acid remained unchanged over the period. Only at the end of the investigation period did the concentrations of oxidized ascorbic acid (dehydroascorbate) increase in six-month-old needles at the polluted sites Taura and Roesa. Despite the clear decreases in SO{sub 2}, the visible symptoms

  7. Kinetic study of the aroxyl radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol in methanol solution: notable effect of the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on the reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Abe, Kouichi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2009-10-08

    A kinetic study of the aroxyl (ArO*) radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TocH) has been performed in the presence of six kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiI, LiClO(4), NaI, NaClO(4), KI, and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) in methanol solution, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The decay rate of the ArO* for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased linearly with increasing concentration of metal salts. The second-order rate constants (k(s)) for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased in the order of no metal salt concentration of metal salts. For example, the k(s) values in methanol solution including 4.00 x 10(-1) M of LiI and Mg(ClO(4))(2) were 3.04 and 1.30 times larger than that in the absence of metal salts, respectively. The alkali and alkaline earth metal salts having smaller ionic radius of cation and anion and larger charge of cation gave larger rate constants (k(s)). Effects of metal cations on the UV-vis absorption spectra of the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical were negligible in methanol solution, suggesting that the complex formation between the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical molecule and metal cations is hindered by the hydrogen bond between radical and methanol molecules. The results indicate that the hydrogen transfer reaction of alpha-TocH proceeds via an electron transfer intermediate from alpha-TocH to ArO* radicals followed by proton transfer. Both the coordinations of metal cations to the one-electron reduced anions of ArO* (ArO: (-)) and of counteranions to the one-electron oxidized cations of alpha-TocH (alpha-TocH(+)*) may stabilize the intermediate, resulting in the acceleration of electron transfer. On the other hand, the effect of metal salts on the rate of bimolecular self-reaction (2k(d)) of the alpha-Toc* radical was not observed. The result suggests that the hydrogen transfer reaction between two alpha-Toc* radical molecules proceeds via a one-step hydrogen atom transfer mechanism rather than via an

  8. Biokinetics of dietary RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the male guinea pig at three dietary levels of vitamin C and two levels of vitamin E. Evidence that vitamin C does not spare vitamin E in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Wronska, U.; Stone, L.; Foster, D.O.; Ingold, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    The net rates of uptake of new and loss of old 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol (RRR-alpha-TOH) have been measured in the blood and in nine tissues of male guinea pigs over an eight week period by feeding diets containing deuterium-labelled alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc). There was an initial two week lead-in period during which 24 animals [the high vitamin E (HE) group] received diets containing 36 mg of unlabelled (d0) RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg of ascorbic acid per kg diet, while another 24 animals [the low vitamin E (LE) group] received diets containing 5 mg d0-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg ascorbic acid per kg diet. The HE group was then divided into three equal subgroups, which were fed diets containing 36 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5000 mg [the high vitamin C (HEHC) subgroup], 250 mg [the normal vitamin C (HENC) subgroup] and 50 mg [the low vitamin C (HELC) subgroup] ascorbic acid per kg diet. One animal from each group was sacrificed each week and the blood and tissues were analyzed for d0- and d6-RRR-alpha-TOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The LE group was similarly divided into three equal subgroups with animals receiving diets containing 5 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5,000 mg (LEHC), 250 mg (LENC) and 50 mg (LELC) ascorbic acid per kg diet with a similar protocol being followed for sacrifice and analyses. In the HE group the total (d0(-) + d6-) RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations in blood and tissues remained essentially constant over the eight week experiment, whereas in the LE group the total RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations declined noticeably. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of old d0-RRR-alpha-TOH nor in the concentrations of new d6-RRR-alpha-TOH found in any tissue at a particular time between the HEHC, HENC and HELC subgroups, nor between the LEHC, LENC and LELC subgroups

  9. Ascorbic acid and alpha - tocopherol ameliorate chloroquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .v14i2.36733 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  10. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  11. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  12. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  13. Concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno séricos e perfil nutricional de crianças em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, and nutritional status of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilane Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações séricas de retinol e beta-caroteno de pré-escolares em Teresina, Piauí, com caracterização do perfil antropométrico e do consumo alimentar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 135 crianças em creche municipal, com avaliação do estado nutricional pelos métodos: bioquímico (concentração sérica de retinol e beta-caroteno, antropométrico (índices de peso para estatura - P/E e estatura para idade - E/I e dietético (freqüência de consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA de 8,9% (IC95%: 4,7 - 15,0% e existência de associação entre suplementação anterior e concentrações de retinol, com maior proporção de crianças com níveis normais de retinol entre as suplementadas (p = 0,025. As concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno mostraram-se correlacionadas, porém com força leve a moderada (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate their anthropometric profile and consumption of food sources of vitamin A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 135 children from 36 to 83 months of age who attended a public child day care center. Nutritional status was evaluated by: biochemical (serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, anthropometric (weight for height - W/H and height for age - H/A indexes, and dietary (frequency of consumption of food sources of vitamin A methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD was 8.9% (95%CI: 4.7-15.0%. An association between previous supplementation with vitamin A and serum concentrations of retinol was observed, with a higher proportion of children with normal concentrations of retinol among those supplemented (p=0.025. There was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, (p<0.021. The prevalence of low W/H and low H

  14. A case-control study of plasma antioxidant (pro-)vitamins in relation to respiratory symptoms in non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Smit, H.A.; Veer, van 't P.; Brunekreef, B.; Kromhout, D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between plasma levels of antioxidants, [beta]-carotene and [alpha]-tocopherol, and chronic respiratory symptoms in Dutch adults who never smoked or were long-term former smokers. Cases (who reported one or more respiratory symptoms) and controls

  15. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging

  16. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  17. Micronutrient intake and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2010-02-01

    Micronutrients may protect against colorectal cancer. Especially folate has been considered potentially preventive. However, studies on folate and colorectal cancer have found contradicting results; dietary folate seems preventive, whereas folic acid in supplements and fortification may increase the risk. To evaluate the association between intake of vitamins C, E, folate and beta-carotene and colorectal cancer risk, focusing on possibly different effects of dietary, supplemental and total intake, and on potential effect modification by lifestyle factors. In a prospective cohort study of 56,332 participants aged 50-64 years, information on diet, supplements and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. 465 Colon and 283 rectal cancer cases were identified during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios of colon and rectal cancers related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. The present study found a protective effect of dietary but not supplemental folate on colon cancer. No association with any other micronutrient was found. Rectal cancer did not seem associated with any micronutrient. For both colon and rectal cancer, we found an interaction between dietary folate and alcohol intake, with a significant, preventive effect among those consuming above 10g alcohol/day only. This study adds further weight to the evidence that dietary folate protects against colon cancer, and specifies that there is a source-specific effect, with no preventive effect of supplemental folic acid. Further studies should thus take source into account. Vitamins C, E and beta-carotene showed no relation with colorectal cancer.

  18. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  19. Gold nanoparticle mediated membrane permeabilization of phytochemicals into breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women with a very high incident rate, especially for those women who are between 40-60 years old. Most drugs are large or non-polar macromolecules, which cannot get into cancer cells autonomously, so a method that can deliver those drugs is very important. Optoporation method has been facilitated with gold nanoparticles, which are bound to breast cancer cells, and then absorb the optical energy to improve the membrane permeabilization. Long-term dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables high in beta-carotene and other phytochemicals has been shown beneficial in terms of anti-cancer, anti-aging, preventing cardiovascular disease and cataract. However they are large non-polar molecules that are difficult to enter the cancer cells. Here in this study, we applied optoporation method by using beta-carotene, and tetracycline as anti-cancer drugs in various concentrations to optimize highest selective cell death/best potential for T47D breast cancer cell lines.

  20. Papel da lipoperoxidação na intensificação da remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto Rol de la lipoperoxidación en la intensificación de la remodelación ocasionada por el betacaroteno tras infarto Role of lipoperoxidation in the remodeling intensification induced by beta-carotene after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle e BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control y BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5%. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control and BC (500mg/kg/regimen. After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5% significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001 and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61

  1. Effect of lutein on beta-carotene absorption and cleavage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Carotenoid interactions during absorption anti in postabsorptive metabolism have been observed in both human and animal studies. We reviewed the mutual interactions reported between lutein and β-carotene and report new data on the postprandial β-carotene and retinyl ester response in the

  2. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: beta-carotene quantification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Zdeněk; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2012), s. 541-546 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raman microspectroscopy * Microalgae * Trachydiscus minutus * Biotechnology * Carotenoids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2012

  3. Supplementation with vitamin E (acetate of DL-alpha-tocopherol on the mastitis occurrence in Jersey cows. Suplementação com vitamina E (Acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol e a ocorrência de mastites em vacas da raça Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Santos Brito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect vitamin E supplementation on the occurrence of mastitis in dairy cows. Thirteen animals received 3 g of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate, for intramuscular way, on the 45, 30 and 15 days before the previous date at calving. The control group received physiologic solution to 0,9% in the same moments. The occurrence of mastitis was observed only in three moments, after of the parturition, at 60 (M1, 90 (M2 and 120 (M3 days after at calving. The occurrence of mastitis was evaluated across of methods California Mastitis Test (CMT and Somatic Cells Count (SCC. However, the protocol used in the experiment no had influence on the occurrence of mastitis in dairy cows, was not observed significative difference for to CMT and SCC in the three moments studied.O estudo objetivou analisar o efeito da suplementação com vitamina E sobre a ocorrência de mastites em vacas leiteiras. Treze animais receberam suplementação com três gramas de acetato de DL-alfa-tocoferol (LABOVET – Bahia – Brasil, por via intramuscular, aos 45, 30 e 15 dias antes do parto. O grupo controle recebeu placebo (soro fisiológico nos mesmos momentos. A ocorrência de mastites foi observada em três momentos, após o parto, aos 60 (M1, aos 90 (M2 e aos 120 (M3 dias. A ocorrência de mastites foi avaliada através dos métodos do “California Mastitis Test” (CMT e da Contagem de Células Somáticas (CCS. Entretanto, o protocolo de suplementação com vitamina E utilizado nesse experimento não teve influência sobre a ocorrência de mastites em vacas leiteiras, pois não foram observadas diferenças significativas para os resultados do CMT e da CCS, entre os grupos experimentais, nos três momentos estudados. Palavras – chave: Vitamina E, vacas leiteiras, mastites.

  4. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Micronutrients may protect against prostate cancer. However, few studies have had high-quality assessment of both dietary and supplemental consumption of micronutrients, rendering possible different source-specific effects difficult to discern. This study evaluates associations between...... intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years...... was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, notably on a continuous scale [HR 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.98) per 100 µg increase/day]. The risk reduction was largely confined to non-aggressive tumors [HR 0.71 (0.55-0.93) per 100 µg increase/day]. No influence on prostate cancer risk was observed for dietary...

  5. Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer in women in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, R; Agudo, A; Gonzalez, C A; Riboli, E

    1998-01-01

    Newly available data of a case-control study of lung cancer in women in Spain were analyzed to assess the relationship with the intake of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and luteolin). The study included 103 cases and 206 hospital controls, matched by age and residence. Usual food intake was estimated through a food-frequency questionnaire. With adjustment for smoking habit and vitamin E, vitamin C, and total flavonoid intake, no association was found for the intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, or lutein. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for women in the highest tertile of lycopene intake with respect to the lowest was 0.56 (0.26-1.24), with p for trend = 0.15. A nonsignificant association was observed for the highest vs. lowest tertile intake of kaempferol (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval = 0.22-1.17), with p for trend = 0.10, after adjustment for smoking and vitamin E, vitamin C, and total carotenoid intake. No protective effect was observed for quercetin or luteolin or for total flavonoid intake.

  6. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e leite materno de puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte Levels of alpha-tocopherol in the serum and breast-milk of child-bearing women attending a public maternity hospital in the city of Natal , in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Rejane Siqueira Garcia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e leite materno em diferentes estágios de lactação de puérperas e verificar a adequação nutri cional de vitamina E do leite oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 32 parturientes adultas com idade média de 25 anos. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro, em condição de jejum, para análise dos níveis de alfa tocoferol. Entre 10 e 15 dias pós-parto foram coletados mais 2 mL de leite. As amostras foram analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. A adequação nutricional do leite para a vitamina E foi calculada pelo produto do volume estimado de ingestão de leite com a concentração de α-tocoferol no leite e por comparação direta desse produto com o valor de referência para ingestão do nutriente (4 mg/dia. RESULTADOS: os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no sangue foram 29 ± 0,9 µmol/L (Média ± Erro padrão e no colostro e leite de transição foram 28,7 ± 4,7 µmol/L e 7,8 ± 1,0 µmol/L, respectivamente. O consumo estimado de colostro forneceu 241% da recomendação dietética e o de leite de transição atingiu 66%. CONCLUSÕES: o grupo de mulheres estudadas apresentou um estado nutricional satisfatório de vitamina E, refletido no leite materno, principalmente no colostro, cujos valores foram capazes de suprir mais do que o dobro do requerimento nutricional do lactente.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate levels of alpha-tocopherol in the serum and breast-milk of women at various stages in lactation and to confirm whether nutritio nally appropriate levels of vitamin E are present in the milk given to the babies. METHODS: thirty-two child-bearing women with an average age of 25 years took part in the study. 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected, under fasting conditions, for the purposes of analyzing the levels of alpha-tocopherol. Between 10 to 15 days after childbirth, a further 2 mL of breast-milk was collected. The samples were

  7. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  8. [Changes of lipid peroxidation parameters in children being treated for cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, G V; Baĭkova, V N; Dumbraĭs, K O; Gracheva, I V; Durnov, L A; Gorozhanskaia, E G; Zakharova, N V; Kurmashov, V I; Belkina, B M

    1997-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation (LP) occurring in pediatric cancer patients receiving polychemotherapy has been investigated. Plasma level of malonic dialdehyde in children with retinoblastoma (Rtb) was found to drop while it remained unchanged in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The treatment caused different changes in the red cell catalase levels in said groups: the enzyme concentration increased in the Rtb patients in the course of therapy and decreased in the ALL group. A slight decline in alpha-tocopherol and retinol levels the Rtb group was matched by a relevant rise in blood-plasma in the ALL group. To adjust LP regulation and improve resistance, antioxidants should be given to pediatric cancer patients suffering peroxidation-related stress.

  9. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Poppel H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hendrik Van Poppel1, Bertrand Tombal21Department of Urology, University Hospital, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Service d’Urologie, Cliniques Universtaires Saint Luc, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic.Keywords: alpha-tocopherol, chemoprevention, isoflavones, lycopene, polyphenols, prostate cancer, selenium

  10. Effects of β-Carotene and Its Cleavage Products in Primary Pneumocyte Type II Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Haider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available β-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC. Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs and the major product apo-8′carotenal. However, because these findings cannot directly be transferred to the lung due to the exceptional biotransformation capacity of the liver, potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of β-carotene under oxidative stress and its CPs were investigated in primary pneumocyte type II cells. The results indicate that increased concentrations of β-carotene in the presence of the redox cycling quinone dimethoxynaphthoquinone (DMNQ exhibit a cytotoxic potential, as evidenced by an increase of apoptotic cells and loss of cell density at concentrations > 10 µM. On the other hand, the analysis of micronucleated cells gave no clear picture due to the cytotoxicity related reduction of mitotic cells. Last, although CPs induced significant levels of DNA strand breaks even at concentrations ≥ 1 µM and 5 µM, respectively, β-carotene in the presence of DMNQ did not cause DNA damage. Instead, β-carotene appeared to act as an antioxidant. These findings are in contrast with what was demonstrated for primary hepatocytes and may reflect different sensitivities to and different metabolism of β-carotene in the two cell types.

  11. Níveis de proteína e de vitamina E para matrizes de frango de corte. 2. Efeito sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol na gema e nos tecidos e balanço de nitrogênio Protein and vitamin E levels for broiler breed hens. 2. Effects on yolk and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentration and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.T. Barreto

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 16 matrizes de frangos de corte com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de proteína bruta (NPB, 14 e 16%, e dois níveis de vitamina E (NVE, 25 e 250mg/kg, na dieta sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol (AT na gema, no fígado, no soro sangüíneo e na excreta, e sobre a retenção de AT e de nitrogênio (N. O período experimental foi de 25 dias, sendo 15 dias para a adaptação das aves à dieta e 10 dias para a coleta de ovos e da excreta para análise de vitamina E (VE e N. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, formado por quatro tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 (NVE × NPB, constituído cada um por quatro repetições, e cada unidade experimental representada por uma ave. Houve aumento linear (PSixteen broiler breed hens were used with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation of two crude protein (14 and 16% CP and two vitamin E levels (25 and 250mg VE/kg in the diet on the alpha-tocopherol (AT concentration in the egg yolk, liver, blood serum and feces, and on the AT and nitrogen (N retentions. The experiment lasted 25 days, in which 15 days were used for hens adaptation and 10 days for egg and fecal collection for AT and N analyses. The experimental design was a complete randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (CP × VE levels with four repetitions per treatment. The increasing of VE in the diet resulted in increase (P0.05. Thus, it could be concluded that the increasing of VE levels in the diet increased the AT concentrations in the egg yolk and body tissues, and decreased the AT and increased the N retention in broiler breed hens during the laying peak period.

  12. Frequent intake of tropical fruits that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin is associated with higher plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations in Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwig, Michael S; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Baylin, Ana; Rifai, Nader; Campos, Hannia

    2002-10-01

    Dietary tocopherols and carotenoids may play a role in preventing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Because these may begin to develop during adolescence, dietary patterns during this period could influence long-term risk. The objective of this study was to examine the intake and plasma concentrations of the major carotenoids and tocopherols in 159 adolescents (mean +/- SD, 15.5 +/- 2.5 y old) living in Costa Rica. All participants completed a 135-item food-frequency questionnaire and provided a fasting blood sample. Carotenoid and tocopherol intakes were adjusted for total energy and plasma concentrations for total cholesterol. The relative abundance of carotenoids in the diet was similar to their distribution in plasma; lycopene was the most abundant, followed by beta-carotene and lutein + zeaxanthin. gamma-Tocopherol was more abundant than alpha-tocopherol in the diet, but alpha-tocopherol was approximately sevenfold higher in plasma. The highest diet-plasma correlations (adjusted for age, sex and body mass index) were 0.38 for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.33 for gamma-tocopherol and 0.17 for lutein + zeaxanthin (all P or =3/d) consumed tropical fruits with at least 50 micro g/100 g beta-cryptoxanthin (papaya, tangerine, orange and watermelon) had twofold the plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations of those with intakes of <4/wk (P for trend = 0.0009). In sum, the diet-plasma carotenoid and tocopherol correlations were generally low in Costa Rican adolescents. Intakes of beta-cryptoxanthin and papaya, a tropical fruit frequently consumed in Latin America, were the best predictors of beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations in plasma.

  13. Smoking attenuates the negative association between carotenoids consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiter, Y; Gruber, S B; Ben-Amotz, A; Almog, R; Rennert, H S; Fischler, R; Rozen, G; Rennert, G

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of vegetables and fruits, physical activity, obesity and caloric intake are all strongly related to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The association between dietary intake of carotenoids from vegetables/fruits and risk of CRC in the context of cigarette smoking was studied in a nutritionally diverse population. The study included 1,817 age sex residence-matched case-control pairs from a population-based study in Northern Israel. Data were acquired by food-frequency questionnaire. Individual intake of carotenoid isomers was calculated using an Israeli food content database. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for known risk factors. Strong inverse associations were found with consumption of 9-cis-beta-carotene (OR = 0.35, 0.26-0.47), all-trans-beta-carotene (OR = 0.58, 0.44-0.76), cis-beta-cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.67, 0.50-0.90), all-trans-zeaxanthin (OR = 0.64, 0.48-0.86), and lutein (OR = 0.74, 0.57-0.96). Lycopene (OR = 2.22, 1.71-2.89) and all-trans-beta-cryptoxanthin (OR = 2.01, 1.48-2.73) were associated with increased risk of CRC. Inverse associations of most carotenoids with CRC, demonstrated in non-smokers, were much attenuated or reversed in past or current smokers with a highly significant interaction term. Consumption of most dietary carotenoids was found to be strongly associated with reduced risk of CRC. However, smoking significantly attenuated or reversed this observed protective effect on CRC occurrence. Smokers should be advised that smoking also hampers the potential health promoting effects of high fruit and vegetable consumption.

  14. Joint modeling of longitudinal zero-inflated count and time-to-event data: A Bayesian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huirong; DeSantis, Stacia M; Luo, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Longitudinal zero-inflated count data are encountered frequently in substance-use research when assessing the effects of covariates and risk factors on outcomes. Often, both the time to a terminal event such as death or dropout and repeated measure count responses are collected for each subject. In this setting, the longitudinal counts are censored by the terminal event, and the time to the terminal event may depend on the longitudinal outcomes. In the study described herein, we expand the class of joint models for longitudinal and survival data to accommodate zero-inflated counts and time-to-event data by using a Cox proportional hazards model with piecewise constant baseline hazard. We use a Bayesian framework via Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations implemented in the BUGS programming language. Via an extensive simulation study, we apply the joint model and obtain estimates that are more accurate than those of the corresponding independence model. We apply the proposed method to an alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene lung cancer prevention study.

  15. Effets des chlorophylles, du bêtacarotène, de l’alphatocophérol, du tyrosol et de leurs interactions sur la stabilité oxydative de l’huile d’olive tunisienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Tekaya Imène

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls a and b, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, tyrosol and their interactions effects on Tunisian extra virgin olive oil (EVOO were studied. Beta-carotene, used at a level of 7 ppm, has an antioxidant effect more important at light than at obscurity. Chlorophyll a and b accelerate significantly the olive oil photooxidation, with a more important effect of chlorophyll b. When one or else of these chlorophylls is added with beta-carotene to oil, the global effect on peroxide value is attenuated. Both of alfa-tocopherol (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 ppm and tyrosol (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 ppm addition improved purified olive oil stability. On the other hand, alfa-tocopherol addition in EVOO has not significantly modified its oxidative stability, whereas that of tyrosol was very efficient. A factorial plane using three factors, beta-carotene (4 ppm, alfa-tocopherol (200 ppm and tyrosol (50 ppm is studied on EVOO and on purified olive oil. The results are different due to presence of various minor compounds on EVO.

  16. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals: Epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena Ruiz, Raúl; Salinas Hernández, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, natural compounds called "phytochemicals", which are present in fruits, vegetables, and plants, have received special attention due to their potential to interfere with tumour formation and development. Many of these phytochemicals are being used in chemoprevention strategies. However, the scientific evidence regarding the modification of cancer risk continues to be debated. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific evidence and the most relevant epidemiological studies regarding the consumption or use of phytochemicals and their effects on the incidence of cancer. A search for relevant articles was conducted in EMBASE and PubMed-NCBI through to May 2016 to identify potential interactions between the consumption or use of phytochemicals and cancer risk. The use or consumption of carotenoids, such as lycopene, alpha-carotene, and betacarotene, leads to a reduction in the risk of cancer, such as breast and prostate tumours. For breast cancer, beta-carotene even reduces the risk of recurrence. The use or consumption of soybean isoflavones has led to a reduction in the risk of lung, prostate, colon (in women only), and breast cancers, although this has depended on menopausal and oestrogen receptor status. The use or consumption of isothiocyanates and indole-3-carbinol also seems to reduce the risk of cancer, such as breast, stomach, colorectal, or prostate tumours. The adoption of a diet rich in phytochemicals is associated with a modification of cancer risk. However, the scientific data supporting its use come mainly from in vitro and in vivo studies (especially in animal models). The epidemiological evidence is inconclusive for many of these phytochemicals, so further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids and the risk of gastric cancer in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, R; Gonzalez, C A; Agudo, A; Riboli, E

    1999-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between gastric cancer and the intake of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and luteolin) using new data on their concentration in foods. Case-control study carried out in Spain that included 354 cases of gastric cancer and 354 controls, matched by age, gender, area of residence and hospital. Usual food intake was assessed using a dietary history questionnaire. In a multivariate model adjusted for several dietary factors, no association was found between intake of any of the studied carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer. The adjusted OR of gastric cancer for the highest quartile of total flavonoid intake versus the lowest quartile was 0.44 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.25-0.78; P for trend = 0.003). Kaempferol intake was found to be protective (OR = 0.48; CI = 0.26-0.88; P for trend = 0.04) comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake. A trend toward lower risk of stomach cancer with higher intake of quercetin was also found. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the well-established protective effect of fruit and vegetables against gastric cancer could, in part, be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  18. The Effect of Phytosterol on Serum Beta-Carotene Concentration of Hypercholesterolaemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dina-Keumala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of optic neuritic as recommended by the Optic Neuritic Treatment Trial (ONTT was intravenous methylprednisolon followed by oral prednisone. This study aims to describe characteristics and response to intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone treatment of optic neuritic patient in Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar. Method: The study was a parallel clinical trial, forty subjects with hipercholesterolaemia were selected using certain criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups using block randomization. Twenty subjects in phytosterol group received phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day and dietary counseling (P, while twenty subjects in counseling group received only dietary counseling (C. Serum total cholesterol and β-carotene concentration were assessed on day 0 and 42. Before and after treatment, dietary intake were assessed with 2x24 hour recall methods. Results: Seventeen subjects in P group and fourteen subjects in C group completed the study. There was no significant differences in baseline data both groups. After 42 days treatment, there was no significant differences in nutrients intakes in two groups except for β-carotene and phytosterol intakes in P group. There was a 9.17% significant reduction in serum total cholesterol concentration in P group while no change was observed in the C group (p<0.05. Serum β-carotene concentration was increased significantly in P group, 0.44±0.376 μmol/L to 0.536(0.21–1.95 μmol/L, while there was no significant increased in C group, 0.493±0.349 μmol/L to 0.56±0.33 μmol/L. There was a significant difference in serum β-carotene concentration after adjusted with serum total cholesterol concentration between two groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Dietary advice to consume an additionally of high β-carotene sources when consuming phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day for 42 consecutive days maintains serum β-carotene concentration while lowering serum total cholesterol concentration significantly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects, proved by statistical analysis.

  19. Reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets by natural beta carotene and its potential use as supercapacitor electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaiyi M. Zaid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A green, non-toxic and eco-friendly approach for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO nanosheets using natural β-carotene is reported. The FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses reveal the oxygen scavenging property of β-carotene successfully removes oxygen functionalities on GO nanosheets. Complete GO reduction is achieved within 16 h with 10 mM β-carotene as confirmed by the UV spectroscopy results. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy images provide clear evidence for the formation of few layers of graphene nanosheets. Furthermore, the mechanism of GO reduction by β-carotene has been proposed in this study. The electrochemical testing shows good charge storage properties of β-carotene reduced GO (142 F/g at 10 mV/s; 149 F/g at 1 A/g in Na2SO4, with stable cycling (89% for up to 1000 cycles. The findings suggest the reduction of GO nanosheets by β-carotene is a suitable approach in producing graphene nanosheets for supercapacitor electrode.

  20. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Al-Babili, S; Klöti, A; Zhang, J; Lucca, P; Beyer, P; Potrykus, I

    2000-01-14

    Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.

  1. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    tendency, but due to few observations no final conclusions could be drawn: •For grass–clover silage there were generally no losses of vitamins during the ensiling process and during storage, but there were huge variations between farms. •For wholecrop silage there was a loss of vitamins during the ensiling...

  2. Ascorbic acid and beta-carotene reduce stress-induced oxidative organ damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrefoglu, M; Akinci, A; Taslidere, E; Elbe, H; Cetin, A; Ates, B

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidants are potential therapeutic agents for reducing stress-induced organ damage. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid and β-carotene on oxidative stress-induced cerebral, cerebellar, cardiac and hepatic damage using microscopy and biochemistry. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: untreated control, stressed, stressed + saline, stressed + ascorbic acid and stressed + β-carotene. The rats in the stressed groups were subjected to starvation, immobilization and cold. The histopathological damage scores for the stressed and stressed + saline groups were higher than those of the control group for all organs examined. The histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels for the groups treated with antioxidants were lower than those for the stressed and stressed + saline groups. Mean tissue superoxide dismutase activities for groups that received antioxidants were higher than those for the stressed + saline group for most organs evaluated. Ascorbic acid and β-carotene can reduce stress-induced organ damage by both inhibiting lipid oxidation and supporting the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  3. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a solution to overcome

  4. Twisting a Beta-Carotene, an Adaptive Trick from Nature for Dissipating Energy during Photoprotection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manuel J. Llansola-Portoles, M.J.; Sobotka, Roman; Kish, E.; Shukla, M.K.; Pascal, A.A.; Polívka, T.; Robert, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 4 (2017), s. 1396-1403 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-13967S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX * RESONANCE RAMAN-SPECTRA * PHOTOSYSTEM-II Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  5. Mango variation in vitamin C and beta carotene with cultivar and country of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos (Mangifera indica) are a traditional fruit in the Caribbean countries and Southeast Asia, but have been imported in to the U.S. on a large scale only in the last few years. Fruit of cultivars ‘Ataulfo,' ‘Kent,’ ‘Tommy Atkins,’ ‘Keitt,’ and ‘Haden’ were obtained from shipments from Mexico, Pe...

  6. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a

  7. Room temperature photooxidation of beta-carotene and peripheral chlorophyll in photosystem II reaction centre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2008), s. 179-187 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : photosystem II Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2008

  8. Absorption of beta-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review available information on absorption and further metabolism of different carotenoids in man and to discuss animal models and approaches in the study of carotenoid absorption and metabolism in man. Conclusions: Humans appear to absorb various carotenoids in a relatively

  9. Beta-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll-c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alster, J.; Polívka, Tomáš; Arellano, J.B.; Chábera, P.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2010), s. 90-97 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * chlorosomes * energy transfer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010

  10. The path from beta-Carotene to Carlactone, a Strigolactone-Like Plant Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alder, J.; Jamil, M.; Marzorati, M.; Bruno, F.; Bigler, J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beyer, P.; Al-Babili, S.

    2012-01-01

    Strigolactones, phytohormones with diverse signaling activities, have a common structure consisting of two lactones connected by an enol-ether bridge. Strigolactones derive from carotenoids via a pathway involving the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 and 8 (CCD7 and CCD8) and the iron-binding

  11. High intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids does not reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R; Gonzalez, C A; Agudo, A; Riboli, E

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of a previously completed Spanish multicentric case-control study of bladder cancer was carried out using new available data on the contents in foods of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and luteolin) to investigate the relationship of these phytochemicals with bladder cancer. The study included 497 cases first diagnosed with bladder cancer, 547 neighborhood controls, and 566 hospitals controls, matched by gender, age, area of residence, and hospital. Usual food intake was estimated using a dietary history questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. None of the specific carotenoids and none of the specific flavonoids have been found to be significantly associated with bladder cancer risk in this analysis. The adjusted odds ratios for subjects in the highest quartile of intake with respect to subjects in the lowest quartile were 1.36 (95% confidence interval = 0.94-1.95) for total carotenoid intake and 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 0.85-1.79) for total flavonoid intake. The results of this study does not support the hypothesis that intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids is protective against bladder cancer risk.

  12. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on gingival expression of inducible nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... alveolar bone, increased depth of pocket, loss of attachment, mobility, and unless treated loss of tooth.[1] Diabetes mellitus has been defined as a group of ... healing, suppress iNOS production, and provide protection against oxidative damage.[16‑20]. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of.

  13. In vivo adverse effects of alpha-tocopherol on the semen quality of male bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, A; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has detrimental effects on semen quality during spermatogenesis and semen processing for artificial insemination. This work was conducted to study the effect of different levels of vitamin E on the semen traits, oxidative status and trace minerals in Beetal bucks. Thirty-six bucks of similar body weight and age (1 year) were randomly divided into four groups. One group was kept as control with no supplementation (group 1), and the others were supplemented with 200 (group 2), 400 (group 3) and 800 IU (group 4) vitamin E/animal/day for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and evaluated. Seminal plasma was separated to study the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). Group 3 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) semen volume and per cent motility and lower dead sperm percentage compared to control group. Superoxide dismutase, GPx, Zn, Cu and Mn were higher in the same group. The level of AST decreased in group 3 without any change on the concentration of ALT. It is suggested that vitamin E at the rate of 400 IU/buck/day supported higher semen volume, per cent motility, per cent live spermatozoa, antioxidants (SOD, GPx) and trace mineral levels (Zn, Cu, Mn) in the seminal plasma. The increased supplementation from 0 to 400 showed a general increasing trend in improving semen quality. However, the dose of 800 IU/kg had no useful effect in further improving the semen quality. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Low Plasma alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espe, K.M.; Raila, J.; Henze, A.; Blouin, K.; Schneider, A.; Schmiedeke, D.; Krane, V.; Pilz, S.; Schweigert, F.J.; Hocher, B.; Wanner, C.; Drechsler, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Trials with the antioxidant vitamin E have failed to show benefit in the general population. Considering the different causes of death in ESRD, this study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and specific clinical outcomes in diabetic

  15. Alpha-Tocopherol Counteracts the Cytotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Primary Porcine Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Fusi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to determine the half-lethal concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA as well as the levels of lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA in primary porcine fibroblasts, and to examine the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting its toxicity. Cells showed a dose-, time- and origin-dependent (ear vs. embryo sensitivity to ochratoxin A. Pre-incubation for 3 h with 1 nM α-tocopherol significantly (P < 0.01 reduced OTA cytotoxicity, lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA damage in both fibroblast cultures. These findings indicate that α-tocopherol supplementation may counteract short-term OTA toxicity, supporting its defensive role in the cell membrane.

  16. .Alpha.-tocopherol-dependent iron(II) release from magnetic nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Donchenko, G. V.; Palyvoda, O. M.; Pokusaieva, A. O.; Pustovyy, V. I.; Babinskyi, A. V.; Kuzmenko, O. I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, 5 /Suppl. 2/ (2014), s. 203 ISSN 0201-8470. [Ukrainian Biochemical Congress /11./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Kiev] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanoparticles * magnetic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  17. The Effect of Alpha Tocopherol on Body Organs of Neonatal Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of -Tocopherol (vitamin E) on the organs of neonatal rats exposed to Vanadium. Organ histology show that vanadium through lactation induced pathological changes including congestion and haemorrhages at the renal cortex, severe diffuse vacuolar degeneration of ...

  18. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikuo Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods:Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results:AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine, though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion:According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS.

  19. Serum carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and lung function among Dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Waart, de F.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins (provitamins) may protect against loss of lung function over time. We studied the association between serum carotenoids (-carotene, -carotene, lycopene, -cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein), -tocopherol, and lung function among noninstitutionalized Dutch elderly age 65 to 85

  20. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the α-tocopherol concentration were studied. The α-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The α-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic α-tocopherol content. (author)

  1. Alpha-Tocopherol Counteracts the Cytotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Primary Porcine Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Elenora; Rebucci, Raffaella; Pecorini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine the half-lethal concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) as well as the levels of lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA in primary porcine fibroblasts, and to examine the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting its toxicity. Ce...

  2. Antioxidant effects of alpha-tocopherol (vitamine E on testis regeneration in busulfan-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rohnavaz

    2016-09-01

    (35, 40 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy. The effects of busulfan was examinned on destruction of testis tissue, semen parameters and catalase enzymatic activity compared with control group after 30 days. Finally, fter determining the effective dose of busulfan, Vitamin E was injected to the mice as an antioxidant enzyme  and its effects on semen parameters and testis tissue was examined after one month.  Results: The results showed that oxidative stress was increased in busulfan-treated mice during 30 days. Catalase enzymatic activity decreased significantly in testis of Busulfan-treated mice in comparison with control group. A significant decrease of sperm number was observed according to treatment by Busulfan. After finding the most damaging dose of busulfan (40 mg/kg in destruction of testis tissue, these mice were injected by vitamine E. The results showed that the oxidative stress and percentage of abnormal sperm were decreased in Busulfan-treated mice that exposed a dose of 100 mg/kg vitamin E. The number of sperm and antioxidant activity of catalase was increased. Conclusion: Vitamin E improves a revival of spermatogenesis and improves testicular parameters in these patients. 

  3. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia to prevent oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Giovanni; Franchini, Roberto; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Varoni, Elena Maria; Sardella, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R; Carrassi, Antonio; MacDonald, L C I; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-07-29

    criteria (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE)). We included 14 studies (909 participants) in this review. Surgical interventions, including laser therapy and cryotherapy, have never been studied by means of an RCT that included a no treatment or placebo arm. The included trials tested a range of medical and complementary treatments, in particular, vitamin A and retinoids (four studies); beta carotene or carotenoids (three studies); non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), specifically ketorolac and celecoxib (two studies); herbal extracts (four studies), including tea components, a Chinese herbal mixture and freeze-dried black raspberry gel; bleomycin (one study); and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (one study).We judged one study to be at low risk of bias, seven at unclear risk and six at high risk. In general, we judged the overall quality of the evidence to be low or very low, so findings are uncertain and further research is needed.Five studies recorded cancer incidence, only three of which provided useable data. None of the studies provided evidence that active treatment reduced the risk of oral cancer more than placebo: systemic vitamin A (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.05; 85 participants, one study); systemic beta carotene (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.24 to 2.09; 132 participants, two studies); and topical bleomycin (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.32 to 27.83; 20 participants, one study). Follow-up ranged between two and seven years.Some individual studies suggested effectiveness of some proposed treatments, namely, systemic vitamin A, beta carotene and lycopene, for achieving clinical resolution of lesions more often than placebo. Similarly, single studies found that systemic retinoic acid and lycopene may provide some benefit in terms of improvement in histological features. Some studies also reported a high rate of relapse.Side effects of varying severity were often described; however, it seems likely that interventions were well accepted by

  4. Diet and brain cancer in adults: a case-control study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Chatenoud, L; Bosetti, C; Jia, X; Liu, R; Huang, G; Bi, D; Wang, C

    1999-03-31

    A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Heilongjiang Province of northeast China between May 1993 and May 1995. A total of 129 histologically confirmed brain cancer cases (73 gliomas and 56 meningiomas) and 258 matched controls were interviewed in 6 major hospitals to examine the influence of dietary factors in developing brain cancer. Information was obtained about frequency of consumption of 57 food items. Odds ratios (ORs) were obtained from conditional logistic regression, including allowance for socio-demographic factors, alcohol, tobacco and total energy intake. Consumption of fresh vegetables (OR = 0.29 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest one), and specifically of Chinese cabbage and onion, fruit (OR = 0.15), fresh fish (OR = 0.38) and poultry (OR = 0.16) was inversely related to the risk of developing brain cancer. A protective effect was also seen for vitamin E intake, calcium and, although non-significantly, beta-carotene and vitamin C. Risk of brain cancer increased with consumption of salted vegetables (OR = 2.54) and salted fish.

  5. Serum Metabolomic Response to Long-Term Supplementation with all-rac-α-Tocopheryl Acetate in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Mondul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study, a randomized controlled cancer prevention trial, showed a 32% reduction in prostate cancer incidence in response to vitamin E supplementation. Two other trials were not confirmatory, however. Objective. We compared the change in serum metabolome of the ATBC Study participants randomized to receive vitamin E to those who were not by randomly selecting 50 men from each of the intervention groups (50 mg/day all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (ATA, 20 mg/day β-carotene, both, placebo. Methods. Metabolomic profiling was conducted on baseline and follow-up fasting serum (Metabolon, Inc.. Results. After correction for multiple comparisons, five metabolites were statistically significantly altered (β is the change in metabolite level expressed as number of standard deviations on the log scale: α-CEHC sulfate (β=1.51, p=1.45×10-38, α-CEHC glucuronide (β=1.41, p=1.02×10-31, α-tocopherol (β=0.97, p=2.22×10-13, γ-tocopherol (β=-0.90, p=1.76×10-11, and β-tocopherol (β=-0.73, p=9.40×10-8. Glutarylcarnitine, beta-alanine, ornithine, and N6-acetyllysine were also decreased by ATA supplementation (β range 0.40 to −0.36, but not statistically significantly. Conclusions. Comparison of the observed metabolite alterations resulting from ATA supplementation to those in other vitamin E trials of different populations, dosages, or formulations may shed light on the apparently discordant vitamin E-prostate cancer risk findings.

  6. Vitamin A family compounds, estradiol, and docetaxel in proliferation, apoptosis and immunocytochemical profile of human ovary endometrioid cancer cell line CRL-11731.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lemancewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid carcinoma represents approximately 10% of cases of the malignant ovarian epithelial tumors. According to literature, the vitamin A (carotenoids and retinoids plays an essential role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in both normal and neoplastic ovarian tissues. Apart from that, the retinoids alter a cytotoxic effect of chemiotherapeutics, i.e. docetaxel, on ovarian cancer cell lines. Retinoids act on cancer cells throughout different mechanism than taxanes, so they may be the potential candidates for the new treatment strategies of ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of vitamin A family compounds (retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, all-trans -, 9-cis - and 13-cis retinoic acid on the growth and proliferation of CRL-11731 endometrioid ovary cancer cell line and on docetaxel and estradiol activity in this culture. The assay was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA- and Ki 67-positive cells. The apoptotic index and expression of the Bcl-2 and p53 antigens in CRL-11731 cells were also studied. Among vitamin A family compounds retinol and carotenoids, but not retinoids, inhibited the growth of cancer cells in dose dependent manner. Only the concentration of 100 muM of docetaxel inhibited incorporation [3H] thymidine into CRL-11731 cancer cells. Retinol (33.4%+/-8.5, carotenoids (beta-carotene 20 muM 4.7%+/-2.9, 50 muM 2.2%+/-0.9; lycopene 10 muM 7.6%+/-0.8, 20 muM 5.2%+/-2.5, 50 muM 2.9%+/-1.2, and 13-cis retinoic acid (19.7%+/-2.2 combined with docetaxel (100 muM significantly decreased the percentage of proliferating cells (p<0.0001. The antiproliferative action of lycopene alone and in combination with docetaxel was also confirmed in immunohistochemical examination (decreased the percentage of PCNA and Ki67 positive cells. Also retinol (10 muM and lycopene (20 and 50 muM combined with estradiol (0.01 muM statistically decreased the percentage of

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies three common variants associated with serologic response to vitamin E supplementation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jacqueline M; Yu, Kai; Chung, Charles C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Yeager, Meredith; Wheeler, William; Snyder, Kirk; Wright, Margaret E; Virtamo, Jarmo; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin E inhibits lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, prevents oxidative damage to DNA by scavenging free radicals, and reduces carcinogen production. No study to our knowledge, however, has examined the association between genetic variants and response to long-term vitamin E supplementation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of common variants associated with circulating α-tocopherol concentrations following 3 y of controlled supplementation. The study population included 2112 middle-aged, male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort who received a trial supplementation of α-tocopherol (50 mg/d) and had fasting serum α-tocopherol concentrations measured after 3 y. Serum concentrations were log-transformed for statistical analysis and general linear models adjusted for age, BMI, serum total cholesterol, and cancer case status. Associations with serum response to α-tocopherol supplementation achieved genome-wide significance for 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): rs964184 on 11q23.3 (P = 2.6 × 10(-12)) and rs2108622 on 19pter-p13.11 (P = 2.2 × 10(-7)), and approached genome-wide significance for one SNP, rs7834588 on 8q12.3 (P = 6.2 × 10(-7)). Combined, these SNP explain 3.4% of the residual variance in serum α-tocopherol concentrations during controlled vitamin E supplementation. A GWAS has identified 3 genetic variants at different loci that appear associated with serum concentrations after vitamin E supplementation in men. Identifying genetic variants that influence serum nutrient biochemical status (e.g., α-tocopherol) under supplementation conditions improves our understanding of the biological determinants of these nutritional exposures and their associations with cancer etiology.

  8. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  9. Biomarkers and their use in cervical cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Anne Thérèse; Schottenfeld, David; Follen, Michele

    2003-06-01

    Cervical cancer chemoprevention agents under study include diet and micronutrients (particularly beta-carotene, folate, and vitamins A, C, and E); medications such as retinoids (retinyl acetate gel, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide) that are chemically related to micronutrients; and other chemopreventives meant to affect the carcinogenic process at the cellular level, including such polyamine synthesis inhibitors as alpha-difluoromethylornithine. Agents become reasonable candidates for study when they have a biologic rationale, they are of low toxicity, and they can be taken for a long period of time. Since the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major etiologic agent, the medication should show activity against HPV-positive preinvasive and invasive cell lines. The medication needs to be of low toxicity because it may be taken for long periods of time and less toxicity is tolerated in the precancerous setting. Until 1995, none of the studies used surrogate end point biomarkers (SEBs), relying instead on histologic and colposcopic regression as end points. All studies typically included subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Conclusions to be drawn from these studies include the following: Though micronutrients are logical candidates for chemoprevention, they haven't worked consistently, and the reasons remain unclear. Furthermore, SEBs need to be validated in phase I trials. Finally, a better understanding of the role of HPV needs elucidation, including an understanding of the relationship of the medication to HPV status and of the immunobiology of HPV throughout the trial.

  10. Antioxidant processes of the wild tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae) from the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, J L; Filho, D W

    1999-07-01

    Colossoma macropomum, locally called tambaqui, is a freshwater migratory teleost that shows good tolerance to oxygen and pH changes in water, and both chemical-physical parameters change markedly during the day time and seasonal water level oscillations in the Amazon Basin. In order to obtain a general view about the basal levels of antioxidants in different tissues of wild tambaqui, enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and glutathione) antioxidants and lipid peroxidation levels were assessed in the liver, blood and plasma of ten specimens collected during the dry season (September) in a pond near Manaus-AM, Brazil. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation levels were high in the liver and low in the blood and plasma. Confirming previous results on tambaqui, catalase was detected in the blood of one specimen only. beta-Carotene was not found in any analyzed tissue, while alpha-tocopherol was found only in the liver (7.8 +/- 7.0 nmol g(-1), mean +/- S.E.M.) and plasma (4.3 +/- 0.9 nmol ml(-1)). Blood glutathione concentrations (2.4 +/- 0.17 mmol l(-1)) of tambaqui were comparable with those found in other Amazonian teleosts. Antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation contents from liver. blood and plasma exhibited interesting correlations. These relationships suggest that antioxidant defenses located in different tissues and in different sub-cellular compartments act in concert.

  11. Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon E; Stone, William L; Lee, Steven; Whaley, Sarah; Yang, Hongsong; Qui, Min; Goforth, Paige; Sherman, Devin; McHaffie, Derek; Krishnan, Koyamangalath

    2006-01-17

    Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol is highest in the plasma. The effectiveness of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype) was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-alpha- or RRR-gamma-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation. Treatment with RRR-gamma-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-gamma-tocopherol to induce cell death. This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR-gamma-tocopherol without damage to

  12. Multitargeted therapy of cancer by lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, Richard B; Pajkovic, Natasa

    2008-10-08

    Lycopene (psi,psi-carotene) is the most abundant carotenoid in tomatoes and is the red pigment of not only tomatoes but also rosehips, watermelon, papaya, pink grapefruit, and guava. Unlike beta-carotene, lycopene lacks a beta-ionone ring and therefore has no pro-vitamin A activity. However, the 11 conjugated and two non-conjugated double bonds in lycopene make it highly reactive towards oxygen and free radicals, and this anti-oxidant activity probably contributes to its efficacy as a chemoprevention agent. The reactivity of lycopene also explains why it isomerizes rapidly in blood and tissues from the biosynthetic all-trans form to a mixture of cis-isomers. Prospective and retrospective epidemiological studies indicating an inverse relationship between lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk have been supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that oral lycopene is bioavailable, accumulates in prostate tissue and is localized to the nucleus of prostate epithelial cells. In addition to antioxidant activity, in vitro experiments indicate other mechanisms of chemoprevention by lycopene including induction of apoptosis and antiproliferation in cancer cells, anti-metastatic activity, and the upregulation of the antioxidant response element leading to the synthesis of cytoprotective enzymes. Lycopene is a substrate for carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase (CMO2) and can be converted to apo-10'-carotenal. Although Phase I and II studies have been published that establish the safety of lycopene supplementation, carefully designed and adequately powered clinical studies of lycopene are still needed to confirm its efficacy as a chemoprevention agent.

  13. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  14. Dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake in relation to risk of stroke in male smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Männistö, S; Virtanen, M J; Kontto, J; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J

    2009-08-01

    There is convincing evidence that a high dietary fiber intake may lower the risk of coronary heart disease. However, the role of fiber in the prevention of stroke is unclear. We examined the associations of dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake with risk of stroke within the Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Between 1985 and 1988, 26,556 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years, who had no history of stroke, completed a dietary questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were ascertained. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and folate and magnesium intakes, there was no significant association between intake of total fiber, water-soluble fiber, water-insoluble fiber, or fiber derived from fruit or cereal sources and risk of any stroke subtype. Vegetable fiber intake, as well as the consumption of fruit, vegetables and cereals, was inversely associated with the risk of cerebral infarction; the multivariate relative risks for the highest quintile of intake as compared with the lowest were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.99) for vegetable fiber, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.93) for fruit, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.85) for vegetables and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74-1.03) for cereals. Vegetable consumption was inversely associated with risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (relative risk for highest versus lowest quintile: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40-0.98), and cereal consumption was inversely associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (relative risk: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41-1.01). These findings suggest a beneficial effect of the consumption of fruits, vegetables and cereals on stroke risk.

  15. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2008-11-19

    We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50-69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985-1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases). Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495), risk ratio (RR) = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22). Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054), RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53), and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328), RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08). The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  16. Strategy and planning for chemopreventive drug development: clinical development plans. Chemoprevention Branch and Agent Development Committee. National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloff, G J; Crowell, J A; Boone, C W; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; Greenwald, P; Alberts, D S; Covey, J M; Doody, L A; Knapp, G G

    1994-01-01

    At the National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, the Chemoprevention Branch and Agent Development Committee develop strategies for efficiently identifying, procuring, and advancing the most promising drugs into clinical trials. Scientific expertise is applied at each phase of development to critically review the testing methods and results, and to establish and apply criteria for evaluating the agents for further development. The Clinical Development Plan, prepared by the Chemoprevention Branch and the Agent Development Committee, is a summary of the status of the agent regarding evidence for safety and chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies. It also contains the strategy for further development of the drug that addresses pharmacodynamics, drug effect measurements, intermediate biomarkers for monitoring efficacy, toxicity, supply and formulation, regulatory approval, and proposed clinical trials. Sixteen Clinical Development Plans are presented here: N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), aspirin, calcium, beta-carotene, 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), DHEA analog 8354, 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), ibuprofen, oltipraz, piroxicam, Proscar, sulindac, tamoxifen, vitamin D3 and analogs, and vitamin E. The objective of publishing these plans is to stimulate interest and thinking among the scientific community on the prospects for developing chemopreventive drugs.

  17. Effect of simultaneous, single oral doses of beta-carotene with lutein or lycopene on the beta-carotene and retinyl ester responses in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Vliet, T. van

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lutein and lycopene on β-carotene absorption and cleavage were investigated in 12 male subjects. Responses of carotenoids and retinyl palmitate in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction after a separate 15-mg β-carotene dose were compared with those after a dose of 15 mg

  18. Identification of cow and buffalo milk based on Beta carotene and vitamin-A concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Ullah

    Full Text Available The current study presents the application of fluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of cow and buffalo milk based on β-carotene and vitamin-A which is of prime importance from the nutritional point of view. All samples were collected from healthy animals of different breeds at the time of lactation in the vicinity of Islamabad, Pakistan. Cow and buffalo milk shows differences at fluorescence emission appeared at band position 382 nm, 440 nm, 505 nm and 525 nm both in classical geometry (right angle setup as well as front face fluorescence setup. In front face fluorescence geometry, synchronous fluorescence emission shows clear differences at 410 nm and 440 nm between the milk samples of both these species. These fluorescence emissions correspond to fats, vitamin-A and β-carotene. Principal Component Analysis (PCA further highlighted these differences by showing clear separation between the two data sets on the basis of features obtained from their fluorescence emission spectra. These results indicate that classical geometry (fixed excitation wavelength as well as front face (synchronous fluorescence emission of cow and buffalo milk nutrients could be used as fingerprint from identification point of view. This same approach can effectively be used for the determination of adulterants in the milk and other dairy products.

  19. Identification of cow and buffalo milk based on Beta carotene and vitamin-A concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahat; Khan, Saranjam; Ali, Hina; Bilal, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The current study presents the application of fluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of cow and buffalo milk based on β-carotene and vitamin-A which is of prime importance from the nutritional point of view. All samples were collected from healthy animals of different breeds at the time of lactation in the vicinity of Islamabad, Pakistan. Cow and buffalo milk shows differences at fluorescence emission appeared at band position 382 nm, 440 nm, 505 nm and 525 nm both in classical geometry (right angle) setup as well as front face fluorescence setup. In front face fluorescence geometry, synchronous fluorescence emission shows clear differences at 410 nm and 440 nm between the milk samples of both these species. These fluorescence emissions correspond to fats, vitamin-A and β-carotene. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) further highlighted these differences by showing clear separation between the two data sets on the basis of features obtained from their fluorescence emission spectra. These results indicate that classical geometry (fixed excitation wavelength) as well as front face (synchronous fluorescence emission) of cow and buffalo milk nutrients could be used as fingerprint from identification point of view. This same approach can effectively be used for the determination of adulterants in the milk and other dairy products.

  20. Transcriptional-metabolic networks in beta-carotene-enriched potato tubers: the long and winding road to the Golden phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Al-Babili, Salim; Tavazza, Raffaela; Scossa, Federico; Papacchioli, Velia; Migliore, Melania; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in a large number of countries. Biofortification of major staple crops (wheat [Triticum aestivum], rice [Oryza sativa], maize [Zea mays], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) with β-carotene has the potential to alleviate this nutritional problem. Previously, we engineered transgenic "Golden" potato tubers overexpressing three bacterial genes for β-carotene synthesis (CrtB, CrtI, and CrtY, encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene β-cyclase, respectively) and accumulating the highest amount of β-carotene in the four aforementioned crops. Here, we report the systematic quantitation of carotenoid metabolites and transcripts in 24 lines carrying six different transgene combinations under the control of the 35S and Patatin (Pat) promoters. Low levels of B-I expression are sufficient for interfering with leaf carotenogenesis, but not for β-carotene accumulation in tubers and calli, which requires high expression levels of all three genes under the control of the Pat promoter. Tubers expressing the B-I transgenes show large perturbations in the transcription of endogenous carotenoid genes, with only minor changes in carotenoid content, while the opposite phenotype (low levels of transcriptional perturbation and high carotenoid levels) is observed in Golden (Y-B-I) tubers. We used hierarchical clustering and pairwise correlation analysis, together with a new method for network correlation analysis, developed for this purpose, to assess the perturbations in transcript and metabolite levels in transgenic leaves and tubers. Through a "guilt-by-profiling" approach, we identified several endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis likely to play a key regulatory role in Golden tubers, which are candidates for manipulations aimed at the further optimization of tuber carotenoid content.

  1. Genetic mapping of a major co-dominant QTL associated with beta-carotene accumulation in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common flesh color of commercially grown watermelon is red due to the accumulation of lycopene. However, natural variation in carotenoid composition that exists among heirloom and exotic accessions, results in a wide spectrum of flesh colors. We previously identified a unique orange-flesh waterm...

  2. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition.

  3. Antioxidants Abrogate Alpha-Tocopherylquinone-Mediated Down-Regulation of the Androgen Receptor in Androgen-Responsive Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Fajardo

    Full Text Available Tocopherylquinone (TQ, the oxidation product of alpha-tocopherol (AT, is a bioactive molecule with distinct properties from AT. In this study, AT and TQ are investigated for their comparative effects on growth and androgenic activity in prostate cancer cells. TQ potently inhibited the growth of androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines (e.g., LAPC4 and LNCaP cells, whereas the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells (e.g., DU145 cells was not affected by TQ. Due to the growth inhibitory effects induced by TQ on androgen-responsive cells, the anti-androgenic properties of TQ were examined. TQ inhibited the androgen-induced activation of an androgen-responsive reporter and inhibited the release of prostate specific antigen from LNCaP cells. TQ pretreatment was also found to inhibit AR activation as measured using the Multifunctional Androgen Receptor Screening assay. Furthermore, TQ decreased androgen-responsive gene expression, including TM4SF1, KLK2, and PSA over 5-fold, whereas AT did not affect the expression of androgen-responsive genes. Of importance, the antiandrogenic effects of TQ on prostate cancer cells were found to result from androgen receptor protein down-regulation produced by TQ that was not observed with AT treatment. Moreover, none of the androgenic endpoints assessed were affected by AT. The down-regulation of androgen receptor protein by TQ was abrogated by co-treatment with antioxidants. Overall, the biological actions of TQ were found to be distinct from AT, where TQ was found to be a potent inhibitor of cell growth and androgenic activity in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells.

  4. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, T.Ø.; Jakobsen, Jette; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins A and E content of inner organs, among these the kidneys, are increasingly being used as an indicator of adverse effects caused to the organism by e.g. environmental contaminants. In general, only a renal sub sample is used for analyses, and it is thus essential to know which part...

  5. Primary porcine fibroblasts: Ochratoxin A cytotoxicity and role of all-trans-retinol and alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species and it is a contaminant of food and feeds (O’Brien et al., 2001. OTA is a nephrotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic compound and one of the most sensible species among domestic animals is the pig (JECFA, 2001. Production of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS leading to lipid peroxidation was suggested to be one of the mechanisms by which OTA damages the cell (Rahimtula et al., 1988.

  6. Maternal dietary loads of alpha-tocopherol increase synapse density and glial synaptic coverage in the hippocampus of adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Glia-synapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant glia-synapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning.

  7. Retinol and Alpha-tocopherol in the Colostrum of Lactating Tunisian Women Delivering Prematurely: Associations with Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Fares

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: In Tunisian women, colostrum vitamin A and E levels are close to the average values reported in the literature. The levels are too low to cover the needs of very low birth weight (VLBW infants, particularly in women with plasma vitamin deficiencies, preeclampsia, or very premature delivery. Given the undeniable beneficial effects of human colostrum, whenever feasible, VLBW infants should be fed colostrum. Infant vitamin A and E requirements should be met by milk fortification or supplementation.

  8. A first-generation physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of alpha-tocopherol in human influenza vaccine adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegenge, Million A; Mitkus, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Alpha (α)-tocopherol is a component of a new generation of squalene-containing oil-in-water (SQ/W) emulsion adjuvants that have been licensed for use in certain influenza vaccines. Since regulatory pharmacokinetic studies are not routinely required for influenza vaccines, the in vivo fate of this vaccine constituent is largely unknown. In this study, we constructed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for emulsified α-tocopherol in human adults and infants. An independent sheep PBPK model was also developed to inform the local preferential lymphatic transfer and for the purpose of model evaluation. The PBPK model predicts that α-tocopherol will be removed from the injection site within 24h and rapidly transfer predominantly into draining lymph nodes. A much lower concentration of α-tocopherol was estimated to peak in plasma within 8h. Any systemically absorbed α-tocopherol was predicted to accumulate slowly in adipose tissue, but not in other tissues. Model evaluation and uncertainty analyses indicated acceptable fit, with the fraction of dose taken up into the lymphatics as most influential on plasma concentration. In summary, this study estimates the in vivo fate of α-tocopherol in adjuvanted influenza vaccine, may be relevant in explaining its immunodynamics in humans, and informs current regulatory risk-benefit analyses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A Case of Yellow Nail Syndrome Accompanying Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia; Successful Treatment with Clarithromycin, Methylprednisolone, and Alpha-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz Kara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old woman presented with complaints of dyspnea, fatigue, and non-productive cough. Chest X-ray showed bilateral lung infiltrates. Nonspecific air-space consolidation on anterior segment of the right lower lobe, bilateral bronchiectasis and infiltrates, patchy ground-glass opacities, and interstitial thickening were reported on thorax computed tomography which was non-responsive to antibiotics. After tru-cut biopsy which only revealed a single granuloma in a particular area, alveolar septal thickening and fibrosis, slight chronic inflammation with findings of congestion, lung involvement was considered to be associated with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The nails on all fingers displayed yellow discoloration with mild edema in the face and the legs. The final diagnosis was yellow nail syndrome. Short-term clarithromycin and long-term oral methylprednisolone with vitamin E treatment were successful. After 4 months, all components of the syndrome almost completely regressed.

  10. Pro-oxidant activity of .alpha.-tocopherol during photooxidative degradation of polyolefins. ESRI and IR microspectroscopy studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Šlouf, Miroslav; Michálková, Danuše; Šloufová, I.; Vacková, Taťana; Dybal, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 138, April (2017), s. 55-71 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-31269A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer photooxidation * stabilization * HAS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2016

  11. Retinal Ganglion Cell Protection Via Topical and Systemic Alpha-Tocopherol Administration in Optic Nerve Crush Model of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aktaş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: The aim of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of topical α-tocopherol in optic nerve crush model of rat and to compare its efficacy with that of systemic α -tocopherol. Ma te ri al and Met hod: 50 eyes of 25 Wistar albino rats were included. The eyes were divided into six groups. Optic nerve crush was performed in Groups 1, 3, 5. Additionally, systemic and topical α-tocopherol therapies were given to Groups 1 and 3, respectively. No treatment was applied in Group 5. Groups 2, 4, and 6 were the fellow eyes of the animals comprising Groups 1, 3, and 5. Eyes were enucleated at day 45 of the study. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were counted with light microscopy. Re sults: Mean RGC numbers were 14.5±3.7 (10.3-20 and 27.5±2.6 (24-30 in Groups 5 and 6, respectively (p: 0.001 They were measured to be 26.6±7.8 (19-45 and 24.6±3.9 (20-32 in Groups 1 and 2 and 21.1±7.1 (11-34 and 27±7.5 (18-42 in Groups 3 and 4 (p:0.659, p:0.094, respectively. There was no difference in Groups 2 and 4 compared with Group 6 (p:0.210, p:0.299, respectively. Dis cus si on: Topical α-tocopherol has a significant neuroprotective effects in optic nerve crush model of rat and may be used in the future for the treatment of optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 161-6

  12. Gamma irradiation dose: Effects on spinach baby-leaf ascorbic acid, carotenoids, folate, alpha-tocopherol, and phylloquinone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionizing radiation of fruits and vegetables, in the form of gamma rays or electron beams, is effective in overcoming quarantine barriers in trade, decontamination, disinfestation and prolonging shelf life, but a void of information persists on ionizing radiation effects of vitamin profiles in indivi...

  13. D-Alpha-tocopherol acid polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, an effective stabilizer during solidification transformation of baicalin nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng-Fei; Wan, Jing; Wang, Yong; Li, Yu; Ma, Yue-Qin; Yang, Ming; Hu, Peng-Yi; Yuan, Hai-Long; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2013-02-25

    Baicalin nanosuspensions, stabilized with 10% TPGS (relative to the weight of baicalin), were transformed into nanosuspensions powders by solidification process. Solidification methods for this transformation included freeze-drying, spray drying or vacuum drying. High pressure homogenization was applied for production of baicalin nanosuspensions used TPGS, SDS, P188, HPMC and MC as stabilizer, respectively. The influence of the different solidification transformation methods on the redispersibility of solid drug nanosuspensions was systemically investigated, such as freeze-drying, spray drying and vacuum drying. Each method was applied with three grades of process stresses called as "conservative", "moderate" and "aggressive" conditions, and the redispersibility index (RDI) of nanosuspensions stabilized by stabilizers (such as TPGS, SDS, P188, HPMC and MC) during those process was investigated. The results showed that there was significant difference in RDI of nanosuspensions after solidification process. The RDI(a) (1.09, 1.01, 1.05, 0.99), RDI(b) (1.03, 0.99, 1.06, 1.02) and RDI(c) (1.01, 1.01, 1.09, 1.08) of nanosuspensions stabilized by TPGS were more small during different solidification process, compared with those of nanosuspensions stabilized by other stabilizer. It was concluded that the baicalin nanosuspensions were subjected to agglomeration or crystal growth during solidification transformation, especially at high aggressive stress conditions. Meanwhile, compared to other stabilizer, the TPGS was more effective for stability of baicalin nanosuspensions, which could exhibit higher affinity to the drug crystal and stronger surface adsorption at different solidification stresses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Brain Edema and Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnejad Azar, Adel; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Bohlooli, Shahab; Panahpour, Hamdollah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of α-tocopherol against edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 major groups (n = 32 in each), namely the sham, and control and α-tocopherol-treated (30 mg/kg) ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min) was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At the end of the 24-hour reperfusion period, the animals were randomly selected and used for 4 investigations (n = 8) in each of the 3 main groups: (a) assessment of neurological score and measurement of infarct size, (b) detection of brain edema formation by the wet/dry method, (c) evaluation of BBB permeability using the Evans blue (EB) extravasation technique, and (d) assessment of the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced extensive brain edema (brain water content 83.8 ± 0.11%) and EB leakage into brain parenchyma (14.58 ± 1.29 µg/g) in conjunction with reduced GSH and elevated MDA levels (5.86 ± 0.31 mmol/mg and 63.57 ± 5.42 nmol/mg, respectively). Treatment with α-tocopherol significantly lowered brain edema formation and reduced EB leakage compared with the control group (p edema formation and produced protective effects on BBB function following ischemic stroke occurrence. This effect could be through increasing antioxidant activity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Association of Alpha Tocopherol and Ag Sulfadiazine Chitosan Oleate Nanocarriers in Bioactive Dressings Supporting Platelet Lysate Application to Skin Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bonferoni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan oleate was previously proposed to encapsulate in nanocarriers some poorly soluble molecules aimed to wound therapy, such as the anti-infective silver sulfadiazine, and the antioxidant α tocopherol. Because nanocarriers need a suitable formulation to be administered to wounds, in the present paper, these previously developed nanocarriers were loaded into freeze dried dressings based on chitosan glutamate. These were proposed as bioactive dressings aimed to support the application to wounds of platelet lysate, a hemoderivative rich in growth factors. The dressings were characterized for hydration capacity, morphological aspect, and rheological and mechanical behavior. Although chitosan oleate nanocarriers clearly decreased the mechanical properties of dressings, these remained compatible with handling and application to wounds. Preliminary studies in vitro on fibroblast cell cultures demonstrated good compatibility of platelet lysate with nanocarriers and bioactive dressings. An in vivo study on a murine wound model showed an accelerating wound healing effect for the bioactive dressing and its suitability as support of the platelet lysate application to wounds.

  16. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on pulmonary antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation in cigarette smoke inhaling mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Vipin

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free radicals generated in biological systems by cigarette smoke (CS inhalation can cause oxidative stress in tissues, resulting in lipid peroxidation (LPO. In view of the antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol (AT, in the present study, effects of AT on antioxidant defence system and LPO were investigated in mice inhaling CS for different time intervals. Results Male Balb/c mice were fed orally with AT (5 I.U./Kg.b.wt. and /or exposed to CS for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. No effect was observed on body growth, diet consumption, water intake and lung weight due to AT and /or CS treatment in any of the groups as compared to their control counterparts. After two weeks of treatment, no change in LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes were observed except for glutathione reductase (GR which increased in all the treated groups. A significant increase in pulmonary LPO levels was observed in mice exposed to CS inhalation for 4, 6 or 8 weeks. There was a gradual increase in the LPO levels as the extent of CS inhalation increased from 4 to 8 weeks. However, the extent of increase in LPO levels due to CS exposure for 4, 6 or 8 weeks in the mice treated with AT was comparatively less. A significant decrease in the GSH levels was also observed in all the animals exposed to CS for 4, 6 or 8 weeks. There was a significant increase in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and GR observed in all the groups exposed to CS for 4,6 or 8 weeks. The increase in above antioxidant enzymes seems to be insufficient to combat the oxidative stress posed by CS inhalation. There was a marked decrease observed in the LPO levels in the animals treated with AT alone for 4, 6, or 8 weeks, when compared to their control counterparts. However, the supplementation of AT for 4, 6 or 8 weeks demonstrated a significant increase in GSH levels. Conclusion It appears from our studies that AT exhibits its antioxidant role either directly by scavenging the oxidative species or indirectly by modulating the GSH levels.

  17. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  18. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  19. Sun protection for preventing basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Guillermo; Nova, John; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Andrea Esperanza; Medina, Roger David; Solorzano-Restrepo, Carolina; Gonzalez, Jenny; Olmos, Miguel; Godfrey, Kathie; Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2016-07-25

    Early Review Organizing Software (EROS). Similarly, two review authors independently used predesigned data collection forms to extract information from the original study reports about the participants, methods of randomisation, blinding, comparisons of interest, number of participants originally randomised by arm, follow-up losses, and outcomes, and they assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreement by consulting a third author and contacted trial investigators of identified trials to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included one RCT (factorial design) that randomised 1621 participants.This study compared the daily application of sunscreen compared with discretionary use of sunscreen, with or without beta-carotene administration, in the general population. The study was undertaken in Australia; 55.2% of participants had fair skin, and they were monitored for 4.5 years for new cases of BCC or cSCC assessed by histopathology. We found this study to be at low risk of bias for domains such as allocation, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. However, we found multiple unclear risks related to other biases, including an unclear assessment of possible interactions between the effects of the different interventions evaluated (that is, sunscreen and beta-carotene). We found no difference in terms of the number of participants developing BCC (n = 1621; risk ratio (RR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.43) or cSCC (n = 1621; RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.54) when comparing daily application of sunscreen with discretionary use, even when analyses were restricted to groups without beta-carotene supplementation. This evidence was of low quality, which means that there is some certainty that future studies may alter our confidence in this evidence.We reported adverse events in a narrative way and included skin irritation or contact allergy.We identified no studies that evaluated other sun protection

  20. [Effects of multi-nutrients supplementation on the nutritional status and antioxidant capability of healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Li, Yanfang; Wu, Zhaoyan; Huang, Wenjing; Jiang, Zhuoqin

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether daily multivitamins/minerals supplement can improve nutrient status, plasma, antioxidant enzymes activity and total antioxidant capacity in healthy adults. One hundred and fifty-one healthy adults living in a normal lifestyle with a mean age of 28 (20 - 50) years were recruited from Guangzhou. The subjects were divided into the supplement group and the control ineral supplements. One hundred and fifty-one healthy adults living in a normal lifestyle with a mean age of 28 (20 - 50) years were recruited from Guangzhou. The subjects were divided into the supplement group and the control group carefully matched with age and gender. Supplement pellets (consisted of multivitamins/minerals, including VitA, VitC, VitE,Ca, Zn, Fe, Se, etc.) and placebo pellets (consisted of only dextrin with the same color, shape and size as the supplement pellets) were administrated in a double-blinded manner for 8 week. The nutrients intake data of the research subjects were collected daily by a 24-hour dietary recall method. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the intervention period for determining the nutritional status, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the products of oxidative damage. The dietary intake of nutrients was insufficient in these subjects. The levels of plasma VitC, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, Zn, Fe and Se in the supplement group were increased in comparison with the control group by 46%, 28%, 116%, 7%, 30% and 28% respectively (P nutritional status regarding antioxidant nutrients had largely been improved. But levels of plasma gamma-tocopherol were decreased by 25% in comparison with the control group (P supplementation (P Supplementation of multiple micronutrients could effectively increase the levels of plasma VitC, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, Zn, Fe and Se and the activities of GPX, CAT and T-AOC.

  1. Kost og lungekraeft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder G; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    . Vitamin A, C and E supplements and beta-carotene offer no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, in two major randomised intervention trials beta-carotene supplement has resulted in increased mortality. Smoking remains by far the leading cause of lung cancer and the adverse......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... effects can only be slightly alleviated by a healthy diet....

  2. Plasma Carotenoids and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with prior Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally believed protective against several chronic diseases. One suggested mechanism is a reduction in oxidative stress. The carotenoids, nutrients found in colored fruits and vegetables, possess antioxidant properties in vitro, but their role in humans is less well documented. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationships between the most abundant plasma carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin, as well as grouped carotenoids (total xanthophylls, carotenes and carotenoids, and urinary excretion of the F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs, stable and specific biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids. Two F2-IsoP measures were utilized: total F2-IsoPs and 8-iso-PGF2α. The study population (N = 52 was drawn from a study among patients curatively treated for early-stage head and neck cancer. Unadjusted linear regression analyses revealed significant inverse associations between plasma lutein, total xanthophylls and both F2-IsoP measures at baseline. After control for potential confounders, all individual and grouped xanthophylls remained inversely associated with the F2-IsoP measures, but none of these associations achieved significance. The carotenes were not inversely associated with total F2-IsoPs or 8-iso-PGF2a concentrations. The finding of consistent inverse associations between individual and grouped xanthophylls, but not individual and grouped carotenes, and F2-IsoPs is intriguing and warrants further investigation.

  3. Colorectal cancer: can nutrients modulate NF-kappaB and apoptosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula; Aranha, Márcia M; Borralho, Pedro M; Moreira da Silva, Isabel B; Correia, Luís; Fernandes, Afonso; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Camilo, Maria

    2010-02-01

    NF-kappaB may promote carcinogenesis by altering cell cycle, inflammatory responses and apoptosis-related gene expression, though cell mechanisms relating diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unveiled in humans. This study in patients with CRC aimed to explore potential interactions between the dietary pattern, nutrient intake, expression of NF-kappaB, apoptosis and tumour histological aggressiveness. Usual diet was assessed by diet history; nutrient composition was determined by DIETPLAN software. Histologically classified patient tissue samples (adenoma, adenocarcinoma and normal surrounding mucosa) were obtained via biopsies during colonoscopy (n=16) or surgery (n=8). NF-kappaB expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis were higher in tumours (p<0.01), greater along with histological aggressiveness (p<0.01). Highest intake terciles of animal protein, refined carbohydrates, saturated fat, n-6 fatty acids and alcohol were associated with higher NF-kappaB, apoptosis and histological aggressiveness (p<0.01); the opposite tissue characteristics were associated with highest intake terciles of n-3 fatty acids, fibre, vitamin E, flavonoids, isoflavones, beta-carotene and selenium (p<0.002). Additionally, higher n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 26:1) was associated with higher NF-kappaB (p<0.006) and apoptosis (p<0.01), and more aggressive histology (p<0.01). Conversely, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (median 6:1) was associated with lower NF-kappaB (p<0.002) and apoptosis (p<0.002), and less aggressive histology (p<0.002). NF-kappaB expression and apoptosis increased from adenoma to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. This degenerative transition, recognized as key in carcinogenesis, appear to have been influenced by a diet promoting a pro-inflammatory milieu that can trigger NF-kappaB. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of postharvest hot water treatment on nutritional and functional properties of kumquat (Fortunella japonica Lour. Swingle Cv. Ovale) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Minello, Elisabeth V; Melis, Marinella; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-01-23

    The present study investigated the influence of a hot water dip (HWD) for 2 min at 50 degrees C, a standard and effective treatment for postharvest decay control of citrus fruit, on the nutritional and health-related properties of kumquats. The results show that most of the parameters examined, including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, maturity index, glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, beta-carotene, zeaxantin, rhoifolin, and antioxidant activity, were not significantly affected by treatment. The levels of beta-cryptoxanthin, narirutin, and total flavonoids increased after HWD, whereas lutein and total phenols decreased. The concentration of the essential oil and the relative percentage of the individual components of the essential oil were not affected by HWD except for the minor compound p-menta-1,5-dien-1-ol, which increased after HWD. After storage, lower levels of glucose, total sugars, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein were recorded in HWD fruit. A decrease in antioxidant activity and increases in alpha-tocopherol and total vitamin E were found both in control and HWD fruit. The influence of HWD at 50 degrees C for 2 min on individual nutraceuticals and health-related properties was thus generally low and may depend on storage conditions.

  5. Relationships of body mass index with serum carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady-state and in response to a carotenoid-rich vegetable diet intervention in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Maramag, Cherry C; Tengco, Lorena W; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Solon, Florentino S

    2008-04-01

    In marginally nourished children, information is scarce regarding the circulating concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, and physiological factors influencing their circulating levels. We determined the serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol at steady state and in response to a 9-week vegetable diet intervention in 9-12-year-old girls (n=54) and boys (n=65) in rural Philippines. We determined cross-sectional relationships of BMI (body mass index) with serum micronutrient levels, and whether BMI is a determinant of serum carotenoid responses to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetables. We measured dietary nutrient intakes and assessed inflammation by measurement of serum C-reactive protein levels. The children had low serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol as compared with published values for similar-aged children in the U.S.A. The low serum retinol levels can be ascribed to inadequate diets and were not the result of confounding due to inflammation. Significant inverse correlations of BMI and serum all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol (but not beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and retinol) were observed among girls at baseline. The dietary intervention markedly enhanced the serum concentrations of all carotenoids. Changes in serum all-trans-beta-carotene and alpha-carotene (but not changes in lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin) in response to the dietary intervention were inversely associated with BMI in girls and boys. Thus, in Filipino school-aged children, BMI is inversely related to the steady-state serum concentrations of certain carotenoids and vitamin E, but not vitamin A, and is a determinant of serum beta- and alpha-carotene responses, but not xanthophyll responses, to the ingestion of carotenoid-rich vegetable meals.

  6. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  7. Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables : individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Delaimy, WK; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N; Pala, [No Value; Johansson, [No Value; Nilsson, S; Mattisson, [No Value; Wirfalt, E; Galasso, R; Palli, D; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Dorronsoro, M; Pera, G; Ocke, MC; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Overvad, K; Chirlaque, MAD; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Tjonneland, A; Olsen, A; Lund, E; Alsaker, EHR; Barricarte, A; Kesse, E; Boutron-Ruault, MC; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Key, TJ; Spencer, E; Bingham, S; Welch, AA; Sanchez-Perez, MJ; Nagel, G; Linseisen, J; Quiros, [No Value; Peeters, PHM; van Gils, CH; Boeing, H; van Kappel, AL; Steghens, JP; Riboli, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim in this study was to assess the association between individual plasma carotenoid levels (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin) and fruit and vegetable intakes recorded by a calibrated food questionnaire (FQ) and 24- h dietary recall

  8. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns by using metabolomics123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Andriy; Reedy, Jill; Subar, Amy F; Sampson, Joshua N; Albanes, Demetrius; Gu, Fangyi; Kontto, Jukka; Lassale, Camille; Liao, Linda M; Männistö, Satu; Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Irwin, Melinda L; Mayne, Susan T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns that conform to national dietary guidelines are related to lower chronic disease incidence and longer life span. However, the precise mechanisms involved are unclear. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns may provide tools to validate diet quality measurement and determine underlying metabolic pathways influenced by diet quality. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the correlation of 4 diet quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), the WHO Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and the Baltic Sea Diet (BSD)] with serum metabolites. Design: We evaluated dietary patterns and metabolites in male Finnish smokers (n = 1336) from 5 nested case-control studies within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and provided a fasting serum sample before study randomization (1985–1988). Metabolites were measured with the use of mass spectrometry. We analyzed cross-sectional partial correlations of 1316 metabolites with 4 diet quality indexes, adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, energy intake, education, and physical activity. We pooled estimates across studies with the use of fixed-effects meta-analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, and conducted metabolic pathway analyses. Results: The HEI-2010, aMED, HDI, and BSD were associated with 23, 46, 23, and 33 metabolites, respectively (17, 21, 11, and 10 metabolites, respectively, were chemically identified; r-range: −0.30 to 0.20; P = 6 × 10−15 to 8 × 10−6). Food-based diet indexes (HEI-2010, aMED, and BSD) were associated with metabolites correlated with most components used to score adherence (e.g., fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and unsaturated fat). HDI correlated with metabolites related to polyunsaturated fat and fiber components, but not other macro- or micronutrients (e

  9. Neuromorphometrical study on the radioprotective role of betacarotene on mice cerebellum with relation to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, M.; Bhatia, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Carotenoids are those substances, synthesized, only in plants which serve to protect the plants from free radicals, generated during photosynthesis. Beta-carotene, one of the carotenoids, has been thought to be of value to humans and other species, not only as precursors to vitamin A, but also for having excellent antioxidant properties. Besides being an antioxidant and precursor to vitamin A, beta-carotene may be more important in our diet than vitamin A for the following reasons: People with low tissue level of beta-carotene were found to be usually prone towards getting a number of different types of cancer. It has been reported that beta-carotene is a potent free radicals quencher, singlet oxygen scavenger. As radiation damage also occurs due to the attack of free radicals on cell membranes, removal of free radicals might lead to decrease in the extent of damage. The present study is an endeavor to explore the possible role of beta-carotene as an antioxidant against radiation induced free radicals in cerebellum of mice in early developing postnatal period

  10. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer . But in the United States, this type of ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ...

  11. The vitamin E analog, alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid enhances the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab against HER2/neu-expressing breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penichet Manuel L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2/neu is an oncogene that facilitates neoplastic transformation due to its ability to transduce growth signals in a ligand-independent manner, is over-expressed in 20-30% of human breast cancers correlating with aggressive disease and has been successfully targeted with trastuzumab (Herceptin®. Because trastuzumab alone achieves only a 15-30% response rate, it is now commonly combined with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. While the combination of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy has greatly improved response rates and increased survival, these conventional chemotherapy drugs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal and cardiac toxicity, bone marrow and immune suppression. These drawbacks necessitate the development of new, less toxic drugs that can be combined with trastuzumab. Recently, we reported that orally administered alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (α-TEA, a novel ether derivative of alpha-tocopherol, dramatically suppressed primary tumor growth and reduced the incidence of lung metastases both in a transplanted and a spontaneous mouse model of breast cancer without discernable toxicity. Methods In this study we examined the effect of α-TEA plus HER2/neu-specific antibody treatment on HER2/neu-expressing breast cancer cells in vitro and in a HER2/neu positive human xenograft tumor model in vivo. Results We show in vitro that α-TEA plus anti-HER2/neu antibody has an increased cytotoxic effect against murine mammary tumor cells and human breast cancer cells and that the anti-tumor effect of α-TEA is independent of HER2/neu status. More importantly, in a human breast cancer xenograft model, the combination of α-TEA plus trastuzumab resulted in faster tumor regression and more tumor-free animals than trastuzumab alone. Conclusion Due to the cancer cell selectivity of α-TEA, and because α-TEA kills both HER2/neu positive and HER2/neu negative breast cancer cells, it has the potential to be effective and

  12. Determination of beta-carotene and vitamin A contents of serum and liver of sheep slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir during different seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hedayat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the particular role of vitamin A in different tissues and organs, various clinical signs are seen in its deficiency. Additionally, marginal deficiency of vitamin A without the presence of clinical signs leads to performance defects such as infertility. In this study, the seasonal changes of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver of slaughtered sheep in Ahvaz abattoir were investigated. A total of 360 sheep were sampled from October 2013 to June 2014. Spectrophotometry was used for measuring values. The results were analyzed statistically with student t-test. The mean ±SE concentration of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver were 209/9±1/5, 98±0/9 (µg/dl, 19/8±0/4, 32/3±0/8(µg/g, respectively. Although there wasn't significant difference in levels of the measured parameters in two age groups(sheep only with immature teeth and sheep with a minimum mature tooth but there was a significant difference in vitamin A of serum and liver in the two sexes. The serumic levels of vitamin A in male sheep was more than the females while the concentration of vitamin A in the liver of female sheep was more than the males. The difference between seasons in vitamin A of serum was also statistically different with higher concentrations observed in warm seasons in comparison to milder seasons.

  13. Lack of inhibitory effects of beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium on development of ductular adenocarcinomas in exocrine pancreas of hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of vitamins E and E, β-carotene and selenium on development of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumours in hamsters were investigated. Dietary supplementation of vitamin C, alone as well as in combination with β-carotene resulted in consistently lower numbers of

  14. Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) and its assignment as a beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase/4-ketolase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojima, K.; Breitenbach, J.; Visser, J.H.; Setoguchi, Y.; Tabata, K.; Hoshino, T.; Berg, van den J.A.; Sandmann, G.

    2006-01-01

    A gene has been cloned from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by complementation of astaxanthin formation in a ß-carotene accumulating mutant. It consists of 3,166 bp and contains 17 introns. For the ß-carotene mutant ATCC 96815, a single point mutation in the splicing sequence of intron 8 was found.

  15. Statistical optimization of beta-carotene production by Arthrobacter agilis A17 using response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Murat; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2017-04-01

    β-carotene is a commercially important natural pigment and has been widely applied in the medicine, pharmaceutical, food, feed and cosmetic industries. The current study aimed to investigate the usability of molasses for β-carotene production by Arthrobacter agilis A17 (KP318146) and to optimize the production process. Box-Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology was used to determine the optimum levels and the interactions of three independent variables namely molasses, yeast extract and KH2PO4 at three different levels. β-carotene yield in optimized medium containing 70 g/l molasses, 25 g/l yeast extract and 0.96 g/l KH2PO4, reached up to 100 mg/l, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the yield, obtained from control cultivation. A remarkable β-carotene production on inexpensive carbon source was achieved with the use of statistical optimization.

  16. Predictors of adipose tissue tocopherol and toenail selenium levels in nine countries : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; for the EURAMIC Study Group

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the levels of adipose tissue alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and toenail selenium and their determinants. Design: Control subjects from multicentre case-control study on antioxidants, myocardial infarction and cancer of the breast. Subjects and setting: 686 male and 339

  17. Sensitive biomarker responses of the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus exposed to chlorpyrifos at environmental concentrations: Roles of alpha-tocopherol and metallothioneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Lidwina; Monferrán, Magadalena Victoria; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Bonansea, Rocio Inés; Asis, Ramón; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) at environmental concentrations on the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus, a South American native species. Organisms were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of CPF (from 3.5 to 94.5ngCPFL(-1)) at laboratory conditions for 96h. A wide battery of biochemical responses including bioaccumulation, damage and defense biomarkers were measured in cephalothorax and abdomen of shrimp. The concentration of CPF was below the detection limit of the method in both body sectors (8ngCPFg(-1)ww), probably indicating fast biotransformation of the parental compound. Our results showed that CPF exposure inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from 3.5ngCPFL(-1), a concentration below the suggested Argentinean guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. Moreover, oxidative stress was evidenced by increased H2O2 content and increased levels of TBARs and carbonyl groups in proteins. The induction of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase seems not be sufficient to prevent oxidative damages. In addition, the mobilization of α-tocopherol from abdomen to cephalothorax was observed and reported for the first time in non-reproductive condition. Likewise, a strong diminution of metallothioneins occurred in cephalothorax from the lowest CPF concentration while induction occurred from the same treatment in abdomen as an oxidative stress response. Finally, significant correlation between Integrated Biomarker Response values and exposure concentrations suggest the usefulness of P. argentinus as bioindicator of CPF exposure at concentrations as low as environmental ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CYP4F2 repression and a modified alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) metabolism are two independent consequences of ethanol toxicity in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Bartolini, D; Torquato, P; Giusepponi, D; Barola, C; Galarini, R; Birringer, M; Lorkowski, S; Galli, F

    2017-04-01

    The expression of CYP4F2, a form of cytochrome P-450 with proposed role in α-tocopherol and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, was explored in HepG2 and HepaRG human hepatocytes during ethanol toxicity. Cytotoxicity, ROS production, and JNK and ERK1/2 kinase signaling increased in a dose and time-dependent manner during ethanol treatments; CYP4F2 gene expression decreased, while other CYP4F forms, namely 4F11 and 12, increased along with 3A4 and 2E1 isoforms. α-Tocopherol antagonized the cytotoxicity and CYP4F2 gene repression effect of ethanol in HepG2 cells. Ethanol stimulated the tocopherol-ω-hydroxylase activity and the other steps of vitamin E metabolism, which points to a minor role of CYP4F2 in this metabolism of human hepatocytes. PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c followed the same expression pattern of CYP4F2 in response to ethanol and α-tocopherol treatments. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of PPAR-γ synergized with ethanol in decreasing CYP4F2 protein expression, which suggests a role of this nuclear receptor in CYP4F2 transcriptional regulation. In conclusion, ethanol toxicity modifies the CYP expression pattern of human hepatic cells impairing CYP4F2 transcription and protein expression. These changes were associated with a lowered expression of the fatty acid biosynthesis regulators PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and with an increased enzymatic catabolism of vitamin E. CYP4F2 gene repression and a sustained vitamin E metabolism appear to be independent effects of ethanol toxicity in human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver AP-1 activation due to carbon tetrachloride is potentiated by 1,2-dibromoethane but is inhibited by alpha-tocopherol or gadolinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camandola, S; Aragno, M; Cutrin, J C; Tamagno, E; Danni, O; Chiarpotto, E; Parola, M; Leonarduzzi, G; Biasi, F; Poli, G

    1999-05-01

    Experimental acute intoxication by prooxidant haloalkanes produces marked stimulation of hepatic lipid peroxidation and cytolysis, which is followed by tissue regeneration. Our aim was to clarify the role of oxidative imbalance in the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is involved in tissue repair. Rats were poisoned with a very low concentration of carbon tetrachloride, given alone or in combination with another hepatotoxin, 1,2-dibromoethane, to provide varying extents of oxidative damage. The level of AP-1-DNA binding was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on liver extracts, obtained from rats killed 6 h after poisoning. Stimulation of lipid peroxidation and AP-1 upregulation were already established when the hepatic damage due to carbon tetrachloride +/-1,2-dibromoethane was beginning to appear. Rat supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E completely inhibited AP-1 upregulation, thus supporting a causative role of membrane lipid oxidation in the observed modulation of the transcription factor. Moreover, activation of Kupffer cells appears to be a crucial step in the increased AP-1 binding to DNA, the latter being largely prevented by gadolinium chloride, a macrophage-specific inhibitor.

  20. Effect of oral alpha-tocopherol and zinc on plasma status, IGF-I levels, weight gain and immune response in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, J.; Jørgensen, C.; Mortensen, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    IGF-I levels generally increased from birth to week 8, but were not affected by Zn or vit. E. Daily weight gain was highest in the Zn group, but this was not related to an increased IGF-I level. The vit. E group responded earlier than the Zn and control groups to the tetanus vaccination....

  1. Enhanced antitumor activity of surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles and an .alpha.-tocopherol derivative in a rat model of mammary gland carcinosarcoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Pustovyy, V. I.; Babinskyi, A. V.; Palyvoda, O. M.; Chekhun, V. F.; Todor, I. N.; Kuzmenko, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, 6 June (2017), s. 4257-4268 E-ISSN 1178-2013 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04918S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) * lipid oxidation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  2. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.J.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Heijst, P.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants

  3. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, L.J.H. van; Waart, F. de; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Heijst, P. van; Graaf, J. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants

  4. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Ingold, K.U.; Burton, G.W.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL.

  5. Effect of different levels of alpha tocopherol on performance traits, serum antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assar Ali Shah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to find the effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth, serum antioxidant enzymes, and some trace elements in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature. A total of 180 day-old Japanese quails were randomly divided into four groups and provided with 0 (group A, 50 (group B, 100 (group C, and 150 IU/kg (group D vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol acetate under an average temperature of 9±0.5 °C for an experimental period of 42 days. The result showed that feed intake per day, body weight, weight gain per day, and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Serum concentrations of superoxide and glutathione peroxidase were significantly high in birds supplemented with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase was not significantly affected between the control and treated groups; however, alanine transaminase concentration significantly reduced in group D. Zinc concentration in the blood increased significantly in group D, with no significant effect on copper and manganese between the control and treated groups. Vitamin E at the level of 150 IU/kg of feed improves the blood antioxidant status and zinc concentration, with no effect on the performance traits of quail reared under low ambient temperature.

  6. Neurobiological Correlates of Alpha-Tocopherol Antiepileptogenic Effects and MicroRNA Expression Modulation in a Rat Model of Kainate-Induced Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogini, Patrizia; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Betti, Michele; Galati, Claudia; Lattanzi, Davide; Savelli, David; Di Palma, Michael; Saccomanno, Stefania; Bartolini, Desirée; Torquato, Pierangelo; Ruffolo, Gabriele; Olivieri, Fabiola; Galli, Francesco; Palma, Eleonora; Minelli, Andrea; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2018-02-22

    Seizure-triggered maladaptive neural plasticity and neuroinflammation occur during the latent period as a key underlying event in epilepsy chronicization. Previously, we showed that α-tocopherol (α-T) reduces hippocampal neuroglial activation and neurodegeneration in the rat model of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE). These findings allowed us to postulate an antiepileptogenic potential for α-T in hippocampal excitotoxicity, in line with clinical evidence showing that α-T improves seizure control in drug-resistant patients. To explore neurobiological correlates of the α-T antiepileptogenic role, rats were injected with such vitamin during the latent period starting right after KA-induced SE, and the effects on circuitry excitability, neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and microRNA (miRNA) expression were investigated in the hippocampus. Results show that in α-T-treated epileptic rats, (1) the number of population spikes elicited by pyramidal neurons, as well as the latency to the onset of epileptiform-like network activity recover to control levels; (2) neuronal death is almost prevented; (3) down-regulation of claudin, a blood-brain barrier protein, is fully reversed; (4) neuroinflammation processes are quenched (as indicated by the decrease of TNF-α, IL-1β, GFAP, IBA-1, and increase of IL-6); (5) miR-146a, miR-124, and miR-126 expression is coherently modulated in hippocampus and serum by α-T. These findings support the potential of a timely intervention with α-T in clinical management of SE to reduce epileptogenesis, thus preventing chronic epilepsy development. In addition, we suggest that the analysis of miRNA levels in serum could provide clinicians with a tool to evaluate disease evolution and the efficacy of α-T therapy in SE.

  7. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...... 2005. Forage was wilted to a dry-matter (DM) content of 273 g kg−1 and ensiled without additive or with an inoculant or acid. Wilting decreased α-tocopherol concentration by 30% in the Bft + Ti mixture (P = 0·015). Untreated Bft + Ti silage had higher α-tocopherol content than red clover silages (56......·9 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015). The α-tocopherol concentration of Bft + Ti forages increased during ensiling from 41·1 mg kg−1 DM in wilted herbage to 56·9, 65·2 and 56·8 mg kg−1 DM in untreated, inoculated and acid-treated silage respectively (P = 0·015). The inoculant increased α...

  8. The Subcellular Distribution of Alpha-Tocopherol in the Adult Primate Brain and Its Relationship with Membrane Arachidonic Acid and Its Oxidation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Emily S.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Erdman, John W.; Neuringer, Martha; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Johnson, Elizabeth J.

    2017-11-26

    The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (ST), and hippocampus (HC) of adult rhesus monkeys ( n = 9), fed a stock diet containing vitamin E (α-, γ-tocopherol intake: ~0.7 µmol/kg body weight/day, ~5 µmol/kg body weight/day, respectively). α-tocopherol, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-GC/MS) respectively. α-Tocopherol (ng/mg protein) was highest in nuclear membranes ( p < 0.05) for all regions except HC. In PFC and ST, arachidonic acid (AA, µg/mg protein) had a similar membrane distribution to α-tocopherol. Total α-tocopherol concentrations were inversely associated with AA oxidation products (isoprostanes) ( p < 0.05), but not docosahexaenoic acid oxidation products (neuroprostanes). This study reports novel data on α-tocopherol accumulation in primate brain regions and membranes and provides evidence that α-tocopherol and AA are similarly distributed in PFC and ST membranes, which may reflect a protective effect of α-tocopherol against AA oxidation.

  9. The Subcellular Distribution of Alpha-Tocopherol in the Adult Primate Brain and Its Relationship with Membrane Arachidonic Acid and Its Oxidation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Mohn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PFC, cerebellum (CER, striatum (ST, and hippocampus (HC of adult rhesus monkeys (n = 9, fed a stock diet containing vitamin E (α-, γ-tocopherol intake: ~0.7 µmol/kg body weight/day, ~5 µmol/kg body weight/day, respectively. α-tocopherol, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, gas chromatography (GC and liquid chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-GC/MS respectively. α-Tocopherol (ng/mg protein was highest in nuclear membranes (p < 0.05 for all regions except HC. In PFC and ST, arachidonic acid (AA, µg/mg protein had a similar membrane distribution to α-tocopherol. Total α-tocopherol concentrations were inversely associated with AA oxidation products (isoprostanes (p < 0.05, but not docosahexaenoic acid oxidation products (neuroprostanes. This study reports novel data on α-tocopherol accumulation in primate brain regions and membranes and provides evidence that α-tocopherol and AA are similarly distributed in PFC and ST membranes, which may reflect a protective effect of α-tocopherol against AA oxidation.

  10. The Subcellular Distribution of Alpha-Tocopherol in the Adult Primate Brain and Its Relationship with Membrane Arachidonic Acid and Its Oxidation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mohn, Emily S.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Erdman, John W.; Neuringer, Martha; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Johnson, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between α-tocopherol, a known antioxidant, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, has not been directly investigated in the primate brain. This study characterized the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions and investigated the association between membrane α-tocopherol and PUFA content, as well as brain PUFA oxidation products. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal membranes were isolated using a density gradient from the prefrontal cortex (PF...

  11. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  12. [Effect of alpha-tocopherol on the activity of the liver glutathione antioxidative system and the activity of serum aminotransferase in rats during tetrachloromethane poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubskiĭ, Iu I; Khmelevskiĭ, Iu V; Sil'chenko, N A

    1983-01-01

    The activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase in the liver as well as of glutamate-pyruvate, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in blood serum were studied in rats which were injected tetrachloromethane in a dose of 1.04 mmol per 100 g mass for seven days. Tetrachloromethane poisoning is accompanied by a considerable decrease in the glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver and an increase in the aminotransferase activity in the blood serum. Additional administration of 20 and 30 mg of L-tocopherol per 100 g of mass prevents a tetrachloromethane-induced decrease in the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the liver and somewhat normalizes the activity of glutamate-pyruvate and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase in the blood serum. Possible mechanisms of the alpha-tocoferol protective action are under discussion.

  13. The alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E boosts elastase activity of human PMNs and their ability to kill Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pul...

  14. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables.

  15. Modulation of the effect of prenatal PAH exposure on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood by plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P

    2009-08-01

    The fetus is more susceptible than the adult to the effects of certain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Nutritional factors, including antioxidants, have been shown to have a protective effect on carcinogen-DNA adducts and cancer risk in adults. We investigated whether the effect of prenatal airborne PAH exposure, measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, on the level of PAH-DNA adducts in a baby's cord blood is modified by the concentration of micronutrients in maternal and cord blood. The micronutrients examined were: retinol (vitamin A), alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol (vitamin E), and carotenoids. With the use of multiple linear regression, we found a significant interaction between prenatal PAH exposure and cord blood concentration of alpha-tocopherol and carotenoids in predicting the concentration of PAH adducts in cord blood. The association between PAH exposure and PAH adducts was much stronger among those with low alpha-tocopherol (beta = 0.15; P = 0.001) and among those with low carotenoids (beta = 0.16; P < 0.001) compared with babies with high levels of these micronutrients (among those with high alpha-tocopherol: beta = 0.05; P = 0.165; among those with high carotenoids: beta = 0.06; P = 0.111). These results suggest a protective effect of micronutrients on the DNA damage and potential cancer risk associated with prenatal PAH exposure.

  16. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  17. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: an analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramamurthy, Perumal; Santhiya, Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Mentha extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Four solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water) of ethanolic extract of dried leaves powder of M. spicata were analyzed for total antioxidant activity (TAA) and relative antioxidant activity (RAA) and compared with standard antioxidants such as Quercetin, beta-carotene, L-ascorbic acid and glutathione using ABTS*+ decolorization assay (ABTS/Potassium persulphate). The antioxidant activity was assumed to be from the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract. Total phenolics are found to be highest in ethyl acetate fraction (54 mg/g) and least in hexane fraction (13 mg/g) and more or less similar in water and chloroform fractions (30-32 mg/g). TAA is found to be less in hexane and chloroform fractions (<53% at 50 microg/ml) and highest in ethyl acetate (95% at 20 microg/ml) and water (84% at 30 microg/ml) fractions. The RAA of ethyl acetate fraction is 1.1 compared to quercetin (at 5 microM/ml), but greater when compared to beta-carotene (15 microM/ml), L-ascorbic acid (15 microM/ml) and glutathione (15 microM/ml). The RAAs with these antioxidants are in the range of 1.31 -1.6. The values of RAAs for water fraction also show similar trend and are in the range of 1.0-1.4. The antioxidant activities of the solvent factions are closely related to the content of total phenolics present in them.

  18. Mechanism of deactivation of triplet-excited riboflavin by ascorbate, carotenoids, and tocopherols in homogeneous and heterogeneous aqueous food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Daniel R; Olsen, Karsten; Skibsted, Leif H

    2007-07-25

    Tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) and Trolox were found to deactivate triplet-excited riboflavin in homogeneous aqueous solution (7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water) with second-order reaction rates close to diffusion control [k2 between 4.8 x 10(8) (delta-tocopherol) and 6.2 x 10(8) L mol(-1) s(-1) (Trolox) at 24.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C] as determined by laser flash photolysis transient absorption spectroscopy. In aqueous buffer (pH 6.4) the rate constant for Trolox was 2.6 x 10(9) L mol(-1) s1 and comparable to the rate constant found for ascorbate (2.0 x 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1)). The deactivation rate constant was found to be inferior in heterogeneous systems as shown for alpha-tocopherol and Trolox in aqueous Tween-20 emulsion (approximately by a factor of 4 compared to 7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water). Neither beta-carotene (7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water and Tween-20 emulsion), lycopene (7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water), nor crocin (aqueous buffer at pH 6.4, 7:3 v/v tert-butanol/water, and Tween-20 emulsion) showed any quenching on the triplet excited state of riboflavin. Therefore, all carotenoids seem to reduce the formation of triplet-excited riboflavin through an inner-filter effect. Activation parameters were based on the temperature dependence of the triplet-excited deactivation between 15 and 35 degrees C, and the isokinetic behavior, which was found to include purine derivatives previously studied, confirms a common deactivation mechanism with a bimolecular diffusion-controlled encounter with electron (or hydrogen atom) transfer as rate-determining step. DeltaH for deactivation by ascorbic acid, Trolox, and homologue tocopherols (ranging from 18 kJ mol(-1) for Trolox in Tween-20 emulsion to 184 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid in aqueous buffer at pH 6.4) showed a linear dependence on DeltaS (ranging from -19 J mol(-1) K(-1) for Trolox in aqueous buffer at pH 6.4 to +550 J mol(-1) K(-1) for ascorbic acid in aqueous buffer pH 6.4). Among photooxidation products from the

  19. [Carotenoid intake in the German National Food Consumption Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, R; Schmidt-Faber, B; Heseker, H

    1998-12-01

    In nutritional epidemiological studies high consumption of fruits and vegetables was shown to be an important preventive measure to reduce the risk of cancer, coronary heart disease, and cataracts. These effects cannot be explained completely and in a sufficient way by the intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C. Other carotenoids differing in their antioxidative and biological properties are also provided with fruits and vegetables in significant amounts. Because data for other carotenoids than beta-carotene are not considered in computerized German food database and food composition tables, representative carotenoid intake calculations for the German population are missing. Therefore a carotenoid database, containing alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin values for different fruits, vegetables, and other carotenoid-containing foods, was developed. With this database the carotenoid intake of the German population--stratified by sex and age--was evaluated on the basis of the German National Food Consumption Survey (NVS). The mean total carotenoid intake amounts to 5.33 mg/day. The average intake lutein was 1.91 mg/day, beta-carotene intake amounts to 1.81 mg/day, lycopene intake was 1.28 mg/day, alpha-carotene intake was 0.29 mg/day, and cryptoxanthin intake was 0.05 mg/day. Tomatoes and tomato products provide most of the lycopene. Green salads and vegetables are the most important contributors of lutein in Germany. Zeaxanthin is mainly consumed with maize but also with spinach and other vegetables like cabbage; alpha- and beta-carotene are mainly consumed with carrots. Peppers, oranges, and orange-juice are the most important cryptoxanthin sources.

  20. Carotenóides: uma possível proteção contra o desenvolvimento de câncer Carotenoids: a possible protection against cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as possibilidades de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer, proporcionadas por carotenóides provenientes da alimentação, com base em uma revisão da literatura. Os carotenóides têm demonstrado uma ação protetora contra a carcinogênese, tanto em estudos in vitro como in vivo, com animais e humanos. Entre eles, a beta-criptoxantina, a fucoxantina, a astaxantina, a capsantina, a crocetina e o fitoeno, têm sido pouco explorados, e a literatura ainda se mostra extremamente limitada e pouco conclusiva. Estudos experimentais com humanos demonstraram não haver efeito, ou efeito reverso, do beta-caroteno, no entanto, não incluíram anteriormente variáveis intervenientes e interativas que deveriam ter sido controladas. A partir da evidência científica, baseada em estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios experimentais recentes, e da elucidação dos mecanismos de atuação de fitoquímicos relacionados à maior proteção contra o câncer, conclui-se que a alimentação rica em carotenóides provenientes das frutas, legumes e verduras, representa um possível fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer.This study is a literature review that discusses the likelihood of dietary carotenoids offering protection against cancer. Carotenoids have been demonstrating a protective action against carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, in animals and humans. Among them, beta-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin, crocetin and phytoene have been little explored and literature is still very lacking and little conclusive. Experimental studies with humans have shown beta-carotene to have no effect or reverse effect; however, they have never included intervenient and interactive variables that should have been controlled. Scientific evidence based on epidemiological studies and recent experimental assays and the elucidation of phytochemical activity mechanisms associated with greater protection against

  1. Impurities from polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes as a potential source of interference in simultaneous analysis of multiple lipid-soluble antioxidants by HPLC with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Hsu, Yi-Tzu

    2004-04-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection was used to analyze lipid-soluble antioxidants and micronutrients in plasma. Small amounts of plasma samples are often extracted in polypropylene (PP) microcentrifuge tubes before HPLC analysis due to its convenience. We therefore investigated the effect of impurities released from different PP tubes during extraction on the electrochemical detection of retinol, lutein, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, beta-carotene and total coenzyme Q10 by an HPLC system with a coulometric array detector (CoulArray HPLC). An array of eight electrical potentials and gradient elution were applied. Human plasma or ultrapure water were extracted in four different PP tubes. Peaks at different retention times with varied amounts of unknown compounds were detected from different PP tubes. Although all those unknown peaks could be differentiated from peaks of interest by the CoulArray HPLC, they caused busy chromatographs, and one peak had an overlap with the dominant peak of lutein. Moreover, that peak completely masked the lutein peak when only one oxidizing potential was applied. Our results suggest potential interference from PP tubes on electrochemical detection especially when using only one electrical potential or having poor separation for these antioxidants if PP tubes are not carefully tested.

  2. Carotenoid and tocopherol composition of leaves, buds, and flowers of Capparis spinosa grown wild in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Triki, Saida

    2009-06-24

    High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, neoxanthin, and violaxanthin) and tocopherols of leaves, buds, and flowers of Tunisian Capparis spinosa. This plant shows strong resistance to hard environmental conditions, and it is one of the most commonly found aromatics in the Mediterranean kitchen. In this study, the means of the total carotenoids were 3452.5 +/- 1639.4, 1002 +/- 518.5, and 342.7 +/- 187.9 microg/g fresh weight (FW) in leaves, buds, and flowers, respectively. Lutein accounts for the high content. Violaxanthin provided the lowest portion of the total carotenoids. The principal form of tocopherol detected in leaves was alpha-tocopherol (20.19 +/- 10 mg/100 g FW). In buds and flowers, there were both alpha- (49.12 +/- 17.48 and 28.68 +/- 9.13 mg/100 g FW, respectively) and gamma-tocopherol (48.13 +/- 15.08 and 27.8 +/- 16.01 mg/100 g FW, respectively). The combined content of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E in capers encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for this plant.

  3. Metabolic adaptation in the crew of the Hesperides on their Antarctic journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Riestra, Francisco A; Garcés, Carmen; Lahoz, Carlos; Lasunción, Miguel A; Castilla, Patricia; Viturro, Enrique; Cano, Beatriz; de Oya, Manuel

    2006-10-01

    We studied the metabolic changes that took place in the crew of the Hesperides vessel in their 2001-2002 Antarctic journey, comparing two periods differing in diet and physical activity. Lipid profile, vitamin and hormone levels were analyzed in 17 subjects who completed the study in its two phases. In phase I the participants spent 47 days sailing with hard work and rough seas, and the diet was rich in fat and poor in fresh foods. In this phase, glucose decreased and HDL-cholesterol, apo-AI, and TSH increased. Plasma retinol and alpha-tocopherol levels remained stable, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene significantly decreased, and lycopene significantly increased. Phase II lasted 49 days including a 7-day long stop in port. This meant that a more varied diet was available and fresh foods were present in the hold. There was also less extreme physical activity. The metabolic pattern changed direction, glucose rose, HDL-cholesterol and apo-AI decreased and the levels of the vitamins that dropped in phase I started to increase. Lycopene significantly decreased. Contrary to popular beliefs about navigation at extreme latitudes, the metabolic changes described may be explained by the intense physical activity in a cold environment and a high-fat diet poor in fresh products.

  4. Bioactive compounds in cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels: effect of different shelling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trox, Jennifer; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Vetter, Walter; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Scherbaum, Veronika; Gola, Ute; Nohr, Donatus; Biesalski, Hans Konrad

    2010-05-12

    In the present study, the effects of various conventional shelling methods (oil-bath roasting, direct steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting) as well as a novel "Flores" hand-cracking method on the levels of bioactive compounds of cashew nut kernels were investigated. The raw cashew nut kernels were found to possess appreciable levels of certain bioactive compounds such as beta-carotene (9.57 microg/100 g of DM), lutein (30.29 microg/100 g of DM), zeaxanthin (0.56 microg/100 g of DM), alpha-tocopherol (0.29 mg/100 g of DM), gamma-tocopherol (1.10 mg/100 g of DM), thiamin (1.08 mg/100 g of DM), stearic acid (4.96 g/100 g of DM), oleic acid (21.87 g/100 g of DM), and linoleic acid (5.55 g/100 g of DM). All of the conventional shelling methods including oil-bath roasting, steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting revealed a significant reduction, whereas the Flores hand-cracking method exhibited similar levels of carotenoids, thiamin, and unsaturated fatty acids in cashew nuts when compared to raw unprocessed samples.

  5. Nutritional value of the Chilean seaweeds Cryptonemia obovata and Rhodymenia corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jaime; Vivanco, Juan; Jiménez, Paula; Leiva, Moisés; Ramírez, Leslie; Bustamante, Andrés

    2010-10-01

    Some nutritional components of the edible seaweeds Cryptonemia obovata and Rhodymenia corallina were determined. The amino acid content ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.3 to 4174.2 +/- 14.2 mg 100 g(-1) dry wt in C. obovata and between 0.9 +/- 0.3 and 2657.0 +/- 13.5 mg 100 g(-1) dry wt in R. corallina. The most abundant fatty acid in C. obovata was palmitic acid, reaching a value of 36.5 +/- 0.2%, while in Rhodymenia corallina the main fatty acid was oleic acid, reaching a value of 24.7 +/- 0.07%. Both seaweeds showed an important content of EPA (C20:5omega3). In C. obovata, alpha-tocopherol was the principal tocol (138.5 +/- 4.9 mg kg(-1) lipid), while in R. corallina, it was gamma-tocotrienol (850.3 +/- 9.4 mg kg(-1) lipid). Furthermore, beta-carotene was the main carotenoid pigment found in C. obovata.

  6. Relationship between Vitamin Intake and Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Japanese Individuals: Differences with Gender and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Thu Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have focused on the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms in 1634 elderly Japanese individuals (65 years and older. The consumption of fifteen vitamins including retinol, a retinol equivalent, beta-carotene equivalent, vitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin K, vitamin group B, vitamin C, and cryptoxanthine was analyzed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. The short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS was used to assess depressive symptoms. The prevalence of participants with depressive symptoms was 26.7%. The consumption of all vitamins, except for retinol and vitamin D, was lower among depressed than non-depressed participants. The consumption of vitamins was significantly less in female and overweight participants with depressive symptoms than in elderly participants without depressive symptoms. After adjustments for potential confounders, none of the fifteen vitamins were correlated with depressive symptoms in male or underweight participants. Associations between vitamin deficiencies and depressive symptoms were observed in female and overweight elderly participants. Our findings demonstrated a relationship between vitamin intake and depressive symptoms.

  7. Antioxidants in bakery products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanditha, B; Prabhasankar, P

    2009-01-01

    Fats impart taste and texture to the product but it is susceptible to oxidation leading to the development of rancidity and off-flavor. Since ancient times it has been in practice to use antioxidants in foods. Discovery of synthetic antioxidants has revolutionized the use of antioxidants in food. The effect of these antioxidants in bakery products were reviewed and found to be effective in enhancing the shelf life. Animal experimental studies have shown that some of the synthetic antioxidants had toxigenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects. Hence there is an increasing demand for the use of natural antioxidants in foods, especially in bakery products. Some of the natural antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid were already used in bakery products. These natural antioxidants are found to be effective in enhancing the shelf life of bakery products but not to the extent of synthetic antioxidants. Baking processing steps may lower the antioxidative activity but techniques such as encapsulation of antioxidants can retain their activity. Antioxidative activity of the plant extracts such as garcinia, curcumin, vanillins, and mint were reviewed but studies on their role in bakery products were limited or very few. Hence there is a wide scope for study under this direction in depth.

  8. A study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some vitamins for electron, H, He and C ion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyıldız, M.

    2017-09-01

    The radiological properties of some vitamins such as Retinol, Beta-carotene, Riboflavin, Niacin, Niacinamide, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal, Biotin, Folic acid, Ascorbic acid, Cholecalciferol, Alpha-tocopherol, Gamma-tocopherol, Phylloquinone have been investigated with respect to total electron interaction and some heavy charged particle interaction as means of effective atomic numbers (Z_{eff}) and electron densities (N_{eff}) for the first time. Calculations were performed for total electron interaction and heavy ions such as H, He and C ion interactions in the energy region 10keV-10MeV by using a logarithmic interpolation method. Variations in Z_{eff}'s and N_{eff}'s of given vitamins have been studied according to the energy of electron or heavy charged particles, and significant variations have been observed for all types of interaction in the given energy region. The maximum values of Z_{eff} have been found in the different energy regions for different interactions remarkably and variations in N_{eff} seem approximately to be the same with variation in Z_{eff} for the given vitamins as expected. Z_{eff} values of some vitamins were plotted together and compared with each other for electron, H, He and C interactions and the ratios of Z_{eff}/ have been changed in the range of 0.25-0.36, 0.20-0.36, 0.22-0.35 and 0.20-0.35 for electron, H, He and C interactions, respectively.

  9. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Tests measuring the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids may be useful in providing an index of the organism's capability to counteract reactive species known as pro-oxidants, resist oxidative damage, and combat oxidative stress-related diseases. The selected chromogenic redox reagent for the assay of human serum should be easily accessible, stable, selective, and respond to all types of biologically important antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid, and bilirubin, regardless of chemical type or hydrophilicity. Our recently developed cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) spectrophotometric method for a number of polyphenols and flavonoids using the copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in ammonium acetate buffer is now applied to a complete series of plasma antioxidants for the assay of total antioxidant capacity of serum, and the resulting absorbance at 450 nm is recorded either directly (e.g., for ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and glutathione) or after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min (e.g., for uric acid, bilirubin, and albumin), quantitation being made by means of a calibration curve. The lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, are assayed in dichloromethane. Lipophilic antioxidants of serum are extracted with n-hexane from an ethanolic solution of serum subjected to centrifugation. Hydrophilic antioxidants of serum are assayed in the centrifugate after perchloric acid precipitation of proteins. The CUPRAC molar absorptivities, linear ranges, and TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) coefficients of the serum antioxidants are established, and the results are evaluated in comparison with the findings of the ABTS/TEAC reference method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) are 0.7 and 1.5%, respectively, for serum. The CUPRAC assay proved to be efficient for glutathione and thiol-type antioxidants

  10. Total antioxidant capacity assay of human serum using copper(II)-neocuproine as chromogenic oxidant: the CUPRAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Karademir, Saliha Esin; Altun, Mehmet

    2005-09-01

    Tests measuring the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids may be useful in providing an index of the organism's capability to counteract reactive species known as prooxidants, resist oxidative damage and combat oxidative stress-related diseases. The selected chromogenic redox reagent for the assay of human serum should be easily accessible, stable, selective, respond to all types of biologically important antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid and bilirubin, regardless of chemical type or hydrophilicity. Currently, there is no rapid method for total antioxidant assay of human serum meeting the above criteria. Our recently developed cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) spectrophotometric method for a number of polyphenols and flavonoids using the copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in ammonium acetate buffer was now applied to a complete series of plasma antioxidants for the assay of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum, and the resulting absorbance at 450 nm was recorded either directly (e.g. for ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and glutathione) or after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min (e.g. for uric acid, bilirubin and albumin), quantitation being made by means of a calibration curve. The lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, were assayed in dichloromethane (DCM). Lipophilic antioxidants of serum were extracted with n-hexane from an ethanolic solution of serum subjected to centrifugation. Hydrophilic antioxidants of serum were assayed after perchloric acid precipitation of proteins in the centrifugate. The molar absorptivities, linear ranges and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficients of the serum antioxidants were established with respect to the CUPRAC spectrophotometric method, and the results (TEAC, or TEAC coefficients) were evaluated in comparison to the findings of the ABTS/TEAC reference method

  11. Integrated Cancer Repository for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  12. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  13. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  15. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  16. Stages of Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  17. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  19. High education is associated with low fat and high fibre, beta-carotene and vitamin C - Computation of nutrient intake based on a short food frequency questionnaire in 17,265 men and women in the Tromsø Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Koster Jacobsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTEducational level has been correlated to the intake of several nutrients. In a population-based studyincluding 17,265 men and women aged 25-69 years, the intake of nutrients were calculated based on 37questions about food habits. In this paper, we present results from the dietary survey with emphasis onthe relationships between dietary habits and educational level. Compared to subjects with low formaleducation, subjects with high educational level have less fat in their diet and more dietary fibre, betacarotene,vitamin C and alcohol (p-value for linear trend is associated with healthy food habits and relatively higher alcohol consumption. There is a need forefforts in order to change the food habits of the less educated.NORSK SAMMENDRAGPersoner med lang utdanning har ofte et bedre kosthold enn personer med kortere utdanning. I denneundersøkelsen har vi estimert inntaket av en rekke næringsstoffer basert på 37 spørsmål om kostvanersom ble stilt til personer som tok del i Tromsø-IV-undersøkelsen (1994/95. Vår studie inkluderer 17 265menn og kvinner i Tromsø i alderen 25-69 år. Vi presenterer resultater fra denne kostholdsundersøkelsenmed vekt på relasjoner mellom kostvaner og utdanningslengde. Sammenlignet med personer med kortformell utdanning, har personer med lang utdanning mindre fett i kosten og høyere inntak av fiber, betakaroten,vitamin C og alkohol (p helsemessig gunstigere kosthold, men et høyere alkoholinntak, enn personer med kort utdanning.Funnene understreker behovet for målrettede tiltak for å utjevne sosiale forskjeller i kostvaner i Norge.

  20. [Gradation in the level of vitamin consumption: possible risk of excessive consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M

    2014-01-01

    The ratio between the levels of consumption of certain vitamins and minerals [recommended daily allowance for labelling purposes Vitamin A and beta-carotene maximum supplement levels coincides with UL, and recommended daily allowance for these micronutrients coincides with the maximal level of consumption through dietary supplements and/or multivitamins. Except for vitamin A and beta-carotene recommended daily allowance for other vitamins adopted in Russia are considerably lower than the upper safe level of consumption. For vitamin A and beta-carotene there is a potential risk for excess consumption. According to the literature data (meta-analysis) prolonged intake of high doses of antioxidant vitamins (above the RDA) both alone and in combination with two other vitamins or vitamin C [> 800 microg (R.E.) of vitamin A, > 9.6 mg of beta-carotene, > 15 mg (T.E.) of vitamin E] do not possess preventive effects and may be harmful with unwanted consequences to health, especially in well-nourished populations, persons having risk of lung cancer (smokers, workers exposed to asbestos), in certain conditions (in the atmosphere with high oxygen content, hyperoxia, oxygen therapy). Proposed mechanisms of such action may be due to the manifestation of prooxidant action when taken in high doses, shifting balance with other important natural antioxidants, their displacement (substitution), interference with the natural defense mechanisms. Athletes are the population group that requires attention as used antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, both individually and in combination in extremely high doses. In summary, it should be noted that intake of physiological doses which are equivalent to the needs of the human organism, as well as diet inclusion of fortified foods not only pose no threat to health, but will bring undoubted benefits, filling the existing lack of vitamins in the ration.

  1. Concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de adolescentes e adultas Levels of alpha-tocopherol in maternal serum and colostrum of adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Dimenstein; Jeane Franco Pires; Lígia Rejane Siqueira Garcia; Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de puérperas adolescentes e adultas e verificar a adequação nutricional de vitamina E do colostro oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 72 puérperas, sendo 25 adolescentes e 47 adultas. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro em condição de jejum para análise dos níveis de alfa-tocoferol. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A adequação nutricional do...

  2. Eyelid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  3. Eye Cancer

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    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  4. Anal Cancer

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    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  5. Thyroid Cancer

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    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  6. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  8. New agents for cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloff, G J; Boone, C W; Crowell, J A; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; Doody, L A; Malone, W F; Hawk, E T; Sigman, C C

    1996-01-01

    Clinical chemoprevention trials of more than 30 agents and agent combinations are now in progress or being planned. The most advanced agents are well known and are in large Phase III chemoprevention intervention trials or epidemiological studies. These drugs include several retinoids [e.g., retinol, retinyl palmitate, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-retinoic acid], calcium, Beta carotene, vitamin E, tamoxifen, and finasteride. Other newer agents are currently being evaluated in or being considered for Phase II and early Phase III chemoprevention trials. Prominent in this group are all-trans-N-(4-hydroxy phenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) (alone and in combination with tamoxifen), 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (aspirin, piroxicam, sulindac), oltipraz, and dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA). A third group is new agents showing chemopreventive activity in animal models, epidemiological studies, or in pilot clinical intervention studies. They are now in preclinical toxicology testing or Phase I safety and pharmacokinetics trials preparatory to chemoprevention efficacy trials. These agents include S-allyl-l-cysteine, curcumin, DHEA analog 8354 (fluasterone), genistein, ibuprofen, indole-3-carbinol, perillyl alcohol, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 9-cis-retinoic acid, sulindac sulfone, tea extracts, ursodiol, vitamin D analogs, and p-xylyl selenocyanate. A new generation of agents and agent combinations will soon enter clinical chemoprevention studies based primarily on promising chemopreventive activity in animal models and in mechanistic studies. Among these agents are more efficacious analogs of known chemopreventive drugs including novel carotenoids (e.g., alpha-carotene and lutein). Also included are safer analogs which retain the chemopreventive efficacy of the parent drug such as vitamin D3 analogs. Other agents of high interest are aromatase inhibitors (e.g., (+)-vorozole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., Bowman-Birk soybean trypsin

  9. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  10. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about uterine and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  11. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about ovarian and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  12. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  13. Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic cancer is cancer that spreads from its site of origin to another part of the body. Learn how cancer spreads, possible symptoms, common sites where cancer spreads, and how to find out about treatment options.

  14. Cancer Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are considering having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal examination (DRE). Skin Cancer ... for cancer of the colon, serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer, mammography for breast cancer, and ...

  15. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... Stage I cancer has not spread beyond the testicle. Stage II cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen. ...

  16. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  17. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  18. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@ktl.fi; Laine, Olli [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tuhkanen, Tuula [Tampere University of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. {alpha}-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas {beta}-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  19. Environmental, life-style, and physical precursors of clinical Parkinson's disease: recent findings from the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D; Ross, G Webster; White, Lon R; Sanderson, Wayne T; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Kashon, Michael; Sharp, Dan S; Masaki, Kamal H; Curb, J David; Petrovitch, Helen

    2003-10-01

    Increased westernization with Japanese migration to the U. S. in the early 20(th) century is thought to have altered the risk of cardiovascular disease. Whether similar effects include changes in the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not clear. This report describes the relations between environmental, life-style, and physical attributes and the incidence of PD that have been observed in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Beginning in 1965, environmental, life-style, and physical attributes were recorded at selected examinations in a cohort of 8,006 Japanese-American men. Subjects were followed for clinical PD. During 30 years of follow- up, PD was observed in 137 men. Overall incidence (7.1/10,000 person-years) was generally higher than in Asia and similar to rates observed in Europe and the U. S. Precursors of PD included constipation, adiposity, years worked on a sugar or pineapple plantation, years of exposure to pesticides, and exposure to sugar cane processing. Factors showing an inverse association with PD included coffee intake and cigarette smoking. Among dietary factors, carbohydrates increased the risk of PD while the intake of polyunsaturated fats appeared protective. Total caloric intake, saturated and monounsaturated fats, protein, niacin, riboflavin, beta-carotene, vitamins A, B, and C, dietary cholesterol, cobalamin, alpha-tocopherol, and pantothenic acid showed no clear relation with clinical PD. Findings suggest that several environmental, life-style, and physical attributes appear to be precursors of PD. Whether patterns of precursors can be used to identify individuals at high risk of future PD or can broaden the scope of early interventions or recruitment into neuroprotective trials warrants further study.

  20. Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Bente L; Carlsen, Monica H; Phillips, Katherine M; Bøhn, Siv K; Holte, Kari; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-07-01

    Supplements containing ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or beta-carotene do not protect against oxidative stress-related diseases in most randomized intervention trials. We suggest that other redox-active phytochemicals may be more effective and that a combination of different redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants or reductants) may be needed for proper protection against oxidative damage. We aimed to generate a ranked food table with values for total content of redox-active compounds to test this alternative antioxidant hypothesis. An assay that measures the total concentration of redox-active compounds above a certain cutoff reduction potential was used to analyze 1113 food samples obtained from the US Department of Agriculture National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program. Large variations in the content of antioxidants were observed in different foods and food categories. The food groups spices and herbs, nuts and seeds, berries, and fruit and vegetables all contained foods with very high antioxidant contents. Most food categories also contained products almost devoid of antioxidants. Of the 50 food products highest in antioxidant concentrations, 13 were spices, 8 were in the fruit and vegetables category, 5 were berries, 5 were chocolate-based, 5 were breakfast cereals, and 4 were nuts or seeds. On the basis of typical serving sizes, blackberries, walnuts, strawberries, artichokes, cranberries, brewed coffee, raspberries, pecans, blueberries, ground cloves, grape juice, and unsweetened baking chocolate were at the top of the ranked list. This ranked antioxidant food table provides a useful tool for investigations into the possible health benefit of dietary antioxidants.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Health Professional Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  2. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  3. National Comprehensive Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anal Carcinoma B-Cell Lymphomas Basal Cell Skin Cancer Bladder Cancer Bone Cancer Breast Cancer Central Nervous System Cancers ... Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis Cervical Cancer Screening Colorectal Cancer Screening Genetic/Familial ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer ...

  5. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery Cancer Terms: Cancer Basics Cancer Terms: Research Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How ...

  6. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  7. Volume 10 No. 8 August 2010 3015 CHANGES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... of beta carotene, an important provitamin A carotenoid. Stored sweet potato roots undergo many physiological changes that affect their beta carotene content and bioaccessibility as well as the tissue microstructure. This study investigated the changes in microstructure, beta carotene content and in vitro ...

  8. Urological Cancers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. A total of 8829 cancers were diagnosed over the 15 year study period, 749 (8.4%) were Urological malignancies. The male to female ratio of the. Urological cancers was 10.7 to 1. Cancer of the prostate was the most common urological malignancy (54.6%), followed by cancer of the bladder (21.1%) and cancer of ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common ... on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  18. Penile cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - penis; Squamous cell cancer - penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy ... Cancer of the penis is rare. Its exact cause is unknown. However, certain risk factors include: Uncircumcised men who don't keep the ...

  19. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  20. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  1. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  2. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  3. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  4. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  5. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  6. Stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... JH, Alberts SR. Ashman JB, Jaroszewski DE, eds. Cancer of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, ...

  7. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation, biologic, or targeted therapies. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  8. Maximum hypothetical accident analysis for HEU to LEU fuel conversion at the University of Missouri Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowherd, Wilson

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women with a very high incident rate, especially for those women who are between 40-60 years old. Most drugs are large or non-polar macromolecules, which cannot get into cancer cells autonomously, so a method that can deliver those drugs is very important. Optoporation method has been facilitated with gold nanoparticles, which are bound to breast cancer cells, and then absorb the optical energy to improve the membrane permeabilization. Long-term dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables high in beta-carotene and other phytochemicals has been shown beneficial in terms of anti-cancer, anti-aging, preventing cardiovascular disease and cataract. However they are large non-polar molecules that are difficult to enter the cancer cells. Here in this study, we applied optoporation method by using beta-carotene, and tetracycline as anti-cancer drugs in various concentrations to optimize highest selective cell death/best potential for T47D breast cancer cell lines.

  9. Preparation of quantum fingerprint(TM)-ready metal-gallium arsenide interfaces for molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Julian Paulo B.

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women with a very high incident rate, especially for those women who are between 40-60 years old. Most drugs are large or non-polar macromolecules, which cannot get into cancer cells autonomously, so a method that can deliver those drugs is very important. Optoporation method has been facilitated with gold nanoparticles, which are bound to breast cancer cells, and then absorb the optical energy to improve the membrane permeabilization. Long-term dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables high in beta-carotene and other phytochemicals has been shown beneficial in terms of anti-cancer, anti-aging, preventing cardiovascular disease and cataract. However they are large non-polar molecules that are difficult to enter the cancer cells. Here in this study, we applied optoporation method by using beta-carotene, and tetracycline as anti-cancer drugs in various concentrations to optimize highest selective cell death/best potential for T47D breast cancer cell lines.

  10. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-26

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  11. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  12. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  14. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy ...

  16. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  17. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  18. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Professional Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professional Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  4. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening ...

  6. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain chronic conditions increase the risk of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about stomach cancer: Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach cancer ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring Prior Approvals Annual Reporting and Auditing ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons ...

  9. Bio-discrimination of a-tocopherol stereoisomers in rearing and veal calves fed milk replacer supplemented with all-rac-a-tocopheryl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Bos, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    were taken at slaughter of the six veal calves in experiment 2. The distribution of different alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers in feed, plasma, and tissues was analyzed. In both experiments, it was observed that RRR-alpha-tocopherol was the dominant stereoisomer in plasma and tissues. The average...... vitamin E intake. Other 2R-alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers had lower utilization efficiency than RRR-alpha-tocopherol stereoisomer. 2S-alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers were basically not utilized by calves.......This study evaluated the biological discrimination of different alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers (i. e. RRR-, RRS-, RSR-, RSS- and the four 2S-alpha-tocopherols) from all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation in milk replacer for rearing and veal calves respectively, in practical farming...

  10. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  11. Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Lin, Jing-Yi; Gupta, Ravindra D; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Selim, M Angelica; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Grichnik, James M; Zielinski, Jan; Pinnell, Sheldon R

    2005-10-01

    Ferulic acid is a potent ubiquitous plant antioxidant. Its incorporation into a topical solution of 15%l-ascorbic acid and 1%alpha-tocopherol improved chemical stability of the vitamins (C+E) and doubled photoprotection to solar-simulated irradiation of skin from 4-fold to approximately 8-fold as measured by both erythema and sunburn cell formation. Inhibition of apoptosis was associated with reduced induction of caspase-3 and caspase-7. This antioxidant formulation efficiently reduced thymine dimer formation. This combination of pure natural low molecular weight antioxidants provides meaningful synergistic protection against oxidative stress in skin and should be useful for protection against photoaging and skin cancer.

  12. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  13. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 800-762-2264 Foundation for Women's Cancer Phone Number: 800-444-4441 Previous Page Next Page Cervical cancer fact sheet (PDF, 162 KB) Female reproductive system Related information Human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital ...

  15. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  16. Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment. A healthy lifestyle is recommended after cancer treatment. Several studies have found that obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes can contribute to long-term health risks for women with type 1 endometrial cancer. A healthy diet ...

  17. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  18. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  19. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  20. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  1. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  2. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  3. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  4. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  5. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  6. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  7. Cancer - vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar cancer is rare. ... has grown deeply into the skin, the lymph nodes in the groin area may also be removed. ...

  8. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bladder and may cause bleeding into the urine , hearing loss, and liver damage. Others may cause heart and ... the cancer is somehow their fault. Psychologists, social workers, and other members of the cancer treatment team ...

  9. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine until it is peed out. What Causes Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancers? Smoking is the most important risk ... grease from metal. What Are the Symptoms of Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancers? A person with kidney or renal ...

  10. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  11. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  12. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ... Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk ... Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer ...

  15. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  17. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers tend to spread quickly. Smoking and other tobacco use are linked to most cases of oral cancer. Heavy alcohol use also increases the risk for ... cancer greatly increases the chance of survival. Prevention ... Avoiding smoking or other tobacco use Having dental problems corrected Limiting or avoiding alcohol ...

  18. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  19. Cancer pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, M.; Ventafridda, V.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment

  20. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  1. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  2. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  3. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ... a Diverse Workforce Other Fellowships and Internships About ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National ...

  10. [Oxidative stress in station service workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A; Elia, G; Petrozzi, M T; Zefferino, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify an oxidative stress in service station workers. Previous studies verified an increased incidence of leukemia and myeloma, however other authors haven't verified it. There are reports of nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and lung cancer in service station workers. Our study wants to evaluate the oxidative balance in the fuel workers. We studied 44 subjects with gasoline exposure and 29 control subjects. We determined the blood concentrations of Glutathione reduced and oxidized, Protein sulfhydrylic (PSH) Vitamine E, Vitamine C, Malondialdehyde, Protein oxidized (OX-PROT) and beta carotene. The t test was performed to analyze the differences between the means, the Chi square was used to evaluate the statistical significance of associations between variable categorical (redox index). The Anova test excluded the confusing effect of age, smoke and alcohol habit. The mean age of the workers was 36.6 years, instead the control group was 38. In the workers Glutathione reduced, Vit. E and Beta carotene were lower than in the control subjects, this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The Malondialdehyde concentration was higher in the workers higher than in the control group, but this difference wasn't statistically significant. Our data demonstrated Glutathione, Vit. E, and Beta carotene are useful to verify a reduction of the antioxidant activity. The only marker of the presence of oxidative injury that correlated to work exposure was the malondialdehyde. The redox index was surest marker. The limit of our study is the number of control group, it was little and lower than workers. Conclusively we believe it's useful to continue our studies and, if our results are going to be confirmed, we retain that stress oxidative determination would be verified in occupational medicine using these markers, especially to study exposure of the fuel workers who were investigated less and, in our opinion, would receive more attention.

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may become cancerous. A family history of colon or rectal cancer puts you at higher risk, as does ulcerative ... in combination with chemotherapy for patients with advanced rectal ... chemotherapy for colorectal cancer usually consisted of treatment with just two drugs, ...

  12. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  13. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  14. Cancer nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Fullwood, Isobel; Sothi, Sharmila; Aldulaimi, David

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale which may exert a revolutionary impact on cancer diagnosis and therapy. Nanotechnology is being applied to cancer in two broad areas: i) the development of nanovectors such as nanoparticles which can be loaded with drugs or imaging agents and then targeted to tumours, and ii) high-throughput nanosensor devices for detecting the biological signatures of cancer. Combined, such technologies could lead to earlier diagn...

  15. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  16. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  17. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  19. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Español ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  20. Vulvar Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  1. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  2. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... cancer’s grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  4. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... may have questions about how serious your cancer is and your chances of survival. The estimate of how the disease will go for you is called prognosis. It ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ... The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy Progress Annual Report to the Nation Milestones in Cancer Research and ...

  13. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Cancer During Pregnancy Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... an oncologist . Types of cancers that occur during pregnancy The cancers that tend to occur during pregnancy ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer ... Choices for Care Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced ... Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to ...

  19. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  20. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  2. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs ... Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ...

  5. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy Progress ... Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical ...

  7. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [cancer.gov] The most ...

  8. Children's cancer centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  10. National Cancer Institute News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  12. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  13. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  14. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contraceptives may have a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. But oral contraceptives do have risks, so discuss whether the benefits outweigh those risks based on your situation. Discuss your risk factors ... of breast and ovarian cancers, bring this up with your doctor. Your doctor ...

  15. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have some ideas about why people may get cancer, though. The main reasons are genetics and certain environmental or behavioral triggers . ... until a person is an adult. That's one reason why teens don't get the same types of cancers as adults do. Doctors do know for sure ...

  16. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth or into a blood vessel (IV). Different types of drugs may be given together at the same time or one after the other. Radiation Radiation therapy uses x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. Cancer cells grow and ...

  17. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  18. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bladder cancer care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include: Blood in urine (hematuria) Painful urination Pelvic pain If you have hematuria, your urine may appear bright red or cola colored. Sometimes, urine may not look any different, ...

  19. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the foreign antigens on the surface of cancer cells and help destroy them. Recent studies indicate this approach holds promise. Bevacizumab and chemotherapy: Last year, scientists announced a new development in treating advanced lung cancer. In a large study, people taking bevacizumab (Avastin) ...