WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone protects

  1. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating-hormone precursors in the pig pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of intermediates from the processing of ACTH-(1-39) [adrenocorticotropic hormone-(1-39)] to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was investigated in normal pig pituitaries by the use of sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for ACTH-(1-13), ACTH-(1-14), ACTH-(1-13)-NH2 and ACTH-(1...

  2. Treatment with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone preserves calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Gualtiero; Sordi, Andrea; Lonati, Caterina; Carlin, Andrea; Turcatti, Flavia; Leonardi, Patrizia; Gatti, Stefano; Catania, Anna

    2008-08-01

    Prevention of graft dysfunction is a major objective in transplantation medicine. Previous research on experimental heart transplantation indicated that treatment with the immunomodulatory peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) improves histopathology, prolongs allograft survival, and reduces expression of the main tissue injury mediators. Because calcium-handling is critical in heart graft function, we determined the effects of transplantation injury and influences of alpha-MSH treatment on representative calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts. Hearts from Brown Norway rats were transplanted heterotopically into MHC incompatible Lewis rats. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon), sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 (SERCA2a), arrestin-beta1 (Arrb1), cholinergic receptor M2 (Chrm2), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (InsP(3)R1) were examined in: (1) non-transplanted donor hearts; (2) allografts from saline-treated rats; and (3) allografts from rats treated with the synthetic alpha-MSH analog Nle4-DPhe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH) (100 microg i.p. every 12h). Transplantation injury was associated with severe reduction in calcium regulatory protein transcription and expression level. NDP-alpha-MSH administration partly reversed inhibition of protein transcription and almost completely prevented protein loss. Finally, because certain effects of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling on calcium handling in cardiac myocytes depend on activation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1), we determined Epac1 mRNA and protein expression in heart allografts. Transplantation injury markedly reduced Epac1. NDP-alpha-MSH treatment significantly preserved both Epac1 protein and mRNA in the allografts. Administration of alpha-MSH or related melanocortins could reduce transplantation-induced dysfunction through protection of heart calcium

  3. GABAergic agents prevent alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone induced anxiety and anorexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T Lakshmi; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Sarkar, Sumit; Khisti, Rahul T; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2003-12-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a hypothalamic peptide believed to play a tonic inhibitory role in feeding and energy homeostasis. Systemic administration of alpha-MSH is known to produce anorexia and anxiety. Since synaptic contacts between gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic terminals and alpha-MSH neurons in the hypothalamus have been reported, the present work was undertaken to refine our knowledge on the role of GABAergic systems in anxiety and anorexia induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha-MSH in rats. The anxiety was assessed by elevated plus maze, and spontaneous food consumption was monitored during dark cycle. Prior administration of diazepam and muscimol that promote the function of GABA(A) receptors reversed the anxiogenic response and decreased food intake elicited by alpha-MSH. In contrast, bicuculline, the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, not only enhanced the effects of alpha-MSH but also prevented the influence of GABAergic drugs on alpha-MSH-induced anorexia and anxiety. These findings suggest that alpha-MSH-induced anxiety and anorexia are due to its negative influence on GABAergic system.

  4. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  5. DOTA alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues for imaging metastatic melanoma lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, Sylvie; Calame-Christe, Martine; Sumanovski, Lazar; Tanner, Heidi; Eberle, Alex N

    2003-06-01

    Scintigraphic imaging of metastatic melanoma lesions requires highly tumor-specific radiopharmaceuticals. Because both melanotic and amelanotic melanomas overexpress melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1R), radiolabeled analogues of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) are potential candidates for melanoma diagnosis. Here, we report the in vivo performance of a newly designed octapeptide analogue, [betaAla(3), Nle(4), Asp(5), D-Phe(7), Lys(10)]-alpha-MSH(3-10) (MSH(OCT)), which was conjugated through its N-terminal amino group to the metal chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to enable incorporation of radiometals (e.g., indium-111) into the peptide. DOTA-MSH(OCT) displayed high in vitro MC1R affinity (IC(50) 9.21 nM). In vivo [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) exhibited a favorable biodistribution profile after injection in B16-F1 tumorbearing mice. The radiopeptide was rapidly cleared from blood through the kidneys and, most importantly, accumulated preferentially in the melanoma lesions. Lung and liver melanoma metastases could be clearly imaged on tissue section autoradiographs 4 h after injection of [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT). A comparative study of [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) with [(111)In]DOTA-[Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-alpha-MSH ([(111)In]-DOTA-NDP-MSH) demonstrated the superiority of the DOTA-MSH(OCT) peptide, particularly for the amount of radioactivity taken up by nonmalignant organs, including bone, the most radiosensitive tissue. These results demonstrate that [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) is a promising melanoma imaging agent.

  6. The increase of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the plasma of chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishioh-Ikejima Nobue

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive research, no reliable biological marker for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has yet been identified. However, hyperactivation of melanotrophs in the pituitary gland and increased levels of plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH have recently been detected in an animal model of chronic stress. Because CFS is considered to be caused partly by chronic stress events, increased α-MSH plasma levels may also occur in CFS patients. We therefore examined α-MSH levels in CFS patients. Methods Fifty-five CFS patients, who were previously diagnosed within 10 years of with the disease, were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy volunteers were studied as controls. Fasting bloods samples were collected in the morning and evaluated for their plasma levels of α-MSH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S. Mean levels of α-MSH were compared between the CFS and control groups using Welch's t test. Results The mean plasma α-MSH concentration in the CFS group (17.9 ± 1.0 pg/mL was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (14.5 ± 1.0 pg/mL, p = 0.02. However, there was a wide range of values in the CFS group. The factors correlated with the plasma α-MSH values were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation. A negative correlation was found between the duration of the CFS and the plasma α-MSH values (p = 0.04, rs = -0.28, but no correlations with ACTH, cortisol or DHEA-S levels were identified (p = 0.55, 0.26, 0.33, respectively. The CFS patients were divided into two groups: patients diagnosed for ≤ 5 years' duration, and those diagnosed for 5-10 years' duration. They were compared with the healthy controls using one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. The mean α-MSH concentration in the ≤ 5 years group was 20.8 ± 1.2 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (p Conclusions CFS patients with

  7. Melanoma Therapy with Rhenium-Cyclized Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas P Quinn

    2005-11-22

    Malignant melanoma is the 6th most commonly diagnosed cancer with increasing incidence in the United States. It is estimated that 54,200 cases of malignant melanoma will be newly diagnosed and 7,600 cases of death will occur in the United States in the year 2003 (1). At the present time, more than 1.3% of Americans will develop malignant melanoma during their lifetime (2). The average survival for patients with metastatic melanoma is about 6-9 months (3). Moreover, metastatic melanoma deposits are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy (3). Systematic chemotherapy is the primary therapeutic approach to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Dacarbazine is the only single chemotherapy agent approved by FDA for metastatic melanoma treatment (5). However, the response rate to Dacarbazine is only approximately 20% (6). Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma. The global goal of this research program is the rational design, characterization and validation of melanoma imaging and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Significant progress has been made in the design and characterization of metal-cyclized radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides. Therapy studies with {sup 188}Re-CCMSH demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the receptor-targeted treatment in murine and human melanoma bearing mice (previous progress report). Dosimetry calculations, based on biodistribution data, indicated that a significant dose was delivered to the tumor. However, {sup 188}Re is a very energetic beta-particle emitter. The longer-range beta-particles theoretically would be better for larger tumors. In the treatment of melanoma, the larger primary tumor is usually surgically removed leaving metastatic disease as the focus of targeted radiotherapy. Isotopes with lower beta-energies and/or shorter particle lengths should be better suited for targeting metastases. The {sup 177}Lu

  8. In vivo multiplex quantitative analysis of 3 forms of alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone in pituitary of prolyl endopeptidase deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perroud Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro reactions are useful to identify putative enzyme substrates, but in vivo validation is required to identify actual enzyme substrates that have biological meaning. To investigate in vivo effects of prolyl endopeptidase (PREP, a serine protease, on alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, we developed a new mass spectrometry based technique to quantitate, in multiplex, the various forms of α-MSH. Methods Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM, we analyzed peptide transitions to quantify three different forms of α-MSH. Transitions were first confirmed using standard peptides. Samples were then analyzed by mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, after elution from a reverse phase C18 column by a gradient of acetonitrile. Results We first demonstrate in vitro that PREP digests biological active alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH1–13, by cleaving the terminal amidated valine and releasing a truncated alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH1–12 product – the 12 residues α-MSH form. We then use the technique in vivo to analyze the MRM transitions of the three different forms of α-MSH: the deacetylated α-MSH1–13, the acetylated α-MSH1–13 and the truncated form α-MSH1–12. For this experiment, we used a mouse model (PREP-GT in which the serine protease, prolyl endopeptidase, is deficient due to a genetrap insertion. Here we report that the ratio between acetylated α-MSH1–13 and α-MSH1–12 is significantly increased (P-value = 0.015, N = 6 in the pituitaries of PREP-GT mice when compared to wild type littermates. In addition no significant changes were revealed in the relative level of α-MSH1–13 versus the deacetylated α-MSH1–13. These results combined with the demonstration that PREP digests α-MSH1–13 in vitro, strongly suggest that α-MSH1–13 is an in vivo substrate of PREP. Conclusion The multiplex targeted quantitative peptidomics technique we

  9. Resveratrol Inhibits Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Signaling, Viability, and Invasiveness in Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignancy with high potential to invasion and treatment resistance. The α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH signal transduction involving Wnt/β-catenin, c-Kit, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, a known pathway to produce melanin, has been demonstrated as one of cancer stem cell characteristics. This study was aimed to examine the effect of resveratrol, an abundant ingredient of grape and medicinal plants, on α-MSH signaling, viability, and invasiveness in melanoma cells. By α-MSH treatment, the melanin production in B16 melanoma cells was augmented as a validation for activation of α-MSH signaling. The upregulated expression of α-MSH signaling-related molecules β-catenin, c-Kit, and MITF was suppressed by resveratrol and/or STI571 treatment. Nuclear translocation of MITF, a hallmark of α-MSH signaling activation, was inhibited by combined treatment of resveratrol and STI571. At effective concentration, resveratrol and/or STI571 inhibited cell viability and α-MSH-activated matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-9 expression and invasion capacity of B16 melanoma cells. In conclusion, resveratrol enhances STI571 effect on suppressing the α-MSH signaling, viability, and invasiveness in melanoma cells. It implicates that resveratrol may have potential to modulate the cancer stem cell characteristics of melanoma.

  10. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China); Dong, Changsheng, E-mail: cs_dong@sxau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China)

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  11. Influence of ascorbic acid on in vivo amidation of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone in guinea pig pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Hilsted, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid depletion on the amidation of alphamelanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) was studied in vivo in guinea pig pituitary. After four weeks, the concentration of ascorbic acid was 1.20 +/- 0.11 mumol/g tissue (mean +/- SD) in the pituitary and 0.34 +/- 0.07 mumol....../g tissue in the cerebral cortex from the depleted animals versus 7.58 +/- 0.08 and 1.51 +/- 0.32 mumol/g tissue, respectively, in the control animals. In the pituitaries from the animals depleted of ascorbate (N = 4), the relative amount of alpha MSH was reduced to approximately half the values obtained......-39) immunoreactivity was observed in the depleted guinea pigs. Gel chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance luquid chromatography showed that the alpha MSH and ACTH (1-14) immunoreactivity was of low molecular weight and partly mono- or diacetylated. Depletion of ascorbic acid had no influence on the degree...

  12. Technetium-99m-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides for human melanoma imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianquan; Guo Haixun [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Miao Yubin, E-mail: ymiao@salud.unm.ed [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) hybrid peptide targeting both melanocortin-1 (MC1) and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors was superior in melanoma targeting to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled {alpha}-MSH or RGD peptide targeting only the MC1 or {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor. Methods: RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble were designed to target both MC1 and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors, MC1 receptor only and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor only, respectively. The MC1 or {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor binding affinities of three peptides were determined in M21 human melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble were determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. Meanwhile, the melanoma uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was blocked with various non-radiolabeled peptides in M21 melanoma xenografts. Results: RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH displayed 2.0 and 403 nM binding affinities to both MC1 and {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptors, whereas RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH or RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble lost their {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} integrin receptor binding affinity by greater than 248-fold or MC1 receptor binding affinity by more than 100-fold, respectively. The melanoma uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was 2.49 and 2.24 times (P < .05) the melanoma uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-RAD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH and {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSHscramble at 2 h post-injection, respectively. Either RGD or (Arg{sup 11})CCMSH peptide co-injection could block 42% and 57% of the tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD-Lys-(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, whereas the coinjection of RGD+(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH peptide mixture

  13. Mapping of the gene encoding the melanocortin-1 ([alpha]-melanocyte stimulating hormone) receptor (MC1R) to human chromosome 16q24. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantz, I.; Yamada, Tadataka; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Trent, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1994-01-15

    [alpha]-Melanocyte stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), a hormone originally named for its ability to regulate pigmentation of melanocytes, is a 13-amino-acid post-translational product of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. [alpha]-MSH and the other products of POMC processing, which share the core heptapeptide amino acid sequence Met-Glu (Gly)-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly (Asp), the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), [beta]-MSH, and [gamma]-MSH, are collectively referred to as melanocortins. While best known for their effects on the melanocyte (pigmentation) and adrenal cortical cells (steroidogenesis), melanocortins have been postulated to function in diverse activities, including enhancement of learning and memory, control of the cardiovascular system, analgesia, thermoregulation, immunomodulation, parturition, and neurotrophism. To identify the chromosomal band encoding the human melanocortin-1 receptor gene, 1 [mu]g of an EMBL clone coding region of the human MC1R and approximately 15 kb of surrounding DNA was labeled with biotin and hybridized to human metaphase chromosomes as previously described. The results indicate that the human MC1R gene is localized to 16q24.3. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Dual receptor-targeting ⁹⁹mTc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone hybrid peptides for human melanoma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingli; Yang, Jianquan; Miao, Yubin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the substitution of the Lys linker with the aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker could substantially decrease the non-specific renal uptake of (99m)Tc-labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptides. The RGD motif {Arg-Gly-Asp-DTyr-Asp} was coupled to [Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe(7), Arg(11)]α-MSH₃₋₁₃ via the Aoc or PEG₂ linker to generate RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and RGD-PEG-(Arg(11))CCMSH. The biodistribution results of (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH were examined in M21 human melanoma-xenografted nude mice. The substitution of Lys linker with Aoc and PEG₂ linker significantly reduced the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH by 58% and 63% at 2h post-injection. The renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH and (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH was 27.93 ± 3.98 and 22.01 ± 9.89% ID/g at 2 h post-injection. (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH displayed higher tumor uptake than (99m)Tc-RGD-PEG₂-(Arg(11))CCMSH (2.35 ± 0.12 vs. 1.71 ± 0.25% ID/g at 2 h post-injection). The M21 human melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using (99m)Tc-RGD-Aoc-(Arg(11))CCMSH as an imaging probe. The favorable effect of Aoc and PEG₂ linker in reducing the renal uptake provided a new insight into the design of novel dual receptor-targeting radiolabeled peptides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogues and their inducers for the treatment of vitiligo%α黑素细胞刺激素类似物及其诱导剂治疗白癜风的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨; 张海萍

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH),the strongest endogenous immunomodulatory small-molecule neuroendocrine peptide among melanocyte stimulating hormones,is mainly produced in the pituitary gland.α-MSH can promote melanocytes to proliferate and produce melanosomes,regulate the differentiation of melanocytes through the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor,and finally cause skin pigmentation.Many studies have shown that α-MSH levels are decreased in the epidermis and sera in patients with vitiligo.The α-MSH analogue afamelanotide,which can induce the expression of α-MSH by melanocytes,and the sex steroid thyroid hormone metharmon-F,both can be used to treat vitiligo through action on melanocytes,and have been lately recommended for the treatment of vitiligo at clinics.%α黑素细胞刺激素作为黑素细胞刺激素中作用最强的一种内源性小分子神经内分泌免疫调节肽,主要在脑垂体中产生.α黑素细胞刺激素可以促进黑素细胞增殖、产生黑素小体以及通过小眼畸形相关转录因子调节黑素细胞分化,引起皮肤色素沉着.研究发现,白癜风患者表皮及血浆中的α黑素细胞刺激素浓度降低.临床推荐α黑素细胞刺激素的类似物afamelanotide和性类固醇甲状腺激素治疗白癜风,性类固醇甲状腺激素可诱导黑素细胞α黑素细胞刺激素的表达,两者均可利用α黑素细胞刺激素作用于黑素细胞的原理而治疗白癜风.

  16. Tyrosol and Its Analogues Inhibit Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Induced Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Wen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is responsible for skin color and plays a major role in defending against harmful external factors such as ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Tyrosinase is responsible for the critical steps of melanogenesis, including the rate-limiting step of tyrosine hydroxylation. The mechanisms of action of skin hypopigmenting agents are thought to be based on the ability of a given agent to inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and, hence, down regulate melanin synthesis. Tyrosol and its glycoside, salidroside, are active components of Rhodiola rosea, and in our preliminary study we found that Rhodiola rosea extract inhibited melanogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of tyrosol and its analogues on melanin synthesis. We found that treatment of B16F0 cells to tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7, or salidroside (11 resulted in a reduction in melanin content and inhibition of tyrosinase activity as well as its expression. Tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5 and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7 suppressed MC1R expression. Tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7 inhibited α-MSH induced TRP-1 expression, but salidroside (11 did not. All the compounds did not affect MITF and TRP-2 expression. Furthermore, we found that the cell viability of tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7 at concentrations below 4 mM and salidroside (11 at concentrations below 0.5 mM were higher than 90%. The compounds exhibited metal-coordinating interactions with copper ion in molecular docking with tyrosinase. Our results suggest that tyrosol, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and salidroside are potential hypopigmenting agents.

  17. Tyrosol and its analogues inhibit alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone induced melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Chien, Yin-Chih; Wang, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Wan-Chen; Wu, Chin-Sheng; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-11-28

    Melanin is responsible for skin color and plays a major role in defending against harmful external factors such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Tyrosinase is responsible for the critical steps of melanogenesis, including the rate-limiting step of tyrosine hydroxylation. The mechanisms of action of skin hypopigmenting agents are thought to be based on the ability of a given agent to inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and, hence, down regulate melanin synthesis. Tyrosol and its glycoside, salidroside, are active components of Rhodiola rosea, and in our preliminary study we found that Rhodiola rosea extract inhibited melanogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of tyrosol and its analogues on melanin synthesis. We found that treatment of B16F0 cells to tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6), 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7), or salidroside (11) resulted in a reduction in melanin content and inhibition of tyrosinase activity as well as its expression. Tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5) and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7) suppressed MC1R expression. Tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6), and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7) inhibited α-MSH induced TRP-1 expression, but salidroside (11) did not. All the compounds did not affect MITF and TRP-2 expression. Furthermore, we found that the cell viability of tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6), and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7) at concentrations below 4 mM and salidroside (11) at concentrations below 0.5 mM were higher than 90%. The compounds exhibited metal-coordinating interactions with copper ion in molecular docking with tyrosinase. Our results suggest that tyrosol, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and salidroside are potential hypopigmenting agents.

  18. Metastatic melanoma imaging with an {sup 111}In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Haixun; Shenoy, Nalini; Gershman, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jianquan [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Sklar, Larry A. [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Miao Yubin [College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)], E-mail: ymiao@salud.unm.edu

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether a novel lactam bridge-cyclized {sup 111}In-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Gly-Glu-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp] {l_brace}DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH{r_brace} could be an effective imaging probe for metastatic melanoma detection. Methods: {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH was prepared and purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The internalization and efflux of {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH were examined in B16/F10 melanoma cells. The biodistribution of {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH was determined in B16/F10 pulmonary metastatic melanoma-bearing and normal C57 mice. Pulmonary metastatic melanoma imaging was performed by small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT (Nano-SPECT/CT) using {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH as an imaging probe and compared with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Results: {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH was readily prepared with greater than 95% radiolabeling yield. {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH displayed rapid internalization and extended efflux in B16/F10 cells. {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH exhibited significantly (P<.05) higher uptakes (2.00{+-}0.74%ID/g at 2 h post-injection and 1.83{+-}0.12%ID/g at 4 h post-injection) in metastatic melanoma-bearing lung than that in normal lung (0.08{+-}0.08%ID/g and 0.05{+-}0.05%ID/g at 2 and 4 h post-injection, respectively). The activity accumulation in normal organs was low (<0.5%ID/g) except for the kidneys 2 and 4 h post-injection. B16/F10 pulmonary melanoma metastases were clearly visualized with {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH 2 h post-injection rather than with [{sup 18}F]FDG 1 h post-injection. Conclusions: {sup 111}In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH exhibited favorable metastatic melanoma-targeting and -imaging properties, highlighting its potential as an effective imaging probe for metastatic melanoma detection.

  19. Pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides in the pig pituitary: alpha- and gamma 1-melanocyte-stimulating hormones and their glycine-extended forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1988-01-01

    to the neurointermediate lobe (19.8 nmol POMC/anterior lobe vs 7.0 nmol/neurointermediate lobe). In the neurointermediate lobe 93% of POMC was processed to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and analogs exclusively of low molecular weight. Most of the remaining adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH...

  20. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  1. Breast Milk Hormones and Their Protective Effect on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fissore MariaF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.

  2. Advances on human milk hormones and protection against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Benetti, S; Liguori, S A; Sorrenti, M; Cordero Di Montezemolo, L

    2013-11-03

    Extensive research shows that breast milk could have positive health effects not limited to infancy, but extend into childhood and adulthood. Recently many studies have provided new evidence on the long—term positive effects of breastfeeding, in particular protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that breast milk may have a role in the programming of later metabolic diseases. The mechanism throughout breastfeeding that exerts these effects has been a major focus of interest for researchers and it is still not completely known. There are some hints for biological plausibility of beneficial effects of breastfeeding including macronutrient intake, hormonal and behavioural mechanisms related to breast milk composition. Breast milk biochemical components, such as protein quantity and quality, polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides, cytokines and hormones, in particular leptin, adiponectin and resistin together with the breastfeeding practice itself can influence infants feeding behaviour and regulation of growth and appetite control later in life. Further research is needed to confirm the possibility that hormones present in breast milk exert a metabolic and beneficial effects.

  3. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-12-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero.

  4. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone plasma levels and environmental illumination in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: a role for the neurosecretory system of the vena cava in cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Christopher S; Metz, Juriaan R; Flik, Gert; Williamson, Roddy

    2002-02-15

    A melanotropin-like peptide (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-MSH) is suggested to be released into the circulatory system of cephalopods via the neurosecretory system of the vena cava or NSV, where neurosecretory vesicles contained within the axons of the NSV-neuropil on the inner surface of the vena cava lie in close contact with the venous circulation. Radioimmunoassay of blood plasma samples taken from the cephalic vein of anaesthetised cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis showed that immunoreactive alpha-MSH (ir alpha-MSH) was detectable within the cuttlefish circulatory system. The validity of the assay for determination of cuttlefish ir alpha-MSH was determined by parallelism of the alpha-MSH standard curve against serially diluted cuttlefish plasma samples. Plasma samples taken during a natural day-night-day illumination cycle showed a significant elevation in ir alpha-MSH concentration to 1.44 +/- 0.26 ng ml(-1) during the middle of the dark phase compared to concentrations of 0.48 +/- 0.13 and 0.35 +/- 0.10 ng ml(-1) in the middle of the light phases of the illumination cycle. So far, indirect evidence suggests Sepia officinalis may modulate chromatophore activity, body patterning, and behaviour via neuroendocrine release and circulating titres of this proopiomelanocortin-derived peptide. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  5. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  6. Protective effect of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone agonist in bacterial toxin-induced pulmonary barrier dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan eCzikora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Antibiotic treatment of patients infected with G- or G+ bacteria promotes release of the toxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS and pneumolysin (PLY in their lungs. Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH agonist JI-34 protects human lung microvascular cells (HL-MVEC, expressing splice variant 1 (SV-1 of the receptor, from PLY-induced barrier dysfunction. We investigated whether JI-34 also blunts LPS-induced hyperpermeability. Since GHRH receptor signaling can potentially stimulate both cAMP-dependent barrier-protective pathways as well as barrier-disruptive protein kinase C pathways, we studied their interaction in GHRH agonist-treated HL-MVEC, in the presence of PLY, by means of siRNA-mediated PKA depletion.Methods. Barrier function measurements were done in HL-MVEC monolayers using Electrical Cell substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS and VE-cadherin expression by Western blotting. Capillary leak was assessed by Evans Blue dye incorporation. Cytokine generation in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid was measured by multiplex analysis. PKA and PKC-alpha activity were assessed by Western blotting. Results. GHRH agonist JI-34 significantly blunts LPS-induced barrier dysfunction, at least in part by preserving VE-cadherin expression, while not affecting inflammation. In addition to activating PKA, GHRH agonist also increases PKC-alpha activity in PLY-treated HL-MVEC. Treatment with PLY significantly decreases resistance in control siRNA-treated HL-MVEC, but does so even more in PKA-depleted monolayers. Pretreatment with GHRH agonist blunts PLY-induced permeability in control siRNA-treated HL-MVEC, but fails to improve barrier function in PKA-depleted PLY-treated monolayers. Conclusions. GHRH signaling in HL-MVEC protects from both LPS and PLY-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction and concurrently induces a barrier-protective PKA-mediated and a barrier-disruptive PKC-alpha-induced pathway in the presence of PLY, the former of which dominates the latter.

  7. Protective effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone against x-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schally, A.V.; Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Schlosser, J.V.; Karashima, T.; Debeljuk, L.; Gandle, B.; Sampson, M.

    1987-02-01

    Possible protective effects of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH and antagonist N-Ac(D-Phe(pCl)/sup 1,2/,D-Trp/sup 3/,D-Arg/sup 6/,D-Ala/sup 10/)LH-RH against testicular damage caused by x-radiation were investigated in rats. Three months after being subjected to x-irradiation of the testes with 415 or 622 rads, control rats showed marked reduction in the weights of the testes and elevated levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), indicating tubular damage. Histological studies demonstrated that, in testes of rats given 415 rads, most seminiferous tubules had only Sertoli cells and no germinal cells, and, in the group give 622 rads, the depression of spermatogenesis was even more marked. Rats pretreated for 50 days with LH-RH antagonist showed a complete recovery of testicular weights and spermatogenesis 3 months after 415 rads and showed partial recovery after 622 rads, and LH and FSH levels returned to normal in both of these groups. Three experiments were also carried out in which the rats were pretreated for 1-2 months with long-acting microcapsules of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH. Some rats were then subjected to gonadal irradiation with 415 or 622 rads and allowed a recovery period of 2-4 months. On the basis of testicular weights, histology, and gonadotropin levels, it could be concluded that the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH did not protect the rat testes exposed to 622 rads and, at most, only partially protected against 415 rads. These results suggest that pretreatment with LH-RH antagonists and possibly agonists, might decrease the testicular damage caused by radiation and accelerate the recovery of reproductive functions.

  8. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals.

  9. Higher serum aldosterone correlates with lower hearing thresholds: a possible protective hormone against presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-11-01

    Aldosterone hormone is a mineralocorticoid secreted by adrenal gland cortex and controls serum sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) levels. Aldosterone has a stimulatory effect on expression of sodium-potassium ATPase (Na, K-ATPase) and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in cell membranes. In the present investigation, the relation between serum aldosterone levels and age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and the correlation between these levels versus the degree of presbycusis in humans were examined. Serum aldosterone concentrations were compared between normal hearing and presbycusic groups. Pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), hearing in noise test (HINT) and gap detection were tested for each subject and compared to the serum aldosterone levels. A highly significant difference between groups in serum aldosterone concentrations was found (p = 0.0003, t = 3.95, df = 45). Highly significant correlations between pure-tone thresholds in both right and left ears, and HINT scores versus serum aldosterone levels were also discovered. On the contrary, no significant correlations were seen in the case of TEOAEs and gap detection. We conclude that aldosterone hormone may have a protective effect on hearing in old age. This effect is more peripheral than central, appearing to affect inner hair cells more than outer hair cells.

  10. Protective actions of melatonin and growth hormone on the aged cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sergio D; Forman, Katherine A; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that certain aspects of lifestyle and genetics act as risk factors for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary disease, hypertension, heart failure and stroke. Aging, however, appears to be the major contributor for morbidity and mortality of the impaired cardiovascular system. Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin seem to prevent cardiac aging, as they contribute to the recovery of several physiological parameters affected by age. These hormones exhibit antioxidant properties and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis. This paper summarizes a set of studies related to the potential role that therapy with GH and melatonin may play in the protection of the altered cardiac function due to aging, with a focus on experiments performed in our laboratory using the senescence-accelerated mouse as an aging model. In general, we observed significantly increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in hearts from senescence-accelerated prone 10-month-old animals compared to 2-month-old controls, while anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic markers as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase were decreased. Senescence-accelerated resistant animals showed no significant changes with age. GH or melatonin treatment prevented the age-dependent cardiac alterations observed in the senescence-accelerated prone group. Combined administration of GH plus melatonin reduced the age-related changes in senescence-accelerated prone hearts in an additive fashion that was different to that displayed when administered alone. GH and melatonin may be potential agents for counteracting oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging heart.

  11. Effects of immunosuppression on avian coccidiosis: cyclosporin A but not hormonal bursectomy abrogates host protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, H S

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment and hormonal bursectomy on Eimeria tenella infection of chickens were investigated to evaluate the role of humoral antibody and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the host protective immunity to an intestinal protozoan disease, coccidiosis. Hormonal bursectomy had no significant effect on the host response to E. tenella. CsA treatment had a differential effect on the course of disease depending on how CsA was given relative to infection. Daily administration of CsA for 7 days beginning 1 day before primary infection with E. tenella enhanced disease resistance, whereas a single dose of CsA given before primary infection enhanced disease susceptibility compared with that of untreated controls. Chickens treated with CsA during the primary infection were resistant to reinfection at 5 weeks post-primary infection. Treatment of chickens immune to E. tenella with CsA at the time of secondary infection abrogated their resistance to reinfection despite the presence of high levels of coccidia-specific secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G. Splenic lymphocytes obtained after CsA treatment demonstrated a substantially depressed concanavalin A response, but not a depressed lipopolysaccharide response. Because CsA was not directly toxic to parasites in vivo when administered during the secondary infection, these results suggest that CsA interacts with the immune system to allow priming during the primary infection, while interfering with the effector function of CMI during the secondary infection. Taken together, present findings indicate that CMI plays a major role in host protective immunity to E. tenella. PMID:3496277

  12. Alpha-amidated peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin in normal human pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Johnsen, A H

    1988-01-01

    Normal human pituitaries were extracted in boiling water and acetic acid, and the alpha-amidated peptide products of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha MSH), gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma 1MSH), and amidated hinge peptide (HP-N), as well...

  13. Growth Hormone Protects the Intestine Preserving Radiotherapy Efficacy on Tumors: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Caz

    Full Text Available The efficacy of radiotherapy on tumors is hampered by its devastating adverse effects on healthy tissue, particularly that of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects cause acute symptoms that are so disruptive to patients that they can lead to interruption of the radiotherapy program. These adverse effects could limit the intensity of radiation received by the patient, resulting in a sublethal dose to the tumor, thus increasing the risk of tumor resistance. The lack of an effective treatment to protect the bowel during radiation therapy to allow higher radiation doses that are lethal to the tumor has become a barrier to implementing effective therapy. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of both intestinal and tumor tissue in regard to the efficacy and the preventive impact of a short-term growth hormone (GH treatment in tumor-bearing rats as a protective agent during radiotherapy. Our data show that the exogenous administration of GH improved intestinal recovery after radiation treatment while preserving the therapeutic effect against the tumor. GH significantly increased proliferation in the irradiated intestine but not in the irradiated tumors, as assessed by Positron Emission Tomography and the proliferative markers Ki67, cyclin D3, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. This proliferative effect was consistent with a significant increase in irradiated intestinal villi and crypt length. Furthermore, GH significantly decreased caspase-3 activity in the intestine, whereas GH did not produce this effect in the irradiated tumors. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment protects the bowel, inducing proliferation while reducing apoptosis in healthy intestinal tissue and preserving radiotherapy efficacy on tumors.

  14. The Plant Hormone Cytokinin Confers Protection against Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Eman; Stopper, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Modulating key dynamics of plant growth and development, the effects of the plant hormone cytokinin on animal cells gained much attention recently. Most previous studies on cytokinin effects on mammalian cells have been conducted with elevated cytokinin concentration (in the μM range). However, to examine physiologically relevant dose effects of cytokinins on animal cells, we systematically analyzed the impact of kinetin in cultured cells at low and high concentrations (1nM-10μM) and examined cytotoxic and genotoxic conditions. We furthermore measured the intrinsic antioxidant activity of kinetin in a cell-free system using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay and in cells using the dihydroethidium staining method. Monitoring viability, we looked at kinetin effects in mammalian cells such as HL60 cells, HaCaT human keratinocyte cells, NRK rat epithelial kidney cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. Kinetin manifests no antioxidant activity in the cell free system and high doses of kinetin (500 nM and higher) reduce cell viability and mediate DNA damage in vitro. In contrast, low doses (concentrations up to 100 nM) of kinetin confer protection in cells against oxidative stress. Moreover, our results show that pretreatment of the cells with kinetin significantly reduces 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide mediated reactive oxygen species production. Also, pretreatment with kinetin retains cellular GSH levels when they are also treated with the GSH-depleting agent patulin. Our results explicitly show that low kinetin doses reduce apoptosis and protect cells from oxidative stress mediated cell death. Future studies on the interaction between cytokinins and human cellular pathway targets will be intriguing. PMID:28005918

  15. The protective and hormonal effects of proanthocyanidin against gastric mucosal injury in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshikazu; Matsui, Teruaki; Arakawa, Yasuyuki

    2004-09-01

    Proanthocyanidin, a grape-seed polyphenol, has been reported to have protective properties against vascular injury and ulcers, preventive effects against atherosclerosis and cancer, and antioxidative effects, such as improving lipid metabolism and slowing aging. However, little has been reported on its antiulcer effects. We aimed to elucidate the antiulcer mechanism of proanthocyanidin. Gravinol, containing 89.3% proanthocyanidin, was used. Proanthocyanidin solution, in distilled water, at 0.002%, 0.02%, 0.2%, or 1%, was given to rats ad libitum for 2 weeks. Distilled water was given to control rats. The effect of proanthocyanidin on gastric mucosal injury was investigated with the water-immersion restraint stress model. The ratios of areas of hemorrhagic erosion were compared as the lesion index. Myeloperoxidase activities were also examined, as an index of tissue injury. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured to examine its antioxidative effect. Furthermore, serum gastrin, somatostatin, histamine, and prostaglandin E(2) levels were measured in this rat model. Proanthocyanidin administration significantly suppressed gastric mucosal injury, induced by water-immersion restraint stress, in a dose-dependent manner. Myeloperoxidase activities were also significantly inhibited, whereas superoxide dismutase activities were significantly stimulated. As to gastrointestinal hormones, the secretion of gastrin, somatostatin, and histamine was significantly inhibited, while prostaglandin E(2) secretion was significantly stimulated. Proanthocyanidin was shown to have a protective effect on the gastric mucosa. The mechanisms underlying the effect of proanthocyanidin were considered to be the following: anti-gastrin and anti-histamine effects to prevent attacks by water-immersion restraint stress, and mucoprotective properties, bestowed by increased prostaglandin and increased superoxide dismutase activities in the gastric mucosa.

  16. Alpha-MSH decreases core and brain temperature during global cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, S.; Moldovan, Mihai; Oprica, M.

    2005-01-01

    A key pathological event during cerebral ischemia is the excitotoxic release of glutamate. We have shown previously that alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) enhances the hypothermia induced by kainic acid. We have investigated the effects of systemic administration of alpha-MSH on four...

  17. Evidence for expression of melanocortin-1 receptor in human sebocytes in vitro and in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schiller, Meinhard; Ständer, Sonja; Seltmann, Holger; Li, Zhuo; Brzoska, Thomas; Metze, Dieter; Schiöth, Helgi B; Skottner, Anna; Seiffert, Kristina; Zouboulis, Christos C; Luger, Thomas A

    2002-03-01

    Many lines of evidence indicate that the activity of sebaceous glands can be modulated by neuropeptides. Direct evidence in man, however, is still missing. We show that SZ95 sebocytes, an immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line, express receptors for alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with primers against the five melanocortin receptors and immunofluorescence studies using an antibody directed against a peptide corresponding to the amino acids 2-18 of the human melanocortin-1 receptor disclosed specific transcripts and immunoreactivity for melanocortin-1 receptor in these cells. Melanocortin-1 receptor expression was confirmed in sebocytes of normal human skin by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, no immunostaining for the melanocortin-5 receptor could be detected in sebocytes in situ, in accordance with the lack of specific transcripts for this melanocortin receptor in SZ95 sebocytes. As cytokines play an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cells in acne and related disorders and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone exerts immunomodulatory effects in many other cell types, we investigated the effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on interleukin-8 secretion by SZ95 sebocytes. Treatment with interleukin-1beta resulted in a marked increase in interleukin-8 release that was partially blocked by coincubation with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, we show here that the melanocortin-1 receptor is expressed in vitro and in situ in human sebocytes. By modulating interleukin-8 secretion, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone may act as a modulator of inflammatory responses in the pilosebaceous unit.

  18. Low Prevalence of Periodontitis in Acromegaly: Growth Hormone May Exert a Protective Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Serinsöz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD measurements and the presence of periodontitis in patients with acromegaly, as well as to inquire the impact of interfering factors. Material and Method: Forty-seven acromegalic patients with any accompanying condition known to affect calcium-bone metabolism and 60 age-matched healthy controls were included. Age, gender, duration and activity of acromegaly, past-present therapy options, pituitary hormone profiles, replacement therapies, and the results of periodontal analysis were recorded. Results: Eighteen patients were male (38.3%, 29 were female (61.7%. The mean age of the patients was 46.6±11.5 years, twenty-five (53.1% had active, 22 (46.8% had inactive acromegaly. The latter were older and had longer disease duration (p=0.04, p=0.003, respectively. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion and BMD at the lumbar spine and femur neck insignificantly associated with disease activity (p>0.05. Osteoporosis was detected in 6 patients (12.76%. Periodontitis and advanced periodontitis were more common in control group (66.7% vs. 44.7%, (43.3% vs. 12.8% (p=0.022, p=0.0001, respectively. There was no difference in chronic periodontitis and severity between active and inactive groups (48% vs. 40.9%; p=0.279. No difference was noted in other study parameters, as well. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated statistically insignificant distribution between GH change in time and periodontitis subgroups. Discussion: We demonstrated that acromegaly exerted no clear negative impact on vertebral BMD in the absence of overt hypogonadism. Regardless of disease activity, acromegaly cases exhibited lower rates of periodontitis with less severity which remained unchanged in the presence of accompanying metabolic disorders known to have negative impact on periodontal tissue. Chronic exposure to excess GH may have a protective role against periodontitis. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 42-48

  19. Growth hormone and nutrition as protective agents against methotrexate induced enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; de Segura, I A; Vázquez, I; López, J M; De Miguel, E

    2001-03-01

    To determine whether exogenously administered growth hormone can reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucosa injury. The expected results will allow to consider its potential clinical use. Experimental and randomized study. Experimental Surgery Service, La Paz University Hospital. Adult Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. A chemotherapy protocol with methotrexate (MTX) (120 mg/kg) was employed. Animals fed either with a normoproteic or a hyperproteic liquid diet were treated with either saline or growth hormone (1 mg/kg/day) since three days before until four days after chemotherapy. Animals were sacrificed seven days after MTX administration for tissue sampling. Co-administration of growth hormone and a hyperproteic diet increased intestinal crypt proliferation and reduced MTX-induced apoptosis. Jejunal mucosal structure (morphometry), proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptosis (TUNNEL) were assessed.

  20. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Hexarelin Protects Rat Cardiomyocytes From in vivo Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Interleukin-1 Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiannan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Yusheng; Lu, Qinghua

    2017-04-06

    Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been proven to possess cardioprotective actions through its binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a and the non-GHSR receptor CD36. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully clarified in vivo. We aimed to determine whether hexarelin treatment could protect cardiomyocytes from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. In vivo hearts of male SD rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia by left coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion. The rats were then treated subcutaneously twice daily with hexarelin [100 μg/kg·day], ghrelin [400 μg/ kg·day], or saline for 7 days. Echocardiography, malondialdehyde detection, and histochemical staining were performed after treatment. In addition, Western blot was used to examine the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and IL-1RI. Our study showed that hexarelin treatment improved cardiac systolic function, decreased malondialdehyde production, and increased the number of surviving cardiomyocytes. The beneficial effects of hexarelin treatment were slightly superior to those of equimolar ghrelin treatment. We meanwhile confirmed that hexarelin induced down-regulation of IL-1β expression and up-regulation of IL-1Ra expression in I/R myocardium, which could be neutralized by the GHSR antagonist [D-Lys3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6). These findings suggest that hexarelin protects in vivo cardiomyocytes from I/R injury partly by modification of the IL-1 signaling pathway through the activation of cardiac GHSR1a receptors.

  1. The synthetic thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, protects cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus of naturally aged mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ailing Fu; Rumei Zhou; Xingran Xu

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine, play important roles in cognitive func-tion during the mammalian lifespan. However, thyroid hormones have not yet been used as a therapeutic agent for normal age-related cognitive deficits. In this study, CD-1 mice (aged 24 months) were intraperitoneally injected with levothyroxine (L-T4;1.6μg/kg per day) for 3 consecutive months. Our findings revealed a significant improvement in hippocampal cyto-skeletal rearrangement of actin and an increase in serum hormone levels of L-T4-treated aged mice. Furthermore, the survival rate of these mice was dramatically increased from 60%to 93.3%. The Morris water maze task indicated that L-T4 restored impaired spatial memory in aged mice. Furthermore, level of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine, and superoxide dismutase were in-creased in these mice, thus suggesting that a possible mechanism by which L-T4 reversed cognitive impairment was caused by increased activity of these markers. Overall, supplement of low-dosage L-T4 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for normal age-related cognitive deifcits.

  2. Hormonal prevention of breast cancer: Mimicking the protective effect of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Full term pregnancy early in life is the most effective natural protection against breast cancer in women. Rats treated with chemical carcinogen are similarly protected by a previous pregnancy from mammary carcinogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland does not explain this phenomenon, as shown by the relative ineffectiveness of perphenazine, a potent mitogenic and differentiating agent. Here, we show that short term treatment of nulliparous rats with pregnancy levels ...

  3. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  4. Glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone protect intestinal barrier function following portal hypertension surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Feng Tang; Yun-Biao Ling; Nan Lin; Zheng Hao; Rui-Yun Xu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of combined treatment of glutamine (Gln) and recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH) on intestinal barrier function following portal hypertension surgery.METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective,randomized and controlled clinical trial. Forty two patients after portal hypertension surgery were randomly assigned into 2 groups: control group (n = 20) and supplemental group (adding Gin and rhGH, n = 22). Every patient received isocaloric and isonitrogenous standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) starting 3 d after surgery for 7 d. Blood samples were obtained before surgery and at the 3rd and 10th day postoperatively. Host immunity was evaluated by measuring levels of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, IgG, IgM and IgA, and the inflammatory responses were determined by assessing IL-2, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Intestinal permeability and integrity was evaluated by L/M test and histological examination, respectively.RESULTS: On postoperative d 10, CD4, CD4/CD8, IgG and IL-2 levels in supplemental group were significantly higher than those in control group (33.7 ± 5.5 vs 31.0± 5.4, P < 0.05, (1.17 ± 0.32 vs 1.05 ± 0.15, P < 0.05,13.94 ± 1.09 vs 12.33±1.33, P < 0.05, and 368.12± 59.25 vs 318.12 ± 45.65, P < 0.05, respectively),whereas the increase in serum TNF-α concentration was significantly reduced (41.02 ± 27.56 vs 160.09 ± 35.17,P < 0.05). The increase in L/M ratio was significantly lower in the supplemental group than in the control group (0.0166 ± 0.0017 vs 0.0339 ± 0.0028, P < 0.05).Moreover, mucosal integrity in the supplemental group was better than in the control group.CONCLUSION: Postoperative administration of TPN supplemented with Gin and rhGH in patients after portal hypertension surgery improves immune function,modulates inflammatory response, prevents the intestinal mucous membrane from atrophy and preserves intestinal integrity.

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related protein protects renal tubuloepithelial cells from apoptosis by activating transcription factor Runx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Juan A; Sanz, Ana B; Ortiz, Alberto; Esbrit, Pedro

    2013-05-01

    Runx2 is a key transcription factor in bone development regulating several processes, including osteoblast apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in osteoblasts depend on Runx2-mediated transcription of prosurvival genes. In the kidney, PTH-related protein (PTHrP) promotes tubulointerstitial cell survival by activating the PTH/PTHrP type 1 receptor. We found that Runx2 is expressed in renal tubuloepithelial MCT and HK2 cell lines in vitro and in the mouse kidney tubuloepithelium in vivo. The 1-36 amino-acid fragment of PTHrP was found to increase the expression and nuclear translocation of Runx2 in both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PTHrP(1-36) protected renal tubuloepithelial cells from folic acid toxicity and serum deprivation, an effect inhibited by a dominant-negative Runx2 construct or a Runx2 siRNA. Furthermore, PTHrP(1-36) upregulated the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and osteopontin, and these effects were abolished by Runx2 siRNA. Runx2, osteopontin, and Bcl-2 were increased in tubuloepithelial cells from transgenic mice with PTHrP overexpression and in wild-type mice with acute or chronic renal failure. Thus, PTHrP regulates renal tubuloepithelial cell survival via Runx2 in the mammalian kidney.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Protects Osteoblastic Cells From Oxidative Stress by Activation of MKP1 Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Juan A; Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Castelbón-Calvo, Irantzu; Martínez de Toda, Irene; De la Fuente, Mónica; Esbrit, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative damage is an important contributor to the morphological and functional changes in osteoporotic bone. Aging increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress and induce osteoblast apoptosis. ROS modify several signaling responses, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, related to cell survival. Both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its bone counterpart, PTH-related protein (PTHrP), can regulate MAPK activation by modulating MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP1). Thus, we hypothesized that PTHrP might protect osteoblasts from ROS-induced apoptosis by targeting MKP1. In osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 and MG-63 cells, H2 O2 triggered p38, JNK, ERK and p66(Shc) phosphorylation, and cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, PTHrP (1-37) rapidly but transiently increased ERK and Akt phosphorylation without affecting p38, JNK, or p66(Shc) activation. H2 O2 -induced p38 and ERK phosphorylation and apoptosis were both decreased by pre-treatment with specific kinase inhibitors or PTHrP (1-37) in both osteoblastic cell types. These dephosphorylating and prosurvival actions of PTHrP (1-37) were prevented by a phosphatase inhibitor cocktail, the phosphatase MKP1 inhibitor sanguinarine or a MKP1 siRNA. PTHrP (1-37) promptly enhanced MKP1 protein and gene expression and MKP1-dependent catalase activity in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, exposure to PTHrP (1-37) adsorbed in an implanted hydroxyapatite-based ceramic into a tibial defect in aging rats increased MKP1 and catalase gene expression in the healing bone area. Our findings demonstrate that PTHrP counteracts the pro-apoptotic actions of ROS by a mechanism dependent on MKP1-induced dephosphorylation of MAPKs in osteoblasts. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 785-796, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk for endometrial cancer. Taking progestin with estrogen seems to protect against this cancer. So if you have a ... menopause without taking hormones. They can also help protect your bones, improve your heart health , and help you stay ...

  8. Melanocortin Peptide Therapy for the Treatment of Arthritic Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Getting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthritic pathologies are a major cause of morbidity within the western world, with rheumatoid arthritis affecting approximately 1% of adults. This review highlights the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring hormones and their peptides, in both arthritic models of disease and patients. The arthritides represent a group of closely related pathologies in which cytokines, joint destruction, and leukocytes play a causal role. Here we discuss the role of naturally occurring pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC-derived melanocortin peptides (e.g., alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone [a-MSH] and synthetic derivatives in these diseases. Melanocortins exhibit their biological efficacy by modulating proinflammatory cytokines and subsequent leukocyte extravasation. Their biological effects are mediated via seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, of which five have been cloned, identified, and termed MC1 to MC5. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone represents the parent molecule of the melanocortins; the first 13 amino acids of which (termed a-MSH have been shown to be the most pharmacologically active region of the parent hormone. The melanocortin peptides have been shown to display potent anti-inflammatory effects in both animal models of disease and patients. The potential anti-inflammatory role for endogenous peptides in arthritic pathologies is in its infancy. The ability to inhibit leukocyte migration, release of cytokines, and induction of anti-inflammatory proteins appears to play an important role in affording protection in arthritic injury, and thus may lead to potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Degarelix monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists plus anti-androgen flare protection in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Damber, Jan-Erik; Malmberg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    hazards regression model and a conditional logistic regression model was used for a case-control analysis of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Patients received degarelix monotherapy (n = 972) or LHRH agonist (n = 483) of whom 57 also received AA. Overall, prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival....../ml in the LHRH agonist + AA group, a case-control analysis using a conditional logistic regression model was utilized. This resulted in an OR for PSA PFS of 0.42 (95% CI 0.20-0.89; p = 0.023) in the overall population, and 0.35 (95% CI 0.13-0.96; p = 0.042) in patients with PSA >50 ng/ml at baseline, when...... protection therapy in patients with prostate cancer when a case-control analysis was used to compensate for differences between treatment groups....

  10. Regulation of mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract: the role of sex hormones in immune protection against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira, Charles R; Fahey, John V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V

    2014-08-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets.

  11. Design, synthesis, and testing of multivalent compounds targeted to melanocortin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika

    Our focus is on developing non-invasive molecular imaging reagents, which target human cancers that presently are difficult to detect, such as melanoma. We wish to apply the multivalency concept to differentiate between healthy cells and melanoma cells. Melanoma cells are known to over-express alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptors. A successful multivalent construct should show greater avidity towards melanoma cells than healthy cells due to the synergistic effects arising from multivalency. Both oligomeric and shorter linear constructs bearing the minimum active sequence of melanocyte stimulating hormone, His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2(MSH4), which binds with low micromolar affinity to alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptors, were synthesized. Binding affinities of these constructs were evaluated in a competitive binding assay by competing with labeled ligands, Eu-DTPA-PEGO-MSH7 and/or Eu-DTPA-PEGO-NDP-alpha-MSH on the engineered cell line HEK293 CCK2R/hMC4R, which is genetically modified to over-express both the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R) and human melanocortin 4 receptor (hMC4R). The oligomers were rapidly assembled using microwave-assisted copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition between a dialkyne derivative of MSH4 and a diazide derivative of (Pro-Gly)3 as co-monomers. Three oligomer mixtures were further analyzed based on their degree of oligomerization and the route by which the MSH4 monomers were oligomerized, protected vs deprotected. Completive binding assay against Eu-DTPA-PEGO-MSH7 showed only a statistical enhancement of binding when calculated based on the total MSH4 concentration. However, when the calculation of avidity is based on an estimation of the particles numbers, there was a seven times enhancement of binding compared to a monovalent MSH4 control. The shorter linear multivalent MSH4 constructs were synthesized using ethylene glycol, glycerol, and mannitol as core scaffolds with maximum inter-ligand distances ranging from 27

  12. Role of high mobility group box-1 and protection of growth hormone and somatostatin in severe acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.F. [Department of Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wu, M. [Department of Surgery, Jinshan Pavilion Forest Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ma, B.J.; Cai, D.A.; Yin, B.B. [Department of Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-09-12

    In this study, we investigated the potential role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the effects of growth hormone (G) and somatostatin (S) in SAP rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 each: sham-operated, SAP, SAP+saline, SAP+G, SAP+S and SAP+G+S. Ileum and pancreas tissues of rats in each group were evaluated histologically. HMGB1 mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. Levels of circulating TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were also measured. In the SAP group, interstitial congestion and edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial hemorrhage occurred in ileum and pancreas tissues. The levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and endotoxin were significantly up-regulated in the SAP group compared with those in the sham-operated group, and the 7-day survival rate was 0%. In the SAP+G and SAP+S groups, the inflammatory response of the morphological structures was alleviated, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and endotoxin were significantly decreased compared with those in the SAP group, and the survival rate was increased. Moreover, in the SAP+G+S group, all histological scores were significantly improved and the survival rate was significantly higher compared with the SAP group. In conclusion, HMGB1 might participate in pancreas and ileum injury in SAP. Growth hormone and somatostatin might play a therapeutic role in the inflammatory response of SAP.

  13. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth ...

  14. Conservation outside protected areas and the effect of human-dominated landscapes on stress hormones in Savannah elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M A; Maldonado, J E; Eggert, L S; Fleischer, R C; Western, D; Brown, J L

    2013-06-01

    Biodiversity conservation strategies are increasingly focused on regions outside national protected areas, where animals face numerous anthropogenic threats and must coexist with human settlements, livestock, and agriculture. The effects of these potential threats are not always clear, but they could have profound implications for population viability. We used savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) as a case study to assess the physiological stress associated with living in a human-livestock-dominated landscape. We collected samples over two 3-month periods in 2007 and 2008. We used fecal DNA to identify 96 individual elephants in a community conservation area (CCA) and measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations as a proxy for stress. The CCA is community Maasai land managed for livestock and wildlife. We compared the FGM concentrations from the CCA to FGM concentrations of 40 elephants in Amboseli National Park and 32 elephants in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, where human settlements and intense livestock grazing were absent. In the CCA, we found no significant individual differences in FGM concentrations among the elephants in 2007 (p = 0.312) or 2008 (p = 0.412) and no difference between years (p = 0.616). The elephants in the CCA had similar FGM concentrations to the Maasai Mara population, but Amboseli elephants had significantly lower FGM concentrations than those in either Maasai Mara or the CCA (Tukey pairwise test, p elephants living on CCA communal land, which is encouraging for conservation strategies promoting the protection of animals living outside protected areas.

  15. Attenuation of monocyte chemotaxis--a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of action for the cardio-protective hormone B-type natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezeva, Nadezhda; Collier, Patrick; Voon, Victor; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Watson, Chris; Baugh, John

    2013-08-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a prognostic and diagnostic marker for heart failure (HF). An anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective role for BNP was proposed. In cardiovascular diseases including pressure overload-induced HF, perivascular inflammation and cardiac fibrosis are, in part, mediated by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1-driven monocyte migration. We aimed to determine the role of BNP in monocyte motility to MCP1. A functional BNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) was identified in human monocytes. BNP treatment inhibited MCP1-induced THP1 (monocytic leukemia cells) and primary monocyte chemotaxis (70 and 50 %, respectively). BNP did not interfere with MCP1 receptor expression or with calcium. BNP inhibited activation of the cytoskeletal protein RhoA in MCP1-stimulated THP1 (70 %). Finally, BNP failed to inhibit MCP1-directed motility of monocytes from patients with hypertension (n = 10) and HF (n = 6) suggesting attenuation of this anti-inflammatory mechanism in chronic heart disease. We provide novel evidence for a direct role of BNP/NPRA in opposing human monocyte migration and support a role for BNP as a cardio-protective hormone up-regulated as part of an adaptive compensatory response to combat excess inflammation.

  16. Evidence against protective role of sex hormone estrogen in Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in ovarectomized rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Nasri, Hamid; Talebi, Ardeshir; Pilehvarian, Ali-Asghar; Safari, Tahereh; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Haghighi, Maryam; Ashrafi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is an effective drug in cancer therapy to treat the solid tumors, but it is accompanied with nephrotoxicity. The protective effect of estrogen in cardiovascular diseases is well-documented; but its nephron-protective effect against CP-induced nephrotoxicity is not completely understood. Thirty ovarectomized Wistar rats were divided in to five groups. Groups 1-3 received different doses of estradiol valerate (0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/week) in sesame oil for 4 weeks, and at the end of week 3, a single dose of CP (7 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]) was administrated. Group 4 (positive control) received the same regimen as group 1-3 without estradiol without vehicle. The negative control group (Group 5) received sesame oil during the study. The animals were sacrificed 1 week after CP injection for histopathological studies. The serum level of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, kidney tissue damage score (KTDS), kidney weight and percentage of body weight change in CP-treated groups significantly increased (P CP. Finally, significant correlation between KTDS and kidney weight was detected (r (2) = 0.63, P CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Moreover, it seems that the mechanism may be related to estrogen-induced oxidative stress in the kidney, which may promote the nephrotoxicity.

  17. Adrenocorticotropin hormone 1-39 promotes proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells and protects from excitotoxic and inflammation-related damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Joyce A; Nedelkoska, Liljana; Lisak, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Oligodendroglia (OL) are highly susceptible to damage and, like neurons, are terminally differentiated. It is important to protect OL precursors (OPC) because they are reservoirs of differentiating cells capable of myelination following perinatal insult and remyelination in white matter diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients with relapsing-remitting MS are commonly treated with high-dose corticosteroids (CS) when experiencing an exacerbation. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), a primary component of another approved MS exacerbation treatment, is a melanocortin peptide that stimulates production of CS by the adrenals. Melanocortin receptors are also found in the central nervous system (CNS) and on immune cells. ACTH is produced within the CNS and may have CS-independent effects on glia. We found that ACTH 1-39 stimulated proliferation of OPC, and to a lesser extent astroglia (AS) and microglia (MG), in rat glial cultures. ACTH accelerated differentiation of PDGFRα(+) OPC to a later stage marked by galactolipid expression and caused greater expansion of OL myelin-like sheets compared with untreated cells. Protective effects of ACTH on OPC were assessed by treating cultures with selected toxic agents, with or without ACTH. At 200 nM, ACTH protected OPC from death induced by staurosporine, glutamate, NMDA, AMPA, kainate, quinolinic acid, H2 O2 , and slow NO release, but not against kynurenic acid or rapid NO release. These agents and ACTH were not toxic to AS or MG. Our findings indicate that ACTH 1-39 provides benefits by increasing the number of OPC, accelerating their development into mature OL, and reducing OPC death from toxic insults.

  18. Carnitine protects the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from glucose-induced reduction of survival depending on the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni, E-mail: Dorothe.J.Deusing@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Beyrer, Melanie, E-mail: m.beyrer@web.de; Fitzenberger, Elena, E-mail: Elena.Fitzenberger@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Wenzel, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.wenzel@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de

    2015-05-08

    Besides its function in transport of fatty acids into mitochondria in order to provide substrates for β-oxidation, carnitine has been shown to affect also glucose metabolism and to inhibit several mechanisms associated with diabetic complications. In the present study we used the mev-1 mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans fed on a high glucose concentration in liquid media as a diabetes model and tested the effects of carnitine supplementation on their survival under heat-stress. Carnitine at 100 μM completely prevented the survival reduction that was caused by the application of 10 mM glucose. RNA-interference for sir-2.1, a candidate genes mediating the effects of carnitine revealed no contribution of the sirtuin for the rescue of survival. Under daf-12 RNAi rescue of survival by carnitine was abolished. RNA-interference for γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 2, encoding the key enzyme for carnitine biosynthesis did neither increase glucose toxicity nor prevent the rescue of survival by carnitine, suggesting that the effects of carnitine supplementation on carnitine levels were significant. Finally, it was demonstrated that neither the amount of lysosomes nor the proteasomal activity were increased by carnitine, excluding that protein degradation pathways, such as autophagy or proteasomal degradation, are involved in the protective carnitine effects. In conclusion, carnitine supplementation prevents the reduction of survival caused by glucose in C. elegans in dependence on a nuclear hormone receptor which displays high homologies to the vertebrate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors. - Highlights: • Carnitine protects from glucose-induced reduction of stress-resistance. • Carnitine acts via the PPAR homolog DAF-12 on glucose toxicity. • Carnitine protects from glucose toxicity independent of protein degradation.

  19. The protective role of sex hormones in females and exercise prehabilitation in males on sternotomy-induced cranial hypoperfusion in aortic banded mini-swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, T Dylan; Hiemstra, Jessica A; Edwards, Jenna C; Ferguson, Brian S; Laughlin, M Harold; Emter, Craig A

    2017-03-01

    During cardiac surgery, specifically sternotomy, cranial hypoperfusion is linked to cerebral ischemia, increased risk of perioperative watershed stroke, and other neurocognitive complications. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the effect of sex hormones in females and exercise prehabilitation in males on median sternotomy-induced changes in cranial perfusion in a large animal model of heart failure. Cranial blood flow (CBF) before and 10 and 60 min poststernotomy was analyzed in eight groups of Yucatan mini-swine: female control, aortic banded, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized + aortic banded; male control, aortic banded, aortic banded + continuous exercise trained, and aortic banded + interval exercise trained. A median sternotomy decreased cranial perfusion during surgery in all pigs (~24 ± 2% relative to baseline; P ≤ 0.05). CBF was 30 ± 7% lower across all time points in all females vs. all males (P ≤ 0.05) and sternotomy decreased cranial perfusion (P ≤ 0.05) independent of sex (females = 34 ± 3% and males = 14 ± 3%) and aortic banding (intact control = 31 ± 5% and intact aortic banded = 31 ± 4%). CBF recovery at 60 min tended to be better in females vs. males (relative to 10 min poststernotomy, females = 23 ± 13% vs. males = -1 ± 5%) and intact aortic banded vs. control pigs (relative to 10 min poststernotomy, aortic banded = 43 ± 20% vs. control = 6 ± 16%; P ≤ 0.05) at 60 min poststernotomy. Ovariectomy impaired CBF recovery during cranial reperfusion 60 min following sternotomy (relative to baseline, all intact females = -1 ± 9% vs. all ovariectomized females = -15 ± 4%; P ≤ 0.05). Chronic exercise training completely prevented significant sternotomy-induced cranial hypoperfusion independent of aortic banding (sternotomy-induced deficit, all sedentary males = -24 ± 6% vs. all exercise-trained males = -7 ± 3%; P ≤ 0.05). Female sex hormones protected against impaired CBF recovery during reperfusion, while

  20. Effects of supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and hormonal parameters of embryo recipient heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Angel Cardona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PPUFA has positive effects on cow reproduction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding a source of PPUFA to energy supplements for embryo recipient heifers on productive performance and plasma concentrations of progesterone, cholesterol and insulin. For this purpose, 44 Angus x Hereford embryo recipient heifers (average body weight = 385 kg raised on pasture were studied in a completely randomized design. The effects of PPUFA added to isocaloric energy supplements for 60 days on production parameters and serum concentrations of cholesterol, progesterone and insulin were evaluated. The treatments consisted of individual supplementation with: 1 control (no supplement; 2 corn (corn, 70%; soybean meal, 30%; 3 PPUFA supplement (Megalac-E®, 30%; soybean meal, 20%; commercial ration, 50%. The treatments did not affect (P>0.05 dry matter intake, pregnancy rates, or serum insulin concentration. However, PPUFA supplement increased (P0.05 in dry matter intake between treatments, PPUFA supplement increased (P<0.05 average daily gain compared to the control and corn treatments. The inclusion of PPUFA in energy supplements offered to heifers used in an embryo transfer program increased average daily gain and serum concentrations of cholesterol and progesterone, but did not affect pregnancy rates.

  1. Parathyroid hormone-related protein overexpression protects goat mammary gland epithelial cells from calcium-sensing receptor activation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sun, Yongsen; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Yu, Qian; Yao, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Normal mammary gland epithelial cells and breast cancer cells express the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which is the master regulator of systemic calcium metabolism. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells downregulates parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels in milk and in the circulation, and increases calcium transport into milk. However, very little information is available on the role of CaSR in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs) apoptosis. In this investigation, the full-length cDNA of CaSR from Xinong Saanen dairy goats was cloned, which contains an open-reading frame of 3,258 bp encoding 1,085 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 121.0 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.65. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous with sheep, and the goat CaSR gene is mapped to chromosome 1. Quantitative real-time PCR suggested that CaSR was predominantly expressed in the heart, kidney and mammary gland. Then, we found the stimulation of CaSR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) contributed to increase CaSR mRNA levels in GMECs and simultaneously promoted cell apoptosis, and these effects were abrogated partially by NPS2390 which is an inhibitor of CaSR. We also demonstrated that Ca(2+) increased CaSR mRNA levels and induced GMECs apoptosis and restrained cell proliferation. In contrast, PTHrP overexpression protected GMECs from calcium-induced apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, these results suggest that PTHrP overexpression protects GMECs from CaSR activation-induced apoptosis.

  2. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  3. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  4. Fever's glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, P A; Boulant, J A

    1996-03-01

    The importance of an upper limit of the febrile response has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the precise temperature defining this limit varies according to the site at which body temperature is measured, human core temperature is almost never permitted to rise above 41 degrees C-42 degrees C during fever. There are compelling physiological reasons for such an upper limit of regulated body temperature. The mechanisms by which the limit is maintained are most likely complex and involve special properties of thermoregulatory neurons themselves, circulating endogenous antipyretics (such as arginine vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), and soluble receptors for the (pyrogenic) cytokine mediators of the febrile response.

  5. Hormonal influences on osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, M J; Frame, B

    1987-01-26

    Osteoporosis has recently received increased attention in both the medical and lay literature. It is estimated that there are more than one million osteoporosis-related fractures yearly in the United States, which are responsible for between three and four billion dollars in health care expenditures. A discussion of osteoporosis requires consideration of both the physiology and pathophysiology of bone tissue. In a structural sense, bone exists in two forms, the outer compact cortex accounting for 80 percent of total bone volume, and the more porous inner trabecular bone. Bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts are responsible for the ongoing, life-long process of formation and resorption of bone. Sex hormone deficiency, as well as chronic illness, malnutrition, and childhood immobilization, has deleterious effects on growth and modeling, ultimately reducing peak bone mass and setting the stage for osteoporosis in later life. Estrogen is known to have a protective effect on the female skeleton. The mechanisms of this effect are unknown, although estrogen may protect against parathyroid hormone-mediated bone loss. There may be a particular subset of postmenopausal women who are particularly susceptible to estrogen deficiency. Calcitonin levels, which decrease postmenopausally, return to normal with estrogen; other hormones may also play important roles. Osteoporosis is not the result of a single hormonal deficiency or excess; it must be considered in relation to other pathogenetic and risk factors.

  6. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  7. Growth Hormone Protects Against Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in States of Low Circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1)*

    OpenAIRE

    Fritton, J. Christopher; Emerton, Kelly B; SUN, HUI; Kawashima, Yuki; Mejia, Wilson; Wu, Yingjie; Rosen, Clifford J.; Panus, David; Bouxsein, Mary; Majeska, Robert J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Yakar, Shoshana

    2009-01-01

    Early after estrogen loss in postmenopausal women and ovariectomy (OVX) of animals, accelerated endosteal bone resorption leads to marrow expansion of long bone shafts that reduce mechanical integrity. Both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are potent regulators of bone remodeling processes. To investigate the role of the GH/IGF-1 axis with estrogen deficiency, we used the liver IGF-1-deficient (LID) mouse. Contrary to deficits in controls, OVX of LID mice resulted in...

  8. The protective effect of soybean phytochemicals on androgen responsive human prostate cancer cells LNCaP is likely mediated through modulation of hormone/cytokine-dependent pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population studies suggested that the consumption of a soy rich diet provides protective effects against several chronic diseases including prostate cancer. However, the active components in soy, as well as the mechanisms of action of soy’s protective effects, remain unclear. It would be important t...

  9. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  10. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  11. The effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues on breast cancer and ovarian function protection%GnRH类似物在乳腺癌治疗中的应用和卵巢功能保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范嘉躜; 杨振宇; 曾涛

    2012-01-01

      促性腺激素释放激素(gonadotropin-releasing hormone,GnRH)类似物治疗绝经前乳腺癌具有疗效好、停药后卵巢功能可恢复的特点,已取代手术和放疗成为治疗绝经前乳腺癌的一种主要治疗手段,现主要介绍GnRH类似物在乳腺癌内分泌治疗中的应用及其卵巢功能保护作用。%  The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues for the treatment of breast cancer has the characteristic of efficacy and menstruation recovery after treatment, which has replaced surgery and radiotherapy as a main treatment approach in the treatment of patients with premenopausal breast cancer. The effects of GnRH analogues on both the endocrine treatment of breast cancer and the protection of ovarian function are reviewed.

  12. Parathyroid Hormone in Osteoporosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Özkul

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation, prevents or reverses bone loss, increases bone mass, bone strength and provides protection against fractures. PTH treatment for postmenopausal, male and glucocorticoid- induced osteoporosis proved to be effective in a number of RCTs.

  13. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of estrogen therapy relieve vaginal dryness. • Systemic estrogen protects against the bone loss that occurs early in menopause and helps prevent hip and spine fractures. • Combined estrogen and progestin therapy may reduce the risk of ...

  14. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production ...

  15. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone ...

  16. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  17. [Women, immunity and sexual hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenberg, R

    1995-01-01

    How a weakened immune system affects the female's reproductive system is explained. The female's endocrine system controls the menstrual and reproductive systems, and the immune system attacks harmful substances and organisms. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to produce the hormones FSH and LH, which in turn signal the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones cause a mature egg to be released. If fertilized, the egg remains within the uterus; if not, menstruation occurs. HIV-positive females often complain of menstrual cycle changes, such as irregular periods, depression, or pain. The virus, other complications, or medications, such as AZT, may cause these symptoms. Estrogen therapy may help those with suppressed immune systems who have premature menopause. Oral contraceptives offer protection against pregnancy, but not HIV. It is not known if the pill reacts adversely with AIDS treatment drugs. Lists are provided showing the pros and cons of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy.

  18. Protective Effects of Royal Jelly and Vitamin C against Experimental Hemolytic Anemia on Sex Hormones and Histochemical Testicle Tissue Histochemistry of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Anbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ is a well-known hemolytic compound inducing intoxication in erythrocytes. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of royal jelly and vitamin C against phenylhydrazine-induced damages in mouse testicles. Methods: In this study, 64 adult male mice were randomly and equally assigned to eight groups. The first group received normal saline (0.1ml intraperitoneally. The second group received PHZ (6 mg/100 gr intraperitoneally in 48-hour intervals. The third group received vitamin C (250 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally perday a long with PHZ. The fourth group received royal jelly (100 mg/kg/day through gavage. The fifth group received PHZ along with vitamin C and royal jelly in similar doses to the previous groups. The sixth group received only vitamin C, the seventh group recieved only royal jelly, and finally the eighth group received similar doses of vitamin C and royal jelly. After 35 days, serum and tissue samples were taken and used for histochemical (Mallory-Azan, Alkaline phosphatase, Oil red-O and PAS, and serum analyses (Testosterone, LH, FSH. Results: The study results revealed the histochemical changes in testicular tissue of the phenylhydrazine group, in which vitamin C and royal jelly partly improved the changes. Furthermore, serum analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in testosterone, FSH and LH levels, which this decrease was diminished by royal jelly and vitamin C. Conclusions: Royal jelly and vitamin C seem to have the potential to decrease serum and tissue damages induced by phenylhydrazine via restraining free radicals.

  19. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  20. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  1. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin....... Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke...... suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular...

  2. [Hormonal contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilepskaia, V N

    1991-12-01

    Effective contraceptives contribute to the regulation of births, protect the health of women, reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and gynecological diseases, and prevent abortion-related complications. Complications after abortion average 30%, and among primigravidas the rate reaches 45%. Abortion can result in sterility and in the inability to carry out the pregnancy. Oral contraceptives (OCs) are used by 150 million globally. In new preparations ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) are the most common components. In the 2-phase and 3-phase preparations Sequilar, Anteovin, and lipid profile safe Triquilar the gestagen component was reduced 40%. Continuin and Famulen are minipills, and Postinor is a postcoital contraceptive. Absolute contraindications of OCs include thromboembolytic diseases, severe cardiovascular system diseases, liver disorders, cirrhosis, cerebral vascular diseases, grave diabetes, jaundice, and malignant tumors of the mammae and sexual organs. Rigevidon, Triquilar, and Trisiston have high steroid content with minimal side effects. The protective effect of OCs are: 2-3 times lower risk of inflammation of the small pelvis, lower risk of malignant and benign ovarian tumors that lasts even after discontinuation, uterine cancer prevention (antiproliferation effect on the endometrium and inhibition of mitotic activity of the myometrium), and reduced risk of benign breast neoplasms. The finding that estrogen-induced risk of breast cancer increases with longterm contraceptive use in young nulliparas has not been persuasively proven. The optimal duration of uninterrupted OC use is 1-1.5 years. Monophasic estrogen-gestagen preparations include Bisecurin, Non-Ovlon, Ovidon, Rigevidon, Minisiston, and Demulen with low dosages of EE, LNG, norethisterone acetate, and diacetate ethonodiol. Norplant is a subdermal silastic capsule with effectiveness for up to 5 years.

  3. Alpha-amidated peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin in normal human pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Johnsen, A H

    1988-01-01

    Normal human pituitaries were extracted in boiling water and acetic acid, and the alpha-amidated peptide products of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha MSH), gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma 1MSH), and amidated hinge peptide (HP-N), as well...... as their glycine-extended precursors, were characterized by sequence-specific radioimmunoassays, gel-chromatography, h.p.l.c. and amino acid sequencing. alpha MSH and gamma 1MSH constituted 0.27-1.32% and 0.10-5.10%, respectively, of the POMC-derived products [calculated as the sum of adrenocorticotropic hormone...... (ACTH)-(1-39), ACTH-(1-14) and alpha MSH immunoreactivity]. alpha MSH and ACTH-(1-14) were only present in non- or mono-acetylated forms. Only large forms of gamma 1MSH and gamma 2MSH were present in partly glycosylated states. The hinge peptides were amidated to an extent two to three orders...

  4. Immunocytochemical demonstration of proopiomelanocortin- and other opioid-related substances and a CRF-like peptide in the gut of the american cockroach, Periplaneta americana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols, D; Verhaert, P; Huybrechts, R; Vaudry, H; Jégou, S; De Loof, A

    1987-01-01

    Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, we showed the presence of peptides which are immunologically resembling mammalian corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF)-, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-, beta-endorphin (beta-END)-, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-, methionine-enkephalin (met-ENK)- and leucine enkephalin (leu-ENK)- like immunoreactivity in hundreds to thousands of endocrine cells and nerve fibers in the midgut of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. In the cockroach hindgut no immunoreactive cell bodies could be observed, although nerve fibers were clearly noticed to be recognized by antisera to CRF, ACTH1-24, ACTH11-24 and beta-END. Nothing is exactly known as to the function(s) of the demonstrated materials, but one can speculate that these numerous immunoreactive cells, might have important paracrine and/or endocrine functions in the insect physiology.

  5. Effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and rumen-protected methionine on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, R; Sugino, T; Shingu, H; Moriya, N; Hasegawa, Y; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Obitsu, T; Kushibiki, S; Taniguchi, K

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CLFAs) and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide, and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows. Four Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 by 4 Latin square experiment in each 2-wk period. Cows were fed corn silage-based diets with supplements of CLFAs (1.5% added on dry matter basis), RPM (20 g/d), CLFAs plus RPM, and without supplement. Jugular blood samples were taken from 1 h before to 2 h after morning feeding at 10-min intervals on day 12 of each period. CLFAs decreased dry matter intake, but RPM did not affect dry matter intake. Both supplements of CLFAs and RPM did not affect metabolizable energy intake and milk yield and composition. Plasma concentrations of NEFAs, triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (T-Cho) were increased with CLFAs alone, but increases of plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho were moderated by CLFAs plus RPM. Calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids increased plasma ghrelin concentration, and the ghrelin concentration with CLFAs plus RPM was the highest among the treatments. Plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, and insulin were decreased with CLFAs, whereas adding RPM moderated the decrease of plasma glucagon concentration by CLFAs. These results indicate that the addition of methionine to cows given CLFAs increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and glucagon associated with the decrease in plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho.

  6. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  7. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  8. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pself-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Menopause Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD Richard Santen, MD What is menopause? Menopause is the time of life when monthly ...

  11. Growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dosage of the medicine. Serious side effects of growth hormone treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid ... years. The rate of growth then slowly decreases. Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, ...

  12. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  13. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bińkowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens.

  14. Comparative effect of ACTH and related peptides on proliferation and growth of rat adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC is a polypeptide precursor known to yield biologically active peptides related to a range of functions. These active peptides include the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, which is essential for maintenance of adrenal growth and steroidogenesis, and the alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone, which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, the role of the highly conserved N-terminal region of POMC peptide fragments has begun to be unraveled only recently. Here we review the cascade of events involved in regulation of proliferation and growth of murine adrenal cortex triggered by ACTH and other POMC-derived peptides. Key findings regarding signaling pathways and modulation of genes and proteins required for the regulation of adrenal growth are summarized. We have outlined the known mechanisms as well as future challenges for research on the regulation of adrenal proliferation and growth triggered by these peptides.

  15. Neuroendocrine and Molecular Interactions in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Bozkurt Zincir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are three basic pillars for the development of eating disorders: genetic predisposition, neuro-endocrine-molecular changes in the brain and metabolic response to it. As a result of neuroendocrine research, a close relationship has been found between neuroendocrine functions and symptom domains of psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders and mood disorders. Certain hormones, neurotransmitters and other molecules which might have effect on the basis of eating disorders can be listed as estrogen, serotonin, leptin, ghreline, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, cholecystokinin, dopamine, noradrenaline, brain-derived neurotropic factor, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide-Y, opioids and their receptors, thiamine, zinc, omega-3 acids. In this review, main neuroendocrine-molecular changes and interactions that occur in the eating disorders have been discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 389-400

  16. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  17. Regulation of the juvenile hormone titre in the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Three main topics were investigated in regulation of the titre of juvenile hormone in haemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say): enzymic breakdown of the hormone; binding and protection of the hormone by carrier proteins; the synthetic capacity of the corpora allata.J

  18. Molecular Basis for Certain Neuroprotective Effects of Thyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eDavis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of brain damage that is common to ischemia-reperfusion inury and brain trauma includes disordered neuronal and glial cell energetics, intracellular acidosis, calcium toxicity, extracellular excitotoxic glutamate accumulation and dysfunction of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. Thyroid hormone isoforms, 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4, have nongenomic and genomic actions that are relevant to repair of certain features of the pathophysiology of brain damage. Thyroid hormone can nongenomically repair intracullar H+ accumulation by stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and can support desirably low [Ca2+]i.c. by activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Thyroid hormone nongenomically stimulates astrocyte glutamate uptake, an action that protects both glial cells and neurons. The hormone supports the integrity of the cytoskeleton by its effect on actin. Several proteins linked to thyroid hormone action are also neuroprotective. For example, the hormone stimulates expression of the seladin-1 gene whose gene product is anti-apoptotic and is potentially protection in the setting of neurodegeneration. Transthyretin (TTR is a serum transport protein for T4 that is important to blood-brain barrier transfer of the hormone and TTR has also been found to be neuroprotective in the setting of ischemia. Finally, the interesting thyronamine derivatives of T4 have been shown to protect against ischemic brain damage through their ability to induce hypothermia in the intact organism. Thus, thyroid hromone or hormone derivatives have experimental promise as neuroprotective agents.

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  1. α-促黑素对银屑病患者外周血单一核细胞产生TNF-α和IL-10的影响%Effects of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on the production of TNF-α and IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕新岭; 顾军; 张莉; 齐晓虹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨α-促黑素(α-MSH)对银屑病患者外周血单一核细胞(PBMC)产生TNF-α、IL-10的影响.方法 标本取自20例寻常性银屑病患者和10例健康献血者,用不同浓度α-MSH处理经过植物血凝素(PHA)刺激的PBMC,用ELISA法检测PBMC培养上清中TNF-α、IL-10水平,应用荧光实时定量PCR分析PBMC中TNF-α mRNA、IL-10 mRNA的表达.结果 银屑病患者PBMC培养上清中TNF-α水平高于正常对照(P<0.01),IL-10水平低于正常对照(P<0.01);各浓度α-MSH均可抑制TNF-α的分泌(P<0.01),浓度为10-13mol/L时作用最强(P<0.01);各浓度α-MSH均可诱导IL-10的分泌(P<0.01,P<0.05),浓度为10-13mol/L时作用最强(P<0.01).浓度为10-13 mol/L的α-MSH下调TNF-α mRNA的表达(P<0.01)、上调IL-10 mRNA的表达(P<0.01).结论 α-MSH可调节银屑病患者TNF-α和IL-10产生.%Objective To investigate the effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) on the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intedeukin-10 (IL-10) by peri-pheral blood monohuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Methods Heparinized peri-pheral blood was obtained from 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 10 healthy human controls. PBMCs were isolated, cultured in complete medium, and stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) alone, the com-bination of PHA and various concentrations of alpha-MSH, or nothing. After another 48-hour culture, ELISA and real-time PCR were performed to measure the secretion levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 in the super-natants of cultured PBMCs as well as the mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 in PBMCs. Results The secretion level of TNF-alpha in the supematants of patient-derived PBMCs stimulated by nothing or PHA alone was significantly higher than that from normal control-derived PBMCs (329.87 ± 99.33 ng/L vs 116.95 ± 37.15 ng/L, 1756.01 ± 183.60 ng/L vs 1287.30 ± 152.36 ng/L, both P<0.01). alpha-MSH of all tested concentrations (10

  2. Clinical Trials in Male Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieschlag E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers.

  3. Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Tarım

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency is the most promising entity in terms of response to therapy among the treatable causes of growth retardation. It may be due to genetic or acquired causes. It may be isolated or a part of multiple hormone deficiencies. Diagnostic criteria and therefore treatment indications are still disputed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 36-8

  4. Mitotic and pigment-translocating activities of cultured chromatophores of the guppy, Lebistes reticulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, E A; Rao, K R

    1984-01-01

    Using Ham's F-12 medium, an in vitro culture system permitting cellular survival for over 6 months has been developed for the chromatophores of the guppy. In this culture system, the various types of chromatophores (melanophores, erythrophores and xanthophores) migrated out of the explanted tail fin tissue, retained their pigmentation, and displayed both mitotic and pigment-translocating activities. The mitotic activity was evident during the first 3 or 4 weeks in culture, whereas the pigment-translocating ability persisted for 16 weeks. The cultured chromatophores of male fish displayed pigment aggregation in response to adrenergic agents (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and pigment dispersion in response to alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), cyclic AMP and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Cyclic GMP did not elicit pigment-translocating responses in any of the chromatophores.

  5. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Austin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  6. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Juliana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  7. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  8. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  9. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  10. Migraine and Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalnis, Ann

    2016-02-01

    This article discusses the role that hormones play in adolescent girls and young women with headaches, which are very common in adolescent girls, in particular, migraine. In many cases, migraine onset may occur shortly around the time of menarche, prevalence of recurrent migraine in this population approaches 15%, and typically the symptoms continue through adulthood. Hormonal changes associated with puberty and the menstrual cycle may significantly influence migraine in young women. This article reviews the following topics: management of menstrually related headaches, changes in ovarian hormones and their relationship to migraine, and oral contraceptives and pregnancy effects on migraine.

  11. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop gonads (gonadal agenesis) Chromosomal abnormality, such as Klinefelter syndrome Testicular failure: Viral infection ( mumps ) Trauma Exposure to ... the ovaries or testicles Hormone deficiency Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Chronic infections Cancer Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa) ^ Back ...

  12. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need a different dose of thyroid hormone include birth control pills, estrogen, testosterone, some anti-seizure medications (for ... is no evidence that desiccated thyroid has any advantage over synthetic T4. WHAT ABOUT T3? While most ...

  13. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the participating organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  14. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  15. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Juliana; Marks Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger a...

  16. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  17. Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — behavioral measures of learning and memory in adult offspring of rats treated with thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil. Electrophysiological...

  18. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  19. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  20. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    OpenAIRE

    PERONI, CIBELE N.; Cesar Y. Hayashida; Nancy Nascimento; LONGUINI, VIVIANE C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Paolo Bartolini; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo,Sergio P. A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those ...

  1. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  2. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  3. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  4. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  5. [Adipose tissue hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, M; Trachta, P; Haluzíková, D

    2010-10-01

    Adipose tissue had been traditionally considered a passive energy storage site without direct influence on energy homeostasis regulation. This view has been principally changed during early nineties by the discovery of hormonal production of adipose tissue. At present, the list of hormonally active substances of adipose tissue includes more than one hundred factors with paracrine or endocrine activity that play an important role in metabolic, food intake a inflammatory regulations and many other processes. Only minority of adipose tissue-derived hormones is produced exclusively in fat. Most of these factors is primarily put out by other tissues and organs. Adipose tissue-derived hormones are produced not only by adipocytes but also by preadipocytes, immunocompetent and endothelial cells and other cell types residing in fat. This paper summarizes current knowledge about endocrine function of adipose tissue with special respect to its changes in obesity. It also describes its possible role in the ethiopathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and other obesity-related pathologies.

  6. Thyroid hormone deiodination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe enzymatic deiodination of thyroid hormone is an important process since it concerns- among other things- the regulation of thyromimetic activity at the site of the target organ. To understand the mechanism of this regulation it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the mode of

  7. Thyroid hormone deiodination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe enzymatic deiodination of thyroid hormone is an important process since it concerns- among other things- the regulation of thyromimetic activity at the site of the target organ. To understand the mechanism of this regulation it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the mode of

  8. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  9. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas;

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  10. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mass and strength Mild bone loss Thinning skin Sleep problems Decreased exercise performance Decreased energy Decreased well-being, mild depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) ...

  11. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  12. How to explore the effects of sex hormone on blood vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Mei-li; Nie Min; Liu Bing; Du Zhi-jun; Ge Qin-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease increases along with aging. There are increasing interests in researches on the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)on cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women. In this article we will review how we have explored the evidence of different sex hormones on blood vessels since 1996. The results showed that low-dose HRT significantly protected cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.However, the high-dose 17β-estradiol (E2), with or without progesterone (P) or testosterone (T), or any hormone alone, as their concentrations increase, may even inhibit the protective effects of low-dose HRT on blood vessels.

  13. Assessment of MC1R and α-MSH gene sequences in Iranian vitiligo patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandani M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin that is caused by unknown factors and is characterized by white and depigmented patches that enlarge and become more numerous with time. Genetic factors, oxidative stress, autoimmunity, and neurochemical agents, such as catecholamines might also contribute to vitiligo. Cutaneous pigmentation is determined by the amounts of eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesized by the epidermal melanocytes and interference of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R, a G-protein coupled receptor, its normal agonist, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, and key enzymes, such as tyrosinase, to protect against sun-induced DNA damage. The MC1R, a 7 pass trans-membrane G-protein coupled receptor, is a key control point in melanogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations at the MC1R are associated with a switch from eumelanin to pheomelanin production, resulting in a red or yellow coat color. Aim: In this research, we aim to examine the genetic variety of MC1R and α-MSH gene in 20 Iranian vitiligo patients and 20 healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the MC1R coding gene was performed with direct sequencing. Results: We found the following 9 MC1R coding region variants: Arg163Gl (G488A, Arg227Leu (G680A, Val 97Phe (G289T, Asp184Asn (G550A, Arg227Lys (G680A, Arg142His (G425A, Val60Leu (G178T, Val247Met (C739A, and Val174Ile (G520A. We also found 2 frameshift changes: one of them was the Insertion of C (frameshift in Pro136, stop at Trp148 and the other, Insertion of G (frameshift in Pro256, stop at Trp 333. Of all the changes, the most common was Val60Leu at 5% in patients vs 20% in controls, Val247Met at 15% in patients vs 0% in controls and Val174Ile at 15% in controls and 0% in patients. The other variants showed a frequency <5% in both patients and controls. Also in this study, we have examined the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the α-MSH genes with direct sequencing in

  14. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  15. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Growth Defici H e o n r c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary ...

  16. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  17. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  18. Hatching the cleidoic egg: the role of thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert eDe Groef

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A major life stage transition in birds and other oviparous sauropsids is the hatching of the cleidoic egg. Not unlike amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in these species can be regarded as a transition from a relatively well-protected aqueous environment to a more hazardous and terrestrial life outside the egg, a transition in which thyroid hormones (often in concert with glucocorticoids play an important role. In precocial birds such as the chicken, the perihatch period is characterised by peak values of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the control of muscle development, lung maturation and the switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration, yolk sac retraction, gut development and induction of hepatic genes to accommodate the change in dietary energy source, initiation of thermoregulation, and the final stages of brain maturation as well as early posthatch imprinting behavior. There is evidence that, at least for some of these processes, thyroid hormones may have similar roles in non-avian sauropsids. In altricial birds such as passerines on the other hand, thyroid hormones do not rise significantly until well after hatching and peak values coincide with the development of endothermy. It is not known how hatching-associated processes are regulated by hormones in these animals or how this developmental mode evolved from thyroid hormone-dependent precocial hatching.

  19. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangesweran Ayakannu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  20. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  1. Hormones in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug′s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  2. Biosimilar growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is expiring, biosimilars or follow-on -protein products (FOPP's) have emerged. Biosimilar drugs are cheaper than the originator/comparator drug. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Biosimilar soamtropin has been approved in both the US and Europe. The scientific viability of biosimilar drugs and especially growth hormone has been proven by several rigorously conducted clinical trials. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 y for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones which served as reference comparators. The Obama Administration appears to be committed to establish innovative pathways for the approval of biologics and biosimilars in the US. The cost savings in health care expenditures will be substantial as the global sales of biologics have reached $ 93 billion in 2009.

  3. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes......, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  4. The wound hormone jasmonate

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Abraham J. K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic...

  5. Growth Hormone and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    thru ADP010582 UNCLASSIFIED 23-1 GROWTH HORMONE AND AGING J.A.F. Tresguerres , Perez Romero, N. de las Heras, S. Vazquez, C. Ariznavarreta Complutense... Tresguerres 1996). GHRH is were treated as children with GH, a significant secreted in peaks as well as somatostatin, both number of problems were detected...of GH ( Tresguerres 1996) reduction in muscular and bone mass together IGFI is a peptide of 70 aminoacids that shows with an increase in body fat

  6. Sex hormones and oxytocin augmentation strategies in schizophrenia : A quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Sophie M; Begemann, Marieke J H; Goverde, Angelique J; Sommer, Iris E C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in incidence, onset and course of schizophrenia suggest sex hormones play a protective role in the pathophysiology. Such a role is also proposed for oxytocin, another important regulator of reproduction function. Evidence on the efficacy of sex hormones and oxytocin in

  7. Sex hormones and oxytocin augmentation strategies in schizophrenia : A quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Sophie M; Begemann, Marieke J H; Goverde, Angelique J; Sommer, Iris E C

    INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in incidence, onset and course of schizophrenia suggest sex hormones play a protective role in the pathophysiology. Such a role is also proposed for oxytocin, another important regulator of reproduction function. Evidence on the efficacy of sex hormones and oxytocin in

  8. [Acne and hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines.

  10. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  11. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  12. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant

  13. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEX HORMONES, SEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN AND PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE IN OLDER PERSONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, M; Cattabiani, C; Lauretani, F; Artoni, A; Bandinelli, S; Schiavi, G; Vignali, A; Volpi, R; Ceresini, G; Lippi, G; Aloe, R; De Vita, F; Giallauria, F; McDermott, MM; Ferrucci, L; Ceda, GP

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) increases with aging and is higher in persons with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PAD is associated with adverse outcomes, including frailty and disability. The protective effect of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) for diabetes in men suggests that the biological activity of sex hormones may affect PAD, especially in older populations. Methods Nine hundred and twenty-one elderly subjects with data on SHBG, testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) were selected from InCHIANTI study. PAD was defined as an Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) <0.90. Logistic regression models adjusted for age (Model 1), age, BMI, insulin, interleukin-6, physical activity, smoking, chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (Model 2), and a final model including also sex hormones (Model 3) were performed to test the relationship between SHBG, sex hormones and PAD. Results The mean age (± SD) of the 419 men and 502 women was 75.0 ± 6.8 years (Sixty two participants (41 men, 21 women) had ABI<0.90. Men with PAD had SHBG levels lower than men without PAD (p=0.03). SHBG was negatively and independently associated with PAD in men (p=0.028). but not in women. The relationship was however attenuated after adjusting for sex hormones (p=0.07). The E2 was not significantly associated with PAD in both men and women. In women, but not in men, T was positively associated with PAD, even after adjusting for multiple confounders, including E2 (p=0.01). Conclusions Low SHBG and high T levels are significantly and independently associated with the presence of PAD in older men and women, respectively. PMID:23102785

  15. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...

  16. Thyroid hormone and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolman, J A

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has important cardiovascular effects, and abnormalities of its production cause cardiovascular morbidity. The role of both excessive and insufficient thyroid hormone production in the pathogenesis of clinical cardiac diseases can be deduced from thyroid hormone-induced molecular changes. Thyroid hormone regulates the expression of myocardial genes regulating the handling of calcium, which affects both systolic and diastolic myocardial function. Thyroid hormone also has indirect and direct effects on peripheral vascular smooth muscle tone, and alters the coupling of the left ventricle and arterial system. Excessive production of thyroid hormone results in an increased cardiac output as well as increased cardiac work efficiency, but reduced cardiac reserve. Amiodarone therapy for cardiac rhythm can cause both hyper- and hypothyroidism. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can be due to either excessive thyroid hormone production (type I AIT) or thyroid hormone release due to an inflammatory condition (type II AIT). Classification of AIT is helpful in guiding therapy. Amiodarone causes changes in the thyroid function tests of euthyroid patients on therapy--it inhibits the conversion of T(4) and T(3), which results in decreased T(3) and slightly increased T(4) serum levels in euthyroid patients. Baseline thyroid functions should therefore be determined before starting amiodarone therapy, and at 6-monthly intervals thereafter.

  17. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  18. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  19. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  20. Leptin: a multifunctional hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product encoded by the obese (ob)gene. It is a circulating hormone produced primarily by the adipose tissue. ob/ob mice with mutations of the gene encoding leptin become morbidly obese, infertile, hyperphagic, hypothermic,and diabetic. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994, our knowledge in body weight regulation and the role played by leptin has increased substantially. We now know that leptin signals through its receptor, OB-R, which is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. Leptin serves as an adiposity signal to inform the brain the adipose tissue mass in a negative feedback loop regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin also plays important roles in angiogenesis, immune function, fertility, and bone formation. Humans with mutations in the gene encoding leptin are also morbidly obese and respond to leptin treatment,demonstrating that enhancing or inhibiting leptin's activities in vivo may have potential therapeutic benefits.

  1. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  2. Effects of sex and pregnancy hormones on growth hormone and prolactin receptor gene expression in insulin-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Petersen, Elisabeth D.; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1993-01-01

    of islet cells to these hormones is regulated on the receptor level, GH and PRL receptor gene expression was studied in pancreata from male rats and virgin, pregnant, and lactating female rats and in cultured islets and insulinoma cells (RIN-5AH) in response to various hormones. The mRNA levels were...... quantitated by ribonuclease protection assay, using probes specific for mRNA encoding, extracellular and intracellular domains of the GH receptor, and short and long forms of the PRL receptor, respectively. Specific transcripts for the GH receptor were present in pancreas, islets, and RIN-5AH cells...

  3. Hormonal programming across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, B M; Tobet, S A; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Wilson, M E; Recabarren, S E; Paredes, A H

    2012-07-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across an animal's lifespan. Many hormone-mediated events occur within developmental sensitive periods, during which hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous selective critical periods in development with different targets being affected during different periods. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal steroid hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of critical hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be an important mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. Brain targets of hormonal programming, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, may be critical in influencing the development of peripheral targets, such as the ovary. Exposure to excess hormones can cause abnormalities in the ovary during development leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased activity of the sympathetic nerve and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function.

  4. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Exogenous hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Tryggvadottir, L

    1997-01-01

    The well-described influence of several aspects of reproductive life on the risk for cancer in the reproductive organs has raised concern regarding the safety of exogenous hormones, particularly since sex hormones have become one of the most widely used drugs among women in the western world...... of the breast and uterine cervix) and beneficial effects (protection against cancers of the ovary and endometrium), indicate that 95 cases of breast cancer and 40 of cervical cancer will be caused by oral contraceptives annually around 2000 in the Nordic countries, which corresponds to 0.6% of all breast...... years) of hormone replacement therapy among Nordic women aged 40-69 in 1995 was estimated to be 10-11%, which on the basis of an associated relative risk for breast cancer ranging from 1.2-1.5 suggests than an annual total of 260 cases of breast cancer could be avoided in the Nordic countries around...

  5. Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Avais; Pingitore, Alessandro; Pearce, Simon H S; Zaman, Azfar; Iervasi, Giorgio; Razvi, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial and vascular endothelial tissues have receptors for thyroid hormones and are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones. The importance of thyroid hormones in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis can be deduced from clinical and experimental data showing that even subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations - such as those observed in subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, and low triiodothyronine syndrome - adversely influence the cardiovascular system. Some potential mechanisms linking the two conditions are dyslipidaemia, endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure changes, and direct effects of thyroid hormones on the myocardium. Several interventional trials showed that treatment of subclinical thyroid diseases improves cardiovascular risk factors, which implies potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular events. Over the past 2 decades, accumulating evidence supports the association between abnormal thyroid function at the time of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that thyroid hormones can have an important therapeutic role in reducing infarct size and improving myocardial function after acute MI. In this Review, we summarize the literature on thyroid function in cardiovascular diseases, both as a risk factor as well as in the setting of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure or acute MI, and outline the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Biological effects of thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saatov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the findings from the study on multifunctional effects of thyroid hormones in relation to normal and malignantly transformed tissues and cells. Both “rapid” and «slow» effects of thyroid hormones including calorigenic effects and effects over adenylate cyclase – cAMP system have been described. Thyroxin (Т4 has been established capable to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis of cells carrying Т4 receptors on their membranes as well as to change course of metabolic processes under its effect. Spectrum of Т4 targets is quite broad to include not only cells of hormone-producing organs, to name those of the breast and the colon, but also other types of cells to name melanin-containing ones; Т4 effects resulting in reconstruction of presentation of regulatory proteins on the cell membrane surface to ultimately activate the process of cell apoptosis. Our findings help determine alternative paths for hormonal regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis of cells of hormone-dependent tumors, breast cancer, in particular, upon impossibility to regulate the processes by conventional methods. This facilitates understanding mechanisms for activation of signal system of the breast cancer’s cells by hormones upon changes in expression of receptors on the cells’ surface, making possible development of novel strategy for replacement therapy of hormone-dependent tumors upon low efficacy of drug therapy.

  7. Genotoxic potential of nonsteroidal hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones are cellular products involved in the regulation of a large number of processes in living systems, and which by their actions affect the growth, function and metabolism of cells. Considering that hormones are compounds normally present in the organism, it is important to determine if they can, under certain circumstances, lead to genetic changes in the hereditary material. Numerous experimental studies in vitro and in vivo in different systems, from bacteria to mammals, dealt with the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of hormones. This work presents an overview of the research on genotoxic effects of non­steroidal hormones, although possible changes of genetic material under their influence have not still been known enough, and moreover, investigations on their genotoxic influence have given conflicting results. The study results show that mechanisms of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones are manifested through the increase of oxidative stress by arising reactive oxygen species. A common mechanism of ROS occurence in thyroid hormones and catecholamines is through metabolic oxidation of their phenolic groups. Manifestation of insulin genotoxic effect is based on production of ROS by activation of NADPH isophorms, while testing oxytocin showed absence of genotoxic effect. Considering that the investigations on genotoxicity of nonsteroidal hormones demonstrated both positive and negative results, the explanation of this discordance involve limitations of test systems themselves, different cell types or biological species used in the experiments, different level of reactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as possible variations in a tissue-specific expression. Integrated, the provided data contribute to better understanding of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones and point out to the role and mode of action of these hormones in the process of occurring of effects caused by oxidative stress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  8. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormone (GHRH) and increased somatostatin secretion to this phenomenon. ... negative feedback effects of IGF-1 or combinations of these factors. Studies to ..... increase in lean body mass and reduction in adipose tissue.6. Reduced GH ...

  9. Hormonal signaling in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Clémence D; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Duca, Frank A; Lam, Tony K T

    2014-04-25

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes.

  10. Hormonal Signaling in the Gut*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Clémence D.; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A.; Duca, Frank A.; Lam, Tony K. T.

    2014-01-01

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes. PMID:24577102

  11. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    , oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses......%. The increased insulin responses after the operation, one of the important mechanisms whereby these operations cause diabetes remission, is clearly due to a combination of the increased glucose absorption rates and the exaggerated GLP-1 secretion. The hormonal changes are therefore very important...

  12. GnRH类似物对青春期化疗患者卵巢功能的保护作用及机制%Protective effect and its mechanism on ovarian function by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue in adolescents under chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏喆; 杜敏联

    2009-01-01

    It is a striking success of modern medicine that more and more children with cancer can survive long term. Gonadotoxicity is the most common endocrine late effect in pediatric cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy. Many methods of fertility preservation are not suitable or available for adoles-cents. It has been proved in experimental and clinical observations that combined treatment of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue can help to protect ovarian function. The possible mechanisms involved in bloc-king FSH dependent follicle development,decreasing local blood infusion,acting on granulosa cells or germ-l ine stem cells renewal. Hopefully, it might become the first choice for ovarian function protection in adoles-cents under chemotherapy.%儿童肿瘤患者的长期生存率正逐年增高,在接受化疗的患者中,性腺功能损害是最常见的内分泌功能障碍.对于青春期化疗患者,用于成人的一些牛殖保护的措施多不适用或技术尚未成熟.近年通过动物在体实验和临床研究证实,促性腺激素释放激素类似物(GnRHa)对化疗患者卵巢功能有保护作用,其机制包括阻断化疗期间卵泡刺激素依赖性的卵泡发育,减少子宫、卵巢的血流灌注,直接作用于卵母细胞、颗粒细胞以及可能作用于生殖干细胞的更新.其具有经济易行、不良反应小等优点,可望作为青春期化疗患者卵巢功能保护的首选方法.

  13. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  14. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  15. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  16. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  17. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  18. Organizational Actions of Metabolic Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain development is a complex and dynamic process, and many environmental factors have been found to influence the normal development of neural pathways. Cumulative evidence suggests that metabolic hormones that regulate the hypothalamic circuits that control energy homeostasis function in much the same way that sex steroids act on sexually dimorphic circuits. For example, although the effects of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin were originally thought to be limited to the neural control...

  19. Does growth hormone cause cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, P.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Shalet, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;Acromegaly;Adult;Animals;cancer epidemiology;complications;Child;Child Development;Colorectal Neoplasms;deficiency;epidemiology;etiology;Evaluation;Growth Hormone;Human Growth Hormone;Humans;Insulin-Like Growth Factor I;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Neoplasm Recurrence,Local;Neoplasms;Neoplasms,Multiple Primary;physiology;physiopathology;Risk Factors;secretion;therapy. The ability of GH, via its mediator peptide IGF-1, to influence regulation of ce...

  20. Simple hormones but complex signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Hannes; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2003-02-01

    It has not been easy to make sense of the pleiotropic effects of plant hormones, especially of auxins; but now, it has become possible to study these effects within the framework of what we know about signal transduction in general. Changes in local auxin concentrations, perhaps even actively maintained auxin gradients, signal to networks of transcription factors, which in turn signal to downstream effectors. Transcription factors can also signal back to hormone biosynthetic pathways.

  1. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  2. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  3. The evolution of peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niall, H D

    1982-01-01

    Despite limitations in our present knowledge it is already possible to discern the main features of peptide hormone evolution, since the same mechanisms (and indeed the same hormone molecules) function in many different ways. This underlying unity of organization has its basis in the tendency of biochemical networks, once established, to survive and diversify. The most surprising recent findings in endocrinology have been the discovery of vertebrate peptide hormones in multiple sites within the same organism, and the reports, persuasive but requiring confirmation, of vertebrate hormones in primitive unicellular organisms (20, 20a). Perhaps the major challenge for the future is to define the roles and interactions of the many peptide hormones identified in brain (18). The most primitive bacteria and the human brain, though an enormous evolutionary distance apart, may have more in common than we have recognized until now. As Axelrod & Hamilton have pointed out in a recent provocative article, "The Evolution of Cooperation" (1), bacteria, though lacking a brain, are capable of adaptive behavior that can be analysed in terms of game theory. It is clear that we can learn a great deal about the whole evolutionary process from a study of the versatile and durable peptide hormones molecules.

  4. Steroid hormones and sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Pérez, G; Arana-Lechuga, Y; Esqueda-León, E; Santana-Miranda, R; Rojas-Zamorano, J Á; Velázquez Moctezuma, J

    2012-10-01

    In the search of the sleep substance, many studies have been addressed for different hormones, responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. In this article we mentioned the participation of steroid hormones, besides its role regulating sexual behavior, they influence importantly in the sleep process. One of the clearest relationships are that estrogen and progesterone have, that causing changes in sleep patterns associated with the hormonal cycles of women throughout life, from puberty to menopause and specific periods such as pregnancy and the menstrual cycle, including being responsible for some sleep disorders such as hypersomnia and insomnia. Another studied hormone is cortisol, a hormone released in stressful situations, when an individual must react to an extraordinary demand that threatens their survival, but also known as the hormone of awakening because the release peak occurs in the morning, although this may be altered in some sleep disorders like insomnia and mood disorders. Furthermore neurosteroids such as pregnanolone, allopregnanolone and pregnenolone are involved in the generation of slow wave sleep, the effect has been demonstrated in experimental animal studies. Thus we see that the sleep and the endocrine system saved a bidirectional relationship in which depends on each other to regulate different physiological processes including sleep.

  5. Natriuretic hormones in brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLichtstein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natriuretic hormones include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP, the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin, and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume and blood pressure. In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of natriuretic hormones is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the natriuretic hormones and their receptors in the brain will be summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that natriuretic hormones participate in the central regulation of blood pressure, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including: anxiety, addiction and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different natriuretic hormones in the periphery and the brain are discussed.

  6. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas that are painted white. DO ... protect the ears or sides of the face. Special clothing that protects the skin by absorbing UV ...

  7. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    strategies are entangled in cultural, religious, and national identities. Using ethnographic methods, I investigate protection against selected risks: harm from evil eyes, violation of domestic sanctity, and cultural heritage dilapidation. Protection against these risks is examined through studies...

  8. Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 100% UV ray protection (look for models that advertise both UVB and UVA protection). Use a broad- ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  9. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  10. Design of the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters Petra HM; Monninkhof Evelyn M; Schuit Albertine J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s) underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physi...

  11. Effectiveness of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone for Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Kucuk, Nurten; Sari, Murat; Midi, Ahmet; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Findik, Ozan; Binnetoglu, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In laryngeal cancer, which comprises 25% of head and neck cancer, chemotherapy has come into prominence with the increase in organ-protective treatments. With such treatment, salvage surgery has increased following recurrence; the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula has also increased in both respiratory and digestive system surgery. We investigated the effects of recombinant human growth hormone on pharyngocutaneous fistula closure in Sprague-Dawley rats, based on an increase i...

  12. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...... under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational...

  14. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  15. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed.

  16. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  17. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  18. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  19. Protective and therapeutic effects of ghrelin in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Z; Dembinski, A

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide predominantly produced in the stomach exhibits numerous physiological functions, including stimulation of growth hormone release, food intake and gastric empting, and regulation of energy expenditure. This peptide exhibits also some protective and healing-promoting effects. This review summarizes the recent findings concerning animal and human data showing protective and therapeutic effects of ghrelin in the gut.

  20. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a

  1. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, H A

    1993-01-01

    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  2. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  3. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Boelen, Anita; Bisschop, Peter H; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, Eric

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is a key driver of metabolism in mammals. Plasma concentrations of TH are kept within a narrow range by negative feedback regulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Plasma TH concentrations are an important determinant of metabolic processes in liver and brown

  4. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a thromb

  5. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous est

  6. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, A.

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivo

  7. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GH helps children grow taller (also called linear growth), increases muscle mass, and decreases body fat. In both children ... syndrome In adults, GH is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Muscle wasting (loss of muscle tissue) from HIV • Short ...

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the ...

  9. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  10. The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161110.html The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus Small, preliminary study suggests oxytocin ... tinnitus -- may find some relief by spraying the hormone oxytocin in their nose, a small initial study ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition dwarfism, growth hormone deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency ...

  12. Response of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in prepubertal and pubertal chidren, as measured by a highly sensitive immunradiometric assay

    OpenAIRE

    樋口,譲二

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the age-related changes in the pituitary responsiveness to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), the consentrations of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured before and after LH-RH administra-tion using the highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in 283 normal children (161 males and 77 females) between 4 and 14 years old and in 22 patients (18 males and 4 females) with pituitary dwarfism. Then, the area of response ...

  13. Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M.J. Lengyel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a discovery of this peptide, b mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

  14. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  15. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  16. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken int

  17. Consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Štěrbová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    77 Resumé This thesis is dedicated to the consumer protection. My reason for the choice of this topic was following. A field of consumer protection is being continually developed. It is complicated for a layman to be well informed about all his rights and duties not only because the Czech legal regulation suffers from a immense fragmentation. Moreover, the implementation of EC directives ( as a source of many provisions protecting a consumer in the Civil Code) into our legal system was carrie...

  18. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  19. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor: Its Intracellular Signaling and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR, also known as the ghrelin receptor, is involved in mediating a wide variety of biological effects of ghrelin, including: stimulation of growth hormone release, increase of food intake and body weight, modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, protection of neuronal and cardiovascular cells, and regulation of immune function. Dependent on the tissues and cells, activation of GHSR may trigger a diversity of signaling mechanisms and subsequent distinct physiological responses. Distinct regulation of GHSR occurs at levels of transcription, receptor interaction and internalization. Here we review the current understanding on the intracellular signaling pathways of GHSR and its modulation. An overview of the molecular structure of GHSR is presented first, followed by the discussion on its signaling mechanisms. Finally, potential mechanisms regulating GHSR are reviewed.

  20. Protective Eyewear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... They protect your eyes from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, which can damage your eyes. Pick sunglasses ...

  1. Protected Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the boundaries of properties in Kansas in public or institutional ownership that contain ecological resources that merit some level of protection....

  2. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  3. Impact of light exposure on thyroid-stimulating hormone results using the Siemens Advia Centaur TSH-3Ultra assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armer, Jane; Giles, Diane; Lancaster, Ian; Brownbill, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Background Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is used as the first-line test of thyroid function. Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics recommend that Siemens Centaur reagents must be protected from light in the assay information and on reagent packaging. We have compared the effect of light exposure on results using Siemens TSH-3Ultra and follicle-stimulating hormone reagents. The thyroid-stimulating hormone reagent includes fluoroscein thiocyanate whereas the follicle-stimulating hormone reagent does not. Methods Three levels of quality controls were analysed using SiemensTSH-3Ultra and follicle-stimulating hormone reagent packs that had been kept protected from light or exposed to light at 6-h intervals for 48 h and then at 96 h. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone results were significantly lower after exposure of TSH-3Ultra reagent packs to light. Results were >15% lower at all three levels of quality control following 18 h of light exposure and continued to decrease until 96 h. There was no significant difference in follicle-stimulating hormone results whether reagents had been exposed to or protected from light. Conclusions Thyroid-stimulating hormone results but not follicle-stimulating hormone results are lowered after exposure of reagent packs to light. Laboratories must ensure that TSH-3Ultra reagents are not exposed to light and analyse quality control samples on every reagent pack to check that there has not been light exposure prior to delivery. The labelling on TSH-3Ultra reagent packs should reflect the significant effect of light exposure compared with the follicle-stimulating hormone reagent. We propose that the effect of light exposure on binding of fluoroscein thiocyanate to the solid phase antibody causes the falsely low results.

  4. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  5. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  6. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  7. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  8. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  9. Effects of growth hormone plus a hyperproteic diet on methotrexate-induced injury in rat intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; Gomez-de-Segura, I A; Vázquez, I; López, J M; de Guevara, C L; De-Miguel, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether growth hormone treatment reduces injury to the intestinal mucosa induced by methotrexate (MTX). Wistar rats with intestinal injury induced by methotrexate were treated with daily growth hormone, beginning 3 days before MTX treatment until 3 or 4 days after MTX administration. The rats were killed at 3 or 7 days post-MTX administration. The rats were fed with either a normoproteic diet or a hyperproteic diet. Body weight, mortality, bacterial translocation, intestinal morphometry, proliferation and apoptosis and blood somatostatin and IGF-1 were determined. Combined administration of growth hormone and a hyperproteic diet reduces MTX-induced mortality. This effect was accompanied by increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within the crypt. Morphometric data showed complete recovery of the mucosa by day 7 post-MTX administration. These results indicate a synergistic protective action of growth hormone combined with a hyperproteic diet to MTX-induced injury.

  10. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--youth hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Kesik, S

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite (DHEA-S) are endogenous steroid hormones, synthesized by the adrenal cortex, gonads and CNS. The secretion profile changes with age and depends on the sex. Human DHEA and DHEA-S levels decline linearly and systematically with age and suggest the potential importance of that parameter as a biomarker of ageing. The counteraction of DHEA against atherosclerotic disease, cancer growth, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, obesity and the influence on immunological functions are observed in researches. DHEA influences the condition of mind, cognition functions, memory and well-being. DHEA hormonal replacement therapy is expected to lengthen human life by the stoppage of physiological degeneration changes and prevention of age-related clinical disorders.

  12. Thyroid hormone disorders and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Yu, Zhui; Li, Yinping

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with high mortality, which results from severe infection and can lead to secondary organ dysfunction. It is one of the most common cause of death in intensive care unit. Clinical reports have shown that sepsis was often accompanied by thyroid dysfunction, which is called "low triiodothyronine (T3)" syndrome and characterized by decreased blood total T3 and free T3, and by normal or decreased thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This syndrome may greatly affect the prognosis of patients with sepsis. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the role of thyroid hormone disorder in the development and prognosis of sepsis.

  13. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    . Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone......A proper hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis with normal androgen synthesis and action is a prerequisite for normal testicular descent. Various defects in this axis may result in cryptorchidism but endocrine abnormalities are rarely detected. Androgens regulate testicular descent but androgen action...... alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have...

  14. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  15. Growth hormone therapy in progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Ab; Demmer, Laurie

    2007-05-01

    Catabolic processes seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria resemble those of normal aging and, in the affected children, usually result in death at an early age. In addition to its growth promoting effects, growth hormone (GH) has potent anabolic properties. Administration of GH ameliorates some of the catabolic effects of normal aging. We report the results of GH treatment in a young child with progeria.

  16. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  17. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  18. Anxiolytic-like effect of a selective and non-peptidergic melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist, MCL0129, in a social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2005-03-01

    The social interaction test is an animal behavioral test of anxiety. Brain melanocortins such as alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) have anxiogenic effects in this test. Melanocortins have five receptor subtypes (MC1-MC5). Among them, MC3 and MC4 receptor are mainly expressed in the brain. We investigated the involvement of MC4 receptor in a social interaction test, using Ac-[Nle(4),Asp(5),D-Phe(7),Lys(10)]alpha-MSH-(4-10)-NH2 (MT II), an MC4 receptor agonist, and 1-[(S)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-isopropylpiperadin-1-yl)ethyl]-4-[4-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)butyl]piperazine (MCL0129), a selective and nonpeptide MC4 receptor antagonist. MT II dose-dependently and significantly reduced the time spent in social interaction. Acute administration of MCL0129 had no effect on the results of this test. In contrast, when given repeatedly for 1 week, MCL0129 significantly and dose-dependently increased the time spent in social interaction without affecting locomotor activity. These results suggest that MC4 receptor is involved in social interaction, and that MCL0129, an MC4 receptor antagonist, has an anxiolytic-like effect in this model.

  19. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  20. Endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in the control of appetite and energy metabolism: emergence of new molecular players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Didier M; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2007-11-01

    Endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylgycerol) and related N-acylethanolamines (N-oleoylethanolamine) exhibit opposite effects in the control of appetite. The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities and differences of three major lipid-signaling molecules by focusing on their mode of action and the proteins involved in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol promote food intake and are the main endogenous ligands of the cannabinoid receptors. One of them, the cannabinoid receptor 1, is responsible for the control of food intake and energy expenditure both at a central and a peripheral level, affecting numerous anorexigenic and orexigenic mediators (leptin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin, orexin, endogenous opioids, corticotropin-releasing hormone, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript). In the gut, N-oleoylethanolamine plays an opposite role in food regulation, by interacting with two molecular targets different from the cannabinoid receptors: the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and a G-protein coupled receptor GPR119. Recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the promotion of food intake or, in contrast, the suppression of food intake by anandamide and N-oleoylethanolamine, are summarized. Potential strategies for treating overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes are briefly outlined.

  1. Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.

  2. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  3. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  4. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  5. Thyroid hormone deiodination in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Veerle M; Verhoelst, Carla H J; Reyns, Geert E; Kühn, Eduard R; Van der Geyten, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Because the avian thyroid gland secretes almost exclusively thyroxine (T4), the availability of receptor-active 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) has to be regulated in the extrathyroidal tissues, essentially by deiodination. Like mammals and most other vertebrates, birds possess three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, and D3) that closely resemble their mammalian counterparts, as shown by biochemical characterization studies in several avian species and by cDNA cloning of the three enzymes in chicken. The tissue distribution of these deiodinases has been studied in detail in chicken at the level of activity and mRNA expression. More recently specific antibodies were used to study cellular localization at the protein level. The abundance and distribution of the different deiodinases shows substantial variation during embryonic development and postnatal life. Deiodination in birds is subject to regulation by hormones from several endocrine axes, including thyroid hormones, growth hormone and glucocorticoids. In addition, deiodination is also influenced by external parameters, such as nutrition, temperature, light and also a number of environmental pollutants. The balance between the outer and inner ring deiodination resulting from the impact of all these factors ultimately controls T3 availability.

  6. Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E and hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depypere, H; Vierin, A; Weyers, S; Sieben, A

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause of dementia in older patients. The prevalence is higher in women than in men. This may be the result of both the higher life expectancy of women and the loss of neuroprotective estrogen after menopause. Earlier age at menopause (spontaneous or surgical) is associated with an enhanced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, it is postulated that estrogen could be protective against it. If so, increasing exposure to estrogen through the use of postmenopausal hormone replacement could also be protective against Alzheimer's disease. The results of the clinical studies that have examined this hypothesis are inconclusive, however. One explanation for this is that estrogen treatment is protective only if it is initiated in the years immediately after menopause. Another possibility is that the neuroprotective effects of estrogen are negated by a particular genotype of apolipoprotein E. This protein plays an important role in cholesterol transport to the neurons. Studies that have examined the link between estrogen replacement therapy, Alzheimer's disease and the E4 allele of ApoE are inconclusive. This article reviews the literature on the influence of hormone replacement therapy on the incidence and progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  8. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-12-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions.

  9. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...

  10. A facile synthesis of the spiroindoline-based growth hormone secretagogue, MK-677

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Liang Qi; Er Qun Yang; Jun Tao Zhang; Tao Wang; Xiao Ping Cao

    2012-01-01

    A facile and improved route for the synthesis of the orally active spiroindoline-based growth hormone secretagogue,MK-677 was described.The key step adopted the Fischer indole/reduction strategy.The preparation of the key intermediates N-protected piperidine carboxaldehyde 5 and the N-Boc-O-benzyl-D-serine (2) are also optimized.

  11. The validity of self-reported use of hormone replacement therapy among Danish nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Johnsen, Søren Påske; Heitmann, Berit Lillienthal

    2004-01-01

    Recent findings from randomized clinical trials on the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) among postmenopausal women contradict findings from observational studies indicating a protective effect on the development of cardiovascular disease. Most observational studies on HRT are based...... on self-reported data, although data on the validity of HRT in postmenopausal women are sparse....

  12. APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Leona H. Clark1, Paul M. Schlosser2, and James F. Selgrade3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2CIIT, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3North Carolina State Un...

  13. Reproductive and hormonal factors in association with ovarian cancer in the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, M.G.M.; Onland-Moret, N.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Schouten, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Parity, oral contraceptive use, and hysterectomy are known to protect against ovarian cancer, whereas the effect of other reproductive factors remains unclear. The authors investigated the association between several reproductive and hormonal factors and the risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cance

  14. APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Leona H. Clark1, Paul M. Schlosser2, and James F. Selgrade3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2CIIT, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3North Carolina State Un...

  15. The association between early menopause and risk of ischaemic heart disease: Influence of Hormone Therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, E; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Heitmann, B L

    2006-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials find no protection against development of ischaemic heart disease by use of Hormone Therapy (HT) after the age of 50 years. Observational studies suggest that early menopause is a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease. Yet, a clinical very relevant question is whether...... HT reduces this risk associated with early menopause....

  16. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  17. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem.

  18. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGH and rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer matrix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containing reGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium alginate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulate fish growth.

  19. GROWTH PROMOTION OF RED SEA BREAM, PAGROSOMUS MAJOR, BY ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF RECOMBINANT EEL AND SALMON GROWTH HORMONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迎利; 苗宏志; 刘振辉; 邓勇; 兰山; 王尧; 张培军; 徐斌; 麦康森

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant eel GH and yeast containing chinook salmon growth hormone (reGHand rcsGH) were incorporated into gelatin and sodium alginate (reGH-GS and rcsGH-GS) or polymer ma-trix (reGH-HP55) to protect the hormone from proteolytic cleavage in the stomach. The diets containin greGH-GS, rcsGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and free-reGH or uncoated-rcsGH were administered to red sea bream. Feeding of reGH-GS, reGH-HP55 and rcsGH-GS diets resulted in significant increases in body weight and fork length over those of controls. These results strongly suggest that gelatin and sodium algi-nate as well as polymer matrix protected the hormone from proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract to allow the bioactive hormone to enter the circulation and eventually stimulato fish growth.

  20. Protection Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon; Li, Cher

    The strategies firms use to protect their intellectual property and knowledge can strongly influence their ability to capture the benefits of their innovative efforts. Using the attention-based theory, we explore positive and negative sides of legal appropriability. While asserting the benefits f...

  1. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  2. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  3. Expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenicek, Tanja; Kasumović, Dino; Stajduhar, Emil; Dzombeta, Tihana; Jukić, Zoran; Kruslin, Bozo

    2013-06-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most prevalent benign breast tumor. It consists of epithelial and stromal components. In general, breast tumors are highly hormonally dependent and growth hormone by its physiology may have a possible oncogenic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas. Study group included 30 randomly chosen fibroadenomas from female patients aged between 18 and 69 years. The expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor was defined in both histologic components of fibroadenomas. Growth hormone was expressed in 96.7% of both epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas, with stronger expression in the stromal component. The same percentage of positive reaction (96.7%) was obtained in the epithelial component of fibroadenomas for growth hormone receptor expression. Only 6.7% of stromal components tested for growth hormone receptor were positive. The high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenoma tissue indicates their possible role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Follow up of patients with high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor may be suggested.

  4. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  5. Evaluating the function of putative hormone transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Wolf B; Schulz, Burkhard; Murphy, Angus S

    2009-02-01

    Hormones typically serve as long distance signaling molecules. To reach their site of action, hormones need to be transported from the sites of synthesis. Many plant hormones are mobile, thus requiring specific transport systems for the export from their source cells as well as subsequent import into target cells. Hormone transport in general is still poorly understood. Auxin is probably the most intensively studied plant hormone concerning transport in the moment. To advance our understanding of hormone transport we need two principal data sets: information on the properties of the transport systems including substrate specificity and kinetics, and we need to identify candidate genes for the respective transporters. Physiological transport data can provide an important basis for identifying and characterizing candidate transporters and to define their in vivo role. A recent publication in Plant Physiology highlights how kinetic and specificity studies may help to identify cytokinin transporters.

  6. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

  7. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  8. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  9. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  10. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  11. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment...

  12. Plant Hormones: Metabolism, Signaling and Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jia Qu; Yunde Zhao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Plants synthesize various hormones in response to environmental cues and developmental signals to ensure their proper growth and development.Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which plant hormones control growth and development contributes to our understanding of fundamental plant biology and provides tools to improve crops.Because of their critical roles in plant growth and development, plant hormones have been studied extensively since the early days of plant biology.

  13. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  14. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk profile and bone mineral density. It is well established that adult GHD usually is accompanied by an increase in fat accumulation and GH replacement in adult patients with GHD res...

  15. Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Amory, J K

    2011-01-01

    The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing un intended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in preventing conception and were not associated with serious adverse events.

  16. Thyroid hormone function in the rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eGao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors. These testicular cells also express deiodinases which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific thyroid hormone receptors to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., PTU (propylthiouracil have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function and blood-testis barrier (BTB assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein.

  17. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormone has profound effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. This article describes the cellular mechanisms by which thyroid hormone acts at the level of the cardiac myocyte and the vascular smooth muscle cell to alter phenotype and physiology. Because it is well established that thyroid hormone, specifically T(3), acts on almost every cell and organ in the body, studies on the regulation of thyroid hormone transport into cardiac and vascular tissue have added clinical significance. The characteristic changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics and metabolism that accompany thyroid disease states can then be best understood at the cellular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  19. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  20. Effect of Ubiquinol on Serum Reproductive Hormones of Amenorrhic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A S; Littaru, G P; Funahashi, I; Painkara, U S; Dange, N S; Chauhan, P

    2016-07-01

    In neuroendocrine system the increase in oxidative status is produced by a glucocorticoid-dependent and transcriptional increase in pro-oxidative drive, with concurrent inhibition of the antioxidant defense system, ultimately leading to increased neuronal cell death. Functional hypothalamic disturbances and neuroendocirne aberrations have both short and long term consequences for reproductive health. Understandably, an impaired or diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Anovulation is directly linked to the neurohormonal and hormonal background of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. Impairment of pulsatile Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone secretion causes the impairment of pulsatile Lutenizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) secretion. The importance of oxidative stress in various pituitary disorders suggesting a possible clinical usefulness of antioxidant molecules like the lipophilic antioxidant Ubiquinol. Coenzyme Q10 or Ubiquinol is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system of mitochondria. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant, protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes from autooxidation. Due to these unique actions Ubiquinol is used in clinical practice as an antioxidants for neurodegenerative diseases. So to identify the role of Ubiquinol on reproductive hormones FSH and LH, we have included 50 infertile patients of age group of 20-40, which are mostly amenorrhic. Out of 50 only 30 patients were in continuous follow up after supplementing them with 150 mg of Ubiquinol every day for 4 months. The hormonal levels were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay technique at follicular phase. The result suggests that FSH concentration is increased up to three times (from 3.10 ± 2.70 to 10.09 ± 6.93) but remains within the normal limit (P  0.05). The supplementation of 150 mg of Ubiquinol may reduce the oxidative stress in neuroendocrine system which

  1. Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    CONTROL NO* /ZOMOS A0-6n9 164 NAVAL AIR ENGINEERING CENTER PHILADELPHIA PA AERONAUTICAL MATERIALS LAB METHODS OF SANITIZING AND DEODORIZING ...SANITIZING, DEODORIZING , AND ANTISTATIC AGENTS IS DESCRIBED* RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE FOR THE USE OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM 1OMPOUNDS FOR SANITIZING AND...EQUIPMENT. HONEYCOMB CORES. SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION, METAL PLATES. ALUMINUM . TESTS. LAND MINES (U) SEVERAL OF THE BLAST PROTECTIVE COMBAT BOOT CONCEPTS

  2. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  3. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  4. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  5. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  6. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Thyroid hormone deiodination in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Aurea; Valverde-R, Carlos

    2005-08-01

    We review the experimental evidence accumulated within the past decade regarding the physiologic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) in piscine species. Agnathans, chondrichthyes, and teleosts express the three isotypes of IDs: ID1, ID2, and ID3, which are responsible for the peripheral fine-tuning of thyroid hormone (TH) bioactivity. At the molecular and operational level, fish IDs share properties with their corresponding vertebrate counterparts. However, fish IDs also exhibit discrete features that seem to be distinctive for piscine species. Indeed, teleostean ID1 is conspicuously resistant to propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibition, and its response to thyroidal status differs from that exhibited by other ID1s. Moreover, both the high level of ID2 activity and its expression in the liver of teleosts are unique among vertebrates. The physiologic role of iodothyronine deiodination in functions regulated by TH in fish is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, current experimental evidence suggests that IDs may coordinate and facilitate, in a tissue-specific fashion, the action of iodothyronines and other hormones involved in such processes.

  8. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrey, Anna C.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the publication of findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the ‘critical window hypothesis’, which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as cerebrovascular disease or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. PMID:25935728

  9. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  10. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  11. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wen-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  12. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  13. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  14. Do steroid hormones play a role in the etiology of glioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Etgen, Anne M; Rohan, Thomas E

    2010-10-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor and have a very poor prognosis. Little is known, however, about the etiology of these tumors. Evidence from a number of sources suggests that endogenous steroid hormones may play a role in the development of gliomas. First, the descriptive epidemiology of glioma suggests a relative protection of females compared with males, particularly during the premenopausal years. Second, some gliomas and glioblastomas express estrogen receptors (ER), especially ERβ, as well as aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of testosterone to estradiol, and possibly other steroid hormone receptors. Third, experimental studies indicate that glioblastomas transplanted into animals grow at a slower rate in females compared with males. Finally, experimental studies show that estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, and a number of selective estrogen receptor modulators inhibit proliferation of gliomas and induce cell death. These hormonal agonists and antagonists may act either through classical steroid hormone receptors or independently of such receptors. In view of these findings, further clinical, experimental, and epidemiologic studies are needed to elucidate the role of steroid hormone agonists and antagonists in the development and proliferation of glioma. If hormonal pathways are involved in gliomagenesis, this could eventually lead to the design of preventive strategies. ©2010 AACR.

  15. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor antagonist may reduce postmenopausal flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, P. van; Zanden, M. van der; Telting, D.; Filius, M.; Bancsi, L.; Boer, H. de

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hormone therapy (HT) is the most effective treatment of postmenopausal (PMP) flushing; however, its use is often contraindicated. As an alternative option, we explored the efficacy of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor antagonist cetrorelix in women with severe PMP

  16. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boelen; J. Kwakkel; O. Chassande; E. Fliers

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during lipopolysacchar

  17. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  18. Pleiotropic Effects of Thyroid Hormones: Learning from Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Franco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism induces several metabolic changes that allow understanding some physiopathological mechanisms. Under experimental hypothyroid conditions in rats, heart and kidney are protected against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion. An increased resistance to opening of the permeability transition pore seems to be at the basis of such protection. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate of hypothyroid kidney is low as a result of adenosine receptors-induced renal vasoconstriction. The vascular tone of aorta is also regulated by adenosine in hypothyroid conditions. In other context, thyroid hormones regulate lipoprotein metabolism. High plasma level of LDL cholesterol is a common feature in hypothyroidism, due to a low expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol plasma levels are variable in hypothyroidism; several proteins involved in HDL metabolism and structure are expressed at lower levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Based on the positive influence of thyroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism, thyromimetic drugs are promising for the treatment of dyslipidemias. In summary, hypothyroid status has been useful to understand molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia reperfusion, regulation of vascular function and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins.

  19. Hormonal and Sex Impact on the Epidemiology of Canine Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Armando Villamil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data demonstrate that the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is lower for women, but that the incidence increases after fifty years of age, at which menopause is regularly reached, suggesting that female hormones may be protective for NHL. This study examines the influence of sex on lymphoma risk in a relevant large animal model. Records for dogs in the Veterinary Medical Database were analyzed from 1964 to 2002. Risk ratios were calculated to evaluate associations between sex, neutering status, and lymphoma occurrence. A total of 14,573 cases and 1,157,342 controls were identified. Intact females had a significantly lower risk of developing lymphoma, Odds Ratio 0.69 (0.63–0.74 with a P<.001. We conclude that there is a sex effect on NHL risk in dogs similar to humans. We hypothesize that the hormone levels of intact females lower the risk of NHL. The possibility of a protective role of endogenous estrogens in the etiology of NHL should be investigated.

  20. Regulation of TNF-alpha secretion by a specific melanocortin-1 receptor peptide agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignar, Diane M; Andrews, John L; Jansen, Marilyn; Eilert, Michelle M; Pink, Heather M; Lin, Peiyuan; Sherrill, Ronald G; Szewczyk, Jerzy R; Conway, James G

    2003-05-01

    The lack of specific pharmacological tools has impeded the evaluation of the role of each melanocortin receptor (MCR) subtype in the myriad physiological effects of melanocortins. 154N-5 is an octapeptide (MFRdWFKPV-NH(2)) that was first identified as an MC1R antagonist in Xenopus melanophores [J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 29846]. In this manuscript, we show that 154N-5 is a specific agonist for human and murine MC1R. The peptide has negligible activity at MC3R and MC4R and is 25-fold less potent and a weak agonist at MC5R. 154N-5 was tested in both a cellular and an animal model of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. The inhibitory efficacy of 154N-5 on TNF-alpha secretion in both models was similar to the nonselective agonist NDP-alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-alphaMSH), thus, we conclude that inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by melanocortin peptides is mediated by MC1R. 154N-5 is a valuable new tool for the evaluation of specific contribution of MC1R agonism to physiological and pathological processes.

  1. Effects of fluoxetine administration on hypothalamic melanocortin system in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, I; Portillo, M P; Casis, L; Gutiérrez, A; Macarulla, M T; Echevarría, E

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the potential involvement of melanocortin system in the anorectic mechanism of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, in obese Zucker rats. Male obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were administered fluoxetine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for two weeks. The control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. RT-PCR for pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), Agouti gene related peptide (AgRP) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4-R) in the hypothalamus, as well as regional immunostaining for alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and MC4-R were carried out. Fluoxetine administration increased POMC expression and reduced MC4-R expression in the hypothalamus, without changes in AgRP mRNA levels. Moreover, an increase in the numbers of alpha-MSH positively immunostained neural cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), as well as a significant decrease in the numbers of neural cells positively immunostained for MC4-R in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), without changes in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), were observed. These results suggest the involvement of alpha-MSH in central fluoxetine anorectic action.

  2. AgRP(83-132) and SHU9119 differently affect activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; Kas, Martien J H; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan; Adan, Roger A H

    2006-08-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) mimics starvation and hyperactivity of anorexia nervosa patients in rats. Activation of the melanocortin (MC) system leads to hypophagia and increased energy expenditure in ad libitum fed rats. Therefore, activation of the MC system might underlie the development and propagation of ABA. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression is normally decreased during negative energy balance. Strikingly, we found a transient up-regulation of POMC mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus during the development of ABA, indicating a hyperactive MC system. However, wheel running and food intake were not influenced by treating ABA rats with the competitive antagonist SHU9119. This suggests that agonism of MC receptors by endogenous alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) levels does not underlie ABA. Instead, treatment with the inverse agonist AgRP(83-132) did ameliorate signs of ABA. This implies that modulation of constitutive MC receptor activity rather than antagonizing putative alpha-MSH release contributes to the development and propagation of ABA.

  3. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on orexigenic and anorexigenic modulators at the onset of anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eduardo J B; Romanova, Irina V; Suzuki, Susumu; Chen, Chung; Ugrumov, Michael V; Sato, Tomoi; Goncalves, Carolina G; Meguid, Michael M

    2005-06-07

    In cancer anorexia, a decrease in food intake (FI) occurs concomitant with changes in orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic peptides such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. omega-3 Fatty acid (omega-3FA) inhibits cytokine synthesis, and delays tumor appearance, tumor growth, and onset of anorexia in tumor-bearing rats. We hypothesize that, in cancer anorexia, omega-3FA is associated with quantitative reversal of hypothalamic NPY, alpha-MSH, and serotonin receptor (5-HT(1B)-receptor) enhancing FI. Fischer rats were divided into: MCA tumor bearing fed chow (TB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (TB-omega-3FA) and controls: non-tumor bearing fed chow (NTB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (NTB-omega-3FA). Rats were euthanized at anorexia and brains were removed for hypothalamic immunohistochemical study, using NPY, alpha-MSH, and 5-HT(1B)-receptor-specific antibodies and slides assessed by image analysis. Immunostaining specificity was controlled by omission of primary or secondary antibodies and pre-absorption test. At anorexia, FI decreased (P anorexia, concomitant with an increase in FI, were probably mediated by omega-3FA inhibition of tumor-induced cytokines.

  4. Capsaicin pretreatment prevents disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the rabbit eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bynke, G.

    1983-06-01

    Capsaicin, the irritating agent of red pepper, produces ocular inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism. The present study is concerned with the long-term effects of capsaicin pretreatment on the capacity of the eye to respond to different inflammatory stimuli. Following retrobulbar injection of capsaicin to rabbits the aqueous flare response induced by subsequent infrared irradiation (IR) of the iris, subcutaneously administered alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and exogenously administered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was reduced greatly. In the case of IR and alpha-MSH the reduced responsiveness was manifest for several weeks after capsaicin pretreatment, involving first the capsaicin-treated eye, but later also the contralateral control eye. After 2-3 months the aqueous flare response was normal in both eyes. In the case of PGE2 the responsiveness was reduced for a shorter time; after 3 weeks the response was normal in both eyes. The results indicate that all three stimuli tested are at least partly dependent upon an intact sensory innervation to disrupt the blood-aqueous barrier, but that the mechanism of action of PGE2 is different from that of IR and alpha-MSH.

  5. Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity of Rhododendron Weyrichii in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to evaluate the usefulness of Rhododendron weyrichii Maxim.as a whitening agent, the whitening effects of its extracts were investigated in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH-induced B16F10 melanoma cells. No toxicity was noted in either B16F10 melanoma cells or HaCaT keratinocyte cells that were exposed to the hot water or 70% ethanol extracts of R. weyrichii Maxim. (RW-H and RW-E, respectively.Moreover, both the RW-H and RW-E extracts dose-dependently inhibited α-MSH-induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells, with inhibitory effects of 52.5% and 51.6%, respectively, at a concentration of 200μg/mL. The RW-H and RW-E extracts also inhibitedintracellular tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Western blot analyses showed that the RW-H and RW-E extracts decreased tyrosinase, tyrosinase-relatedprotein-1, and tyrosinase-relatedprotein-2 expression.Additionally,we found that ρ-coumaric acid-containing RW-H and RW-E extracts could be used as hypopigmentation agentssince they suppress melanogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that RW-H and RW-E extracts have the potential to serve as functional cosmetic agents, including whitening agents.

  6. Effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin wrinkles and pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Mi; An, Hyo Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jung Yun; Choi, Chi Ho; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lim, Joo Hyuck; Choi, Joon-Hun; Song, Hyunnam; Moon, Sung Ho; Park, Young Jun; Chang, Shin-Jae; Choi, Sun Young

    2017-07-01

    Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial. Our results confirmed that the expression of type Ι collagen in dermal fibroblast cells treated with palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid (0.1-4 μg/mL) increased in a dose-dependent manner. In B16F1 cells, treatment with 20 μg/mL palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid reduced the melanin content by approximately 20% compared to alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone treatment. In the clinical trial, application of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream led to an improvement in skin roughness and lightness in 12 and 8 weeks, respectively. Our data show that palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid is an effective anti-aging agent that reduces wrinkles and abnormal skin pigmentation.

  7. JB/MS murine melanoma: a new model for studies on the modulation of differentiation and of tumorigenic and metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing, V J; Cannon, G B; Vieira, W D; Jiménez-Atiénzar, M; Kameyama, K; Law, L W

    1988-02-15

    The recently obtained JB/MS melanoma (induced by DMBA in C57Bl/6 mice) has been successfully established in culture, and characterization of various parameters of these cells, as they have been serially passaged in vivo and in vitro, has begun. The culture lines were initially highly dendritic and melanotic, growing slowly in vitro and extremely slowly in vivo. During serial passage in vivo and in vitro the cell lines have gradually evolved into less melanotic, but more proliferative, tumorigenic and metastatic cells. We have been able to demonstrate that the JB/MS melanoma shares the common melanoma TSTA previously reported for B16, K1735 and JB/RH melanomas, but does not cross-react with the S91 melanoma or with other non-melanoma cell lines used as specificity controls. The JB/MS cells can be induced to differentiate in vitro by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, a physiologically relevant agent, and studies have been initiated to detail the level at which this induction occurs. These sublines should prove to be excellent models for study of the progression of transformed cells from non-tumorigenic to tumorigenic phenotypes, and for progression through stages of varying metastatic potential, immunogenicity and differentiation.

  8. Bioactive motifs of agouti signal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virador, V M; Santis, C; Furumura, M; Kalbacher, H; Hearing, V J

    2000-08-25

    The switch between the synthesis of eu- and pheomelanins is modulated by the interaction of two paracrine signaling molecules, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and agouti signal protein (ASP), which interact with melanocytes via the MSH receptor (MC1R). Comparison of the primary sequence of ASP with the known MSH pharmacophore provides no suggestion about the putative bioactive domain(s) of ASP. To identify such bioactive motif(s), we synthesized 15-mer peptides that spanned the primary sequence of ASP and determined their effects on the melanogenic activities of murine melanocytes. Northern and Western blotting were used, together with chemical analysis of melanins and enzymatic assays, to identify three distinct bioactive regions of ASP that down-regulate eumelanogenesis. The decrease in eumelanin production was mediated by down-regulation of mRNA levels for tyrosinase and other melanogenic enzymes, as occurs in vivo, and these effects were comparable to those elicited by intact recombinant ASP. Shorter peptides in those motifs were synthesized and their effects on melanogenesis were further investigated. The amino acid arginine, which is present in the MSH peptide pharmacophore (HFRW), is also in the most active domain of ASP (KVARP). Our data suggest that lysines and an arginine (in motifs such as KxxxxKxxR or KxxRxxxxK) are important for the bioactivity of ASP. Identification of the specific ASP epitope that interacts with the MC1R has potential pharmacological applications in treating dysfunctions of skin pigmentation.

  9. Diplodus sargus interrenal-pituitary response: chemical communication in stressed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotto, Ike; Mosconi, Gilberto; Maradonna, Francesca; Cardinali, Marco; Carnevali, Oliana

    2002-06-01

    In the present study the response of white sea-bream (Diplodus sargus), used as experimental model, to different stocking densities was tested to assess whether the induced stress conditions were able to activate a chemical communication. Once a good recovery was evident, six days after capture and transportation, experiments started to evaluate eventual changes in cortisol plasma levels as well as in both plasma and pituitary alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) levels. These studies demonstrated that a low stocking density (2.5kg/1000L) is not deleterious for this species while a higher one (10kg/1000L) induces the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI). Thus, in these fish were evident both a significant increase of cortisol plasma levels and a significant decrease of alpha-MSH pituitary levels, while no significant changes were detected in alpha-MSH plasma concentrations. The most relevant result reported in this study, for the first time in marine species, is the presence of a chemical communication among stressed fish. It also should be noted that the data obtained from cortisol and alpha-MSH detections strongly indicate a gender specificity of this chemical signal.

  10. Constitutive expression of MC1R in HaCaT keratinocytes inhibits basal and UVB-induced TNF-alpha production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Le Gallic, Lionel; Stoebner, Pierre-Emmanuel; Guezennec, Anne; Guesnet, Joelle; Lavabre-Bertrand, Thierry; Martinez, Jean; Meunier, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) binds to melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) on melanocytes to stimulate pigmentation and modulate various cutaneous inflammatory responses. MC1R expression is not restricted to melanocytic cells and may be induced in keratinocytes after UVB exposure. We hypothesized that MC1R signaling in keratinocytes, wherein basal conditions are barely expressed, may modulate mediators of inflammation, such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Therefore, we generated HaCaT cells that stably express human MC1R or the Arg151Cys (R151C) nonfunctional variant. We demonstrate that: (1) the constitutive activity of MC1R results in elevated intracellular cAMP level, reduced NF-kappaB activity and decreased TNF-alpha transcription; (2) binding of alpha-MSH to MC1R and the subsequent increase in cAMP production do not inhibit TNFalpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation; (3) MC1R signaling is sufficient to strongly inhibit UVB-induced TNF-alpha expression and this inhibitory effect is further enhanced by alpha-MSH stimulation. Our findings suggest that the constitutive activity of the G-protein-coupled MC1R in keratinocytes may contribute to the modulation of inflammatory events and immune response induced by UV light.

  11. A role for the central histaminergic system in the leptin-mediated increase in cardiovascular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sumangala P; Dunbar, Joseph C

    2005-01-15

    The central nervous system (CNS) histaminergic neurons have been shown to regulate feeding behavior and are a target of leptin in the brain. The present study aimed to examine the involvement of the histaminergic system in the leptin-mediated regulation of cardiovascular dynamics. We investigated the cardiovascular responses to the CNS administration of histamine, leptin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) both in the presence and absence of the histamine H1 antagonist, chlorpheniramine. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine resulted in an immediate increase in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and vasoconstricted the iliac, renal and superior mesenteric vessels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with chlorpheniramine attenuated the histamine-induced increase in MAP, HR and decreased vascular conductance. The i.c.v. administration of leptin increased MAP and HR and decreased vascular conductance. The i.c.v. pretreatment with chlorpheniramine decreased the leptin-induced increase in MAP and the leptin-mediated iliac vasoconstriction. The i.c.v. administration of alpha-MSH also increased MAP, HR and decreased vascular conductance. However, pretreatment with chlorpheniramine did not influence the central alpha-MSH-mediated increase in MAP, HR and decreased vascular conductance. These results indicate that the central histaminergic system mediated by H1 receptors have a role in the central signaling pathway and is involved in leptin's regulation of cardiovascular dynamics. It appears that leptin directly or indirectly stimulates histaminergic neurons that lead to increased cardiovascular activity.

  12. Intracerebroventricular administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghourab, Samar; Beale, Kylie E; Semjonous, Nina M; Simpson, Katherine A; Martin, Niamh M; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Smith, Kirsty L

    2011-12-10

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid peptide expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. VIP and the VIP receptor VPAC(2)R are expressed in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. VIP has been shown to be involved in the regulation of energy balance in a number of non-mammalian vertebrates. We therefore examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of VIP on food intake, energy expenditure and activity in adult male Wistar rats. VIP administration caused a potent short lived decrease in food intake and an increase in activity and energy expenditure. The pathways potentially involved in the anorexigenic effects of VIP were investigated by measuring the release of neuropeptides involved in the regulation of food intake from hypothalamic explants treated with VIP. VIP significantly stimulated the release of the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH). These studies suggest that VIP may have an endogenous role in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis.

  13. Manassantin A and B from Saururus chinensis inhibiting cellular melanin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Won-Hee; Chung, Hee-Wook; Chang, Eun Ju; Lee, Seung Ho; Jahng, Yurngdong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Son, Jong-Keun; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2009-11-01

    Hyperpigmentation disorders such as freckles and senile lentigines in the skin are associated with abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments. In this study, two lignan constituents were isolated from Saururus chinensis Baill (Saururaceae) as inhibitors of cellular melanin production by bioassay-guided fractionations. The active constituents were manassantin A and B that dose-dependently inhibited melanin production in alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-activated melanoma B16 cells with IC(50) values of 13 nm and 8 nm, respectively. Arbutin as a positive control exhibited an IC(50) value of 96 microm on alpha-MSH-induced melanin production. Further, manassantin A inhibited forskolin- or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanin production with IC(50) values of 14 nm or 12 nm, respectively. Manassantin A decreased cellular amounts of IBMX-inducible tyrosinase protein but could not affect the catalytic activity of cell-free tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of melanin pigments. Finally, this study could provide a pharmacological potential of S. chinensis in hyperpigmentation disorders.

  14. Early and post-weaning malnutrition impairs alpha-MSH expression in the hypothalamus: a possible link to long-term overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana-Solis, María del Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2011-03-01

    The present study explored the effects of early and post-weaning malnutrition and nutritional rehabilitation on orexigenic (orexin (ORX) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) and anorexigenic peptides (alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)) expressed in hypothalamic nuclei. Male Wistar rats were malnourished during gestation-lactation (MGL) or from weaning to post-natal day 55 (MPW; P55). Two groups of rats were rehabilitated with a balanced diet until P90 (MGL-R and MPW-R, respectively). After a glucose tolerance test (GTT) brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. Malnourished groups were hyperglycemic after GTT. ORX expression did not display any difference. Only MGL rats showed increased NPY immunoreactivity in ARC and PVN nuclei, and both malnourished groups showed low alpha-MSH expression in the PVN and DMH, as compared with their controls. After nutritional rehabilitation rats showed normal GTT, increased rate of body and adipose tissue weights and high proportion of food ingestion. Both rehabilitated groups maintained low alpha-MSH expression in the PVN, indicating a deleterious long-lasting effect.

  15. Melanocyte biology and function with reference to oral melanin hyperpigmentation in HIV-seropositive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Chandran, Rakesh; Kramer, Beverley; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Lemmer, Johan

    2014-09-01

    The color of normal skin and of oral mucosa is not determined by the number of melanocytes in the epithelium but rather by their melanogenic activity. Pigmented biopolymers or melanins are synthesized in melanosomes. Tyrosinase is the critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of both brown/black eumelanin and yellow/red pheomelanin. The number of the melanosomes within the melanocytes, the type of melanin within the melanosomes, and the efficacy of the transfer of melanosomes from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes all play an important role in tissue pigmentation. Melanin production is regulated by locally produced factors including proopiomelanocortin and its derivative peptides, particularly alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adrenergic and cholinergic agents, growth factors, cytokines, and nitric oxide. Both eumelanin and pheomelanin can be produced by the same melanocytes, and the proportion of the two melanin types is influenced by the degree of functional activity of the α-MSH/MC1R intracellular pathway. The cause of HIV oral melanosis is not fully understood but may be associated with HIV-induced cytokine dysregulation, with the medications commonly prescribed to HIV-seropositive persons, and with adrenocortical dysfunction, which is not uncommon in HIV-seropositive subjects with AIDS. The purpose of this article is to discuss some aspects of melanocyte biology and HIV-associated oral melanin hyperpigmentation.

  16. Epigenetic changes in the hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin gene: a mechanism linking maternal undernutrition to obesity in the offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam; Begum, Ghazala; White, Anne

    2011-06-11

    Maternal undernutrition is associated with programming of obesity in offspring. While previous evidence has linked programming to the hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal (HPA) axis it could also affect the hypothalamic neuropeptides which regulate food intake and energy balance. Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), a key regulator of these neuronal pathways, is derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which is therefore a prime target for the programming of obesity. Several models of maternal undernutrition have identified changes in POMC in hypothalami from foetuses or offspring at various ages. These models have also shown that the offspring go on to develop obesity and/or glucose intolerance. It is our hypothesis that programming leads to epigenetic changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide genes. Therefore when there is subsequent increased food availability, the epigenetic changes could cause dysfunctional transcriptional regulation of energy balance. We present evidence of epigenetic changes in the POMC gene promoter in foetal hypothalami after peri-conceptional undernutrition. In this model there are also epigenetic changes in the hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor with consequent up-regulation of the receptor which could lead to alterations in the regulation of POMC and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus. Thus maternal undernutrition could cause epigenetic changes in the POMC and glucocorticoid receptor genes, in the foetal hypothalamus, which may predispose the offspring to altered regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis, later in life. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditioned Media from Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibits Melanogenesis by Promoting Proteasomal Degradation of MITF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs secrete various beneficial molecules, which have anti-apoptotic activity and cell proliferation. However, the effect of hUCB-MSCs in melanogenesis is largely unclear. In this study, we show that conditioned media (CM derived from hUCB-MSCs inhibit melanogenesis by regulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF expression via the ERK signalling pathway. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM strongly inhibited the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced hyperpigmentation in melanoma cells as well as melanocytes. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM induced ERK1/2 activation in melanocytes. In addition, inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed the anti-pigmentation activity of the hUCB-MSC-CM in melanocytes and in vitro artificial skin models. We also found that the expression of MITF was appreciably diminished while expression of phosphorylated MITF, which leads to its proteasomal degradation, was increased in cells treated with hUCB-MSC-CM. These results suggested that hUCB-MSC-CM significantly suppresses melanin synthesis via MITF degradation by the ERK pathway activation.

  18. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Post-menopausal hormone replacement (HRT) might protect against cardiovascular disease, possibly by arterial vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Progestogens are needed to avoid endometrial disease but vascular effects are controversial. The objective was to assess temporal changes...... in blood pressure (BP) by two measurement techniques during a cyclic hormone replacement regimen. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy and normotensive post-menopausal women (age 55 +/- 3 years) were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, and were randomized to 17beta-oestradiol plus...

  19. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Post-menopausal hormone replacement (HRT) might protect against cardiovascular disease, possibly by arterial vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Progestogens are needed to avoid endometrial disease but vascular effects are controversial. The objective was to assess temporal changes...... in blood pressure (BP) by two measurement techniques during a cyclic hormone replacement regimen. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy and normotensive post-menopausal women (age 55 +/- 3 years) were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study, and were randomized to 17beta-oestradiol plus...

  20. Hormonal contraception, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soskolne Varda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the effect of contraceptive methods, other than the condom, on HIV acquisition is not clear. The aim of this study was to describe hormonal contraceptive use, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon in order to provide baseline information for future analytical studies. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study based a nationally representative sample of 4486 sexually active women aged 15–49 years who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey. Results The overall HIV prevalence was 7.4% (332/4486. The HIV prevalence was higher in the 25–35 year age group (10.03%, urban residents (9.39%, and formerly married (18.48%, compared to their compatriots. The prevalence was lower in women with five or more living child (3.67%, women in the low wealth index category (3.79% and women who had no formal education (3.37%. The HIV prevalence was higher among women who had two or more partners in the last 12 months (10.26% and women who reported to have had four or more partners in their lifetime (12.40%. The prevalence of HIV was higher among current hormonal contraceptive users (6.63% compared to the current non-users (3.06%, among ever users of hormonal contraception (13.27% compared to the never users (7.11%. Conclusion We conclude that the prevalence of HIV among sexually active women in Cameroon varies according to sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and hormonal contraceptive use. Our findings underscore the need to counsel women using hormonal contraception to be aware that hormonal methods do not protect against HIV infection. Given the biologic plausibility of the link between hormonal contraception and HIV infection, future research should focus on carefully designed prospective studies to establish the temporal relationship and estimate the incidence of HIV infection among women using and not using hormonal contraceptive methods.

  1. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  2. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  3. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    . Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...

  4. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  5. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, N; Groothuis, TGG; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  6. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  7. Hormones and absence epilepsy in genetic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones are known to have a tremendous impact on seizures and might play a prominent role in epileptogenesis. However, little is known about the role of steroid hormones in absence epilepsy. Here we review recently combined electrophysiological, pharmacological and behavioural studies in a

  8. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  9. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K;

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  10. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  11. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia and mu...

  12. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  13. Characterization of thyroid hormone uptake in heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, Haidy Hendrica Antonia Gerarda Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Transport of T3 and T4 across the plasma membrane is the first step in the sequence of intracellular thyroid hormone action. It is generally accepted that this is mediated by specific carrier proteins. The knowledge about these proteins in liver is abundant, but information about thyroid hormone upt

  14. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  15. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...

  16. Hormonal contraception for human males: prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.R.K.Reddy

    2000-01-01

    Development of an ideal hormonal contraceptive for man has been the goal of several research workers during the past few decades. Suppression of pituitary gonadotropic hormones, which in turn would inhibit spermatogenesis while maintaining normal libido and potentia has been the approach for a contraceptive agent. Intramuscularly administered and orally active testosterone or testosterone in combination with progesterone have been shown to cause inhibition of spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia in normal men. Similarly testosterone has been used in combination with gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists and agonists to inhibit pituitary gonadotropic hormone release. Immunological approach to neutralize the circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone has also been shown to cause inhibition of spermatogenesis. The available literature shows that testosterone causes reversible azoospermia without any significant side effects in Asian population effectively and appears to be a promising chemical for control of fertility in man.( Asian J Androl 2000 ; 2 : 46 - 50 )

  17. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    , including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers...

  18. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  19. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  20. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  1. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  2. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  3. Neuroendocrine hormone amylin in diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xi; Zhang; Yan-Hong; Pan; Yan-Mei; Huang; Hai-Lu; Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine hormone amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide, is co-localized, co-packaged and cosecreted with insulin from adult pancreatic islet β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Specifically, amylin reduces secretion of nutrient-stimulated glucagon, regulates blood pressure with an effect on renin-angiotensin system, and delays gastric emptying. The physiological actions of human amylin attribute to the conformational α-helix monomers whereas the misfolding instable oligomers may be detrimental to the islet β cells and further transform to β-sheet fibrils as amyloid deposits. No direct evidence proves that the amylin fibrils in amyloid deposits cause diabetes. Here we also have performed a systematic review of human amylin gene changes and reported the S20 G mutation is minor in the development of diabetes. In addition to the metabolic effects, human amylin may modulate autoimmunity and innate inflammation through regulatory T cells to impact on both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  4. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    1997-03-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  5. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  6. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  7. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  8. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary) How did Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occur in people treated with pituitary human growth hormone (hGH)? From 1963 to 1985, the National Hormone ...

  9. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  10. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  11. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesus eObregon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases. The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. Brite or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2 and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that activate UCP1 in WAT and

  12. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. "Brite" or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT and

  13. Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormones in the macaque uterus: effects of long-term sex hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulchiy, Mariana; Zhang, Hua; Cline, J Mark; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Sahlin, Lena

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid gland dysfunction is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, and increased risk of miscarriage, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. However, little is known about the regulation of these receptors in the uterus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term treatment with steroid hormones on the expression, distribution, and regulation of the receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptor α1/α2 (THRα1/α2), and THRβ1 in the uterus of surgically menopausal monkeys. Eighty-eight cynomolgus macaques were ovariectomized and treated orally with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; n = 20), a combination of CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n = 20), or tibolone (n = 28) for 2 years. The control group (OvxC; n = 20) received no treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the protein expression and distribution of the receptors in luminal epithelium, glands, stroma, and myometrium of the uterus. Immunostaining of TRHR, TSHR, and THRs was detected in all uterine compartments. Epithelial immunostaining of TRHR was down-regulated in the CEE + MPA group, whereas in stroma, both TRHR and TSHR were increased by CEE + MPA treatment as compared with OvxC. TRHR immunoreactivity was up-regulated, but THRα and THRβ were down-regulated, in the myometrium of the CEE and CEE + MPA groups. The thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the CEE and tibolone groups as compared with OvxC, but the level of free thyroxin did not differ between groups. All receptors involved in thyroid hormone function are expressed in monkey uterus, and they are all regulated by long-term steroid hormone treatment. These findings suggest that there is a possibility of direct actions of thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine function.

  14. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed.

  15. Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status : a large prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Dossus, Laure; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fournier, Agnes; Fagherazzi, Guy; Rohrmann, Sabine; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sund, Malin; Lenner, Per; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Associations of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with excess adiposity are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with hormone-receptor negative malignancies, and possible interactions by hormone replacement

  16. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  17. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  18. Psychological functioning after growth hormone therapy in adult growth hormone deficient patients: endocrine and body composition correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Lašaitė, Lina; Bunevičius, Robertas; Lašienė, Danutė Teresė; Lašas, Liudvikas

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone replacement in adult growth hormone deficient patients improves psychological well-being and the quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between changes in mood, cognitive functioning, quality of life, changes in body composition and hormone concentration at baseline and six months after treatment with human recombinant growth hormone. Eighteen adult patients with growth hormone deficiency syndrome were recruited to the study. Growth hormone was a...

  19. Effect of sericin on diabetic hippocampal growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihong Chen; Songhe Yang; Yaqiang He; Chengjun Song; Yongping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sericin extracted from silk cocoon significantly reduces blood glucose levels and protects the nervous system against diabetes mel itus. In this study, a rat type 2 diabetes mel itus model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin for 3 successive days, fol owing which the rats were treated with sericin for 35 days. After treatment, the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats decreased significantly, the growth hormone level in serum and its expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly, while the insulin-like growth factor-1 level in serum and insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone receptor expression in the hippocampus increased significantly. The experimental findings indicate that sericin improves disorders of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis to al eviate hippocampal damage in diabetic rats.

  20. Hormonal modulation of endothelial NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckles, Sue P; Miller, Virginia M

    2010-05-01

    Since the discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the subsequent identification of nitric oxide (NO) as the primary mediator of endothelium-dependent relaxations, research has focused on chemical and physical stimuli that modulate NO levels. Hormones represent a class of soluble, widely circulating chemical factors that impact production of NO both by rapid effects on the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through phosphorylation of the enzyme and longer term modulation through changes in amount of eNOS protein. Hormones that increase NO production including estrogen, progesterone, insulin, and growth hormone do so through both of these common mechanisms. In contrast, some hormones, including glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin, decrease NO bioavailability. Mechanisms involved include binding to repressor response elements on the eNOS gene, competing for co-regulators common to hormones with positive genomic actions, regulating eNOS co-factors, decreasing substrate for eNOS, and increasing production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Feedback regulation by the hormones themselves as well as the ability of NO to regulate hormonal release provides a second level of complexity that can also contribute to changes in NO levels. These effects on eNOS and changes in NO production may contribute to variability in risk factors, presentation of and treatment for cardiovascular disease associated with aging, pregnancy, stress, and metabolic disorders in men and women.

  1. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  2. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases.

  3. [Cutaneous effects in hormonal contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Dalle, E; Revillon, B; Delecour, M; Devarenne-nicolle, M F; Pagniez, I

    1985-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can affect the skin through their hormonal effects or through iatrogenic effects associated with their toxicity in certain individuals. They may also be beneficial in certain androgen-dependent dermatoses. Toxic effects of OCs are rare but potentially serious; they should be diagnosed early and require permanent termination of OC use. The clinical manifestations are variable and not specific to the medication. The most frequently reported manifestations are allergic vascularities which may lead to serious renal complications, fixed pigmented erythema, urticaria, which may have other etiologic factors, and lichenoid eruptions. Combined OCs, because of their estrogen content, may cause sensitivity to light in susceptible women. Other dermatoses can be initiated or aggravated by OCs without direct relation to their hormonal effects. OCs are therefore contraindicated if there is a personal or family history of porphyries or a personal history of systemic lupus erythematosus, erythema nouex, herpes gestationis, or malignant melanoma. Hormonal-related dermatological effects caused by either progestins or estrogens have become less frequent as dose levels have declined. Chloasma, either melasma or a poorly defined spotty pigmentation, accounts for 2/3 of cases of OC-related dermatoses. It is more common in women of Mediterranean background. 80% of affected OC users have a history of "mask of pregnancy", but the condition is also found in nulliparas. Exposure to sunlight is a factor. Women with a history of chloasma of pregnancy and dark coloring should not use OCs. Seborrhea is directly related to the androgen effect of OCs and is less likely to occur with 17 OH progesterone derivatives than with 19 norsteroid derivatives. The role of androgens in acne is well known, but 2 other factors are necessary: an anomaly in keratinization and proliferation of corynebacterium acnes, a saprophyte of the follicles. OCs do not necessarily need to be suspended

  4. Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Ninoslav J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the

  5. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  6. Pituitary and placental hormone levels in pseudocyesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osotimehin, B O; Ladipo, O A; Adejuwon, C A; Otolorin, E O

    1981-10-01

    Twelve patients with clinical features of pseudocyesis were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of galactorrhea. The mean serum prolactin level of patients with galactorrhea was significantly higher than the normal values of the patients without galactorrhea. The mean serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were markedly elevated in patients without galactorrhea. This was especially true of luteinizing hormone. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin were undetectable in all patients. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  7. Menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    La terapia hormonal en la menopausia/ menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR)/¿Qué es la menopausia?/ ¿Porqué hay tanto “ruido” acerca de la menopausia, si es un evento natural en la vida de toda mujer?/ ¿Qué significa terapia hormonal de reemplazo?(THR)/ ¿Cuáles son las ventajas de recibir la THR?/ Mejoraría en la calidad de vida/ Prevención de enfermedad/ ¿Quiere esto decir que absolutamente todas las mujeres deber recibir una THR?/ ¿Cuáles son las molestias más frecuentes a las qu...

  8. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: unusual oral manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Siqueira, Carlos Rodrigo Barros; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Children with significant growth retardation and normal levels of growth hormone are diagnosed with growth hormone insensitivity. The main oral findings observed in patients with growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) are underdeveloped jaws, crowded teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. This manuscript describes a 9-year-old child diagnosed with GHIS, who had delayed eruption of permanent teeth and 14 unerupted supernumerary teeth. All supernumerary teeth were extracted except for two maxillary and one mandibular teeth which were difficult to identify and access. Multiple supernumerary teeth have never been reported before in patients with GHIS.

  9. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  10. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Sze; René L. Bernays; Cornelia Zwimpfer; Peter Wiesli; Michael Brändle; Christoph Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cystatin C (CysC) is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transsphe...

  11. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Lisa; René L. Bernays; Zwimpfer, Cornelia; Wiesli, Peter; Brändle, Michael; Schmid, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC) is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH) on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transs...

  12. Hot stuff: thyroid hormones and AMPK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Grahame Hardie

    2010-01-01

    @@ Every high school biology student is taught that thyroid hormones increase the metabolic rate. This conclusion mainly arose from the effects of hyperthyroidism, the clinical condition characterized by excessive production of the hormones. Symptoms include weight loss despite increased appetite, tremors,cardiac palpitations, irritability, intolerance to heat and increased perspiration.Although understanding of how thyroid hormones increase metabolic rate at the molecular level has been elusive,a recent paper by Antonio Vidal-Puig and colleagues in Nature Medicine [ 1 ]provides important new insights.

  13. Protecting Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepp, Susan; Wootters, William K.

    2006-09-01

    For many everyday transmissions, it is essential to protect digital information from noise or eavesdropping. This undergraduate introduction to error correction and cryptography is unique in devoting several chapters to quantum cryptography and quantum computing, thus providing a context in which ideas from mathematics and physics meet. By covering such topics as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm, this text informs the reader about current thinking in quantum information theory and encourages an appreciation of the connections between mathematics and science.Of particular interest are the potential impacts of quantum physics:(i) a quantum computer, if built, could crack our currently used public-key cryptosystems; and (ii) quantum cryptography promises to provide an alternative to these cryptosystems, basing its security on the laws of nature rather than on computational complexity. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed, but students should have a basic knowledge of complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Accessible to readers familiar with matrix algebra, vector spaces and complex numbers First undergraduate text to cover cryptography, error-correction, and quantum computation together Features exercises designed to enhance understanding, including a number of computational problems, available from www.cambridge.org/9780521534765

  14. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  15. Leptin:a multifunctional hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGLU; CAILI

    2000-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product encoded by the obese(ob) gene.It is a circulating hormone produced primarily by the adipose tissue.ob/ob mice with mutations of the gene encoding leptin become morbidly obese,infertile,hyperphagic,hypothermic,and diabetic.Since the cloning of leptin in 1994,our knowledge in body weight regulation and the role played by leptin has increased substantially.We now know that leptin signals through its receptor,OB-R,which is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily.Leptin serves as an adiposity signal to inform the brain the adipose tissue mass in a negative feedback loop regulating food intake and energy expenditure.Leptin also plays important roles in angiogenesis,immune function,fertility,and bone formation.Humans with mutations in the gene encoding leptin are also morbidly obese and respond to leptin treatment,demonstrating that enhancing or inhibiting leptin's activities in vivo may have potential therapeutic benefits.

  16. Extrapituitary growth hormone and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    While growth hormone (GH) is obligatory for postnatal growth, it is not required for a number of growth-without-GH syndromes, such as early embryonic or fetal growth. Instead, these syndromes are thought to be dependent upon local growth factors, rather than pituitary GH. The GH gene is, however, also expressed in many extrapituitary tissues, particularly during early development and extrapituitary GH may be one of the local growth factors responsible for embryonic or fetal growth. Moreover, as the expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene mirrors that of GH in extrapituitary tissues the actions of GH in early development are likely to be mediated by local autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, especially as extrapituitary GH expression occurs prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of pituitary somatotrophs or the appearance of GH in the circulation. The extrapituitary expression of GH in embryos has also been shown to be of functional relevance in a number of species, since the immunoneutralization of endogenous GH or the blockade of GH production is accompanied by growth impairment or cellular apoptosis. The extrapituitary expression of the GH gene also persists in some central and peripheral tissues postnatally, which may reflect its continued functional importance and physiological or pathophysiological significance. The expression and functional relevance of extrapituitary GH, particularly during embryonic growth, is the focus of this brief review.

  17. Unsulfated cholecystokinin: An overlooked hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-10

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact α-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  18. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  19. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F

    2000-06-01

    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  20. The Role of Steroid Hormones in the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Cabral-Costa, João Victor; Mazucanti, Caio Henrique; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, while metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, such as calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  1. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  2. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm: the role of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Courtois, Audrey; Drion, Pierre; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in men, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently have concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysms. Moreover, women are diagnosed with AAA about 10 years later and seem to be protected by female sex hormones. In this MEDLINE-based review of literature, we examined human and animal in vivo and in vitro studies to further deepen our understanding of the sexual dimorphism of AAA. We focus on the role of sex hormones during the formation and growth of AAA. Endogenous estrogens and exogenous 17β-estradiol were found to exert favorable actions protecting from AAA in animal models, whereas exogenous hormone replacement therapy in humans had inconclusive results. Androgens, known to have detrimental effects in the vasculature, in sufficient levels maintain the integrity of the aortic wall through their anabolic actions and act differentially in men and women, whereas lower levels of testosterone have been associated with AAA in humans. In conclusion, sex differences remain an important area of AAA research, but further studies especially in humans are needed. Furthermore, differential molecular mechanisms of sex hormones constitute a potential therapeutic target for AAA.

  3. Acceleration of wound healing by growth hormone-releasing hormone and its agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Dioufa, Nikolina; Schally, Andrew V.; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Moustou, Evi; Block, Norman L.; Owens, Gary K.; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well-documented action of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) on the stimulation of production and release of growth hormone (GH), the effects of GHRH in peripheral tissues are incompletely explored. In this study, we show that GHRH plays a role in wound healing and tissue repair by acting primarily on wound-associated fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in culture and wound-associated fibroblasts in mice expressed a splice variant of the receptors for GHRH (SV1). ...

  4. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic m......-transgenic mice, 16 to 24 months of age, develop pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas. These findings provide conclusive evidence that protracted stimulation of secretory activity can cause proliferation, hyperplasia and adenoma of adenohypophysial cells....

  5. Regulation of endometrial cancer cell growth by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, S.; Bax, C M R; Chatzaki, E; Chard, Tim; Iles, Ray K.

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used to treat recurrent endometrial cancer. However, the mode of action is uncertain. Our previous studies showed no direct effect of GnRHa on endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro. We have now examined the effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on endometrial cancer cell growth. The aim was to determine whether suppression of pituitary LH and FSH by GnRHa could explain the tumour regression seen ...

  6. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  7. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  8. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the advantages of long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptive methods, they are ... common; 9% of women used the pill in 2015, 8% relied on male condoms .... contraception for adolescents and young adults: patient and provider.

  9. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...

  10. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severity of migraines. Hormonal contraception methods, such as birth control pills, patches or vaginal rings, may change existing headache ... doctor. It may help to: Use a monthly birth control pill pack with fewer inactive (placebo) days. Eliminate the ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lack the ability to have biological children (infertility). The condition can also be associated with a ... for triggering the release of several hormones that direct the development of many parts of the body. ...

  12. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  13. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferas

  14. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferas

  15. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses curr

  16. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of testosterone and other androgens (male hormones). Most male breast cancers have androgen receptors that may cause the cells ... into estrogens in the body. Orchiectomy shrinks most male breast cancers, and may help make other treatments like tamoxifen ...

  17. Treatment of endometriosis: a hormonal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinetz, T; Sanfilippo, J S

    2010-08-01

    Endometriosis continues to plague women of reproductive age. It is a chronic disease leading to a decreased quality of life, infertility, and increased societal costs. The gold standard for diagnosis remains visualization and or biopsy of lesions at the time of intraoperative diagnosis, i.e. laparoscopy or laparotomy. The severity of pain does not correlate with the stage of endometriosis, which complicates the treatment process. Hormonal therapies have long been used as a treatment for endometriosis. Therapy is targeted at symptom relief as a cure is lacking. While some regimes use hormonal therapy exclusively, others combine such with surgical excision of lesions. Although hormonal modalities are successful in alleviating or suppressing symptoms, they fail to treat the infertility associated with endometriosis. Therefore, those, desiring to achieve pregnancy should be excluded from hormonal treatment in the short term. Future studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology and allow design of specific, targeted treatment.

  18. Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology, Iodine Metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of iodine and thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH). To produce T4 at ... for adequate T4 release, a number of factors can modify this ..... Lipid M etabolism. R educed appetite; impaired protein metabolism; reduced glucose deposition.

  19. Innovations in classical hormonal targets for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Nicola; Freschi, Letizia; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Streuli, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that affects approximately 10% of women in reproductive age. Several evidences show that endometriosis lesions are associated to hormonal imbalance, including estrogen synthesis, metabolism and responsiveness and progesterone resistance. These hormonal alterations influence the ability of endometrial cells to proliferate, migrate and to infiltrate the mesothelium, causing inflammation, pain and infertility. Hormonal imbalance in endometriosis represents also a target for treatment. We provide an overview on therapeutic strategies based on innovations of classical hormonal mechanisms involved in the development of endometriosis lesions. The development phase of new molecules targeting these pathways is also discussed. Endometriosis is a chronic disease involving young women and additional biological targets of estrogen and progesterone pharmacological manipulation (brain, bone and cardiovascular tissue) need to be carefully considered in order to improve and overcome current limits of long-term medical management of endometriosis.

  20. Postmenopausal hormone therapy in clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Although many of the risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy are known, only recently has the magnitude of these effects and their perspective to other therapies become more fully understood. Careful review of randomized controlled trials indicates that the risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy including breast cancer, stroke and venous thromboembolism are similar to other commonly used agents. Overall, these risks are rare (less than 1 event per 1,000 women) and even rarer when initiated in women less than 60 years of age or within 10 years of menopause. In addition, the literature indicates similar benefit of postmenopausal hormone therapy, in women who initiate hormone therapy in close proximity to menopause, to other medications used for the primary prevention of coronory heart disease in women.

  1. [Hormonal stimulation of reproductive function in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladkova, A I

    1993-01-01

    Industrial conditions, gynaecological disorders, ovarian deficiency being unfavourable factors for pigs reproduction, as well as the necessity in rapid sex maturation require thorough knowledge on physiology of reproduction processes. The importance belongs to the hormonal treatment in development of special biotechnological methods. Efficiency of the latter is determined by the kind of hormone used, its dose, injection time in sex cycle and the knowledge of species specificity of physiological regulation of reproductive processes in pigs of great value. The achievements in this country and abroad, devoted to the technology of oestrogens, gestagens, androgens and their combinations as well as gonadotropins (PMS, CG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone applications have been reviewed. The most often used schemes of hormonal treatment and drugs, as well as the results obtained have been described. The data presented can be used for needs of practical cattle-breeding.

  2. Growth hormone replacement therapy in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Panagiota; Christoforidis, Athanasios; Vargiami, Euthymia; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2014-12-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is considered an overgrowth disorder given the macrosomia that is present at birth .However, shortly after birth the weight drops dramatically and the patients are usually referred for failure to thrive. Subsequently, affected patients develop the distinctive coarse facial appearance and are at risk for cardiac anomalies and solid tumor malignancies. Various endocrine disorders, although not very often, have been reported in patients with CS, including growth hormone deficiency, hypoglycemia, ACTH deficiency, cryptorchidism and hypothyroidism. We report a case of Costello syndrome with hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism and growth hormone deficiency and we evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of growth hormone replacement therapy. The index patient is a paradigm of successful and safe treatment with growth hormone for almost 7 years. Since patients with CS are at increased risk for cardiac myopathy and tumor development they deserve close monitoring during treatment.

  3. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  4. Pathology of sleep, hormones and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Kluge, M.; Schussler, P.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with depression, characteristic changes of sleep electroencephalogram and nocturnal hormone secretion occur including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition, reduced non-REM sleep and impaired sleep continuity. Neuropeptides are common regulators of the sleep electroencephalogram (

  5. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    multiplication of tissue culture potato plantlets. F. Nuwagira1,3, S.B. ... are genotype dependant. The use of higher .... hormonal combinations and the interaction showed no ..... PhD Thesis, ... Environment and Industrial Innovation. Volume 12.

  6. Peptic ulceration may be a hormonal deficiency disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jack W

    2008-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed that Helicobacter pylori infection may cause a deficiency of the hormone secretin that allows peptic ulcer disease to develop by impairing the body's defenses to gastric acid. Secretin is released into the circulation from the S-cells of the duodenal crypts in response to gastric acid entering the duodenum. Once in the circulation, secretin has five well-documented effects that protect the upper intestine from gastric acid: it stimulates secretion of bicarbonate rich exocrine pancreatic juice; it stimulates secretion of alkaline bile; it stimulates secretion of alkaline mucus from the duodenal submucosal glands of Brunner; it inhibits the humoral phase of gastric secretion; and it inhibits gastric motility, thereby delaying gastric emptying. Impaired secretin release and reduced duodenal S-cells have been documented in peptic ulcer patients compared with control patients. Clinical evidence that patients with H. pylori infection and peptic ulceration have increased gastric secretion and motility and decreased duodenal bicarbonate response to gastric acid, all of which normalize after eradication of the infection, could be explained by reversible impairment of the secretin mechanism. Gastric metaplasia in the duodenum with H. pylori infection is known to reduce the S-cell population. The fact that not all patients with H. pylori infection develop peptic ulceration suggests that degree of secretin deficiency determined by extent of the infection must reach a critical level for peptic ulceration to occur. Peptic ulceration may be a hormonal deficiency disease, a result of secretin deficiency caused by H. pylori infection. It may be the first example of a specific hormonal deficiency disease caused by a specific bacterial infection.

  7. Familial growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, H F; Barr, D G; Kelnar, C J

    1991-01-01

    A mother with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism and her short son showed poor spontaneous growth hormone secretion, and provocation tests suggested a deficiency of growth hormone releasing factor. This is the first report of growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. The boy has responded well to growth hormone treatment over a period of three years.

  8. Expression of Thyroid Hormone Transporters in the Human Hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alkemade; E.C.H. Friesema; A. Kalsbeek; D.F. Swaab; T.J. Visser; E. Fliers

    2011-01-01

    Context: Transport of thyroid hormone across the plasma membrane is required for proper thyroid hormone action and metabolism. Several specific thyroid hormone transporters have been identified capable of facilitating uptake and/or efflux of thyroid hormones. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-8, MCT

  9. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Bioactivity in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTThyroid hormone plays an essential role in a variety of metabolic processes in the human body. Examples are the effects of thyroid hormone on metabolism and on the heart. The production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the TSH

  10. Intermittent versus continuous administration of growth hormone treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem, V; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment given by daily injection was compared with growth hormone given for three weeks of every four. All children had received recombinant human growth hormone for two years before randomisation. Growth velocity decreased in both groups in years one and two of the study but the effect was significantly greater in the group receiving intermittent growth hormone.

  11. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  12. [Human growth hormone and Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Marco, Silvia Beatriz; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Garagorri Otero, Jesús María

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of clinical and analytical parameters as predictors of the final growth response in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. A retrospective study was performed on 25 girls with Turner syndrome (17 treated with growth hormone), followed-up until adult height. Auxological, analytical, genetic and pharmacological parameters were collected. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted to evaluate short (12 months) and long term response to treatment with growth hormone. A favourable treatment response was shown during the first year of treatment in terms of height velocity gain in 66.6% of cases (height-gain velocity >3cm/year). A favourable long-term treatment response was also observed in terms of adult height, which increased by 42.82±21.23cm (1.25±0.76 SDS), with an adult height gain of 9.59±5.39cm (1.68±1.51 SDS). Predictors of good response to growth hormone treatment are: A) initial growth hormone dose, B) time on growth hormone treatment until starting oestrogen therapy, C) increased IGF1 and IGFBP-3 levels in the first year of treatment, and D) height gain velocity in the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Thyroid hormone, neural tissue and mood modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Whybrow, P C

    2001-04-01

    The successful treatment of affective disorders with thyroid hormone exemplifies the suggested inter-relationship between endocrine and neuronal systems in these disorders. Thyroid hormones have a profound influence on behaviour and appear to be capable of modulating the phenotypic expression of major affective illness. Specifically, there is good evidence that triiodothyronine (T3) may accelerate the antidepressant response to tricylic antidepressants, and some studies suggest that T3 may augment the therapeutic response to antidepressants in refractory depressed patients. Open studies have also indicated that adjunctive supraphysiological doses of thyroxine (T4) can ameliorate depressive symptomatology and help stabilize the long-term course of illness in bipolar and unipolar patients, especially women refractory to standard medications. Despite acceptance of the essential role of thyroid hormone on brain maturation and differentiation, and the clinical and therapeutic observations in association with mood disorders, the molecular action that may underlie the mood-modulating properties of thyroid hormone in the adult brain has only recently become the focus of research. The identification of nuclear T3 receptors, the region-specific expression of deiodinase isoenzymes and the molecular analyses of thyroid-responsive genes in the adult brain have provided the biological bases for a better understanding of thyroid hormone action in mature neurons. Also the influence of thyroid hormones on the putative neurotransmitter systems that regulate mood and behaviour, serotonin and norepinephrine, may be helpful in explaining their mood-modulating effects.

  14. Update on the male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Melanie; Anderson, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    There remains a need for new acceptable and effective male contraceptives to increase the choice for couples throughout the world. There have been no recent advances in available male contraceptive methods although a number of promising approaches have been identified, of which the hormonal approach is currently undergoing clinical investigation. In recent years the pace of research in this area has quickened significantly with increasing interest and now investment by the pharmaceutical industry. This is vital if the work undertaken so far by the public sector is to be transformed into a commercial reality. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of pituitary gonadotropin secretion resulting in a reversible reduction in spermatogenesis with azoospermia in all men being the ultimate aim. Without stimulation by luteinising hormone from the pituitary, testicular testosterone production also ceases. Therefore, androgen administration to restore physiological levels is an essential component of all male hormonal contraceptive regimes. Male hormonal contraceptives can consist of testosterone alone, or either a progestogen or gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with 'add-back' testosterone. This article reviews the current state of progress in this field.

  15. Managing adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman Barr, Nancy

    2010-12-15

    Adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives usually diminish with continued use of the same method. Often, physi- cians only need to reassure patients that these symptoms will likely resolve within three to five months. Long-acting injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is the only hormonal contraceptive that is consistently associated with weight gain; other hormonal methods are unlikely to increase weight independent of lifestyle choices. Switching com- bined oral contraceptives is not effective in treating headaches, nor is the use of multivitamins or diuretics. There are no significant differences among various combined oral contraceptives in terms of breast tenderness, mood changes, and nausea. Breakthrough bleeding is common in the first months of combined oral contraceptive use. If significant abnormal bleeding persists beyond three months, other methods can be considered, and the patient may need to be evaluated for other causes. Studies of adverse sexual effects in women using hormonal contraceptives are inconsistent, and the pharmacologic basis for these symptoms is unclear. If acne develops or worsens with progestin-only contra- ceptives, the patient should be switched to a combination method if she is medically eligible. There is insufficient evidence of any effect of hormonal contraceptives on breast milk quantity and quality. Patient education should be encouraged to decrease the chance of unanticipated adverse effects. Women can also be assessed for medical eligibility before and during the use of hormonal contraceptives.

  16. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  17. Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Miho; Sato, Haruhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiyasu; Hirukawa, Takashi; Sawaya, Asako; Miyakogawa, Takayo; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Kakuta, Takatoshi

    2009-07-20

    We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone.

  18. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  19. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  20. Obesity, growth hormone and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is regulated, suppressed and stimulated by numerous physiological stimuli. However, it is believed that obesity disrupts the physiological and pathological factors that regulate, suppress or stimulate GH release. Pulsatile GH has been potently stimulated in healthy subjects by both aerobic and resistance exercise of the right intensity and duration. GH modulates fuel metabolism, reduces total fat mass and abdominal fat mass, and could be a potent stimulus of lipolysis when administered to obese individuals exogenously. Only pulsatile GH has been shown to augment adipose tissue lipolysis and, therefore, increasing pulsatile GH response may be a therapeutic target. This review discusses the factors that cause secretion of GH, how obesity may alter GH secretion and how both aerobic and resistance exercise stimulates GH, as well as how exercise of a specific intensity may be used as a stimulus for GH release in individuals who are obese. Only five prior studies have investigated exercise as a stimulus of endogenous GH in individuals who are obese. Based on prior literature, resistance exercise may provide a therapeutic target for releasing endogenous GH in individuals who are obese if specific exercise programme variables are utilized. Biological activity of GH indicates that this may be an important precursor to beneficial changes in body fat and lean tissue mass in obese individuals. However, additional research is needed including what molecular GH variants are acutely released and involved at target tissues as a result of different exercise stimuli and what specific exercise programme variables may serve to stimulate GH in individuals who are obese.

  1. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  2. Gene Regulation System of Vasopressin and Corticotoropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, play a crucial role in the physiological and behavioral response to various kinds of stresses. Both neuropeptides activate the hypophysialpituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is a central mediator of the stress response in the body. Conversely, they receive the negative regulation by glucocorticoid, which is an end product of the HPA axis. Vasopressin and CRH are closely linked to immune response; they also interact with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, as for vasopressin, it has another important role, which is the regulation of water balance through its potent antidiuretic effect. Hence, it is conceivable that vasopressin and CRH mediate the homeostatic responses for survival and protect organisms from the external world. A tight and elaborate regulation system of the vasopressin and CRH gene is required for the rapid and flexible response to the alteration of the surrounding environments. Several important regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter region in the vasopressin and CRH gene. Many transcription factors and intracellular signaling cascades are involved in the complicated gene regulation system. This review focuses on the current status of the basic research of vasopressin and CRH. In addition to the numerous known facts about their divergent physiological roles, the recent topics of promoter analyses will be discussed.

  3. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signaling modulates intermittent hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and cognitive deficits in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Deepti; Ramesh, Vijay; Li, Richard C; Schally, Andrew V; Gozal, David

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), leads to degenerative changes in the hippocampus, and is associated with spatial learning deficits in adult mice. In both patients and murine models of OSA, the disease is associated with suppression of growth hormone (GH) secretion, which is actively involved in the growth, development, and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent work showed that exogenous GH therapy attenuated neurocognitive deficits elicited by IH during sleep in rats. Here, we show that administration of the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) agonist JI-34 attenuates IH-induced neurocognitive deficits, anxiety, and depression in mice along with reduction in oxidative stress markers such as MDA and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and increases in hypoxia inducible factor-1α DNA binding and up-regulation of insulin growth factor-1 and erythropoietin expression. In contrast, treatment with a GHRH antagonist (MIA-602) during intermittent hypoxia did not affect any of the IH-induced deleterious effects in mice. Thus, exogenous GHRH administered as the formulation of a GHRH agonist may provide a viable therapeutic intervention to protect IH-vulnerable brain regions from OSA-associated neurocognitive dysfunction. Sleep apnea, characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits. Here, we show that administration of a GHRH agonist (JI-34) reduces oxidative stress, increases both HIF-1α nuclear binding and downstream expression of IGF1 and erythropoietin (EPO) in hippocampus and cortex, and markedly attenuates water maze performance deficits in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia during sleep.

  4. Growth hormone, insulin and aging: the benefits of endocrine defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Longevity of mice can be increased by spontaneous or experimentally induced mutations that interfere with the biosynthesis or actions of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), or insulin in the adipose tissue. The effects of GH resistance and deficiency of GH (along with thyrotropin and prolactin) on aging and lifespan are the most pronounced and best established of these mutations. Potential mechanisms linking these endocrine deficits with delayed aging and extended longevity include increased stress resistance, alterations in insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and metabolic adjustments. Physiological relationships deduced from the extreme phenotypes of long-lived mouse mutants appear to apply broadly, encompassing genetically normal ("wild-type") mice and other mammalian species. The role of GH in the control of human aging continues to be hotly debated, but recent data indicate that reduced somatotropic signaling provides protection from cancer and other age-related diseases and may promote old age survival.

  5. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  6. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal

  7. Hormone-dependent aggression in male and female rats: experiential, hormonal, and neural foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hormone-dependent aggression in both male and female rats includes the distinctive behavioral characteristics of piloerection and lateral attack. In males the aggression is dependent on testicular testosterone and is commonly known as intermale aggression. In females, the aggression is most commonly observed as maternal aggression and is dependent on hormones whose identity is only beginning to emerge. The present review examines the experiential events which activate hormone-dependent aggression, the relation of the aggression to gonadal hormones, and the neural structures that participate in its modulation. In males and females, the aggression is activated by cohabitation with a conspecific of the opposite sex, by competitive experience, and by repeated exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics. In the female, the presence of pups also activates aggression. In both males and females, hormones are necessary for the full manifestation of the aggression. The essential hormone appears to be testosterone in males and a combination of testosterone and estradiol in females. The information available suggests the neural control systems for hormone-dependent aggression may be similar in males and females. It is argued that hormone-dependent aggression is behaviorally and biologically homologous in male and female rats.

  8. Thyroid Hormone Receptor alpha Modulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Changes in Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kwakkel; O. Chassande; H.C. van Beeren; E. Fliers; W.M. Wiersinga; A. Boelen

    2010-01-01

    Acute inflammation is characterized by low serum T-3 and T-4 levels accompanied by changes in liver type 1 deiodinase (D1), liver D3, muscle D2, and muscle D3 expression. It is unknown at present whether thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TR alpha) plays a role in altered peripheral thyroid hormone met

  9. Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    P. J. Smith; Pringle, P J; Brook, C. G.

    1987-01-01

    The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

  10. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal contraceptiv

  11. Resistance to growth hormone releasing hormone and gonadotropins in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteo-dystrophy (AHO). Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action (pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia [PHP-Ia), recent studies have provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad and pituitary. Accordingly, patients with PHP-Ia display variable degrees of resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins and growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH). Although the incidence and the clinical and biochemical characteristics of PTH and TSH resistance have been widely investigated and described, the cause and significance of the reproductive dysfunction in AHO is still poorly understood. The clinical finding of alterations of GH secretion in these patients was described for the first time only 2 years ago. The present report briefly reviews the literature focusing on the actual knowledge about these last two subjects.

  12. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hormone profile of menopausal women in Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daysi; Acosta, Alina; Robles, Erick; Díaz, Cóssette

    2012-04-01

    There is a tendency among women today to delay the age at which they have their first child or subsequent children. This creates a dilemma for couples, since health professionals tend to counsel against pregnancy in women aged ≥40 years without considering their reproductive potential and their ability to and likelihood of conceiving and carrying to term a healthy newborn at little or no risk. Assess hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in menopausal women in Havana, to evaluate relevance to reproductive potential. A retrospective study was conducted from March 2006 through March 2008 of 230 healthy women aged 40-59 years seen in the Menopause and Osteoporosis Clinic in Havana, Cuba. Chart review yielded data on current age, stage of climacteric and hormone levels expressed in means and standard deviations: serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and testosterone. Analysis of variance was used for assessment by age group and stage of menopause (eumenorrheic, perimenopausal and postmenopausal), with a p value of <0.05 set as significance level. Mean serum hormone levels in eumenorrheic women were: FSH 6.97 IU/L, LH 4.23 IU/L and estradiol 314 pmol/L; in perimenopausal women: FSH 34.69 IU/L, LH 20.78 IU/L and estradiol 201 pmol/L; and in postmenopausal women: FSH 75.43 IU/L, LH 37.59 IU/L and estradiol 117 pmol/L (p <0.05 for difference between eumenorrheic and postmenopausal women). There was a progressive increase in FSH and LH and a decline in estradiol with older age. There was no significant difference in testosterone levels by age or stage of menopause. Menstrual cycle and hormonal levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis should be considered in addition to chronological age when determining reproductive potential in women aged 40-59 years. KEYWORDS Hormones; hypothalamo-hypophyseal system; luteinizing hormone; follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol; testosterone; sex hormones; infertility, female

  14. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRESS HORMONES IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Z Zangeneh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nPsoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition characterized by inflamed and scaly lesions of skin. Whilst the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not known, psychological stress has been implicated as a potential trigger in the onset and exacerbation of the condition. Psychiatric and psychological factors play an important role in at least 30% of dermatologic disorder and pathophysiologic link between psychological stress (PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. As activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA is critical to a successful stress response, we investigated this in patients with psoriasis. This study was performed on 55 patients (40 females and 15 males visited our clinic for treatment of psoriasis in pharmacology department. We measured the rate of activation of HPA by hormonal changes. These patients displayed higher fasting blood sugar (FBS, epinephrine (Ep, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, aldosterone, prolactin, growth hormone and estradiol hormones value but diminished cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. These results show that HPA and psychoneuroendocrine hormones have a significant role in psoriasis.

  15. Hormones and Human and Nonhuman Primate Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Robin Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review information pertaining to the hormonal regulation of nonhuman primate growth, with specific focus on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and adrenal androgens. Hormones of the GH-IGF axis are consistently associated with measures of growth - linear, weight, or both - during the growth period; in adulthood, concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and GH-binding protein are not associated with any measures of size. Comparing patterns of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) may be especially relevant for understanding whether the childhood stage of growth and development is unique to humans and perhaps other apes. Genetic, hormonal, and morphological data on adrenarche in other nonhuman primate species suggest that this endocrine transition is delayed in humans, chimpanzees, and possibly gorillas, while present very early in postnatal life in macaques. This suggests that although perhaps permitted by an extension of the pre-adolescent growth period, childhood builds upon existing developmental substrates rather than having been inserted de novo into an ancestral growth trajectory. Hormones can provide insight regarding the evolution of the human growth trajectory. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Role of Hormones and Neurosteroids in Epileptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Samba eReddy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the emerging evidence of hormonal influence on epileptogenesis, which is a process whereby a brain becomes progressively epileptic due to an initial precipitating event of diverse origin such as brain injury, stroke, infection, or prolonged seizures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy are poorly understood. Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration appear to trigger epileptogenesis. There is an intense search for drugs that truly prevent the development of epilepsy in people at risk. Hormones play an important role in children and adults with epilepsy. Corticosteroids, progesterone, estrogens, and neurosteroids have been shown to affect seizure activity in animal models and in clinical studies. However, the impact of hormones on epileptogenesis has not been investigated widely. There is emerging new evidence that progesterone, neurosteroids, and endogenous hormones may play a role in regulating the epileptogenesis. Corticosterone has excitatory effects and triggers epileptogenesis in animal models. Progesterone has disease-modifying activity in epileptogenic models. The antiepileptogenic effect of progesterone has been attributed to its conversion to neurosteroids, which binds to GABA-A receptors and enhances phasic and tonic inhibition in the brain. Neurosteroids are robust anticonvulsants. There is pilot evidence that neurosteroids may have antiepileptogenic properties. Future studies may generate new insight on the disease-modifying potential of hormonal agents and neurosteroids in epileptogenesis.

  17. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  18. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions.

  19. Growth hormone secretagogues: out of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyot, Armand; Nikolovski, Zoran; Bosch, Jaume; Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Kageyama, Shinji; Segura, Jordi; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) constitute a new GH deficiency treatment increasing exponentially in number and improved potency and bioavailability over the last decade. The growth hormone releasing activity makes these compounds attractive for the artificial improvement of the human sports skills, now that recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration is effectively detected. The GHS family is extremely diverse both in number and chemical heterogeneity and keeps growing continuously. In this paper, a general screening test is proposed. To develop a universal method, the single common property of growth hormone secretagogues has been targeted: their capacity to bind to the GHS receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Pretreated urine samples have been tested in a competition assay where eventually the GHS presence detached a radiolabelled ligand from the receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Blank urine samples were processed to determine potential age, gender and exercise effects, and to define a threshold beyond which a specimen is considered positive. Samples from a growth hormone releasing peptide 2 (GHRP-2) excretion study corroborated the screening assay applicability with a detection window of approximately 4.5 h, and results were confirmed by comparison with a dedicated LC-MS quantification of the intact compound.

  20. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Results: Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion: Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices. PMID:28060009

  1. Characteristics of hormonal profile of children with allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumna T.Ye.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine features of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases, the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and cortisol were investigated in 110 children in the age from 6 to 17 years. Of them 79 children with allergic diseases (40 children from Zaporozhye and 39 children – from eco¬friendly clean Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area and 31 healthy children (16 children - from Zaporozhye and 15 - with conventionally ecofriendly clean districts of the Zaporozhye area. Levels of hormones (ACTH (pg/ml, TSH (mkIU/ml, cortisol (ng/ml were determined through diagnostic test systems by a standard method in laboratories of the Zaporozhуe state medical university. By research results it is set, that in the conditions of large industrial city Zaporozhуe, forming of allergic pathology in children took place during activating of the hypophysis-adrenal system with the increase of TSH, cortisol, ACTH secretion with a high risk of exhaustion of immunoreactions and persistence of antigens; this was confir¬med by increase of values of their medians in relation to healthy children. In children with allergic diseases, habitants of ecologically favourable Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area, vice versa, lower indexes of medians of ACTH, TSH and cortisol were registered; this testifies to sup¬pression of hypothalamus function and hypophysis system with violation of protective reaction and adaptation mechanisms in response to forming of allergic inflammation. Thus, adjusting of hormonal activity by principle of ne¬gative reverse link in children with allergic diseases was not executed, regardless of place of residence. In addition, indexes of median of ACTH, TSH, cortisol in children with different clinical forms of allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis in comparison to healthy ones, testified that for children with

  2. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  3. Thyroid hormone modulates ClC-2 chloride channel gene expression in rat renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Ornellas, D; Grozovsky, R; Goldenberg, R C; Carvalho, D P; Fong, P; Guggino, W B; Morales, M

    2003-09-01

    Thyroid hormones has its main role in controlling metabolism, but it can also modulate extracellular fluid Volume (ECFV) through its action on the expression and activity of Na(+) transporters. Otherwise, chloride is the main anion in the ECFV and the influence of thyroid hormones in the regulation of chloride transporters is not yet understood. In this work, we studied the effect of thyroid hormones in the expression of ClC-2, a cell Volume-, pH- and voltage-sensitive Cl(-) channel, in rat kidney. To analyze the modulation of ClC-2 gene expression by thyroid hormones, we used hypothyroid (Hypo) rats with or without thyroxine (T(4)) replacement and hyperthyroid (Hyper) rats as our experimental models. Total RNA was isolated and the expression of ClC-2 mRNA was evaluated by a ribonuclease protection assay, and/or semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Renal ClC-2 expression decreased in Hypo rats and increased in Hyper rats. In addition, semi-quantitative RT-PCR of different nephron segments showed that these changes were due exclusively to the modulation of ClC-2 mRNA expression by thyroid hormone in convoluted and straight proximal tubules. To investigate whether thyroid hormones action was direct or indirect, renal proximal tubule primary culture cells were prepared and subjected to different T(4) concentrations. ClC-2 mRNA expression was increased by T(4) in a dose-dependent fashion, as analyzed by RT-PCR. Western blotting demonstrated that ClC-2 protein expression followed the same profile of mRNA expression.

  4. Protective effect of melatonin against zonisamide-induced reproductive disorders in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wagdy K.B. Khalil; Abdu, Faiza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Zonisamide (ZNS) is a modern antiepileptic drug (AED) that is distinguished from other AEDs by its unique structure and broad mechanistic profile. The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in the regulation of reproductive function, including the timing of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The aim of the present work was to study the protective effect of melatonin against the potential suppression impact of ZNS on reproductive activity. Material and methods Ninety adult albino m...

  5. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiba, Yozo [National Hospital of Okayama (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.).

  6. New insights into thyroid hormone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Arturo; Hollenberg, Anthony N

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are endocrine messengers essential for normal development and function of virtually every vertebrate. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is exquisitely modulated to maintain nearly constant TH (T4 and T3) levels in circulation. However peripheral tissues and the CNS control the intracellular availability of TH, suggesting that circulating concentrations of TH are not fully representative of what each cell type sees. Indeed, recent work in the field has identified that TH transporters, deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptor coregulators can strongly control tissue-specific sensitivity to a set amount of TH. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the thyroid hormone receptors regulate target gene expression can vary by gene, tissue and cellular context. This review will highlight novel insights into the machinery that controls the cellular response to TH, which include unique signaling cascades. These findings shed new light into the pathophysiology of human diseases caused by abnormal TH signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  8. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Antonio; Di Segni, Chantal; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Olivieri, Giulio; Silvestrini, Andrea; Meucci, Elisabetta; Currò, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  9. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  10. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  11. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs.

  12. [Acne vulgaris. The role of hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C

    2010-02-01

    Peripherally active androgens control cellular functions by binding to androgen receptors. Follicular keratinocytes and sebocytes are target cells for androgens, which, directly or indirectly, stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and the volume of sebaceous glands as well as the sebum secretion rate. Acne often begins with the adrenarche, namely with the up- regulation of adrenal synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, a hormone that is upstream to testosterone. The majority of acne patients exhibit normal levels of circulating androgens, while sebaceous glands from acne regions exhibit a stronger sensitivity to androgens than the sebaceous glands from other parts of the body. Hormone-like active lipids, hormones in diet and neuropeptides may also play a role in the development of acne lesions. The target of antiandrogen treatment of the skin is mainly the sebaceous gland and the primary effect is sebostasis.

  13. Hair-cycle-dependent expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and its type I receptor: evidence for regulation at the anagen to catagen transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Mee; Woodard, Grant L; Dunbar, Maureen; Gocken, Todd; Jimènez, Juan A; Foley, John

    2003-05-01

    The humoral hypercalcemia factor parathyroid hormone-related protein is a paracrine-signaling molecule that regulates the development of several organ systems, including the skin. In pathologic circumstances such as hypercalcemia and in development, parathyroid hormone-related protein signaling appears to be mediated by the type I parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor. In order to clarify the role of the ligand and receptor pair in cutaneous biology, gene expression was monitored in a series of murine skin samples ranging from embryonic day 14 to 2 y with in situ hybridization and RNase protection. In all samples, high levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein transcripts were exclusively expressed in the developing and adult hair follicle but were not observed in the interfollicular epidermis. In the adult, parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA expression was dynamically regulated as a function of the murine hair cycle in a way similar to other signaling molecules that regulate the anagen to catagen transition. PTH receptor transcripts were abundantly expressed in the developing dermis. In the adult skin, PTH receptor mRNA was markedly reduced, but again demonstrated hair-cycle-dependent expression. The dorsal skin of the keratin 14-parathyroid hormone-related protein mouse was used to evaluate the impact of overexpression of the peptide on the murine hair cycle. All types of hair were 30-40% shorter in adult keratin 14-parathyroid hormone-related protein mice as compared with wild-type littermates. This appeared to result from a premature entry into the catagen phase of the hair cycle. Finally, the relationship between parathyroid hormone-related protein signaling and other growth factors that regulate the hair cycle was examined by cross-breeding experiments employing keratin 14-parathyroid hormone-related protein mice and fibroblast growth factor-5-knockout mice. It appears that parathyroid hormone-related protein and

  14. Effects of sericin on the testicular growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Tang, Qi-Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sericin on the testicular growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty rats were randomly assigned to normal control, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sericin and metformin treated groups. Type 2 diabetes was established by repeated intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and identified by blood glucose ≥16.7 mmol/L at 1 week. The diabetic rats were given no other treatment, these rats in the sericin group were intragastrically perfused with 2.4 g/kg sericin and the metformin treated rats were intragastrically perfused with 55.33 mg/kg Metformin daily for 35 consecutive days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine serum testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-1 levels. Immunohistochemical staining, western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR were used to determine testicular growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 expression. The sericin significantly reduced serum growth hormone levels, downregulated growth hormone expression, increased serum testosterone and IGF-1 levels, and upregulated testicular growth hormone receptor and IGF-1 expression. Moreover, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters between the sericin and metformin treated groups. These findings indicated that sericin improved spermatogenic function through regulating the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis, thereby protecting reproductive function against diabetes-induced damage.

  15. Effect of Noise and Crowding Stresses on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis and Protective Effect of Sulpiride Drug in Adult Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Noise and crowding are the most stressful factors which cause depressant effects on human beings, especially females.Therfore this study was aimed at clarifying their effects on hypothalamus pituitary gonadal axis hormones (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen (E2)and progesterone as well as prolactin (PRL)and the possible protective effect of antidepressant drug;sulpiride. Material and Methods: Sixty adult female rats were divided into si...

  16. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  17. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  18. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed.

  19. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Atreja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and symptoms of these growth disorders and correctly diagnose the serious underlying disease.

  20. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects...

  1. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M

    1998-01-01

    The gonads are usually considered quiescent organs in infancy and childhood. However, during the first few postnatal months of life, levels of gonadotropins and sex hormones are elevated in humans. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that environmental factors operating perinatally may...... influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function...

  2. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side

  3. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  4. Calcitonin-like diuretic hormones in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandawala, Meet

    2012-10-01

    Insect neuropeptides control various biological processes including growth, development, homeostasis and reproduction. The calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH) is one such neuropeptide that has been shown to affect salt and water transport by Malpighian tubules of several insects. With an increase in the number of sequenced insect genomes, CT/DHs have been predicted in several insect species, making it easier to characterize the gene encoding this hormone and determine its function in the species in question. This mini review summarizes the current knowledge on insect CT/DHs, focusing on mRNA and peptide structures, distribution patterns, physiological roles, and receptors in insects.

  5. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: okbgeni@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  6. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress.

  7. Acute effects of growth hormone on metabolism of pancreatic hormones, glucose and ketone bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Y; Peña, J; Chou, J; Field, J B

    2001-07-01

    Controversy exists as to whether acute administration of growth hormone has insulin-like effects. In conscious dogs, acute effects on plasma flows, plasma glucose, hepatic glucose output, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, insulin, and glucagon were determined following intravenous injection of 1 mg of growth hormone extracted from the canine pituitary gland. The following results were obtained: (1) Plasma flows in the portal vein, hepatic artery and hepatic vein were significantly increased 20 min after growth hormone administration. (2) By 40 min after growth hormone, the glucose concentration in these three vessels was significantly increased. (3) Hepatic glucose output was significantly increased 60 min after growth hormone administration. (4) Free fatty acids levels were significantly but transiently increased at 20 min, while ketone body concentrations were elevated at 120-180 min. (5) The insulin levels in the three vessels demonstrated a biphasic response. In the portal vein, they were significantly higher 20 min after growth hormone and again at 150-180 min. Glucagon concentrations were increased in all three vessels by 20 min and remained elevated for the remainder of the experiment. These results do not support an acute insulin-like action of growth hormone in normal dogs.

  8. Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates cAMP release in superfused rat pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, J E; Groot, K. de; Schally, A V

    1995-01-01

    The release of growth hormone (GH) and cAMP was studied in superfused rat pituitary cells by infusing growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) at different doses or a combination of GHRH and somatostatin 14 (SS-14). Three-minute pulses of GHRH caused a dose-dependent GH and cAMP release (effective concentration of 50% of the maximal biological effect is 0.21 nM and 52.5 nM, respectively). The lowest effective doses of GHRH in the superfusion system were 0.03 nM for GH release and 0.3 nM for cA...

  9. Review on mechanisms of dairy summer infertility and implications for hormonal intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.U. Wakayo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In dairy cows and buffaloes, summer heat stress (HS reduces milk yield and delays return to pregnancy leading to financial loss. Clues for effective interventions against summer infertility (SI lie in understanding the underlying mechanisms. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of bovine SI and their implication for hormonal management. Under HS dairy animals encounter anestrous, silent cycles and repeat breeding which extend their open period. These effects are attributed mainly to HS induced disturbances in luteinizing hormone (LH secretion, follicular dominance and estrogen secretion, ovulation and oocyte competence, luteal development and progesterone secretion, utero-placental function and embryo-fetal development. Hormonal timed artificial insemination protocols and LH support around estrous improved summer pregnancy rates by avoiding need for estrus detection, assisting follicular development and ovulation, enhancing quality oocytes and stimulating luteal function. Progesterone supplementation to enhance embryonic development did not produce significant improvement in summer pregnancy rates. There is need for evaluating integrated approaches combining hormones, metabolic modifier and cyto-protective agents.

  10. Reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and pancreatic cancer risk in the CTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Rull, Rudolph P; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ursin, Giske; Henderson, Katherine D; Bernstein, Leslie

    2013-11-01

    Female steroid hormones are hypothesized to play a protective role in pancreatic cancer risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies that examined hormone-related exposures have been inconsistent. The California Teachers Study is a cohort study of female public school professionals that was established in 1995-1996. Of the 118,164 eligible study participants, 323 women were diagnosed with incident invasive pancreatic cancer through December 31, 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of pancreatic cancer risk with reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use. Current users of estrogen-only therapy at baseline (1995-1996) had a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than did participants who had never used hormone therapy (hazard ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 0.84). Use of estrogen-plus-progestin therapy was not associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. A longer duration of oral contraceptive use (≥10 years of use compared with never use) was associated with an increased risk of cancer (hazard ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.49). Reproductive factors, including age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, and age at menopause, were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Our results suggest that increased estrogen exposure through estrogen-only therapy may reduce pancreatic cancer risk in women.

  11. Promotion and marketing of bioidentical hormone therapy on the internet: a content analysis of websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nese; Treseng, Laetitia; Malik, Bushra; Ogbogu, Ubaka

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of information presented and claims made on websites offering bioidentical hormone therapy (BHT) products or services. A quantitative content analysis was completed on 100 websites promoting or offering BHT products or services. Websites were identified through Google search engine from September to October 2013. Search terms included "bioidentical hormone therapy" or "bioidentical progesterone," accompanied by "purchase or buy," "service," or "doctors." The Brief DISCERN instrument was used to determine the quality of the health information. Websites were from Canada (59%), United States (38%), and other countries (3%). Almost half of the websites originated from medical clinics (47%), and healthcare professionals offering BHT services included physicians (50%), pharmacists (19%), and naturopaths (16%). Majority of websites promoted BHT as custom-compounded formulations (62%), with only 27% indicating that BHT is also commercially available. Websites overall claimed that BHT had less risk compared with conventional hormone therapy (62%). BHT was described as having less breast cancer risk (40%), whereas over a quarter of websites described BHT as "protective" for breast cancer. Websites mainly targeted women (99%), with males mentioned in 62% of websites. Product descriptors used to promote BHT included individualization (77%), natural (70%), hormone imbalance (56%), and antiaging (50%). The mean Brief DISCERN score was 15, indicating lower quality of information. Claims made about BHT on the internet are misleading and not consistent with current professional organizations' recommendations. Understanding how BHT may be promoted on the internet can help healthcare professionals when educating patients.

  12. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-05-29

    Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as "Defined Daily Dose/thousand women" (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies.

  13. Identification of proopiomelanocortin-related peptides in the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary in coelacanth: evolutional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yasuda, Akikazu; Sullivan, Craig V; Kawauchi, Hiroshi

    2003-02-15

    The coelacanth fish, genus Latimeria, flourished during the Devonian Period and is considered among the closest living relatives of tetrapods. It may therefore provide important information on the evolution of fishes into tetrapods. However, little is known about the components of the endocrine system in this fish. Here we describe the structural characterization of pituitary hormones derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in Latimeria chalumnae. We identified alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), N-Des-acetyl-alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, N-terminal peptide containing gamma-MSH, corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP), and N-acetyl-beta-endorpin (END) in an extract from the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, amino acid sequence analysis, and mass spectrometry. The occurrence of three different MSHs and one beta-END indicates that the structural organization of coelacanth POMC is the same as that of lungfish, tetrapods, and primitive ray-finned fish. The coelacanth alpha-MSH is identical to its mammalian counterpart. The coelacanth beta-MSH shows the highest sequence identity with the amphibian counterpart, and gamma-MSH and CLIP show the highest sequence identity with their amphibian and bird counterparts, whereas coelacanth beta-END is most similar to the sturgeon peptide. The coexistence of tetrapod-type and fish-type characteristics in the putative coelacanth POMC molecule reflects the phylogenetic position of this fish. When each hormonal segment was compared between coelacanth, lungfish, and tetrapod, MSH and CLIP of coelacanth were closer to their tetrapod counterparts than those of lungfish, whereas beta-MSH and beta-END of coelacanth are less closely related to their tetrapod counterparts than those of lungfish. gamma-MSH and CLIP may have evolved at a different rate from beta-MSH and beta-END in both the coelacanth and lungfish.

  14. Photoperiodic regulation of satiety mediating neuropeptides in the brainstem of the seasonal Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Michael; Archer, Zoë A; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Tups, Alexander; Mercer, Julian G; Klingenspor, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Central regulation of energy balance in seasonal mammals such as the Siberian hamster is dependent on the precise integration of short-term satiety information arising from the gastrointestinal tract with long-term signals on the status of available energy reserves (e.g. leptin) and prevailing photoperiod. Within the central nervous system, the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) are major relay nuclei that transmit information from the gastrointestinal tract to higher forebrain centres. We extended studies on the seasonal programming of the hypothalamus to examine the effect of the photoperiod on neuropeptidergic circuitries of this gut-brain axis. In the NTS and PBN we performed gene expression and immunoreactivity (-ir) studies on selected satiety-related neuropeptides and receptors: alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, melanocortin-3 receptor, melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R), growth hormone secretagogue-receptor, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, preproglucagon (PPG), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY, galanin, neurotensin, and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH). Gene expression of PPG and MC4-R, and -ir of CCK and GLP-1, in the NTS were up-regulated after 14 weeks in long-day photoperiod (16 h light:8 h dark) compared to short-days (8 h light:16 h dark), whereas CRH-ir and NT-ir were increased in short-days within the PBN. We suggest that brainstem neuroendocrine mechanisms contribute to the long-term regulation of body mass in the Siberian hamster by a photoperiod-related modulation of satiety signalling.

  15. [Equine Cushing syndrome (ECS). Case report, review of its diagnosis and therapy and substantial differences from Cushing syndrome in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, K; Jonigkeit, E; Moritz, A

    1998-02-01

    Equine and canine Cushing's syndrome, both of which are the result of elevated cortisol levels, show some different pathogenetical and clinical features and require different therapeutical approaches. In older horses the equine Cushing's syndrome (ECS) is not uncommon. Nearly all cases result from excessive hormone production in cells of the pars intermedia of the pituitary. Besides elevated levels of adrenocorticotrope hormone (ACTH), high peripheral levels of pro-opiomelanocortin, beta-endorphines and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone can be measured. In middle-aged and geriatric dogs, Cushing's syndrome is the most frequently diagnosed endocrinologic abnormality. 80-85% of cases are pituitary-dependent and 15-20% are caused by cortisol producing tumors of the adrenals. 90% of pituitary lesions can be identified as adenomas, which are localised in most cases in the pars distalis of the gland, but may occur rarely in the pars intermedia, too. Clinical symptoms in both species are characterised by wasting despite good appetite or polyphagia, reduction of muscle mass with altered fat deposition and lethargy. Whereas polydipsia/polyuria is a very common feature in dogs with Cushing's syndrome, in horses it is almost invariably a sign of concurrent secondary diabetes mellitus. A typical symptom in ECS is a continuously growing haircoat (hirsutism), whereas in canine Cushing's syndrome generalised alopecia may bring the owner to consult a veterinarian. The symptoms and diagnostic procedures in a 33-year-old mare are described. Useful diagnostic tests are reviewed with special attention to species differences in reacting to them. The therapeutic approach with dopamine-agonists such as bromocriptine and pergolide as well as cyproheptadine to ECS is reviewed.

  16. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...

  17. Hormonal contraceptive congruency : Implications for relationship jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Roberts, S. Craig; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Research shows that women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCs) differ in their mate preferences from women who have regular cycles. It has been proposed that when a partnered woman either begins to use or ceases to use HCs, she may experience changes in her relationship since her preferences become

  18. Interactions between hormonal contraception and antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Arne; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Sabers, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraceptives may affect each other's metabolism and clinical efficacy. Loss of seizure control and unplanned pregnancy may occur when these compounds are used concomitantly. Although a large number of available preparations yield a plethora of possible dr...

  19. LEARNING HORMONE ACTION MECHANISMS WITH BIOINFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Sousa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  20. Plant hormones and ecophysiology of conifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been very substantial fluctuations in the interests of plant scientists in the involvement of plant growth regulators in the control of physiology, growth, and development of plants. In the years following the identification of the five major classes of growth regulators and identification of other groups of compounds of somewhat more restricted interest, an enormous number of papers reported the effects of hormones applied externally to a very wide range of plants. During this period, it became very fashionable to compare effects of hormones with the effects of the environment on developmental and physiological phenomena and to suggest a regulatory role for the hormone(s) in the processes under consideration. Ross et al. (1983) have published a very comprehensive survey of the effects of growth regulators applied externally to conifers, and even 10 years later, it is difficult to improve on what they have done. Nevertheless, in the light of recent changes in our understanding of how growth regulators may work, it is necessary to reexamine this field and ask what we really know about the involvement of growth regulators in the ecophysiology of conifers.

  1. Hormonal contraceptive congruency : Implications for relationship jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Roberts, S. Craig; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCs) differ in their mate preferences from women who have regular cycles. It has been proposed that when a partnered woman either begins to use or ceases to use HCs, she may experience changes in her relationship since her preferences become

  2. Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

  4. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli. Pit

  5. Molecular Medicine II: Hormone Dependent Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    family, member 4 deiodinase, iodothyronine, -3.1 Dio2 thyroid hormone catabolism type II serne (cysteine) -4.3 Serpina3n proteinas inhibitor, clade A...ElO, and the anti- p44/42 teins and recruit various proteinases , including matrix metal- MAPK rabbit polyclonal antibody were from Cell Signaling Tech

  6. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  7. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Brain Development, and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610. In order to determine what effect, if any, growth hormone (GH) has on human brain development, 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with GH deficiency were selected according to the following criteria: no evidence of reversible GH deficiency, onset of…

  8. Lymphocyte GH-axis hormones in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    The production and utilization of common ligands and their receptors by cells of the immune and neuroendocrine systems constitutes a biochemical information circuit between and within the immune and neuroendocrine systems. The sharing of ligands and receptors allows the immune system to serve as the sixth sense notifying the nervous system of the presence of foreign entities. Within this framework, it is also clear that immune cell functions can be altered by neuroendocrine hormones and that cells of the immune system have the ability to produce neuroendocrine hormones. This review summarizes a part of this knowledge with particular emphasis on growth hormone (GH). The past two decades have uncovered a lot of detail about the actions of GH, acting through its receptor, at the molecular and cellular level and its influence on the immune system. The production and action of immune cell-derived GH is less well developed although its important role in immunity is also slowly emerging. Here we discuss the production of GH, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their cognate receptors on cells of the immune system and their influence via endocrine/autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways on immune function. The intracellular mechanisms of action of immune cell-derived GH are still largely unexplored, and it is anticipated that further work in this particular area will establish an important role for this source of GH in normal physiology and in pathologic situations.

  9. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....

  10. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  11. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  12. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  13. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sze

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystatin C (CysC is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transsphenoidal surgery. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. Results: In all patients, surgical debulking resulted in decreased clinical disease activity and declining GH/IGF-1 levels. Postoperatively, biochemical cure was documented in 20 out of 24 patients. Creatinine levels (mean ± SEM increased from 72 ± 3 to 80 ± 3 µmol/l (p = 0.0004 and concurrently, estimated GFR decreased from 99 ± 3 to 91 ± 3 ml/min (p = 0.0008. In contrast to creatinine, CysC levels decreased from 0.72 ± 0.02 to 0.68 ± 0.02 mg/l (p = 0.0008. Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence for discordant effects of GH on creatinine and CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery, thus identifying another hormone that influences CysC independent of renal function.

  14. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  15. THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION: FROM KINETICS TO DYNAMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of chemicals with diverse structures act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are chemicals that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormones (THs), or change circulating or t...

  16. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis, morbid o

  17. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  18. Hormonal contraceptive congruency : Implications for relationship jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Roberts, S. Craig; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCs) differ in their mate preferences from women who have regular cycles. It has been proposed that when a partnered woman either begins to use or ceases to use HCs, she may experience changes in her relationship since her preferences become

  19. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  20. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Genes, hormones, and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, F.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is characterized by amenorrhea in association with postmenopausal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in women younger than 40 years. POI affects 1% of women and greatly influences a woman’s fertility potential and her overall health. The exact cause of POI