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Sample records for alpha-tocopherol beta-carotene cancer

  1. Effects of α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene Supplementation on Cancer Incidence and Mortality: 18-Year Post-Intervention Follow-Up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Phil R; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu; Utriainen, Meri; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Huttunen, Jussi; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the post-intervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers. Neither supplemen...

  2. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Evans, Anne M; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Objective: The objective was to compare the on-study change in metabolomic profiles of men randomly assigned to receive or not receive β-carotene supplements in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Design: The ATBC Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary cancer prevention trial; participants were Finnish male smokers assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups: 1) α-tocopherol, 2) β-carotene, 3) both, or 4) placebo. Fifty participants with both baseline and follow-up fasting serum samples were randomly selected from each of these groups. Metabolomic profiling was conducted by mass spectrometry. The association between change in each metabolite over time and trial assignment (β-carotene or no β-carotene) was estimated by linear regression. Results: We measured 489 metabolites, and 17 changed significantly (P < 0.05) in response to β-carotene supplementation. More of these 17 metabolites were of xenobiotic origin than would be expected by chance (9 of 60, or 15%; P = 0.00004). We also found a suggestive association with 1,5-anhydroglucitol—a marker of glycemic control (β = −0.379, P = 0.0071). Conclusions: Male smokers supplemented with β-carotene developed metabolomic profiles consistent with the induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, the primary metabolizers of xenobiotics in humans. These findings may shed light on the increased mortality associated with β-carotene supplementation in the ATBC Study and suggest the need to explore potential interactions between medication use and dietary supplements, particularly among smokers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342992. PMID:23803886

  3. Iron in Relation to Gastric Cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Michael B.; Kamangar, Farin; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Philip R.; Abnet, Christian C.; Wood, Richard J.; Petty, Gayle; Cross, Amanda J.; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential micronutrient that can have carcinogenic effects when at high or low concentrations. Previous studies of iron in relation to gastric cancer have not assessed subtype-specific relationships. We used the prospective ATBC Cancer Prevention Study to assess whether iron metrics were associated with gastric cardia cancer (GCC) and gastric noncardia cancer (GNCC). Methods We selected 341 incident gastric cancer cases (86 cardia, 172 noncardia, and 83 non-specified), accrued during 22 years of follow-up, and 341 individually matched controls. We measured prediagnostic serum iron, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), and C-reactive protein. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation were estimated from these metrics. Dietary iron exposures were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Serum iron metrics were not associated with GCC, except for a potential ‘n’-shaped relationship with TIBC (global p=0.038). GNCC was inversely associated with serum ferritin (global p=0.024), serum iron (global p=0.060) and, possibly, transferrin saturation. TIBC appeared to share a ‘u’shaped relationship with GNCC (global p=0.033). Dietary iron exposures were not associated with either subsite. Adjustment for Helicobacter pylori and gastric atrophy had little effect on observed associations. Conclusions We found little evidence for the involvement of iron exposure in the pathogenesis of GCC. GNCC was associated with an iron profile similar to that of iron deficiency. PMID:23001240

  4. Can {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegaard, U.; Johansson, I.; Ericson, T. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cariology; Malmer, B.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-12-31

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and no {beta}-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and 6 mg {beta}-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after complete irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands. (author).

  5. Effects of α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene Supplementation on Cancer Incidence and Mortality: 18-Year Post-Intervention Follow-Up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Phil R.; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu; Utriainen, Meri; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Huttunen, Jussi; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the post-intervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers. Neither supplement had significant effects on post-trial cancer incidence. Relative risk (RR) for lung cancer (n=2,881) was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–1.11) among β-carotene recipients compared with nonrecipients. For prostate cancer (n=2,321) RR was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89–1.05) among α-tocopherol recipients compared with nonrecipients with the preventive effect of α-tocopherol continuing approximately 8 years post-intervention. Body mass index significantly modified the effect of α-tocopherol on prostate cancer (P for interaction=0.01): RR 1.00 (95% CI, 0.88–1.14) in normal-weight men, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77–0.98) in overweight men, and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.01–1.55) in obese men. The post-trial relative mortality (based on 16,686 deaths) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98–1.05) for α-tocopherol recipients compared with nonrecipients and 1.02 (95% CI, 0.99–1.05) for β-carotene recipients compared with nonrecipients. α-Tocopherol decreased post-trial prostate cancer mortality (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70–0.99), whereas β-carotene increased it (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42). In conclusion, supplementation with α-tocopherol and β-carotene appeared to have no late effects on cancer incidence. The preventive effect of moderate-dose α-tocopherol on prostate cancer continued several years post-trial and resulted in lower prostate cancer mortality. PMID:24338499

  6. Effects of dietary [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

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    Raun Andersen, H.; Andersen, O. (Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Odense, Odense (Denmark))

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH[sub 3]HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of [alpha]-tocopherol (10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) or [beta]-carotene (1000, 10,000 or 100,000 IU/kg) for four weeks, two groups on each diet. The concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene used corresponded to deficient, normal and high levels. During the last two weeks, one group on each diet was given 40 mg CH[sub 3]HgCl/l of drinking water. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol protected against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the [alpha]-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, [alpha]-tocopherol did not protect against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. Excess dietary [beta]-carotene further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. CH[sub 3]HgCl significantly decreased the activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) in the kidneys in all dietary groups. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol enhanced the activity of Se-GSH-Px in liver and kidney compared to the activity in mice fed the normal level of [alpha]-tocopherol. This occurred in mice exposed to CH[sub 3]-HgCl as well as in unexposed mice, and the difference between CH[sub 3]HgCl exposed and unexposed mice was not diminished. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol increased the activity of both Se-GSH-Px and T-GSH-Px in the brain of CH[sub 3]HgCl-exposed mice. The dietary level of [beta]-carotene did not affect the activity of the two enzymes in the organs investigated. (au) (43 refs.).

  7. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Moore, Steven C.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Evans, Anne M.; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood.

  8. Elevated Serum Retinol and Low Beta-Carotene but not Alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations Are Associated with Dyslipidemia in Brazilian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Mellina Neyla de Lima; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of retinol, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations in adolescents with dyslipidemia. A case series dyslipidemia study was conducted, with an attached control group, including 104 adolescents of public schools in Recife during the months of March/April 2013. Retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations were analysed by high efficiency liquid chromatography. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical variables were analysed. Dyslipidemic adolescents had high serum concentrations of both retinol (p=0.007) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein A-I ratio (p=0.034); they also had low concentrations of beta-carotene/total cholesterol (p<0.0001) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein B ratios (p=0.033) when compared to the controls. The alpha-tocopherol serum status was not associated with dyslipidemia. Overweight, abdominal obesity, lipid profile markers, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were more prevalent in dyslipidemic adolescents. The findings show an association between vitamin A and dyslipidemia in adolescents. However, additional investigations of this risk group are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action of this nutrient in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, aiming at reducing cardiometabolic risks as of earlier ages. PMID:27264090

  9. Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Beta-Carotene in Relation to Common Cold Incidence in Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Heinonen Olli P; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, as well as long-term vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation, on the incidence of common cold episodes. A cohort of 21,796 male smokers was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, which examined the effects of 50 mg per day vitamin E and 20 mg per day beta-carotene on lung cancer. Diet and background characteristics were recorded at the study entry, and subjects were queried three time...

  10. Serum beta-carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Thompson, S G; Densem, J W; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A

    1988-01-01

    In the BUPA Study, a prospective study of 22,000 men attending a screening centre in London, serum samples were collected and stored. The concentration of beta-carotene was measured in the stored serum samples from 271 men who were subsequently notified as having cancer and from 533 unaffected controls, matched for age, smoking history and duration of storage of the serum samples. The mean beta-carotene level of the cancer subjects was significantly lower than that of their matched controls (...

  11. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer. Taking ...

  12. The Effect of Beta-Carotene Intake on Lung Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Brar, Rondeep Singh

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, comprising nearly 30% of all cancer-related mortality. Investigation into nutritional supplementation with beta-carotene as a means of reducing lung cancer incidence remains an active and intriguing area of research. The present review summarizes the salient findings in the literature to date. Although a number of observational studies have suggested an association between carotenoid consumption and reduced...

  13. DNA repair genotype and lung cancer risk in the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Jennifer A; Sakoda, Lori C.; Loomis, Melissa M; Barnett, Matt J.; Julianto, Liberto; Thornquist, Mark D; Neuhouser, Marian L; Weiss, Noel S.; Goodman, Gary E.; Chen, Chu

    2013-01-01

    Many carcinogens in tobacco smoke cause DNA damage, and some of that damage can be mitigated by the actions of DNA repair enzymes. In a case-control study nested within the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a randomized chemoprevention trial in current and former heavy smokers, we examined whether lung cancer risk was associated with variation in 26 base excision repair, mismatch repair, and homologous recombination repair genes. Analyses were limited to Caucasians (744 cases, 1477 co...

  14. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  15. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  16. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kasperzyk, Julie L. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sesso, Howard D. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gaziano, John Michael [Division of Aging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Veterans' Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ma, Jing [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87-95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84-93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  17. Dual Association of beta-carotene with risk of tobacco-related cancers in a cohort of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intervention studies have demonstrated that, in smokers, beta-carotene supplements had a deleterious effect on risk of lung cancer and may have a deleterious effect on digestive cancers as well. We investigated a potential interaction between beta-carotene intake and smoking on the risk of tobacco-related cancers in women. METHODS: A total of 59,910 women from the French Etude Epid?ologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle G?rale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective investigation we...

  18. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Bosin, E; Feldman, B; Giat, Y; Miinster, A; Danilenko, M; Sharoni, Y

    1995-01-01

    The antiproliferative properties of lycopene, the major tomato carotenoid, were compared with those of alpha- and beta-carotene. Lycopene, delivered in cell culture medium from stock solutions in tetrahydrofuran, strongly inhibited proliferation of endometrial (Ishikawa), mammary (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H226) human cancer cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 1-2 microM; alpha- and beta-carotene were far less effective inhibitors. For example, in Ishikawa cells, a 4-fold higher concentration of alpha-carotene or a 10-fold higher concentration of beta-carotene was needed for the same order of growth suppression. The inhibitory effect of lycopene was detected after 24 hours of incubation, and it was maintained for at least three days. In contrast to cancer cells, human fibroblasts were less sensitive to lycopene, and the cells gradually escaped growth inhibition over time. In addition to its inhibitory effect on basal endometrial cancer cell proliferation, lycopene also suppressed insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth. Insulin-like growth factors are major autocrine/paracrine regulators of mammary and endometrial cancer cell growth. Therefore, lycopene interference in this major autocrine/paracrine system may open new avenues for research on the role of lycopene in the regulation of endometrial cancer and other tumors. PMID:8610045

  19. Association between beta-carotene and acute myocardial infarction depends on polyunsaturated fatty acid status. The EURAMIC Study. European Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Kardinaal, Alwine F; Aro, Antti; Kark, Jeremy D; Riemersma, Rudolph A; van't Veer, Pieter; Gomez-Aracena, Jorge; Kohlmeier, Lenore; Ringstad, Jetmund; Martin, Blaise C; Mazaev, Vladimir P; Delgado-Rodriguez, Miguel; Thamm, Michael; Huttunen, Jussi K; Martin-Moreno, José M; Kok, Frans J.

    1995-01-01

    Because antioxidants may play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease by inhibiting the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the combined association of diet-derived antioxidants and PUFAs with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated. This multicenter case-control study included 674 patients and 725 control subjects in eight European countries and Israel. Fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene levels were determined in adipose tissue...

  20. Plasma retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Boreham, J.; Hayward, J L; Bulbrook, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective study of 5,004 women in Guernsey, plasma samples were collected and stored. Retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels were later measured in the samples from 39 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and from 78 controls who did not develop cancer. Plasma retinol levels were not related to the risk of breast cancer, mean levels among cases and controls being 485 micrograms l-1 and 479 micrograms l-1 respectively. Plasma vitamin E levels showed a clear association, l...

  1. Vitamins C and E, retinol, beta-carotene and dietary fibre in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, D. T.; Assen, N.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Dorant, E.; van't Veer, P; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R. J.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Association between breast cancer risk and the intake of vitamins C and E, retinol, beta (beta)-carotene, dietary fibre, vegetables, fruit and potatoes was examined in The Netherlands Cohort Study, for 62,573 women aged 55-69 years. After 4.3 years of follow-up, 650 incident breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, breast cancer risk was not influenced by the intake of beta-carotene, vitamin E, dietary fibre, supplements with vitamin C, vegetables or ...

  2. [Dietary plant phospholipids as stabilizers of oil solutions of beta-carotene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodina, Z V; Lupinovich, V L; Risnik, V V; Levachev, M M

    1995-01-01

    A study of stability of oil solutions beta-carotene to oxidizing damage is carried out. As stabilizers were used dietary plant phospholipids produced by Krasnodar's company ECOTECH in concentrations 5, 10, 20% in a combination with alpha-tocopherol. Oxidizing changes in samples were evaluated by determination of peroxide level ('peroxidation number') and contents diene conjugates. Effect of these antioxidants was studied in experiments with accelerated oxidation at 60 C in darkness during 15 days. Phospholipids entered in a sample acted as antioxidants. Reverse correlation was found between quantity added phospholipids an level of accumulated primary peroxidation products. It was shown that during experimental oxidation together with oxidizing damage of oil the loss of beta-carotene was also occurred: without antioxidants on 68%, with alpha-tocopherol alone on 27%, with phospholipids and alpha-tocopherol on 34%. Phospholipids protect an oil from oxidizing damage not rendering of direct action on safety (-carotene being only as synergists in a combination with alpha-tocopherol. Phospholipids increase thus antioxidant potentiation of a product lying as consider in the basis of antioxidant action of beta-carotene. PMID:7483481

  3. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Victoria A.; Hayes, Richard B; Mayne, Susan T; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Subar, Amy F; Dixon, L. Beth; Albanes, Demetrius; Gerald L. Andriole; Urban, Donald A.; Peters, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers Dietary item or component studied: Vitamin E, caroteniods, vitamin COutcome studied (cancer or cancer biomarker): prastate cancerStudy type (in vitro, animals, humans): humansStudy design (if human): cross-sectionalStudy size (if human):29361 menMode of exposure (if in vivo): through normal diet (no administration)Impact on outcome (including dose-response): inverse association between β-carotene intake and prostate cancer risk (RR for >2000μg...

  4. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, A.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Ross, R K; Henderson, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of 11,580 residents of a retirement community initially free from cancer were followed from 1981 to 1989. A total of 1,335 incident cancer cases were diagnosed during the period. Relative risks of cancer were calculated for baseline consumption of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, dietary vitamin C, and vitamin supplements. After adjustment for age and smoking, no evidence of a protective effect was found for any of the dietary variables in men. However, an inverse association was o...

  5. The Effects of Combined Antioxidant Supplementation on Antioxidant Capacity, DNA Single-Strand Breaks and Regulation of Insulin Growth Factor-1/IGF-Binding Protein 3 in the Ferret Model of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its major binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) are implicated in lung cancer and other malignancies. We have previously shown that the combination of three major antioxidants [beta-carotene (BC), alpha-tocopherol (AT) and ascorbic acid (...

  6. Pigmentation-related phenotypes and risk of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation exposure has been inversely related to prostate cancer incidence and mortality, possibly mediated through vitamin D status. Pigmentation-related traits influence endogenous vitamin D synthesis and may alter risk of prostate cancer. Methods: We examined prostate cancer in relation to hair and eye colour, and skin phototype in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Incident cancer was diagnosed in 1982 out of 20 863 men. Multi...

  7. Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori and risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoqin; Murphy, Gwen; Michel, Angelika; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; Pawlita, Michael; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori seropositivity has been inconsistently associated with pancreatic cancer. We, therefore, investigated the association between H. pylori seropositivity and pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) cohort of male Finnish male smokers. Pancreatic cancer cases (n=353) and control subjects (n=353) were matched on date of baseline serum collection, age at randomization, and follow-up time (up to 23.9 y...

  8. Serum Retinol and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Watters, Joanne L; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of to...

  9. Circulating Thyroxine, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Hypothyroid Status and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Tracey Bosworth; Remaley, Alan T.; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer inc...

  10. 1-stearoylglycerol is associated with risk of prostate cancer: results from serum metabolomic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Moore, Steven C.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Männistö, Satu; Sampson, Joshua N.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    Although prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in developed populations, recent recommendations against routine prostate-specific antigen screening have cast doubt on its utility for early detection. We compared the metabolomic profiles of prospectively collected fasting serum from 74 prostate cancer cases and 74 controls selected from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of male smokers. Circulating 1-stearoylglycerol (1-SG, or 1-monost...

  11. Associations Between α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, and Retinol and Prostate Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Watters, Joanne L; Gail, Mitchell H.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carotenoids and tocopherols (vitamin E compounds) may be inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, yet little is known about how they affect prostate cancer progression and survival. We investigated whether serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol concentrations, or the α-tocopherol and β-carotene trial supplementation, affected survival of men diagnosed with prostate cancer during the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a ran...

  12. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risks of Colon and Rectal Cancer in Finnish Men

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yu, Kai; Horst, Ronald L.; Ashby, Jason; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Prospective investigations of circulating vitamin D concentrations suggest inverse associations with colorectal cancer risk, although inconsistencies remain and few studies have examined the impact of season. The authors conducted a prospective case-control study of 239 colon cancer cases and 192 rectal cancer cases (diagnosed in 1993–2005) and 428 controls matched on age and blood collection date within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort study of Finnish ma...

  13. Prediagnostic Adiponectin Concentrations and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Weinstein, Stephanie; Pollak, Michael; Tao, Yuzhen; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, has insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. The authors conducted a nested case-control study in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort, a cohort of male Finnish smokers aged 50–69 years at baseline, to test whether prediagnostic adiponectin concentrations are associated with pancreatic cancer. Between January 1985 and October 2004, 311 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cas...

  14. Association of variants in two vitamin E transport genes with circulating vitamin E concentrations and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Peters, Ulrike; Gunter, Marc J; Moore, Steven C.; Lawson, Karla A.; Yeager, Meredith; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence and mortality were observed in men randomized to receive 50 mg supplemental vitamin E (α-tocopherol) per day in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We hypothesized that variation in key vitamin E transport genes might directly affect prostate cancer risk or modify the effects of vitamin E supplementation. Associations between prostate cancer risk and 13 polymorphisms in two genes – TTPA and SEC14L2 – were exam...

  15. LINE1 methylation levels associated with increased bladder cancer risk in pre-diagnostic blood DNA among US (PLCO) and European (ATBC) cohort study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Karami, Sara; Ruth M Pfeiffer; Hurwitz, Lauren; Liao, Linda M; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2013-01-01

    Global methylation in blood DNA has been associated with bladder cancer risk in case-control studies, but has not been examined prospectively. We examined the association between LINE1 total percent 5-methylcytosine and bladder cancer risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (299 cases/676 controls), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) cohort of Finnish male smokers (391 cas...

  16. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning

  17. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  18. Abiotic stress modifies the synthesis of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in phytoplankton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häubner, Norbert; Sylvander, Peter; Vuori, Kristiina; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-08-01

    We performed laboratory experiments to investi-gate whether the synthesis of the antioxidants α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene in phytoplankton depends on changes in abiotic factors. Cultures of Nodularia spumigena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Prorocentrum cordatum, and Rhodomonas salina were incubated at different tempe-ratures, photon flux densities and salinities for 48 h. We found that abiotic stress, within natural ecological ranges, affects the synthesis of the two antioxidants in different ways in different species. In most cases antioxidant production was stimulated by increased abiotic stress. In P. tricornutum KAC 37 and D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591, both good producers of this compound, α-tocopherol accumulation was negatively affected by environmentally induced higher photosystem II efficiency (Fv /Fm ). On the other hand, β-carotene accumulation was positively affected by higher Fv /Fm in N. spumigena KAC 7, P. tricornutum KAC 37, D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591 and R. salina SCCAP K-0294. These different patterns in the synthesis of the two compounds may be explained by their different locations and functions in the cell. While α-tocopherol is heavily involved in the protection of prevention of lipid peroxidation in membranes, β-carotene performs immediate photo-oxidative protection in the antennae complex of photosystem II. Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidant pool of natural aquatic ecosystems, which can be subject to short-term temperature, photon flux density and salinity fluctuations. The antioxidant levels in natural phytoplankton communities depend on species composition, the physiological condition of the species, and their respective strategies to deal with reactive oxygen species. Since α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as well as many other nonenzymatic antioxidants, are exclusively produced by photo-synthetic organisms, and are required by higher trophic levels through dietary intake, regime shifts in the phytoplankton as a result of large-scale environmental changes, such as climate change, may have serious consequences for aquatic food webs. PMID:26988459

  19. Beta-carotene supplementation in smokers reduces the frequency of micronuclei in sputum.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppel, G. van; Kok, F. J.; Hermus, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    beta-carotene has been hypothesised to reduce lung cancer risk. We studied the effect of 14 weeks of beta-carotene supplementation (20 mg d-1) on the frequency of micronuclei in sputum in 114 heavy smokers in a double-blind trial. Micronuclei reflect DNA damage in exfoliated cells and may thus provide a marker of early-stage carcinogenesis. Pre-treatment blood levels of cotinine, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins C and E were similar in the placebo group (n = 61) and the treatment group (n ...

  20. Lycopene and beta-carotene ameliorate catechol estrogen-mediated DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Muzandu, Kaampwe; El. Bohi, Khlood; Shaban, Zein; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi; KAZUSAKA, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of various ailments, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, are natural constituents of edible plants and may protect against disease. In this study, the influence of lycopene and beta-carotene on DNA damage caused by catechol-estrogens in vitro is examined. One possible mechanism by which catechol estrogens such as 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 2-hydroxyestradi...

  1. Vitamin E analogue, D-alpha tocopherol succinate, enhances x-ray induced growth delay of human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of d-alpha Tocopherol succinate (alpha-TS) in modifying radiation-induced viability reduction and apoptosis occurrence in the model for normal and cancer cells. Our hypothesis was that alpha-TS enhances the growth-inhibitory effect of x-irradiation in cancer cells and that the effect is more pronounced in these cells than in normal cells. Murine NIH 3T3 Swiss albino embryonic cells and HT29 human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells were used in the experiments. Alpha-TS was added to the cultures 1 h prior to irradiation with doses of 2 or 5Gy of x-ray. After irradiation cells were incubated for 73 h. Trypan blue exclusion viability test and estimation of apoptosis and necrosis were made. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were counted in fluorescence microscope using fluorescence dyes: propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. For experiments with the dose of 5 Gy at least five series of experiments were performed. At lower doses (up to approximately 25μM/ml) treatment with alpha-TS alone enhanced growth of both cell lines. At higher doses treatment with alpha-TS alone delayed the growth of the cell cultures, accompanied by 20-25% necrosis. At the concentrations higher than 25μM/mL alpha-TS alone caused growth delay of both cell cultures, being much more pronounced for the cancer cell line HT29. At the concentrations of 50 μM/mL, responsible for about 30-60% of growth delay, there was observed a synergy effect for x-rays and alpha-TS for both cell lines. The effect was more pronounced for HT29 cells (DMF=0.48 for HT29 versus DMF=0.73 for NIH 3T3). These results may confirm the views of the literature reports suggesting that use of vitamin E together with radiation could be favorable for colon cancer treatment; however, more experiments using more advanced techniques are needed

  2. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof;

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  3. Estimated Phytanic Acid Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 particip...

  4. Serum Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Satu Männistö; Demetrius Albanes

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and colorectal cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the molar ratio of 25(OH)D to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary 25(OH)D transport protein, and whether DBP modified the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk. Methods In a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, controls were 1∶1 match...

  5. Influence of vitamin D binding protein on the association between circulating vitamin D and risk of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, A M; Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is little research investigating the role of vitamin D binding protein (DBP) in the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and disease risk. Methods: Within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, 250 bladder cancer cases were randomly sampled and matched 1:1 to controls on age and date of blood collection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of bladder cancer were estimated by quartiles of DBP (measured by ELISA), 25(OH)...

  6. Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, D S; Pietinen, P.; Taylor, P R; Virtanen, M; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2002-01-01

    We examined the relation between dietary fruit and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamin intakes and the risk of bladder cancer among male smokers in a prospective cohort study. Over a median of 11 years, we followed 27 111 male smokers aged 50–69 years who were initially enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. During this period, 344 men developed bladder cancer. All of these men had completed a 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional h...

  7. Insulin-like growth factors and risk of kidney cancer in men

    OpenAIRE

    Major, J M; Pollak, M N; Snyder, K; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase kidney growth, glomerular filtration rate, and renal function. Methods: In the prospective Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study of 29 133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, serum concentrations of IGF were measured in samples collected in 1985–1988. A total of 100 men with kidney cancer diagnosed ⩾5 years after blood collection through 1997 were compared with a subcohort of 400 men; logis...

  8. Fish, Vitamin D, and Flavonoids in Relation to Renal Cell Cancer Among Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Robin Taylor; Wang, Jiangyue; Chinchilli, Vernon; Richie, John P.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Moore, Lee E.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Fish, vitamin D, flavonoids, and flavonoid-containing foods may have cardiovascular benefits and therefore may also reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. Risk was prospectively assessed in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1985–2002) cohort (N = 27,111; 15.2 mean person-years of follow-up). At enrollment, demographic, health, and dietary history information was recorded. Individuals who smoked less than 5 cigarettes/day, with chronic renal insufficiency or prior canc...

  9. Responses of gamma irradiated mice to {alpha}-tocopherol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliosoff, N.M.; Dubner, D.; Gisone, P. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    CB57 female mice whole body gamma irradiated were orally administered with acetato DL-{alpha}-tocopherol. It was observed a higher survival in {alpha}-tocopherol treated groups up to 14th and 10th days with doses of 8.5 and 10 Gy respectively and a greater bone marrow cellularity at day 10 in {alpha}-tocopherol treated group irradiated with 10 Gy. (author)

  10. Ameliorating effect of wheat bran, Beta-carotene and Curcumin on K-ras gene mutations and expression of ntioxidant enzymes in rat colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, colon cancer has unique characterises differ than other countries, more than third cases happen in people under 40 years, with advanced stage, high grade tumors that carry more mutations . This may be return to increase pollution in food and water. The aim of the present study, is the investigation of the role of some natural products approaches for colorectal carcinoma including curcumin, wheat bran and β-Carotene. Accordingly, animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) and/or dually exposed to ionizing radiation to induce colorectal cancer. The frequency of mutation of K-ras gene, the level activity of SOD, GpX antioxidant enzymes and expression of SOD1, SOD2 and GpX1 in tissue of 120 colon rats from 10 different treated groups were studied. Curcumin, wheat bran and D-carotene have inhibition effect on formation of colon cancer and decrease the mutations in K-ras gene. Moreover, they have ameliorating effect on antioxidants enzymes activities and expressions. The present study revealed that wheat bran and D-carotene have better effect than curcumin.

  11. Beta-carotene metabolites enhance inflammation-induced oxidative DNA damage in lung epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    van Helden, Yvonne G. J.; Keijer, Jaap; Knaapen, Ad M; Heil, Sandra G.; Briede, Jacob J.; Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene (BC) intake has been shown to enhance lung cancer risk in smokers and asbestos-exposed subjects (according to the ATBC and CARET studies), but the mechanism behind this procarcinogenic effect of BC is unclear. Both smoking and asbestos exposure induce an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the airways, which results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and formation of promutagenic DNA lesions. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects o...

  12. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    OpenAIRE

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; PALOU, A.; Franssen-Hal, van, N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes it may increase the risk for lung cancer in at risk individuals (heavy smokers, asbestos workers and alcohol users). To establish the window of benefit, it is necessary to identify early markers of...

  13. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  14. : beta-carotene, alpha-linolenate and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Virginie; Hoinard, Claude; Arab, Khelifa; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Bougnoux, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content alters the effect of beta-carotene on mammary carcinogenesis, we conducted a chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis experiment in rats randomly assigned to four nutritional groups (15 rats per group) varying in beta-carotene supplementation and ALA content. Two oil formula-enriched diets (15 %) were used: one with 6 g ALA/kg diet in an essential fatty acids (EFA) ratio of linoleic acid:ALA of 5:1 w/w (EFA 5 diet), the other w...

  15. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...

  16. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce growth inhibition and proapoptotic effects on ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália F Haddad

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and increased expression of p27(kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.

  17. Human plasma vitamin E kinetics demonstrate rapid recycling of plasma RRR-alpha-tocopherol.

    OpenAIRE

    Traber, M G; Ramakrishnan, R; Kayden, H J

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic model of vitamin E transport in humans is described using data from our studies with deuterium-labeled stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol (RRR- and SRR-). In normal subjects, both alpha-tocopherols are present at similar concentrations in chylomicrons, but by 24 hr, RRR-alpha-tocopherol is at higher plasma concentrations because RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially incorporated into very low density lipoproteins, which are then secreted into plasma. In three nondiscriminator patien...

  18. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies

  19. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  20. beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

    OpenAIRE

    Goralczyk, Regina; Bachmann, Heinrich; Wertz, Karin; Lenz, Barbara; Riss, Georges; Buchwald Hunziker, Petra; Greatrix, Brad; Aebischer, Claude-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers; Dietary modulation of carcinogenesis-related pathways. Dietary item or component studied: beta-carotene Outcome studied: lung adenoma; gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung. Study type: A/J-mice Tissue/biological material/sample size: lung; blood. Mode of exposure: dietaryImpact on outcome (including dose-response): Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was n...

  1. Effects of quercetin and beta-carotene supplementation on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Yeon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Aruoma, Okezie I; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers. Dietary item or component studied: quercetin; beta-carotene. Outcome studied: aberrant crypt foci in colon; colon tumor incidence; colonic mucosa levels of iNOS and COX-2 proteins and PGE2 levels. Study type: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats. Tissue/biological material/sample size: colon; blood. Mode of exposure: dietary. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): Quercetin or beta-carotene supplementation reduced the number of ACF only in an...

  2. Retinol and Alpha-Tocopherol Levels Among Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatif M. Abd El Maksoud*, Asmaa M. Abd Allah*, Waleed Massoud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma retinol, alpha tocopherol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 40 patients aged 27-65 years, under regular hemodialysis (HD for 1.8-13 years at Ahmed Maher teaching Hospital and in 28 healthy age and sex matched control. Predialysis and postdialysis measurements were also, done for a subset of 13 hemodialytic patients. Among hemodialytic patients ,all values ( Plasma retinol ,alpha- tocopherol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher ( p 100 ug /dl except for one patient . On the other hand ,alpha-tocopherol level in hemodialytic patients was ranged between deficiency ( 1080 ug/dl. Comparing predialysis and postdialysis measurements , the hemodialytic patients showed non significant difference concerning retinol level , while alpha tocopherol was significantly decreased in postdialytic state .In conclusion ; further studies are needed to answer, if hemodialytic patients are at risk for symptomatic vitamin A toxicity?. Even with normal or low plasma vitamin E, it is needed as an antioxidant accessory therapy in hemodialytic patients.

  3. Diffusion of DL-alpha-tocopherol (1); carbon dioxide (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) DL-alpha-tocopherol; (2) carbon dioxide

  4. Diffusion of D-alpha-tocopherol (1); carbon dioxide (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) D-alpha-tocopherol; (2) carbon dioxide

  5. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Natália F Haddad; Anderson J Teodoro; Felipe Leite de Oliveira; Nathália Soares; Rômulo Medina de Mattos; Fábio Hecht; Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne; Leandro Vairo; Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg; Flávia Carvalho Alcântara Gomes; Denise Pires de Carvalho; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Luiz Eurico Nasciutti; Leandro Miranda-Alves

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apopto...

  6. Effect of plasma lipid levels and obesity on tissue stores of alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, J G; Evarts, R P

    1975-06-01

    Experiments were designed to determine how varying levels of plasma lipids affect tissue deposition of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Hypolipemia was induced by feeding orotic acid, and hyperlipemia was obtained using genetically obese rats. With equal dietary intakes of alpha-tocopherol, hypolipemic rats had lower plasma and tissue concentrations than rats with normal plasma lipids. An exception was liver, which due to fatty enlargement from orotic acid had more alpha-tocopherol. Hyperlipemic obese rats had plasma total lipids and alpha-tocopherol three times those of normal rats with the same intake of alpha-tocopherol. Tissue concentrations of the vitamin, however, were considerably lower in obese rats. Due to their large adipose mass, obese rats had considerably more total body alpha-tocopherol than normal rats. It was concluded that both plasma lipid levels and degree of adiposity are important factors in determining tissue deposition of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:1153426

  7. Efficacy of beta-carotene topical application in melasma: An open clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kar H

    2002-01-01

    Beta-carotene, a structural analogue of vitamin A, works as an agonist of this vitamin, by reversibly sticking the chemical mechanism of melanogenesis by saturating the nuclear receptors of melanocytes and /or binding protein. To study the safety and efficacy of Beta-carotene lotion on topical application in melasma, clinically diagnosed 31 adults (26Fand 5M) with melasma were included in this trial. All of them applied Beta-carotene lotion daily, morning and evening to the affected areas. Tw...

  8. Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein (α-TTP): Insights from Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yunsook; Traber, Maret G.

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a liver cytosolic transport protein that faciliates α-tocopherol (α-T) transfer into liver secreted plasma lipoproteins. Genetic defects in α-TTP, like dietary vitamin E deficiency, are associated with infertility, muscular weakness and neurological disorders. Both human and α-TTP deficient (α-TTP-/-) mice exhibit severe plasma and tissue vitamin E deficiency that can be attenuated by sufficient dietary α-T supplementations. In this review, we summ...

  9. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Niklas; Milota, Franz; Nemeth, Alexandra; Sperling, Jaroslaw; Kauffmann, Harald F; Pullerits, Tönu; Hauer, Jürgen

    2009-12-24

    Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D) has been applied to beta-carotene in solution to shine new light on the ultrafast energy dissipation network in carotenoids. The ability of 2D to relieve spectral congestion provides new experimental grounds for resolving the rise of the excited state absorption signal between 18,000 and 19,000 cm(-1). In this spectral region, the pump-probe signals from ground state bleach and stimulated emission overlap strongly. Combined modeling of the time-evolution of 2D spectra as well as comparison to published pump-probe data allow us to draw conclusions on both the electronic structure of beta-carotene as well as the spectral densities giving rise to the observed optical lineshapes. To account for the experimental observations on all time scales, we need to include a transition in the visible spectral range from the first optically allowed excited state (S(2)-->S(n2)). We present data from frequency resolved transient grating and pump-probe experiments confirming the importance of this transition. Furthermore, we investigate the role and nature of the S* state, controversially debated in numerous previous studies. On the basis of the analysis of Feynman diagrams, we show that the properties of S*-related signals in chi(3) techniques like pump-probe and 2D can only be accounted for if S* is an excited electronic state. Against this background, we discuss a new interpretation of pump-deplete-probe and intensity-dependent pump-probe experiments. PMID:19954155

  10. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization. PMID:3027282

  11. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Folkers, Karl

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  12. Effects of Alpha- Tocopherol on the Velocity of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Cupric Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol on in vitro cupric ions induced oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL. Human native LDL (50 µg protein/ml oxidation was induced by 10 µmol/L of CuSO4. Conjugated dienes were measured spectrophotometrically for up to 440 minutes. The length of the lag phase (Tlag, maximum velocity of the reaction (Vmax and the maximum amount of generated dienes were obtained from kinetic data. Alpha-tocopherol increased Tlag and decreased Vmax with a dependence upon concentration (0-100 µmol/L. There was no difference between the Dmax obtained with cupric ions alone or in the presence of the various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. The results suggest that alpha-tocopherol may decrease free radicals presence in LDL and thus decrease velocity of LDL oxidation by cupric ions. This mechanism may be a reason for alpha-tocopherol effect in ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  13. Photoreduction of alkylmethylviologens with {alpha}-tocopherol in dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, M.; Baglioni, P.; Kevan, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1992-03-19

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used to detect the photoreduction yield of alkylmethylviologens (AV{sup 2+}) in rapidly frozen dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles containing concentrations of {alpha}-tocopherol (major component of vitamin E) from 0 to 23 mol %. The observed radicals are alkylmethylviologen cation radicals (AV{sup +}) from photoirradiated AV{sup 2+} in DODAC vesicles without {alpha}-tocopherol. For 1-3 mol % {alpha}-tocopherol, the major radical is AV{sup +} and the minor radical is a neutral free radical of {alpha}-tocopherol (EO) which is formed by photoinduced conversion from the {alpha}-tocopherol cation radical (EH{sup +}) with DODAC vesicles acting as proton scavengers. The total ESR intensity increases with an increase of the alkyl chain length of AV{sup 2+}. The AV{sup +} intensity increases slightly with increasing {alpha}-tocopherol concentration. For over 9 mol % {alpha}-tocopherol, the major radical becomes EO, and at 17 mol % EO alone is observed. This is explained by acceleration of the photoreduction of AV{sup 2+} to AV{sup +} by electrons released from {alpha}-tocopherol and further photoreduction of AV{sup +} to AV, which is not detected by ESR spectroscopy. The photoyield for 23 mol % {alpha}-tocopherol in DODAC vesicles without AV{sup 2+} is about 2-fold more than that in hexane solution. This enhancement of photoyield suggests that DODAC may act as a proton scavenger and compartmentalize {alpha}-tocopherol to minimize back electron reaction. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  14. The effect of solar radiation on beta-carotene and other carotenoid content in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three following cultivars of carrot - Napoli F1, Fantazja, Kazan F1 - were grown in the years 1998-00. The seeds were sown in ridges from the end of April until the beginning of June. Throughout the growth period the total solar radiation was recorded by an automatic system. Every 2 weeks, the leaf area index and the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were calculated. Correlation was found between solar radiation and beta-carotene as well as other carotenoid content in carrot roots. It was found that beta-carotene content depended mainly on the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by single carrot plants, and not by area unit. Differences in beta-carotene content in carrot cultivars were caused by the time of root formation, rate of beta-carotene production, and total absorbed PAR (PARa)

  15. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.; Hof, K.H.V.; Linssen, J.P.H.; West, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P <0.01) erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and lower (P <0.05) erythrocyte catalase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...... with the control group. Consumption of the carotenoid supplement led to lower alpha-tocopherol responses (P = 0.02) compared with the basic diet only. Our data suggest that the short-term changes in erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration can be attributed to...

  16. Ultrafast multiphoton transient absorption of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckup, Tiago [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Chemistry, D-35043 Marburg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Physical-Chemistry Institute, D-69120 (Germany); Weigel, Alexander; Hauer, Juergen [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Chemistry, D-35043 Marburg (Germany); Motzkus, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Motzkus@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Chemistry, D-35043 Marburg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Physical-Chemistry Institute, D-69120 (Germany)

    2010-07-19

    Multiphoton spectroscopy is able to directly excite electronic states, which are one-photon forbidden. Under single photon conditions, such one-photon forbidden states are exclusively populated via internal relaxation. Hence, transient absorption with two-photon excitation has the potential of clarifying complex relaxation networks by using aimed excitation. In this work we exploited ultrafast two-photon spectroscopy to investigate the excitation of dark states of {beta}-carotene in solution. After direct excitation of the vibronic manifold of S{sub 1}(2A{sub g}{sup -}) from S{sub 0} via two-photon transition, the characteristic internal conversion via hot-S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 0} was observed in the respective spectral region. Additional slow dynamics in the blue-wing of excited-state absorption (ESA) and in the NIR were detected, which is not directly observable with one-photon excitation transient absorption. These features are associated here to resonant multiphoton processes, which lead simultaneously to ultrafast intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet systems as well as to excitation of doublet states. Furthermore, we identify a 340-400 fs relaxation component in the near-infrared region after two-photon resonant excitation and discuss the role of additional dark states (3A{sub g}{sup -} and 1B{sub u}{sup -}) in this process.

  17. Enhancing beta-carotene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-08-01

    Beta-carotene is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological and nutraceutical benefits to human health. Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been attracting the interest of many researchers. A previous work has shown that S. cerevisiae successfully integrated with phytoene synthase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous could produce beta-carotene. In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae through specific site optimization of crtI and crtYB, in which five codons of crtI and eight codons of crtYB were rationally mutated. Furthermore, the effects of the truncated HMG-CoA reductase (tHMG1) from S. cerevisiae and HMG-CoA reductase (mva) from Staphylococcus aureus on the production of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae were also evaluated. Our results indicated that mva from a prokaryotic organism might be more effective than tHMG1 for beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23718229

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of synthetic alpha-tocopherol for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive synthetic alpha-tocopherol consists of pure all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. In a previous opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin E for all animal species, the FEEDAP Panel assessed the safety of the acetate ester of the additive for all animal species, the consumer, the user and the environment. The FEEDAP Panel is not aware of any more recent scientific findings that would modify its previous conclusions. The FEEDAP Panel extended the conclusions drawn in its opinion on the safety of vitamin E (including all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate to all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. All-rac-alpha-tocopherol at use levels is safe for all animal species and the consumer. No concerns for user safety are expected from the use of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in feed. The use of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in animal nutrition will not result in a substantial increase in concentration in the environment. Since all-rac-alpha-tocopherol is used as antioxidant in food and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  19. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  20. Lipoperoxides, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin in gamma-irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceruloplasmin, alpha-tocopherol and lipid peroxide concentrations are evaluated in blood plasma for transfusion following exposure to irradiation with 60Co gamma rays at doses 23, 50, 100 and 200 Gy. In plasma exposed to irradiation an increase in lipid peroxides and decrease in alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin are observed. The addition of 2.3 U/ml ceruloplasmin to plasma prior to irradiation reduces the quantity of lipid peroxides and protects alpha-tocopherol. The possible explanation is that the metal helates prevent the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and thus inhibit the oxidation of lipid membranes. 15 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  1. Membrane transfer of. cap alpha. -tocopherol: influence of soluble. cap alpha. -tocopherol-binding factors from the liver, lung, heart and brain of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1981-10-25

    The pH of liver supernatant was lowered from 7.4 to 5.1, which removed 23% of the soluble protein and 97% of the lipid-soluble phosphate, increased the total ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity 1.3-fold and the specific activity of the transfer rate 1.6-fold. This transfer activity was proportional to time up to 4 min and to protein concentrations up to 0.1 mg/ml. Fractionation of the pH 5.1-treated liver supernatant by gel filtration produced a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a single peak of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding activity which was coincident with the transfer activity. The transfer rate of this peak of activity was 316 pmol/min/mg of protein, a 9-fold purification over the original untreated supernatant. This ..cap alpha..-tocopherol transfer rate was reduced by 83 and 96% following pronase digestion or heat treatment (80/sup 0/C) of the soluble fraction, respectively, while trypsin digestion reduced the transfer rate only 18% and phospholipase C digestion had no effect. Untreated liver supernatant possessed the peak of binding activity of M/sub r/ = 34,000 and a high molecular weight binding fraction that eluted at the void volume. Heart and brain supernatants also possessed an ..cap alpha..-tocopherol-binding fraction that eluted at the void volume, while lung supernatant lacked binding activity.

  2. Influence of parenteral application of beta-carotene on fertility in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Holstein breed cows from the breeding stock of high yielding dairy cattle were selected for testing. The cows were selected during their high gravidity and fell into two groups. The i.m beta-carotene, Carofertin, of 20 ml (200 mg of beta-carotene was applied to the experimental group (n=15 two weeks before the expected parturition date. Another injection of the beta-carotene preparation was applied to the experimental group two weeks after parturition. Simultaneously, a physiological solution of 20 ml was injected i.m to the experimental group (n=15. The blood samples for testing of the beta-carotene and vitamin A concentration were taken during high gravidity and in the early puerperium two days after the beta-carotene application and on the day of parturition. Two-of parenteral application of beta-carotene before parturition does not have an impact significantly on the frequency of the occurrence of retained placenta in experimental cows comparing to the cows of the control group (x=33.3 % and x=20.0 % and length of the service period (x =97.20±31.64 and x=98.8±35.8 days. Based on the results obtained during this research, it can be concluded that the parenteral application of the beta-carotene (Carofertin as 200 mg per cow, which is meant for protection of the reproductive disorders of cows, does not affect the level of carotinemia when its concentration in the blood serum is within the physiological limits. Therefore, no significant discrepancy in values of the reproduction figures between the cows of the experimental and control group was found. All in all, its usage is advisable only during scarce feeding.

  3. Changes of lipid peroxides and alpha-tocopherol in rats with experimentally induced myocardial necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi,Yoshimi

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial necrosis was produced in rats by injection of isoproterenol (80 mg per kg body weight. Lipid peroxides were measured by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. alpha-Tocopherol was assayed by fluorometric analysis. Immediately after isoproterenol injections, serum lipid peroxides increased and serum alpha-tocopherol decreased, then gradually returned to the pre-injection levels. Lipid peroxides increased more rapidly in the heart and liver than in serum. Alpha-Tocopherol decreased in the heart and liver, then gradually returned to the pre-injection levels. These results indicate that increase in serum lipid peroxides reflects production of peroxides in myocardial tissue and in liver. The decrease in alpha-tocopherol may be due to consumption as anti-oxidants in the vascular system and organs.

  4. alpha-Tocopherol enhances tumour growth inhibition by cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarna

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Present studies indicate that alpha-tocopherol enhances the efficacy of cisplatin as demonstrated by inoculation of Dalton's lymphoma cells incubated with either cisplatin (5 or 10 µg/ml alone or cisplatin + alpha-tocopherol (25 or 50 µg/ml into C3H/He mice. Tumour cells (3 x 10(6 cells/mouse incubated with cisplatin grow slowly in syngeneic mice as indicated by the late appearance of tumour. However, mice failed to develop tumour when inoculated with tumour cells incubated with cisplatin + alpha-tocopherol. When the animals were challenged with tumour cells (3 x 10(6 cells/mouse on the 15th day after the initial inoculation, 30-50% survived more than 60 days, with 10% tumour-free survivors being observed in some groups. Antitumour activity was higher in mice receiving lymphoma cells (3 x 10(6 cells/mouse preincubated with cisplatin + alpha-tocopherol compared to cisplatin alone. Tumour-bearing mice receiving cisplatin in combination with different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol exhibited significantly higher (P<0.001 intratumour platinum content (123-306% but without any change in the kidney platinum content as compared to those receiving cisplatin (5 or 10 µg/ml alone. Enhancement of cisplatin-induced tumour growth inhibition is probably due to the modulation of tumour cell membrane permeability by alpha-tocopherol. alpha-Tocopherol might increase the influx of cisplatin into tumour cells, causing the DNA repair machinery to be less efficient due to increased efficiency of adduct formation in the DNA molecule. This effect of alpha-tocopherol can render cisplatin more effective as an antitumour agent.

  5. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  6. Optimization of beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis DM28 in fermented radish brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisorn, C; Suntornsuk, W

    2008-05-01

    A face-centered central composite design was applied to optimize a cultivation condition for improved beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis DM28 in a stirred tank reactor using 30 g/l total soluble solid of fermented radish brine as a sole substrate. The experiments were performed with regression models, where temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were considered as variables. Results showed that an optimum condition for beta-carotene production of the yeast was at 30 degrees C, pH 6 and 80% dissolved oxygen. Under this condition, the yeast yielded 2.7 g/l biomass and the maximum beta-carotene of 201 microg/l after 24-h fermentation indicating approximately 15% higher than those under an initial condition (2.3g/l and 178 microg/l, respectively). PMID:17587568

  7. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  8. The effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporotic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlina Mohamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fractures and may impair fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alpha-tocopherol can improve the late-phase fracture healing of osteoporotic bones in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: In total, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. The first group was sham-operated, and the other two groups were ovariectomized. After two months, the right femora of the rats were fractured under anesthesia and internally repaired with K-wires. The sham-operated and ovariectomized control rat groups were administered olive oil (a vehicle, whereas 60 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol was administered via oral gavage to the alpha-tocopherol group for six days per week over the course of 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed, and the femora were dissected out. Computed tomography scans and X-rays were performed to assess fracture healing and callus staging, followed by the assessment of callus strengths through the biomechanical testing of the bones. RESULTS: Significantly higher callus volume and callus staging were observed in the ovariectomized control group compared with the sham-operated and alpha-tocopherol groups. The ovariectomized control group also had significantly lower fracture healing scores than the sham-operated group. There were no differences between the alpha-tocopherol and sham-operated groups with respect to the above parameters. The healed femora of the ovariectomized control group demonstrated significantly lower load and strain parameters than the healed femora of the sham-operated group. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation was not able to restore these biomechanical properties. CONCLUSION: Alpha-tocopherol supplementation appeared to promote bone fracture healing in osteoporotic rats but failed to restore the strength of the fractured bone.

  9. RRR- and SRR-alpha-tocopherols are secreted without discrimination in human chylomicrons, but RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially secreted in very low density lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Burton, G.W.; Ingold, K.U.; Kayden, H.J. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Five subjects ingested in a single oral dose containing 50 mg each of 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5,7-(C2H3)2)tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) with natural stereochemistry, and of 2S,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5-C2H3)tocopheryl acetate (d3-SRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate). These are two of eight stereoisomers in synthetic vitamin E. By day 1 the plasma and red blood cells were enriched fourfold with d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (P less than 0.004). The ratio of d6-RRR-/d2-SRR- further increased over the succeeding 4 days, because the d3-SRR- decreased at a faster rate than did the d6-RRR-stereoisomer. Plasma and lipoproteins were isolated at intervals during the first day, and daily for 3 days, from four additional subjects fed a mixture of equal amounts of the deuterated tocopherols. The plasma contained similar concentrations of the two forms until 11 h, when the d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentration became significantly greater (P less than 0.05). The chylomicrons contained similar concentrations of the two deuterated tocopherols, but the VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) became preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol by 11 h. The pattern of the deuterated tocopherols shows that during chylomicron catabolism all of the plasma lipoproteins were labeled equally with both tocopherols, but that during the subsequent VLDL catabolism the low and high density lipoproteins became enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These results suggest the existence of a mechanism in the liver for assembling VLDL preferentially enriched in RRR- relative to SRR-alpha-tocopherol.

  10. RRR- and SRR-alpha-tocopherols are secreted without discrimination in human chylomicrons, but RRR-alpha-tocopherol is preferentially secreted in very low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five subjects ingested in a single oral dose containing 50 mg each of 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5,7-(C2H3)2)tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) with natural stereochemistry, and of 2S,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5-C2H3)tocopheryl acetate (d3-SRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate). These are two of eight stereoisomers in synthetic vitamin E. By day 1 the plasma and red blood cells were enriched fourfold with d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (P less than 0.004). The ratio of d6-RRR-/d2-SRR- further increased over the succeeding 4 days, because the d3-SRR- decreased at a faster rate than did the d6-RRR-stereoisomer. Plasma and lipoproteins were isolated at intervals during the first day, and daily for 3 days, from four additional subjects fed a mixture of equal amounts of the deuterated tocopherols. The plasma contained similar concentrations of the two forms until 11 h, when the d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol concentration became significantly greater (P less than 0.05). The chylomicrons contained similar concentrations of the two deuterated tocopherols, but the VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) became preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol by 11 h. The pattern of the deuterated tocopherols shows that during chylomicron catabolism all of the plasma lipoproteins were labeled equally with both tocopherols, but that during the subsequent VLDL catabolism the low and high density lipoproteins became enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These results suggest the existence of a mechanism in the liver for assembling VLDL preferentially enriched in RRR- relative to SRR-alpha-tocopherol

  11. Plasma alpha-tocopherol, total lipids and total cholesterol in wild rockhopper, magellanic and gentoo penguins before and after moulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G; Ghebremeskel, K; Keymer, I F; Horsley, D T

    1989-06-01

    Post moult rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes crestatus) had significantly higher plasma alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations than their pre-moult counterparts. In the magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) there were post moult increases in total lipid, cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol concentrations, but only the increase in alpha-tocopherol was significant. Plasma alpha-tocopherol, total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations in post moult gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) chicks were similar to those in non-moulting adult gentoos. Species differences in the levels of these nutrients in plasma may be due to differences in their dietary habits. PMID:2773196

  12. Time course and dose response of alpha tocopherol on oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coombes Jeff S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality particularly in patients with end stage kidney disease. Although observational data from the general population has shown dietary antioxidant intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, most clinical intervention trials have failed to support this relationship. This may be a consequence of not using an effective antioxidant dose and/or not investigating patients with elevated oxidative stress. The SPACE study, conducted in haemodialysis patients, reported that 800 IU/day of alpha tocopherol significantly reduced cardiovascular disease endpoints. A recent time course and dose response study conducted in hypercholesterolaemic patients that found 1600 IU/day of alpha tocopherol was an optimal dose. There is no such dose response data available for haemodialysis patients. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different doses of oral alpha tocopherol on oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients with elevated oxidative stress and the time taken to achieve this effect. Methods The study will consist of a time-course followed by a dose response study. In the time course study 20 haemodialysis patients with elevated oxidative stress will take either 1600 IU/day natural (RRR alpha tocopherol for 20 weeks or placebo. Blood will be collected every two weeks and analysed for a marker of oxidative stress (plasma F2-isoprostanes and alpha tocopherol. The optimum time period to significantly decrease plasma F2-isoprostanes will be determined from this study. In the dose response study 60 patients will be randomised to receive either placebo, 100, 200, 400, 800 or 1600 IU/day of natural (RRR alpha tocopherol for a time period determined from the time course study. Blood will be collected at baseline and every two weeks and analysed for plasma F2-isoprostanes and alpha tocopherol. It is hypothesised that

  13. Effects of Alpha- Tocopherol on the Velocity of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Cupric Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nWe studied the effect of different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol on in vitro cupric ions induced oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL. Human native LDL (50 µg protein/ml oxidation was induced by 10 µmol/L of CuSO4. Conjugated dienes were measured spectrophotometrically for up to 440 minutes. The length of the lag phase (Tlag, maximum velocity of the reaction (Vmax and the maximum amount of generated dienes were obtained from kinetic data. Alpha-tocopherol increased Tlag and decreased Vmax with a dependence upon concentration (0-100 µmol/L. There was no difference between the Dmax obtained with cupric ions alone or in the presence of the various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. The results suggest that alpha-tocopherol may decrease free radicals presence in LDL and thus decrease velocity of LDL oxidation by cupric ions. This mechanism may be a reason for alpha-tocopherol effect in ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  14. Role of Frizzled6 in the molecular mechanism of beta-carotene action in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Carotene (BC) is omnipresent in our diet, both as natural food component as well as an additive. BC and its metabolites have important biological functions. For this reason, BC is generally considered to be a health promoting compound. Two human trials, however, have described adverse effects in lung tissue, increasing the risk of lung cancer. We previously applied transcriptomic analyses in a unique animal model, beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1−/−) mice that are, like humans, able to accumulate intact BC. In our search to unravel the molecular action of BC in the lung, we previously identified two genes particularly strongly down-regulated by BC in lung tissue of the male Bcmo1−/− mice: frizzled homologue 6 (Fzd6) and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). In the present study, our aim was to further elucidate the role of FZD6 in lung epithelial cells and to provide a mechanistic explanation for BC increased lung cancer risk in humans. We performed whole genome microarray analysis on silenced FZD6 in non-tumor human type II bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using RNAi. To directly link FZD6 to BC-effects on the lung, we compared the FZD6-silenced BEAS-2B gene expression profile to the BC-dependent gene expression profile of Bcmo1−/− mouse lungs. A number of relevant genes were regulated in the same direction in FZD6− BEAS-2B and in BC-exposed lungs of Bcmo1−/− mice and revealed enrichment of the Gene Ontology terms “oncogenes”, “cell proliferation” and “cell cycle”, which suggests a mediating role of FZD6 in BC-induced uncontrolled proliferation of lung cells

  15. Early detection of doxorubicin-induced cariotoxocity and its prevention by alpha-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury by quantitative estimation of cardiospecific protein, Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) at early stage and to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Tocopherol. Study Design: Labbased randomized controlled in-vivo study in rabbits. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Pathology department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012. Material and Methods: Eighteen healthy male adult rabbits were used. Cardiotoxicity was induced by single intravenous injection of 12 mg /kg of doxorubicin in a group of rabbits, control group was treated with normal saline only and the rabbits of third group were pretreated with Tocopherol 200 mg/kg of body weight for ten days before injection of doxorubicin 12mg/kg. Results: Doxorubicin produced severe cardiotoxicity confirmed by markedly raised serum levels of cTnI, CK-MB, LDH and grade 3 necrosis of the heart issue in rabbits. The pre-treatment with Tocopherol resulted in improved serum levels of cTnI and the histological picture of heart tissue. Conclusions: The quantitative cTnI estimation for detection of cardiotoxicity at subclinical level can lead to significant economic impact in management of cancer patients because the troponin-negative subjects can be excluded from long term cardiac monitoring programs, which require high cost imaging techniques. Furthermore, the outcome of most potent and widely used doxorubicin chemotherapy can be made successful with the concurrent use of alpha-Tocopherol. (author)

  16. Qualitative Aspects of UV-Vis Spectrophotometry of Beta-Carotene and Lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Barrie; Soderstrom, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the structural behavior of polyenic pi systems such as isomerization and conjugation. Uses the simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a beta-carotene and lycopene mixture. Presents an empirical method to determine the number of double bonds in the polyenic carotenoid. (MVL)

  17. Beta-carotene encapsulated in food protein nanoparticles reduces peroxyl radical oxidation in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC) was encapsulated by sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) by the homogenization-evaporation method forming nanoparticles of 78, 90 and 370 nm diameter. Indices of the chemical antioxidant assays, the reducing power, DPPH radical scave...

  18. Organ specificity of beta-carotene induced lung gene-expression changes in Bcmo 1-/- mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Scope - Whole genome transcriptome analysis of male and female beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase knockout (Bcmo1-/-) and Bcmo1+/+ (wild-type) mice with or without 14 wk of BC supplementation was done. We previously showed that only 1.8% of the genes regulated by BC in lung were also regulated in li

  19. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.;

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...

  20. Encapsulation of the alpha-tocopherol in a glassy food model matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Campagnaro Farias

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available alpha-tocopherol was encapsulated in a glassy food model based on solution of maltodextrin (DE 20 and gelatin, through the use of quick freeze and freeze-drying procedures. The ratio of the maltodextrin, alpha-tocopherol and gelatin was 3:2:1 respectively. The morphology of the glassy food model was observed by scanning electron microscopy, whose analyses showed a slightly smooth surface and a rather fragile and porous structure due to cavities formed by ice crystals during freezing, and the absence of crystalline structure. It was observed by x ray diffraction that the material is an amorphous state. The samples stored in a specific plastic vessel isolated from gas and light held its amorphous state with no variations that concern to morphology and keeping 100% of the encapsulated alpha-tocopherol up to 90 days at 25 and 35 °C.

  1. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis: a rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Kurklu, Mustafa; Yildiz, Cemil; Kose, Ozkan; Yurttas, Yuksel; Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Serdar, Muhittin; Deveci, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-tocopherol on distraction osteogenesis. Materials and methods Right tibias of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were distracted at a rate of 0.5 mm/day for 20 days with a circular external fixator. Experimental group rabbits (n = 15) were administered i.m. 20 mg/kg/day alpha-tocopherol for 30 days. Radiographic examinations were performed at the 20th, 30th and 40th days. Bone scintigraphy was performed at the 5th and 20th days....

  2. Thiamin, riboflavin and alpha-tocopherol retention in processed and stored irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination treatments for preservation of irradiated pork were investigated with respect to vitamin loss. Ground pork was prepared under nitrogen and packaged in anaerobic foil. The samples were enzyme denatured by heating before and after irradiation, then cooked and stored. Irradiation resulted in thiamin loss, but neither riboflavin nor alpha-tocopherol was affected. Neither thiamin nor riboflavin was affected by heat denaturation, cooking or storage, but heating and cooking increased the measured alpha-tocopherol. The lack of loss of the vitamins was attributed to the exclusion of oxygen

  3. [Endogenous opioid system in the realization of the analgesic effect of alpha-tocopherol in reference to algomenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Bakuleva, L P; Luzina, N L; Vinogradov, V A; Iarygin, K N

    1988-02-01

    Beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity was studied in 7 patients with algomenorrhea during pain attack and 15 minutes after alpha-tocopherol administration with a therapeutic aim (till the analgetic effect was reached). There was an increase in beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity after alpha-tocopherol administration. Naloxone administration to 9 patients with algomenorrhea of various etiology resumed the pain. The effect of alpha-tocopherol application for pain relief depended on the pathogenesis of algomenorrhea. At the same time naloxone administration failed to resume the pain in patients, in whom alpha-tocopherol had a strong analgetic effect. It is assumed that the endogenous opioid system participates in alpha-tocopherol effect on pain relief in patients with algomenorrhea. PMID:2964879

  4. Alpha-Tocopherol modulates transcriptional activities that affect essential biological processes in Bovine Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha-tocopherol is the major isoform of vitamin E. after nearly 100 years of research and countless publications, the physiological functions of vitamin E remain mysterious to a certain degree. Nevertheless, vitamin E is one of the most commonly used single nutrient supplements. Recent data has su...

  5. Low Plasma alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espe, Katharina M.; Raila, Jens; Henze, Andrea; Blouin, Katja; Schneider, Andreas; Schmiedeke, Daniel; Krane, Vera; Pilz, Stefan; Schweigert, Florian J.; Hocher, Berthold; Wanner, Christoph; Drechsler, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Trials with the antioxidant vitamin E have failed to show benefit in the general population. Considering the different causes of death in ESRD, this study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and specific clinical outcomes in diabet

  6. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on bacterial translocation and lipid peroxidation in rats with intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanaider Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Investigate if alpha-tocopherol has a protective effect on intestinal mucosa after obstruction and to evaluate the potential relations between lipid peroxidation and bacterial translocation. METHODS: Ten rats were submitted to a sham laparotomy and six served as control group. A small bowel obstruction was done in sixteen animals and among them eight were pretreated with alpha-tocopherol. Forty-eight hours later, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, liver and blood cultures and also samples from ileal mucosal were obtained, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were determined and intestinal histological assessment was performed. RESULTS: Bacterial translocation was significantly increased in the obstructed rats compared with the control, sham and antioxidant pretreated groups (p< 0,05. TBARS (nmol/100mg in untreated obstructed rats increased from 49,0 ± 13,3 in control group to 128,8 ± 40 after 48 hours of intestinal obstruction and achieved 72,3 ± 24,6 in alpha-tocopherol group (p< 0,05. Bacterial adherence to the intestinal epithelial cells surface and mucosal necrosis were significantly increased in the obstructed compared with nonobstructed rats. CONCLUSION: Alpha-tocopherol reduce the deleterious effects of the TBARS over the intestinal mucosal suggesting that in such circumstances there might be an association between bacterial translocation and lipid peroxidation after an intestinal occlusion.

  7. Effects of alpha-tocopherol associated with lovastatin on brain tissue and memory function in SHRSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Murad, Leonardo Borges; Paganelli, Aline; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Basílio; Vianna, Lucia Marques Alves

    2015-10-01

    Strokes are preceded by oxidative stress and inflammation, two processes linked to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Statins have been widely employed to control atherosclerosis; however, there could be neurological implications to its use—including cognitive impairment. Thus,we aimed to determine whether alpha-tocopherol is capable of reversing the neurological side effects of statins and enhancing its anti-inflammatory properties. To assess these effects, 15-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs) were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): alpha-tocopherol (AT), lovastatin (LoV), alpha-tocopherol + lovastatin (AT + LoV), and control (C).We administered 120 IU of alpha-tocopherol diluted in 0.1 ml of coconut oil,whereas the dose of lovastatin was administered at a ratio of 1 mg/kg of rat body weight. The control group received 0.1 ml coconut oil. All animals received the treatments via orogastric gavage.We assessed body weight, diuresis, food and water intake, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels), the total cellular injury marker (lactate dehydrogenase), short and long-term memory, cognition, and histopathological changes in the hippocampus. The results demonstrated that lovastatin treatment did not negatively affect the memory of our animal model. In fact, the animals treated with AT and LoV showed improvement in memory and cognition. Additionally, both treatments decrease lactate dehydrogenase and oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, our study also demonstrated hippocampal tissue preservation in the treated groups. PMID:26095118

  8. Impact of castration with or without alpha-tocopherol supplementation on the urethral sphincter of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Kracochansky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of low levels of testosterone induced by orchiectomy and the effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on oxidative stress in the urethral sphincter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats weighing 250-300g were divided into four groups with 10 each: Sham group; Orchiectomy group: bilateral orchiectomy; Orchiectomy-pre-Tocopherol group: bilateral orchiectomy preceded by alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks; Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol group: bilateral orchiectomy with alpha-tocopherol supplementation for four weeks preceding the procedure and for eight weeks afterwards. At the protocol end, animals were euthanized and had the sphincter analyzed stereologically focusing on collagen and muscle fibers percentage. Oxidative stress levels were determined using 8-epi-PGF2. RESULTS: The 8-epi-PGF2 levels were statistically higher (p < 0.0003 in the Orchiectomy group compared to others groups while Sham and Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol groups presented statistically similar values (p = 0.52. Collagen volumetric densities were significantly lower in Sham and Orchiectomy-full-Tocopherol groups (p < 0.022. Sham group presented statistically greater muscle fiber percent. CONCLUSION: Castration caused oxidative stress in the urethral sphincter complex, with increased collagen deposition. Alpha-tocopherol had a protective effect and its supplementation for twelve weeks provided the greatest protection.

  9. Deuterium NMR studies of model membranes containing 1-alkanol anesthetics or alpha-tocopherol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thewalt, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The phase behavior of model membranes containing 1-alkanol anesthetics has been studied using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The model membrane systems were aqueous multilamellar dispersions composed of either a saturated phosphatidylcholine perdeuterated on the sn-2 chain containing 1-octanol or 1-decanol or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DPPC) containing (/sup 2/H/sub 17/)1-octanol or selectively deuterated 1-decanol. The phase changes monitored by /sup 2/H NMR are corroborated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Incorporated 1-octanol or 1-decanol causes the lipid's gel to liquid crystalline phase transition to broaden and its onset temperature (T/sub m/) to decrease. Octanol has more effect than decanol. The phase transition can also be observed in changes in the labelled 1-alkanols' /sup 2/H NMR spectra with temperature. Using specifically deuterated decanols it is found that the phase change is sensed at different temperatures depending on the position of the /sup 2/H label. The second area of study concerns the effect of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol on aqueous dispersions of saturated, acyl chain perdeuterated phosphatidylcholine. /sup 2/H NMR and DSC show that ..cap alpha..-tocopherol broadens and reduces T/sub m/ of the phospholipid gel to liquid crystalline phase transition, and that the gel phase lipid is disrupted by the presence of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Above the phase transition ..cap alpha..-tocopherol increases the phospholipid S/sub CD/.

  10. A feasibility study quantifying in vivo human alpha-tocopherol metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Quantitation of human vitamin E metabolism is incomplete, so we quantified RRR- and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol metabolism in an adult. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to quantify and interpret in vivo human vitamin E metabolism. DESIGN: A man was given an oral dose of 0.001821 mi...

  11. A feasibiity study to quantify in vivo human alpha-tocopherol metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitation of human vitamin E metabolism is incomplete, therefore we conducted study to quantify RRR- and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (TAc) metabolism in humans. A healthy male was administered an oral dose of 14C-labeled RRR-alpha-TAc (0.001821 micromol, 101.5 nCi 14C), and its appearance was measur...

  12. A FEASIBILITY STUDY TO QUANTIFY IN VIVO HUMAN ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitation of human vitamin E metabolism is incomplete, therefore we conducted study to quantify RRR- and all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (TAc) metabolism in humans. A healthy male was administered an oral dose of 14C-labeled RRR-alpha-TAc (0.001821 micromol, 101.5 nCi 14C), and its appearance was measur...

  13. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan_markovic57@yahoo.co [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of {beta}-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). {beta}-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that {beta}-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in {beta}-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  14. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab. G.M. Top

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO, palm plein (PO, Corn Oil (CO and Coconut Oil (COC]. Results: The results showed that RPO contained the highest amount of vitamin E and β-carotene compared to the other three types of vegetable oils studied. Conclusion: The RPO can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol and β-carotene.

  15. Alpha-tocopherol and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis--association and prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin I Løken-Amsrud

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alpha-tocopherol is the main vitamin E compound in humans, and has important antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to study alpha-tocopherol concentrations and their relationship to disease activity in Norwegian multiple sclerosis (MS patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 88 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients, originally included in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids (the OFAMS study, before and during treatment with interferon beta. The patients were followed for two years with repeated 12 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and nine serum measurements of alpha-tocopherol. RESULTS: During interferon beta (IFNB treatment, each 10 µmol/L increase in alpha-tocopherol reduced the odds (CI 95% for simultaneous new T2 lesions by 36.8 (0.5-59.8 %, p = 0.048, and for combined unique activity by 35.4 (1.6-57.7 %, p = 0.042, in a hierarchical regression model. These associations were not significant prior to IFNB treatment, and were not noticeably changed by gender, age, body mass index, HLA-DRB1*15, treatment group, compliance, or the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, retinol, neutralising antibodies against IFNB, or the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The corresponding odds for having new T1 gadolinium enhancing lesions two months later was reduced by 65.4 (16.5-85.7 %, p = 0.019, and for new T2 lesions by 61.0 (12.4-82.6 %, p = 0.023. CONCLUSION: During treatment with IFNB, increasing serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were associated with reduced odds for simultaneous and subsequent MRI disease activity in RRMS patients.

  16. Alpha-tocopherol and MRI Outcomes in Multiple Sclerosis – Association and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løken-Amsrud, Kristin I.; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bakke, Søren J.; Beiske, Antonie G.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Bjørnarå, Bård T.; Hovdal, Harald; Lilleås, Finn; Midgard, Rune; Pedersen, Tom; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig; Holmøy, Trygve

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alpha-tocopherol is the main vitamin E compound in humans, and has important antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to study alpha-tocopherol concentrations and their relationship to disease activity in Norwegian multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Prospective cohort study in 88 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, originally included in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids (the OFAMS study), before and during treatment with interferon beta. The patients were followed for two years with repeated 12 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and nine serum measurements of alpha-tocopherol. Results During interferon beta (IFNB) treatment, each 10 µmol/L increase in alpha-tocopherol reduced the odds (CI 95%) for simultaneous new T2 lesions by 36.8 (0.5–59.8) %, p = 0.048, and for combined unique activity by 35.4 (1.6–57.7) %, p = 0.042, in a hierarchical regression model. These associations were not significant prior to IFNB treatment, and were not noticeably changed by gender, age, body mass index, HLA-DRB1*15, treatment group, compliance, or the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, retinol, neutralising antibodies against IFNB, or the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The corresponding odds for having new T1 gadolinium enhancing lesions two months later was reduced by 65.4 (16.5–85.7) %, p = 0.019, and for new T2 lesions by 61.0 (12.4–82.6) %, p = 0.023. Conclusion During treatment with IFNB, increasing serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were associated with reduced odds for simultaneous and subsequent MRI disease activity in RRMS patients. PMID:23349882

  17. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study of 20 patients with advanced squamous carcinoma of the mouth was to monitor the dose modifying effect of supplemental dietary beta-carotene on the progression of the oral mucosal reaction and treatment outcome during an intensive course of synchronous radiation and chemotherapy. Tumour response and long term normal tissue changes have been carefully recorded. Results and freedom from toxic side effects suggest further studies. (author)

  18. Preparation and characterization of beta-carotene nanodispersions prepared by solvent displacement technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Boon-Seang; Ichikawa, Sosaku; Kanafusa, Sumiyo; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2007-08-01

    This work demonstrated the preparation of protein-stabilized beta-carotene nanodispersions using the solvent displacement technique. The emulsifying performance of sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, 18% degree of hydrolysis) was compared in terms of particle size and zeta-potential of the nanodispersions. SC-stabilized nanodispersions exhibited a bimodal particle size distribution: large particles (stabilized by casein micelles) with a mean particle size of 171 nm and small particles (stabilized by casein submicelles) of 13 nm. This was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Most of the beta-carotene precipitated (87.6%) was stabilized in the small particles. On the other hand, the nanodispersions stabilized by the whey proteins were polydispersed with larger mean particle sizes. The mean particle size of WPC and WPI was 1730 and 201 nm, respectively. The SC-stabilized nanodispersion was expected to be more stable as indicated by its higher absolute zeta-potential value (-31 mV) compared to that of WPC (-15 mV) and WPI (-16 mV). Partially hydrolyzed whey protein possessed improved emulsifying properties as shown by WPH-stabilized samples. It was interesting to note that increasing the SC concentration from 0.05 to 0.5 wt % increased the particle size of beta-carotene stabilized by casein micelles, while the reverse was true for those stabilized by SC submicelles. Microfluidization at 100 MPa of SC solution dissociated the casein micelles, resulting in a decrease in mean particle size of the casein micelle-stabilized particles when the SC solution was used to prepare nanodispersions. The results from this work showed that protein-stabilized beta-carotene nanodispersions could be prepared using the solvent displacement technique. PMID:17630759

  19. Vibrationally coherent crossing and coupling of electronic states during internal conversion in beta-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Liebel, Matz; Schnedermann, Christoph; Kukura, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wavepacket dynamics during the S2-S1 internal conversion in beta-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direc...

  20. Concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a herd of high-productive dairy cows of the Holstein breed, 40 cows were selected for an experiment. The animals were chosen at the period of advanced gravidity. Data on mean values of beta-carotene concentrations in blood serum of the cows show that significantly higher values (p<0.01 were established in advanced gravidity (x=9.53± 3.49 μmol/l in comparison with the values on calving day (x=5.69±3.14 μmol/l and in early puerperium (x=2.25±1.00 μmol/l. The average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows varied approximately the same as the concentration of beta-carotene. The highest average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows was determined in advanced gravidity (x=1.856±0.52 μmol/l, and the lowest in early puerperium (x=0.988±0.31 μmol/l (p<0.05. It can be concluded on the grounds of the results obtained in this work that the average concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving is within the limits of physiological values and in keeping with the values cited in literature, and that concentrations of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows two weeks after calving are significantly lower than the values obtained in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving and are lower than the physiological values most often reported in literature for this animal specie.

  1. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  2. {alpha}-Tocopherol impact on oxy-radical induced free radical decomposition of DMSO: Spin trapping EPR and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzykiewicz, Maria, E-mail: Mariaj@wchuwr.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14 F. Joliot-Curie St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Cwielag-Piasecka, Irmina; Witwicki, Maciej; Jezierski, Adam [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14 F. Joliot-Curie St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-05-26

    Graphical abstract: {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibits the oxidation of {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3}. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol does not inhibit the oxidation of DMSO to {center_dot}CH{sub 3}. {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibits the oxidation of {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3}. {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol does not inhibit the oxidation of PBN. {yields} The structures of observed spin adducts were theoretically confirmed. - Abstract: EPR spin trapping and theoretical methods such as density functional theory (DFT) as well as combined DFT and quadratic configuration interaction approach (DFT/QCISD) were used to identify the radicals produced in the reaction of oxy-radicals and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the presence and absence of {alpha}-tocopherol. Additionally, the mixtures of {alpha}-tocopherol with linolenic acid and glyceryl trilinoleate as well as bioglycerols (glycerol fractions from biodiesel production) were tested. {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibited oxidation of the main decomposition product of DMSO, {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3} but did not prevent the transformation process of N-t-butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN) into 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP). Theoretical investigations confirmed the structures of proposed spin adducts and allowed to correlate the EPR parameters observed in the experiment with the spin adducts electronic structure.

  3. {beta}-Carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alster, J. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Polivka, T. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Arellano, J.B. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Chabera, P. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Vacha, F. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Psencik, J., E-mail: psencik@karlov.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-19

    Carotenoids are together with bacteriochlorophylls important constituents of chlorosomes, the light-harvesting antennae of green photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of bacteriochlorophyll molecules form self-assembling aggregates inside the chlorosomes. Aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with optical properties similar to those of chlorosomes can also be prepared in non-polar organic solvents or in aqueous environments when a suitable non-polar molecule is added. In this work, the ability of {beta}-carotene to induce aggregation of bacteriochlorophyll c in aqueous buffer was studied. Excitation relaxation and energy transfer in the carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll assemblies were measured using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A fast, {approx}100-fs energy transfer from the S{sub 2} state of {beta}-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c was revealed, while no evidence for significant energy transfer from the S{sub 1} state was found. Picosecond formation of the carotenoid triplet state (T{sub 1}) was observed, which was likely generated by singlet homo-fission from the S{sub 1} state of {beta}-carotene.

  4. The microarray expression analysis identifies BAX as a mediator of beta-carotene effects on apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzioch, Marek; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Hartwich, Jadwiga; Lapicka-Bodzioch, Katarzyna; Banas, Agnieszka; Polus, Anna; Grzybowska, Joanna; Wybranska, Iwona; Dulinska, Joanna; Gil, Dorota; Laidler, Piotr; Placha, Wojciech; Zawada, Magdalena; Balana-Nowak, Agnieszka; Sacha, Tomasz; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Skotnicki, Aleksander; Moehle, Christoph; Langmann, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a ubiquitous compound rich in foods. However, there are conflicting reports regarding its role in carcinogenesis. We performed a microarray expression analysis in normal [human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)] and neoplastic (melanoma A375 and myelomonocytic leukemia U937) actively proliferating cells and found evidence that beta-carotene stimulated vital cellular functions in the former and suppressed them in the latter. These differential effects correlated with the expression of the proapoptotic BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), which was downregulated in HUVECs and upregulated in the two neoplastic cell lines. The quantitative expression analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction largely confirmed the inhibition of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) pathway-mediated apoptosis in HUVECs and its activation in melanoma and leukemic cells. The assays for apoptosis, detecting DNA breaks and caspase activation, showed consistent proapoptotic and antiapoptotic effects in U937 and HUVEC lines, respectively. However, beta-carotene-induced expression changes of BAX and other BCL2 pathway genes did not lead to the predicted induction of apoptosis in the A375 cells. PMID:15860445

  5. Spectral difference method applied in determination of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b from irradiated seeds of Calendula Officinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is part of the class of the carotenoid pigments that have a special function in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. These pigments are essential in photosynthesis where they are retaining energy and are photoprotectors by forming the redox system. They are also precursors of vitamin A, pigments involved in the process of seeing. Beta-carotene is responsible for the growth and development of organisms, for the protection and recovery of epithelial tissue, etc. Next to chlorophyll, carotenoids are the major components of the complex pigment-protein from the thylacoide membrane, and some of them, such as beta-carotene, were for a long time considered to be protecting the membrane against destructive events caused by the over excitement of the chlorophyll. This paper presents spectral difference method for physico-chemical characterisation of three components (beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b) from Calendula officinalis leaves and stalks, after irradiation of germinated seeds. The germinated seeds of Calendula officinalis has been irradiated at 8 different doses ( 1 k Rad, 3 k Rad, 5 k Rad, 10 k Rad, 20 k Rad, 50 k Rad, 100 k Rad, 500 krad), one set of seeds remaining unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of beta-carotene was performed through thin layer chromatography. The chemical concentrations of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b were determined by spectral difference method. (authors)

  6. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  7. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  8. Radiation-induced peroxidation of lipid dissolved in organic solvent and its inhibition by alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of cepharanthine and alpha-tocopherol on radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in methanol(MeOH)-chloroform (CHCl3)-H2O(v/v, 2/1/0.8) were examined. alpha-Tocopherol strongly inhibited radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. However, cepharanthine exhibited a weak inhibitory action in this system. The change in the absorption spectrum of alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine by X-irradiation was measured. The reagents were dissolved in 95% EtOH acidified with 20 mM HCl and in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. alpha-Tocopherol exhibited the change in its absorption spectrum in both systems, and seemed to be oxidized at a high rate by free radicals. However, cepharanthine slightly exhibited the change in its spectrum in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O, but not in acidified EtOH

  9. Radiation-induced peroxidation of lipid dissolved in organic solvent and its inhibition by alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, N.; Joja, I.; Kuroda, M.; Fujishima, M.; Miyake, M.; Aono, K.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of cepharanthine and alpha-tocopherol on radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in methanol(MeOH)-chloroform (CHCl3)-H2O(v/v, 2/1/0.8) were examined. alpha-Tocopherol strongly inhibited radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. However, cepharanthine exhibited a weak inhibitory action in this system. The change in the absorption spectrum of alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine by X-irradiation was measured. The reagents were dissolved in 95% EtOH acidified with 20 mM HCl and in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. alpha-Tocopherol exhibited the change in its absorption spectrum in both systems, and seemed to be oxidized at a high rate by free radicals. However, cepharanthine slightly exhibited the change in its spectrum in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O, but not in acidified EtOH.

  10. Kinetics and thermodynamics of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll adsorption onto acid-activated bentonite from Xinjiang in xylene solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhansheng [School of Life Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Li Chun, E-mail: lichun@bit.edu.cn [School of Life Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll adsorption from xylene solution onto acid-activated bentonite (AAB) within the temperature range 65-95 deg. C were investigated. Adsorption of {beta}-carotene was described well with the Langmuir isotherm, whereas chlorophyll adsorption was determined well with the Freundlich isotherm, and the experimental data on chlorophyll adsorption were also fitted by the Langmuir isotherm to a certain extent, as reflected by correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) over 0.9865. In addition, the adsorption of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll onto AAB are favorable. The pseudo-second-order model was found to explain the kinetics of adsorption of both pigments more effectively. Increase of temperature enhanced the adsorption rate and equilibrium adsorption capacity of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll on AAB. The activation energy for the sorption of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll on AAB was 19.808 kJ/mol and 16.475 kJ/mol, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters {Delta}H{sup {theta}}, {Delta}S{sup {theta}} and {Delta}G{sup {theta}}, computed from K{sub F} of the adsorption isotherm constant, were 21.766 kJ/mol, 92.244 J/K mol and -9.554 kJ/mol respectively for the adsorption of {beta}-carotene on AAB at 65 deg. C, and for adsorption of chlorophyll on AAB at 65 deg. C were 31.051 kJ/mol, 93.549 J/K mol and -0.729 kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll in xylene solution on AAB was a spontaneous and endothermic process with increasing in the randomness at the solid-solution interface.

  11. Redox Cycles of Caffeic Acid, alpha-Tocopherol, and Ascorbate: Implications for Protection of Low-Density Lipoproteins Against Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjinha, João; Cadenas, Enrique

    1999-01-01

    This study addresses the dynamic interactions among alpha-tocopherol, caffeic acid, and ascorbate in terms of a sequence of redox cycles aimed at accomplishing optimal synergistic antioxidant protection. Several experimental models were designed to examine these interactions: UV irradiation of alpha-tocopherol-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, one-electron oxidations catalyzed by the hypervalent state of myoglobin, ferrylmyoglobin, and autoxidation at appropriate pHs. These models w...

  12. The hepatic alpha tocopherol transfer protein (TTP): ligand-induced protection from proteasomal degradation†

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Varsha; Morley, Samantha; Manor, Danny

    2010-01-01

    There are eight naturally occurring forms of the dietary antioxidant vitamin E. Of these, only α-tocopherol is retained at high levels in vertebrate plasma and tissues. This selectivity is achieved in part by the action of the hepatic alpha tocopherol transfer protein (TTP), which facilitates the selective incorporation of dietary α-tocopherol into circulating lipoproteins. We examined the effects of vitamin E on TTP expression in cultured hepatocytes. Treatment with vitamin E brought about a...

  13. Alpha-Tocopherol antioxidant role in rancidity of edible oils from vegetable source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de la Cuesta, P.J.; Rus Martinez, E.; Galdeano Chaparro, M. [Chemical Engineering Department. Faculty of Sciencies. Univerity of Malaga, Malaga (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    It has been studied oxidative rancidity of olive oil, sunflower oil and sunflower oil of high oleic acid in presence of alpha-tocopherol. The influence of the temperature and the antioxidant concentration on peroxidation of said oils through the utilization of 2``2 factorial designs have been analyzed. Besides, it has been realized the kinetic study of the process determining the corresponding kinetic parameters. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Levels in Experimental Brain Injury and the Effects of Alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Senol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The mechanisms, responsible for the secondary injuries occuring after acute injury of the brain are; release of nitrous oxide which is an inflammatory mediator, abnormal formation of free oxygen radicals and excessive stimulation of excitatory aminoacids. In this study, it is aimed to investigate changes in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in the brain, that occur subsequent to blunt head trauma, and after administration of an antioxidant agent, vitamin E. Material and Method: In this study, rats were divided into 4 groups. In group A; rats had only skin incision, group B; rats were traumatized after the skin incision, group C; isotonic (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally after 30 minutes of the trauma, group D; alpha-tocopherol (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally, after 30 minutes of the trauma. All the rats in these groups were sacrified after 24 hours. Biparietal and bifrontal lobs were taken about 3x5x1mm tickness and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: As the result of the statistical analysis, it is detected that although there is an increase in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in brain parenchyma after trauma, it is statistically unsignificant. However, as the traumatized group and the group given alpha-tocopherol after trauma was compared, a statistically significant decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the alpha-tocopherol given group was seen. Discussion: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant agent, causes decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule levels, by decreasing inflammation.

  15. Mode of action of the massively accumulated beta-carotene of Dunaliella bardawil in protecting the alga against damage by excess irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When grown under defined conditions Dunaliella bardawil accumulates a high concentration of beta-carotene, which is composed primarily of two isomers, all-trans and 9-cis beta-carotene. The high beta-carotene alga is substantially resistant to photoinhibition of photosynthetic oxygen evolution when compared with low beta-carotene D. bardawil or with Dunaliella salina which is incapable of accumulating beta-carotene. Protection against photoinhibition in the high beta-carotene D. bardawil is very strong when blue light is used as the photoinhibitory agent, intermediate with white light, and nonexistent with red light. These observations suggest that the massively accumulated beta-carotene in D. bardawil protects the alga against damage by high irradiation by screening through absorption of the blue region of the spectrum. Irradiation of D. bardawil by high intensity blue light results in the following temporal sequence of events: photoinhibition of oxygen evolution, photodestruction of 9-cis beta-carotene, photodestruction of all-trans beta-carotene, photodestruction of chlorophyll and cell death

  16. Two approaches in preparation for cogeneration alpha-tocopherol and biodiesel from cottonseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Q.-L.; Zang, L.-Y.; Zhang, L.; Yun, Z. [Nanjing University of Technology (China)

    2012-02-15

    Vitamin E is a group of lipid soluble antioxidants that is widely used in the food, cosmetic and medical industries. It is comprised of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols, i.e. alpha, beta, gamma and delta, which are characterized by a chromanol ring structure with a distinct substitution pattern of methyl groups. This paper presents two approaches in preparation for co-generation of alpha-tocopherol and biodiesel from cottonseed. The approaches are a two-step process and a direct alkaline trans-esterification process. Using single factor experiments and an orthogonal design method, the effects of certain factors on the alpha-tocopherol recovery and conversion of cottonseed oil to biodiesel in both processes was systematically studied. In the two-step process, biodiesel and alpha-tocopherol were produced using a two-phase solvent combined with base-catalyzed trans-esterification. It was observed that 95.5% cottonseed oil was converted to biodiesel. In the direct-alkaline trans-esterification process, 98.3% cottonseed oil was converted to biodiesel.

  17. Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Câmara Grilo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are the richest dietary sources of vitamin E. Vitamin E determination levels in foods are of great importance to adjust the ingestion of nutrients by the population. The purpose of this paper is to determine the concentration of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in vegetable oils and compare the alpha-tocopherol value to the nutritional requirement of vitamin E. The analysis was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The values expressed as mg/kg for alpha and gamma-tocopherol were, respectively, 120.3±4.2 and 122.0±7.9 in canola oil; 432.3±86.6 and 92.3±9.5 in sunflower oil; 173.0±82.3 and 259.7±43.8 in corn oil; 71.3±6.4 and 273.3±11.1 in soybean oil. A significant difference was encountered between the alpha-tocopherol concentrations in vegetable oils. Similar results were found for gamma-tocopherol, except for corn and soybean oils. It was concluded that the soybean oil was not considered a source of vitamin E. The canola and corn oils were considered sources, and the sunflower oil was considered an excellent source.

  18. Role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subacute apap induced renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys In subacute Acetaminophen (APAP)- induced renal damage. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Army Medical College, Rawalpindi; in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabd for one week in June 2009. Material and Methods: Sixty young adult (4-6 weeks old) Sprague -Dawley rats of both sexes weighing 180-240 g were randomized into three groups. Experimental group A was treated with 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP orally once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experimental group B was administered beta carotene 30 mg/kg body weight once daily one hour before 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP once daily for 7 consecutive days. Control group C animals were fed NIH laboratory diet. Kidney specimens were collected 24 hours after the last dose. Five micron thick sections of kidney were stained with H and E for histomorphological study. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the variables p-values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: Microscopic examination in experimental group A demonstrated tubular necrosis of level 2 (35% animals) and level 3 (65% animals). Mild vacuolar degeneration was also observed in 90% of the experimental group A animals. In experimental group B, there was statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001 in levels of renal tubular necrosis (15% animals) and grades of vacuolar degeneration (5% animals) as compared to experimental group A.Findings in experimental group B were not significantly different from that of control group C. Conclusion: Beta carotene has protective role on histomorphology of kidneys in subacute APAP-induced renal damage in rats. (author)

  19. Efficacy of beta-carotene topical application in melasma - An open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Beta-carotene, a structural analogue of vitamin A, works as an agonist of this vitamin, by reversibly sticking the chemical mechanism of melanogenesis by saturating the nuclear receptors of melanocytes and /or binding protein. To study the safety and efficacy of Beta-carotene lotion on topical application in melasma, clinically diagnosed 31 adults (26Fand 5M with melasma were included in this trial. All of them applied Beta-carotene lotion daily, morning and evening to the affected areas. Twenty six of them, completed regular 8 weeks treatment. Nine of them continued same treatment for 16 more weeks. All cases were evaluated clinically using melasma intensity (MPI index (Grade I, II, III and size of the lesion. Clinical photograph was taken for each case at 0 week, 8th week and 24th week. Initial 8 weeks treatment revealed that the single case with grade-I pigmentation included in this study recovered completely. Two out of 13 cases with grade-II pigmentation, showed no change, in 10 cases, pigmentation became lighter to grade-I (76.9% and one case recovered completely. Out of 12 grade-III cases, one did not show any change, 10(83.3% converted to grade-II and one to grade-I. At the end of 24 weeks, all the nine cases (2 grade-II and 7 grade-III showed further clearing of the pigmentation to the next lower grade. Side effects like mild erythemo and local irritation were observed in two cases each, who were advised to discontinue treatment as per the protocol. In control group, out of 12 (two with grade -II, six in grade - II, and four in grade-III cases 11 showed no improvement, only one case with grade-II melasma revealed reduction of pigmentation to grade-I. One case developed local irritation. In conclusion, topical application of Beta-carotene lotion appears to be an effective and safe for melasma. Longer duration of application is associated with better result.

  20. Effect of D-alpha-tocopherol on tubular nephron acidification by rats with induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nascimento Gomes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if treatment of diabetic rats with D-alpha-tocopherol could prevent the changes in glomerular and tubular function commonly observed in this disease. Sixty male Wistar rats divided into four groups were studied: control (C, control treated with D-alpha-tocopherol (C + T, diabetic (D, and diabetic treated with D-alpha-tocopherol (D + T. Treatment with D-alpha-tocopherol (40 mg/kg every other day, ip was started three days after diabetes induction with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, ip. Renal function studies and microperfusion measurements were performed 30 days after diabetes induction and the kidneys were removed for morphometric analyses. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Glomerular filtration rate increased in D rats but decreased in D + T rats (C: 6.43 ± 0.21; D: 7.74 ± 0.45; D + T: 3.86 ± 0.18 ml min-1 kg-1. Alterations of tubular acidification observed in bicarbonate absorption flux (JHCO3 and in acidification half-time (t/2 in group D were reversed in group D + T (JHCO3, C: 2.30 ± 0.10; D: 3.28 ± 0.22; D + T: 1.87 ± 0.08 nmol cm-2 s-1; t/2, C: 4.75 ± 0.20; D: 3.52 ± 0.15; D + T: 5.92 ± 0.19 s. Glomerular area was significantly increased in D, while D + T rats exhibited values similar to C, suggesting that the vitamin prevented the hypertrophic effect of hyperglycemia (C: 8334.21 ± 112.05; D: 10,217.55 ± 100.66; D + T: 8478.21 ± 119.81µm². These results suggest that D-alpha-tocopherol is able to protect rats, at least in part, from the harmful effects of diabetes on renal function.

  1. Protective effects of plasma alpha-tocopherols on the risk of inorganic arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic plays an important role in producing oxidative stress in cultured cells. To investigate the interaction between high oxidative stress and low arsenic methylation capacity on arsenic carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the indices of oxidative stress, such as urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyquanine (8-OHdG), as well as plasma micronutrients and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma micronutrient levels were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study showed a significant protective effect of plasma alpha-tocopherol on UC risk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to urinary total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic percentage (InAs%), and significantly positively related to dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%). There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. Study participants with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher urinary total arsenic, higher InAs%, higher MMA%, and lower DMA% had a higher UC risk than those with higher alpha-tocopherol and lower urinary total arsenic, lower InAs%, lower MMA%, and higher DMA%. These results suggest that plasma alpha-tocopherol might modify the risk of inorganic arsenic-related UC. - Research Highlights: → Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to UC risk. → There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. → People with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher total arsenic had increased UC risk.

  2. Inhibition of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation in epidermal p53 gene of UV-irradiated mice by alpha-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations or alterations in the p53 gene have been observed in 50-100% of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced squamous cell carcinoma in humans and animals. Most of the mutations occurred at dipyrimidine sequences, suggesting that pyrimidine dimers in the p53 gene play a role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. We previously showed that topical alpha-tocopherol prevents UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in the mouse. In the present study we asked whether topical alpha-tocopherol reduces the level of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the murine epidermal p53 gene. Mice received six dorsal applications of 25 mg each of alpha-tocopherol, on alternate days, before exposure to 500 J/m2 of UV-B irradiation. Mice were killed at selected times after irradiation. The level of dimers in the epidermal p53 gene was measured using the T4 endonuclease V assay with quantitative Southern hybridization. Topical alpha-tocopherol caused a 55% reduction in the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the epidermal p53 gene. The rate of reduction of pyrimidine dimers between 1 and 10 hours after irradiation was similar in UV-irradiated mice, regardless of alpha-tocopherol treatment. Therefore, the lower level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated mice treated with alpha-tocopherol than in control UV-irradiated mice resulted from the prevention of formation of the dimers, and not from enhanced repair of these lesions. Our results indicate that alpha-tocopherol acts as an effective sunscreen in vivo, preventing the formation of premutagenic DNA lesions in a gene known to be important in skin carcinogenesis

  3. Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Mackerras, D; Irwig, L.; Simpson, J M; Weisberg, E; Cardona, M.; Webster, F.; Walton, L.; Ghersi, D

    1999-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, factorial study using a daily oral administration of 30 mg beta-carotene and/or 500 mg vitamin C was conducted in 141 women with colposcopically and histologically confirmed minor squamous atypia or cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) I. Over approximately 2 years of follow-up, 43 lesions regressed to normal and 13 progressed to CIN II. The regression rate was slightly higher, but not significantly so, in those randomized to beta-carotene ...

  4. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  5. Influence of Alpha Tocopherol on Heat Stress-Induced Changes in the Reproductive Function of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) on heat stress-induced changes in the reproduction of Swiss albino mice. The evaluated parameters include: the estrous cycle, fertility, post-implantation losses of fetuses and estimation of progesterone levels in the serum. Eight groups of experimental mice (10 each) were used. Groups 1-4 (24 degree C) consisted of a control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups. Groups 5-8 (42 degree C) consisted of a positive control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated group. Heat-stress reduced significantly (p > 0.001) the number of fetuses and corpora lutea. There was also a significant decrease in the mean weights of fetuses (p > 0.001) and placenta (p > 0.01) in the heat-stress group with a decrease in their serum progesterone levels (p > 0.01). Heat-stress groups treated with high doses of alpha-tocopherol 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed protection against heat-stress related abnormalities. The results showed that alpha-tocopherol plays a role in protection against hyperthermia induced changes in the estrous cycle length, infertility, post-implantation losses and depletion in the serum level of progesterone. (author)

  6. Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Pereira, Raimundo L; Costa, Maria do S; Braga, Maria Flaviana B M; Limaverde, Paulo W; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Balbino, Valdir Q; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure. PMID:27298617

  7. Tissue concentration of doxorubicin (adriamycin in mouse pretreated with alpha-tocopherol or coenzyme Q10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The tissue concentration of doxorubicin (adriamycin; ADM and its major metabolite (aglycone I was examined in mice pretreated with alpha-tocopherol (VE or coenzyme Q10 (CoQ. In VE-pretreated group, the concentrations of aglycone I of the liver (1, 3 and 5 h after the administration, kidney (1 and 3h and heart (3h were significantly higher than those in the saline group. The clinical application of VE or CoQ concomitant with anti-tumor drugs especially ADM, requires caution.

  8. The physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in oil-in- water sodium caseinate emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC), the most important dietary source of provitamin A, is necessary for optimum human health. BC is insoluble or only slightly soluble in most liquids but its bioavailability improves when ingested with fat. Therefore lipid emulsions are ideal matrices for BC delivery. BC (0.1%) in ...

  9. Diet and subsequent survival in women with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, D

    1994-01-01

    Our findings from a previous study, that increased consumption of beta-carotene and vitamin C is associated with favourable prognostic indices in patients with breast cancer, have been borne out by our current study of patient survival over a 6-year period. The results of the current study point to beta-carotene consumption as the dietary variable most significantly associated with improved survival. Only one death occurred in the group with the highest consumption of beta-carotene, while the...

  10. Study of alpha-tocopherol as a protector of damages induced to the skin by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was carried out in animals for determining the characteristics of alpha-tocopherol protection against lesions caused by free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. Two different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were applied on the same exposed sample. A linear electron accelerator of 6 MeV was used for the production of free radicals and a dose of 2800 cGy. The lesions were submitted to clinical studies for anatomic pathologies. The conclusion of this study is that alpha-tocopherol applied to skin before and immediately after the exposure to ionizing radiation has the capability to protect it, developing a perfectly differentiated epidermis and of greater thickness than normally considered

  11. Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation during boar semen cryopreservation on sperm characteristics and expression of apoptosis related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Song, Hye-Jin; Kang, Eun-Ju; Ock, Sun-A; Kumar, B Mohana; Balasubramanian, S; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2009-04-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and sensitive to peroxidative damage due to high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids of the plasma membrane and the relatively low antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma. The present study evaluated the influence of alpha-tocopherol supplementation at various concentrations in the boar semen extender during cryopreservation on post-thawed sperm motility characteristics (total sperm motility, MOT; local motility, LCM; curvilinear velocity, VCL; straight linear velocity, VSL; and average path velocity, VAP), sperm qualities (viability, acrosomal integrity and apoptosis), expression of stress protein (HSP70), and the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2l and Bcl-xl) genes. Semen collected from 10 Duroc boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 microM) using the straw-freezing procedure and stored at -196 degrees C for a minimum period of one month. In frozen-thawed groups, sperm motility was significantly (Psperm. In fresh sperm, HSP70 immunoreactivity expression was observed in the equatorial region, but in frozen-thawed groups, expressions were mostly observed in the sperm head. Higher apoptosis rates were observed in 600 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups. In alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups immediately after thawing, the expression was similar to that of fresh group. But after incubation at 37 degrees C for 3h, the expression in 200 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented groups was higher than that of others. Expression of pro-apoptotic genes was significantly higher and anti-apoptotic genes was significantly (Psperm group. In conclusion, alpha-tocopherol, supplemented at 200 microM concentration in boar semen extender during cryopreservation had a positive effect on post-thawed sperm survivability. PMID:19141297

  12. Effect of anti-hyperlipidemia drugs on the alpha-tocopherol concentration and their potential for murine malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Aiko; Herbas, Maria Shirley; Shichiri, Mototada; Ishida, Noriko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The current preventions of malaria are protection against mosquito bites and taking chemoprophylactic anti-malarial drugs. However, drug therapies are usually associated with adverse events and emergency of drug-resistant malaria parasites. Previous study showed that host plasma alpha-tocopherol deficiency enhanced resistance against malaria infection in mice. Here, we report a new prevention strategy against malaria by using anti-hyperlipidemia drugs, ezetimibe, berberine, cholestyramine, and probucol to modify the host plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration. The drugs were mixed with diet and fed to C57BL/6J mice for 2 weeks. Although all drugs reduced plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration after 2 weeks of feeding, probucol-treated mice showed 90 % reduction and it was the lowest alpha-tocopherol concentration among the four drugs. Ezetimibe, berberine, and combination of ezetimibe and berberine pretreatment for 2 weeks were not effective against infection of Plasmodium yoelii XL17, a lethal strain, for survival and parasitemia in mice. Two-week pretreatment and 1-week treatment after infection of cholestyramine had also no effect on malaria infection. Survival rates of cholestyramine, ezetimibe, and/or berberine treated mice were 0-22 %. However, probucol caused significant decrease in parasitemia and increased in mice survival following 2-week pretreatment and 1-week treatment after infection. All control mice died while all probucol treated mice survived during the course of infection. Thus, probucol which reduced plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration was effective in enhancing the host to resist malaria infection in mice. Our finding indicates that plasma alpha-tocopherol reducing drugs like probucol might be a candidate for beneficial prevention strategy for travelers from malaria-free area. PMID:26358099

  13. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and. alpha. -tocopherol content of stored potato tubers. [Solanum tuberosum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spychalla, J.P.; Desborough, S.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Activated oxygen or oxygen free radical mediated damage to plants has been established or implicated in many plant stress situations. The extent of activated oxygen damage to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during low temperature storage and long-term storage is not known. Quantitation of oxygen free radical mediated damage in plant tissues is difficult. However, it is comparatively easy to quantitate endogenous antioxidants, which detoxify potentially damaging forms of activated oxygen. Three tuber antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol were assayed from four potato cultivars stored at 3{degree}C and 9{degree}C for 40 weeks. Tubers stored at 3{degree}C demonstrated increased superoxide dismutase activities (up to 72%) compared to tubers stored at 9{degree}C. Time dependent increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol occurred during the course of the 40 week storage. The possible relationship between these increases in antioxidants and the rate of activated oxygen production in the tubers is discussed.

  14. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol protect against amitriptyline toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since amitriptyline is a very frequently prescribed antidepressant drug, it is not surprising that amitriptyline toxicity is relatively common. Amitriptyline toxic systemic effects include cardiovascular, autonomous nervous, and central nervous systems. To understand the mechanisms of amitriptyline toxicity we studied the cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline treatment on cultured primary human fibroblasts and zebrafish embryos, and the protective role of coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol, two membrane antioxidants. We found that amitriptyline treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction in amitriptyline treatment was characterized by reduced expression levels of mitochondrial proteins and coenzyme Q10, decreased NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity, and a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, and as a consequence of these toxic effects, amitriptyline treatment induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell death activating mitochondrial permeability transition. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol supplementation attenuated ROS production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress affecting cell membrane components is involved in amitriptyline cytotoxicity. Furthermore, amitriptyline-dependent toxicity and antioxidant protection were also evaluated in zebrafish embryos, a well established vertebrate model to study developmental toxicity. Amitriptyline significantly increased embryonic cell death and apoptosis rate, and both antioxidants provided a significant protection against amitriptyline embryotoxicity

  15. Removal of. cap alpha. -tocopherol from blood and its comparison with other lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, H.K.; Vang, M.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The blood decay curve of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol in rats was compared with those of the two major blood lipids by labeling rat serum in vitro with /sup 3/H-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (AT), /sup 3/H-cholesterol (CHO) or /sup 3/H-trioleoylglycerol (TO) and injecting it into the bloodstream. For the three lipids, loss from blood was biphasic. The half time of the faster decay was 2-4 minutes. The slower curve decayed with half times of 42, 289 and 990 minutes for TO, AT and CHO, respectively. This intermediate rate of AT removal is consistent with its accompanying both of the major blood lipids as they are removed by their respective mechanisms or with a process specific for AT. To investigate the role of liver in the faster curve, animals were hepatectomized. TO and CHO loss remained biphasic after liver removal. However, AT loss became monophasic, with a loss rate intermediate between the non-hepatectomized fast and slow decays. This demonstrates a central role for liver in the metabolism of blood-borne AT and a mode of removal distinct from the other two lipids.

  16. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  17. Alpha-tocopherol disappearance rates from plasma depend on lipid concentrations: Studies using deuterium labeled collard greens in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about alpha-tocopherol's bioavailability as a constituent of food or its dependence on a subject's age. To evaluate the alpha-tocopherol bioavailability from food, we used collard greens grown in deuterated water (2H collard greens) as a source of deuterium-labeled (2H) alpha-tocophe...

  18. Reaction of HO/sub 2//O/sub 2//sup -/ with. cap alpha. -tocopherol in ethanolic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The HO/sub 2/ perhydroxyl radical reacts with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol in 85% ethanol containing some H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, EDTA, and O/sub 2/. The resulting transient has a spectral maximum near 390 ..mu... The final product is mostly ..cap alpha..-tocopherylquinone. Best reproducibility for reaction of O/sub 2//sup -/ with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was obtained in a deoxygenated reaction mixture of 26 +- 3 ..mu..M O/sub 2//sup -/, 0.0565M ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, 5..mu..M EDTA, and 0.005 M KOH in 85% EtOH; the upper limit for the reaction was 6.0 +- 3.0 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, indicating that for all practical purposes O/sub 2//sup -/ does not react at all with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Preliminary experiments with Trolox, a vitamin E model compound, indicates that it too reacts with HO/sub 2/ but not with O/sub 2//sup -/. Membrane-bound tocopherols in vivo may fulfil a dual antioxidant role. (DLC)

  19. Role of alpha-tocopherol in counteracting DNA damage induced by Ochratoxin A in primary porcine fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Baldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin responsible for disease states in both humans and animals. OTA mechanisms of action are numerous, including lipid peroxidation. Oxidative damage results in the modification of macromolecules (i.e. DNA, cell death and tissue injure. Several strategies, such as the use of antioxidants, have been used to reduce OTA cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of alpha-tocopherol in counteracting DNA damage induced by OTA in cell cultures. Primary porcine fibroblasts, isolated from embryo and from ear, were incubated for 24h with several concentrations of OTA in order to detect DNA fragmentation. OTA produced DNA fragmentation in a concentration dependent manner in both primary cell cultures. The pre-treatment with alpha-tocopherol caused the reduction of DNA fragmentation in both primary cell cultures, after 24h of incubation with OTA. In particular, when OTA was added at 10 µg/ml in embryo fibroblasts, alpha-tocopherol at the concentrations of 1 nM was significantly (P<0.05 able to reduce DNA fragmentation by 16%. In ear fibroblast cultures, alpha-tocopherol at the 1nM concentration was significantly (P<0.05 able to reduce DNA fragmentation by 15.23% in the presence of 5 µg/ml of OTA.

  20. Model membrane partition ESR study in the presence of alpha-tocopherol by a new spin probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severcan, F.; Cannistraro, S. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Perugia (Italy))

    1989-08-01

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha T) on partitioning and fluidity changes occurring in phospholipid liposomes have been investigated by monitoring the X-band ESR spectrum of the high resolution amphiphilic spin probe perdeutero-di-t-butyl nitroxide (PDDTBN), which partitions in the lipid and water phase of liposomes, showing all the three resonances from each phase well resolved.

  1. Model membrane partition ESR study in the presence of alpha-tocopherol by a new spin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha T) on partitioning and fluidity changes occurring in phospholipid liposomes have been investigated by monitoring the X-band ESR spectrum of the high resolution amphiphilic spin probe perdeutero-di-t-butyl nitroxide (PDDTBN), which partitions in the lipid and water phase of liposomes, showing all the three resonances from each phase well resolved

  2. Dynamics of alpha-tocopherol during irradiation, under conditions of enhanced metabolism, and in haemotopoiesis. [X radiation, mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hruba, F.; Neradilova, M.; Novakova, V.; Blahosova, A.; Vulterinova, M.; Parikova, V.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of serum alpha-tocopherol levels in patients after administration of radioiodine /sup 131/I on therapeutic grounds revealed a decline of the serum level in relation to the amount administered. Fractionated x-ray irradiation gradually reduces the tocopherolaemia. Experiments in mice revealed that tocopherol supplement of the diet increases the resistance of animals to whole-body irradiation, when evaluated from body weight changes and tocopherol levels in organs. During experimental hyperthyroidism in rats the body weight declines, the weight of heart and liver increases and alpha-tocopherol cumulation in the liver and myocardium increases with the duration of hyperthyroidism. This increase of alpha-tocopherol is time-dependent and is significant as compared with controls and hypothyroid animals. The authors assume that during an enhanced fatty acid turnover, alpha-tocopherol cumulates at sites of maximum fatty acid turnover, the latter being used as a source of energy. Saturation with 500 mg tocopherol acetate for seven days caused in a group of healthy women an increase in the number of reticulocytes, depending on the amount of iron present. The increased reticulocyte formation was associated with a reduction of the level and increase of the vitamin B/sub 12/ serum level. The increased red cell saturation with tocopherol was manifested by a greater resistance of the red cell membrane followed up by a temporal haemolysis curve. It was confirmed that tocopherol saturation alone stimulates bone marrow to an increased reticulocyte formation in subjects without deficiency of haematopoietic factors.

  3. Kinetics, bioavailability, and metabolism of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in humans supports lower requirement for vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic models enable nutrient needs and kinetic behaviors to be quantified and provide mechanistic insights into metabolism. Therefore, we modeled and quantified the kinetics, bioavailability and metabolism of RRR-alpha-tocopherol in 12 healthy adults. Six men and six women, aged 27 ± 6 y, each i...

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  5. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilaga Rati Selvaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF is an extract of palm oil, which consists of 25% alpha tocopherol (α-TCP and 75% tocotrienols. TRF has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotection, and cholesterol lowering activities. Glutamate is the main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalian, which can be excitotoxic, and it has been suggested to play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this present study, the effects of vitamin E (TRF and α-TCP in protecting astrocytes against glutamate injury were elucidated. Astrocytes induced with 180 mM of glutamate lead to significant cell death. However, glutamate mediated cytotoxicity was diminished via pre and post supplementation of TRF and α-TCP. Hence, vitamin E acted as a potent antioxidant agent in recovering mitochondrial injury due to elevated oxidative stress, and enhanced better survivability upon glutamate toxicity.  

  6. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Thilaga Rati; Khaza’ai, Huzwah; Vidyadaran, Sharmili; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Vasudevan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) is an extract of palm oil, which consists of 25% alpha tocopherol (α-TCP) and 75% tocotrienols. TRF has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotection, and cholesterol lowering activities. Glutamate is the main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalian, which can be excitotoxic, and it has been suggested to play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In this present study, the effects of vitamin E (TRF and α-TCP) in protecting astrocytes against glutamate injury were elucidated. Astrocytes induced with 180 mM of glutamate lead to significant cell death. However, glutamate mediated cytotoxicity was diminished via pre and post supplementation of TRF and α-TCP. Hence, vitamin E acted as a potent antioxidant agent in recovering mitochondrial injury due to elevated oxidative stress, and enhanced better survivability upon glutamate toxicity. PMID:25428670

  7. Pulse radiolytic study of alpha-tocopherol radical mechanisms in ethanolic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jore, D.; Patterson, L.K.; Ferradini, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pulse radiolytic studies of alpha-tocopherol (alpha TH) oxidation-reduction processes were carried out with low doses (5 Gy) of high-energy electrons in O/sub 2/-, N/sub 2/-, and air-saturated ethanolic solutions. Depending on the concentration of oxygen in solution, two different radicals, A . and B ., were observed. The first, A ., was obtained under N/sub 2/ and results from alpha TH reaction with solvated electron (k alpha TH + e-solv = 3.4 X 10(8) mol-1 liter s-1) and with H/sub 3/C-CH-OH, (R.) (k alpha TH + R. = 5 X 10(5) mol-1 liter s-1). B., observed under O/sub 2/, is produced by alpha TH reaction with RO/sub 2/ . peroxyl radicals (k alpha TH + RO/sub 2/ . = 9.5 X 10(4) mol-1 liter s-1).

  8. Photolysis of alpha-tocopherol in olive oils and model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photolysis of alpha-tocopherol (I) in olive oil (O) and in some model systems (n-hexane = H; anhydrous n-hexane = HA, and triolein = T) was studied under sunlight and under artificial light (lambda 290 nm) by HPLC and GC/MS. In O and T, I disappeared linearly to 50% of the starting concentration, reached a constant value, and finally disappeared rapidly from the medium. In the model system, photolysis followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Although no peaks attributable to photoproducts were found in O, a main product identified by 1H and 13C NMR and GC/MS as 5-formyltocopherol (II) was found in the model systems. Irradiation of compound II led to species undetectable by HPLC in agreement with a slower consecutive kinetic process than that of I. In the HA and T systems, the formation of II occurred at lower levels than in H. The possible behavior of photodegradation is discussed

  9. Pulse radiolytic study of alpha-tocopherol radical mechanisms in ethanolic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolytic studies of alpha-tocopherol (alpha TH) oxidation-reduction processes were carried out with low doses (5 Gy) of high-energy electrons in O2-, N2-, and air-saturated ethanolic solutions. Depending on the concentration of oxygen in solution, two different radicals, A . and B ., were observed. The first, A ., was obtained under N2 and results from alpha TH reaction with solvated electron (k alpha TH + e-solv = 3.4 X 10(8) mol-1 liter s-1) and with H3C-CH-OH, (R.) (k alpha TH + R. = 5 X 10(5) mol-1 liter s-1). B., observed under O2, is produced by alpha TH reaction with RO2 . peroxyl radicals (k alpha TH + RO2 . = 9.5 X 10(4) mol-1 liter s-1)

  10. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and oregano supplements reduce stress-induced deterioration of chicken meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J F; Stagsted, J; Jensen, S K; Karlsson, A H; Henckel, P

    2003-08-01

    In order to ameliorate a negative effect of stress on meat quality characteristics, chickens were fed a diet supplemented with a combination of ascorbic acid (1,000 ppm) and alpha-tocopherol (200 ppm) or oregano (3%), which has a high content of antioxidants. Chickens were slaughtered by cervical dislocation in the stable (no stress) or after transport and electrical stunning at the slaughter plant (stress). Activities of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathion peroxidase) in pectoralis major (PM), iliotibialis (IL), and liver were unaffected by supplementation. However, erythrocyte stability, which is a more complex model system for determining oxidative status, increased with ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol supplementation and tended to increase after oregano supplementation. In nonstressed birds, this improved antioxidative status was reflected in decreased TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) in PM and liver of ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol-supplemented chickens and likewise in liver from oregano-supplemented chickens compared to that of nonstressed control birds. However, postmortem temperature, pH, and water-holding capacity were not affected by supplementation. Drip loss from oregano-supplemented chickens showed increased protein oxidation in specific bands, but this did not relate to water-holding capacity or antioxidative status. When exposed to stress, the concentration of TBARS in the control animals increased in PM and IL. Ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol supplementation protected IL, and oregano supplementation protected PM from stress-induced increases in TBARS. This differential effect between muscles may indicate differences in protection mechanisms. In conclusion, ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol and oregano supplements to chickens protect against stress-induced increase in TBARS, in different muscles. PMID:12943308

  11. HPLC Analysis of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Beta-Carotene in Collard Greens: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate and quantitate beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b originating from collard greens. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are discussed. (JN)

  12. Sensory profile of warmed-over flavour in tenderloin from steers supplemented with alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of warmed-over flavour (WOF in cooked tenderloin and the influence of alpha-tocopherol on its inhibition. A total of 24 animals were confined, 12 of which received 1200 mg/head/day of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 90 days. Longissimus dorsi muscle cuts (tenderloin were obtained for sensory profile assessment by nine trained tasters. The tasters evaluated the taste of the meat based on four general and 18 specific attributes. The results of the evaluations were analysed with ANOVA, post-hoc tests of the means (Tukey tests, and principal component analysis (PCA. There was no significant difference in the WOF between the cuts of meat from the supplemented and non-supplemented animals. However, as the refrigeration period increased, there was a decrease in the intensity of the umami and sweet taste attributes and the flavour and aroma of the roast meat as well as an increase in the intensity of the oxidised vegetable oil flavour and the aromas of fish, hard-boiled egg, flaxseed oil, and oxidised vegetable oil. The samples that had been stored for one day were characterised by PCA as having sweet and umami tastes and the flavour and aroma of roast meat, whereas after three days, the samples were classified as having sour and bitter tastes, the flavour of chicken and nuts, and the aroma of fish. The typical sensory attributes desirable for roasted meat decreased in intensity during the three days of storage after cooking, whereas the intensity of unpleasant (oxidative attributes for the consumer increased.

  13. Demonstration of specific binding sites for 3H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for 3H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (3H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for 3H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for 3H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane

  14. Demonstration of specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitabchi, A.E.; Wimalasena, J.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (/sup 3/H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for /sup 3/H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane.

  15. Ultrafast optical responses of {beta}-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M. [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Gall, A.; Robert, B. [CEA, Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, and CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Cogdell, R.J. [IBLS, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, H., E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to {beta}-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between {beta}-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  16. Photostability evaluation of five UV-filters, trans-resveratrol and beta-carotene in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2015-10-12

    Trans-resveratrol (RES) is used in cosmetic formulations and beta-carotene (BTC) is a classical sunscreen antioxidant, but their photostability in sunscreens, a property directly correlated to performance and safety has not been addressed in the literature. This paper reports the assessment of RES and/or BTC influence on the photostability of five UV-filters (octyl methoxycinnamate - OMC, avobenzone -AVO, octocrylene - OCT, bemotrizinole - BMZ, octyltriazone - OTZ) in three different combinations after UVA exposure followed by the identification of degradation products and the assessment of photoreactivity. The evaluation of sunscreen photostability was performed by HPLC and spectrophotometric analysis, and degradation products were identified by GC-MS analysis. Components RES, BTC, OMC and AVO were significantly degraded after UV exposure (reduction of around 16% in recovery). According to HPLC analysis, all formulations presented similar photostability profiles. Eleven degradation products were identified in GC-MS analysis, among them products of RES, BTC, OMC and AVO photodegradation. All evaluated formulations were considered photoreactive, as well as the isolated compounds RES and AVO. Considering HPLC, spectrophotometric and GC-MS results, it is suggested that formulations containing BMZ were considered the most photostable. The combination RES+BTC in a sunscreen improved the photostability of AVO. The benefits of using a combination of antioxidants in sunscreens was demonstrated by showing that using RES+BTC+studied UV-filters led to more photostable formulations, which in turn implies in better safety and efficacy. PMID:26159738

  17. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  18. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar+ laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm-1, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm2. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group

  19. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, M. E.; Gersonde, I.; Meinke, M.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2005-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar+ laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm-1, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm2. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  20. Oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in micelles and liposomes by the hydroxyl, perhydroxyl, and superoxide free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates of oxidation of alpha-tocopherol by the hydroxyl- and superoxide free radicals were measured. The radicals were produced in known yields by radiolysis of aqueous solutions with gamma rays. Two main systems were used to dissolve the tocopherol; micelles, made up from charged and uncharged amphiphiles, and membranes made from dimyristyl phosphatidylcholine which could be charged by addition of stearyl amine or dicetyl phosphate. The HO. radicals were efficient oxidants of alpha-tocopherol in all systems, with up to 83% of radicals generated in micelle and 32% in membrane suspensions initiating the oxidation. The HO2 radical was an even more effective oxidant, but when most of it was in the O2 form at neutral or alkaline pH, the oxidation rates became low. Tocopherol held in positively charged micelles or membranes was oxidized at a higher rate by the O2 than in uncharged or negative particles. Possible biological significance of these results is discussed

  1. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone on the radiosensitivity of thiol-depleted mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers is increased when mammalian cells are depleted of endogenous glutathione by buthionine sulphoximine pre-treatment in vitro; a similar gain has not been observed in tumors in vivo despite evidence of glutathione depletion in vivo following buthionine sulphoximine treatment. However, concentrations of biological reducing agents other than glutathione were not measured in the in vivo experiments. Other reducing agents found in tumors include alpha-tocopherol, which reduces the sensitizing efficiency of nitro-aromatic sensitizers in thiol-depleted mammalian cells. These data suggest that the failure to observe large gains in misonidazole sensitizing efficiency in thiol-depleted tumors in vivo may be due, in part, to the presence of biological reducing agents such as alpha-tocopherol

  2. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone on the radiosensitivity of thiol-depleted mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgkiss, R.J.; Stratford, M.R.; Watfa, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    The effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers is increased when mammalian cells are depleted of endogenous glutathione by buthionine sulphoximine pre-treatment in vitro; a similar gain has not been observed in tumors in vivo despite evidence of glutathione depletion in vivo following buthionine sulphoximine treatment. However, concentrations of biological reducing agents other than glutathione were not measured in the in vivo experiments. Other reducing agents found in tumors include alpha-tocopherol, which reduces the sensitizing efficiency of nitro-aromatic sensitizers in thiol-depleted mammalian cells. These data suggest that the failure to observe large gains in misonidazole sensitizing efficiency in thiol-depleted tumors in vivo may be due, in part, to the presence of biological reducing agents such as alpha-tocopherol.

  3. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Albanes Demetrius; Virtamo Jarmo; Haukka Jari; Partonen Timo; Hakkarainen Reeta; Lönnqvist Jouko

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a...

  4. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats--electrocardiographic biochemical and histological evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithayarasi, A P; Padmavathy, V N; Shyamala Devi, C

    1996-10-01

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol (6 mg/100 g body wt, orally, daily for 90 days) pretreatment in isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt, subcutaneously, twice at an interval of two days at the end of the alpha-tocopherol pretreatment) induced myocardial infarction was studied in rats. Isoproterenol administered rats showed electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial infarction with marked ST segment elevation, Q waves appearance and a significant increase in heart rate. In isoproterenol administered rats, a significant decrease was observed in the activities of marker enzymes such as aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in heart and aorta with a significant increase in their activities in serum. The levels of lipid peroxides in terms of "TBA reactants" increased significantly in serum, heart and aorta on isoproterenol administration. The histology of heart and aorta showed marked fragmentation of muscle fibres and necrotic lesions in isoproterenol administered rats. alpha-Tocopherol pretreated rats showed a near normal ECG pattern, levels of lipid peroxides, activities of marker enzymes and a near normal histology of heart and aorta on isoproterenol administration. PMID:9055097

  5. Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Basal testosterone cortisol ratio is considered very important to maintain homeostasis. Increase in this ratio has various beneficial effects on body. In this study we determined the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: It was quasi experimental study carried out in department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during October 2006 to September 2007. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups with ten rats in each group and above mentioned antioxidants supplementation were given along with standard diet for one month. After this, blood samples were taken and analyzed for serum testosterone and cortisol by ELISA and malondialdehyde levels colorimetrically. Data were analysed on SPSS version 13 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio in rats supplemented with single antioxidant; however rats supplemented with combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio with a fall in malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions: Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol resulted in a decline in reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation and rise of testosterone cortisol ratio. (author)

  6. Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M

    2008-10-01

    Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants. PMID:19019105

  7. Antiradiation properties of combined pretreatment administration of alpha tocopherol, anthocyans and pyracetam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioprotective combination 'anthopyrrole' consisted of 20 mg/kg alpha tocopherol (water-soluble form of BASF), 50 mg/kg anthocyans (powder) and 200 mg/kg pyracetam was administered orally 2x5 days on adult male ICR mice. Irradiation from a 137Cs source was performed 48 hrs after the last administration. The radioprotective potential of the mixture and of each of its components solely against lethal irradiation of 8 Gy=LD95/30 was assessed by recording the integral measures of 30-day survival rate and mean survival time of succumbing animals. The influence of the mixture on blood formation was studied for a sublethal irradiation of 6 Gy. At postradiation days 3 and 10 records were made on changes in spleen weight and cellularity, and in femoral bone-marrow karyocyte counts. It was found that the pretreatment with the mixture distinctly raised survival rate (50%) in the protected population. The effect observed was shown to result from potentiating interactions between mixture components. Blood-forming organs experienced less radiation damage and recovery process in them were stimulated. 3 figs., 14 refs

  8. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  9. Removal of. cap alpha. -tocopherol from blood and its comparison with other lipids: studies of inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, H.K.; Mavis, R.D.

    1986-05-01

    To investigate the mechanism of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol (AT) uptake into tissues, loss of /sup 3/H-AT from blood was characterized and compared with the losses of two major blood lipids: /sup 3/H-cholesterol (CHO) and /sup 3/H-trioleoylglycerol (TO). Male Long-Evans rats (200-325 gm) were injected with serum labelled with one lipid, and bled from the tail from 1-240 min. In one group heparin (HEP), an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase which mediates uptake of TO into tissues, was intravenously injected prior to serum and following corn oil gavage. The control group was only gavaged (GAV). A third group was injected with labelled serum which had been incubated with 1,2-cyclohexanedione (CHD), a reagent which modifies the receptors responsible for removal of CHO-rich low density lipoproteins from blood. Labelled serum incubated only with borate buffer (BO) was injected into the fourth group. HEP slowed TO loss from 2-220 min, but left CHO loss unchanged. AT loss was slowed by HEP from 100 min on. That AT responded to HEP but over a time span different from that of TO suggests that AT may be removed by a mechanism distinct from that of TO but sensitive to HEP. CHD slowed CHO loss from 40-240 min while TO and AT loss were uninhibited. This argues against a mechanism of removal common to both AT and CHO.

  10. Determination of beta-carotene and lutein available from green leafy vegetables by an in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2005-04-20

    Green leafy vegetables (Spinacea oleracea, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, and Solanum americanum) contain a high amount of beta-carotene (27-52 mg/100 g of dry sample) and lutein (140-193 mg/100 g of dry sample). The amount of beta-carotene and lutein released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes ranged from 22 to 67% and from 27 to 77%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the enzymatic release of carotenoids (lutein + beta-carotene) and the content of Klason lignin, nonstarch polysaccharides, and resistant protein. The carotenoids released by the in vitro colonic fermentation ranged from 2 to 11%, and part of them (0.251-4.03 mg/100 g of original dry sample) remained intact in the fermentation media and could be potentially absorbed in the colon. A significant part of carotenoids seems to be unavailable in the intestinal tract (16% in S. oleracea to 58% in C. aconitifolius). PMID:15826042

  11. Effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in healthy and osteoartheritic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ivestigate the effects of diclofenac alone or when combined with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in healthy and osteoartheritic (OA) patients. The study was carried out at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, KIgdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period 1999 to 2000. 12 healthy controls and 12 osteoartheritic patients were recruited to the study. They were given diclofenac 50mg thricedaily orally, initially for 5 days then alpha-tocopherol at 200mg thrice daily orally, was added for another 5 days. Blood samples were drawn before the start of study and at 5 days following treatmentwith diclofenac alone and 10 days following treatment with diclophenac and alpha-tocopherol. Chemiluminescence (CL)reponse was measured for wohle blood and isolated (PMNs) on all samples. Diclofenac enhanced CL response of whole blood and PMNs of healthy controls when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan (OPZ). Cotreatment with alpha-tocopherol resulted in no appreciable change in the CL response of whole blood when stimulated with PMA or OPZ but a further significant enhancement of CL response of isolated PMNs when these cells were stimulated by either PMA or OPZ. In osteoartheritic patients, diclofenac alone and when combined with alpha-tocopherol showed no significant change in CL response of the whole blood.The CL response of PMNs from OA patients was decreased by diclofenac alone. However the inhibitory effect was not observed when alpha-tocopherol was used together with diclofenac. The effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol did not produce a consistent effect on the CL response of whole blood or isolated PMNs of healthy or osteoartheritic patients. (author)

  12. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  13. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aryaeian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  14. Theoretical study of the low-lying excited states of {beta}-carotene isomers by a multireference configuration interaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron-Carrasco, Jose P., E-mail: jpceron@um.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Requena, Alberto, E-mail: rqna@um.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Marian, Christel M., E-mail: Christel.Marian@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstr. 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-19

    Graphical abstract: Quantum chemical calculations reveal a linear correlation between the intensity of the cis-band and the shape of {beta}-carotene isomers. - Abstract: The combined density functional theory and multireference configuration interaction method (DFT/MRCI) has been employed to explore the ground and low-lying electronically excited states of various {beta}-carotene monocis and dicis isomers. Although the excitation energies are generally somewhat underestimated by DFT/MRCI, the experimental trends are well reproduced and allow an interpretation of the main bands of the UV-Vis spectra. The optically bright signal is correctly assigned to S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 2}, corresponding to the HOMO {yields} LUMO transition, whereas the so-called cis-band originates mainly from the S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 4} transition and arises from HOMO-1 {yields} LUMO and HOMO {yields} LUMO+1 excitations. The calculations reveal a correlation between the oscillator strengths of these transitions and the C6-C6' distance thus explaining the effect of the molecular configuration on the shape of the UV-Vis spectra.

  15. Photochemical interaction of ascorbic acid with riboflavin, nicotinamide and alpha-tocopherol in cream formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Sheraz, M A; Ahmed, S; Bano, R; Vaid, F H M

    2012-04-01

    The present work is based on a study of the effect of some vitamins such as riboflavin (RF), nicotinamide (NA) and alpha-tocopherol (TP) on the photodegradation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (AH₂) in oil-in-water cream formulations using a UV irradiation source. A UV spectrophotometric and the official iodimetric methods have been used for the assay of AH₂ in cream formulations. These methods have been validated in the presence of RF, NA and TP before their application to the creams. The recoveries of AH₂ in the creams are in the range of 90-95% and the reproducibility of the method is within ±5%. The apparent first-order rate constants (k(obs) ) for the photodegradation of AH₂ in the presence of RF, NA and TP, individually, in the creams have been obtained. The second-order rate constants for the photochemical interaction of AH₂ and the vitamins RF, NA and TP have been determined from the plots of k(obs) for AH₂ photolysis versus the individual vitamin concentration along with the values of k₀ from the intercept on the vertical axis. The values of k₀ in the presence of RF and NA are lower than those of the k(obs) , indicating that these vitamins act as photosensitizers for the degradation of AH₂ in creams. On the contrary, the value of k₀ in the presence of TP is higher than that of the k(obs) , suggesting a stabilizing effect of this vitamin on the degradation of AH₂ in creams. The mode of interaction of the individual vitamins with AH₂ on photolysis has been discussed. PMID:22014159

  16. Alpha-tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors mitigate radiation combined injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay K.; Wise, Stephen Y.; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O.; Beattie, Lindsay A.; Ducey, Elizabeth J.; Seed, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5–12.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans. PMID:23814114

  17. Alpha-tocopherol succinate- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors mitigate radiation combined injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5–12.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans. (author)

  18. Determinação de alfa-Tocoferol em alho irradiado utilizando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dias Gonçalves Rios

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 60Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the alpha-tocopherol concentration were studied. The alpha-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The alpha-tocopherol was determined through normal-phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v, with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic alpha-tocopherol content.

  19. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Determinacao de alpha-tocoferol em alho irradiado utilizando cromatografia liquida de alta frequencia (CLAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: riosmagda@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the {alpha}-tocopherol concentration were studied. The {alpha}-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The {alpha}-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic {alpha}-tocopherol content. (author)

  20. Downregulation of Fzd6 and Cthrc1 and upregulation of olfactory receptors and protocadherins by dietary beta-carotene in lungs of Bcmo1-/- mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Heil, S.G.; Bunschoten, A.; Hessel, S.; Amengual, J.; Bonet, M L; Lintig, von, J.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2010-01-01

    An ongoing controversy exists on beneficial versus harmful effects of high beta-carotene (BC) intake, especially for the lung. To elucidate potential mechanisms, we studied effects of BC on lung gene expression. We used a beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (Bcmo1) knockout mouse (Bcmo1-/-) model, unable to convert BC to retinoids, and wild-type mice (Bcmo1+/+) mice to dissect the effects of intact BC from effects of BC metabolites. As expected, BC supplementation resulted in a higher BC acc...

  1. 7-ketocholesterol incorporation into sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched (lipid raft) domains is impaired by vitamin E: a specific role for alpha-tocopherol with consequences on cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Marie-Charlotte; Lemaire-Ewing, Stéphanie; Desrumaux, Catherine; Monier, Serge; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Athias, Anne; Néel, Dominique; Lagrost, Laurent

    2009-06-01

    Cholesterol oxides, in particular 7-ketocholesterol, are proatherogenic compounds that induce cell death in the vascular wall when localized in lipid raft domains of the cell membrane. Deleterious effects of 7-ketocholesterol can be prevented by vitamin E, but the molecular mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, unlike gamma-tocopherol, the alpha-tocopherol vitamin E form was found to prevent 7-ketocholesterol-mediated apoptosis of A7R5 smooth muscle cells. To be operative, alpha-tocopherol needed to be added to the cells before 7-ketocholesterol, and its anti-apoptotic effect was reduced and even suppressed when added together or after 7-ketocholesterol, respectively. Both pre- and co-treatment of the cells with alpha-tocopherol resulted in the redistribution of 7-ketocholesterol out of the sphingolipid/cholesterol-enriched (lipid raft) domains. In turn, fewer amounts of alpha-tocopherol associated with lipid rafts on 7-ketocholesterol-pretreated cells compared with untreated cells, with no prevention of cell death in this case. In further support of the implication of lipid raft domains, the dephosphorylation/inactivation of Akt-PKB was involved in the 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis. Akt-PKB dephosphorylation was prevented by alpha-tocopherol, but not gamma-tocopherol pretreatment. PMID:19351882

  2. The effects of gamma- and electron beam-irradiation on. alpha. -tocopherol (vitamin E) present as an antioxidant in polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Crowson, A.; Leathard, D.A.; Mistry, U. (Sheffield Polytechnic (United Kingdom))

    1991-08-19

    The authors have reported on the effects of gamma- and electron beam-irradiation on additives (chiefly hindered phenols and organophosphites) present in food-contact polymers. It has been shown that increasing doses of either form of radiation result in the progressive transformation of such antioxidants into other substances, some of which are the same as products derived from the antioxidant under thermal oxidation conditions, and some of which are different substances. Now, the effect of both electron beam- and gamma-irradiation on {alpha}-tocopherol (vitamin E) present in polypropylene is reported. (author).

  3. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Cawthon, Richard M; Purdue, Mark P; Hu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Yi; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Ji, Bu-Tian; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hosgood, H Dean; Bassig, Bryan A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Min, Shen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Berndt, Sonja I; Kim, Christopher; Lim, Unhee; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between telomere length and lung cancer in a pooled analysis from three prospective cohort studies: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, conducted among men and women in the United States, and previously published data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Trial conducted among male smokers in Finland, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), which is comprised primarily of never-smokers. The pooled population included 847 cases and 847 controls matched by study, age, and sex. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by a monochrome multiplex qPCR assay. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between telomere length and lung cancer risk, adjusted for age and pack-years of smoking. Longer telomere length was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the pooled analysis [OR (95% CI) by quartile: 1.00; 1.24 (0.90-1.71); 1.27 (0.91-1.78); and 1.86 (1.33-2.62); P trend = 0.000022]. Findings were consistent across the three cohorts and strongest for subjects with very long telomere length, i.e., lung cancer risks for telomere length [OR (95% CI)] in the upper half of the fourth quartile were 2.41 (1.28-4.52), 2.16 (1.11-4.23), and 3.02(1.39-6.58) for the PLCO trial, the ATBC trial, and the SWHS, respectively. In addition, the association persisted among cases diagnosed more than 6 years after blood collection and was particularly evident for female adenocarcinoma cases. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA may be a biomarker of future increased risk of lung cancer in diverse populations. PMID:24853549

  4. Free-radical oxidation of lipids in erythrocyte membranes and endogenous alpha-tocopherol dynamics in blood plasma of acute leukemia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagezyan, K.G.; Bilyan, L.F.; Osipova, E.N.; Porosyan, A.S.

    1985-12-01

    Interaction between free-radical oxidation of lipids and dynamics of the endogenous alpha-tocopherol level in membrane erythrocytes was studied in healthy blood donors (14), acute leukemia patients before treatment (27) and persons in remission (11) after appropriate treatment by the commonly known VAMP, AVAMP and TsAMP procedures and, in some cases, by use of combinations of prednisolone and 6-mercaptopurine. Free-radical oxidation of lipids was determined by the malonic dialdehyde yield in ascorbate- and NADPH-independent oxidation systems. The studies showed an inversely proportional dependence between reduction of the alpha-tocopherol level in the acute leukemia patients blood plasma and the intensity of free radical oxidation of lipids in the erythrocyte membranes. The combined therapy recommended in the study inhibited the peroxide formation process in the erythrocyte membranes significantly and promoted restoration of the endogenous alpha-tocopherol level which facilitated a favorable course of acute leukemia and promoted possible remission.

  5. Neural network analysis of spectroscopic data of lycopene and beta-carotene content in food samples compared to HPLC-UV-vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Montaña; Torrecilla, José S; Caceres, Jorge O; Sánchez Mata, M Cortes; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia

    2010-01-13

    In this study a neural network (NN) model was designed to predict lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations in food samples, combined with a simple and fast technique, such as UV-vis spectroscopy. The measurement of the absorbance at 446 and 502 nm of different beta-carotene and lycopene standard mixtures was used to optimize a neural network based on a multilayer perceptron (MLP) (learning and verification process). Then, for validation purposes, the optimized NN has been applied to determine the concentration of both compounds in food samples (fresh tomato, tomato concentrate, tomato sauce, ketchup, tomato juice, watermelon, medlar, green pepper, and carrots), comparing the NN results with the known values of these compounds obtained by analytical techniques (UV-vis and HPLC). It was concluded that when the MLP-NN is used within the range studied, the optimized NN is able to estimate the beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in food samples with an adequate accuracy, solving the UV-vis interference of beta-carotene and lycopene. PMID:19919099

  6. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  7. Reduction of irradiation off-odor and lipid oxidation in ground beef by {alpha}-tocopherol addition and the use of a charcoal pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S.H. [Busan Regional Food and Drug Administration, Busan 608-829 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Song, H.P. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H. [Cooperative Research, Extension, and Education Service, Northern Marianas College, Saipan, MP 96950 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    A combination of a charcoal pack during irradiation and {alpha}-tocopherol addition into ground beef was applied to eliminate an irradiation characteristic off-odor and to retard the lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation process. Ground beef was mixed with 200 ppm {alpha}-tocopherol and gamma irradiated with 0, 5, and 10 kGy with or without a charcoal pack present during the irradiation treatment. The pH of the control group was lower than that of {alpha}-tocopherol and charcoal pack treatment initially but increased rapidly and showed higher pH at day 7. Addition of {alpha}-tocopherol with or without charcoal pack addition showed lower 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values in irradiated ground beef at days 3 and 7 compared to those without addition. The color of ground beef was not significantly affected by the treatment. However, odor preference result showed that 10 kGy-irradiated ground beef with a combination of charcoal pack and {alpha}-tocopherol addition had higher scores than the control group regardless of irradiation. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified various volatile compounds that were created by irradiation of ground beef. These compounds were reduced or eliminated when a charcoal pack was used during the irradiation process. The results of the present study imply that combination of packaging with a charcoal pack during the irradiation process and addition of {alpha}-tocopherol into ground beef is a good method to effectively eliminate an irradiation off-odor and retard the lipid oxidation development in ground beef caused by irradiation.

  8. Oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in micelles and liposomes by the hydroxyl, perhydroxyl, and superoxide free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuzawa, K.; Gebicki, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    Rates of oxidation of alpha-tocopherol by the hydroxyl- and superoxide free radicals were measured. The radicals were produced in known yields by radiolysis of aqueous solutions with gamma rays. Two main systems were used to dissolve the tocopherol; micelles, made up from charged and uncharged amphiphiles, and membranes made from dimyristyl phosphatidylcholine which could be charged by addition of stearyl amine or dicetyl phosphate. The HO. radicals were efficient oxidants of alpha-tocopherol in all systems, with up to 83% of radicals generated in micelle and 32% in membrane suspensions initiating the oxidation. The HO/sub 2/ radical was an even more effective oxidant, but when most of it was in the O/sub 2/ form at neutral or alkaline pH, the oxidation rates became low. Tocopherol held in positively charged micelles or membranes was oxidized at a higher rate by the O/sub 2/ than in uncharged or negative particles. Possible biological significance of these results is discussed.

  9. Physical exercise-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase-1 in human leukocytes: effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, A M; Sommer, M; Schneider, M; Angres, C; Tschositsch, K; Golly, I C; Battenfeld, N; Northoff, H; Biesalski, H K; Dickhuth, H H; Fehrenbach, E

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (500 IU/day, 8 days) on in vivo cytokine response and cytoplasmic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the antioxidant stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human leukocytes after exhaustive exercise. Thirteen men were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with a wash-out period of 28 days. The exercise procedure consisted of an incremental treadmill test followed by a continuous run until exhaustion at 110% of the individual anaerobic threshold (total duration 28.5 +/- 0.8 min). HO-1 and iNOS protein were assessed in mono- (M), lympho-, and granulocytes (G) using flow cytometry. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. IL-6 rose significantly whereas IL-8 did not exhibit significant changes after exercise. Changes of IL-6 were not affected by RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Exercise induced an increase of iNOS protein primarily in M and G. A small, but significant, increase of HO-1 protein was measured in M and G. RRR-alpha-Tocopherol did not show any significant effects on cytoplasmic expression of iNOS and HO-1 at rest and after exercise. In conclusion, exhaustive exercise induces expression of iNOS and HO-1 in human leukocytes by a mechanism that is not sensitive to RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation. PMID:11232592

  10. A comparison of the in vitro binding of. cap alpha. -tocopherol to microsomes of lung, liver, heart and brain of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro binding of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol to microsomes of lung, liver, heart and brain of the rat was studied with the insoluble tocopherol ligand presented as a complex with bovine serum albumin. Under these conditions, all microsomes showed nonsaturable binding of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol and the amount bound to microsomes was linearly proportional to the concentration of albumin-complexed tocopherol. Increasing the amount of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol bound to microsomes in this manner reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation induced by added ferrous iron. The apparent affinities of the microsomes for ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, as indicated by the amount bound at a given concentration of albumin-complexed tocopherol, decreased in the order brain>liver approximately equal to heart>lung. The differences in affinity did not correlate with total fatty acid content (r=-0.39), total unsaturated fatty acid content (r=-0.26), or with the content of fatty acids containing two or more double bonds (r=-0.01). A high positive correlation was found with the content of fatty acids containing three or more double bonds (r=+0.96). Since lung microsomes contain approximately 6-times the tocopherol levels of liver and brain and about twice that of heart microsomes, these results show that the in vivo levels of microsomal tocopherol do not reflect microsomal affinity for this biological antioxidant.

  11. Effect of D-Alpha Tocopherol Therapy towards Malondialdehyde Level and Histology of Kidney in Rattus norvegicus with MLD-STZ Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Agnestiansyah Mahardhian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Nephropathy is a kidney disease which occurs due to complication of diabetes mellitus  as a consequence of the damage of the kidney endothelial cells. Hyperglicemia condition in patients with diabetes mellitus that induces an oxidative stress, were related to endothelial cell damage. Oxidative stress as a result of hyperglycemia will activate a number of signal transduction pathways resulting in increase of  free radicals. D-alpha tocopherol as one of antioxidant substance, that can act as an inhibitor of free radical chain reactions, play an important role in the reduction of the oxidative stress effect. Effect of D-alpha-tocopherol in reducing oxidative stress is identified by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in kidney and histology of kidney. This study used five groups mice; they were a control group, a diabetic group which was induced with MLD-STZ, and a therapeutic groups with a varieties doses of D-alpha tocopherol (100 mg/kgBW, 200 mg/kgBW and 300 mg/kgBW. The results showed that the D-alpha tocopherol was able to reduce the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and repair the histology of kidney of mice induced by MLD-STZ.

  12. High levels of dietary unsaturated fat decrease alpha-tocopherol content of whole body, liver, and plasma of chickens without variations in intestinal apparent absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, C; Baucells, M D; Manzanilla, E G; Barroeta, A C

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effect of dietary unsaturated fat inclusion level on alpha-tocopherol apparent absorption and deposition in broiler chickens at 2 ages (20 and 39 d). The dietary fat was a mixture of linseed and fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The experimental treatments were the result of 4 levels of supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg; E0, E100, E200, and E400 treatments, respectively) and 4 dietary oil inclusion levels (2, 4, 6, and 8%; O2, O4, O6, and O8 treatments respectively). Almond husk was used as an energy dilutor in the high-fat diets. Apparent absorption of total fatty acids was high in all treatments averaging 88% and was higher with high fat dietary inclusion level. alpha-Tocopheryl acetate hydrolysis and apparent absorption of alpha-tocopherol were similar in both ages and were not affected by fat inclusion level, except for a reduction of the absorption in the low-fat diet (O2) in the E100 treatment at 20 d of age. Despite this lack of differences in hydrolysis and absorption, higher-fat PUFA diets induced lower concentrations of free alpha-tocopherol in the excreta, at high alpha-tocopherol doses, suggesting an increase in the destruction of alpha-tocopherol by lipid oxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, total and hepatic alpha-tocopherol deposition was lower in the birds fed high-PUFA diets in the E200- and E400-supplemented birds, possibly due to a destruction of vitamin E when protecting these PUFA from lipid peroxidation. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in liver and, to a lesser extent, in plasma was a useful indicator of the degree of response of this vitamin to different factors that can affect its bioavailability; however, in the present experiment, CV were too high to use liver and plasma concentrations as estimators of total body vitamin E. PMID:18281576

  13. Bioavailability of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices in the presence of absorption modifiers: in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Olmedilla-Alonso, B

    2009-02-01

    The food industry is playing an increasing role in the development and marketing of new products although little is known regarding the bioavailability of the phytochemicals they contain. Our aim was to assess the effect of the presence of absorption modifiers (milk and iron) on the in vitro bioaccessibility and the serum response in vivo of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices. Thirty-two young women participated in a three-period (21 d each) supplementation study with a 2-week wash-out in between. Subjects consumed consecutively 2 x 250 ml/d vitamin C-fortified juices supplied as fruit juice, fruit juice containing milk and fruit juice containing milk and iron. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after each supplementation period. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol was assessed by a static digestion model. Vitamin E and carotenoids from both studies were determined by HPLC. In vitro, xanthophyll ester hydrolysis and transference of free xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol into the micellar phase were higher in the presence of absorption modifiers. In vivo, consumption of the fruit juices provoked significant increments (within-subject) of alpha-tocopherol and some carotenoids in serum. Dose-adjusted increments in serum of some carotenoids were higher when subjects consumed juices with milk and milk plus iron, although differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the presence of milk and milk plus iron do not influence the bioavailability of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices in vivo. Our results support the use of in vitro models to assess food-related factors affecting bioavailability of carotenoids and tocopherols from foods. PMID:18616839

  14. Nascent VLDL from liver perfusions of cynomolgus monkeys are preferentially enriched in RRR- compared with SRR-alpha-tocopherol: Studies using deuterated tocopherols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and secretion of vitamin E in lipoproteins have been studied in cynomolgus monkeys fed tocopherols labeled with different amounts of deuterium. The animals were fed a single dose of vitamin E containing 60 mumol of each 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5,7-(C2H3)2)tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate; alpha-tocopherol with natural stereochemistry), 2S,4'R,8'R-alpha-5-(C2H3)tocopheryl acetate (d3-SRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate; alpha-tocopherol with unnatural stereochemistry), and 2R,4'R,8'R-gamma-(3,4-2H)tocopherol (d2-RRR-gamma-tocopherol; gamma-tocopherol with natural stereochemistry). Chylomicrons, as well as the other plasma lipoproteins, contained equal concentrations of all three tocopherols at the earliest time points after feeding suggesting that all three tocopherols were absorbed equally. At later times plasma lipoproteins became preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol. This is likely to be due to hepatic secretion of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) and other lipoproteins, which were enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol, as demonstrated in the lipoproteins isolated from perfused livers that had been obtained 24 h following the administration of the deuterated tocopherols. Taken together these data demonstrate that the liver, not the intestine, is the likely site of discrimination between tocopherol isomers and that the liver secretes nascent lipoproteins preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol

  15. Nascent VLDL from liver perfusions of cynomolgus monkeys are preferentially enriched in RRR- compared with SRR-alpha-tocopherol: Studies using deuterated tocopherols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Rudel, L.L.; Burton, G.W.; Hughes, L.; Ingold, K.U.; Kayden, H.J. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The transport and secretion of vitamin E in lipoproteins have been studied in cynomolgus monkeys fed tocopherols labeled with different amounts of deuterium. The animals were fed a single dose of vitamin E containing 60 mumol of each 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-(5,7-(C2H3)2)tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate; alpha-tocopherol with natural stereochemistry), 2S,4'R,8'R-alpha-5-(C2H3)tocopheryl acetate (d3-SRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate; alpha-tocopherol with unnatural stereochemistry), and 2R,4'R,8'R-gamma-(3,4-2H)tocopherol (d2-RRR-gamma-tocopherol; gamma-tocopherol with natural stereochemistry). Chylomicrons, as well as the other plasma lipoproteins, contained equal concentrations of all three tocopherols at the earliest time points after feeding suggesting that all three tocopherols were absorbed equally. At later times plasma lipoproteins became preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol. This is likely to be due to hepatic secretion of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) and other lipoproteins, which were enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol, as demonstrated in the lipoproteins isolated from perfused livers that had been obtained 24 h following the administration of the deuterated tocopherols. Taken together these data demonstrate that the liver, not the intestine, is the likely site of discrimination between tocopherol isomers and that the liver secretes nascent lipoproteins preferentially enriched in d6-RRR-alpha-tocopherol.

  16. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jamalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and serum amyloid A (SAA in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: Male patients (n=80 were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.  It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus.

  17. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  18. Superparamagnetic iron oxide--loaded poly(lactic acid)-D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate copolymer nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, Chandrasekharan; Dipak, Maity; Yang, Chang-Tong; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jun, Ding; Feng, Si-Shen

    2010-07-01

    We developed a strategy to formulate supraparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) in nanoparticles (NPs) of biodegradable copolymer made up of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for medical imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high contrast and low side effects. The IOs-loaded PLA-TPGS NPs (IOs-PNPs) were prepared by the single emulsion method and the nanoprecipitation method. Effects of the process parameters such as the emulsifier concentration, IOs loading in the nanoparticles, and the solvent to non-solvent ratio on the IOs distribution within the polymeric matrix were investigated and the formulation was then optimized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed direct visual evidence for the well dispersed distribution of the IOs within the NPs. We further investigated the biocompatibility and cellular uptake of the IOs-PNPs in vitro with MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast in close comparison with the commercial IOs imaging agent Resovist. MRI imaging was further carried out to investigate the biodistribution of the IOs formulated in the IOs-PNPs, especially in the liver to understand the liver clearance process, which was also made in close comparison with Resovist. We found that the PLA-TPGS NPs formulation at the clinically approved dose of 0.8 mg Fe/kg could be cleared within 24 h in comparison with several weeks for Resovist. Xenograft tumor model MRI confirmed the advantages of the IOs-PNPs formulation versus Resovist through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect of the tumor vasculature. PMID:20434210

  19. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extracts from tomatoes, papaya and orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric equation model for the simultaneous determination of lycopene and Beta-carotene concentrations in a mixture of carotenoids is proposed. Lycopene could be exclusively determined (with the relative accuracy of more than 95%) using the absorbance data at 502 nm. Because quantifying the Beta-carotene concentration in a carotenoid minture using the sole absorbance at 450 nm is prone to error, an equation to determine the concentration of this compound from the absorbances data at two wavelengths was modeled. Using the modeled equations to re-check the molar absorptivity of lycopene at 472 nm, the value obtained was about 98% close to the value reported in literature. The relative accuracy of the predicted concentrations of two carotenoids using the modeled equations is a function of the ratio of these carotenoids in the samples. (author)

  20. Biodisponibilidade do beta-caroteno da folha desidratada de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Bioavailability of beta-carotene in dehydrated cassava leaves (manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Isabel Ortega-Flores

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a biodisponibilidade do beta-caroteno da folha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz foi realizado um ensaio biológico baseado no modelo de esgotamento das reservas hepáticas de vitamina A em ratos. Um grupo de ratos depletados de vitamina A hepática recebeu folha desidratada de mandioca como fonte beta-caroteno durante 25 dias, e foram comparados com um grupo que recebeu ração com vitamina A, outro grupo com ração sem vitamina A e um último grupo com beta-caroteno. O grupo Zero foi constituído de 8 animais que receberam durante 15 dias ração à base de caseína, deficiente de vitamina A. Ao final do experimento todos os animais foram sacrificados e seus fígados e plasmas analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE, sendo verificado que a biodisponibilidade do beta-caroteno da folha desidratada de mandioca foi baixa.The biological availability of beta-carotene in cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz, was verified by means of an assay based on the hepatic depletion of vitamin A reserves model in rats. Rats depleted of hepatic vitamin A received dehydrated cassava leaves as beta-carotene source for 25 days and were compared to groups that received diets with vitamin A, beta-carotene and without vitamin A. The Zero group was formed of 8 animals that received a diet based on casein, lacking vitamin A, during 15 days. At the end of the experiment, all animals were killed and their livers, serum and feces were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and it was verified that the bioavailability of beta-carotene of dehydrated cassava leaves was lower.

  1. Stimulation or inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis by irradiation with γ-rays of Calendula Officinalis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to see what is the effect of irradiation with gamma rays of Calendula officinalis (marigolds) seeds. Could it be a stimulation or a inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis? This paper presents results of irradiation of germinated seeds of marigolds. It was carried out irradiation of seeds at 8 different doses ( 1 kRad, 3.3 kRad, 10 kRad, 25 kRad, 50 kRad, 100 kRad, 200 kRad, 500 krad), one set of seeds being unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of β-carotene was realized through thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chemical concentrations of β-carotene in leaves and stalks of marigolds had been determined by Varian spectrophotometer. Quantitative determination of β-carotene was carried out through spectral analysis using a standard spectrum of carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b. (authors)

  2. Intensive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress and reproductive dysfunction in male wistar rats: protective role of alpha-tocopherol succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Indranil; Jana, Kuladip; Samanta, Prabhat Kumar

    2004-04-01

    In the present study, 30 male rats (age 3 mos, Wt 128.6 +/- 3.7 g) were randomly divided into Control group (CG), Experimental group (EG), and Supplemented group (SG), 10 per group. An exercise protocol (3 hrs swimming per day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks) was followed in EG and SG, with no exercise in CG. In SG, alpha-tocopherol succinate was injected sub-cutaneously at a dose of 50 mg x kg(- 1) per body weight per day. After 4 weeks of exercise, significant diminutions (p Intensive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress causes dysfunction in the male reproductive system, which can be protected by alpha-tocopherol succinate. PMID:15064426

  3. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range. PMID:27130544

  4. Modulation of antioxidant and phosphatase enzymes by beta-carotene against gamma radiation induced testicular disorders in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of β-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after β-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with β-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that β-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that β-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats

  5. Chiral effects on the /sup 13/C resonances of. cap alpha. -tocopherol and related compounds. A novel illustration of Newman's rule of six

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstein, S.; Burton, G.W.; Hughes, L.; Ingold, K.U.

    1989-02-03

    The 100-MHz /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of (2R,4'R,8'R)-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) has been completely assigned with the aid of a number of selectively deuteriated (2R,4'R,8'R)-..cap alpha..-tocopherols. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of (2RS,4'RS,8'RS)-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (all-racemic, synthetic vitamin E) has also been measured. Many of the individual carbons in this all-racemic mixture of eight ..cap alpha..-tocopherol stereoisomers give more than one resonance with eight of the carbons (2-CH/sub 3/, 2',3',4',4'-CH/sub 3/, 5', 8', and 9') giving the maximum number of four resonances from each of the four enantiomeric pairs; these resonances have also been assigned. The structurally related 5'-hydroxy-2-(4',8',12'-trimethyltridecyl)-2,4,6,7-tetramethyl-2,3,-dihydrobenzofuran (HTDBF) has been synthesized for the first time in the 2R,4'R,8'R and 2S,4'R,8'R configurations and their /sup 13/C resonances have been assigned. In its all-racemic form this compound also shows up to four resonances from a single carbon. Related observations have been made with phytol and isophytol. A careful examination of these chirally induced chemical shift differences for the individual carbon atoms, ..delta.., reveals a bond-alternation effect with maxima at a separation of one, three, and five bonds from the closest chiral center and with the maximum at a five-bond separation being greater than that at a three-bond separation. 32 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Structure and dynamics of alpha-tocopherol in model membranes and in solution: a broad-line and high-resolution NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been applied to study the conformational dynamics of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in solution and in model membranes. In nonviscous solution, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that alpha-tocopherol is in rapid equilibrium between two or more puckered conformers of its heterocyclic ring. The most likely conformers to be so involved are the two half-chair forms. Deuterium NMR spectra of specifically deuteriated alpha-tocopherol in multilamellar dispersions of egg phosphatidylcholine, measured in the liquid-crystalline state, were characteristic of axially symmetric motional averaging. The orientation of the rotational axis within the molecular framework was determined. Studies on oriented multilamellar membranes revealed that this axis is perpendicular to the surface of the membrane. The profile of quadrupolar splittings along the hydrophobic tail does not have a plateau, in contrast to that of the fatty acyl chains of the membrane lipids. Longitudinal relaxation times (T1) were short. The presence of a minimum in their temperature dependence shows that molecular motion with an effective correlation time tau eff approximately equal to 3 X 10(-9)s is responsible for relaxation. However, the temperatures and absolute values of the minima depend on the position of the deuterium in the molecule, demonstrating that tau eff represents a complex blend of motions

  7. Study of the antioxidant effect of {alpha}-tocopherol on low-density lipoprotein peroxidation induced at low and high {gamma}-radiation dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Abdelouahed [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)]. E-mail: abdelouahed.khalil@usherbrooke.ca; Milochevitch, Christelle [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    It is well known that vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol, {alpha}-toc) is a very efficient lipid soluble antioxidant and several studies showed its beneficial action in the prevention and reduction of atherosclerosis. However, some in vitro studies suggest a prooxidant role of vitamin E, which could occur under given circumstances. This study was thus designed to investigate the antioxidant vs. prooxidant effect of vitamin E with regards to LDL peroxidation induced under different oxidative stress conditions. LDL was enriched with {alpha}-tocopherol and different {alpha}-toc/LDL ratios were studied (8.0{+-}2.5, 14.3{+-}3.0, 33.3{+-}3.7, 42.7{+-}3.5 and 48.2{+-}4.5 molecules of {alpha}-toc/LDL particle). Enriched and control LDL were oxidized by action of {sup {center_dot}}OH and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} free radicals produced by {gamma}-radiolysis at different dose rates. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was examined by the measure of conjugated diene and TBARS formation as well as LDL endogenous {alpha}-toc disappearance. Increasing LDL {alpha}-toc concentration reduced the LDL susceptibility to oxidation and their oxidizability. {alpha}-toc disappearance rates were comprised between 43 and 8.3x10{sup -10} M s{sup -1} and decreased with the radiation dose rate. Our results support an antioxidant role for {alpha}-tocopherol at high and low oxidative stress conditions.

  8. Structure and dynamics of alpha-tocopherol in model membranes and in solution: a broad-line and high-resolution NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekiel, I.H.; Hughes, L.; Burton, G.W.; Jovall, P.A.; Ingold, K.U.; Smith, I.C.

    1988-03-08

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been applied to study the conformational dynamics of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in solution and in model membranes. In nonviscous solution, /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that alpha-tocopherol is in rapid equilibrium between two or more puckered conformers of its heterocyclic ring. The most likely conformers to be so involved are the two half-chair forms. Deuterium NMR spectra of specifically deuteriated alpha-tocopherol in multilamellar dispersions of egg phosphatidylcholine, measured in the liquid-crystalline state, were characteristic of axially symmetric motional averaging. The orientation of the rotational axis within the molecular framework was determined. Studies on oriented multilamellar membranes revealed that this axis is perpendicular to the surface of the membrane. The profile of quadrupolar splittings along the hydrophobic tail does not have a plateau, in contrast to that of the fatty acyl chains of the membrane lipids. Longitudinal relaxation times (T1) were short. The presence of a minimum in their temperature dependence shows that molecular motion with an effective correlation time tau eff approximately equal to 3 X 10(-9)s is responsible for relaxation. However, the temperatures and absolute values of the minima depend on the position of the deuterium in the molecule, demonstrating that tau eff represents a complex blend of motions.

  9. Effect of high dose alpha-tocopherol acetate on the toxicity and tissue distribution of adriamycin (doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alpha-tocopherol acetate (VE on the toxicity and tissue distribution of adriamycin (ADM in mice was studied. After the administration of ADM in 2 doses of 15 mg/kg, mice pretreated with olive oil survived 7.1 +/- 1.0 days, while mice pretreated with VE in ten doses of 500 mg/kg/day (subcutaneously survived 5.5 +/- 1.7 days (p less than 0.01. The total concentration of ADM and its major metabolite, aglycone I in the liver (1, 3, 5 h, kidneys (1, 3 h, and heart (3 h, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography was significantly higher in the VE-pretreated group (four doses of 500 mg/kg/day than in the olive oil-pretreated group. The aglycone levels of the VE-pretreated group were significantly higher than those of the olive oil-pretreated group in the liver, kidney and heart, but there was no significant difference between the groups in the levels of the unmetabolized form. Considering these results, the administration of VE concomitant with anti-tumor drugs, including ADM, requires great caution.

  10. A novel eye drop of alpha tocopherol to prevent ocular oxidant damage: improve the stability and ocular efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jiayu; Tang, Jingling; Bu, Meng; Sun, Yanhui; Wang, Xinyu; Wu, Linhua; Liu, Hongzhuo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design novel mixed micelles as an ophthalmic delivery system for alpha-tocopherol (TOC) to prevent its degradation and improve ocular efficacy. The nonionic polymers, Polyoxyl 15 Hydroxystearate (Solutol® HS15) and Pluronic® F127, were discovered to be the most effective agents for retaining the activity and solubilization of TOC, respectively. Prepared by a thin-film hydration method, HS15/Pluronic® F127 yielded good encapsulation percentages of TOC, with a 27.7% drug loading efficiency. Incorporation of cetalkonium chloride (CKC) into HS15/Pluronic® F127 mixed micelles made the zeta potential of the micelles +17 mV, potentially prolonging the residence time of formulations on ocular surfaces. The optimized micelle preparation remained stable when diluted in a synthetic tear solution. It is known that the antioxidant ability of TOC in typical formulations reduces to around 85% of its initial value after 1 month when stored at 4 or 25 °C under an air atmosphere, which limits ophthalmic applications to less than 1 month. However, encapsulated TOC in investigated micelles remained stable for at least 6 months when sealed with N2. Finally, the cationic micelles were well tolerated after multiple administrations in rabbits, and they improved ocular accumulation of TOC. Taken together, these data suggest that the optimized micelle preparations described in this study may be suitable drug carriers for the treatment of ocular oxidant damage. PMID:26340610

  11. Microencapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins with different fatty acid composition: Kinetic stability of astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andrés; Masson, Lilia; Velasco, Joaquín; del Valle, José Manuel; Robert, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a natural source of astaxanthin (AX). However, AX loses its natural protection when extracted from this microalga. In this study, a supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of H. pluvialis was obtained and added to oils with different fatty acid compositions (sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO)). The oleoresins of H. pluvialis ((SO+SFE) and (HOSO+SFE)) were encapsulated with Capsul by spray drying. The stability of the oleoresins and powders were studied at 40, 50 and 70° C. AX and alpha-tocopherol (AT) degradation followed a zero-order and first-order kinetic model, respectively, for all systems. The encapsulation of oleoresins improved the stability of AX and AT to a greater extent in oleoresins with a monounsaturated fatty acid profile, as shown by the significantly lowest degradation rate constants and longest half-lives. Therefore, the encapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins is an alternative to developing a functional ingredient for healthy food design. PMID:26213069

  12. Contrasting effects of UV-A and UV-B on photosynthesis and photoprotection of beta-carotene in two Dunaliella spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses following exposure to either ultraviolet-A or ultraviolet-B were contrasted in two species of the unicellular green alga, Dunaliella. Species selection was based on the ability of Dunaliella bardawil (UTEX 2538) to accumulate inter thylakoid (beta-carotene when subjected to environmental stress while Dunaliella salina (UTEX 200) lacks this ability. Cells were cultured in high and low levels of visible light (150 and 35 micro mol photons m sup2 s sup = -1, respectively) and then either ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm) or ultraviolet-B (290- 320 nm) was added to visible light for 24-h exposure. A potassium chromate solution was found to be an ideal screen for removal of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-C from ultraviolet-B radiation. There were no significant changes in photosynthetic or antioxidant parameters following exposure to ultraviolet-B. Ultraviolet-A exposure significantly decreased photosynthetic parameters (>70% decrease in Fv/Fm and the ratio of light-limited to light-saturated photosynthesis in low beta-carotene cells) and resulted in 50% increases in ascorbate peroxidase activity and ascorbate concentrations. The results suggest exposure to ultraviolet-A (but not ultraviolet-B) directly affects photosynthesis, observed as a loss of photosystem II electron transport efficiency and increased radical formation. This research indicates that the accumulated beta-carotene in D. bardawil prevents UV-related photosynthetic damage through blue-light/ ultraviolet-A absorption (supported by trends observed for antioxidant enzyme responses)

  13. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  14. Effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol on leukocyte expression of HSP72 in response to exhaustive treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, A M; Fehrenbach, E; Schlotz, E; Sommer, M; Angres, C; Tschositsch, K; Battenfeld, N; Golly, I C; Biesalski, H K; Northoff, H; Dickhuth, H H

    2002-08-01

    Previous research revealed an increased expression of HSP72 in leukocytes after vigorous endurance exercise. We questioned whether more intensive but shorter exercise also induces leukocyte HSP72 synthesis. To delineate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in exercise-related HSP72 induction, we additionally examined the effect of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toc) on HSP72 expression using a double-blind placebo (P) controlled cross-over design. After supplementation with alpha-toc (500 I.U. daily) or P for 8 days, 9 male subjects performed a combined exhaustive treadmill protocol (total duration 29.4 +/- 2.0 min). HSP72 was assessed on mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein levels (flow cytometry). HSP72 mRNA rose 3 h after exercise only in the P group, but individual differences (alpha-toc - P) did not reveal significant treatment effects. A moderate but significant rise of HSP72 protein occurred in granulocytes up to 48 h after exercise. Three hours post-exercise, granulocyte HSP72 protein was lower when subjects received alpha-toc, but this effect vanished 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Exhaustive treadmill exercise augments HSP72 mRNA in leukocytes and induced a moderate but prolonged response of granulocyte HSP72 protein. These exercise effects are lower when compared to earlier findings obtained after vigorous endurance exercise. ROS seem to be involved, but do not play the major role in the induction of granulocyte HSP72 synthesis after exhaustive exercise. PMID:12215965

  15. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjilal NB; Doloi Manika; Vijayan V; Kulkarni Indira; Mukherjee Sutapa; Chattopadhyay Mitali; Chatterjee Malay

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight) of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA) induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum) in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight) were performed four ...

  16. Evaluation and comparison of bond strength to 10% carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Asha; Vivekananda, Pai AR; Thomas, Manuel S

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare composite bond strength to carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty premolars were divided into six groups. Groups I and VI served as unbleached and bleached controls respectively. Groups II, III, IV and V served as the experimental groups and were subjected to 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching followed by 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 10% and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions, respectively. Following composite bonding, shear bond strength was determined and the results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey highest significant difference test. Results: Only Group IV showed significantly lower bond strength when compared to Group I (unbleached control). When compared to Group VI (bleached control), except Group IV, groups II, III and V showed significantly higher bond strength. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups corresponding to 10% and 25% and similar concentrations of sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions. Conclusion: Following 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching, except 10% alpha tocopherol, 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions significantly improves the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel. PMID:23716960

  17. Evaluation and comparison of bond strength to 10% carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Thapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare composite bond strength to carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions. Materials and Methods: Sixty premolars were divided into six groups. Groups I and VI served as unbleached and bleached controls respectively. Groups II, III, IV and V served as the experimental groups and were subjected to 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching followed by 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 10% and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions, respectively. Following composite bonding, shear bond strength was determined and the results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey highest significant difference test. Results: Only Group IV showed significantly lower bond strength when compared to Group I (unbleached control. When compared to Group VI (bleached control, except Group IV, groups II, III and V showed significantly higher bond strength. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups corresponding to 10% and 25% and similar concentrations of sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions. Conclusion: Following 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching, except 10% alpha tocopherol, 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions significantly improves the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of curcumin and alpha-tocopherol against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background cis-Diammineplatinum (II) dichloride (cisplatin) is the important anti-cancer agent useful in treatment of various cancers. Unfortunately, it can produce unwanted side effects in various tissues, including the liver. The present study investigated the possible protective role of curcumin and α-tocopherol against oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity in rats upon cisplatin treatment. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 5). Saline and Cis groups, rats were intraperitoneal (i.p.) injected with normal saline and cisplatin [20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)], respectively. Cis + α-tocopherol group, Cis + Cur group and Cis + α-tocopherol + Cur group, rats were pre-treated with a single dose of α-tocopherol (250 mg/kg b.w.), curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w.) and combined α-tocopherol with curcumin, respectively, for 24 h prior the administration of cisplatin. After 72 h of first injection, specimens were collected. Liver enzyme, lipid peroxidation biomarker, liver histopathology and gene expression of liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase were investigated. Results Cisplatin revealed a significant increase of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a significant reduction of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities compared to the saline group. It elicited a marked increase of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and demonstrated the liver pathologies including liver congestion, disorganization of hepatic cords and ground glass appearance of hepatocytes. It also demonstrated a significant increase of NADPH oxidase gene expression compared to saline group. Pre-treatment with combined curcumin and α-tocopherol improved the liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation biomarker, liver histopathology and gene expression of liver NADPH oxidase in cisplatin-treated rats. Conclusions The findings indicate that pre-treatment with combined curcumin

  19. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    BIANCHINI Rute; Marilene de Vuono Camargo PENTEADO

    1999-01-01

    Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1) e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de ...

  20. Genome-wide association study of circulating retinol levels

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Yu, Kai; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Hong; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Major, Jacqueline M.; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Männistö, Satu; Hazra, Aditi; Hsing, Ann W.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Eliassen, Heather; Tanaka, Toshiko; Reding, Douglas J.; Hendrickson, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Retinol is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin A and is hypothesized to influence a wide range of human diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases and cancer. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 5006 Caucasian individuals drawn from two cohorts of men: the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We identified two independent single-nucl...

  1. Copper-catalyzed oxidation of a structured lipid-based emulsion containing alpha-tocopherol and citric acid: influence of pH and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn-Barnes, Hannah T; Akoh, Casimir C

    2003-11-01

    The effects of salt and pH on copper-catalyzed lipid oxidation in structured lipid-based emulsions were evaluated. Ten percent oil-in-water emulsions were formulated with a canola oil/caprylic acid structured lipid and stabilized with 0.5% whey protein isolate. alpha-Tocopherol and citric acid were added to the emulsions to determine how changes in pH or the addition of NaCl affected their antioxidant activity. The peroxide values and anisidine values of emulsions stored at 50 degrees C were measured over an 8-day period. Increased lipid oxidation occurred in the pH 7.0 emulsions and when 0.5 M NaCl was added to the pH 3.0 samples. Adding alpha-tocopherol, citric acid, or a combination of the two compounds slowed the formation of hydroperoxides and their subsequent decomposition products in pH 3.0 emulsions. PMID:14582985

  2. Toxic effects of methamidophos on paraoxonase 1 activity and on rat kidney and liver and ameliorating effects of alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoud, Manel; Neffeti, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Khaled, Lamia; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Kenani, Abderraouf; Houas, Zohra

    2016-07-01

    The role of alpha-tocopherol on nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by methamidophos (MT) was investigated in wistar rats. Animals were given via gavage, for four weeks, a low dose of MT (MT1), a high dose of MT (MT2), vitamin E (200 mg/kg of bw) or both MT2 plus vitamin E (Vit E) and control group was given distillate water. MT treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the body weight of MT2-treated group. Moreover, MT-treated groups had significantly lower butyrylcholinesterase (p control group (p levels (p control group. However, significant low uric acid level (p < 0.05) was noted in MT2 plus vit E-treated rats compared with MT2-treated group. Histopathological changes in organ tissues were observed in both MT-treated groups and MT2 plus vit E-treated rats. However, the damage was reduced in MT2 plus vit E-treated rats. Therefore, this study deduces that alpha-tocopherol administration may ameliorate the adverse effects of subacute exposure to MT on rat liver and kidney and this antioxidant can protect PON1 from oxidative stress induced by this organophosphorus pesticide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 842-854, 2016. PMID:25535039

  3. Streamlining IRB review in multisite trials through single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements: experience of the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornquist, Mark D; Edelstein, Cim; Goodman, Gary E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2002-02-01

    With their extensive data and specimen repositories, clinical trials are a long-term, valuable resource to health researchers. However, assuring protection of participants' rights can be challenging, particularly when such trials are conducted at multiple sites with multiple Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). One little-used mechanism that can streamline IRB review in multisite trials while maintaining participants' protections is the single-study IRB Cooperative Agreement. This agreement is entirely different from reciprocity agreements between institutions. Beginning in 1996, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial established single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements among its performance sites, which reduced the average time to complete IRB approval from over 6 months to 1 month for each of many substudies. We describe our experience and make recommendations for other multisite clinical trials. PMID:11852169

  4. Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} state in all-trans-{beta}-carotene explored by one- and two-photon pump-probe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosumi, Daisuke, E-mail: kosumi@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Abe, Kenta; Karasawa, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masazumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Center, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Hideki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yoshizawa, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2010-07-19

    Femtosecond one- and two-photon pump-probe dispersive spectroscopic measurements have been applied to the investigation of the vibrational relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} (2{sup 1}A{sub g}{sup -}) state in {beta}-carotene, combining a higher sensitive detection system with tunable visible and infrared excitation pulses. The two-photon excitation measurements enable the preferential detection of the dark S{sub 1} state. The tunable infrared excitation pulses allowed selective excitation to a different vibrational level of S{sub 1}. The S{sub 1} dynamics at early delay times depend strongly on excitation energy. A dependence of the initial S{sub 1} dynamics on excitation energy is discussed in term of the vibrational relaxation of S{sub 1}.

  5. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Alpha-Tocopherol and Allopurinol on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Erkut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ischemia reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle, following an acute arterial occlusion is important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine and evaluate the effects of ascorbic acide, alpha-tocopherol and allopurinol on ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle.Methods: Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits, all male, weighing between 2.5 to 3.0 (mean 2.8 kg, were used in the study. They were separated into four groups. Group I was the control group without any drugs. The other groups were treatment groups (groups II, III, and IV. Group II rabbits administrated 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide and 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia, group III rabbits received 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia, and group IV rabbits were administrated both 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide, 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia and 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia. Two hours ischemia and 2 hours reperfusion were underwent to the treatment groups. At the end of the reperfusion periods, muscle samples were taken from rectus femoris muscle for determination of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase levels as source hydroxyl radical. Besides, histopathological changes (edema, inflammation, ring formation and splitting formation were evaluated in the muscle specimens. Results: In the treatment groups; superoxide dismutase (U/mgprotein, catalase (U/mgprotein, and glutathione peroxidise (U/mgprotein levels increased, malondialdehyde (nmol/mgprotein and xanthine oksidase (mU/mgprotein levels decreased compared to control I (p < 0.05. Increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were the highest and decrease of malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase levels were the highest in group IV compared to groups II and III

  6. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  7. Modification of the Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on the Mortality of Male Smokers by Age and Dietary Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Hemilä, Harri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study (1985–1993) recruited 29,133 Finnish male cigarette smokers, finding that vitamin E supplementation had no overall effect on mortality. The authors of this paper found that the effect of vitamin E on respiratory infections in ATBC Study participants was modified by age, smoking, and dietary vitamin C intake; therefore, they examined whether the effect of vitamin E supplementation on mortality is modified by the same variables....

  8. Influence of preliminary chronic irradiation and treatment with. cap alpha. -tocopherol on the frequency of chromosome aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells induced by acute. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, A.A.; Akhundov, V.Yu.; Alekperov, U.K.; Gamzaeva, I.A.; Asadova, A.I.; Shekhtman, A.B.; Gabaj, N.S. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Botaniki)

    The incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of femur did not exceed the spontaneous one in CBA mice exposed, during 70 days, to ..gamma..-radiation at dose-rates of 33.7-35.8 nA/kg and cumulative dose of 2.75 Gy. A single acute exposure of intact animals to a dose of 2.98 Gy increased significantly the mutation level. Preirradiation with small doses increased the resistance of hereditary structures to sublethal radiation doses. Exogenous ..cap alpha..-tocopherol (0.06 mg/20 g mass) protected the genetic apparatus of cells from total-body irradiation and was an additional factor decreasing the mutaton level after acute exposure of mice at the background of long-term irradiation with small doses.

  9. LINE1 methylation levels associated with increased bladder cancer risk in pre-diagnostic blood DNA among US (PLCO) and European (ATBC) cohort study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Karami, Sara; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hurwitz, Lauren; Liao, Linda M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Silverman, Debra T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E

    2014-03-01

    Global methylation in blood DNA has been associated with bladder cancer risk in case-control studies, but has not been examined prospectively. We examined the association between LINE1 total percent 5-methylcytosine and bladder cancer risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (299 cases/676 controls), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) cohort of Finnish male smokers (391 cases/778 controls). Logistic regression adjusted for age at blood draw, study center, pack-years of smoking, and sex was used to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using study- and sex-specific methylation quartiles. In PLCO, higher, although non-significant, bladder cancer risks were observed for participants in the highest three quartiles (Q2-Q4) compared with the lowest quartile (Q1) (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.96 -1.92). The association was stronger in males (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.00-2.20) and statistically significant among male smokers (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.95). No association was found among females or female smokers. Findings for male smokers were validated in ATBC (Q2-Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.62-3.30) and a highly significant trend was observed (P = 8.7 × 10(-7)). After determining that study data could be combined, pooled analysis of PLCO and ATBC male smokers (580 cases/1119 controls), ORs were significantly higher in Q2-Q4 compared with Q1 (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.52-2.72), and a trend across quartiles was observed (P = 0.0001). These findings suggest that higher global methylation levels prior to diagnosis may increase bladder cancer risk, particularly among male smokers. PMID:24316677

  10. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  11. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  12. Convenient solvatochromic probes for the determination of solvent properties: {beta}-carotene and 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoud, Omar A. El; Pires, Paulo A.R.; Loffredo, Carina; Imran, Muhammad; Pulcini, Paolo D.; Correa, Michelle F.; Mustafa, Rizwana, E-mail: elseoud@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-15

    Solvent dipolarity/polarizability (SDP) has been previously calculated from the UV-Vis spectra of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-7-nitro-9H-fluorene and 2-fluoro-7-nitro-9H- fluorene. Based on theoretical calculations (23 solvents) and experimental data (56 solvents), it is shown that 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene (commercially available) can be conveniently employed for the calculation of this property, instead of its 2-fluoro-7-nitro counterpart. The splitting of SDP into its components (solvent dipolarity (SD) and polarizability (SP)) requires the use of a synthetic polyene compound whose synthesis is laborious, involving 15 steps. Our research group has recently shown that the natural dye {beta}-carotene can be conveniently employed for the determination of SP, allowing the calculation of SD. Using these solvatochromic probes, SDP, SP and SD for a series of 1-bromo alkanes were calculated. For several homologous series, the dependence of solvent SDP (SD and SP for one series) on the number of carbon atoms in the 1-alkyl- or acyl-group was calculated and discussed. (author)

  13. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and...... large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation with...... vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects are...

  14. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  15. The influence of magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate in comparison with probucol, alpha-tocopherol and trolox on copper-induced oxidation of human low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögl, C; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1994-06-15

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the presence of magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate (MPPG), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP), alpha-tocopherol, probucol or trolox is more resistant against copper-induced oxidation as control-LDL in vitro. The efficiency of the drugs is: probucol > MPPG > trolox > alpha-tocopherol > PP. LDL oxidation is determined by its increasing negative surface charge, fragmentation of apolipoprotein B-100 and changes of the fatty acid content of LDL. The protection of the drugs depends on their concentration and incubation time. Different experiments point to the fact that copper-induced oxidation of LDL in vitro starts with the binding of copper at the apolipoprotein B-100, resulting in an increasing negative surface charge and fragmentation of the apolipoprotein B-100. Afterwards a decrease of LDL-bound linoleic acid (18:2) is measurable. PMID:8031313

  16. Randomised β-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I-M; Cook, N R; Manson, J E; Buring, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of 513 women with cancer; 130 with cardiovascular disease and equal numbers of controls, we found no effect of randomised beta-carotene on risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease within any quartile of baseline plasma beta-carotene, nor was there a trend across quartiles (P for trend 0.15 and 0.62, respectively). British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 698–701. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600147 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

  17. Improved aqueous solubility of crystalline astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) by Captisol (sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Samuel F; O'Malley, Sean; Mosher, Gerold L

    2003-04-01

    Carotenoids are the most widely distributed natural pigments, with over 600 individual compounds identified and characterized from natural sources. A few are commercially important molecules, having found utility as additions to animal feed in the aquaculture, poultry, and swine feed industries. The majority are lipophilic molecules with near zero inherent aqueous solubility. Many different methods have been developed to make the carotenoids "water dispersible," as true water solubility has not been described. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a commercially important oxygenated carotenoid that has gained wide acceptance as a feed additive in the $50 billion salmon and trout aquaculture industry. Recently, interest in the human health applications of astaxanthin has increased, with astaxanthin receiving approval as a dietary supplement in several countries, including the United States. Moving astaxanthin into a pharmaceutical application will require a chemical delivery system that overcomes the problems with parenteral administration of a highly lipophilic, low molecular weight compound. In the current study, the ability of sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (sodium), as the Captisol(R) brand, to increase the aqueous water solubility of crystalline astaxanthin was evaluated. Complexation of crystalline astaxanthin with Captisol increased the apparent water solubility of crystalline astaxanthin approximately 71-fold, to a concentration in the 2 microg/mL range. It is unlikely that this increase in solubility will result in a pharmaceutically acceptable chemical delivery system for humans. However, the increased aqueous solubility of crystalline astaxanthin to the range achieved in the current study will likely find utility in the introduction of crystalline astaxanthin into mammalian cell culture systems that have previously been dependent upon liposomes, or toxic organic solvents, for the introduction of carotenoids into aqueous

  18. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option. PMID:16488912

  19. Protective Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol Isomer from Vitamin E against the H2O2 Induced Toxicity on Dental Pulp Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Silveira Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of different concentrations of vitamin E alpha-tocopherol (α-T isomer against the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on dental pulp cells. The cells (MDPC-23 were seeded in 96-well plates for 72 hours, followed by treatment with 1, 3, 5, or 10 mM α-T for 60 minutes. They were then exposed or not to H2O2 for 30 minutes. In positive and negative control groups, the cells were exposed to culture medium with or without H2O2 (0.018%, respectively. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests; α=5%. Significant reduction of cell viability (58.5% was observed in positive control compared with the negative control. Cells pretreated with α-T at 1, 3, 5, and 10 mM concentrations and exposed to H2O2 had their viability decreased by 43%, 32%, 25%, and 27.5%, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those observed in the positive control, thereby showing a protective effect of α-T against the H2O2 toxicity. Overall, the vitamin E α-T isomer protected the immortalized MDPC-23 pulp cells against the toxic effects of H2O2. The most effective cell protection was provided by 5 and 10 mM concentrations of α-T.

  20. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling (Tor tambra fingerlings fed a formulated diet with different doses of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlisin Zainal A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol in the diet of keureling, Tor tambra (Val. fingerlings for optimal growth performance and feed utilization. Five doses of vitamin E were tested: 0 mg kg−1 feed (control; 150 mg kg−1 feed; 300 mg kg−1 feed; 450 mg kg−1 feed; 600 mg kg−1. The feed ratio was 5% body weight, which was delivered twice daily at 08:00 and 17:00 for 60 days. The results showed that higher growth performance, feeding conversion ratios, feed efficiency, protein retention, and protein digestibility were obtained at 600 mg kg−1 feed, but the value was not significantly different from the other doses. The optimal dose in terms of the hepatosomatic index and survival rate was 300 mg kg−1. Hence, it was concluded that the optimum, most economical dose of vitamin E supplement for keureling (T. tambra was 150 mg kg−1 feed, because this value was not significantly different from the doses of 300 and 600 mg kg−1 feed.

  1. Protective Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol Isomer from Vitamin E against the H2O2 Induced Toxicity on Dental Pulp Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Fernanda da Silveira; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Hebling, Josimeri; De Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of different concentrations of vitamin E alpha-tocopherol (α-T) isomer against the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on dental pulp cells. The cells (MDPC-23) were seeded in 96-well plates for 72 hours, followed by treatment with 1, 3, 5, or 10 mM α-T for 60 minutes. They were then exposed or not to H2O2 for 30 minutes. In positive and negative control groups, the cells were exposed to culture medium with or without H2O2 (0.018%), respectively. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests; α = 5%). Significant reduction of cell viability (58.5%) was observed in positive control compared with the negative control. Cells pretreated with α-T at 1, 3, 5, and 10 mM concentrations and exposed to H2O2 had their viability decreased by 43%, 32%, 25%, and 27.5%, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those observed in the positive control, thereby showing a protective effect of α-T against the H2O2 toxicity. Overall, the vitamin E α-T isomer protected the immortalized MDPC-23 pulp cells against the toxic effects of H2O2. The most effective cell protection was provided by 5 and 10 mM concentrations of α-T. PMID:24587995

  2. Folate, vitamin B12, alpha-tocopherol and selected liver components in periparturient dairy goats supplemented with choline and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dell'Orto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rumen-protected choline and vitamin E administration on status of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin E and selected liver components was studied on 4 groups of 12 periparturient dairy goats: control, CTR; choline supplemented, RPC; vitamin E, VITE; choline and vitamin E, RPCE. Plasma folate did not differ between groups, except at parturition when RPC and RPCE goats had higher folate levels than CTR and VITE animals. Neither RPC nor vitamin E affected vitamin B12 plasma concentrations, while a time effect was observed after the third week of lactation, when B12 levels in each group started to increase. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation was associated with increased plasma a-tocopherol in the VITE and RPCE compared to the CRT and RPC groups, while RPC supplementation did not affect a-tocopherol levels in both RPC and RPCE groups compared to CTR and VITE ones. In control and RPC goats liver total lipid did not differ, while DNA contents and their ratio, were respectively higher and lower in RPC supplemented animals. Overall these results suggest that greater choline availability seems to be essential for optimising metabolic health and methyl group status, in dairy ruminants.

  3. Alpha-tocopherol quinine ameliorates spatial memory deficits by reducing beta-amyloid oligomers, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Wei; Yang, Shi-Gao; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yang-Xin; Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Teng; Ling, Tie-Jun; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    The pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with soluble beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Decreasing the levels of Aβ oligomer, glial activation and oxidative stress are potential therapeutic approaches for AD treatment. We previously found alpha-tocopherol quinine (α-TQ) inhibited Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity, decreased the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. However, whether α-TQ ameliorates memory deficits and other neuropathologies in mice or patients with AD remains unknown. In this study, we reported that orally administered α-TQ ameliorated memory impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, decreased oxidative stress and the levels of Aβ oligomer in the brains of mice, prevented the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, and inhibited microglial activation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggest that α-TQ has potential therapeutic value for AD treatment. PMID:26358659

  4. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  5. Effect of. cap alpha. -tocopherol, butylated-hydroxytoluene and hydroxy-anisole on the activation and binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ to macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ih, J.J.; Biedrzycka, D.; Devlin, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidants, ..cap alpha..-tocopherol(TPA), butylated-hydroxy-toluene(BHT) and hydroxyanisole(BHA) inhibit the carcinogenic and toxic effects of a variety of chemical compounds, their effect on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) activation and binding was examined utilizing rat liver microsomes and cells. With a NADPH generating system, oxygen, microsomes, (/sup 3/H)-AFB/sub 1/, 2.2 pmoles/h/mg protein was activated and bound to macromolecules. In hepatocytes, 3.4 and 1.4 pmoles of AFB/sub 1/ per 10/sup 6/ cells were taken up and bound to macromolecules, whereas the nucleic acid fraction contained 0.19 pmoles of bound AFB/sub 1/. Moderate decreases of AFB/sub 1/ activation and binding were observed when TPA was present in both cell-free and hepatocytes systems. Only in hepatocytes, BHT inhibited the AFB/sub 1/ uptake and binding to nucleic acids. BHA, however, inhibited microsomal activation of AFB/sub 1/ by 73%; maximum inhibition was reached at 1 mM. AFB/sub 1/ uptake, and binding to nucleic acids were inhibited by 65% and 79% by BHA. GSH-transferase activity of cells treated with these agents was not altered. The effect of BHA at various concentrations on AFB activation was compared with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors; the ED/sub 50/ of SKF 525A, BHA and metyrapone was 9 uM, 80 uM and 380 uM respectively. The data suggest that TPA, BHA and BHT exert their effect by different mechanisms.

  6. In Vivo Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide and Antioxidants (Ascorbic Acid and Alpha-Tocopherol) on Apoptotic, Cytotoxic, and Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Hernández-Cortés, Lourdes Montserrat; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), ascorbic acid (AA), and alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH) on apoptotic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Groups of five Hsd:ICR mice were treated with the following: (a) vehicle, distilled water; (b) vehicle, corn oil; (c) AA, 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip); (d) α-TOH, 20 mg/kg by gavage; (e) V2O5, 40 mg/kg by ip injection; (f) AA + V2O5; and (g) α-TOH + V2O5. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) obtained from the caudal vein at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatments. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed at 48 h after treatment in nucleated cells of peripheral blood. Treatment with AA alone reduced basal MN-PCE, while V2O5 treatment marginally increased MN-PCE at all times after injection. Antioxidants treatments prior to V2O5 administration decreased MN-PCE compared to the V2O5 group, with the most significant effect in the AA + V2O5 group. The apoptotic cells increased with all treatments, suggesting that this process may contribute to the elimination of the cells with V2O5-induced DNA damage (MN-PCE). The necrotic cells only increased in the V2O5 group. Therefore, antioxidants such as AA and α-TOH can be used effectively to protect or reduce the genotoxic effects induced by vanadium compounds like V2O5. PMID:27413422

  7. Pedigree Analysis and Exclusion of Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein (TTPA) as a Candidate Gene for Neuroaxonal Dystrophy in the American Quarter Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finno, C.J.; Famula, T.; Aleman, M.; Higgins, R.J.; Madigan, J.E.; Bannasch, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting young horses of various breeds that resembles ataxia with vitamin E deficiency in humans, an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA). To evaluate variants found upon sequencing TTPA in the horse, the mode of inheritance for NAD/EDM had to be established. Hypothesis NAD/EDM in the American Quarter Horse (QH) is caused by a mutation in TTPA. Animals 88 clinically phenotyped (35 affected [ataxia score ≥2], 53 unaffected) QHs with a diagnosis of NAD/EDM with 6 affected and 4 unaffected cases confirmed at postmortem examination. Procedures Pedigrees and genotypes across 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were assessed to determine heritability and mode of inheritance of NAD/EDM. TTPA sequence of exon/intron boundaries was evaluated in 2 affected and 2 control horses. An association analysis was performed by 71 SNPs surrounding TTPA and 8 SNPs within TTPA that were discovered by sequencing. RT-PCR for TTPA was performed on mRNA from the liver of 4 affected and 4 control horses. Results Equine NAD/EDM appears to be inherited as a polygenic trait and, within this family of QHs, demonstrates high heritability. Sequencing of TTPA identified 12 variants. No significant association was found using the 79 available variants in and surrounding TTPA. RT-PCR yielded PCR products of equivalent sizes between affected cases and controls. Conclusions and Clinical Importance NAD/EDM demonstrates heritability in this family of QHs. Variants in TTPA are not responsible for NAD/EDM in this study population. PMID:23186252

  8. Concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de adolescentes e adultas Levels of alpha-tocopherol in maternal serum and colostrum of adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro materno de puérperas adolescentes e adultas e verificar a adequação nutricional de vitamina E do colostro oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 72 puérperas, sendo 25 adolescentes e 47 adultas. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro em condição de jejum para análise dos níveis de alfa-tocoferol. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A adequação nutricional do colostro para a vitamina E foi calculada pelo produto do volume estimado de ingestão de leite com a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro e por comparação direta desse produto com o valor de referência para ingestão do nutriente (4 mg/dia. RESULTADOS: os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro de puérperas adolescentes e adultas foram, respectivamente, 30,8±9,8 e 34,1±9,5 µmol/L (média±DP. No colostro, as adolescentes apresentaram concentração de alfa-tocoferol de 32,9±15,8 µmol/L e as adultas de 30,4 ± 18,0 µmol/L, não sendo encontrada diferença significativa entre as concentrações séricas, assim como no colostro dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Tanto as puérperas adolescentes quanto as adultas apresentaram um estado nutricional satisfatório de vitamina E refletido no colostro cujos valores foram capazes de suprir o requerimento nutricional do lactente, sugerindo que a idade materna não influencia os níveis de alfa-tocoferol do colostro humano.PURPOSE: to assess the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the serum and colostrum of adolescent and adult mothers and to determine the nutritional adequacy of vitamin E in the colostrum offered to infants. METHODS: in total, 72 pregnant women participated in the study, 25 adolescents and 47 adults. An amount of 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected under fasting conditions for the analysis of alpha-tocopherol levels. The samples were analyzed by means of high

  9. Binding and uptake of 125iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: comparison of the effects of alpha-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, D; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of 125iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called "scavenger receptor" is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG > PP > alpha-Toc > Prob. PMID:9090072

  10. Binding and uptake of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of {alpha}-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5`-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate-glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik; Schneider, W. [Steigerwald Arzneimittel, Darmstadt (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5`-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called `scavenger receptor` is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>{alpha}-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  11. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  12. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  13. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Muhammad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%, T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%/kg feed. After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14% and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04% accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat. Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products.

  14. Kinetics of ozonation. 4. Reactions of ozone with. cap alpha. -tocopherol and oleate and linoleate esters in carbon tetrachloride and in aqueous micellar solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giamalva, D.H.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A.

    1986-10-15

    Vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol; ..cap alpha..-T) is known to protect animals against the deleterious effects of ozone in polluted air; one such effect is the ozone-initiated autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that occur in membranes. In order to assess the possibility of a direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T competing with the very fast ozone-PUFA reaction, we have measured the rates of reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. I CCl/sub 4/ as solvent, ..cap alpha..-T reacts with ozone with a rate constant of about 5500 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/; methyl oleate and methyl linoleate react 2 orders of magnitude faster. In aqueous micellar solutions the rate constants for ..cap alpha..-T and the fatty acids are more similar. The k for the ozone/..cap alpha..-T reaction is about 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ at pH 7, but decreases as the solution becomes more acidic; the k's for oleic acid and linoleic acid are ca. 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ and exhibit no significant pH dependence. Since the ratio of fatty acids to ..cap alpha..-T in membranes is typically at least 100-1000 to 1, we conclude that the direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T is unlikely. Thus, the protection that vitamin E provides to animals breathing ozone-containing air must result from vitamin E acting as a free radical scavenger. We have also detected the ..cap alpha..-tocopheroxyl radical as an intermediate from the reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T both in CCl/sub 4/ and aqueous micelles using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The authors suggest that the observation of this intermediate is consistent with an initial electron transfer from ..cap alpha..-T to ozone.

  15. Atividade antioxidante do beta-caroteno e da vitamina A. Estudo comparativo com antioxidante sintético beta-carotene and vitamin A antioxidant activity. Comparative study with synthetic antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso PASSOTTO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade antioxidante da vitamina A na forma de acetato de retinol e de seu principal precursor, o beta-caroteno, adicionados a um sistema de óleo de soja previamente sensibilizado à oxidação. Os parâmetros utilizados como grau de atividade oxidativa foram: índice de peróxidos, teores de malonaldeído durante os intervalos de 24 a 72 horas, e perfil dos ácidos linoléico e linolênico após 144 horas de oxidação. Pelos resultados pode-se verificar que o retinol apresentou atividade antioxidante superior ao beta-caroteno. As determinações das atividades antioxidantes foram comparadas à do butilhidroxitolueno (BHT. A eficiência antioxidante da vitamina A e do beta-caroteno foram proporcionais às suas resistências à decomposição no sistema oxidativo. O acetato de retinol, a exemplo do BHT, mostrou uma rápida interação com os radicais ativos, pois já no início de sua adição ao óleo de soja, reduziu o nível da oxidação em relação ao respectivo controle.In soybean oil suceptible to oxidation the authors studied the antioxidant activity of the vitamin A as retinol acetate and the beta-carotene was studied. The oxidation index of the system was determined by peroxide and malonaldehyde values during the intervals from 24 to 72 hours and profile of the linoleic and linolenic acids after 144 hours of oxidation. It was observed that the retinol acetate had an antioxidant activity greater than beta-carotene. The antioxidant activity of retinol acetate and beta-carotene were compared to the butyl hidroxi toluene (BHT and was observed that the antioxidant efficiency was directly proportional to degradation resistance of them in the oxidative system. The retinol acetate, as such BHT, showed a fast interaction with actives radicals, in the beginning of the addition to the soybean oil, reducing the oxidation level when compared to the control.

  16. Effect of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and alpha-Tocopherol Administration on Endogenous Antioxidant Protection of Liver DNA and RNA and plasma Lipid Profile in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study wasundertaken to evaluate the combined antioxidative capacity of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 120 mg/100g b. wt) and alpha tocopherol (10mg/100g b. wt.) injected intra peritoneally one h before irradiation of male rats. Whole body gamma irradiation (2Gy) induced significant elevation in liver DNA and significant drop in liver protein content, while liver RNA showed no significant changes. Triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol elevated significantly after irradiation, whereas no significant changes were observed in total cholesterol, while HDL-cholesterol significantly decreased. Blood and liver glutathione were significantly decreased, whereas plasma MDA was significantly increased. NAC and alpha-tocopherol injection elevated RNA and blood glutathione levels compared to control and depressed total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, as well as MDA in the liver. The combined treatment prior to irradiation decreased DNA, elevated RNA and normalized liver protein content. Triglycerides were decreased after 1 and 3 days and total cholesterol dropped significantly on the 1st and 7th days. LDL was ameliorated while HDL was significantly declined then elevated after 7 days. Blood glutathione was normalized while liver glutathione was significantly elevated and MDA was reduced both in liver and plasma. This combined treatment has proven to be recommended to enhance the natural defenses against deleterious effects of oxidative stress

  17. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruth Archer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus.

  18. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C Ruth; Hempenstall, Sarah; Royle, Nick J; Selman, Colin; Willis, Sheridan; Rapkin, James; Blount, Jon D; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus. PMID:26783958

  19. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12 e normotensos (n=12 com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica diária, durante 14 dias para cada dose, intercaladas por um período de wash-out de 7 dias; os grupos controle receberam apenas o veículo (óleo de coco. Foram ainda submetidos à avaliação ectoscópica para possível detecção de efeitos tóxicos ou interação entre nutrientes, e à análise dos parâmetros biológicos; a pressão sistólica foi aferida por pletismografia duas vezes na semana, em dias alternados. Após o período de suplementação os animais foram sacrificados, e tiveram o peso do fígado determinado pelo método de Scherle. RESULTADOS: A administração de beta-caroteno não levou a alterações dos parâmetros biológicos dos animais, assim como não foi detectado efeito tóxico. Quanto à pressão arterial sistólica, as duas linhagens apresentaram redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate if supplementation with supraphysiological doses of beta-carotene has a positive effect on controlling hypertension and detect possible adverse effects of this supplementation. METHODS: 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=12 and normotensive rats (n=12 were submitted to a basal period of 10 days, then divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and supplemented daily by orogastric gavage with beta-carotene in 3 different doses: 2.5mg, 3.75mg and 5.0mg/animal during 14 days for each dose that was inserted by a seven day wash-out period; control groups received only coconut oil. Animals were submitted to ectoscopic evaluation to

  20. Physical Activity and the Risk of Pneumonia in Male Smokers Administered Vitamin E and β-Carotene

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that moderate exercise may enhance the immune system. We evaluated whether physical activity at work or at leisure is associated with the risk of pneumonia, and whether the antioxidants vitamin E and β-carotene affect pneumonia risk in physically active people. A cohort of 16 804 male smokers aged 50 – 69 years and working at study entry was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, which examined the effect of vitamin E, 50 mg/day,...

  1. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Thahir2); Asep Sopian; Tien R. Muchtadi 2)

    2005-01-01

    Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer) on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanchi...

  2. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  3. Total and individual antioxidant intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gifkins Dina; Olson Sara H; Paddock Lisa; King Melony; Demissie Kitaw; Lu Shou-En; Kong Ah-Ng; Rodriguez-Rodriguez Lorna; Bandera Elisa V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Limiting oxidative stress to the ovarian epithelium has been proposed as a first-line defense against ovarian cancer. Although evidence for an association between individual dietary antioxidant intake and ovarian cancer risk is conflicting, the combined evidence suggests a modest inverse association. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and individual antioxidant intakes (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, lutein,...

  4. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS AND THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: A DOSE-RESPONSE META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa V Bandera; Gifkins, Dina M.; Moore, Dirk F.; McCullough, Marjorie L; Lawrence H Kushi

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins may reduce cancer risk by limiting oxidative DNA damage. To summarize and quantify the current epidemiologic evidence of an association between antioxidant vitamin intake and endometrial cancer we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. One cohort and 12 case-control studies presenting relevant risk estimates were identified by conducting bibliographical searches through June 2008. Dose-response meta-analyses were conducted for beta-carotene, vitamin C...

  5. Alpha-tocopherol transfer factor (aTTF) from rat liver mediates the transfer of d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol from liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts and exhibits saturation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdon, C.P.; Blumberg, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    aTTF was observed to transfer d-alpha-(/sup 3/H)-tocopherol (/sup 3/HaT) from egg lecithin liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts (EG). aTTF may be associated with the 32,000-35,000 MW alpha-Tocopherol Binding Protein previously described to transfer /sup 3/HaT from liposomes to rat liver microsomes and mitochondria prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation of rat liver cytosol followed by dialysis against 50 mM TRIS-HCl/1 mM EDTA buffer, pH 7.4. Assay for aTTF activity consisted of incubating liposomal /sup 3/HaT and EG in the presence of aTTF or buffer blank for various time periods at 37/sup 0/C, then counting the resulting radioactivity in washed EG after pelleting by centrifugation. Liposomes were prelabeled-with non-exchangable glycerol-(/sup 14/C)-trioleate to correct for liposomes adhering to pelleted EG. Greater than 50% of the tritium found with the EG pellet was recovered by HPLC as /sup 3/HaT. aTTF activity increased with increasing liposomal /sup 3/HaT concentration before reaching a plateau. aTTF activity was similarly saturated by increasing EG concentrations. The same assay conditions with buffer blank along resulted in negligible transfer activity.

  6. Alpha-tocopherol transfer factor (aTTF) from rat liver mediates the transfer of d-alpha-[3H]-tocopherol from liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts and exhibits saturation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    aTTF was observed to transfer d-alpha-[3H]-tocopherol (3HaT) from egg lecithin liposomes to human erythrocyte ghosts (EG). aTTF may be associated with the 32,000-35,000 MW alpha-Tocopherol Binding Protein previously described to transfer 3HaT from liposomes to rat liver microsomes and mitochondria prepared by ammonium sulfate precipitation of rat liver cytosol followed by dialysis against 50 mM TRIS-HCl/1 mM EDTA buffer, pH 7.4. Assay for aTTF activity consisted of incubating liposomal 3HaT and EG in the presence of aTTF or buffer blank for various time periods at 370C, then counting the resulting radioactivity in washed EG after pelleting by centrifugation. Liposomes were prelabeled-with non-exchangable glycerol-[14C]-trioleate to correct for liposomes adhering to pelleted EG. Greater than 50% of the tritium found with the EG pellet was recovered by HPLC as 3HaT. aTTF activity increased with increasing liposomal 3HaT concentration before reaching a plateau. aTTF activity was similarly saturated by increasing EG concentrations. The same assay conditions with buffer blank along resulted in negligible transfer activity

  7. Analytical and microscopical studies on the protective effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and beta-carotene against the toxicityinduced by fenitrothion on the liver of female albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram F. Hashim and Kadry Weshahy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphate insecticide feneitrothion is a contact insecticide and selective acaricide. It is used as a fly, mosquito and cockroach, residual contact spray for farms and public health programs. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity of fenitrothion on the female rate and the possible protective effects of ascorbic acid (vitamine C and beta­carotene as antioxidant agents against the toxicity induced by fenitrothion. Sixty of adult female albino rats were randomly assigned to six equal groups including control group and groups treat­!"successive days. Ingestion of fenitrtothion caused a significant increase in ALT (alanine transferase, AST (aspartate transferase, and AP (alkaline phosphatase. It decreased signifiantly GL (glucose level, AchE (acetyle cholinesterase and GSH (glutathion reductase activities, while, it had insignificant effects on TB (total bilirubine and a slight decrease in TP (total protein. The histological study of female rat liver tissues by Hx & Eosin,P.A.S, and Methyl Green Pyronine revealed that, fenitrothion showed vascular and degenrative changes in the hepatic cells, Also, it caused a significant decrease in glycogen contents and depletion in of nucleic acids in hepatic cells. Treatments with ascorbic acid and beta­carotene plus fenitrothion hasn't been caused any significant changes in all parameters in serum of female rats. Treatment with ascorbic acid plus fenitrothion resulted a significant improvement in all parameters tested regarding to the histological study, while, beta-carotene plus fenitrothion showed the same improvement except in glycogen content in hepatic cells . Key Words : Fenitrothion ­ Toxicity ­ ALT ­ AST ­ GL ­ AChE ­ Rats ­ Histological ­ beta ­ carotene ­ Ascorbic acid .

  8. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e colostro de lactantes e associação com variáveis maternas Alpha-tocopherol level in serum and colostrum of breastfeeding women and association with maternal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diagnosticar bioquimicamente o estado nutricional de vitamina E de lactantes por meio da análise do alfa-tocoferol no soro e no colostro, verificar sua associação com variáveis maternas e determinar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina E nessas mulheres. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 103 puérperas que foram classificadas quanto às seguintes variáveis maternas: idade, estado nutricional pré-gestacional, ganho de peso gestacional, paridade e tipo de parto. Amostras de soro e colostro foram coletadas em jejum no pós-parto imediato e o alfa-tocoferol foi analisado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Para definir o estado nutricional de vitamina E, foi adotado ponto de corte sérico (697,7 μg/dL. A análise estatística foi realizada com o uso do teste t de Student para amostras independentes e correlação de Pearson. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando pPURPOSE: To determine the nutritional status of vitamin E in breastfeeding women through the analysis of alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum, to analyze its relation with maternal variables and to determine the prevalence of vitamin E deficiency in these women. METHODS: The study included 103 mothers who were classified according to maternal variables: age, nutritional status before pregnancy, gestational weight gain, parity and mode of delivery. Colostrum and serum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. Alpha-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A serum cutoff of 697.7 μg/dL was adopted to define the nutritional status of vitamin E. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t test for independent samples and Pearson's correlation. Differences were significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The average concentration of alpha-tocopherol was 1.125±551.0 μg/dL in colostrum and 1,138.6±346.0 μg/dL in serum, indicating adequate

  9. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  10. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  11. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents

  12. Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Mondul, Alison M.; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported a significant positive association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, and prostate cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the influence of vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary transporter of vitamin D compounds in the circulation. Prediagnostic serum concentrations of DBP were assayed for 950 cases and 964 matched controls with existing 25(OH)D measurements within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-C...

  13. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  14. An Investigation into Some Effective Factors on Encapsulation Efficiency of Alpha-Tocopherol in MLVs and the Release Profile from the Corresponding Liposomal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Hosseinali; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a natural antioxidant very useful for preventing the harmful effects of UV sun rays as skin aging and cancers. In this study, different MLV formulations were made using egg lecithin and varying molar ratios of α-tocopherol and/or cholesterol, and their encapsulation efficiencies were determined. The best liposomal product was incorporated into a carbomer 980 gel. The resulting preparation was then studied with regard to the rheology and release profile using r2 values and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The encapsulation efficiency was dramatically decreased when using α-tocopherol at molar ratios of 1:10 or more, which is suggested to be due to the defect in regular linear structure of the bilayer membrane. Addition of cholesterol to formulations caused a decrease in encapsulation efficiency directly related to its molar ratio, which is due to the condensation of the bilayer membrane as well as competition of cholesterol with α-tocopherol. The liposomal gel showed a yield value of 78.5 ± 1.8 Pa and a plastic viscosity of 27.35 ± 2.3 cp. The release showed a two-phase pattern with the zero-order model being the best fitted model for the first phase. However, the “n” and r2 values suggested a minor contribution of Higuchi model due to some diffusion of α-tocopherol from the outermost bilayers of the MLVs to the gel. The second phase showed a non-Fickian release indicating a more prominent role for diffusion. This combinational release profile provides a high initial concentration of α-tocopherol followed by a slow release throughout a 10 h period. PMID:24250668

  15. Dietary vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate) and selenium supplementation from different sources: performance, ascites-related variables and antioxidant status in broilers reared at low and optimum temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S; Malayoğlu, H Basmacioğlu; Yalçin, S; Karadas, F; Koçtürk, S; Cabuk, M; Oktay, G; Ozdemir, S; Ozdemir, E; Ergül, M

    2007-10-01

    1. This study compared the effect of dietary supplementation with organic or inorganic selenium (Se) sources plus control amounts or large amounts of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate) in broilers raised at control (20 to 24 degrees C) or low (14.5 to 16.8 degrees C) temperatures after 2 weeks of age. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from one day old. Diet 1, the control diet, comprised a commercial diet containing 0.15 mg/kg inorganic Se and 50 mg vitamin E/kg feed. Diet 2 was the same as diet 1, supplemented with 0.15 mg/kg inorganic Se. Diet 3 was the same as diet 2 but was supplemented with 200 mg/kg vitamin E. Diet 4 was the same as diet 1, but inorganic Se was replaced with 0.30 mg/kg organic Se. Diet 5 was the same as diet 4, supplemented with 200 mg/kg vitamin E. 3. Low temperature reduced the growth rate of broilers; however, at 6 weeks, there were no differences in the body weights of birds fed on organic Se supplemented diets housed at low or control temperature. The feed conversion ratio was significantly affected by low temperature but not by diet. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher in chicks after one week in the cold, indicating mild stress. Blood triiodothyronine levels were significantly higher in birds after 1 and 4 weeks in the cold but thyroxin was not affected. 4. Organic Se supplementation increased relative lung weight at the control temperature, which might lead to greater respiratory capacity. Relative spleen weight significantly decreased in broilers fed diets supplemented with inorganic Se under cold conditions, a possible indication of chronic oxidative stress. 5. At the low temperature, supplementation with organic Se alone, or with inorganic Se and vitamin E increased glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver of broilers, which may indicate increased activity of birds' antioxidant defence against suboptimal environments. PMID:17952730

  16. Biokinetics of dietary RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the male guinea pig at three dietary levels of vitamin C and two levels of vitamin E. Evidence that vitamin C does not spare vitamin E in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The net rates of uptake of new and loss of old 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol (RRR-alpha-TOH) have been measured in the blood and in nine tissues of male guinea pigs over an eight week period by feeding diets containing deuterium-labelled alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc). There was an initial two week lead-in period during which 24 animals [the high vitamin E (HE) group] received diets containing 36 mg of unlabelled (d0) RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg of ascorbic acid per kg diet, while another 24 animals [the low vitamin E (LE) group] received diets containing 5 mg d0-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg ascorbic acid per kg diet. The HE group was then divided into three equal subgroups, which were fed diets containing 36 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5000 mg [the high vitamin C (HEHC) subgroup], 250 mg [the normal vitamin C (HENC) subgroup] and 50 mg [the low vitamin C (HELC) subgroup] ascorbic acid per kg diet. One animal from each group was sacrificed each week and the blood and tissues were analyzed for d0- and d6-RRR-alpha-TOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The LE group was similarly divided into three equal subgroups with animals receiving diets containing 5 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5,000 mg (LEHC), 250 mg (LENC) and 50 mg (LELC) ascorbic acid per kg diet with a similar protocol being followed for sacrifice and analyses. In the HE group the total (d0(-) + d6-) RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations in blood and tissues remained essentially constant over the eight week experiment, whereas in the LE group the total RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations declined noticeably. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of old d0-RRR-alpha-TOH nor in the concentrations of new d6-RRR-alpha-TOH found in any tissue at a particular time between the HEHC, HENC and HELC subgroups, nor between the LEHC, LENC and LELC subgroups

  17. Biochemical parameters as biomarkers for the early recognition of environmental pollution on Scots pine trees. II. The antioxidative metabolites ascorbic acid, glutathione, {alpha}-tocopherol and the enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Haertling, S. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Halle (Germany). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Field investigations with Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) were performed in eastern Germany, where ambient SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} concentrations differed significantly in 1992-99 at three sites, namely Neuglobsow (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 9 {mu}g m{sup -3}), Taura (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 54 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and Roesa (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1992: 73 {mu}g m{sup -3}). To investigate the effects of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} on antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione, glutathione reductase, {alpha}-tocopherol) and pigments including chlorophyll fluorescence as well as visible damage symptoms in the form of needle yellowing and tip necroses, needles of the 1st and 2nd age class from young and mature trees were collected at the sites every October. Eight years after the start of the field study in 1992, the ambient SO{sub 2} concentrations had decreased significantly at Neuglobsow (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 4 {mu}g m{sup -3}), Taura (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 5 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and Roesa (yearly mean SO{sub 2} in 1999: 5 {mu}g m{sup -3}). NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} differed less at the three sites and showed no temporal variations. Whole needle glutathione continuously decreased, although concentrations were higher in needles of the 1st and 2nd age class from the polluted sites Taura and Roesa than the unpolluted site Neuglobsow. The activities of glutathione reductase exhibited the same site-related differences and temporal variations and were correlated with concentrations of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In contrast, the activities of the enzyme superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of whole needle ascorbic acid remained unchanged over the period. Only at the end of the investigation period did the concentrations of oxidized ascorbic acid (dehydroascorbate) increase in six-month-old needles at the polluted sites Taura and Roesa. Despite the clear decreases in SO{sub 2}, the visible symptoms

  18. Biokinetics of dietary RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the male guinea pig at three dietary levels of vitamin C and two levels of vitamin E. Evidence that vitamin C does not spare vitamin E in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G.W.; Wronska, U.; Stone, L.; Foster, D.O.; Ingold, K.U. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    The net rates of uptake of new and loss of old 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol (RRR-alpha-TOH) have been measured in the blood and in nine tissues of male guinea pigs over an eight week period by feeding diets containing deuterium-labelled alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc). There was an initial two week lead-in period during which 24 animals (the high vitamin E (HE) group) received diets containing 36 mg of unlabelled (d0) RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg of ascorbic acid per kg diet, while another 24 animals (the low vitamin E (LE) group) received diets containing 5 mg d0-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg ascorbic acid per kg diet. The HE group was then divided into three equal subgroups, which were fed diets containing 36 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5000 mg (the high vitamin C (HEHC) subgroup), 250 mg (the normal vitamin C (HENC) subgroup) and 50 mg (the low vitamin C (HELC) subgroup) ascorbic acid per kg diet. One animal from each group was sacrificed each week and the blood and tissues were analyzed for d0- and d6-RRR-alpha-TOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The LE group was similarly divided into three equal subgroups with animals receiving diets containing 5 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5,000 mg (LEHC), 250 mg (LENC) and 50 mg (LELC) ascorbic acid per kg diet with a similar protocol being followed for sacrifice and analyses. In the HE group the total (d0(-) + d6-) RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations in blood and tissues remained essentially constant over the eight week experiment, whereas in the LE group the total RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations declined noticeably. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of old d0-RRR-alpha-TOH nor in the concentrations of new d6-RRR-alpha-TOH found in any tissue at a particular time between the HEHC, HENC and HELC subgroups, nor between the LEHC, LENC and LELC subgroups.

  19. The oxidative mechanism effect of low-level ionizing radiation on the higher nervous activity rats investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the ionizing radiation upon the indices of behavioral reaction of rats as well as ability some antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene) used separately and in complexes to diminish exposure effects according to the studies indices have been studied. The largest protective effect was found for beta-carotene as well for the compositions, witch contain it. In the case of the animal exposure at the dose of 0,05 Gy, usage of alpha-tocopherol could case decline of the rats behavior reactions indices; this suggest that usage of antioxidant therapy demands certain cautiousness

  20. Concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno séricos e perfil nutricional de crianças em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, and nutritional status of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilane Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações séricas de retinol e beta-caroteno de pré-escolares em Teresina, Piauí, com caracterização do perfil antropométrico e do consumo alimentar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 135 crianças em creche municipal, com avaliação do estado nutricional pelos métodos: bioquímico (concentração sérica de retinol e beta-caroteno, antropométrico (índices de peso para estatura - P/E e estatura para idade - E/I e dietético (freqüência de consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA de 8,9% (IC95%: 4,7 - 15,0% e existência de associação entre suplementação anterior e concentrações de retinol, com maior proporção de crianças com níveis normais de retinol entre as suplementadas (p = 0,025. As concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno mostraram-se correlacionadas, porém com força leve a moderada (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate their anthropometric profile and consumption of food sources of vitamin A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 135 children from 36 to 83 months of age who attended a public child day care center. Nutritional status was evaluated by: biochemical (serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, anthropometric (weight for height - W/H and height for age - H/A indexes, and dietary (frequency of consumption of food sources of vitamin A methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD was 8.9% (95%CI: 4.7-15.0%. An association between previous supplementation with vitamin A and serum concentrations of retinol was observed, with a higher proportion of children with normal concentrations of retinol among those supplemented (p=0.025. There was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, (p<0.021. The prevalence of low W/H and low H

  1. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging antioxidant

  2. Consequences for central nervous system functional state of exposure to ionizing radiation modification with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: to estimate the pattern of ionizing radiation effects modification by antioxidants using central nervous system functional state indices. The studies were carried out using 84 rats. Beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were found to significantly improve conditioned activity indices level of the animals exposed to ionizing radiation and emotional-pain stress

  3. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years with...... association was confined to supplemental folic acid and non-aggressive prostate cancer and may thus be a chance finding. Further studies are warranted to evaluate our findings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht....

  4. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  5. Dietary factors and breast-cancer risk in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertz, M; Gill, C

    1990-11-15

    The influence of dietary factors, in particular the intake of fat and beta-carotene, on breast-cancer risk was evaluated in a case-control study including 1,486 breast cancer cases diagnosed over a 1 year period in Denmark. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of 1,336 women from the general population. Data on usual diet prior to the breast cancer diagnosis were collected by self-administered questionnaires of the semi-quantitative food frequency type. A highly significant trend (p less than 0.001) of increasing risk was observed with increasing fat intake, the RR for the highest quartile being 1.45 (95% Cl 1.17-1.80) compared with the lowest. However, information was not available to allow adjustment for the possible confounding effect of energy intake. The risk of breast cancer was not associated with consumption of vegetables rich in beta-carotene, multi-vitamin tablets or other dietary supplements, coffee, tea, sugar or artificial sweeteners. PMID:2228305

  6. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  7. Cross-sectional study with multiple measurements of biological markers for assessing stomach cancer risks at the population level.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugane, S; Tsuda, M; Gey, F; Watanabe, S.

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine correlations between measurable biologic markers and mortality from stomach cancer was performed in various areas of Japan. Blood and urine were collected from randomly selected 40- to 49-year-old men and their spouses in four areas with different rates of mortality from stomach cancer. The samples were analyzed for levels of the micronutrients vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, and lycopene in plasma and for levels of NaCl, nitrate, and N-nitrosamino ac...

  8. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human buccal mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y S; Peng, Y M

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that some micronutrients, including various carotenoids, retinoids, and alpha-tocopherol, may have chemopreventive activity against certain types of human cancer. In order to define the role of these micronutrients in cancer prevention, it is necessary to measure their concentrations in the target tissues, since these are critical to the chemopreventive effect. We have developed a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the simultaneous determination of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol in an easily accessible human target tissue, the buccal mucosal cells. This procedure used a gradient of two mobile phases which consisted of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1% ammonium acetate, and butylated hydroxytoluene (in v/v/v/v/w): mobile phase A, 85:5:5:5:0.05; mobile phase B, 55:35:5:5:0.05. The run time, including reequilibration, was 47 min: from 100% A to 100% B in 27 min, remaining at that mobile phase for 10 min, then back to 100% A at 43 min at a constant flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. The high-performance liquid chromatography effluent was monitored at 300, 325, and 452 nm for tocopherols, retinoids, and carotenoids, respectively, with a photodiode array detector. The average recovery was 83% for lycopene and > 92% for others. The precision of the assay for all the compounds was less than 10% in a 1-month period. The micronutrients were extracted by incubating the cells with protease, followed by vortex mixing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in ethanol containing 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene, and, finally, hexane extraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1305470

  9. Can vitamin A modify the activity of docetaxel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Lemancewicz; Ewa Czeczuga-Semeniuk; Slawomir Wolczyński

    2008-01-01

    Docetaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. On the other hand, the vitamin A family compounds play the essential roles in many biological processes in mammary gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of all-trans retinol, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene) and retinoids (9-cis, 13-cis and all-trans retinoic acid) on the activity of docetaxel and to compare these effects with the estradiol and tamoxifen actions on human ...

  10. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, unpulped, the pulp was storaged in polietilin bags (100 g, frozen, kept in a freezer at -20 °C, and evaluated every 30 days for 12 months. The experiment was carried out with experimental delineament totally casualized in a factorial scheme 6 x 13 (clones x time, with 3 repetitions. The concentration of beta-carotene in the Cereja clone was stable, while the other ones were decreased during the whole time of the experiment. There was a small decrease in the ascorbic acid level in all the clones in the study during the storage, probably due to the high acidity of the pulp, which helps maintain its nutrient. The total anthocyanins level were stable in the Frutacor and Sertaneja clones, however, it decreased in the other ones. The II 47/1 clone was, among all the studied clones, the one that presented the highest levels of ascorbic acid C and total anthocyanins, keeping these characteristics during the whole storage. In conclusion, the clones that presented the lowest level of beta-carotene, showed the highest concentrations of total anthocyanins.

  11. Histological and biochemical serum effects of alpha-tocopherol on ischemia/reperfusion-related injuries induced in the pelvic limb of rats Efeitos histológicos e bioquímicos séricos do alfa-tocoferol na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão em membro pélvico de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the protective action of alpha-tocopherol in ischemia/reperfusion injuries of pelvic member of rats. METHODS: Thirty adult male rats of the Wistar strain were randomized into three experimental groups of 10: Group I - control group with no ischemia or reperfusion. Groups II and III - four hours of ischemia and of hours of reperfusion by means of clamping of the infrarenal aorta. The animals of Group II were treated with saline and those of Group III were treated with i.v. alpha-tocopherol (50 mg/kg. Parameters studied were biopsies of the soleus muscle, dosing of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, calcium and arterial blood gasometry. RESULTS: The results of biopsies of the soleus muscles studied by optical microscopy, were not significant in terms of presence of edema among the three groups studied. Variables inflammation and necrosis were not observed, therefore cannot be statistically analyzed. As to dosing of calcium and lactate dehydrogenase, the pH, pO2 and pCO2 values were not significant for all groups studied. We observed that the levels of potassium (Group II > Group I, Fcalculated = 5.84; Fcritical = 3.33, creatine phosphokinase (Group II > Groups I and III, Hcalculated = 13.92; Hcritical = 5.99 and bicarbonate (Groups I and III > Group II, Hcalculated = 11.98; Hcritical = 5.99 presented significant results among groups. CONCLUSION: From the serum biochemical perspective, the treatment with alpha-tocopherol has attenuated the metabolic injuries in the ischemia/reperfusion syndrome in this experimental model.OBJETIVO: Avaliar ação protetora do alfa-tocoferol na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão em membro pélvico de ratos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos machos adultos da linhagem wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, em três grupos experimentais, com 10 animais cada: Grupo I - Grupo controle sem isquemia ou reperfusão. Grupos II e III - quatro horas de isquemia e duas horas de reperfus

  12. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: beta-carotene quantification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Zdeněk; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2012), s. 541-546. ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raman microspectroscopy * Microalgae * Trachydiscus minutus * Biotechnology * Carotenoids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2012

  13. Integration of {beta}-carotene molecules in small liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Atanaska; Popova, Antoaneta, E-mail: andreeva@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The most typical feature of carotenoids is the long polyene chain with conjugated double bonds suggesting that they can serve as conductors of electrons, acting as 'molecular wires', important elements in the molecular electronic devices. Carotenoids are essential components of photosynthetic systems, performing different functions as light harvesting, photoprotection and electron transfer. They act also as natural antioxidants. In addition they perform structural role stabilizing the three-dimensional organization of photosynthetic membranes. Carotenoids contribute to the stability of the lipid phase, preserving the membrane integrity under potentially harmful environmental conditions. Carotenoids can be easily integrated into model membranes, facilitating the investigation of their functional roles. In carotenoid-egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes ss-carotene is randomly distributed in the hydrocarbon interior of the bilayer, without any preferred, well defined orientation and retains a substantial degree of mobility. Here we investigate the degree of integration of ss-carotene in small unilamellar EPC liposomes and the changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra due to the lipid-pigment interaction. All observed changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra may be regarded as a result of the lipid-pigment interactions leading to the polyene geometry distortion and increasing of the environment heterogenety in the liposomes as compared to the solutions.

  14. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    0.43-0.80, test of interaction P < 0.0005) and type of antioxidant supplement (beta-carotene potentially increasing and selenium potentially decreasing cancer risk). Antioxidant supplements had no significant effect on mortality in a random-effects model meta-analysis (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.07, I(2......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements prevent gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. AIM: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, we reviewed the...... randomized trials comparing antioxidant supplements with placebo or no intervention on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. We searched electronic databases and reference lists until October, 2007. Our outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality and adverse events. Outcomes were...

  15. Intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Binns, Colin W

    2007-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the role of carotenoids in the chemoprevention of cancer. However, few studies have examined the association between intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and the results for carotenoids have been inconclusive. To investigate whether the intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, and lycopene is inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk, a case-control study was conducted in China during 1999-2000. The cases were 254 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer and 652 age-matched controls were randomly recruited during the same period. Habitual dietary intake and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable FFQ. The US Department of Agriculture nutrient composition database was used to calculate the intake of specific carotenoids. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI, accounting for age, locality, education, BMI, smoking, tea drinking, parity, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, menopausal status, family history of ovarian cancer, physical activity and energy intake. Compared with the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake, the adjusted OR were 0.39 (95 % CI 0.23, 0.66) for alpha-carotene, 0.51 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.84) for beta-carotene, 0.51 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.83) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 (0.27, 0.76) for lutein and zeaxanthin, and 0.33 (95 % CI 0.20, 0.56) for total carotenoids, with statistically significant tests for trend. It is concluded that a higher intake of carotenoids can reduce the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17367574

  16. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  17. Chemoprevention--history and general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangwei; Patterson, Sherri; Hawk, Ernest

    2011-08-01

    Our current understanding of tumourigenesis suggests that cancer develops as a series of cumulative genetic and epigenetic derangements across time culminating in a clone of cells differing from its population of origin in terms of cellular identity, growth control, and its contextual relationship to its environment. Our increasing knowledge of the timing, sequence, frequency, and specific implications of these changes provides unique opportunities for earlier identification of aberrations and preventive interventions. Here we discuss the fundamentals of cancer prevention including the targets, cohorts, agents, endpoints, mechanistic biomarkers, designs, and strategies employed in preventive drug development. There have been many notable successes in this field such as the identification and development of tamoxifen and raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction, instillational BCG and valrubicin for treatment of preinvasive bladder cancer, and a variety of topical and systemic agents that effectively treat preinvasive neoplastic lesions of the skin. A variety of null or negative developmental endeavours have occurred as well, including trials of beta-carotene for lung cancer prevention, nutritional modifications for colorectal adenoma prevention, and most recently, selenium and alpha-tocopherol for prostate cancer prevention. A third category of prevention trials can be summarized as investigationally successful, but not achieving regulatory success. The development of finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention, and celecoxib for colorectal neoplasia prevention fall into this category. In less than four decades, cancer chemoprevention has transformed from a concept to an achievable reality. PMID:22122762

  18. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Poppel H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hendrik Van Poppel1, Bertrand Tombal21Department of Urology, University Hospital, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Service d’Urologie, Cliniques Universtaires Saint Luc, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic.Keywords: alpha-tocopherol, chemoprevention, isoflavones, lycopene, polyphenols, prostate cancer, selenium

  19. Níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e leite materno de puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte Levels of alpha-tocopherol in the serum and breast-milk of child-bearing women attending a public maternity hospital in the city of Natal , in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Rejane Siqueira Garcia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no soro e leite materno em diferentes estágios de lactação de puérperas e verificar a adequação nutri cional de vitamina E do leite oferecido ao lactente. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 32 parturientes adultas com idade média de 25 anos. Foram coletados 5 mL de sangue e 2 mL de colostro, em condição de jejum, para análise dos níveis de alfa tocoferol. Entre 10 e 15 dias pós-parto foram coletados mais 2 mL de leite. As amostras foram analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. A adequação nutricional do leite para a vitamina E foi calculada pelo produto do volume estimado de ingestão de leite com a concentração de α-tocoferol no leite e por comparação direta desse produto com o valor de referência para ingestão do nutriente (4 mg/dia. RESULTADOS: os níveis de alfa-tocoferol no sangue foram 29 ± 0,9 µmol/L (Média ± Erro padrão e no colostro e leite de transição foram 28,7 ± 4,7 µmol/L e 7,8 ± 1,0 µmol/L, respectivamente. O consumo estimado de colostro forneceu 241% da recomendação dietética e o de leite de transição atingiu 66%. CONCLUSÕES: o grupo de mulheres estudadas apresentou um estado nutricional satisfatório de vitamina E, refletido no leite materno, principalmente no colostro, cujos valores foram capazes de suprir mais do que o dobro do requerimento nutricional do lactente.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate levels of alpha-tocopherol in the serum and breast-milk of women at various stages in lactation and to confirm whether nutritio nally appropriate levels of vitamin E are present in the milk given to the babies. METHODS: thirty-two child-bearing women with an average age of 25 years took part in the study. 5 mL of blood and 2 mL of colostrum were collected, under fasting conditions, for the purposes of analyzing the levels of alpha-tocopherol. Between 10 to 15 days after childbirth, a further 2 mL of breast-milk was collected. The samples were

  20. Níveis de proteína e de vitamina E para matrizes de frango de corte. 2. Efeito sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol na gema e nos tecidos e balanço de nitrogênio Protein and vitamin E levels for broiler breed hens. 2. Effects on yolk and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentration and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.T. Barreto

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 16 matrizes de frangos de corte com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de proteína bruta (NPB, 14 e 16%, e dois níveis de vitamina E (NVE, 25 e 250mg/kg, na dieta sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol (AT na gema, no fígado, no soro sangüíneo e na excreta, e sobre a retenção de AT e de nitrogênio (N. O período experimental foi de 25 dias, sendo 15 dias para a adaptação das aves à dieta e 10 dias para a coleta de ovos e da excreta para análise de vitamina E (VE e N. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, formado por quatro tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 (NVE × NPB, constituído cada um por quatro repetições, e cada unidade experimental representada por uma ave. Houve aumento linear (PSixteen broiler breed hens were used with the objective of evaluating the effects of supplementation of two crude protein (14 and 16% CP and two vitamin E levels (25 and 250mg VE/kg in the diet on the alpha-tocopherol (AT concentration in the egg yolk, liver, blood serum and feces, and on the AT and nitrogen (N retentions. The experiment lasted 25 days, in which 15 days were used for hens adaptation and 10 days for egg and fecal collection for AT and N analyses. The experimental design was a complete randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (CP × VE levels with four repetitions per treatment. The increasing of VE in the diet resulted in increase (P0.05. Thus, it could be concluded that the increasing of VE levels in the diet increased the AT concentrations in the egg yolk and body tissues, and decreased the AT and increased the N retention in broiler breed hens during the laying peak period.

  1. Plasma levels of α-tocopherol, -tocopherol and selenium in patients with prostate cancer in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famurewa AC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests that essential trace metals and vitamins play crucial roles in slowing down the initiation and progression stages of many cancers, but the plausible role of selenium and vitamin E, especially the gamma-tocopherol (-tocopherol, against prostate cancer is yet to be ascertained. Aim: To compare levels of selenium, alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol and -tocopherol between prostate cancer (PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH patients. Methods: Twenty (20 prostate cancer (PCa patients and 25 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH recruited from Urology Clinic of the Department of Surgery, University College Hospital (UCH, Ibadan acted as case and control subjects, respectively. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. The plasma levels of selenium, α-tocopherol and -tocopherol were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, respectively. Results: -tocopherol levels were significantly higher in BPH patients (control when compared with PCa patients. Selenium and -tocopherol levels were lower in PCa patients, but not significant. Conclusion: Plasma low level of -tocopherol in PCa patients was statistically significant. This may be a risk factor among adult Nigerian men for the development of prostate cancer. Increased plasma level of -tocopherol through diet or supplementation may reduce the risk and progression of prostate cancer.

  2. A Case—Contrl Study of Dietary Factors in Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGCHENGYU; ZHANGXIUQUAN; 等

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to investigate association of dietary factors with the risk of lung cancer in Sichuan,China.The cases consisted of 135 patients with preinvasive lung cancer which had been confirmed with histopathology,fiber bronchoscope,CT and X-ray film in three provincial hospitals in the recent one year.Controls were healthy subjects who went to one of these hospitals for health check-up;patients with pulmonary diseases was exluded.Controls were matched to cases for sex and age with a ratio of 1:1.Nutrient intakes, the eating habit and other relevant factors were investigated.The data analyzed with the conditional logistic regression model indicated,that dietary beta-carotene intakes had a significantly inverse association with the risk of lung cancer.Vitamin Chad a less significantly inverse association with the risk.Association of protein,fat,energy,retinol intakes of dietbalance index with the risk was not significant.Association of tea,alcohol,garlic or mushroom,respectively,with the risk was also not observed.Consumption of more processed foods and deep-fried foods were found to be risk factors.Smoking and air pollution from coal burning stoves were also observed as independent risk factors of lung cancer in the present study.The mental stress incidence in the case was significantly higher than that in the control.

  3. Beta-carotene reduces body adiposity of mice via BCMO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Amengual

    Full Text Available Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that β-carotene-(BC-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1 and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2 are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into β-10'-apocarotenal and β-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mice. To genetically dissect the roles of Bcmo1 and Bcdo2 in this process, we used wild-type and Bcmo1(-/- mice for this study. In wild-type mice, BC was converted into retinoids. In contrast, Bcmo1(-/- mice showed increased expression of Bcdo2 in adipocytes and β-10'-apocarotenol accumulated as the major BC derivative. In wild-type mice, BC significantly reduced body adiposity (by 28%, leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis of inguinal white adipose tissue revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. Despite β-10'-apocarotenoid production, this effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1(-/- mice, demonstrating that it was dependent on the Bcmo1-mediated production of retinoids. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPARγ activity in adipocytes.

  4. Hot compressed water extraction curve for palm oil and beta carotene concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharizan, M. S. M.; Azian, M. N.; Yoshiyuki, Y.; Kamal, A. A. M.; Che Yunus, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Hot compressed water extraction (HCWE) is a promising green alternative for palm oil milling. The kinetic characteristic of HCWE for palm oil and it β-carotene concentration was experimentally investigated in this study at the different temperature and pressure. Semi-batch HCW extractor from 120 to 180 oC and 30 to 50 bar was used to evaluated the process for 60 mins of extraction in 10 mins interval. The results obtain using the HCWE process was compared with other extraction method. The oil extraction achieved the maximum extraction rate within 20 mins of extraction in most of the condition and starting to decrease until 60 mins of extraction time. The extraction rate for β-carotene was achieved the maximum rate in 10 mins and starting to decrease until 30 mins. None of β-carotene concentration had been extracted out from the palm oil mesocarp after 30 mins of extraction in all condition. The oil recovery of using HCWE was relatively low compare with the mechanical screw press, subcritical R134b, supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extraction due to the oil loses in the oil-water emulsion. However, the β-carotene concentration in extracted oil using HCWE was improved compare with commercial crude palm oil (CPO) and subcritical R134a extraction.

  5. Efficacy of beta-carotene topical application in melasma: An open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available b-carotene, a structural analogue of vitamin A, works as an agonist of this vitamin, by reversibly sticking the chemical mechanism of melanogenesis by saturating the nuclear receptors of melanocytes and/or binding protein. To study the safety and efficacy of b-carotene lotion on topical application in melasma, clinically diagnosed 31 adults (26F and 5M with melasma were included in this trial. All of them applied b-carotene lotion daily, morning and evening to the affected areas. Twenty six of them completed regular 8 weeks treatment. Nine of them continued same treatment for 16 more weeks. All cases were evaluated clinically using melasma intensity (MPi index (Grade I, II, III and size of the lesion. Clinical photograph was taken for each case at 0 week, 8′h week and 24th week. Initial 8 weeks treatment revealed that the single case with grade-I pigmentation included in this study recovered completely. Two out of 13 cases with grade-II pigmentation, showed no change, in 10 cases, pigmentation became lighter to grade-I (76. 9% and one case recovered completely. Out of 12 grade-III cases, one did not show any change, 10(83. 3% converted to grade-II and one to grade-I. At the end of 24 weeks, all the nine cases (2 grade-II and 7 grade III showed further clearing of the pigmentation to the next lower grade. Side-effects like mild erythema and local irritation were observed in two cases each, who were advised to discontinue treatment as per the protocol. In conclusion, topical application of b-carotene lotion appears to bean effective and safe for melosma. Longer duration of application is associated with better result.

  6. Sensitized Triplet Formation of Chlorophyll-A and beta-Carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nina Mejlhede; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1980-01-01

    The naphthalene-sensitized formation of triplet excited chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and all-transß-carotene has been studied by pulse radiolysis. The rate constants for transfer of triplet energy from naphthalene to Chl-a and all-transß-carotene in benzene at 25°C are (3.6 ± 0.6)·109M-1 s-1 and (10.7 ±...

  7. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: beta-carotene as a volume sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Zdeněk; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, L.; Trtílek, M.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2011, 83060L:1-7. ISBN 978-0-8194-8953-1. [Photonics, Devices, and Systems V. Praha (CZ), 24.08.2011-26.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Raman microspectroscopy * microalgae * Trachydiscus minutus * biotechnology * optical tweezers * microfluidics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  8. Beta-carotene Reduces Body Adiposity of Mice Via BCMO1

    OpenAIRE

    Amengual, J.; Gouranton, E.; Helden, Y.G.J.; Keijer, J.; Kramer, E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that ß-carotene-(BC)-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1) and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2) are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into ß-10'-apocarotenal and ß-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mic...

  9. Beta-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll-c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alster, J.; Polívka, Tomáš; Arellano, J.B.; Chábera, P.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2010), s. 90-97. ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * chlorosomes * energy transfer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010

  10. Effects of beta-carotene and vitamin A on bovine luteal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially, the direct effects of B-carotene and vitamin A on progesterone (P4) production were studied by exposing dispersed luteal cells to these compounds in vitro. There were no positive relationships between P4 and B-carotene or vitamin A. However, a negative, and perhaps toxic, effect of a large dose of B-carotene on P4 reproduction was noted. A positive relationship between plasma B-carotene and percent change of P4 in the medium of dispersed luteal cells was demonstrated when these plasma metabolites were measured in slaughterhouse cows from which CL were obtained for incubation. This relationship was only present during the winter when plasma levels of B-carotene and vitamin A were considerably lower. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of action of B-carotene and/or vitamin A were initiated. Luteal tissue ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the RNA to DNA ratio and total protein concentration were measured to study the influence of plasma levels of B-carotene and vitamin A on the protein synthetic capacity of luteal tissue. There were no relationships detected, however, RNA concentration and the RNA to DNA ratio of luteal tissue were greater during the summer. The percent binding of radiolabeled vitamin A was greater in the nuclear than in the cytoplasmic component of the luteal cell

  11. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren K; Sehested, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase our knowledge about the vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage on organic commercial farms and to analyze the vitamin content in the milk. Roughages produced at the five organic dairy farms were monitored from harvest when the silage was laid in the silo and until the roughage was fed during the winter. The roughages had average α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents during the feeding period of, respectively, 30 mg and 21 mg per k...

  12. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  13. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present on-farm study was to analyse vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage and to analyze milk vitamin content when feeding the roughage to dairy cows. Roughages produced at five organic dairy farms were monitored at harvest and several times during winter as...... of α-tocopherol was 876 mg per cow–431 mg from roughages, 89 mg from concentrates and 356 mg from a vitamin supplement. Milk yield was 25.9 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per day with α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (μg/ml) of 0.82 and 0.17. The study additionally showed the following...... tendency, but due to few observations no final conclusions could be drawn: •For grass–clover silage there were generally no losses of vitamins during the ensiling process and during storage, but there were huge variations between farms. •For wholecrop silage there was a loss of vitamins during the ensiling...

  14. An investigation of anti-oxidant properties of salvia, conducting beta-carotene bleaching assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Fatemeh; ABEDPOUR, Marziyeh; ABDOSHEIKHI, Meysam; AHMADI, Elmira; ABEDI, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Due to the large amount of oils, Salvia (officinalis species) has always been one of the most popular medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. In this theses, the aerial parts of the plant Salvia officinalis were collected from greenhouses of Shiraz city and dried in shade for 15 days. Its essential oil was extracted using Clevenger method and analyzed using Gas Chromatography –Mass Spectrometer. Twenty compound was analyzed in the essential oil of salvia as the main compounds...

  15. Beta-Carotene in Prevention of Cow’s Obstetric- Gynecological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiia DMITRIEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the livestock industry is the decisive role of healthy reproduction. The aim of this study was to use "Carofertin" for the preventive purpose of obstetric pathology in high-productive cows (every 10 days and compare with the action of vitamin A. Prophylactic effectiveness of "Carofertin" was defined for prevention of obstetric pathology of high-productive cows whose were predisposed to diseases of parturient (the incidence of retention placenta: 21.7±0.4%, 43.5±0.41%, 65.2±0.38% (P<0.01 and postnatal periods too. The incidence of uterus subinvolution was 13.0±0.34% in the first group, 43.48±0.5% in the second group and 56.5±0.49% in the third group (P<0.001. The incidence of acute puerperal endometritis was 26.0±0.44% in the first group, 34.78±0.49% in the second group and 52.0±0.49% in the third group (P<0.001. We used biochemical and clinical analysis of blood samples to assess the impact of the drug on the functional metabolism and general methods of clinical examination (including rectal and vaginal examination for control over the parturition and puerperal period. It is important to study the problems of obstetric pathology in cows especially during the late stall period and to improve preventive measures.

  16. Overexpression of beta-carotene hydroxylase enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, P.A.; Hunter, C N; Horton, P.

    2002-01-01

    Plant stress caused by extreme environmental conditions is already a principal reason for yield reduction in crops. The threat of global environment change makes it increasingly important to generate crop plants that will withstand such conditions. Stress, particularly stress caused by increased sunlight, leads to the production of reactive oxygen species that cause photo-oxidative cell damage. Carotenoids, which are present in the membranes of all photosynthetic organisms, help protect again...

  17. Vitamin A family compounds, estradiol, and docetaxel in proliferation, apoptosis and immunocytochemical profile of human ovary endometrioid cancer cell line CRL-11731.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lemancewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid carcinoma represents approximately 10% of cases of the malignant ovarian epithelial tumors. According to literature, the vitamin A (carotenoids and retinoids plays an essential role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in both normal and neoplastic ovarian tissues. Apart from that, the retinoids alter a cytotoxic effect of chemiotherapeutics, i.e. docetaxel, on ovarian cancer cell lines. Retinoids act on cancer cells throughout different mechanism than taxanes, so they may be the potential candidates for the new treatment strategies of ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of vitamin A family compounds (retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, all-trans -, 9-cis - and 13-cis retinoic acid on the growth and proliferation of CRL-11731 endometrioid ovary cancer cell line and on docetaxel and estradiol activity in this culture. The assay was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA- and Ki 67-positive cells. The apoptotic index and expression of the Bcl-2 and p53 antigens in CRL-11731 cells were also studied. Among vitamin A family compounds retinol and carotenoids, but not retinoids, inhibited the growth of cancer cells in dose dependent manner. Only the concentration of 100 muM of docetaxel inhibited incorporation [3H] thymidine into CRL-11731 cancer cells. Retinol (33.4%+/-8.5, carotenoids (beta-carotene 20 muM 4.7%+/-2.9, 50 muM 2.2%+/-0.9; lycopene 10 muM 7.6%+/-0.8, 20 muM 5.2%+/-2.5, 50 muM 2.9%+/-1.2, and 13-cis retinoic acid (19.7%+/-2.2 combined with docetaxel (100 muM significantly decreased the percentage of proliferating cells (p<0.0001. The antiproliferative action of lycopene alone and in combination with docetaxel was also confirmed in immunohistochemical examination (decreased the percentage of PCNA and Ki67 positive cells. Also retinol (10 muM and lycopene (20 and 50 muM combined with estradiol (0.01 muM statistically decreased the percentage of

  18. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with nutrients and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poppel, Hendrik; Tombal, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    As the adult population is increasing, prostate cancer (PCa) will become a considerable health problem in the next millennium. This has raised public interest in potential chemoprevention of this disease. As PCa is extremely common and generally slow to progress it is regarded as an ideal candidate for chemoprevention. At present, the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride have been identified as preventive agents. This review describes whether selenium, alpha-tocopherol, isoflavones, lycopene green tea polyphenols, calcium, and resveratrol may be useful for decreasing the risk of PCa in men. Although encouraging results are present, some studies show negative results. Differences in study design, sample size, dose administered, and/or concentrations achieved in the body may be the reason for these inconsistencies. Today, chemopreventive agents may be appropriate for high-risk patients like those with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other high-risk groups such as patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and negative biopsy, rapid PSA velocity, and with a family history of PCa. Although larger randomized controlled studies are needed and epidemiologic evidence should be placed in a clinical context, physicians must be aware of these preventive opportunities in PCa care. Combinations of chemopreventive agents should be carefully investigated because mechanisms of action may be additive or synergistic. PMID:21629831

  19. The role of nutritional lipids and antioxidants in UV-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S

    2015-01-01

    Two dietary tenets of the free radical theory of cancer require refinement. The first was dietary reduction of vulnerable free-radical targets, e.g., polyunsaturated lipids. The second was the addition of one or more antioxidants to the diet. Further, it was reported in 1939 that high levels of dietary fat exacerbated UV-carcinogenesis. Both lines of enquiry (dietary lipid and antioxidant effects on UV-carcinogenesis) were investigated. Both dietary lipids and antioxidants modified carcinogenic expression. Increasing levels of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exacerbated UV-carcinogenesis. However, omega-3 PUFA dramatically inhibited carcinogenic expression. It is probable that the action of omega-6 and-3 PUFA rests with differential metabolic intermediates, both tumor promoting and immune-modulating, that each PUFA generates through lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Antioxidant supplementation with butylated hydroxytoluene or beta-carotene demonstrated that each exerted its own specific antioxidant mechanism(s). When introduced into the complex milieu of the cell with its own intricate and complex antioxidant defense system, detrimental effects may ensue. These results point to oversimplification of these dietary suggestions to reduce cancer risk and the necessity to refine these dietary recommendations. PMID:25961684

  20. Risk factors for male breast cancer in Canada, 1994-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K C; Pan, S; Mao, Y

    2002-06-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the aetiology of male breast cancer and the current understanding of female breast cancer, primarily related to reproductive events, cannot be readily transferred to understanding the cancer in males. However, since male breast cancer occurs in the absence of factors related to childbearing and menstruation, its aetiology may provide special insights into the causes of breast cancer in women. We examined lifestyle risk factors for male breast cancer as part of a Canadian, multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Eighty-one newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases and 1905 male controls aged 42-74 were analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Increased risks were found for men with a mother or sister with breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.62-8.19). Higher physical activity levels (moderate, and strenuous recreational plus occupational) were associated with a decreased risk of male breast cancer (highest quartile, adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.91). Similarly, higher risks were associated with higher weight 2 years before interview (2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43), maximum weight (OR 2.66) and higher body mass index (OR 1.60). Higher vegetable consumption and coffee consumption were associated with decreased risk, whereas higher beta-carotene, vitamin E and calcium supplementation were associated with statistically significant increased risk. The small number of cases and multiple comparisons preclude strong conclusions, but our study is consistent with studies suggesting obesity and family history increase risk, and physical activity decreases risk of breast cancer. PMID:12131659

  1. Antioxidant processes of the wild tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae) from the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, J L; Filho, D W

    1999-07-01

    Colossoma macropomum, locally called tambaqui, is a freshwater migratory teleost that shows good tolerance to oxygen and pH changes in water, and both chemical-physical parameters change markedly during the day time and seasonal water level oscillations in the Amazon Basin. In order to obtain a general view about the basal levels of antioxidants in different tissues of wild tambaqui, enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and glutathione) antioxidants and lipid peroxidation levels were assessed in the liver, blood and plasma of ten specimens collected during the dry season (September) in a pond near Manaus-AM, Brazil. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation levels were high in the liver and low in the blood and plasma. Confirming previous results on tambaqui, catalase was detected in the blood of one specimen only. beta-Carotene was not found in any analyzed tissue, while alpha-tocopherol was found only in the liver (7.8 +/- 7.0 nmol g(-1), mean +/- S.E.M.) and plasma (4.3 +/- 0.9 nmol ml(-1)). Blood glutathione concentrations (2.4 +/- 0.17 mmol l(-1)) of tambaqui were comparable with those found in other Amazonian teleosts. Antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation contents from liver. blood and plasma exhibited interesting correlations. These relationships suggest that antioxidant defenses located in different tissues and in different sub-cellular compartments act in concert. PMID:10530897

  2. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on fracture resistance after endodontic treatment, bleaching and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cristina Fagundes JORDÃO-BASSO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of 10% alphatocopherol on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth subjected to tooth bleaching with hydrogen peroxide and immediately restored with composite resin. Fifty bovine incisors were selected, including 10 sound teeth that constituted the control group (G1 (C. The remaining 40 teeth, which were endodontically treated, were divided into four groups (n = 10: G2 (CR, consisting of teeth immediately restored with composite resin; G3 (HP + CR, consisting of teeth subjected to tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide and immediately restored with composite resin; G4 (HP + SA + CR, which received treatment similar to that used for G3, but with 10% sodium ascorbate gel applied after the bleaching protocol; and G5 (HP + AT + CR, which was similar to G4 but included 10% alphatocopherol gel as an antioxidant. After 24 h, composite restorations were performed, and teeth were subjected to a fracture resistance test at a speed of 0.5 mm/min in an electromechanical testing machine. The axial force was applied with an angle of incidence of 135° relative to the long axis of the root. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05. G1 exhibited the highest fracture resistance (p < 0.05. No significant differences among the other experimental groups were observed. The 10% sodium ascorbate and 10% alphatocopherol gels did not improve the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth subjected to bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Alpha -tocopherol supplementation on chromium toxicity : a study on rat liver and kidney cell membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Membrane damage is one of the important consequence of chromium, an environmental toxicant, to produce cytotoxicity. α-tocopherol, a membrane protectant can be used to reduce the chromium-induced membrane damage. In the present study, the impact of chromium in presence and absence of α-tocopherol was studied on plasma membrane of liver and kidney in male Wistar rats (80 - 100g body weight). Significant increase in membrane cholesterol level as well as significant decrease in membrane phospholipid level in chromium exposed ( 0.8 mg /100g body weight/d, i.p., for 4 weeks) animals suggest structural alteration of both liver and kidney plasma memebrane. The alkaline phosphatase, total ATPase and Na+-K+-ATPase activities of plasma membrane were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney after chromium treatment. However, α-tocopherol (30 mg / 100g diet) supplementation can restrict the changes in these membrane-bound enzyme activities. Thus, the usefulness of dietary supplementation of α-tocopherol to restrain the chromium-induced membrane damage is suggested.

  4. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barros S. Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers.METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05.RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50. However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01. No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups.CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum.

  5. Rectal administration of d-alpha tocopherol for active ulcerative colitis: A preliminary report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Amir Mirbagheri; Behtash Ghazi Nezami; Solmaz Assa; Mannan Hajimahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-neutrophil recruitment effects of rectal d-alpha (d-α) tocopherol administration on mild and moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Fifteen patients with mild and moderately active ulcerative colitis were enrolled in an open-label study of d-α tocopherol enema (8000 U/d) for 12 wk. All patients were receiving concomitant therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives (5-ASA) and/or immunomodulator medications. Endoscopic evaluation was performed at baseline and after 4th and 12th weeks. Disease activity was measured with the Mayo disease activity index (DAI) and remission was defined as DAI of≤2 with no blood in stool. Clinical response was defined as a DAI reduction of≥2.RESULTS: At the end of 12th week, the average DAI score significantly decreased compared to the beginning of the study (2.3±0.37 vs 8±0.48, P < 0.0001). One patient was withdrawn after 3 wk for being unavailable to follow-up. On the 4th week of therapy, 12 patients showed clinical response, 3 of whom (21.4%) achieving remission. After 12 wk, all 14 patients responded clinically to the therapy and remission was induced in 9 of them (64%). No patient reported adverse events or was hospitalized due to worsened disease activity.CONCLUSION: This preliminary report suggests that rectal d-α tocopherol may represent a novel therapy for mild and moderately active UC. The observed results might be due to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of vitamin E.

  6. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikuo Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods:Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results:AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine, though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion:According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS.

  7. In vivo adverse effects of alpha-tocopherol on the semen quality of male bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, A; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has detrimental effects on semen quality during spermatogenesis and semen processing for artificial insemination. This work was conducted to study the effect of different levels of vitamin E on the semen traits, oxidative status and trace minerals in Beetal bucks. Thirty-six bucks of similar body weight and age (1 year) were randomly divided into four groups. One group was kept as control with no supplementation (group 1), and the others were supplemented with 200 (group 2), 400 (group 3) and 800 IU (group 4) vitamin E/animal/day for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and evaluated. Seminal plasma was separated to study the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). Group 3 showed significantly higher (p mineral levels (Zn, Cu, Mn) in the seminal plasma. The increased supplementation from 0 to 400 showed a general increasing trend in improving semen quality. However, the dose of 800 IU/kg had no useful effect in further improving the semen quality. PMID:25580862

  8. Alpha-Tocopherol Counteracts the Cytotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Primary Porcine Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Eleonora; Rebucci, Raffaella; Pecorini, Chiara; Campagnoli, Anna; Pinotti, Luciano; Saccone, Francesca; Cheli, Federica; Purup, Stig; Sejrsen, Kristen; Baldi, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine the half-lethal concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) as well as the levels of lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA in primary porcine fibroblasts, and to examine the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting its toxicity. Cells showed a dose-, time- and origin-dependent (ear vs. embryo) sensitivity to ochratoxin A. Pre-incubation for 3 h with 1 nM α-tocopherol significantly (P < 0.01) reduced OTA cytotoxicity, lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA damage in both fibroblast cultures. These findings indicate that α-tocopherol supplementation may counteract short-term OTA toxicity, supporting its defensive role in the cell membrane. PMID:22069637

  9. Synthesis and computational investigation of molecularly imprinted nanospheres for selective recognition of alpha-tocopherol succinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacham, Theeraphon; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2013-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are macromolecular matrices that can mimic the functional properties of antibodies, receptors and enzymes while possessing higher durability. As such, these polymers are interesting materials for applications in biomimetic sensor, drug synthesis, drug delivery and separation. In this study, we prepared MIPs and molecularly imprinted nanospheres (MINs) as receptors with specific recognition properties toward tocopherol succinate (TPS) in comparison to tocopherol (TP) and tocopherol nicotinate (TPN). MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent and dichloromethane or acetronitrile as porogenic solvent under thermal-induced polymerization condition. Results indicated that imprinted polymers of TPS-MIP, TP-MIP and TPN-MIP all bound specifically to their template molecules at 2 folds greater than the non-imprinted polymers. The calculated binding capacity of all MIP was approximately 2 mg per gram of polymer when using the optimal rebinding solvent EtOH:H2O (3:2, v/v). Furthermore, the MINs toward TPS and TP were prepared by precipitation polymerization that yielded particles that are 200-400 nm in size. The binding capacities of MINs to their templates were greater than that of the non-imprinted nanospheres when using the optimal rebinding solvent EtOH:H2O (4:1, v/v). Computer simulation was performed to provide mechanistic insights on the binding modalities of template-monomer complexes. In conclusion, we had successful prepared MIPs and MINs for binding specifically to TP and TPS. Such MIPs and MINs have great potential for industrial and medical applications, particularly for the selective separation of TP and TPS. PMID:26622214

  10. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

  11. Alpha-tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid Combinations Influence the Maturation of Sheep Oocytes

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    Ileana Miclea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to establish whether supplementation with combinations of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid could improve the maturation and expansion of sheep cumulus-oocyte complexes. Sheep oocytes were cultured for 24 hours at 37°C in 5.4% CO2 atmosphere in M199 containing 20 μM α-tocopherol+750 μM ascorbic acid or 5 μM α-tocopherol+250 μM ascorbic acid. Afterwards, cumulus oophorus expansion was assessed and oocytes were denuded. The presence of the first polar body was assessed by fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33258. Differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance and interpreted using the LSD test. Supplementation with the combination of 20 μM α-tocopherol+750 μM ascorbic acid resulted in significantly greater (p<0.05 percentages of COCs that were scored as 3. However, the number of COCs scored at 4 decreased. The same dynamic could be seen when oocytes were checked for the presence of the first polar body. Percentages decreased with the increase in antioxidant concentration. This indicates that although antioxidants, in these particular concentrations have been proven to have a positive influence on swine oocyte maturation the same cannot be said for ovine female gametes.

  12. Interactions between alpha-tocopherol, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lipoxygenases during embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebold, Katie M; Traber, Maret G

    2013-01-01

    α-Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that is specifically required for reproduction and embryogenesis. However, since its discovery, α-tocopherol’s specific biologic functions, other than as an antioxidant, and the mechanism(s) mediating its requirement for embryogenesis, remain unknown. As an antioxidant, α-tocopherol protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from lipid peroxidation. α-Tocopherol is likely required during embryonic development to protect PUFAs that are crucial to development, specifically arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Additionally, ARA and DHA are metabolized to bioactive lipid mediators via lipoxygenase enzymes and α-tocopherol may directly protect, or it may mediate the production and/or actions of these lipid mediators. In this review, we discuss how α-tocopherol 1) prevents the nonspecific, radical-mediated peroxidation of PUFAs, 2) functions within a greater antioxidant network to modulate the production and/or function of lipid mediators derived from 12- and 12/15-lipoxygenase and 3) modulates 5-lipoxygenase activity. The application and implication of such interactions with be discussed in the context α-tocopherol requirements during embryogenesis. PMID:23920314

  13. Alpha-Tocopherol Counteracts the Cytotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Primary Porcine Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Fusi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to determine the half-lethal concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA as well as the levels of lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA in primary porcine fibroblasts, and to examine the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting its toxicity. Cells showed a dose-, time- and origin-dependent (ear vs. embryo sensitivity to ochratoxin A. Pre-incubation for 3 h with 1 nM α-tocopherol significantly (P < 0.01 reduced OTA cytotoxicity, lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA damage in both fibroblast cultures. These findings indicate that α-tocopherol supplementation may counteract short-term OTA toxicity, supporting its defensive role in the cell membrane.

  14. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 60Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the α-tocopherol concentration were studied. The α-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The α-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic α-tocopherol content. (author)

  15. Spectroscopic studies of alpha tocopherol interaction with a model liposome and its influence on oxidation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Kosović, Marin; Serec, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    The influence of α-tocopherol on the surface conformation of liposome, as a model component of lipoproteins, and its role in oxidation process were studied. FT-IR spectra from suspensions of neat liposome, mixtures of liposome and α-tocopherol and liposome with incorporated α-tocopherol were analyzed. When α-tocopherol was incorporated into liposome, intensities of some bands were decreased or increased in comparison with the spectra of liposome and α-tocopherol mixture. These changes reflect the different localization of α-tocopherol in two types of liposome suspensions. The oxidation of liposome suspensions was initiated by addition of cupric ions. After prolonged oxidation, the differences in FT-IR spectra of oxidized samples were recorded. Differences were observed in comparison with spectra of native and oxidized liposomes were analyzed. The rate of oxidation was measured by EPR oximetry. Oxidation was generally very slow, but faster in liposome without α-tocopherol, indicating the protective role of α-tocopherol against liposome oxidation. On the other hand, liposome suspensions with EDTA in the buffer were not oxidized at all, while those with α-tocopherol and liposome mixture were only slightly oxidized. In this case the consumption of oxygen was the result of liposome oxidation supported by α-tocopherol. These results reflect the ambivalent role of α-tocopherol in liposome oxidation, similarly to findings in studies of lipoprotein oxidation.

  16. Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein disruption confers resistance to malarial infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Motohiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors impact the severity of malaria, including the nutritional status of the host. Vitamin E, an intra and extracellular anti-oxidant, is one such nutrient whose absence was shown previously to negatively affect Plasmodium development. However, mechanisms of this Plasmodium inhibition, in addition to means by which to exploit this finding as a therapeutic strategy, remain unclear. Methods α-TTP knockout mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 or Plasmodium yoelii XL-17, parasitaemia, survival rate were monitored. In one part of the experiments mice were fed with a supplemented diet of vitamin E and then infected. In addition, parasite DNA damage was monitored by means of comet assay and 8-OHdG test. Moreover, infected mice were treated with chloroquine and parasitaemia and survival rate were monitored. Results Inhibition of α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP, a determinant of vitamin E concentration in circulation, confers resistance to malarial infection as a result of oxidative damage to the parasites. Furthermore, in combination with the anti-malarial drug chloroquine results were even more dramatic. Conclusion Considering that these knockout mice lack observable negative impacts typical of vitamin E deficiency, these results suggest that inhibition of α-TTP activity in the liver may be a useful strategy in the prevention and treatment of malaria infection. Moreover, a combined strategy of α-TTP inhibition and chloroquine treatment might be effective against drug resistant parasites.

  17. Distribution of glycosidic derivatives of DL-alpha-tocopherol in liposomes. Spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Vitamin E is known for its strong affinity to biomembranes through interactions with membrane phospholipids. However, due to its poor absorbability and bioavailability its clinical application is limited. Enhanced physiological activity is expected from synthesized tocopherol derivatives, whose physiological activity of vitamin E is enabled by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycoside bond. Physicochemical and spectroscopic studies allow to get an insight into the location of these tocopherol derivatives in biological membranes and their expected interactions with membrane components. We investigated spectroscopic properties of synthesized DL-α-tocopheryl β-D-glucopyranoside in liposomes. The absorption and emission data and the fluorescence lifetime values obtained in lipid bilayer were referred to those found in homogenous solutions. In liposomes the emission maximum and fluorescence lifetime of the glycosides were similar to those observed in methanol, which suggests medium value dielectric constant and low viscosity environment. The partition constant and standard free energy change were calculated from the fluorescence data. The obtained dependences confirms the presence of interaction between the studied glycoside and the membrane and indicates spontaneous partition of the glycoside in the lipid bilayer. High anisotropy value indicates the low mobility of glucoside in the bilayer. The similarity of anisotropy values at different membrane concentrations suggests that presence of sugar moiety did not change the mechanism of inclusion of tocopherol part into membrane. An efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process was observed from the steady state data for DL-α-tocopheryl β-D-glucopyranoside (donor) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5- hexatriene (DPH) (acceptor) pair in lipid bilayer. The distance between the donor and the acceptor in lipids bilayer calculated according to Foerster's theory is 24 A. The all obtained data suggest that DL-α-tocopheryl β-glucoside is located in the hydrophilic region of the membrane whereas the sugar moiety protrudes above the membrane surface. We gratefully acknowledge the partial financial support from Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland (No. 508/4) and grant from Polish Scientific Council Committee (No. 34/2007/GW).

  18. Alpha-Tocopherol Counteracts the Cytotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Primary Porcine Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Elenora; Rebucci, Raffaella; Pecorini, Chiara;

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine the half-lethal concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) as well as the levels of lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA in primary porcine fibroblasts, and to examine the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting its toxicity. Ce...

  19. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  20. Changes in certain blood micronutrients and metabolites concentration in rats following radiation exposure and/or antioxidant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previous studies on tissue damage in animals subjected to single sublethal doses of gamma-rays, usually occur within few hours following the irradiation and the body may be continuously exposed to the damaging action of free radicals. Natural organic antioxidants such as vitamin E and beta- carotene may play an important role in reducing effects of free radicals. The present study was designed to investigate the circulating concentration of vitamins (Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene) and trace elements (Zinc, copper, iron, calcium and magnesium) plus (albumin and uric acid) in rats supplemented with vitamin E or beta-carotene course pre-radiation exposure. Significant differences between groups supplemented with vitamins pre-irradiation and irradiated group were observed for the circulating micronutrient concentration. Tissue damage and repair of the damaged DNA were investigated as improvement in albumin and uric acid concentration in serum of vitamins supplementation groups. The present study postulated that gamma-tocopherol or Bita- carotene with their antioxidant capacity and capability of quenching singlet oxygen could play an important role against the tissue damage after radiation injury

  1. The association between selenium and other micronutrients and thyroid cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. RESULTS: With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76; P(trend, <0.01, we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HR(Q5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92-1.65; P(trend, 0.26 or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSION: Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  2. The Association between Selenium and Other Micronutrients and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. Methods We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health – American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50–71 years in 1995–1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. Results With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02–1.76; Ptrend, <0.01), we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92–1.65; Ptrend, 0.26) or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. Conclusion Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:25329812

  3. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Shishodia, Shishir

    2006-05-14

    While fruits and vegetables are recommended for prevention of cancer and other diseases, their active ingredients (at the molecular level) and their mechanisms of action less well understood. Extensive research during the last half century has identified various molecular targets that can potentially be used not only for the prevention of cancer but also for treatment. However, lack of success with targeted monotherapy resulting from bypass mechanisms has forced researchers to employ either combination therapy or agents that interfere with multiple cell-signaling pathways. In this review, we present evidence that numerous agents identified from fruits and vegetables can interfere with several cell-signaling pathways. The agents include curcumin (turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, peanuts and berries), genistein (soybean), diallyl sulfide (allium), S-allyl cysteine (allium), allicin (garlic), lycopene (tomato), capsaicin (red chilli), diosgenin (fenugreek), 6-gingerol (ginger), ellagic acid (pomegranate), ursolic acid (apple, pears, prunes), silymarin (milk thistle), anethol (anise, camphor, and fennel), catechins (green tea), eugenol (cloves), indole-3-carbinol (cruciferous vegetables), limonene (citrus fruits), beta carotene (carrots), and dietary fiber. For instance, the cell-signaling pathways inhibited by curcumin alone include NF-kappaB, AP-1, STAT3, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), caspases, PARP, IKK, EGFR, HER2, JNK, MAPK, COX2, and 5-LOX. The active principle identified in fruit and vegetables and the molecular targets modulated may be the basis for how these dietary agents not only prevent but also treat cancer and other diseases. This work reaffirms what Hippocrates said 25 centuries ago, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food. PMID:16563357

  4. Efficacy of beta-carotene rich sweet potato to improve vitamin a status of Bangladeshi women - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children, which also increases the risk of disease and death from severe infections. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is a good source of pro-vitamin A and has been successfully tried in African countries as an effective means to ensure adequate intake of pro-vitamin A by mothers and children. We have conducted a randomized controlled trial in an urban poor community of Bangladesh to examine the efficacy of two different preparations of OFSP in women with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The subjects (n=120) were aged between 18-35 years with serum retinol 90 g/L and CRP 2H4]-retinyl acetate) was given orally to determine total body vitamin A pool size. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatment groups to receive 6 d/wk for 60 days: (1) boiled white-fleshed sweet potatoes (WFSP); (2) 600 μg RAE as boiled OFSP; (3) 600 μg RAE as fried OFSP; or (4) 600 μg RAE as a retinyl palmitate capsule, and boiled WFSP. Night vision of the subjects was assessed, as a proxy for vitamin A status, before and after intervention by performing 'dark adaptation test'. Blood samples collected before and after intervention were light-protected and stored on ice until plasma was separated, and then stored at - 20C until shipment to University of California Davis under frozen condition. The samples will be analyzed in UC Davis for plasma isotopic ratios using GC-MS following the isolation of retinol from plasma with HPLC, to determine vitamin A pool size before and after supplementation. The preliminary results from partial analysis of the available data will be presented. (author)

  5. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of beta-carotene bioaccessability and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honey dew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honey dew, are excellent sources of ß-carotene. Although ß-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precu...

  6. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of β-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). β-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that β-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in β-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  7. Serum retinol of Chadian nomadic pastoralist women in relation to their livestocks' milk retinol and beta-carotene content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Daoud, Saada; Schierle, Josef; Hofmann, Peter; Diguimbaye, Colette; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Ndoutamia, Guelmbaye; Knopf, Lea; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel

    2002-07-01

    Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% were moderately retinol-deficient (0.35 mol/L fresh vegetables were reported consumed in the past 24 hours. Milk is the almost exclusive source of vitamin A for these populations. Goats (n = 6) had the highest average milk retinol level (329 +/- 84 micrograms/kg [mean +/- SEM]), followed by cattle (n = 25; 247 +/- 32 micrograms/kg), and camels (n = 12; 120 +/- 18 micrograms/kg). Milk retinol levels did not differ between the rainy and dry seasons. Human serum retinol depends significantly on livestock milk retinol levels (partial slope 0.23; 95% CI: 0.008-0.47). Our study supports the use of goat and cow milk as an important source of vitamin A in pastoral nomadic settings. However, the levels still require to be complemented further by promoting green leafy vegetables, fruits, and supplements. PMID:12214559

  8. Effect of light intensity on Beta-carotene production and extraction by Dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Application of two-phase bioreactors is a useful technique for improvement of the productivity of fermentations. Fermentative extraction of the products in situ is performed in this technique. The effect of light intensity on the extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina, in the fermentative e

  9. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition. PMID:17147745

  10. Transcriptional-metabolic networks in beta-carotene-enriched potato tubers: the long and winding road to the Golden phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Al-Babili, Salim; Tavazza, Raffaela; Scossa, Federico; Papacchioli, Velia; Migliore, Melania; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in a large number of countries. Biofortification of major staple crops (wheat [Triticum aestivum], rice [Oryza sativa], maize [Zea mays], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) with β-carotene has the potential to alleviate this nutritional problem. Previously, we engineered transgenic "Golden" potato tubers overexpressing three bacterial genes for β-carotene synthesis (CrtB, CrtI, and CrtY, encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene β-cyclase, respectively) and accumulating the highest amount of β-carotene in the four aforementioned crops. Here, we report the systematic quantitation of carotenoid metabolites and transcripts in 24 lines carrying six different transgene combinations under the control of the 35S and Patatin (Pat) promoters. Low levels of B-I expression are sufficient for interfering with leaf carotenogenesis, but not for β-carotene accumulation in tubers and calli, which requires high expression levels of all three genes under the control of the Pat promoter. Tubers expressing the B-I transgenes show large perturbations in the transcription of endogenous carotenoid genes, with only minor changes in carotenoid content, while the opposite phenotype (low levels of transcriptional perturbation and high carotenoid levels) is observed in Golden (Y-B-I) tubers. We used hierarchical clustering and pairwise correlation analysis, together with a new method for network correlation analysis, developed for this purpose, to assess the perturbations in transcript and metabolite levels in transgenic leaves and tubers. Through a "guilt-by-profiling" approach, we identified several endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis likely to play a key regulatory role in Golden tubers, which are candidates for manipulations aimed at the further optimization of tuber carotenoid content. PMID:20671108

  11. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Wang, J.; Meijnen, J.P.; Visser, H.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these g

  12. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  13. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  14. Diet and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study: does the threat of disease have an influence on recall bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, S; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, M; Kataja, V; Uusitupa, M

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that recall bias may explain the discrepant results between case-control and cohort studies on diet and the risk of breast cancer. Two control groups were used for this case-control study of 25 to 75-year-old breast cancer cases (n = 310). The first group consisted of population controls drawn from the Finnish National Population Register (n = 454). The second group consisted of women who were referred to the same examinations as were the cases because of clinical suspicion of breast disease but who were later diagnosed as healthy (referral controls; n = 506). Because the diagnosis was unknown at the time of interview, it was possible to assess by comparing the two control groups whether the self-reporting of diet changed under the threat of disease. Dietary habits were examined using a validated, self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Premenopausal women misreported their consumption of liquid milk products, tea, and sugar. Reporting bias was also associated with the intake of fat and vitamins. Postmenopausal women misreported consumption of milk products. When recall bias was taken into consideration, milk was associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer, whereas high consumption of poultry or high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and vitamin E were related to lower risk. The study suggested that oil, milk, cheese, coffee and beta-carotene may act as protective factors in postmenopausal women, whereas butter and cream may be risk factors for breast cancer. In summary, it is possible that some food items may be overreported or underreported under the threat of disease in health-conscious population. However, most of the results in this study were not modified by recall bias. PMID:10360338

  15. A new flavonol glycoside derivative from leaves of Moldenhawera nutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Ademir E; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; David, Juceni P

    2005-01-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Moldenhawera nutans Queiroz & Alkin (Leguminosae) furnished, besides methyl gallate and gallic acid, the flavonols named laricetrin, laricetrin 3-glucoside and laricetrin 3-galactoside as well as the new one named laricetrin 5-galloyl-3-beta-D-xylopyranoside. It also was isolated from the hexane extract: beta-sitosterol, lupenone, beta-amyrinone, alpha-amyrinone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin and alpha-tocopherol. The antioxidant activities of flavonoids were measured through DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition of auto-oxidation of beta-carotene methods. The structures of the compounds were determined by analyses of spectral data. This is the first report dealing with phytochemical studies of leaves of M. nutans. In addition this current work describes the unequivocal attribution of 1H NMR and 13C NMR data of laricetrin. PMID:15787243

  16. Potentials to Differentiate Milk Composition by Different Feeding Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slots, Tina; Butler, Gillian; Leifert, Carlo;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the dietary intake of the cow on milk composition, bulk-tank milk was collected on 5 occasions from conventional (n = 15) and organic (n = 10) farms in Denmark and on 4 occasions from low-input nonorganic farms in the United Kingdom, along with management and production......-tocopherol (32.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg of milk fat), RRR-alpha-tocopherol (30.2 +/- 0.8 mg/kg of milk fat), and beta-carotene (9.3 +/- 0.5 mg/kg of milk fat) compared with the organic and conventional milk. Moreover, the concentration of LA (9.2 +/- 0.7 g/kg of fatty acids) in milk from the extensive milk production...... system was found to approach the recommended unity ratio between n-6 and n-3, although extensive milk production also resulted in a lower daily milk yield...

  17. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, {alpha}-tocopherol, or {beta}-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO{sub 2} to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  18. Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, mass energy absorption coefficient and kerma of some vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Kerma is essential for nuclear medicine, diagnostics and radiation dosimeter. ► The values of μm and μe/ρ depends on the photon energy and chemical content of vitamins. ► New experiments should be performed to study physical parameters of biomolecules. -- Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficients for some vitamins (retinol, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, alpha-tocopherol, ketamine, hesperidin) were determined experimentally and theoretically at 356.61, 661.66, 1250 and 1408.01 keV photon energies by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Also, the mass energy absorption coefficients and kerma have been calculated. The calculated values were compared with the semi-empirical values for vitamins.

  19. The Effects of Maternal Natural (RRR Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) or Synthetic (All-Rac Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on Suckling Calf Performance, Colostrum IgG, and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally supplemented natural- or synthetic-source vitamin E on suckling calf performance and immune response. In a two-year study, 152 two- and three-year old spring-calving Angus-cross beef cows were blocked by age, BW, and BCS into on...

  20. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  1. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Lamm, Donald L

    2002-02-01

    possibility with long-term administration, the dose should be decreased to 16,000 IU after 3 years. High doses of beta-carotene should be avoided based on a large clinical trial reporting a 25% increase in the number of cases of prostate cancer and a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Vitamin B6 has been studied in several clinical trials in bladder cancer. The US-based Veterans Administration cooperative study found benefit for vitamin B6 when given as a single agent. Data for vitamins C and E are insufficient to recommend either agent as stand-alone treatment. Nonetheless, each of these vitamins is known to have beneficial effects, including improved function of the immune system. It is possible that only a small percentage of patients with bladder cancer respond to vitamins B6, C, or E, yet each is safe, nontoxic, and inexpensive. In an effort to pool the efficacy of individual agents and to increase the power of study, the authors evaluated the combination of vitamins A, B6, C, and E in a double-blind trial. The observed 50% 5-year reduction in tumor recurrence was highly significant and greater than would be expected for any of the individual ingredients and suggests that combinations of nutritional agents may be most appropriate. A large-volume study along similar lines is being conducted. Among the numerous other compounds and dietary substances purported to have chemopreventive effect, soybeans, garlic, and green tea stand out as having the greatest promise and can freely be recommended to patients. For synthetically synthesized agents such as celecoxib, piroxicam, or DFMO, recommendations must be deferred until the results of clinical trials are conclusively in favor of their use. Many of the dietary factors found to be protective against bladder cancer are being investigated in other cancers and are beneficial to general health. Although naturally occurring nutrients are ideal, especially because the delicate balance of various

  2. Plasma Carotenoids and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with prior Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally believed protective against several chronic diseases. One suggested mechanism is a reduction in oxidative stress. The carotenoids, nutrients found in colored fruits and vegetables, possess antioxidant properties in vitro, but their role in humans is less well documented. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationships between the most abundant plasma carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin, as well as grouped carotenoids (total xanthophylls, carotenes and carotenoids, and urinary excretion of the F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs, stable and specific biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids. Two F2-IsoP measures were utilized: total F2-IsoPs and 8-iso-PGF2α. The study population (N = 52 was drawn from a study among patients curatively treated for early-stage head and neck cancer. Unadjusted linear regression analyses revealed significant inverse associations between plasma lutein, total xanthophylls and both F2-IsoP measures at baseline. After control for potential confounders, all individual and grouped xanthophylls remained inversely associated with the F2-IsoP measures, but none of these associations achieved significance. The carotenes were not inversely associated with total F2-IsoPs or 8-iso-PGF2a concentrations. The finding of consistent inverse associations between individual and grouped xanthophylls, but not individual and grouped carotenes, and F2-IsoPs is intriguing and warrants further investigation.

  3. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Hu

    Full Text Available Vitamin E (VitE only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE's cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after myocardial ischemia reperfusion(MI/R. VitE may significantly improved cardiac function in young male mice and aged female mice by enhancing ERK1/2 activity and reducing JNK activity. Enhanced expression of HSP90 and Bcl-2 were also seen in young male mice. No changes in cardiac function and cardiac proteins were detected in aged male mice and VitE was even liked to exert a reverse effect in cardiac function in young mice by enhancing JNK activity and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Those effects were in accordance with the changes of myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group of mice. VitE may reduce MI/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis in young male mice and aged female mice but not in aged male mice. VitE was possibly harmful for young female mice, shown as increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Thus, we speculated that the efficacy of VitE in cardiac protection was associated with age and gender.

  4. Maternal dietary loads of alpha-tocopherol increase synapse density and glial synaptic coverage in the hippocampus of adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salucci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Glia-synapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant glia-synapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning.

  5. Photostability of alpha-tocopherol ester derivatives in solutions and liposomes. Spectroscopic and LC-MS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunert, Grazyna; Szwengiel, Artur; Walejko, Piotr; Witkowski, Stanislaw; Polewski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    α-Tocopherol (Toc) is known to degrade to the tocopheroxyl radicals (Toc) by exposure to UV light irradiation. In the present study, the stability of Toc ester derivatives exposed to UV light was investigated and compared with Toc in organic solution and in phospholipid vesicles. To follow the depletion of Toc and its esters the absorbance and fluorescence methods were applied whereas degradation products were detected using LC-MS method. The irradiation with UVB light of air-equilibrated solutions of di-α-Tocopheryl malonate (DTMO), α-Tocopheryl malonate (TMO) and α-Tocopheryl succinate (TS) strongly modifies their absorption and fluorescence spectra. Upon UVB irradiation, absorption band at 279/285nm becomes less pronounced indicating the photodegradation of esters. During irradiation, the fluorescence maximum of esters at 305nm shifts to 326nm, a maximum characteristic for Toc. Photorecovery of Toc from its esters derivatives was finally confirmed by LC-MS method. Among studied esters, only α-tocopheryl nicotinate (TN) did not undergo depletion and appeared resistant to UVB radiation. Kinetic studies indicated that photoinduced transformation occurs through the first order consecutive reaction chain mechanism. The photodissociation of Toc esters in the liposomes occurred with one order of magnitude slower than in organic solvents. Using MS/MS method it was found that final stable product of irradiation was α-tocopheryl quinone (TQ), an animal and plant metabolite of Toc. PMID:27107331

  6. Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), alpha-tocopherol and lipid levels in plasma of captive wild mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Uehlein-Harrell, S; von Hegel, G; Wiesner, H

    1991-02-01

    Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), vitamin E and lipids were determined in a wide variety of wild mammals and birds held in captivity. In mammals plasma levels of vitamin A were generally below 500 ng/ml and those of vitamin E were highly variable (0.1-2 micrograms/ml). In primates, vitamin E levels were 3 to 8 micrograms/ml. Whereas in Marsupialia, Chiroptera, primates, Rodentia, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla only retinol was found, retinyl esters (basically retinol palmitate/oleate) represented 10 to 50% of the total plasma vitamin A in some birds of the order Ciconiiformes and Falconiformes. Retinol levels in birds were higher compared to mammals (500-2,000 ng/ml). The same was true for lipids as well as for vitamin E levels (1-26 micrograms/ml) in the plasma of birds. PMID:1905864

  7. Prevention and Treatment of Functional and Structural Radiation Injury in the Rat Heart by Pentoxifylline and Alpha-Tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a severe side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. This study examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) and α-tocopherol on cardiac injury in a rat model of RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received fractionated local heart irradiation with a daily dose of 9 Gy for 5 days and were observed for 6 months after irradiation. Rats were treated with a combination of PTX, 100 mg/kg/day, and α-tocopherol (20 IU/kg/day) and received these compounds either from 1 week before until 6 months after irradiation or starting 3 months after irradiation, a time point at which histopathologic changes become apparent in our model of RIHD. Results: Radiation-induced increases in left ventricular diastolic pressure (in mm Hg: 35 ± 6 after sham-irradiation, 82 ± 11 after irradiation) were significantly reduced by PTX and α-tocopherol (early treatment: 48 ± 7; late treatment: 53 ± 6). PTX and α-tocopherol significantly reduced deposition of collagen types I (radiation only: 3.5 ± 0.2 μm2 per 100 μm2; early treatment: 2.7 ± 0.8; late treatment: 2.2 ± 0.2) and III (radiation only: 13.9 ± 0.8; early treatment: 11.0 ± 1.2; late treatment: 10.6 ± 0.8). On the other hand, radiation-induced alterations in heart/body weight ratios, myocardial degeneration, left ventricular mast cell densities, and most echocardiographic parameters were not significantly altered by PTX and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: Treatment with PTX and α-tocopherol may have beneficial effects on radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function, both when started before irradiation and when started later during the process of RIHD

  8. Distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in polar bear kidney: Implications for biomarker studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, T.Ø.; Jakobsen, Jette; Sonne, C.;

    2011-01-01

    organ to sample in order to get a representative value for this important biomarker. The aim here was to assess the distribution of vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) within the polar bear multireniculate kidney (i.e. polar vs. medial position) and also within the cortex vs. medulla of each...... separate renculi. The results showed no significant difference between the medial and polar renculi with regards to either retinol (p=0.44) or α-tocopherol (p=0.75). There were, however, significant differences between cortex and medulla for both vitamins (retinol, p=0.0003; α-tocopherol, p...

  9. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiao-Xia; Fu, Li; Li, Yan; Lin, Ze-Bang; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Yang-xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE’s cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardi...

  10. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Ze-Bang; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Yang-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE’s cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after myocardial ischemia reperfusion(MI/R). VitE may significantly improved cardiac function in young male mice and aged female mice by enhancing ERK1/2 activity and reducing JNK activity. Enhanced expression of HSP90 and Bcl-2 were also seen in young male mice. No changes in cardiac function and cardiac proteins were detected in aged male mice and VitE was even liked to exert a reverse effect in cardiac function in young mice by enhancing JNK activity and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Those effects were in accordance with the changes of myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group of mice. VitE may reduce MI/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis in young male mice and aged female mice but not in aged male mice. VitE was possibly harmful for young female mice, shown as increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Thus, we speculated that the efficacy of VitE in cardiac protection was associated with age and gender. PMID:26331272

  11. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on pulmonary antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation in cigarette smoke inhaling mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Vipin

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free radicals generated in biological systems by cigarette smoke (CS inhalation can cause oxidative stress in tissues, resulting in lipid peroxidation (LPO. In view of the antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol (AT, in the present study, effects of AT on antioxidant defence system and LPO were investigated in mice inhaling CS for different time intervals. Results Male Balb/c mice were fed orally with AT (5 I.U./Kg.b.wt. and /or exposed to CS for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. No effect was observed on body growth, diet consumption, water intake and lung weight due to AT and /or CS treatment in any of the groups as compared to their control counterparts. After two weeks of treatment, no change in LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes were observed except for glutathione reductase (GR which increased in all the treated groups. A significant increase in pulmonary LPO levels was observed in mice exposed to CS inhalation for 4, 6 or 8 weeks. There was a gradual increase in the LPO levels as the extent of CS inhalation increased from 4 to 8 weeks. However, the extent of increase in LPO levels due to CS exposure for 4, 6 or 8 weeks in the mice treated with AT was comparatively less. A significant decrease in the GSH levels was also observed in all the animals exposed to CS for 4, 6 or 8 weeks. There was a significant increase in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and GR observed in all the groups exposed to CS for 4,6 or 8 weeks. The increase in above antioxidant enzymes seems to be insufficient to combat the oxidative stress posed by CS inhalation. There was a marked decrease observed in the LPO levels in the animals treated with AT alone for 4, 6, or 8 weeks, when compared to their control counterparts. However, the supplementation of AT for 4, 6 or 8 weeks demonstrated a significant increase in GSH levels. Conclusion It appears from our studies that AT exhibits its antioxidant role either directly by scavenging the oxidative species or indirectly by modulating the GSH levels.

  12. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL

  13. Expression of the Alpha Tocopherol Transfer Protein gene is regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulatowski, Lynn; Dreussi, Cara; Noy, Noa; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Klein, Eric; Manor, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is the major lipid soluble antioxidant in most animal species. By controlling the secretion of vitamin E from the liver, the α-tocopherol transfer protein (αTTP) regulates whole-body distribution and levels of this vital nutrient. However, the mechanism(s) that regulate the expression of this protein are poorly understood. Here we report that transcription of the TTPA gene in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) is induced by oxidative stress and by hypoxia, by agonists of the nuclear receptors PPARα and RXR, and by increased cAMP levels. The data show further that induction of TTPA transcription by oxidative stress is mediated by an already-present transcription factor, and does not require de novo protein synthesis. Silencing of the cAMP response element binding (CREB) transcription factor attenuated transcriptional responses of the TTPA gene to added peroxide, suggesting that CREB mediates responses of this gene to oxidative stress. Using a 1.9 Kb proximal segment of the human TTPA promoter together with site-directed mutagenesis approach, we found that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are commonly found in healthy humans dramatically affect promoter activity. These observations suggest that oxidative stress and individual genetic makeup contribute to vitamin E homeostasis in humans. These findings may explain the variable responses to vitamin E supplementation observed in human clinical trials. PMID:23079030

  14. Retinal Ganglion Cell Protection Via Topical and Systemic Alpha-Tocopherol Administration in Optic Nerve Crush Model of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aktaş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: The aim of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of topical α-tocopherol in optic nerve crush model of rat and to compare its efficacy with that of systemic α -tocopherol. Ma te ri al and Met hod: 50 eyes of 25 Wistar albino rats were included. The eyes were divided into six groups. Optic nerve crush was performed in Groups 1, 3, 5. Additionally, systemic and topical α-tocopherol therapies were given to Groups 1 and 3, respectively. No treatment was applied in Group 5. Groups 2, 4, and 6 were the fellow eyes of the animals comprising Groups 1, 3, and 5. Eyes were enucleated at day 45 of the study. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were counted with light microscopy. Re sults: Mean RGC numbers were 14.5±3.7 (10.3-20 and 27.5±2.6 (24-30 in Groups 5 and 6, respectively (p: 0.001 They were measured to be 26.6±7.8 (19-45 and 24.6±3.9 (20-32 in Groups 1 and 2 and 21.1±7.1 (11-34 and 27±7.5 (18-42 in Groups 3 and 4 (p:0.659, p:0.094, respectively. There was no difference in Groups 2 and 4 compared with Group 6 (p:0.210, p:0.299, respectively. Dis cus si on: Topical α-tocopherol has a significant neuroprotective effects in optic nerve crush model of rat and may be used in the future for the treatment of optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 161-6

  15. Maternal Dietary Loads of Alpha-Tocopherol Increase Synapse Density and Glial Synaptic Coverage in the Hippocampus of Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, S.; Ambrogini, P.; Lattanzi, D.; Betti, M.; Gobbi, P.; Galati, C.; Galli, F.; Cuppini, R.; Minelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Gliasynapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses) was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional Tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant gliasynapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning. PMID:24998923

  16. The Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol on Oxidative Stress and Ovarian Function in Rats Exposed to Tobacco Smokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahajeng Siti Nur Ratnawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the role of - tocopherol in inhibiting ovarian oxidative stress, changes in ovarian follicles, estradiol levels, and the thickness of the endometrium in rats exposed to tobacco smoke. Material and Methods: Forty female rats were divided into five groups consisting of a control group; group exposed to tobacco smoke; groups exposed to tobacco smokes receiving  - tocopherol supplementation at doses of 100; 200, and 400 mg/kg. Exposure to tobacco smoke was induced using smoke pumping equipment which was designed and made available in the Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University. Analysis of MDA level was done colorimetrically. Analysis of the number of ovarian follicles and endometrial thickness was done histopathologically with hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of estradiol level was done by ELISA technique. Results: Exposure to tobacco smoke in rats can increase ovarian MDA level (0.388 ± 0.085 significantly compared to the control (0.121 ± 0.026 (P> 0.05. -tocopherol in various doses can reduce MDA level significantly compared to the group exposed to tobacco smoke (P 0.05. Administration of -tocopherol in different doses increased the number of secondary follicles which reached the number in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of primary follicles in the -tocopherol group of the first dose (3.8 ± 1.095 was comparable to the control group (3.8 ± 1.095 (P> 0.05. The numbers of secondary follicles in the -tocopherol group of the first dose (5.2 ± 1.304 and of the second dose (5.4 ± 0.548 were significantly higher than the control group (3.6 ± 0.548 (P 0.05. Tobacco smoke lowered thickness of endometrium (209.491 ± 38.635 significantly compared with no exposure (600.265 ± 76.563 (P 0.05. Conclusion: Regarding the results describe above, it was concluded that -tocopherol could prevent oxidative damage and loss of ovarian function due to exposure to tobacco smoke characterized by decreased levels of MDA, increases in primary and secondary follicles, as well as the hormone estradiol. Furthermore, it also increased the thickness of endometrium. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 203-212

  17. Primary porcine fibroblasts: Ochratoxin A cytotoxicity and role of all-trans-retinol and alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species and it is a contaminant of food and feeds (O’Brien et al., 2001. OTA is a nephrotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic compound and one of the most sensible species among domestic animals is the pig (JECFA, 2001. Production of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS leading to lipid peroxidation was suggested to be one of the mechanisms by which OTA damages the cell (Rahimtula et al., 1988.

  18. Protective effects of carnosine alone and together with alpha-tocopherol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus ethanol-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaz, Esra Betül; Aydın, A Fatih; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Çoban, Jale; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carnosine (CAR) alone and together with vitamin E (Vit E) on alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) in rats. ASH was induced by ethanol (3 times; 5 g/kg; 12 h intervals, via gavage), followed by a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg/kg; i.p.). CAR (250 mg/kg; i.p.) and Vit E (200 mg D-α-tocopherol/kg; via gavage) were administered 30 min before and 90 min after the LPS injection. CAR treatment lowered high serum transaminase activities together with hepatic histopathologic improvements in rats with ASH. Reactive oxygen species formation, malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activities and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and collagen 1α1 (COL1A1) expressions were observed to decrease. These improvements were more remarkable in CAR plus Vit E-treated rats. Our results indicate that CAR may be effective in suppressing proinflammatory, prooxidant, and profibrotic factors in the liver of rats with ASH. PMID:26773358

  19. Total and individual antioxidant intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifkins Dina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limiting oxidative stress to the ovarian epithelium has been proposed as a first-line defense against ovarian cancer. Although evidence for an association between individual dietary antioxidant intake and ovarian cancer risk is conflicting, the combined evidence suggests a modest inverse association. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and individual antioxidant intakes (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, lutein, and lycopene and ovarian cancer risk. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study in New Jersey. Cases were women ages 21 years and older with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer who resided in six counties of New Jersey. Controls were women in the same age range who resided in the same geographic area. A total of 205 ovarian cancer cases and 390 controls were included. Dietary intake was ascertained using the Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and TAC indices were constructed by linking FFQ-derived estimates to two standardized antioxidant capacity databases, the USDA Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC Database, and the University of Olso’s Antioxidant Food Database. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals while controlling for major ovarian cancer risk factors. Results We found a strong inverse association with selenium from food sources (OR: 0.41; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.85, for the highest vs. lowest tertile of dietary selenium intake. However, there was little evidence of an association with dietary TAC or the others individual antioxidants. In contrast, compared to non-users, supplement users had significant increased risk for all micronutrients, but no statistically significant increased risk was observed for combined intake from foods and supplements of any of these antioxidants. Conclusions This study found an inverse association between selenium

  20. Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration among older Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Ishida, Susumu; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kikuchi, Yuriko; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Hosoda, Kanae; Ishigami, Ai; Iwasawa, Satoko; Nakano, Makiko; Takebayashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of human nutrition, the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through diet control is feasible and desirable. We investigated the relationship between serum antioxidants and AMD in the community-dwelling older Japanese eating a typical Japanese diet. In this study, 722 subjects aged 65 years or older (297 males and 425 females) who had gradable fundus photographs were included. The subjects were divided into three groups of early or late AMD or non-maculopathy. Serum antioxidants (alpha-, gamma-tocopherols, retinol, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, and lutein and zeaxanthin) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. To clarify the combined effect as the group of the antioxidants, we defined the carotene family (alpha-, beta-carotenes and lycopene) and carotenoid family (beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-, beta-carotenes, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin). Tertiles of each serum antioxidant were obtained and the prevalence of early or late AMD was compared with univariate or multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of early AMD was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.1-6.2) and late AMD was 1.1% (0.5-2.2). Only alpha-tocopherol and beta-cryptoxanthin were related to late AMD as single antioxidants. On the other hand, the carotene and carotenoid families as a combination of antioxidants were protectively associated with late AMD. No relationship was found between serum antioxidants and early AMD. Our findings support the hypothesis that a combination of serum antioxidants obtained from the traditional Japanese diet is protective for late AMD, but not for early AMD. PMID:19329388

  1. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  2. Recovery of reticulocytes and prevention of radiation-induced weight loss in mice by γ-tocotrienol: possible application to cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-tocotrienol (GT), an alpha-tocopherol (AT, vitamin E) isomer was found to be better than AT against radiation-induced lethality. CD2F1 male mice (LD 50/30 radiation dose 9 Gy) were injected subcutaneously with 10 mg/mouse each of GT or AT. After 24 hrs, mice were given 11 Gy 60 Cobalt radiation. All mice treated with AT survived; only 50% of the mice treated with GT survived. The mechanism of protection may not involve apoptotic pathway since GT did not affect caspase-3 activity whereas AT suppressed radiation-induced increase in activity. Recovery profiles of blood cells and weight loss were also evaluated. Mice were treated with AT, GT, or vehicle prior to sublethal whole-body gamma irradiation. In the AT- and GT-treated mice, the recovery rates of neutrophils, platelets, erythrocytes, and reticulocytes were greater than in vehicle-treated controls. The highest level (265% of the normal) of reticulocytes in GT or AT treated mice was reached in 15 days postirradiation; the highest level (450% of the normal) in vehicle-treated controls was reached 20 days after irradiation. Recovery profile of erythrocytes suggested that reticulocytes in the irradiated controls matured slowly into erythrocytes; reticulocytes in GT or AT treated mice matured at a faster rate. Radiation-induced weight loss was studied at a supralethal dose of 10.5 Gy. All animals, irrespective of the treatments lost up to 20% weight in 5 days. After a transient increase, irradiated controls and AT-treated mice continued to decline in weight (13 to 17%) till day 16 after irradiation. GT-treated mice lost only 1% to 9% after the initial loss in 5 days. These studies indicate that GT may be preferable than AT not only as a non-toxic radiation protective agent but also as an ideal adjuvant in alleviating anemia and weight loss accompanying radiotherapy or chemotherapy of cancer

  3. The vitamin E analog, alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid enhances the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab against HER2/neu-expressing breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HER2/neu is an oncogene that facilitates neoplastic transformation due to its ability to transduce growth signals in a ligand-independent manner, is over-expressed in 20-30% of human breast cancers correlating with aggressive disease and has been successfully targeted with trastuzumab (Herceptin®). Because trastuzumab alone achieves only a 15-30% response rate, it is now commonly combined with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. While the combination of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy has greatly improved response rates and increased survival, these conventional chemotherapy drugs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal and cardiac toxicity, bone marrow and immune suppression. These drawbacks necessitate the development of new, less toxic drugs that can be combined with trastuzumab. Recently, we reported that orally administered alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (α-TEA), a novel ether derivative of alpha-tocopherol, dramatically suppressed primary tumor growth and reduced the incidence of lung metastases both in a transplanted and a spontaneous mouse model of breast cancer without discernable toxicity. In this study we examined the effect of α-TEA plus HER2/neu-specific antibody treatment on HER2/neu-expressing breast cancer cells in vitro and in a HER2/neu positive human xenograft tumor model in vivo. We show in vitro that α-TEA plus anti-HER2/neu antibody has an increased cytotoxic effect against murine mammary tumor cells and human breast cancer cells and that the anti-tumor effect of α-TEA is independent of HER2/neu status. More importantly, in a human breast cancer xenograft model, the combination of α-TEA plus trastuzumab resulted in faster tumor regression and more tumor-free animals than trastuzumab alone. Due to the cancer cell selectivity of α-TEA, and because α-TEA kills both HER2/neu positive and HER2/neu negative breast cancer cells, it has the potential to be effective and less toxic than existing chemotherapeutic drugs when used in

  4. Secondary Analyses of the Effects of Lutein/Zeaxanthin on Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression AREDS2 Report No.3

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Y Chew; Clemons, Traci E.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Danis, Ronald P; Ferris, Frederick L.; Elman, Michael J.; Antoszyk, Andrew; Ruby, Alan; Orth, David; Bressler, Susan B.; Fish, Gary; Hubbard, Baker; Klein, Michael; Chandra, Suresh; Blodi, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation for treatment of age-related macular degeneration contains vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) assessed the value of substituting lutein/zeaxanthin in the AREDS formulation because of the demonstrated risk of lung cancer from beta-carotene in smokers and former smokers. As previously reported in a secondary analysis, AREDS2 participants taking lutein/zeaxanthin with or without omega-3...

  5. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  6. Beta-Carotene chemical stability in nanoemulsions was improved by stabilized with Beta-Lactoglobulin-Catechin conjugates through free radical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-catechin conjugates were prepared by a free radical method and investigated with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and far-UV circular dichroism (CD). Covalent binding between BLG and cat...

  7. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  8. Strong and weak plasma response to dietary carotenoids identified by cluster analysis and linked to beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thomas T Y; Edwards, Alison J; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms as well the genetics underlying the bioavailability and metabolism of carotenoids in humans remain unclear. To begin to address these questions, we used cluster analysis to examine individual temporal responses of plasma carotenoids from a controlled-diet study of subjects who consumed carotenoid-rich beverages. Treatments, given daily for 3 weeks, were watermelon juice at two levels (20-mg lycopene, 2.5-mg β-carotene, n=23 and 40-mg lycopene, 5-mg β-carotene, n=12) and tomato juice (18-mg lycopene, 0.6-mg β-carotene, n=10). Cluster analysis revealed distinct groups of subjects differing in the temporal response of plasma carotenoids and provided the basis for classifying subjects as strong responders or weak responders for β-carotene, lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene. Individuals who were strong or weak responders for one carotenoid were not necessarily strong or weak responders for another carotenoid. Furthermore, individual responsiveness was associated with genetic variants of the carotenoid metabolizing enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. These results support the concept that individuals absorb or metabolize carotenoids differently across time and suggest that bioavailability of carotenoids may involve specific genetic variants of β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. PMID:23517913

  9. A dietary oxidative balance score of vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron intakes and mortality risk in male smoking Belgians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoydonck, van P.G.A.; Temme, E.H.M.; Schouten, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in smokers, whether the oxidative balance of their dietary pattern affected mortality risk. To evaluate the oxidative balance of the dietary pattern, an oxidative balance score was constructed that summarized the combined intake of dietary antioxidants (

  10. A Consensus Linkage Map that Identifies Genomic Regions Controlling Beta-Carotene Quantity and Fruit Maturity in Melon (Cucumis Melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value and yield potential of U.S. Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.) could be improved through the introgression of genes for early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of the quantity of B-carotene (QBC) in fruit mesocarp (i.e., orange mesocarp). Therefore, a set of 116 F3...

  11. Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library

    OpenAIRE

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Kassim, Amelia; Loh, Chye Ying; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the nutritional quality of the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp oil is superior to that of African oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) mesocarp oil. Therefore, it is of important to identify the genetic features for its superior value. This could be achieved through the genome sequencing of the oil-palm. However, the genome sequence is not available in the public domain due to commercial secrecy. Hence, we constructed a cDNA library and generated expres...

  12. Effects of alpha-tocopherol addition to polymeric coatings on the UV and heat resistance of a fibrous collagen material--chrome-free leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    UV and heat resistance are very important qualities of leather because most leather products are constantly exposed to outdoor environments. In recent years, we have focused on using environmentally friendly antioxidants that will improve the UV and heat resistance of chrome-free leather. Tocopher...

  13. The effects of L-carnitine and alpha-tocopherol on acid excretion defect during the acute ureteral obstruction in anaesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtiyani SC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Ureteral obstruction has been shown to induce renal oxidative stress, suppressed energy metabolism and defected acid excretion. This study was aimed to examine the improving effects of L-carnitine, a facilitating cofactor for mitochondrial oxidation of fatty-acids as well as a scavenger of free-radicals, and a-tocopherol as the most potent antioxidant on these renal disorders at early hours following release of unilateral ureteral obstruction. "n"nMethods: The left ureter was ligated in 60 anaesthetised rats, L-carnitine, a-tocopherol, or their vehicles (normal saline and olive oil, respectively were injected (i.p. in four groups. Each rat was re-anesthetized and cannulated, and ureteral legation was released at exactly 24h after UUO-induction. A 30-min clearance period performed to separately collect urine from both kidneys. The collected urine and arterial blood samples were given to pH-gas analyzer and autoanalyzer, and malondialdehyde (MDA, ATP and ADP levels were assessed in preserved kidneys. There were also sham and control groups (n=8-10 in each."n"nResults: In the post-obstructed kidney of vehicle-treated groups with respect to the equivalent kidney of sham group, there were increases in MDA (p<0.001, ADP (p<0.01, urinary pH (p<0.001, absolute (p<0.05 and fractional bicarbonate excretions (p<0.01, but decreases in ATP, ATP/ADP (both p<0.001, and urinary PCO2 (p<0.01. a-tocopherol could normalize MDA level but did not affect the altered amounts of energy metabolic indices and acid-base excretions, while L-carnitine improved all of them except of decreased urinary PCO2."n"nConclusions: Increased bicarbonate-excretion in post-obstructed kidney is due to defected acid-secretion at collecting duct, which is not related to ureteral obstruction-induced renal oxidative stress and suppressed energy metabolism.

  14. Effect of oral alpha-tocopherol and zinc on plasma status, IGF-I levels, weight gain and immune response in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, J.; Jørgensen, C.; Mortensen, S.B.; Jensen, S.K.; Vestergaard, M.; Koch, P.; Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie

    Thirty newborn calves were supplemented with a-tocopherol (vit. E) (n = 10), zinc (Zn) (n = 10) or nothing (control) (n = 10) for 8 weeks. All calves were vaccinated against tetanus at week 5. Plasma Zn and cc-tocopherol were significantly increased in the Zn and vit. E groups, respectively. Plasma...... IGF-I levels generally increased from birth to week 8, but were not affected by Zn or vit. E. Daily weight gain was highest in the Zn group, but this was not related to an increased IGF-I level. The vit. E group responded earlier than the Zn and control groups to the tetanus vaccination....

  15. Effect of oral alpha-tocopherol and zinc on plasma status, IGF-I levels, weight gain and immune response in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, J.; Jørgensen, C.; Mortensen, S.B.; Jensen, S.K.; Vestergaard, M.; Koch, P.; Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie

    Thirty newborn calves were supplemented with a-tocopherol (vit. E) (n = 10), zinc (Zn) (n = 10) or nothing (control) (n = 10) for 8 weeks. All calves were vaccinated against tetanus at week 5. Plasma Zn and cc-tocopherol were significantly increased in the Zn and vit. E groups, respectively. Plasma...

  16. Antioxidant properties of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her essential oil on the reproductive damage induced by deltamethrin in mice as compared to alpha-tocopherol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin has been demonstrated to exert a wide range of effects on non-targeted organisms. The beneficial effects of geranuim essential oil (EO) as an antioxidant has been assessed in deltamethrin (DL) orally administered mice by studying whether the reprotoxicity caused by deltamethrin can be effectively combated with the geranium oil and the effects were compared to vitamin E, as the standard reference drug. Result Sixty male albino mice were divided into six equal groups: a control group, a group of mice was given deltamethrin (5 mg/kg b.w.), two groups were administered deltamethrin after having given geranium essential oil (67 mg/kg b.w.) or vitamin E (Vit E) (100 mg/kg b.w.), and two groups received only EO of geranium or Vit E. When compared to control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg/kg/day causes a decrease in the epididymal sperm count motility and viability and an increase in the number of abnormal morphology in spermatozoa. DL-exposed mice showed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPP) in the testis compared to control animals. Conclusion Essential oil of geranium prevented testicular oxidative damage explored by reduced LPP and improved total sperm motility, viability and morphology in mice spermatozoa. Our study showed a positive influence of geranium essential oil in the animal male reproductive system similar than that of Vit E. PMID:23496944

  17. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  18. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...... 2005. Forage was wilted to a dry-matter (DM) content of 273 g kg−1 and ensiled without additive or with an inoculant or acid. Wilting decreased α-tocopherol concentration by 30% in the Bft + Ti mixture (P = 0·015). Untreated Bft + Ti silage had higher α-tocopherol content than red clover silages (56......·9 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015). The α-tocopherol concentration of Bft + Ti forages increased during ensiling from 41·1 mg kg−1 DM in wilted herbage to 56·9, 65·2 and 56·8 mg kg−1 DM in untreated, inoculated and acid-treated silage respectively (P = 0·015). The inoculant increased α-tocopherol...

  19. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Ingold, K.U.; Burton, G.W.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL.

  20. Prophylactic action of Alpha-tocopherol against Gamma irradiation changes in total lipid and phospholipid contents of brain cerebral hemispheres in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male albino rats were intraperitoneally injected with Gamma tocopherol (vitamin E) at 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, 2 hr, before irradiation exposure. exposure. Rats were then exposed to a whole body dose of gamma irradiation at 7 Gy. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 10 days post irradiation. The two cerebral hemispheres were taken to determine the phospholipids and total lipid contents. whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy caused a significant decrease in the levels of both phospholipids and total lipid contents in the cerebral hemispheres on the 3 rd, 7 Th, and 10 Th days post-irradiation, the decrease was insignificant on the 1 st day post exposure. The variations were less pronounced in rats treated with vitamin E. The results obtained were discussed in view of the relevant literature. 2 tabs

  1. Kost og lungekraeft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder G; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    . Vitamin A, C and E supplements and beta-carotene offer no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, in two major randomised intervention trials beta-carotene supplement has resulted in increased mortality. Smoking remains by far the leading cause of lung cancer and the adverse......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and...... large well-designed original articles were preferred to form the basis of the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and in persons who have never smoked...

  2. Carotenóides: uma possível proteção contra o desenvolvimento de câncer Carotenoids: a possible protection against cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as possibilidades de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer, proporcionadas por carotenóides provenientes da alimentação, com base em uma revisão da literatura. Os carotenóides têm demonstrado uma ação protetora contra a carcinogênese, tanto em estudos in vitro como in vivo, com animais e humanos. Entre eles, a beta-criptoxantina, a fucoxantina, a astaxantina, a capsantina, a crocetina e o fitoeno, têm sido pouco explorados, e a literatura ainda se mostra extremamente limitada e pouco conclusiva. Estudos experimentais com humanos demonstraram não haver efeito, ou efeito reverso, do beta-caroteno, no entanto, não incluíram anteriormente variáveis intervenientes e interativas que deveriam ter sido controladas. A partir da evidência científica, baseada em estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios experimentais recentes, e da elucidação dos mecanismos de atuação de fitoquímicos relacionados à maior proteção contra o câncer, conclui-se que a alimentação rica em carotenóides provenientes das frutas, legumes e verduras, representa um possível fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer.This study is a literature review that discusses the likelihood of dietary carotenoids offering protection against cancer. Carotenoids have been demonstrating a protective action against carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, in animals and humans. Among them, beta-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin, crocetin and phytoene have been little explored and literature is still very lacking and little conclusive. Experimental studies with humans have shown beta-carotene to have no effect or reverse effect; however, they have never included intervenient and interactive variables that should have been controlled. Scientific evidence based on epidemiological studies and recent experimental assays and the elucidation of phytochemical activity mechanisms associated with greater protection against

  3. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial of vitamin E and pentoxifylline in patients with chronic arm lymphoedema and fibrosis after surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Treatment-induced arm lymphoedema is a common and distressing complication of curative surgery and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. A number of studies testing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and pentoxifylline suggest evidence of clinical regression of superficial radiation-induced fibrosis but there is only very limited evidence from randomised trials. Arm lymphoedema after lymphatic radiotherapy and surgery has been used in the present study as a clinical system for testing these drugs in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-eight eligible research volunteers with a minimum 20% increase in arm volume at a median 15.5 years (range 2-41) after axillary/supraclavicular radiotherapy (plus axillary surgery in 51/68 (75%) cases) were randomised to active drugs or placebo. All volunteers were given dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate 500 mg twice a day orally plus pentoxifylline 400 mg twice a day orally, or corresponding placebos, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was volume of the ipsilateral limb measured opto-electronically using a perometer and expressed as a percentage of the contralateral limb volume. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of arm volume. Absolute change in arm volume at 12 months was 2.5% (95% CI -0.40 to 5.3) in the treatment group compared to 1.2% (95% CI -2.8 to 5.1) in the placebo group. The difference in mean volume change between randomisation groups at 12 months was not statistically significant (P=0.6), -1.3% (95% CI -6.1 to 3.5), nor was there a significant difference in response at 6 months (P=0.7), where mean change in arm volume from baseline in the treatment and placebo groups was -2.3% (95% CI -7.9 to 3.4) and -1.1% (95% CI -3.9 to 1.7), respectively. There were no significant differences between randomised groups in terms of secondary endpoints, including tissue induration

  4. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  5. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advanced melanoma. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 12 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  9. Carotenoids and retinol: their possible importance in determining longevity of primate species.

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Aging and cancer share a number of characteristics. This has led to the hypothesis that species' differences in longevity may be governed in part by the same mechanisms as those processes governing species' differences in their age-dependent probability of developing cancer. Much evidence has indicated that beta-carotene and retinol may be important natural anticarcinogens. Accordingly, they also may be important antiaging agents. This possibility has been tested by determining if a positive ...

  10. Effects of vitamin antioxidant supplementation on cell kinetics of patients with adenomatous polyps.

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, R J; O'Sullivan, K R; Mathias, P M; Beattie, S.; Hamilton, H; O'Morain, C

    1993-01-01

    Colonic crypt cell proliferation is used as an indicator of risk of colorectal carcinoma. Subjects with adenomatous polyps and cancer have an increased cell proliferation and a shift of the proliferative zone towards the apex of the crypt. Epidemiological and in vitro studies have confirmed a link between vitamins A, E, C, beta-carotene, and colorectal cancer. In vitro bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with vitamin E (1...

  11. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N. (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India))

    1990-10-01

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of ({sup 14}C)glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D{sub 2}O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D{sub 2}O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation.

  12. Markers of protein oxidation by hydroxyl radical and reactive nitrogen species in tissues of aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuwenburgh, C; Hansen, P; Shaish, A; Holloszy, J O; Heinecke, J W

    1998-02-01

    Many lines of evidence implicate oxidative damage in aging. Possible pathways include reactions that modify aromatic amino acid residues on proteins. o-Tyrosine is a stable marker for oxidation of protein-bound phenylalanine by hydroxyl radical, whereas 3-nitrotyrosine is a marker for oxidation of protein-bound tyrosine by reactive nitrogen species. To test the hypothesis that proteins damaged by hydroxyl radical and reactive nitrogen accumulate with aging, we used isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure levels of o-tyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver from young adult (9 mo) and old (24 mo) female Long-Evans/Wistar hybrid rats. We also measured these markers in young adult and old rats that received antioxidant supplements (alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, butylated hydroxytoluene, and ascorbic acid) from the age of 5 mo. We found that aging did not significantly increase levels of protein-bound o-tyrosine or 3-nitrotyrosine in any of the tissues. Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the levels of protein-bound o-tyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine in either young or old animals. These observations indicate that the o-tyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine do not increase significantly in heart, skeletal muscle, and liver in old rats, suggesting that proteins damaged by hydroxyl radical and reactive nitrogen species do not accumulate in these tissues with advancing age. PMID:9486304

  13. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of [14C]glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D2O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D2O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation

  14. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  15. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  16. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  18. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity assessment on alcoholic extract of cyanobacteria cultures from Spirulina platensis

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran Jagadeesh J, Jaiganesh K, Somasundaram G

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant supplementation such as vitamin C, E, A and beta carotene etc, has proven to prevent the process of ageing caused by free radicals. Antioxidants either prevent free radical production or counteract the impeding damage by doing so they are involved in the protection and prevention of cellular damage which is the common pathway for cancer, aging and much disease. The cyanobacteria is a blue green micro algae believed to be a rich antioxidant source, found in abundance in Spiruli...

  20. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  1. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... often lead to a complete cure. Almost all colon cancers start in the lining of the colon and ...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  5. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Appendix Cancer Appendix Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Appendix Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Appendix Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  6. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  9. Natural protection against harmful oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although still not conclusive, the studies described indicate that topically applied vitamin E can provide protection against ultraviolet radiation when applied alone or in combination with other antioxidants. The general consensus is that, although less stable than the tocopherol esters when used in cosmetic systems, the alcohol form of alpha-tocopherol is the most effective topically-applied skin protectant. Increased UV protection potentially reduces the risk of skin cancer. However, the debate continues regarding the skin’s ability to hydrolyse ester forms of alpha-tocopherol, which are used commercially because of their greater stability during processing and over time in these products. Further research is therefore needed in order to provide more definitive data on what potential benefits or possible disadvantages may be associated with use of the ester forms in these topical applications.

  10. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  11. Cancer Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer) 59,940 8,110 Gynecologic (Cervical, Endometrial, Ovarian) 72,660 26,350 Source: American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 : NCI Cancer Screening Tests Screening tests can find diseases and conditions ...

  12. Gynaecological cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffcoate, T. N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Gynaecological cancer encompasses a number of tumours with different epidemiology, pathology and treatment strategies. This article reviews the principal clinical advances and areas of development in cancer of the ovary, cervix, endometrium and vulva.


Keywords: ovarian cancer; cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; vulval cancer

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  15. HPLC analysis of vitamin E isoforms in human epidermis: correlation with minimal erythema dose and free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jürgen; Weber, Stefan; Podda, Maurizio; Groth, Norbert; Herrling, Thomas; Packer, Lester; Kaufmann, Roland

    2003-02-01

    The content and composition of different vitamin E isoforms was analyzed in normal human skin. Interestingly the epidermis contained 1% alpha-tocotrienol, 3% gamma-tocotrienol, 87% alpha-tocopherol, and 9% gamma-tocopherol. Although the levels of tocotrienol in human epidermis appear to be considerably lower than reported in the hairless mouse, the presence of significant amounts of tocotrienol levels leads to speculation about the physiological function of tocotrienols in skin. Besides antioxidant activity and photoprotection, tocotrienols may have skin barrier and growth-modulating properties. A good correlation was found for epidermal alpha-tocopherol (r = 0.7909, p DPPH) scavenging in epidermis, as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In human epidermis, alpha-tocopherol is quantitatively the most important vitamin E isoform present and comprises the bulk of first line free radical defense in the lipid compartment. Epidermal tocotrienol levels were not correlated with DPPH scavenging activity. The minimal erythema dose (MED), an individual measure for sun sensitivity and a crude indicator for skin cancer susceptibility, did not correlate with the epidermal content of the vitamin E isoforms. Hence it is concluded that vitamin E alone is not a determinant of individual photosensitivity in humans. PMID:12543248

  16. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira; Álvaro Souto Padrón de Figueiredo; Rosane de Souza Santos; Lucia Marques Vianna

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12) e normotensos (n=12) com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica d...

  17. Efeitos do betacaroteno e do tabagismo sobre a remodelação cardíaca pós-infarto do miocárdio Effects of beta-carotene and smoking on heart remodeling after myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. M. Zornoff; Duarte, Daniella R; Marcos F. Minicucci; Azevedo, Paula S.; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Luiz S. Matsubara; Álvaro O. Campana; Paiva, Sergio A.R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do betacaroteno no processo de remodelação ventricular após o infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), em ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro. MÉTODOS: Após o IAM, os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1) grupo C, 24 animais que receberam dieta-padrão; 2) grupo BC, 26 animais que receberam betacaroteno; 3) grupo EFC, 26 animais que receberam dieta-padrão e foram expostos à fumaça de cigarro; e 4) grupo BC+EFC, 20 animais que receberam betacaroteno e foram expostos...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  4. Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-02-12

    Whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, triacylglyerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-carotene. The total lipid contents in the whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% (on a fresh weight basis), respectively. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by oleic acid as the second major fatty acid. Palmitic and stearic acids were the major saturates. In pulp/peel oil, the fatty acid profile was characterized by higher amounts of saturates, monoenes, and trienes than in whole berry and seed oils. Neutral lipids comprised >95% of total lipids in whole berry oil and seed oil, while neutral lipids separated in lower level in pulp/peel oil. Triacylglycerols were the predominant neutral lipid subclass and constituted ca. 81.6, 86.6, and 65.1% of total neutral lipids in whole berry, seed, and pulp/peel oils, respectively. Nine triacylglycerol molecular species were detected, wherein three species, C54:3, C52:2, and C54:6, were presented to the extent of approximately 91% or above. The highest level of phytosterols was estimated in pulp/peel oil that contained the highest level of unsaponifiables. In both whole berry and seed oils, campesterol and beta-sitosterol were the sterol markers, whereas Delta5-avenasterol and campesterol were the main 4-desmethylsterols in pulp/peel oil. The tocopherols level was much higher in pulp/peel oil than in whole berry and seed oils. beta- and gamma-tocopherols were the major components in whole berry and seed oils, whereas gamma- and alpha-tocopherols were the main constituents in pulp/peel oil. beta-Carotene and vitamin K(1) were also measured in markedly high levels in pulp/peel oil followed by whole berry oil and seed oil, respectively. Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of goldenberry oil and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw

  5. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  6. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  7. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  8. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  9. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  10. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  11. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  13. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  14. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  15. Anal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - anus; Squamous cell carcinoma - anal; HPV - anal cancer ... is unclear. However, there is a link between anal cancer and the human papillomavirus or HPV infection. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that makes ...

  17. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  18. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  19. Cancer of the Uterus (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Home For Patients Search FAQs Cancer of the ... Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] FAQ097, May 2011 PDF Format Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Gynecologic Problems What ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  1. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  2. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithran K; Nair P

    1992-01-01

    A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  3. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  4. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Cancer clusters can help scientists identify cancer-causing substances in the environment. For example, in the early 1970s, a cluster ... the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If ...

  5. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreads in different ways, and each is treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body. Learn more about non-small cell lung cancer. Learn ...

  6. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  7. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  8. Supplementing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E and vitamin D3 in high fat diet decrease IL-6 production in murine epididymal adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes following LPS stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oller do Nascimento Claudia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that high fat diets (HFDs induce obesity and an increase in proinflammatory adipokines. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is considered the major inflammatory mediator in obesity. Obesity is associated with a vitamin deficiency, especially of vitamins E and D3. We examined the effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin E supplementation on levels of IL-6 and IL-10 (as a marker of anti-inflammatory cytokines since, a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is maintained protein expression in adipose tissue of mice provided with an HFD. Additionally, we measured the effects of vitamin E and vitamin D3 treatment on LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes IL-6 and IL-10 secretion. Results IL-6 protein levels and the IL-6/IL-10 ratio were decreased in epididymal white adipose tissue in groups receiving vitamins E and D3 supplementation compared to the HFD group. A 24-hour treatment of vitamin D3 and vitamin E significantly reduced the IL-6 levels in the adipocytes culture medium without affecting IL-10 levels. Conclusions Vitamin D3 and vitamin E supplementation in an HFD had an anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing IL-6 production in epididymal adipose tissue in mice and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stimulated with LPS. Our results suggest that vitamin E and D3 supplementation can be used as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the proinflammatory cytokines present in obese patients.

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  10. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  12. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  13. What Causes Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this section you can get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it ... Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer ...

  14. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  15. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ... Using Trusted Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening ...

  20. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Key statistics for colorectal cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? How does colorectal cancer start? Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth ...