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Sample records for alpha fine structure

  1. Fine Structure of 211 Po Alpha Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a theory based on the Landau-Zener effect was developed intending to describe quantitatively the cluster decay fine structure phenomenon. It was claimed that the same promotion effect can also govern the fine structure in the case of α-decay. This formalism intends to explain the fine structure of α-decay by considering single-particle transitions due to the radial and the rotational couplings. The levels with the same good quantum numbers associated to some symmetries of the system cannot in general intersect, but exhibit quasi-crossings, or pseudo-crossings, or avoided level crossings. The system is characterised by an axial symmetry, therefore the good quantum numbers are the projections of the nucleon spin Ω. The radial coupling causes transitions of the unpaired nucleon near the avoided level crossings. True crossings can also be obtained between levels characterized by different quantum numbers. Generally, the rotational coupling has a maximum strength in the vicinity of the true crossings. Transitions due to both couplings are taken into account in order to explain the excitations of the unpaired nucleon. For a tunnelling velocity of 9 x 106 fm/fs, the ratio between the intensity for transitions to the first excited state and to the ground state was found to be 0.0071 and the obtained ratio of the same parameter between the second excited state and the ground state was 0.0062, in good agreement with experimental data. These calculations suggest that the α-decay fine structure phenomenon can be explained quantitatively by describing the decaying system with molecular models and it can be stated that the quantitative characteristics of this phenomenon are ruled by dynamical effects. (author)

  2. Fine structure in the alpha decay of {sup 224} U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.; Rezynkina, K. [CNRS-IN2P3, CSNSM, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B.; Dechery, F.; Faure, H. [CNRS-IN2P3, IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Yeremin, A.V.; Chelnokov, M.L.; Chepigin, V.I.; Isaev, A.V.; Izosimov, I.N.; Katrasev, D.E.; Kuznetsov, A.N.; Kuznetsova, A.A.; Malyshev, O.N.; Popeko, A.G.; Sokol, E.A.; Svirikhin, A.I. [JINR, FLNR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Piot, J. [CNRS-IN2P3, GANIL, CEA-DSM, Caen (France); Rubert, J. [CNRS-IN2P3, IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); CNRS-IN2P3, LPSC, Universite Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble (France)

    2014-08-15

    {sup 224}U nuclei were populated in fusion-evaporation reactions using a {sup 206}Pb target and an intense {sup 22}Ne beam. Fusion-evaporation residues were separated by the new separator SHELS at the FLNR, Dubna and implanted into a large-area double-sided silicon strip detector. Position- and time-correlated alpha decays were used to identify evaporation residues. A new α -decay line at 8095(11) keV was observed in this work and assigned as the decay from {sup 224}U to the first excited 2{sup +} in the daughter nucleus {sup 220}Th. Coincident photons were also observed allowing to unambiguously determine the excitation energy of the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 220}Th to be 386.5(1) keV and not 373.3(1)keV as previously reported. The half-life of {sup 224}U was measured to be 396(17)μs. (orig.)

  3. Calibration issues in estimating variability of the fine structure constant (alpha) with cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Centurión, Miriam; Levshakov, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Laser Comb Wavelength calibration shows that the ThAr one is locally unreliable with possible deviations of up to 100 m/s within one order range, while delivering an overall 1 m/s accuracy (Wilken et al 2009). Such deviation corresponds to delta alpha/alpha ~ 7E-6 for a FeII-MgII pair. Comparison of line shifts among the 5 FeII lines, with almost identical sensitivity to fine structure constant changes, offers a clean way to directly test the presence of possible local wavelength calibration errors of whatever origin. We analyzed 5 absorption systems, with zabs ranging from 1.15 to 2.19 towards 3 bright QSOs. The results show that while some lines are aligned within 20 m/s, others reveal large deviations reaching 200 m/s or higher and corresponding to a delta alpha/alpha > 1E-5 level. The origin of these deviations is not clearly identified but could be related to the adaptation of wavelength calibration to CCD manufacturing irregularities. These results suggest that to draw conclusions from delta alpha/alpha...

  4. Does the fine structure constant vary? A third quasar absorption sample consistent with varying alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, J K; Flambaum, V V; Curran, S J

    2003-01-01

    We report preliminary results from a third sample of quasar absorption line spectra from the Keck telescope which has been studied to search for any possible variation of the fine structure constant, alpha. This third sample, which is larger than the sum of the two previously published samples, shows the same effect, and also gives, as do the previous two samples, a significant result. The combined sample yields a highly significant effect, da/a = (alpha_z - alpha_0)/alpha_0 = -0.57 +/- 0.10 x 10^{-5}, averaged over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 3.7. We include a brief discussion of small-scale kinematic structure in quasar absorbing clouds. However, kinematics are unlikely to impact significantly on the averaged non-zero da/a above, and we have so far been unable to identify any systematic effect which can explain it. New measurements of quasar spectra obtained using independent instrumentation and telescopes are required to properly check the Keck results.

  5. Fine structure of alpha decay of even-even trans-lead nuclei – an intriguing nuclear structure paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematics of the experimental data of alpha-decay fine structure in the even-even nuclei above lead are examined. The representation of relative branching ratios (b.r.) and hindrance factors (HF) for the 2+1, 4+1, and 6+1 states within the valence correlation schemes (as a function of NpNn or P = NpNn/(Np + Nn)) proves useful, as it provides smooth trajectories that can be discussed in parallel with the development of collectivity. It is shown that practically all recent theoretical calculations are not able to account for some of the most conspicuous features presented by the evolution of the branching ratios and hindrance factors. These are: a practically exponential increase of the b.r.'s and HF's for the 2+1 state of collective nuclei (above P approx. 4.0); a pronounced maximum around P approx. 7.5 of the same quantities for the 4+1 state, a region where these nuclei have usually been considered as well deformed rotors; and the decrease of these quantities for the 6+1 state in the interval of P from 4.0 to about 8.0. The observed evolutions of these fine structure quantities do not appear to be correlated with different structure indicators deduced from the low-lying level schemes, with the exception of the HF of the 2+ state which is reasonably well correlated with a parameter that describes the nuclear rigidity, indicating the necessity of going beyond the rigid rotor description of the nuclei considered in this study. It is also necessary that a simultaneous description of both electromagnetic transitions and alpha decay fine structure data is achieved by the theoretical calculations.

  6. The fine structure constant alpha: relevant for a model of a self-propelling photon and for particle masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl O.

    2015-09-01

    A model for a self propelling (i.e. massless) photon1 is based on oscillations of a pair of charges amounting to elementary charge divided by SQRT alpha, where alpha is the fine structure (Sommerfeld) constant. When one assumes a similar model for particles that do have rest mas (i.e. which are non- self propelling), alpha plays also a role in the rest masses of elementary particles. Indeed all fundamental elementary particle masses can be described by the alpha / beta rule2 --> m(particle) = alpha-n * betam* 27.2 eV /c2 where beta is the proton to electron mass ratio 183612 and n= 0….14, m= -1,0 or Thus, photons and particle masses are intimately related to the fine structure constant. If the latter would not have been strictly constant throughout all times, this would have had consequences for the nature of light and for all masses including those of elementary particles.

  7. Search for shape coexistence in {sup 188,190}Pb via fine structure in the alpha decay of {sup 192,194}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Davids, C.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The interaction between coexisting shapes in nuclei near closed shells was of great interest in the past decade. Excited 0{sup +} states at low energy can often be identified as the bandheads of structures with differing shapes built on those states, These structures were identified in {sup 190-198}Pb via beta decay and alpha decay {open_quotes}fine structure{close_quotes} studies. Coexistence of different shapes in Pb nuclei was predicted by Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations, in which both the oblate and prolate minima were predicted to have excitation energies near 1 MeV. It was our intention to continue the systematic study of the Pb nuclides by searching for excited O{sup +} states in {sup 188}Pb by observing the fine structure in the alpha decay of {sup 192}Po.

  8. Unique Physically Anchored Cryptographic Theoretical Calculation of the Fine-Structure Constant {\\alpha} Matching both the g/2 and Interferometric High-Precision Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, Charles Kirkham

    2010-01-01

    The fine-structure constant {\\alpha}, the dimensionless number that represents the strength of electromagnetic coupling in the limit of sufficiently low energy interactions, is the crucial fundamental physical parameter that governs a nearly limitless range of phenomena involving the interaction of radiation with materials. Ideally, the apparatus of physical theory should be competent to provide a calculational procedure that yields a quantitatively correct value for {\\alpha} and the physical basis for its computation. This study presents the first demonstration of an observationally anchored theoretical procedure that predicts a unique value for {\\alpha} that stands in full agreement with the best (~370 ppt) high-precision experimental determinations. In a directly connected cryptographic computation, the method that gives these results also yields the magnitude of the cosmological constant {\\Omega}{\\Lambda} in conformance with the observational data and the condition of perfect flatness ({\\Omega}{\\Lambda} +...

  9. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hao; Zou, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view...

  10. Gravitational Interactions and Fine-Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D; Nandori, I

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic and gravitational central-field problems are studied with relativistic quantum mechanics on curved space-time backgrounds. Corrections to the transition current are identified. Analogies of the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra suggest the definition of a gravitational fine-structure constant. The electromagnetic and gravitational coupling constants enter the Einstein-Hilbert-Maxwell Lagrangian. We postulate that the variational principle holds with regard to a global dilation transformation of the space-time coordinates. The variation suggests is consistent with a functional relationship of the form alpha_QED being proportional to alpha_G^(1/2), where alpha_QED is the electrodynamic fine-structure constant, and alpha_G its gravitational analogue.

  11. Determination of the fine-structure constant {alpha} by measuring the quotient of the Planck constant and the neutron mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, E.; Nistler, W.; Weirauch, W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Using a special high-precision apparatus at ILL the quotient h/m{sub n} (h Planck constant, m{sub n} neutron mass) has been measured. The value measured for h/m{sub n} leads to {alpha}{sup -1} = 137.03601082(524) (relative uncertainty: 3.9{center_dot}10{sup -8}) It was the first time that this fundamental constant has been determined by means of neutrons. The experiment, which had been running since 1981 in a preliminary version and since 1987 in the final version, which was finished in December 1996, is described. (author).

  12. Characterization of DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    has recently been demonstrated to exist in low level equal-loudness contours. The character of the DPOAE fine structure depends on several parameters, i.e., level, frequencies, and frequency of the two primaries, but also level and character of the noise floor. The prevalence and character of the fine......The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds, and...... structures are highly individual, and till now no standardized method has been suggested for a consistent categorization. In the present paper a method developed for the categorization of fine structures is presented. The method has been used in two previous studies on the prevalence of fine structures, 1...

  13. Varying fine-structure and gravitational constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple relation between the time-dependent fine-structure and gravitational constants of alpha/alpha2 approx G/G is derived from the hypothesis that both of these fundamental constants are related to the more fundamental length scale of nature as in he unified pregauge and pregeometric theory of all fundamental forces. From the latest observation of alpha/alpha = (-1.91 ± 0.54) centre dot 10-15yr-1 by Webb et al., it leads to the prediction of G/G = (-0.154 ± 0.044) centre dot 10-12yr-1, which is not only consistent with the most precise limit of G/G = (-0.6 ± 2.0) centre dot 10-12yr-1 by Thorsett but also feasible for future experimental tests

  14. Fine Structure Constant: Theme With Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Muniz, C R; Tahim, M O; Vieira, H S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatial variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ due to the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists of calculating the solution including the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regimen, which yields the gravitational analog of the atomic Bohr levels. From this result, we obtain several values for the effective $\\alpha$ by considering some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on the parameters of the involved theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the white dwarf emission spectra. Such constraints are compared with those ones obtained in the literature.

  15. The Fine Structure Constant and Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts $\\alpha^{-1}$ to be $145\\pm 50$. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be $145\\pm9$. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  16. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  17. Variation of the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Lipovka, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    In present paper we evaluate the fine structure constant variation which should take place as the Universe is expanded and its curvature is changed adiabatically. This changing of the fine structure constant is attributed to the energy lost by physical system (consist of baryonic component and electromagnetic field) due to expansion of our Universe. Obtained ratio (d alpha)/alpha = 1. 10{-18} (per second) is only five times smaller than actually reported experimental limit on this value. For this reason this variation can probably be measured within a couple of years. To argue the correctness of our approach we calculate the Planck constant as adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field, from geometry of our Universe in the framework of the pseudo- Riemannian geometry. Finally we discuss the double clock experiment based on Al+ and Hg+ clocks carried out by T. Rosenband et al. (Science 2008). We show that in this particular case there is an error in method and this way the fine structure constant variation c...

  18. The fine structure constant and numerical alchemy

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    We comment on past and more recent efforts to derive a formula yielding the fine structure constant in terms of integers and transcendent numbers. We analyse these "exoteric" attitudes and describe the myths regarding {\\alpha}, which seems to have very ancient roots, tracing back to Cabbala and to medieval alchemic conceptions. We discuss the obsession for this constant developed by Pauli and the cultural "environment" in which such an "obsession" grew. We also derive a simple formula for {\\alpha} in terms of two numbers {\\pi} and 137 only. The formula we propose reproduces the experimental values up to the last significant digit, it has not any physical motivation and is the result of an alchemic combination of numbers. We make a comparison with other existing formulae, discuss the relevant limits of validity by comparison with the experimental values and discuss a criterion to recover a physical meaning, if existing, from their mathematical properties.

  19. Observations of substorm fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazutin

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field measurements on the CRRES satellite were used, together with geosynchronous satellites and ground-based observations, to investigate the fine structure of a magnetospheric substorm on February 9, 1991. Using the variations in the electron fluxes, the substorm activity was divided into several intensifications lasting about 3–15 minutes each. The two main features of the data were: (1 the intensifications showed internal fine structure in the time scale of about 2 minutes or less. We call these shorter periods activations. Energetic electrons and protons at the closest geosynchronous spacecraft (1990 095 were found to have comparable activation structure. (2 The energetic (>69 keV proton injections were delayed with respect to electron injections, and actually coincided in time with the end of the intensifications and partial returns to locally more stretched field line configuration. We propose that the energetic protons could be able to control the dynamics of the system locally be quenching the ongoing intensification and possibly preparing the final large-scale poleward movement of the activity. It was also shown that these protons originated from the same intensification as the preceeding electrons. Therefore, the substorm instability responsible for the intensifications could introduce a negative feedback loop into the system, creating the observed fine structure with the intensification time scales.

    Key words. Magnetospheric Physics (Storms and substorms.

  20. Fine structure in the fission fragment yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussed are the most interesting experiments on the fine structure of fission product yields of U, Pu, Th, Cf, Es, Cm, Fr, Np isotopes. Modern comprehension of the fine structure nature in connection with other problems of fission dynamics is considered. It is noted, that the fine structure results from pairing correlations in a nucleus. The conclusion is drawn, that the available set of experimental data is not sufficient to elucidate the fine structure nature

  1. Topological quantization in units of the fine structure constant

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejko, Joseph; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Drew, H. Dennis; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental topological phenomena in condensed matter physics are associated with a quantized electromagnetic response in units of fundamental constants. Recently, it has been predicted theoretically that the time-reversal invariant topological insulator in three dimensions exhibits a topological magnetoelectric effect quantized in units of the fine structure constant $\\alpha=e^2/\\hbar c$. In this work, we propose an optical experiment to directly measure this topological quantization phenome...

  2. Regular Changes in the Fine Structure of Histograms Revealed in the Experiments with Collimators which Isolate Beams of Alpha-Particles Flying at Certain Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As was shown in the works of 1951–1983, the fine structure of distributions of the re- sults of measurements of processes of diverse nature is not casual. The changes in the shape of histograms corresponding to the distributions were called “macroscopic fluctu- ations”. The universal character of the phenomenon and its independence of the nature of the process studied were demonstrated for various processes: biochemical and chem- ical reactions, movement of latex particles in the electric field, proton transverse relax- ation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field, discharge in the neon-tube RC-generator and radioactive decay of various - and -isotopes. Since 1982, the main object chosen to study macroscopic fluctuations has been -decay. The choice was based on the pro- cess being a priori independent of trivial factors and the possibility to conduct continu- ous long-term automatic measurements while storing the results in a computer archive (database. Started in 1982, these measurements have been carrying on, as unceasingly as possible, until now. Since July 2000, the measurements are conducted using devices designed by one of the coauthors of this review, I. A. Rubinstein. Application of these devices (especially, detectors with collimators which isolate beams of -particles fly- ing at certain directions, along with the use of Edwin Pozharsky’s computer program, which eases histogram comparing by the expert, has allowed us to reveal a number of fundamentally new regularities. In the review, we describe these regularities, device constructions, and the methods of measurement and analysis of the results obtained.

  3. Atomic Clocks and Variations of the FIne Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new test for possible variations of the fine structure constant alpha by comparisons of rates between clocks based on hyperfine transitions in alkali atoms with different atomic number Z. H-maser, Cs, and Hg(+) clocks have a different dependence on alpha via relativistic contributions of order (Z-alpha)(sup 2). Recent H-maser vs Hg(+) clock comparison data improve laboratory limits on a time variation by 100-fold to give dot-alpha less than or equal to 3.7 x 10(exp -14)/yr. Future laser cooled clocks (Be(+), Rb, Cs, Hg(+), etc.), when compared, will yield the most sensitive of all tests for dot-alpha/alpha.

  4. Fine-structure constant variability surprises for laboratory atomic spectroscopy and cosmological evolution of quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D

    2003-01-01

    Calculation of the Dirac hydrogen atom spectrum in the framework of dynamical fine structure constant (alpha) variability discloses a small departure in the laboratory from Sommerfeld's formula for the fine structure shifts, possibly measurable today. And for a distant object in the universe, the wavelength shift of a spectral line specifically ascribable to cosmological alpha variation is found to depend differently on the quantum numbers than in the conventional view. This last result clashes with the conventional wisdom that an atom's spectrum can change with cosmological time only through evolution of the alpha parameter in the energy eigenvalue formula, and thus impacts on the Webb group's analysis of fine structure intervals in quasar absorption lines (which has been claimed to disclose cosmological alpha evolution). In particular, analyzing together a mix of quasar absorption lines from different fine structure multiplets can bias estimates of cosmological alpha variability.

  5. The Ecosphere and the Value of the Electromagnetic Fine Structure Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlowski, M.; Marciak-Kozlowska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Following the coincidence A x atomic year ~ Earth year (s), (A = Avogardo number, atomic year=a_B/alpha c, a_B=Bohr radius, alpha= fine structure constant, c=light velocity) and considering the "niche" for alpha, i.e. 180^{-1}

  6. A study of human DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    fine structures are obtained from 74 normalhearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different age and exposure history. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameters ripple place, ripple width, ripple...

  7. Estimating the experimental value of the electromagnetic fine structure constant {alpha}-bar {sub 0}=1/137.036 using the Leech lattice in conjunction with the monster group and Spher's kissing number in 24 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [King Abdul Aziz City of Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-04-15

    We start with various observations regarding the kissing number in the 24-dimensional Leech lattice N{sub {tau}}{sup (24)}=196560 as well as the j-function coefficient b=196884 and the minimal dimension in which the monster group can act D{sub m}=196883. Subsequently based on the previous results and earlier numerical experiments, we use a quibic potential to derive a quadratic equationx{sup 2}+12820x-(N{sub {tau}}{sup (24)}/10)=0where 128=spin 7=(2){sup 7}, 10=D{sup (10)} and N{sub {tau}}{sup (24)}=196560 are the spin representation, the super string dimension and the Leech kissing number, respectively. It is found that the only positive solution of this equation isx{sub 1}=137.036={alpha}-bar {sub 0}which is the accurate experimental value of inverse of the electromagnetic fine structure constant. This remarkable result is interpreted in terms of the connection between the Moonshine conjecture and string theory as well as the E-infinity relation between the kissing number in 10 dimensions K{sub {tau}}{sup (10)}=336 and the degrees of freedom of Klein's modular space dim {gamma}(7)=336.

  8. Measurement of the Running of the Fine-Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; Cozzoni, B; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hirstius, A; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zöller, M

    2000-01-01

    Small-angle Bhabha scattering data recorded at the Z resonance and large-angleBhabha scattering data recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 189$ \\textrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V} bythe L3 detector at LEP are used to measure the running of the effective fine-structure constant for spacelike momentum transfers. The results are\\begin{eqnarray*} \\alpha^{-1}(-2.1 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) - \\alpha^{-1}(-6.25 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) & = & 0.78 \\pm 0.26 \\\\ \\alpha^{-1}(-12.25 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) - \\alpha^{-1}(-3434 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) & = & 3.80 \\pm 1.29, \\\\\\end{eqnarray*}in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  9. Fine Structures and Overlying Loops of Confined Solar Flares

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2014-01-01

    Using the H$\\alpha$ observations from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope at Fuxian Solar Observatory, we focus on the fine structures of three confined flares and the issue why all the three flares are confined instead of eruptive. All the three confined flares take place successively at the same location and have similar morphologies, so can be termed homologous confined flares. In the simultaneous images obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, many large-scale coronal loops above the confin...

  10. Galaxy clusters, type Ia supernovae and the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L; Colaço, L R; Alcaniz, J S; Landau, S J

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, measurements of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect can be combined with observations of the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters to estimate the angular diameter distance to these structures. In this paper, we show that this technique depends on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. Therefore, if $\\alpha$ is a time-dependent quantity, e.g., $\\alpha=\\alpha_0 \\phi(z)$, where $\\phi$ is a function of redshift, we argue that current data do not provide the real angular diameter distance, $D_{\\rm{A}}(z)$, to the cluster but instead $D_A^{data}(z) = \\phi(z)^2 D_{\\rm{A}}(z)$. We use this result to derive constraints on a possible variation of $\\alpha$ for a class of dilaton runaway models considering a sample of 25 measurements of $D_A^{data}(z)$ in redshift range $0.023 < z < 0.784$ and estimates of $D_{\\rm{A}}(z)$ from current type Ia supernovae observations. We find no significant indication of variation of $\\alpha$ with the present data.

  11. The Anthropic Principle and numerical coincidences involving the cosmological, gravitational and fine structure constants

    CERN Document Server

    Eaves, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Christian Beck has proposed a set of Shannon-Khinchin axioms to derive a formula for the cosmological constant, {\\Lambda}. We discuss this result in relation to numerical coincidences involving the measured values of {\\Lambda} and the gravitational and fine structure constants, G and {\\alpha}. The empirical formulae that inter-relate the three constants suggest that the measured values of G and {\\Lambda} are consistent with the apparent anthropic fine-tuning of {\\alpha}.

  12. The Fine Structure Lines of Hydrogen in HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dennison, B; Minter, A H; Dennison, Brian; Minter, Anthony H.

    2005-01-01

    The 2s_{1/2} state of hydrogen is metastable and overpopulated in HII regions. In addition, the 2p states may be pumped by ambient Lyman-alpha radiation. Fine structure transitions between these states may be observable in HII regions at 1.1 GHz (2s_{1/2}-2p_{1/2}) and/or 9.9 GHz (2s_{1/2}-2p_{3/2}), although the details of absorption versus emission are determined by the relative populations of the 2s and 2p states. The n=2 level populations are solved with a parameterization that allows for Lyman-alpha pumping of the 2p states. The density of Lyman-alpha photons is set by their creation rate, easily determined from the recombination rate, and their removal rate. Here we suggest that the dominant removal mechanism of Lyman-alpha radiation in HII regions is absorption by dust. This circumvents the need to solve the Lyman-alpha transfer problem, and provides an upper limit to the rate at which the 2p states are populated by Lyman-alpha photons. In virtually all cases of interest, the 2p states are predominantl...

  13. Habitable sphere and fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlovskii, Miroslaw P; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Marciak-Kozlowska, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Future space missions, TPF and Darwin will focus on searches of signatures of life on extrasolar planets. In this paper we look for model independ definition of the habitable zone. It will be shown that the radius of the habitable sphere depends only on the constants of the Nature. Key words: Habitable sphere, fine structure constant.

  14. Fine-structure constant constraints on dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2015-01-01

    We use astrophysical and atomic clock tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$, together with Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, to constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, $\\zeta$, to the electromagnetic sector) the $\\alpha$ variation. We show how current data tightly constrains a combination of $\\zeta$ and the dark energy equation of state $w_0$. At the $95\\%$ confidence level and marginalizing over $w_0$ we find $|\\zeta|<5\\times10^{-6}$, with the atomic clock tests dominating the constraints. The forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints.

  15. Cosmic concordance and the fine structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent measurements of a peak in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background suggest that the geometry of the universe is close to flat. But if other accepted indicators of cosmological parameters are also correct then the best fit model is marginally closed, with the peak in the spectrum at slightly larger scales than in a flat universe. If these observations persevere, one way they might be reconciled with a flat universe is if the fine structure constant had a lower value at earlier times, which would delay the recombination of electrons and protons and also act to suppress secondary oscillations as observed. We discuss evidence for a few percent increase in the fine structure constant between the time of recombination and the present

  16. Effect of fine structure on precise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, in order to do effective spectroscopy, several experimental conditions force us to describe very precisely the emitter atom. For example, in a tokamak, the cold peripheral plasma emits intense spectral line from hydrogen isotopes broadened by Zeeman and Doppler effect. Under such conditions of low temperatures, we have to take care if fine structure modifies and/or broadens the spectrum. Moreover, under some conditions encountered in Motional Stark effect spectroscopy, asymmetries in the observed spectra could be explained by fine structure effects. Our team has developed since several years a numerical code able to calculate line shape emitted by any kind of atoms perturbed by electric and magnetic fields. This permits to us to explore very large conditions of plasmas. In this poster we will investigate the effect of fine structure on the spectroscopy of deuterium in tokamak edge plasma conditions, as well as in the case of Motional Stark effect. We will consider a wide range of temperatures varying from a few eV to 104 eV, and magnetic field between 0 to 5 Teslas. (author)

  17. The apparent fine-tuning of the cosmological, gravitational and fine structure constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    A numerical coincidence relating the values of the cosmological, gravitational and electromagnetic fine structure constants is presented and discussed in relation to the apparent anthropic fine-tuning of these three fundamental constants of nature.

  18. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  19. Method for Precision Test of Fine Structure Constant Variation with Optical Frequency References

    OpenAIRE

    Torgerson, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    A new method for examining the possible space-time variation of the fine structure constant ($\\alpha$) is proposed. The technique uses a relatively simple measurement with an optical resonator to compare atom-stabilized optical frequency references. This method does not require that the exact frequency of each reference be measured, and has the potential to yield more than a 1000-fold improvement in experimental sensitivity to changes in $\\alpha$. A specific realization of an experiment using...

  20. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Fine structure constant variation or spacetime anisotropy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations on the quasar absorption spectra supply evidence for the variation of the fine structure constant α. In this paper, we propose another interpretation of the observational data on the quasar absorption spectra: a scenario with spacetime inhomogeneity and anisotropy. Maybe the spacetime is characterized by the Finsler geometry instead of the Riemann one. The Finsler geometry admits fewer symmetries than the Riemann geometry does. We investigate the Finslerian geodesic equations in the Randers spacetime (a special Finsler spacetime). It is found that the cosmological redshift in this spacetime deviates from the one in general relativity. The modification term to the redshift could be generally revealed as a monopole plus dipole function of spacetime locations and directions. We suggest that this modification corresponds to the spatial monopole and dipole of α variation in the quasar absorption spectra. (orig.)

  2. The fine structure of the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul

    1967-01-01

    We consider in this note the excitation of ion-acoustic waves by vertical gradients of density in the ionosphere. The conclusion is reached that the fine structure of the ionosphere is probably affected by the resulting instability, as comparison with observations seems to indicate. Recently, Liu...... and Yeh [1966] have examined the excitation of low-frequency imcompressible waves in an inhomogeneous ionosphere. They find that, below the F-region maximum, there may exist instabilities, the growth rate being given approximately by grho'/rhonu, where g is the gravity, rho is the plasma density, rho......' is its height gradients, and nu is the ion-neutral collision frequency. We have examined the stability of the ionosphere against growth of low-frequency quasielectrostatic waves, taking into account the compressibility of the plasma....

  3. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant; Oscillations de Bloch d'atomes ultrafroids et mesure de la constante de structure fine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clade, P

    2005-10-15

    From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10{sup -9}, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10{sup -9}), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10{sup -9}: {alpha}{sup -1}(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)

  4. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods applied to measuring the fine structure constant from quasar spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    King, Julian A; Webb, John K; Murphy, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    Recent attempts to constrain cosmological variation in the fine structure constant, alpha, using quasar absorption lines have yielded two statistical samples which initially appear to be inconsistent. One of these samples was subsequently demonstrated to not pass consistency tests; it appears that the optimisation algorithm used to fit the model to the spectra failed. Nevertheless, the results of the other hinge on the robustness of the spectral fitting program VPFIT, which has been tested through simulation but not through direct exploration of the likelihood function. We present the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to this problem, and demonstrate that VPFIT produces similar values and uncertainties for (Delta alpha)/(alpha), the fractional change in the fine structure constant, as our MCMC algorithm, and thus that VPFIT is reliable.

  5. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  6. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  7. Fine velocity structures collisional dissipation in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-04-01

    In a weakly collisional plasma, such as the solar wind, collisions are usually considered far too weak to produce any significant effect on the plasma dynamics [1]. However, the estimation of collisionality is often based on the restrictive assumption that the particle velocity distribution function (VDF) shape is close to Maxwellian [2]. On the other hand, in situ spacecraft measurements in the solar wind [3], as well as kinetic numerical experiments [4], indicate that marked non-Maxwellian features develop in the three-dimensional VDFs, (temperature anisotropies, generation of particle beams, ring-like modulations etc.) as a result of the kinetic turbulent cascade of energy towards short spatial scales. Therefore, since collisional effects are proportional to the velocity gradients of the VDF, the collisionless hypothesis may fail locally in velocity space. Here, the existence of several characteristic times during the collisional relaxation of fine velocity structures is investigated by means of Eulerian numerical simulations of a spatially homogeneous force-free weakly collisional plasma. The effect of smoothing out velocity gradients on the evolution of global quantities, such as temperature and entropy, is discussed, suggesting that plasma collisionality can increase locally due to the velocity space deformation of the particle velocity distribution. In particular, by means of Eulerian simulations of collisional relaxation of a spatially homogeneous force-free plasma, in which collisions among particles of the same species are modeled through the complete Landau operator, we show that the system entropy growth occurs over several time scales, inversely proportional to the steepness of the velocity gradients in the VDF. We report clear evidences that fine velocity structures are dissipated by collisions in a time much shorter than global non-Maxwellian features, like, for example, temperature anisotropies. Moreover we indicate that, if small-scale structures

  8. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska, Michael R.; Webb, John K.; King, Julian A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Flambaum, Victor V.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of $0.4 \\leq z_{abs} \\leq 2.3$ observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=\\left(0.22\\pm0.23\\right)\\times10^{-5...

  9. A Note on Transfinite M Theory and the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2001-01-01

    In this short note, using notions from $p$-Adic QFT and $p$-branes, we derive the transfinite M $theoretical$ corrections $(\\alpha_M)^{-1} = 100 + 61 \\phi$ to El Naschie's inverse fine structure constant value $(\\alpha_{HS})^{-1}= 100 + 60\\phi$ which was based on a transfinite Heterotic string theory ormalism . $\\phi$ is the Golden Mean $0.6180339...$. Our results are consistent with recent Astrophysical observations of he Boomerang and Maxima experiments, with previous results based on the four dimensional gravitational conformal anomaly calculations and with an enhanced hierarchy of the number of lines on Del Pezzo surfaces.

  10. The Oklo bound on the time variation of the fine-structure constant revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Damour, Thibault; Dyson, Freeman

    1996-01-01

    It has been pointed out by Shlyakhter that data from the natural fission reactors which operated about two billion years ago at Oklo (Gabon) had the potential of providing an extremely tight bound on the variability of the fine-structure constant alpha. We revisit the derivation of such a bound by: (i) reanalyzing a large selection of published rare-earth data from Oklo, (ii) critically taking into account the very large uncertainty of the temperature at which the reactors operated, and (iii) connecting in a new way (using isotope shift measurements) the Oklo-derived constraint on a possible shift of thermal neutron-capture resonances with a bound on the time variation of alpha. Our final (95% C.L.) results are: -0.9 \\times 10^{-7} <(alpha^{Oklo} - alpha^{now})/alpha <1.2\\times 10^{-7} and -6.7 \\times 10^{-17} {yr}^{-1} < {\\dot alpha}^{averaged}/alpha <5.0\\times10^{-17} {yr}^{-1}.

  11. Atomic fine structure in a space of constant curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessis, N.; Bessis, G.; Shamseddine, R. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1982-10-01

    As a contribution to a tentative formulation of atomic physics in a curved space, the determination of atomic fine structure energies in a space of constant curvature is investigated. Starting from the Dirac equation in a curved space-time, the analogue of the Pauli equation in a general coordinate system is derived. The theoretical curvature induced shifts and splittings of the fine structure energy levels are put in evidence and examined for the particular case of the hydrogenic n=2 levels.

  12. Fundamental Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Sherbon, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Arnold Sommerfeld introduced the fine-structure constant that determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. Following Sommerfeld, Wolfgang Pauli left several clues to calculating the fine-structure constant with his research on Johannes Kepler's view of nature and Pythagorean geometry. The Laplace limit of Kepler's equation in classical mechanics, the Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the hydrogen atom and Julian Schwinger's research enable a calculation of the electron magne...

  13. Atomic fine structure in a space of constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a contribution to a tentative formulation of atomic physics in a curved space, the determination of atomic fine structure energies in a space of constant curvature is investigated. Starting from the Dirac equation in a curved space-time, the analogue of the Pauli equation in a general coordinate system is derived. The theoretical curvature induced shifts and splittings of the fine structure energy levels are put in evidence and examined for the particular case of the hydrogenic n=2 levels. (author)

  14. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant ~1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the "dark-matter" effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  15. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10-9, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10-9), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10-9: α-1(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)

  16. Highly charged ions for atomic clocks and search for variation of the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2015-01-01

    We review a number of highly charged ions which have optical transitions suitable for building extremely accurate atomic clocks. This includes ions from Hf$^{12+}$ to U$^{34+}$, which have the $4f^{12}$ configuration of valence electrons, the Ir$^{17+}$ ion, which has a hole in almost filled $4f$ subshell, the Ho$^{14+}$, Cf$^{15+}$, Es$^{17+}$ and Es$^{16+}$ ions. Clock transitions in most of these ions are sensitive to variation of the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$ ($\\alpha = e^2/\\hbar c$). E.g., californium and einsteinium ions have largest known sensitivity to $\\alpha$-variation while holmium ion looks as the most suitable ion for experimental study. We study the spectra of the ions and their features relevant to the use as frequency standards.

  17. Fine structure in the α-decay of odd–even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic study on α-decay fine structure is presented for the first time in the case of odd–even nuclei in the range 83⩽Z⩽101. The model used for the study is the recently proposed Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN), which employs deformed Coulomb potential, deformed two term proximity potential and centrifugal potential. The computed partial half-lives, total half-lives and branching ratios are compared with experimental data and are in good agreement. The standard deviation of partial half-life is 1.08 and that for branching ratio is 1.21. Our formalism is also successful in predicting angular momentum hindered and structure hindered transitions. The present study reveals that CPPMDN is successful in explaining alpha-decay from ground and isomeric state; and alpha fine structure of even–even, even–odd and odd–even nuclei. Our study relights that the differences in the parent and daughter surfaces or the changes in the deformation parameters as well as the shell structure of the parent and daughter nuclei, influences the alpha decay probability.

  18. Constraining the Variation of the Fine Structure Constant with Observations of Narrow Quasar Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Songaila, A

    2014-01-01

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine structure constant, alpha, over cosmological time, using high resolution spectra of high redshift quasars observed with 10m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We used the Many Multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high resolution (R = 72,000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems and show, using careful wavelength calibrations, that the systematic wavelength errors are too large for previous observations to have had the sensitivity to detect such variation using this technique. We find no significant change in alpha, Delta(alpha)/alpha =(0.00 +/- 0.24) x 10^(-5), in the redshift range z=0.7-1.5. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Delta(alpha)/alpha arising from line selection can be considerably larger than assigned statistical...

  19. Precision Test of Many-Body QED in the Be$^+$ $2p$ Fine Structure Doublet Using Short-Lived Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Geppert, Christopher; Krieger, Andreas; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Puchalski, Mariusz; Blaum, Klaus; Bissell, Mark L.; Frömmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; KOWALSKA, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Kreim, Kim; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Sánchez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Absolute transition frequencies of the $2s\\; ^2{\\rm S}_{1/2} \\rightarrow 2p\\;^2\\mathrm{P}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions in Be$^+$ were measured for the isotopes $^{7,9-12}$Be. The fine structure splitting of the $2p$ state and its isotope dependence are extracted and compared to results of \\textit{ab initio} calculations using explicitly correlated basis functions, including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects at the order of $m \\alpha^6$ and $m \\alpha^7 \\ln \\alpha$. Accuracy has been i...

  20. Control of single quantum dot emission characteristics and fine structure by lateral electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, S.M.; Hafenbrak, R.; Michler, P. [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universiaet Stuttgart (Germany); Vogel, M.M. [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universiaet Stuttgart (Germany); Institut fuer Strahlwerkzeuge, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Wang, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G. [Insitute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    The spontaneous emission characteristics of individual self-assembled (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots have been investigated under the application of a tunable electric field in the lateral growth plane. For the neutral excitonic and bi-excitonic as well as a singly-charged (trionic) QD carrier configuration, similar quantum-confined Stark effects could be observed, thus enabling a direct and comparative determination of corresponding polarizability values {alpha}. In addition we have applied a refined detection technique of high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometry on single QDs to investigate the anisotropy-induced excitonic fine structure and to monitor its tunability under a lateral electric field. Whereas most quantum dots reveal an oscillatory-type modulation and partial reduction in fine structure under the applied field, we also demonstrate the case of a selected QD where the initial fine structure could even be reversibly tuned down to zero. This fine structure tunability of single QDs represents an essential prerequisite for the realization of individually controlled entangled photon sources in the future. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Fine Structure of the Rydberg Blockade Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Dumin, Yurii V.

    2013-01-01

    A spatial structure of the zone blocked by the dipolar electric field of a Rydberg atom is calculated taking into account a possibility of excitation to the states with neighboring values of the principal quantum number. As a result, it was found that the blocked zone represents a number of co-centric spherical shells rather than a solid ball, and the respective pair correlation function should have additional maxima at small interparticle distances.

  2. Was the fine-structure constant variable over cosmological time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmological variation of the fine-structure constant (α) dependent on the redshifts of quasars. Using the emission (absorption) systems in the spectra of distant quasars, we investigate the effects of the cosmology variability in the value of the fine-structure constant (α) dependent on the redshifts of quasars during the evolution of Universe. We obtain optical spectra of fine-structure transitions in [Ne-III], [Ne-V], [O-III], [O-I], and [S-II] multiplets from a sample of 14 Seyfert 1.5 galaxies in the low-z range. 0.035 2(t)/α2(0) = (0.999965 ± 0.00005529). (authors)

  3. Effects of $\\alpha$-cluster breaking on 3$\\alpha$ cluster structures in $^{12}$C

    OpenAIRE

    Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effects of $\\alpha$-cluster breaking on 3$\\alpha$ cluster structures in $^{12}$C, we investigate $^{12}$C using a hybrid model that combines the Brink-Bloch cluster model with the $p_{3/2}$ subshell closure wave function. We have found that $\\alpha$-cluster breaking caused by spin-orbit force significantly changes cluster structures of excited $0^{+}$ states through orthogonality to lower states. Spatially developed cluster components of the $0^{+}_{2}$ state are reduced. The $...

  4. Fine structure in a dark umbra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, Michal; Puschmann, K.G.

    Göttingen : Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2007 - (Kneer, F.; Puschmann, K.; Wittmann, A.), s. 205-208 ISBN 978-3-938616-84-0. [Modern solar facilities - advanced solar science. Göttingen (DE), 27.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003404 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) HPRN-CT-2002-00313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : sunspots * umbral structure Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  5. Spectral fine structure effects on material and doppler reactivity worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New formulations concerning the fine structure effects on the reactivity worth of resonances are developed and conclusions are derived following the extension to more general types of perturbations which include: the removal of resonance material at finite temperatures and the temperature variation of part of the resonance material. It is concluded that the flux method can overpredict the reactivity worth of resonance materials more than anticipated. Calculations on the Doppler worth were carried out; the results can be useful for asessing the contribution of the fine structure effects to the large discrepancy that exists between the calculated and measured small sample Doppler worths. (B.G.)

  6. Fine structure of helium and light helium-like ions

    OpenAIRE

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Yerokhin, Vladimir A.

    2010-01-01

    Calculational results are presented for the fine-structure splitting of the 2^3P state of helium and helium-like ions with the nuclear charge Z up to 10. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the latest experimental results for the helium fine-structure intervals as well as with the most of the experimental data available for light helium-like ions. Comparing the theoretical value of the 2^3P_0-2^3P_1 interval in helium with the experimental result [T. Zelevinsky et al. Phys. Rev. Let...

  7. Oscillatory behavior of chromospheric fine structures in a network and a semi-active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bostanci, Z F; Al, N

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we study the periodicities of oscillations in dark fine structures using observations of a network and a semi-active region close to the solar disk center. We simultaneously obtained spatially high resolution time series of white light images and narrow band images in the H$\\alpha$ line using the 2D G\\"ottingen spectrometer, which were based on two Fabry-Perot interferometers and mounted in the VTT/Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. During the observations, the H$\\alpha$ line was scanned at 18 wavelength positions with steps of 125 m\\AA. We computed series of Doppler and intensity images by subtraction and addition of the H$\\alpha$ $\\pm$ 0.3 \\AA\\ and $\\pm$ 0.7 \\AA\\ pairs, sampling the upper chromosphere and the upper photosphere, respectively. Then we obtained power, coherence and phase difference spectra by performing a wavelet analysis to the Doppler fluctuations. Here, we present comparative results of oscillatory properties of dark fine structures seen in a network and a semi-active reg...

  8. The variation of the fine-structure constant from disformal couplings

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Nunes, Nelson J

    2015-01-01

    We study a theory in which the electromagnetic field is disformally coupled to a scalar field, in addition to a usual non-minimal electromagnetic coupling. We show that disformal couplings modify the expression for the fine-structure constant, alpha. As a result, the theory we consider can explain the non-zero reported variation in the evolution of alpha by purely considering disformal couplings. We also find that if matter and photons are coupled in the same way to the scalar field, disformal couplings itself do not lead to a variation of the fine-structure constant. A number of scenarios are discussed consistent with the current astrophysical, geochemical, laboratory and the cosmic microwave background radiation constraints on the cosmological evolution of alpha. The models presented are also consistent with the current type Ia supernovae constraints on the effective dark energy equation of state. We find that the Oklo bound in particular puts strong constraints on the model parameters. From our numerical r...

  9. Retinal Photoreceptor Fine Structure in some reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairoze Khattab; Fahmy I. Khattab; Nagui Fares and Aman Zaki

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the photoreceptors of four different reptiles: the homed viper Cerastes cerastes (diurnal and nocturnal, the European Chameleo chameleon (diurnal, the gold skink Eumeces schneidrii (diurnal and the Egyptian gecko, Tarentola annularis (nocturnal has been investigated by light and electron microscopy. The photoreceptors of diurnal reptiles were mainly of the cone type and those of nocturnal were mainly rods. The ellipsoid region of both double rods in the nocturnals and large single cones in the species having both nocturnals and diurnal activity, consist of several mitochondria arranged in a remarkable radially gradient architecture which accommodates with the specific function of this region as a focusing device helping to condense light onto the outer segments. Moreover the principle cone of double cone and single cone of diurnal reptiles possessed a large oil droplet in the region between the inner segment and outer segment. This droplet is thought to play a role in filtering light and so doing enhanced contrast reduce glare and lessen chromatic aberration. It is worth to mention that the outer segment of rods in nocturnal reptiles approaches a length of approximately four folds the length of the inner segments of the same photoreceptors cells. This character is of a particular interest, since the outer segment is the site of photopigments and the increase in its length magnifies its ability of light and consequently accommodate with the night vision.

  10. Solar radio bursts with spectral fine structures in preflares

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yin; Tan, Baolin; Karlicky, Marian; Meszarosova, Hana; Huang, Jing; Tan, Chengming; Simoes, Paulo J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A good observation of preflare activities is important for us to understand the origin and triggering mechanism of solar flares, and to predict the occurrence of solar flares. This work presents the characteristics of microwave spectral fine structures as preflare activities of four solar flares observed by Ond\\v{r}ejov radio spectrograph in the frequency range of 0.8--2.0 GHz. We found that these microwave bursts which occurred 1--4 minutes before the onset of flares have spectral fine struc...

  11. Law of Localised Fine Structure with application in mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Łącki, Mateusz Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brand new methodology to deal with isotopic fine structure calculations. By using the Poisson approximation in an entirely novel way, we introduce mathematical elegance into the discussion on the trade-off between resolution and tractability. Our considerations unify the concepts of fine-structure, equatransneutronic configurations, and aggregate isotopic structure in a natural and simple way. We show how to boost the theoretical resolution in a seemingly costless way by several orders of magnitude with respect to the already very efficient algorithms operating on isotopic aggregates. We also develop an effective new way to obtain the important peaks in the most disaggregated isotopic structure localised in a precise region in the mass domain.

  12. Fine-structure Constant, Anomalous Magnetic Moment, Relativity Factor and the Golden Ratio that Divides the Bohr Radius

    OpenAIRE

    Heyrovska, R.; Narayan, S

    2005-01-01

    Sommerfeld introduced the fine-structure constant into physics, while he was taking into account the relativistic effects in the theory of the hydrogen atom. Ever since, it has puzzled many scientists like Eddington, Dirac, Feynman and others. Here the mysterious fine-structure constant, alpha = (Compton wavelength/de Broglie wavelength) = 1/137.036 = 2.627/360 is interpreted based on the finding that it is close to 2.618/360 = 1/137.508, where the Compton wavelength for hydrogen is a distanc...

  13. Theory of the Lamb shift and Fine Structure in $\\boldsymbol{(\\mu{}^{4}\\mathrm{He})^{+}}$

    CERN Document Server

    Diepold, Marc; Franke, Beatrice; Antognini, Aldo; Kottmann, Franz; Pohl, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    An up to date review of the theoretical contributions to the $2S\\rightarrow{}2P$ Lamb shift and the fine structure of the $2P$-state in the $(\\mu^4\\mathrm{He})^+$ ion is given. This summary will serve as the basis for the extraction of the alpha particle charge radius from the muonic helium Lamb shift measurements at the Paul Scherrer Institute Switzerland. Individual theoretical contributions needed for a charge radius extraction were compared and compiled into a consistent summary using the already established framework we used for muonic hydrogen and deuterium. The influence of the alpha particle charge distribution on the elastic two-photon exchange is studied to rule out possible model dependencies of the energy levels on the electric form factor of the nucleus.

  14. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczynska, Michael R; King, Julian A; Murphy, Michael T; Bainbridge, Matthew B; Flambaum, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of $0.4 \\leq z_{abs} \\leq 2.3$ observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=\\left(0.22\\pm0.23\\right)\\times10^{-5}$, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ measurements, th...

  15. Electron excitation rates among fine structure levels in O III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron collision strengths have been calculated for 146 transitions among the fine-structure levels in O III using a suitable transformation of LS coupling reactance matrix elements computed with the R-matrix method. These have been obtained at a fine energy grid in an energy region below 5.16 Ry and are found to be varying with electron energy, exhibiting a complicated resonance structure in almost the entire energy range. These have been averaged over a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies to get the effective collision strengths which are very simply related to the excitation and the de-excitation rate coefficients. The results are tabulated in a temperature region below 60,000 K. These are the first extensive results in the literature and are believed to be highly useful for astrophysical plasma diagnostics

  16. FINE STRUCTURE OF SYZYGY IN SELENIDIUM PENNATUM (SPOROZOA, ARCHIGREGARINIDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvardina, Olga; Simdyanov, Timur

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe fine structure of the syzygy partner in Selenidium pennatum Simdyanov 1992 (Sporozoa, Archigregarinida as proposed by Grasse and Schrevel). The presence of an apical complex (conoid and rhoptries) and the absence of nucleus are the most interesting properties of this object. Long term presence of the apical complex during the life cycle is a plesiomorph character for Apicomplexa. Among other things, it distinguishes archigregarines from other sporozoans and confirms the sugge...

  17. Subcortical representation of speech fine structure relates to reading ability

    OpenAIRE

    Hornickel, Jane; Anderson, Samira; Skoe, Erika; Yi, Han-Gyol; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Impaired perception of consonants by poor readers is reflected in poor subcortical encoding of speech timing and harmonics. We assessed auditory brainstem representation of higher harmonics within a consonant-vowel formant transition to identify relationships between speech fine structure and reading. Responses were analyzed in three ways: a single stimulus polarity, adding responses to inverted polarities (emphasizing low harmonics), and subtracting responses to inverted polarities (emphasiz...

  18. Photoreceptor fine structure in the bobtail goanna (Tiliqua rugosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Braekevelt, Charlie R.

    1989-01-01

    The fine structure of the retinal photoreceptors has been studied by light and electron microscopy in the bobtail goanna (Tiliqua rugosa) an Australian diurna1 lizard. The photoreceptors in this species are readily divisible into rods or cones based on morphological criteria. Single cones are the dominate cell type with a cone:rod ratio of about 80: 1. No multiple photoreceptors were present nor was a photoreceptor mosiac observed. Cones are large cells with a ...

  19. Fundamental Physics and the Fine-Structure Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Sherbon, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    From the exponential function of Euler’s equation to the geometry of a fundamental form, a calculation of the fine-structure constant and its relationship to the proton electron mass ratio is given. Equations are found for the fundamental constants of the four forces of nature: electromagnetism, the weak force, the strong force and the force of gravitation. Symmetry principles are then associated with traditional physical measures.

  20. Quintessential Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Sherbon, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    7 pages International audience An introduction is given to the geometry and harmonics of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid, with the metaphysical and mathematical determination of the fine-structure constant of electromagnetic interactions. Newton's gravitational constant is also presented in harmonic form and other fundamental physical constants are then found related to the quintessential geometry of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid.

  1. Limits on variations of the fine-structure constant with gravitational potential from white-dwarf spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C; Ong, A; Webb, J K; Barrow, John D; Barstow, M A; Preval, S P; Holberg, J B

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new probe of the variation of the fine structure constant, alpha, in a strong gravitational field using metal lines in the spectra of white dwarf stars. Comparison of laboratory spectra with far-UV astronomical spectra from the white dwarf star G191-B2B recorded by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph gives limits on the fractional variation of alpha of (Delta alpha/alpha)=(4.2 +- 1.6)x10^(-5) and (-6.1 +- 5.8)x10^(-5) from Fe V and Ni V spectra, respectively, at a dimensionless gravitational potential relative to Earth of (Delta phi) ~ 5x10^(-5). With better determinations of the laboratory wavelengths of the lines employed these results could be improved by up to two orders of magnitude.

  2. Precise limits on cosmological variability of the fine-structure constant with zinc and chromium quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Michael T; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The strongest transitions of Zn and CrII are the most sensitive to relative variations in the fine-structure constant ($\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$) among the transitions commonly observed in quasar absorption spectra. They also lie within just 40 \\AA\\ of each other (rest frame), so they are resistant to the main systematic error affecting most previous measurements of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$: long-range distortions of the wavelength calibration. While Zn and CrII absorption is normally very weak in quasar spectra, we obtained high signal-to-noise, high-resolution echelle spectra from the Keck and Very Large Telescopes of 9 rare systems where it is strong enough to constrain $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ from these species alone. These provide 12 independent measurements (3 quasars were observed with both telescopes) at redshifts 1.0--2.4, 11 of which pass stringent reliability criteria. These 11 are all consistent with $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=0$ within their individual uncertainties of 3.5--13 parts per million (ppm), with a we...

  3. Solar chromospheric fine scale structures: dynamics and energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziotziou, K.

    2012-01-01

    The solar chromosphere is a very inhomogeneous and dynamic layer of the solar atmosphere that exhibits several phenomena on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution and long-duration observations, employing mostly lines, such as Halpha, the Ca II infrared lines and the Ca II H and K lines, obtained both from ground-based telescope facilities (e.g. DST, VTT, THEMIS, SST, DOT), as well as state-of-the-art satellites (e.g. SOHO, TRACE, HINODE) reveal an incredibly rich, dynamic and highly structured chromospheric environment. What is known in literature as the chromospheric fine-scale structure mainly consists of small fibrilar-like features that connect various parts of quiet/active regions or span across the chromospheric network cell interiors, showing a large diversity of both physical and dynamic characteristics. The highly dynamic, fine-scale chromospheric structures are mostly governed by flows which reflect the complex geometry and dynamics of the local magnetic field and play an important role in the propagation and dissipation of waves. A comprehensive study of these structures requires deep understanding of the physical processes involved and investigation of their intricate link with structures/processes at lower photospheric levels. Furthermore, due to their large number present on the solar surface, it is essential to investigate their impact on the mass and energy transport to higher atmospheric layers through processes such as magnetic reconnection and propagation of waves. The in-depth study of all aforementioned characteristics and processes, with the further addition of non-LTE physics, as well as the use of three-dimensional numerical simulations poses a fascinating challenge for both theory and numerical modeling of chromospheric fine-scale structures.

  4. Erasing the exciton fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), the anisotropic electron-hole exchange interaction induces a fine structure splitting (FSS) between the bright excitonic states and hampers severely their use as high-fidelity sources of entangled photons. In this presentation, we will show that it is always possible to erase the FSS by the simultaneous application of large strain and electric fields. Our result, which holds for any quantum dot structure, highlights the potential of combining complementary external fields to create artificial atoms meeting the stringent requirements posed by scalable semiconductor-based quantum technology. (author)

  5. The fine structure of capillaries and small arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, D H; RUSKA, H

    1957-05-25

    Details of capillary endothelia of the mammalian heart are described and compared with capillaries of other organs and tissues. Continuous invagination and pinching off of the plasma membrane to form small vesicles which move across the cytoplasm are suggested as constituting a means of active and selective transmission through capillary walls (12). This might be designated as cytopempsis (transmission by cell). The fine structure of the different layers in the walls of small heart arteries is demonstrated. Endothelial protrusions extend through windows of the elestica interna to make direct contact with smooth muscle plasma membranes. The elastica interna appears to vary greatly in both thickness and density, and probably restricts filtration, diffusion, and osmosis to such an extent that windows and the transport mechanisms described (cytopempsis) are necessary for the functional integrity of the smooth muscle layer. The contractile material consists of very fine, poorly oriented filaments. PMID:13438930

  6. The fine structure of the Saturnian ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dust disc within a planetary magnetosphere constitutes a novel type of dust-ring current. Such an azimuthal current carrying dust disc is subject to the dusty plasma analog of the well known finite-resistivity 'tearing' mode instability in regular plasma current sheets, at long wavelengths. It is proposed that the presently observed fine ringlet structure of the Saturnian ring system is a relic of this process operating at cosmogonic times and breaking up the initial proto-ring (which may be regarded as an admixture of fine dust and plasma) into an ensemble of thin ringlets. It is shown that this instability developes at a rate that is many orders of magnitude faster than any other known instability, when the disc thickness reaches a value that is comparable to its present observed value. (Auth.)

  7. The fine structure line deficit in S 140

    CERN Document Server

    Ossenkopf, Volker; Okada, Yoko; Mookerjea, Bhaswati; van der Tak, Floris F S; Simon, Robert; Pütz, Patrick; Güsten, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We try to understand the gas heating and cooling in the S 140 star forming region by spatially and spectrally resolving the distribution of the main cooling lines with GREAT/SOFIA. We mapped the fine structure lines of [OI] (63 {\\mu}m) and [CII] (158 {\\mu}m) and the rotational transitions of CO 13-12 and 16-15 with GREAT/SOFIA and analyzed the spatial and velocity structure to assign the emission to individual heating sources. We measure the optical depth of the [CII] line and perform radiative transfer computations for all observed transitions. By comparing the line intensities with the far-infrared continuum we can assess the total cooling budget and measure the gas heating efficiency. The main emission of fine structure lines in S 140 stems from a 8.3'' region close to the infrared source IRS 2 that is not prominent at any other wavelength. It can be explained by a photon-dominated region (PDR) structure around the embedded cluster if we assume that the [OI] line intensity is reduced by a factor seven due ...

  8. The UVES Large Program for testing fundamental physics - III. Constraints on the fine-structure constant from 3 telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, T M; Whitmore, J B; Misawa, T; Centurion, M; D'Odorico, S; Lopez, S; Martins, C J A P; Molaro, P; Petitjean, P; Rahmani, H; Srianand, R; Wendt, M

    2014-01-01

    Large statistical samples of quasar spectra have previously indicated possible cosmological variations in the fine-structure constant, $\\alpha$. A smaller sample of higher signal-to-noise ratio spectra, with dedicated calibration, would allow a detailed test of this evidence. Towards that end, we observed equatorial quasar HS 1549$+$1919 with three telescopes: the Very Large Telescope, Keck and, for the first time in such analyses, Subaru. By directly comparing these spectra to each other, and by `supercalibrating' them using asteroid and iodine-cell tests, we detected and removed long-range distortions of the quasar spectra's wavelength scales which would have caused significant systematic errors in our $\\alpha$ measurements. For each telescope we measure the relative deviation in $\\alpha$ from the current laboratory value, $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$, in 3 absorption systems at redshifts $z_{\\mathrm{abs}}=1.143$, 1.342, and 1.802. The nine measurements of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ are all consistent with zero at the ...

  9. A simple cosmology with a varying fine structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the cosmological consequences of a theory in which the electric charge e can vary. In this theory the fine structure 'constant', α, remains almost constant in the radiation era, undergoes a small increase in the matter era, but approaches a constant value when the universe starts accelerating because of a positive cosmological constant. This model satisfies geonuclear, nucleosynthesis, and cosmic microwave background constraints on time variation in α , while fitting the observed accelerating Universe and evidence for small α variations in quasar spectra. It also places specific restrictions on the nature of the dark matter. Further tests, involving stellar spectra and Eoetvoes experiments, are proposed

  10. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are sounds produced by the healthy inner ear. They can be measured as low-level signals in the ear canal and are used to monitor the functioning of outer hair cells.Several studies indicate that OAE might be a more sensitive measure to detect early noise-induced hearing...... losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  11. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are sounds produced by the healthy inner ear. They can be measured as low-level signals in the ear canal and are used to monitor the functioning of outer hair cells. Many studies indicate that OAE might be a more sensitive measure to detect early noise-induced haring...... losses than pure-tone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stiumulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  12. Transitions in Zr, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Hg, Ac and U ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant

    OpenAIRE

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study transitions between ground and low-energy excited states of heavy ions corresponding to s-d single-electron transitions or s^2-d^2 double-electron transitions. The large nuclear charge Z and significant change in angular momentum of electron orbitals make these transitions highly sensitive to a potential variation in the fine-structure constant, alpha. The transitions may be considered as candidates for laboratory searches for space-time variation of alpha.

  13. Further evidence for a variable fine-structure constant from Keck/HIRES QSO absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V

    2003-01-01

    [Abridged] We previously presented evidence for a varying fine-structure constant, alpha, in two independent samples of Keck/HIRES QSO spectra. Here we present a detailed many-multiplet analysis of a third Keck/HIRES sample containing 78 absorption systems. We also re-analyse the previous samples, providing a total of 128 absorption systems over the redshift range 0.2alpha, yet they also give consistent results. We identify additional random errors in 22 high-z systems characterized by transitions with a large dynamic range in apparent optical depth. Increasing the statistical errors on da/a for these systems gives our fiducial result, a weighted mean da/a=(-0.543+/-0.116)x10^-5, representing 4.7-sigma evidence for a smaller weighted mean alpha in the absorption clouds. Assuming that da/a=0 at z_abs=0, the da...

  14. Variation of the fine structure constant and the electron mass at early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Scóccola, Claudia G

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the study of the variation of the electron mass $m_e$, and the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, at different cosmic times. We analyze the details of the recombination physics, including helium recombination, in order to find the dependences of the physical quantities on the fundamental constants. Using up-to-date CMB data, and the final 2dFGRS power spectrum, we set limits to the possible variation of the constants at recombination. We analyze the variation of $\\alpha$ and $m_e$ independently, and the case in which both variations are allowed, fitting also a set of cosmological parameters. We find a fenomenological relationship between the variation of $\\alpha$ and the variation of $m_e$, between decoupling and present time. We analyze the Barrow-Magueijo fenomenological model, which propose a variation in the electron mass induced by changes in a space-time scalar field. We present improved solutions and we estimate the model parameters using bounds on the variation of the electr...

  15. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of barley was compared with embryos developed from fertilized egg cell, and we did not found any fundamental differences between them. However, only plastid ribosomes were difficult to identify on ultrathin sections in embryoids and in the embryos.

  16. Alpha Decay, Shell Structure, and New Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENZhong-Zhou; TAIFei; SHENWen-Qing

    2003-01-01

    We systematically analyze the experimental data of alpha decay in even-even heavy nuclei far from stability and find that the Geiger-Nuttall law brea~s for an isotopic chain when its neutron number is across a marc number or there is a deformed subshell. This break can be used to identify new magic numbers of superheavy nuclei. It is also discovered that there is a new linear relation between the logarithm of half-life and the reciprocal of the square root of decay energy for N = 126 and N = 152 isotones. It could be a new law of alpha decay for nuclei with magic neutron numbers but the physics behind it is to be explored. The significance of these researches for the search of new elements is discussed.

  17. Alpha Decay, Shell Structure, and New Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhong-Zhou; TAI Fei; SHEN Wen-Qing

    2003-01-01

    We systematically analyze the experimental data of alpha decay in even-even heavy nuclei far from stabilityand find that the Geiger-Nuttall law breaks for an isotopic chain when its neutron number is across a magic numberor there is a deformed subshell. This break can be used to identify new magic numbers of superheavy nuclei. It is alsodiscovered that there is a new linear relation between the logarithm of half-life and the reciprocal of the square root ofdecay energy for N = 126 and N = 152 isotones. It could be a new law of alpha decay for nuclei with magic neutronnumbers but the physics behind it is to be explored. The significance of these researches for the search of new elementsis discussed.

  18. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  19. SOLAR RADIO BURSTS WITH SPECTRAL FINE STRUCTURES IN PREFLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good observations of preflare activities are important for us to understand the origin and triggering mechanism of solar flares, and to predict the occurrence of solar flares. This work presents the characteristics of microwave spectral fine structures as preflare activities of four solar flares observed by the Ondřejov radio spectrograph in the frequency range of 0.8-2.0 GHz. We found that these microwave bursts which occurred 1-4 minutes before the onset of flares have spectral fine structures with relatively weak intensities and very short timescales. They include microwave quasi-periodic pulsations with very short periods of 0.1-0.3 s and dot bursts with millisecond timescales and narrow frequency bandwidths. Accompanying these microwave bursts are filament motions, plasma ejection or loop brightening in the EUV imaging observations, and non-thermal hard X-ray emission enhancements observed by RHESSI. These facts may reveal certain independent, non-thermal energy releasing processes and particle acceleration before the onset of solar flares. They may help us to understand the nature of solar flares and to predict their occurrence

  20. Herschel Galactic plane survey of [NII] fine structure emission

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Paul F; Langer, William D; Pineda, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    We present the first large scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([NII]) at 122 $\\mu$m and 205 $\\mu$m. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines-of-sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10$^{-8}$ - 10$^{-7}$ $W$m$^{-2}$sr$^{-1}$ level over the range -60$^{o}$ $\\leq$ $l$ $\\leq$ 60$^{o}$. The $rms$ of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [NII] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding $n(e)$ largely in the range 10 to 50 cm$^{-3}$ with an average value of 29 cm$^{-3}$ and N$^+$ colum...

  1. SOLAR RADIO BURSTS WITH SPECTRAL FINE STRUCTURES IN PREFLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yin; Tan, Baolin; Huang, Jing; Tan, Chengming [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Simões, Paulo J.A., E-mail: zhangyin@bao.ac.cn [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    Good observations of preflare activities are important for us to understand the origin and triggering mechanism of solar flares, and to predict the occurrence of solar flares. This work presents the characteristics of microwave spectral fine structures as preflare activities of four solar flares observed by the Ondřejov radio spectrograph in the frequency range of 0.8-2.0 GHz. We found that these microwave bursts which occurred 1-4 minutes before the onset of flares have spectral fine structures with relatively weak intensities and very short timescales. They include microwave quasi-periodic pulsations with very short periods of 0.1-0.3 s and dot bursts with millisecond timescales and narrow frequency bandwidths. Accompanying these microwave bursts are filament motions, plasma ejection or loop brightening in the EUV imaging observations, and non-thermal hard X-ray emission enhancements observed by RHESSI. These facts may reveal certain independent, non-thermal energy releasing processes and particle acceleration before the onset of solar flares. They may help us to understand the nature of solar flares and to predict their occurrence.

  2. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  3. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jianglin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: smzhang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  4. Precision test of many-body QED in the Be$^{+} 2p$ fine structure doublet using short-lived isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Krieger, Andreas; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Puchalski, Mariusz; Blaum, Klaus; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Kreim, Kim; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-01-01

    Absolute transition frequencies of the $2s\\; ^2{\\rm S}_{1/2} \\rightarrow 2p\\;^2\\mathrm{P}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions in Be$^+$ were measured for the isotopes $^{7,9-12}$Be. The fine structure splitting of the $2p$ state and its isotope dependence are extracted and compared to results of \\textit{ab initio} calculations using explicitly correlated basis functions, including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects at the order of $m \\alpha^6$ and $m \\alpha^7 \\ln \\alpha$. Accuracy has been improved in both the theory and experiment by 2 orders of magnitude, and good agreement is observed. This represents one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics for many-electron systems, being insensitive to nuclear uncertainties.

  5. Dark energy and Equivalence Principle constraints from astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Alves, R F C; Pino, M; Rocha, C I S A; von Wietersheim, M

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, $\\zeta$, to the electromagnetic sector) the $\\alpha$ variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of $\\zeta$ and the present dark energy equation of state $w_0$. Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the $\\alpha$ dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the E\\"otv\\"os parameter $\\eta$ that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and b...

  6. The alpha-particle structure of 44 Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the bound and unbound states of 44 Ti have a pronounced alpha-particle structure, and their energies and widths may be obtained from an alpha 40 Ca potential. The differential cross-sections for the elastic scattering of alpha particles by 40 a may also be described by such a potential, and some features indicate the presence of unbound states of 44 Ti. The attempts to unify these bound and scattering phenomena by the same potential are described, together with some new calculations using a cosh potential. (author)

  7. Impact of long-range wavelength-scale distortion on fine-structure constant measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Vincent; Webb, John Kelvin

    2015-08-01

    New ideas in unification theories suggest space-time variations of dimensionless physical constants may exist and that they might be within reach of current instrumental precision available from the world's best observatories. State-of-the-art observations already hint at such an effect. If confirmed, fundamental revisions in standard physics would be required.Accurate calibrations are of course crucial in searches for space-time variations of dimensionless physical constants using spectroscopic observations from the world's best observatories. Several recent studies reveal wavelength distortions in optical echelle spectrographs. These are not yet understood and they have not yet been measured using the actual science data used to derive constraints on space-time variation of alpha (critical since they appear to vary with time). In this work we study the impact of such distortions on measurements of the fine structure constant, alpha, observed at high redshift using high-resolution quasar spectroscopy.We have carried out extensive high-performance computing calculations that quantify the effect accurately for the first time, using the same quasar spectra used to measure alpha at high redshift. The spectra we use were obtained using the Keck telescope in Hawaii and the European Southern Observatory's VLT.We explain the detailed methodologies required, using instrumental configuration information from each wavelength setting used in forming a final summed spectrum. Our results show that whilst long-range wavelength-scale distortions do exist, and hence contribute an additional systematic error, these systematics (measured directly from the science exposures themselves) are small and unlikely to explain the spatial variations alpha of reported recently.

  8. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    CERN Document Server

    Kotuš, Srđan M; Carswell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift $z=1$, HE 0515$-$4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption-line system at $z_{abs}=1.1508$, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant ($\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$). A variation of just $\\sim$3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N $\\approx250$ pix$^{-1}$). This provides the most precise measurement of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ from a single absorption system to date, $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=-1.42\\pm0.55_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.65_{\\rm sys}$ ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of $\\sim$150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelengt...

  9. The structure of rotational bands in alpha-cluster nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijker Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, I discuss an algebraic treatment of alpha-cluster nuclei based on the introduction of a spectrum generating algebra for the relative motion of the alpha-clusters. Particular attention is paid to the discrete symmetry of the geometric arrangement of the α-particles, and the consequences for the structure of the rotational bands in the 12C and 16O nuclei.

  10. Fine-structure energy levels and lifetimes in Br XXIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Vikas; Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, SD (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar, UP (India)

    2005-11-28

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from the ground state for 48 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}({sup 1}S), 3s3p({sup 1,3}P{sup o}), 3s3d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4s({sup 1,3}S), 3s4p({sup 1,3}P{sup o}), 3s4d({sup 1,3}D), 3s4f({sup 1,3}F{sup o}), 3p{sup 2}({sup 1}S, {sup 3}P, {sup 1}D), 3p3d({sup 1,3}P{sup o}, {sup 1,3}D{sup o}, {sup 1,3}F{sup o}), 3p4s({sup 1,3}P{sup o}) and 3d{sup 2}({sup 1}S, {sup 3}P, {sup 1}D) states of Br XXIV. These states are represented by extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian which consists of the non-relativistic term plus the one-body mass correction, Darwin term, and spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the experimental values. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results except that the levels {sup 1}D{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 2} belonging to the same configuration 3p{sup 2} interchanged their positions compared to the experiment. This interchange in our calculation is discussed and explained through eigenvector compositions of the two levels. From our radiative decay rates, we have calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetimes of the levels 3s3p({sup 3}P{sub 1}) and 3s3p({sup 1}P{sub 1}) are found to be in good agreement with the experimental and other theoretical results. In this calculation we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental

  11. Understanding Physical Conditions in High Redshift Galaxies through C I Fine Structure Lines: Data and Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgenson, Regina A; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We probe the physical conditions in high redshift galaxies, specifically, the Damped Lyman-alpha Systems (DLAs) using neutral carbon (CI) fine structure lines and molecular hydrogen (H2). We report five new detections of CI and analyze the CI in an additional 2 DLAs with previously published data. We also present one new detection of H2 in a DLA. We present a new method of analysis that simultaneously constrains \\emph{both} the volume density and the temperature of the gas, as opposed to previous studies that a priori assumed a gas temperature. We use only the column density of CI measured in the fine structure states and the assumption of ionization equilibrium in order to constrain the physical conditions in the gas. We present a sample of 11 CI velocity components in 6 DLAs and compare their properties to those derived by the global CII* technique. The resulting median values for this sample are: = 69 cm^{-3}, = 50 K, and = 3.86 cm^{-3} K, with standard deviations, sigma_{n(HI)} = 134 cm^{-3}, sigma_T =...

  12. Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the results of a search for time variability of the fine structure constant α using absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. Three large optical data sets and two 21 cm and mm absorption systems provide four independent samples, spanning ∼23% to 87% of the age of the universe. Each sample yields a smaller α in the past and the optical sample shows a 4σ deviation: Δα/α=-0.72±0.18 x 10-5 over the redshift range 0.5< z<3.5 . We find no systematic effects which can explain our results. The only potentially significant systematic effects push Δα/α towards positive values; i.e., our results would become more significant were we to correct for them

  13. The Fine Structure of Equity-Index Option Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bondarenko, Oleg; Todorov, Viktor;

    on it. We find that the innovations in the risk-neutral intensity of the negative jumps in the S&P 500 index over small time scales are best described via non-Gaussian shocks, i.e., jumps. On the other hand, the innovations over small time scales of the diffusive volatility are best modeled as......We analyze the high-frequency dynamics of S&P 500 equity-index option prices by constructing an assortment of implied volatility measures. This allows us to infer the underlying fine structure behind the innovations in the latent state variables driving the movements of the volatility surface. In...... particular, we focus attention on implied volatilities covering a wide range of moneyness (strike/underlying stock price), which load differentially on the different latent state variables. We conduct a similar analysis for high-frequency observations on the VIX volatility index as well as on futures written...

  14. Collisional Relaxation of Fine Velocity Structures in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-04-01

    The existence of several characteristic times during the collisional relaxation of fine velocity structures is investigated by means of Eulerian numerical simulations of a spatially homogeneous force-free weakly collisional plasma. The effect of smoothing out velocity gradients on the evolution of global quantities, such as temperature and entropy, is discussed, suggesting that plasma collisionality can locally increase due to velocity space deformations of the particle velocity distribution function. These results support the idea that high-resolution measurements of the particle velocity distribution function are crucial for an accurate description of weakly collisional systems, such as the solar wind, in order to answer relevant scientific questions, related, for example, to particle heating and energization.

  15. Stellar Helium Burning in Other Universes: A solution to the triple alpha fine-tuning problem

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the possible existence of other universes, with different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar models in universes where $^8$Be is stable. Many previous authors have noted that stars in our universe would have difficulty producing carbon and other heavy elements in the absence of the well-known $^{12}$C resonance at 7.6 MeV. This resonance is necessary because $^8$Be is unstable in our universe, so that carbon must be produced via the triple alpha reaction to achieve the requisite abundance. Although a moderate change in the energy of the resonance (200 -- 300 keV) will indeed affect carbon production, an even smaller change in the binding energy of beryllium ($\\sim100$ keV) would allow $^8$Be to be stable. A stable isotope with $A=8$ would obviate the need for the triple alpha process in general, and the $^{12}$C resonance in particular, for carbon production. This paper explores the possibility that $^8$Be can be stable in other universes. Simple nuclear considerat...

  16. EDS high resolution PIXE and spectra fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On January 1913, James Chadwick published the first firm observations of the emission of gamma rays induced by alpha rays, a 4% enhancement in the radiation produced by a gold shielding when compared to an aluminum shielding of an ionization chamber containing an alpha emitter. One hundred years past, we face again important even if small-sized new results on particle induced X-ray emission work. X-ray micro calorimeters spectrometers (XMS), which first generation systems emerged as commercially available in the last decade (even if there are still very few companies able to provide them), can be easily compared in breakthrough capacity to late 1960s semiconductor detectors. The main issue now being no longer a simple improvement on detection limits but instead the whole new scope of possibilities and challenges that emerge from the possibility to easily measure and resolve N, M and L lines, minor transitions and secondary effects such as multiple ionization or radiative Auger satellites, many of which carry structural and/or chemical information. Once again we face few percent effects with much added value information, not only but also because the information is now carried by radiation able to overcome significantly thick layers of matter without distortion. Furthermore, these developments have also helped in understanding the physics behind effects that defy established assumptions in X-ray spectrometry and in particular in low energy PIXE spectrometry. In this talk we will present a review of experimental evidence and achievements reached in the last decade. Some of these were pointed out in previous meetings, others are discussed in more detail at this meeting, in any case we expect to be able to expose an overview of solved and unsolved issues and make a point of what we think is the present day status of PIXE, its close future challenges and bright future perspectives if these challenges can be overcome. (author)

  17. Fine-structure constant constraints on dark energy: II. Extending the parameter space

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Carreira, P; Gusart, A; López, J; Rocha, C I S A

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$, are a powerful probe of new physics. Recently these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, were used to constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, $\\zeta$, to the electromagnetic sector) the $\\alpha$ variation. One caveat of these analyses was that it was based on fiducial models where the dark energy equation of state was described by a single parameter (effectively its present day value, $w_0$). Here we relax this assumption and study broader dark energy model classes, including the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder and Early Dark Energy parametrizations. Even in these extended cases we find that the current data constrains the coupling $\\zeta$ at the $10^{-6}$ level and $w_0$ to a few percent (marginalizing over o...

  18. Alpha complexes in protein structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the computational effort and increasing the accuracy of potential energy functions is of utmost importance in modeling biological systems, for instance in protein structure prediction, docking or design. Evaluating interactions between nonbonded atoms is the bottleneck of such computatio...

  19. Fine structure of the Mn acceptor in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainov, I. V.; Debus, J.; Averkiev, N. S.; Dimitriev, G. S.; Sapega, V. F.; Lähderanta, E.

    2016-06-01

    We reveal the electronic level structure of the Mn acceptor, which consists of a valence-band hole bound to an Mn2 + ion, in presence of applied uniaxial stress and an external magnetic field in bulk GaAs. Resonant spin-flip Raman scattering is used to measure the g factor of the AMn0 center in the ground and excited states with the total angular momenta F =1 and F =2 and characterize the optical selection rules of the spin-flip transitions between these Mn-acceptor states. We determine the random stress fields near the Mn acceptor, the constant of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the valence-band holes and the electrons of the inner Mn2 + shell as well as the deformation potential for the exchange energy. The p -d exchange energy, in particular, decreases significantly with increasing compressive stress. By combining the experimental Raman study with the developed theoretical model on the scattering efficiency, in which also the random local and external uniaxial stresses and magnetic field are considered, the fine structure of the Mn acceptor is determined in full detail.

  20. FINE STRUCTURES AND OVERLYING LOOPS OF CONFINED SOLAR FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Hα observations from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope at the Fuxian Solar Observatory, we focus on the fine structures of three confined flares and the issue why all the three flares are confined instead of eruptive. All the three confined flares take place successively at the same location and have similar morphologies, so can be termed homologous confined flares. In the simultaneous images obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, many large-scale coronal loops above the confined flares are clearly observed in multi-wavelengths. At the pre-flare stage, two dipoles emerge near the negative sunspot, and the dipolar patches are connected by small loops appearing as arch-shaped Hα fibrils. There exists a reconnection between the small loops, and thus the Hα fibrils change their configuration. The reconnection also occurs between a set of emerging Hα fibrils and a set of pre-existing large loops, which are rooted in the negative sunspot, a nearby positive patch, and some remote positive faculae, forming a typical three-legged structure. During the flare processes, the overlying loops, some of which are tracked by activated dark materials, do not break out. These direct observations may illustrate the physical mechanism of confined flares, i.e., magnetic reconnection between the emerging loops and the pre-existing loops triggers flares and the overlying loops prevent the flares from being eruptive

  1. FINE STRUCTURES AND OVERLYING LOOPS OF CONFINED SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Fuxian Solar Observatory, Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Using the Hα observations from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope at the Fuxian Solar Observatory, we focus on the fine structures of three confined flares and the issue why all the three flares are confined instead of eruptive. All the three confined flares take place successively at the same location and have similar morphologies, so can be termed homologous confined flares. In the simultaneous images obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, many large-scale coronal loops above the confined flares are clearly observed in multi-wavelengths. At the pre-flare stage, two dipoles emerge near the negative sunspot, and the dipolar patches are connected by small loops appearing as arch-shaped Hα fibrils. There exists a reconnection between the small loops, and thus the Hα fibrils change their configuration. The reconnection also occurs between a set of emerging Hα fibrils and a set of pre-existing large loops, which are rooted in the negative sunspot, a nearby positive patch, and some remote positive faculae, forming a typical three-legged structure. During the flare processes, the overlying loops, some of which are tracked by activated dark materials, do not break out. These direct observations may illustrate the physical mechanism of confined flares, i.e., magnetic reconnection between the emerging loops and the pre-existing loops triggers flares and the overlying loops prevent the flares from being eruptive.

  2. Alpha-cluster model of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The approach based on the α-cluster model proposes some formulas to calculate the binding energies and the charge radii of the nuclei of the β-stability valley and around it [1]. The formulas have been derived on the basis of the idea of isospin independence of inter-nucleon interactions. The approach implies that the nucleus is a dense package of alpha-clusters. The inter-cluster distances are determined by the charge radii of the clusters, so the radius of the nucleus R is defined by their number. Some amount of excess neutrons fill in the gap between the matter bodies of the -clusters of the core [2]. Then the radius Rm of a β - stable isotope can be estimated by the volume occupied by the matter of the core and the volume of the charge of a few peripheral clusters. It has been shown that the condition Rm = R determines the amount of excess neutrons. The energy of these excess neutrons is described by a smooth function on the number of the neutron pairs. The formula to calculate the binding energy proper for the nucleus with five α-clusters turned out to be good for the other nuclei up to the most heavy ones. The formula to calculate the nuclear binding energy is evidently different from the well known Weizsacker formula. These two approaches give different estimations of the total Coulomb energy and the energy due to all inter-nucleon interactions, but the values of the total binding energies of these approaches are close. To calculate the charge radii both the approaches propose successful but different formulas, one is R ∼A1/3 and the other R∼Z1/3. A few useful phenomenological formulas have been found in the approach. These are the formulas to calculate the root mean square charge radius, the Coulomb radius and the radius of the last proton's position in dependence on the number of α-clusters. Besides, the empirical values of the Coulomb energy and the surface tension energy with a good accuracy have been obtained for the nuclei with N

  3. Alpha-cluster structure in 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the structure of low-lying states of 13C with a microscopic cluster model. In addition to the 3α-n model space, the breaking effect of one of the α-clusters due to the spin-orbit interaction is also taken into account. The iso-scalar E0 transition probabilities from the ground 1/2- state to the excited 1/2- states have been shown to be large associated with the cluster structure of these states. However the values are small due to the effect of one additional valence neutron compared to the case of the second 0+ state in 12C. (author)

  4. Alpha condensates and nonlocalized cluster structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a container structure for non-gaslike cluster states, in which single Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-ROpke (THSR) wave functions are shown to be almost 100% equivalent to the full solutions of the corresponding RGM/GCM equations, for the inversion doublet band states in 20Ne, α-linear-chain states, and α + α + A cluster states in 9ΛBe. The recognition of the fact that the THSR wave function describes well not only gaslike cluster states but also non-gaslike cluster states is a recent remarkable development of nuclear cluster physics. This fact tells us that the cluster structure is composed of cluster-mean-field motion under the constraint of inter-cluster Pauli repulsion, in which we call the cluster-mean-field potential the container. We demonstrate that the evolution of the cluster structure of a nucleus is governed by the size parameter of the cluster-mean-field potential (container), for 16O nucleus

  5. Alpha condensates and nonlocalized cluster structures

    OpenAIRE

    Funaki Yasuro

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a container structure for non-gaslike cluster states, in which single Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (THSR) wave functions are shown to be almost 100 % equivalent to the full solutions of the corresponding RGM/GCM equations, for the inversion doublet band states in 20Ne, α-linear-chain states, and α+α+Λ cluster states in 9ΛBe. The recognition of the fact that the THSR wave function describes well not only gaslike cluster states but also non-gaslike cluster states is a recent remarka...

  6. Primary structure, expression and function of laminin [alpha]4

    OpenAIRE

    Kortesmaa, Jarkko

    2000-01-01

    Basement membranes (BMs) are thin extracellular sheet-like structures that compartmentalize tissues. They are found beneath epithelia and endothelia, and surrounding individual cells, such as muscle fibers, neurons and adipocytes. Laminins, type IV collagens, perlecan and nidogens are some of the main components of mature basement membranes. Laminins are composed of [alpha], [beta] and [gamma] chains. They are not only major structural elements of basement membranes, but the...

  7. Alpha Cluster Structure in 16O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Márcia Regina Dias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present work is the investigation of the α-cluster phenomenon in 16O. The 12C(6Li,d16O reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. Resonant states around 4α threshold were measured and an energy resolution of 15 keV allows to define states previously unresolved. The angular distributions of the absolute cross sections were determined in a range of 4-40 degree in the center of mass system. The upper limit for the resonance widths was obtained, indicating that the a cluster structure information in this region should be revised.

  8. Attempts at a determination of the fine-structure constant from first principles: A brief historical overview

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2014-01-01

    It has been a notably elusive task to find a remotely sensical ansatz for a calculation of Sommerfeld's electrodynamic fine-structure constant alpha_QED ~ 1/137.036 based on first principles. However, this has not prevented a number of researchers to invest considerable effort into the problem, despite the formidable challenges, and a number of attempts have been recorded in the literature. Here, we review a possible approach based on the quantum electrodynamic (QED) beta function, and on algebraic identities relating alpha_QED to invariant properties of "internal" symmetry groups, as well as attempts to relate the strength of the electromagnetic interaction to the natural cut-off scale for other gauge theories. Conjectures based on both classical as well as quantum-field theoretical considerations are discussed. We point out apparent strengths and weaknesses of the most prominent attempts that were recorded in the literature. This includes possible connections to scaling properties of the Einstein-Maxwell La...

  9. Optical transitions in highly-charged californium ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C; Flambaum, V V; Ong, A

    2012-01-01

    We study electronic transitions in highly-charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, alpha. The transitions are in the optical despite the large ionisation energies because they lie on the level-crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf16+ is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf16+ has very large nuclear charge and large ionisation energy, resulting in the largest alpha-sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters.

  10. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    A new and fully-automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra (GVPFIT). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. GVPFIT is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. Three numerical methods are unified into one artificial intelligence process: a genetic algorithm that emulates the Darwinian processes of reproduction, mutation and selection, non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (VPFIT), and Bayesian model averaging. In contrast to previous methodologies, which relied on a particular solution as being the most likely model, GVPFIT plus Bayesian model averaging derives results from a large set of models, and helps overcome systema...

  11. Container structure of alpha alpha Lambda clusters in $_\\Lambda^9$Be

    OpenAIRE

    Funaki, Y.; T. Yamada; Hiyama, E.; Zhou, B.; Ikeda, K.

    2014-01-01

    New concept of clustering is discussed in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei using a new-type microscopic cluster model wave function, which has a structure that constituent clusters are confined in a container, whose size is a variational parameter and which we refer to as Hyper-Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-R\\"opke (Hyper-THSR) wave function. By using the Hyper-THSR wave function, $2\\alpha + \\Lambda$ cluster structure in ${^{9}_\\Lambda{\\rm Be}}$ is investigated. We show that full microscopic solutions in the ...

  12. METHODS OF RECEIVING OF FINE-GRAINED STRUCTURE OF CASTINGS AT CRYSTALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  13. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure as an early hearing loss predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    fine structures are obtained from 74 normal-hearing humans using primary levels of L1/L2=65/45 dB. The subjects belong to groups with different ages and exposure histories. A classification algorithm is developed, which quantifies the fine structure by the parameter's ripple place, ripple width, ripple...

  14. Does over-exposure modify the fine structure of distortion product otoacoustic emissions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    It is investigated, whether the pattern of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure (quasi-periodic variations across frequency) is altered by an acoustical over-exposure. DPOAE fine structures are determined in 16 normal-hearing humans using a high frequency-resolution and...

  15. On the fine structure of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to study the fine structure of the Cherenkov rings. We analyze Zrelov's experiments in which the Cherenkov radiation was detected without using the special focusing devices. The broad Cherenkov ring was observed in the plane perpendicular to the motion axis. Using the exact and approximate formulae, we investigate how a charge uniformly moving in a medium radiates in a finite space interval. The formulae obtained describe the radiation intensity in the whole space interval, inside and outside the Cherenkov ring. In the plane perpendicular to the motion axis, the radiation fills mainly the finite ring. Its width, proportional to the motion interval, and the energy released in this ring do not depend on the position of the observation plane. Outside the Cherenkov ring, the radiation intensity suddenly drops. Inside it, the radiation intensity exhibits small oscillations which are due to the interference of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation and bremsstrahlung. The increase in the radiation intensity at the ends of the Cherenkov ring is associated with the shock waves arising at the beginning and the end of the charge motion and at the moments when the charge velocity coincides with the light velocity in a medium. For the chosen motion interval, the well-known Tamm formula does not describe the radiation intensity inside the Cherenkov ring for any position of the observation plane. Outside the Cherenkov ring, the Tamm formula is valid only at very large observation distances. Theoretical calculations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Thus, the combined experimental and theoretical study of the unfocused Cherenkov rings allows one to obtain information on the physical processes accompanying the Cherenkov radiation (bremsstrahlung, transition of the light velocity barrier, etc.)

  16. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature --- from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or alpha-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force --- we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by alpha-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54 North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82 North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  17. Atomic transition frequencies, isotope shifts, and sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant for studies of quasar absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Berengut, J C; Flambaum, V V; King, J A; Kozlov, M G; Murphy, M T; Webb, J K

    2010-01-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest spatial and temporal variation of fundamental "constants" in the Universe. A change in the fine structure constant, alpha, could be detected via shifts in the frequencies of atomic transitions in quasar absorption systems. Recent studies using 140 absorption systems from the Keck telescope and 153 from the Very Large Telescope, suggest that alpha varies spatially. That is, in one direction on the sky alpha seems to have been smaller at the time of absorption, while in the opposite direction it seems to have been larger. To continue this study we need accurate laboratory measurements of atomic transition frequencies. The aim of this paper is to provide a compilation of transitions of importance to the search for alpha variation. They are E1 transitions to the ground state in several different atoms and ions, with wavelengths ranging from around 900 - 6000 A, and require an accuracy of better than 10^{-4} A. We discuss isotope shift measurements that are...

  18. On variations in the fine-structure constant and limits on AGB pollution of quasar absorption systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Y; Gibson, B K

    2005-01-01

    At redshifts z_abs < 2, quasar absorption-line constraints on space-time variations in the fine-structure constant, alpha, rely on the comparison of MgII and FeII transition wavelengths. One potentially important uncertainty is the relative abundance of Mg isotopes in the absorbers which, if different from solar, can cause spurious shifts in the measured wavelengths and, therefore, alpha. Here we explore chemical evolution models with enhanced populations of intermediate-mass (IM) stars which, in their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase, are thought to be the dominant factories for heavy Mg isotopes at the low metallicities typical of quasar absorption systems. By design, these models partially explain recent Keck/HIRES evidence for a smaller alpha in z_abs < 2 absorption clouds than on Earth. However, such models also over-produce N, violating observed abundance trends in high-z_abs damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs). Our results do not support the recent claim of Ashenfelter, Mathews & Olive (2004...

  19. Density and velocity fine structure enhancement in oceanic eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry L.; Evans, David L.

    1985-05-01

    Advection-diffusion models of the oceanic thermocline require a global ocean, mean vertical eddy diffusivity of about 1 cm2 s-1; however, maximum values estimated from microstructure measurements at mid-gyre locations are generally smaller and, occasionally, 1-2 orders of magnitude less, depending on the particular assumptions made by individual analysts. Mesoscale features are high kinetic energy sources, which may fuel vertical mixing mechanisms on fine structure scales, resulting in local enhancements of eddy diffusivity above the canonical value of 1 cm2 s-1. The effects of one such mechanism, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, are assessed for a Gulf Stream ring and a mid-thermocline eddy. The necessary Richardson numbers are computed from Yvette profiles obtained in these features and are accurate to within about 10% for Ri = 1, and more accurate at the critical value Ri = 0.25. A plausible extension of the Miles-Howard theorem for a nonparallel shear flow is formulated for a two-dimensional perturbation. The shear appropriate for this Richardson number calculation is well approximated by the total shear for slowly depth-varying direction, as is the case for the vast majority of the data. Upper and lower bounds on the vertical scale for the Richardson number calculation are set by the shear spectra and the Ozmidov scale. Median Richardson number was lower toward the center of the eddy because of a large decrease in Brunt-Vaisala frequency (N2) and was depressed on the fringes by high shear. Lower median Ri is also found at the center of the ring as a result of low N2. Lower bounds on vertical eddy diffusivity are estimated based on the assumptions of a simple, mixing-length model and of complete mixing of each region where Ri is less than 0.25. The spatial distribution of this quantity within the eddy and the ring mirrors that of median Ri. Values range from Az ˜ 1.1 cm2 s-1 near the center of the eddy and 0.90 cm2 s-1 near the center of the ring to zero in

  20. Fine Resolution Termohaline Structure Of The Yuctatan Coastal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez-Ortiz, C.; Capurro, L.; Euan-Avila, J.

    2007-05-01

    In the Yucatan peninsula there are a variety processes that drastically affect the thermohaline structure of the coastal seas. Some of these include hyperhaline lagoons that export salt to the ocean, upwelling events that propagate to the coast, persistent submarine groundwater discharges, and very high evaporation rates caused by the intense solar radiation. On July 2006 a fine resolution oceanographic campaign was performed on the Yucatan coast to study the detailed structure of thermohaline processes and currents from the shore to the 10 m isobath. A total of sixty nine transects that cover the entire northern stretch of the Yucatan coast were made. The transects extend seven kilometers in the offshore direction and have an alongshore spacing of 5 km. The temperature and salinity characteristics of the water column were monitored with a SEABIRD SBE 19 CTD performing profiles every 500 m along each transect. Ocean currents were measures along the same transect using a 1.5 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (Sontek). The results clearly show the effects of coastal lagoons on the adjoining sea, with net salt export associated with hyperhaline lagoons (e.g. Ria Lagartos) or more estuarine influence of lagoons such as Celestun, where groundwater discharges play the role of rivers on the estuary. An assessment of this influence on the coastal ocean will be presented. It is well known the meteor impact at the end of the Cretacic era at Chicxulub, Yucatan, generated a crater with multiple rings which is evident from horizontal gravity gradients of the Yucatan mainland, and that associated with the outer ring there is a high concentration of cenotes (sinkholes) (Pope et al. 1991; Hildebrand, et al. 1995). It has also been shown that groundwater flows along this cenote ring towards the ocean, and the zones where the ring intersects the coast (Celestun and Dzilam Bravo) have impressive geologic features known as `submarine water springs' where freshwater springs as a fountain

  1. Simple surface structure determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.

  2. Updated constraints on spatial variations of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pinho, A M M

    2016-01-01

    Recent work by Webb {\\it et al.} has provided indications of spatial variations of the fine-structure constant, $\\alpha$, at a level of a few parts per million. Using a dataset of 293 archival measurements, they further show that a dipole provides a statistically good fit to the data, a result subsequently confirmed by other authors. Here we show that a more recent dataset of dedicated measurements further constrains these variations: although there are only 10 such measurements, their uncertainties are considerably smaller. We find that a dipolar variation is still a good fit to the combined dataset, but the amplitude of such a dipole must be somewhat smaller: $8.1\\pm1.7$ ppm for the full dataset, versus $9.4\\pm2.2$ ppm for the Webb {\\it et al.} data alone, both at the $68.3\\%$ confidence level. Constraints on the direction on the sky of such a dipole are also significantly improved. On the other hand the data can't yet discriminate between a pure spatial dipole and one with an additional redshift dependence...

  3. Theoretical Study of Relativistic Retardation Effects: the Abnormal Fine Structure of O Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Hao; HAN Xiao-Ying; WANG Xiao-Lu; LI Ji

    2007-01-01

    Using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock and relativistic configuration interaction methods with high-order corrections, we report our precise calculation results of the fine-structure energy levels of the ground-state configuration of OⅡ(1s22s22p3). Our calculated fine-structure splittings of 2D3/2,5/2 and 2P1/2,3/2 are abnormal. We elucidate that the transverse (Breit) interaction, i.e. relativistic retardation effect, plays an important role for the abnormal fine-structure splittings. Our calculation results are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  4. Assembly and Structure of alpha-helical Peptide Films on Hydrophobic Fluorocarbon Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, T.; Samual, N; McCrea, K; Gamble, L; Ward, R; Castner, D

    2010-01-01

    The structure, orientation, and formation of amphiphilic {alpha}-helix model peptide films on fluorocarbon surfaces has been monitored with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The {alpha}-helix peptide is a 14-mer of hydrophilic lysine and hydrophobic leucine residues with a hydrophobic periodicity of 3.5. This periodicity yields a rigid amphiphilic peptide with leucine and lysine side chains located on opposite sides. XPS composition analysis confirms the formation of a peptide film that covers about 75% of the surface. NEXAFS data are consistent with chemically intact adsorption of the peptides. A weak linear dichroism of the amide {pi}* is likely due to the broad distribution of amide bond orientations inherent to the {alpha}-helical secondary structure. SFG spectra exhibit strong peaks near 2865 and 2935 cm{sup -1} related to aligned leucine side chains interacting with the hydrophobic surface. Water modes near 3200 and 3400 cm{sup -1} indicate ordering of water molecules in the adsorbed-peptide fluorocarbon surface interfacial region. Amide I peaks observed near 1655 cm{sup -1} confirm that the secondary structure is preserved in the adsorbed peptide. A kinetic study of the film formation process using XPS and SFG showed rapid adsorption of the peptides followed by a longer assembly process. Peptide SFG spectra taken at the air-buffer interface showed features related to well-ordered peptide films. Moving samples through the buffer surface led to the transfer of ordered peptide films onto the substrates.

  5. Alpha-cluster structure and density wave in oblate nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    Pentagon and triangle shapes in Si-28 and C-12 are discussed in relation with nuclear density wave. In the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics calculations, the $K^\\pi=5^-$ band in Si-28 and the $K^\\pi=3^-$ band in C-12 are described by the pentagon and triangle shapes, respectively. These negative-parity bands can be interpreted as the parity partners of the $K^\\pi=0^+$ ground bands and they are constructed from the parity-asymmetric-intrinsic states. The pentagon and the triangle shapes originate in 7alpha and 3alpha cluster structures, respectively. In a mean-field picture, they are described also by the static one-dimensional density wave at the edge of the oblate states. In analysis with ideal alpha cluster models using Brink-Bloch cluster wave functions and that with a simplified model, we show that the static edge density wave for the pentagon and triangle shapes can be understood by spontaneous breaking of axial symmetry, i.e., the instability of the oblate states with respect to the edge density wave....

  6. Limits on the time variation of the electromagnetic fine-structure constant in the low energy limit from absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Srianand, R; Petitjean, P; Aracil, B; Srianand, Raghunathan; Chand, Hum; Petitjean, Patrick; Aracil, Bastien

    2004-01-01

    Most of the successful physical theories rely on the constancy of few fundamental quantities (such as the speed of light, $c$, the fine-structure constant, \\alpha, the proton to electron mass ratio, \\mu, etc), and constraining the possible time variations of these fundamental quantities is an important step toward a complete physical theory. Time variation of \\alpha can be accurately probed using absorption lines seen in the spectra of distant quasars. Here, we present the results of a detailed many-multiplet analysis performed on a new sample of Mg II systems observed in high quality quasar spectra obtained using the Very Large Telescope. The weighted mean value of the variation in \\alpha derived from our analysis over the redshift range 0.4alpha/\\alpha = (-0.06+/-0.06) x 10^{-5}. The median redshift of our sample (z=1.55) corresponds to a look-back time of 9.7 Gyr in the most favored cosmological model today. This gives a 3\\sigma limit, -2.5 x 10^{-16} yr^-1 <(\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha\\D...

  7. EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure): theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) is introduced in a general way and the qualities of such a techique are shown. Some examples of applications of EXAFS in several branches of science are presented. (L.C.)

  8. Application of relativistic scattering theory of x rays to diffraction anomalous fine structure in Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Arola, E.; Strange, Paul

    1998-01-01

    We apply our recent first-principles formalism of magnetic scattering of circularly polarized x rays to a single Cu crystal. We demonstrate the ability of our formalism to interpret the crystalline environment related near-edge fine structure features in the resonant x-ray scattering spectra at the Cu K absorption edge. We find good agreement between the computed and measured diffraction anomalous fine structure features of the x-ray scattering spectra.

  9. The influence of high-energy ion implantation on Al alloys fine structure and microhardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microhardness and fine structure of Al alloys (D16 and Al Mn), implanted with 245 MeV krypton ions to doses of 1013 and 1014 cm-2 have been investigated. The implantation results in the un hardening of dispersion hardening D16 alloy and the hardening of thermally unharden able Al Mn alloy. The change in fine structure parameters of Al matrix of implanted alloys is in good agreement with the change in their microhardness

  10. Fine structure of phonon replicas in a tunnel spectrum of a GaAs quantum well

    OpenAIRE

    Krishtop, V. G.; Popov, V. G.; Henini, M.; Krupko, Yu.; Portal, J. -C.

    2014-01-01

    A fine structure of phonon replicas in the current-voltage characteristic of a resonant-tunneling diode has been investigated experimentally. A detailed study of the diode I-V curves in magnetic fields of different orientations has allowed to determine the origin of the features in the fine structure. The voltage positions of the features are shown to coincide with calculated that in the frame of two models: LO-phonon assisted tunneling and resonant tunneling of polarons.

  11. Fine-tuning structural RNA alignments in the twilight zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Stefanie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widely used method to find conserved secondary structure in RNA is to first construct a multiple sequence alignment, and then fold the alignment, optimizing a score based on thermodynamics and covariance. This method works best around 75% sequence similarity. However, in a "twilight zone" below 55% similarity, the sequence alignment tends to obscure the covariance signal used in the second phase. Therefore, while the overall shape of the consensus structure may still be found, the degree of conservation cannot be estimated reliably. Results Based on a combination of available methods, we present a method named planACstar for improving structure conservation in structural alignments in the twilight zone. After constructing a consensus structure by alignment folding, planACstar abandons the original sequence alignment, refolds the sequences individually, but consistent with the consensus, aligns the structures, irrespective of sequence, by a pure structure alignment method, and derives an improved sequence alignment from the alignment of structures, to be re-submitted to alignment folding, etc.. This circle may be iterated as long as structural conservation improves, but normally, one step suffices. Conclusions Employing the tools ClustalW, RNAalifold, and RNAforester, we find that for sequences with 30-55% sequence identity, structural conservation can be improved by 10% on average, with a large variation, measured in terms of RNAalifold's own criterion, the structure conservation index.

  12. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S.C. Wenning

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  13. Structural and evolutionary analysis of the two chimpanzee alpha-globin mRNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Begley, K A

    1983-01-01

    Two distinct alpha-globin mRNAs were detected in chimpanzee reticulocyte mRNA using a primer extension assay. DNA copies of these two mRNAs were cloned in the bacterial plasmid pBR322, and their sequence was determined. The two alpha-globin mRNAs have obvious structural homology to the two human alpha-globin mRNAs, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Comparison of the two chimpanzee alpha-globin mRNAs to each other and to their corresponding human counterparts revealed evidence of a recent gene conversion i...

  14. Fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in molecular photoionization: I. General theory and direct photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model for predicting fine- and hyperfine intensities in the direct photoionization of molecules based on the separability of electron and nuclear spin states from vibrational-electronic states. Using spherical tensor algebra, we derive highly symmetrized forms of the squared photoionization dipole matrix elements from which which we derive the salient selection and propensity rules for fine- and hyperfine resolved photoionizing transitions. Our theoretical results are validated by the analysis of the fine-structure resolved photoelectron spectrum of O$_2$ (reported by H. Palm and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1385 (1998)) and are used for predicting hyperfine populations of molecular ions produced by photoionization.

  15. Fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in molecular photoionization. I. General theory and direct photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Matthias; Willitsch, Stefan

    2016-07-28

    We develop a model for predicting fine- and hyperfine intensities in the direct photoionization of molecules based on the separability of electron and nuclear spin states from vibrational-electronic states. Using spherical tensor algebra, we derive highly symmetrized forms of the squared photoionization dipole matrix elements from which we derive the salient selection and propensity rules for fine- and hyperfine resolved photoionizing transitions. Our theoretical results are validated by the analysis of the fine-structure resolved photoelectron spectrum of O2 reported by Palm and Merkt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1385 (1998)] and are used for predicting hyperfine populations of molecular ions produced by photoionization. PMID:27475368

  16. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of eutectoid steel with ultrafine or fine (ferrite+cementite) structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutectoid steel with the ultrafine or fine-grained ferrite (α)+cementite (θ) particles structure was formed by hot deformation of undercooled austenite at 0.1 s−1 or 5 s−1 at 650 °C using a Gleeble 1500 hot simulator and subsequent annealing. The microstructural evolution of fine (α+θ) structure was investigated by means of a scanning electronic microscope, electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscope, and the mechanical properties of fine (α+θ) steel were analyzed in comparison with that of ultrafine (α+θ) steel. The results show that only dynamic transformation of undercooled austenite into proeutectoid ferrite occurs during hot deformation at 650 °C at 5 s−1. During water quenching, lamellar pearlite with small colony sizes is formed and the average size of pearlite colonies decreases with increasing the strain. By subsequent annealing at 650 °C for 30 min, the spheroidization of lamellar pearlite takes place, resulting in the formation of fine (α+θ) structure consisting of ferrite matrix with the average size of about 4.9 μm and fine cementite particles mainly within ferrite grains. In comparison with ultrafine (α+θ) steel consisting of ferrite matrix with the average size of about 1.8 μm and relatively large cementite particles mostly located at grain boundaries, the yield strength, tensile strength, uniform elongation, total elongation and work-hardening capability of fine (α+θ) steel improve markedly

  17. Fine-structure Constant, Anomalous Magnetic Moment, Relativity Factor and the Golden Ratio that Divides the Bohr Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Heyrovska, R

    2005-01-01

    Sommerfeld introduced the fine-structure constant into physics, while he was taking into account the relativistic effects in the theory of the hydrogen atom. Ever since, it has puzzled many scientists like Eddington, Dirac, Feynman and others. Here the mysterious fine-structure constant, alpha = (Compton wavelength/de Broglie wavelength) = 1/137.036 = 2.627/360 is interpreted based on the finding that it is close to 2.618/360 = 1/137.508, where the Compton wavelength for hydrogen is a distance equivalent to an arc length on the circumference (given by the de Broglie wavelength) of a circle with the Bohr radius and 2.618 is the square of the Golden ratio, which was recently shown to divide the Bohr radius into two Golden sections at the point of electrical neutrality. From the data for the electron (e) and proton (p) g-factors, it is found that (137.508 - 137.036)= 0.472 = [g(p) - g(e)]/[g(p) + g(e)] (= 2/cube of the Golden ratio), and that (2.627 - 2.618)/360 = (small part of the Compton wavelength correspond...

  18. Program package for semi-empirical analysis of the fine- and hyperfine structure of complex atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental work combined with semi-empirical calculations is a very efficient tool for the investigations of the fine- and hyperfine structure of the complex atoms. We present a set of programs for the analysis of the fine- and hyperfine structure. The input data for the calculations are: the fine structure energy levels, the gJ-factors and the hyperfine structure (hfs) A and B constants of experimentally observed levels. The programs are used for the analysis of electron systems containing any number of configurations up to four open shells. In the energy matrix generated, all kinds of electrostatic, magnetic and correlated electrostatic and magnetic interaction, up to second order perturbation theory, were included. As a result, we obtain predicted energy values for all the levels of the system considered, their exact spectroscopic description and also gJ-factors and hfs A and B constants

  19. Fine structure on flat surfaces of quasicrystalline Al-Pd-Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the fine structure revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy for a flat (within 0.8 Aa) fivefold surface of i-Al-Pd-Mn. Even though features in the image appear to be arranged randomly, self-similar features are separated by distinct distances. The distribution of such distances is compatible with the separations between pseudo-Mackay icosahedra tangent to the topmost layer, and with separations between other cluster-based units. We propose that the fine structure is due to electronic structure imposed by the clusters. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. The fine structure of niobium condensates deposited from ion-atomic fluxes in helium atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium gas influence on the structural characteristics of niobium coatings deposited by low-energy metallic Nb ion-stoic fluxes in He atmosphere is investigated. It is shown that He implantation in Nb films during condensation is accompanied with the decreasing of the mean size of condensate grains. At the same time, He atoms modify no physical processes of the fine structure formation. Using thermodesorption spectroscopy we have determined that He atoms mainly belong to vacancy/vacancy-solute complexes in Nb coatings. Our conclusion is that such complexes play a dominant role in formation of the fine structure of vacuum coatings deposited from ion-atomic fluxes

  1. First images and orientation of fine structure from a 3-D seismic oceanography data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Blacic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present 3-D images of ocean fine structure from a unique industry-collected 3-D multichannel seismic dataset from the Gulf of Mexico that includes expendable bathythermograph casts for both swaths. 2-D processing reveals strong laterally continuous reflections throughout the upper ~800 m as well as a few weaker but still distinct reflections as deep as ~1100 m. We interpret the reflections to be caused by reversible fine structure from internal wave strains. Two bright reflections are traced across the 225-m-wide swath to produce reflection surface images that illustrate the 3-D nature of ocean fine structure. We show that the orientation of linear features in a reflection can be obtained by calculating the orientations of contours of reflection relief, or more robustly, by fitting a sinusoidal surface to the reflection. Preliminary 3-D processing further illustrates the potential of 3-D seismic data in interpreting images of oceanic features such as internal wave strains. This work demonstrates the viability of imaging oceanic fine structure in 3-D and shows that, beyond simply providing a way visualize oceanic fine structure, quantitative information such as the spatial orientation of features like fronts and solitons can be obtained from 3-D seismic images. We expect complete, optimized 3-D processing to improve both the signal to noise ratio and spatial resolution of our images resulting in increased options for analysis and interpretation.

  2. Fine structures in the atmosphere above a sunspot umbra

    CERN Document Server

    Bharti, L; Solanki, S K

    2013-01-01

    We present simultaneous photospheric and chromospheric observations of the trailing sunspot in NOAA 10904, obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) La Palma, Canary Islands. Time series of high resolution \\ion{Ca}{ii}\\,$H$ images show transient jet-like structures in sunspot umbrae are elongated, which we call umbral microjets. These jets are directed roughly parallel to nearby penumbral microjets, suggesting that they are aligned with the background magnetic field. In general, first a bright dot-like structure appears, from which a jet later emerges, although some jets appear without an associated chromospheric dot. Bright photospheric umbral dots are associated with umbral microjets arising in the outer umbra. Nevertheless, a one-to-one correspondence between jet-like events and underlying umbral dots is not seen. They are typically less than 1\\arcsec ~long and less than 0\\farcs3 wide. The typical lifetime of umbral microjets is around one minute. The brightness of these structures increases from the...

  3. Electrostatic shock properties inferred from AKR fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pottelette

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The auroral kilometric radiation (AKR consists of a large number of fast drifting elementary radiation events that have been interpreted as travelling electron holes resulting from the nonlinear evolution of electron-acoustic waves. The elementary radiation structures sometimes become reflected or trapped in slowly drifting larger structures where the parallel electric fields are located. These latter features have spectral frequency drifts which can be interpreted in terms of the propagation of shock-like disturbances along the auroral field line at velocities near the ion-acoustic speed. The amplitude, speed, and shock width of such localized ion-acoustic shocks are determined here in the fluid approximation from the Sagdeev potential, assuming realistic plasma parameters. It is emphasized that the electrostatic potentials of such nonlinear structures contribute to auroral acceleration.

  4. Fine structural dependence of ultraviolet reflections in the King Penguin beak horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, Birgitta; Langley, Keith

    2006-03-01

    The visual perception of many birds extends into the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and ultraviolet is used by some to communicate. The beak horn of the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) intensely reflects in the ultraviolet and this appears to be implicated in partner choice. In a preliminary study, we recently demonstrated that this ultraviolet reflectance has a structural basis, resulting from crystal-like photonic structures, capable of reflecting in the near-UV. The present study attempted to define the origin of the photonic elements that produce the UV reflectance and to better understand how the UV signal is optimized by their fine structure. Using light and electron microscopic analysis combined with new spectrophotometric data, we describe here in detail the fine structure of the entire King Penguin beak horn in addition to that of its photonic crystals. The data obtained reveal a one-dimensional structural periodicity within this tissue and demonstrate a direct relationship between its fine structure and its function. In addition, they suggest how the photonic structures are produced and how they are stabilized. The measured lattice dimensions of the photonic crystals, together with morphological data on its composition, permit predictions of the wavelength of reflected light. These correlate well with experimentally observed values. The way the UV signal is optimized by the fine structure of the beak tissue is discussed with regard to its putative biological role. PMID:16470837

  5. Fine structure of sprites and proposed global observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mende, S.B; Frey, H.U.; Rairden, R.l.;

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand sprite processes we, have to explain the phenomena from spatial scales of a few meters to the scale of thunderstorm cells. The intricate small-scale vertical structuring of sprites or the so called beads are particularly difficult to understand. From a two-station triangula...

  6. Fine-structure processing, frequency selectivity and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    performance than the normally hearing in terms of frequency selectivity and fine-structure processing, despite normal audiometric thresholds at the test frequencies. However, the binaural fine-structure processing was not found to be particularly vulnerable to interfering noise in these listeners....... consisted of groups with homogeneous, symmetric audiograms. The perceptual listening experiments assessed the intelligibility of full-spectrum as well as low-pass filtered speech in the presence of stationary and fluctuating interferers, the individual's frequency selectivity and the integrity of temporal...... fine-structure processing. The latter was addressed in a binaural and a monaural experiment. In the binaural experiment, the lateralization threshold was measured for low-frequency tones with ongoing interaural phase delays. In the monaural experiment, detection thresholds for low-rate frequency...

  7. 3$\\alpha$-cluster structure and monopole transition in $^{12}$C and $^{14}$C

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    3$\\alpha$-cluster structures and monopole transitions of $0^+$ states in $^{12}$C and $^{14}$C were investigated with $3\\alpha$- and $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$-cluster models. A gas-like $3\\alpha$ state and a bending-chain $3\\alpha$ state were obtained in the $0^+_2$ and $0^+_3$ states of $^{12}$C, respectively. In $^{14}$C, a linear-chain 3$\\alpha$ structure is found in the $0^+_4$ state near the $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ threshold, but a cluster gas-like state does not appear because valence neutrons attract $\\alpha$ clusters and suppress spatial development of 3$\\alpha$ clustering. It was found that the linear-chain state in $^{14}$C is stabilized against the bending and $\\alpha$ escaping modes by valence neutrons. The monopole transition strengths in $^{12}$C are enhanced by $3\\alpha$-cluster developing, whereas, those in $^{14}$C are not enhanced so much because of the tight binding of $\\alpha$ clusters by valence neutrons.

  8. Structure and diversity of the TCR alpha-chain in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1996-07-01

    T cell receptor beta-chain genes are well characterized in representatives of most vertebrate phyla, from sharks to mammals, but the molecular structure of complete TCR alpha-chains has not yet been established in cold-blooded vertebrates. We used a PCR approach to isolate cDNAs encoding putative teleost fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, rainbow trout) TCR alpha-chains. Eight V alpha segments were identified, belonging to six different families, and the best amino acid sequence identity scores for these trout V alpha were all provided by mammalian V alpha or V delta sequences. Twenty-four (60.1 %) of the 39 analyzed V alpha segments belong to the V alpha 2 family, which has limited homology with mammalian V alpha/delta sequences and with the human V pre-B sequence. A total of 32 different J alpha segments were identified from 40 J alpha regions sequenced, suggesting that a large repertoire of J alpha segments is a characteristic of most vertebrates. The structural properties of the TCR alpha-chain complementarity-determining region 3 loop are well conserved between trout and mammals, suggesting that this region has been under continuous selective pressure in jawed vertebrate evolution. The trout C alpha segment has conserved N-terminal and transmembrane domains, but the C alpha intercysteine distance contains only 40 residues, significantly smaller as compared with mammals (49-56 residues). The conserved features of teleost fish TCR beta- and alpha-chains with their mammalian equivalents suggest that TCR-alpha beta receptors were still present in the common Devonian ancestors of modern teleost fish and mammals, about 450 million years ago. PMID:8683116

  9. British Industries Collaborative Exponential Programme, Vol. III: Fine structure experiments, miscellaneous exponential experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are given of measurements of neutron flux fine structure in graphite lattices containing a wide range of uranium metal and uranium oxide fuel elements. In the ease of the metal fuel elements the observed fine structure parameters are correlated with theory. The remainder of the volume deals largely with investigations carried out in the BICEP exponential stacks. These include measurements of neutron diffusion area in graphite, and of buckling and flux distribution in an assembly containing a superlattice of empty channels. A correlation with theory of measurements of migration area asymmetry in uranium-graphite lattices is also given. (author)

  10. Number Archetypes and “Background” Control Theory Concerning the Fine Structure Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Várlaki; László Nádai; József Bokor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in detail the central role of number ‘137’, the so-calledFine Structure Constant in the collaboration of Pauli and Jung. First, we present the fascinationor the obsession of Pauli for the interpretation of number ‘137’. Second, we treat thespontaneous messages originating from unconscious concerning number ‘137’ in the wellknowndreams of Pauli. We restrict our investigations to the dreams containing the especiallyimportant formulae of Fine Structure Constant (4π3 + π2...

  11. Searching for variations in the fine-structure constant and the proton-to-electron mass ratio using quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    King, Julian A

    2012-01-01

    (abridged) Quasar absorption lines provide a precise test of the assumed constancy of the fundamental constants of physics. We have investigated potential changes in the fine-structure constant, alpha, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu. The many-multiplet method allows one to use optical fine-structure transitions to constrain (Delta alpha)/alpha at better than the 10^(-5) level. We present a new analysis of 154 quasar absorbers with 0.2 1.6 sub-samples independently yield consistent estimates of the dipole direction, which suggests that the effect is not caused by telescope systematics. We consider a number of systematic effects and show that they are unable to explain the observed dipole effect. We have used spectra of the quasars Q0405-443, Q0347-383 and Q0528-250 from VLT/UVES to investigate the absorbers at z=2.595, 3.025 and 2.811 in these spectra respectively. We find that (Delta mu)/mu=(10.1 +/- 6.6) x 10^(-6), (8.2 +/- 7.5) x 10^(-6) and (-1.4 +/- 3.9) x 10^(-6) in these absorbers respectivel...

  12. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji;

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  13. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, J.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable.

  14. Crystal structure of 2-chloroacetamide (. cap alpha. form): a reinvestigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyanaraman, B.; Kispert, L.D.; Atwood, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The crystal structure of the ..cap alpha.. form of 2-chloroacetamide, grown by sublimation, has been determined from three-dimensional counter data and refined by full-matrix least-squares techniques. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//c with a = 10.263(8), b = 5.142(5), c = 7.458(6) A, ..beta.. = 98.72(4)/sup 0/, and D/sub x/ = 1.60 g cm/sup -3/ for Z = 4. The final R factor for 518 observed reflections is 0.037. The molecule exists as a hydrogen-bonded dimer in the crystal structure. The configuration of atoms C(1), C(2), O, and N is planar to within 0.008 A, and the Cl-C(1)-C(2)-O dihedralangle equals 168/sup 0/. The dimeric hydrogen bonding as well as the CH/sub 2/ conformation favors the stabilization of a transient oxygen-centered radical. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable. - Highlights: • Dose rates from natural U, Th and K in bricks were determined for the purpose of TL dating. • Results from neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis were compared. • Good match was observed for K determination. • Systematically lower dose rates from U and Th

  16. FINE STRUCTURE OF FLARE RIBBONS AND EVOLUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of the C2.1 flare of 2013 August 15, observed with the New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, GOES, and Fermi spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe a red-blue asymmetry of Hα flare ribbons with a width as small as ∼100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be responsible for energization of Hα knots in the ribbons

  17. Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure spectroscopy at the beamline BM2 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Renevier, H.; Grenier, S.; ARNAUD, S; Berar, J.F.; Caillot, B.; Hodeau, J. L.; Letoublon, A.; Proietti, M. G.; Ravel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) spectroscopy uses resonant elastic x-rays scattering as an atomic, shell and site selective probe that gives information on the electronic structure and the local atomic environment as well as on the long range ordered crystallographic structure. A DAFS experiment consists of measuring the Bragg peak intensities as a function of the energy of the incoming x-ray beam. The French CRG (Collaborative Research Group) beamline BM2-D2AM (Diffraction Diffus...

  18. The connection between the electromagnetic fine structure constant α-bar0 and the monster Lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essay gives arguments for deriving the electromagnetic fine structure constant from maximally symmetric spaces. A connection between the order of some subgroups of the monster simple group, the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass and the fine structure constant is found. A derivation of the fine structure constant from the number of elements in the Cristoffel symbol and the order of the reflection group F4 is given

  19. INTRINSIC FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE IN COMPLEX MATERIALS: BEYOND GLOBAL CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. MIGLIORI; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    Many important classes of materials owe their interesting properties to structures and patterns produced by local atomic deviations from ideal crystallographic positions. The pattern scale may vary from a few atomic spacings to many microns. In a macroscopic sample these deviations may still average to an ideal lattice while retaining the intrinsic fine-scale structures, or a phase transition may create a pattern of variants of a new crystallographic structure. We have carried out experiments on the formation of fine-scale structures in a range of materials, particularly those produced by phase transitions. We have used Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy for elastic properties and dissipation, neutron pair-distribution function, and electronic transport measurements to characterize samples. We have carried out extensive dynamical modeling based on Ginzberg-Landau formalisms to simulate the development and appearance of the structures. Our results highlight the importance of long-range strain fields and the intrinsic unstable equilibrium features of the materials studied.

  20. The Fine Structures of Three Symmetric Latin Squares with Even Orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er Qiang FENG; Yan Xun CHANG

    2011-01-01

    Denote by SFin(v) the set of all integer pairs (t, s) for which there exist three symmetric Latin squares of order v on the same set having fine structure (t, s). We completely determine the set SFin(2n) for any integer n ≥ 5.

  1. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure investigation of nitrogen stabilized expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny;

    2010-01-01

    As-delivered austenitic stainless steel and nitrogen stabilized expanded austenite, both fully nitrided and denitrided (in H2), were investigated with Cr, Fe and Ni extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The data shows pronounced short-range ordering of Cr and N. For the denitrided specimen the...

  2. Generalized Ramsauer-Townsend effect in extended x-ray-absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical backscattering amplitude and phase functions, B(k) and phi(k), used in extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies show strong features in their k dependence which can be identified as a ''generalized Ramsauer-Townsend effect.'' This effect is studied in detail for elements with atomic number 78≤Z≤90

  3. The role of adiabaticity in alkali atom-fine structure mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ben; Weeks, David E.; Perram, Glen P.

    2014-02-01

    Fine-structure mixing cross-sections for the alkalis in collisions with the rare gases are reviewed. Included in the review are all the rare gases in collisions with all of the first excited state of the alkalis, the second excited state for K, Rb and Cs and the third excited state for Rb and Cs. The cross-sections are converted to probabilities for energy transfer using a quantum-defect calculated cross-section and are then presented as a function of adiabaticity. The data shows a clear decreasing trend with adiabaticity but secondary factors prevent the probabilities from decreasing as quickly as expected. Polarizability is introduced as a proxy for the secondary influences on the data as it increases with both rare gas partner and alkali excited state. The polarizability is shown to cause the probability of fine structure transition to be higher than expected. An empirical model is introduced and fit to the data. Future work will develop a model using time-independent perturbation theory in order to further develop a physical rational for the dependence of fine structure cross sections on adiabaticity and to further understand the secondary influences on the probability for fine structure transition.

  4. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 (Configuration Interaction Version 3) calculations of excitation energies from ground states for 141 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the levels of the (1s22s22p6) 3l2, 3l3l' and 3l4l configurations of Cu XVIII. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Since mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, it becomes difficult to identify these uniquely. Our excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement (better than 1.0%) with the available experimental results. From our calculated radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates are found to be in good agreement with other theoretical results, while the lifetimes agree very well with the experimental values (wherever available). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  5. Fine structural characterization of microbodies and Woronin bodies in Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, G L; Mares, D

    1975-08-15

    Microbodies and Woronin bodies, organelles surrounded by a single unit membrane, were identified in the hyphal cells of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by employing a fixative containing TAPO. The fine structure of the organelles is described and their possible significance discussed. PMID:1157867

  6. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Co-XV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.P. [S. D. (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar, 251 001, India, affiliated to Chowdhary Charan Singh Univ., Dept. of Physics, Meerut (India); Msezane, A.Z. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Dept. of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The study of Al-like spectra of ions of the elements of the iron group has received a great deal of attention because they are of particular interest in controlled thermonuclear fusion. Excitation energies from ground state for 97 fine-structure levels as well as oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p,3s3p{sup 2},3s{sup 2}3d, 3p{sup 3}, 3s3p3d, 3p{sup 2}3d, 3s3d{sup 2},3s{sup 2}4s,3s{sup 2}4p,3s{sup 2}4d,3s{sup 2}4f, and 3s3p4s configurations of Co XV are calculated, using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions, obtained with the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation via spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, Darwin and mass correction terms. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and the experimentally compiled energy values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) wherever available. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, with most of the strongly mixed levels belonging to the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3p{sup 2}3d and 3s3d{sup 2} configurations. The strong mixing among several fine-structure levels makes it very difficult to identify them uniquely. Perhaps, that may be the reason for the lack of both experimental and theoretical results for these levels. We believe that our extensive calculated values can guide experimentalists in identifying the fine-structure levels in their future work. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. In this calculation we also predict new data for

  7. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Co-XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of Al-like spectra of ions of the elements of the iron group has received a great deal of attention because they are of particular interest in controlled thermonuclear fusion. Excitation energies from ground state for 97 fine-structure levels as well as oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3s23p,3s3p2,3s23d, 3p3, 3s3p3d, 3p23d, 3s3d2,3s24s,3s24p,3s24d,3s24f, and 3s3p4s configurations of Co XV are calculated, using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions, obtained with the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation via spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, Darwin and mass correction terms. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and the experimentally compiled energy values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) wherever available. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, with most of the strongly mixed levels belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3p23d and 3s3d2 configurations. The strong mixing among several fine-structure levels makes it very difficult to identify them uniquely. Perhaps, that may be the reason for the lack of both experimental and theoretical results for these levels. We believe that our extensive calculated values can guide experimentalists in identifying the fine-structure levels in their future work. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. In this calculation we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available. (authors)

  8. Comment on "Limits on the Time Variation of the Electromagnetic Fine-Structure Constant in the Low Energy Limit from Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Distant Quasars"

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Michael T; Flambaum, Victor V

    2007-01-01

    In their Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 121302 (2004)] (also [Astron. Astrophys. 417, 853 (2004)]), Srianand et al. analysed optical spectra of heavy-element species in 23 absorption systems along background quasar sight-lines, reporting limits on relative variations in the fine-structure constant: da/a=(-0.06+/-0.06) x 10^{-5}. Here we demonstrate basic flaws in their analysis, using the same data and absorption profile fits, which led to spurious values of da/a and significantly underestimated uncertainties. We conclude that these data and fits offer no stringent test of previous evidence for a varying alpha.

  9. Alpha-clustering and molecular structure of medium weight and heavy nuclei. Chapter 1. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since discovery of the nucleus by E. Rutherford, alpha particle has been one of the key particles in understanding the structure and reactions of nuclei. The alpha particle model is one of the oldest nuclear models. A number of alpha particle model (alpha cluster model) studies of nuclei in the 1960s and 1970s revealed that concept of alpha clustering is essential for understanding the structure of light nuclei. The relation between the alpha cluster model and the shell model was also theoretically clarified. However, successful is the alpha cluster model in light nuclei, is status cannot be raised to that of a universal nuclear model -- like the shell model and the collective model -- unless it is shown to work through out the Periodic Table. Many experimental studies has been carried out in order to investigate the alpha cluster properties of nuclei in the fp-shell region. The existence of the alpha cluster parity doublet band in both 44-Ti and 40-Ca prompts is to understand more fully the clustering aspects at the beginning of the fp-shell, as compared with those in the 16-O to 20-Ne region. Much progress has also been made recently in understanding of alpha clustering in heavy nuclei. It has been shown that the alpha-decay properties of heavy nuclei can be systematically explained within a phenomenological model taking into account alpha clustering in these nuclei. Ordinary nuclear matter has played an essential role in laying the foundations of independent particle model of nuclei. Similarly, alpha cluster matter plays a central role in the understanding of roots of the alpha cluster model. (G.K.)

  10. Laboratory-based recording of holographic fine structure in X-ray absorption anisotropy using polycapillary optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, K.M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Korecki, P., E-mail: pawel.korecki@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holographic fine structures in X-ray absorption recorded using a tabletop setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Setup based on polycapillary collimating optics and an HOPG crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of element sensitivity by detection of X-ray fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential of laboratory-based experiments for heavily doped crystals and thin films. - Abstract: A tabletop setup composed of a collimating polycapillary optics and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator (HOPG) was characterized and used for recording two-dimensional maps of X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA). XAA originates from interference of X-rays directly inside the sample. Depending on experimental conditions, fine structures in XAA can be interpreted in terms of X-ray holograms or X-ray standing waves and can be used for an element selective atomic-resolved structural analysis. The implementation of polycapillary optics resulted in a two-order of magnitude gain in the radiant intensity (photons/s/solid angle) as compared to a system without optics and enabled efficient recording of XAA with a resolution of 0.15 Degree-Sign for Mo K{alpha} radiation. Element sensitivity was demonstrated by acquisition of distinct XAA signals for Ga and As atoms in a GaAs (1 1 1) wafer by using X-ray fluorescence as a secondary signal. These results indicate the possibility of performing laboratory-based XAA experiments for heavily doped single crystals or thin films. So far, because of the weak holographic modulation of XAA, such experiments could be only performed using synchrotron radiation.

  11. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S D (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar-251 001 (Affiliated to Chowdhary Charan Singh University, Meerut-250 004) (India); Msezane, A Z, E-mail: g_p_gupta1@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 69 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3p{sup 4}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s{sup 2}3p4s, 3s{sup 2}3p4p, 3s{sup 2}3p4d, and 3s{sup 2}3p4f configurations of Cu XVI. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions obtained with the computer code CIV3 of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the energy values of those from the National Institute for Standards and Technology. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetime for the high spin level 3s3p{sup 3}({sup 5}S{sub 2}) is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental value of Trabert et al (1988 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5 2173). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available.

  12. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 69 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3s23p2, 3s3p3, 3p4, 3s23p3d, 3s23p4s, 3s23p4p, 3s23p4d, and 3s23p4f configurations of Cu XVI. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions obtained with the computer code CIV3 of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices have been made so that the energy splittings are as close as possible to the energy values of those from the National Institute for Standards and Technology. The mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated lifetime for the high spin level 3s3p3(5S2) is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental value of Trabert et al (1988 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5 2173). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available.

  13. Mechanical properties of 15%Mn steel with fine lamellar structure consisting of ferrite and austenite phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New steel with fine lamellar structure consisting of austenite and ferrite was developed. 15mass%Mn-3%Al-3%Si steel sheet was used in this study. First of all, the effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure was examined. The cooling at the slower speed of 100 deg/hour created the dual phase structure consisting of both austenite and ferrite. The additional rolling developed the fine lamellar duplex structure. Improvement of both the tensile strength and elongation was achieved by rolling. The strength increases furthermore by the rolling up to larger reduction. The 90% rolled sheet shows high tensile strength around 1000MPa with large elongation (15%-20%). These results indicate that the multi-phased structure with controlled lamellar morphology is beneficial for the management of both high strength and large ductility.

  14. Polarization dependent diffraction anomalous fine structure of rutile TiO2 001 and 111 reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and polarization dependent Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) also known as Anisotropic Anomalous Scattering (AAS) can be employed in addition to X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) to study electronic transitions from core states to unoccupied states. Here, we present results from resonant X-ray diffraction experiments on TiO2 rutile, space group (136) P42/mnm. For this model structure, site symmetry information was extracted from determination of the structure factor tensor by refining elements of Ti atomic scattering factor tensors. Influences of oxygen vacancies on the anomalous scattering contributions have been studied on a series of rutile wafers of different oxygen concentration. Samples investigated were 10 x 10 x 1 mm3 single crystal wafers and experiments were carried out at DESY/HASYLAB beamlines C and E2 using a Si(111) double crystal monochromator in the vicinity of the Ti-K absorption edge. Considered reflections include the 'forbidden' 001 and allowed 111 reflection.

  15. Identification of three critical regions within mouse interleukin 2 by fine structural deletion analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zurawski, S M; Zurawski, G

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed structure--function relationships of the protein hormone murine interleukin 2 by fine structural deletion mapping. A total of 130 deletion mutant proteins, together with some substitution and insertion mutant proteins, was expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed for their ability to sustain the proliferation of a cloned murine T cell line. This analysis has permitted a functional map of the protein to be drawn and classifies five segments of the protein, which together con...

  16. Elucidation of the chemical fine structure of polysaccharides from soybean and maize kernel cell walls

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, M.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was the elucidation of the chemical fine structure of polysaccharides from cell walls of soybean and maize kernel. The two species investigated represent different taxonomic groups, soybean belonging to the dicotyledonous and maize to the monocotyledonous plants. Besides representing the most important structures present in cell wall material, these raw materials are of great importance in food and feed industry.The characterisation of the soybean cell wall polysacc...

  17. Determining the velocity fine structure by a laser anemometer with fixed orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, P.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2011-02-15

    We have studied the velocity structure functions and spectra which can be determined by a CW-laser anemometer and a (pulsed) lidar anemometer. We have found useful theoretical expressions for both types of anemometers and compared their filtering of the along-beam turbulent velocity. The purpose has been to establish a basis for remote determining of turbulence fine-structure in terms of the rate of dissipation of specific kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer. (Author)

  18. Scattering pulse of label free fine structure cells to determine the size scale of scattering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xingyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Kaixing; Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    Scattering pulse is sensitive to the morphology and components of each single label-free cell. The most direct detection result, label free cell's scattering pulse is studied in this paper as a novel trait to recognize large malignant cells from small normal cells. A set of intrinsic scattering pulse calculation method is figured out, which combines both hydraulic focusing theory and small particle's scattering principle. Based on the scattering detection angle ranges of widely used flow cytometry, the scattering pulses formed by cell scattering energy in forward scattering angle 2°-5° and side scattering angle 80°-110° are discussed. Combining the analysis of cell's illuminating light energy, the peak, area, and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of label free cells' scattering pulses for fine structure cells with diameter 1-20 μm are studied to extract the interrelations of scattering pulse's features and cell's morphology. The theoretical and experimental results show that cell's diameter and FWHM of its scattering pulse agree with approximate linear distribution; the peak and area of scattering pulse do not always increase with cell's diameter becoming larger, but when cell's diameter is less than about 16 μm the monotone increasing relation of scattering pulse peak or area with cell's diameter can be obtained. This relationship between the features of scattering pulse and cell's size is potentially a useful but very simple criterion to distinguishing malignant and normal cells by their sizes and morphologies in label free cells clinical examinations.

  19. Examination and refinement of fine energy group structure for high temperature reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fine energy group structure improvement increased the accuracy of the reaction rates. • Fine energy group structure (SHEM-361) was improved to SHEM-TPN-531 and (SHEM-281) was improved to SHEM-TPN-407. • Uncertainty about the applicability of SHEM energy group structures to HTRs has been addressed. • Depletion analysis were conducted to predict the economic performance of HTRs. - Abstract: Multi-group energy structure SHEM-281 and -361 were refined using a Contributon and Point-Wise Cross Section Driven method (CPXSD). The Contributon and Point-Wise Cross Section Driven method was derived based on the product of the forward and adjoint angular fluxes, and the point-wise cross section of important isotope/material. It is an iterative method that selects effective fine- and broad-group energy structures for a problem of interest. The two selected criteria for determining fine energy group structure were 10 pcm relative deviation of Δk/k for k-effective and 1% relative deviation for reaction rates. The energy group structure refinement was subdivided into fast, epithermal and thermal regions. Firstly, the refinement was done for fast region and a new library was created and applied in the fuel cell unit until the target criteria’s are met. Similar procedure was repeated for epithermal and thermal regions. The dominant parameters for each region are considered as required, fission reaction rate for fast region, absorption reaction rate for epithermal region and absorption and fission reaction rates for thermal region

  20. Les structures fines de l'\\'{e}lectromagn\\'{e}tisme classique et de la relativit\\'{e} restreinte (The fine structures of Classical Electromagnetism and Special Relativity)

    CERN Document Server

    Pierseaux, Y; Pierseaux, Yves; Rousseaux, Germain

    2006-01-01

    One of us (Y.P.) has shown the existence of a longitudinal component in the propagation of light waves on the basis of the kinematics underlying Poincar\\'{e}'s ellipse. We show how this statement agrees with the electromagnetic theory. We recall that the second of us supports the existence of a "fine structure" of Electromagnetism that is, the co-existence of two theories, one based on the fields (Heaviside-Hertz) and the other on the potentials (Riemann-Lorenz). The existence of two different kinematics (the "fine structure" of Special Relativity : Einstein or Poincar\\'{e}) corresponds to these two formulations of Classical Electromagnetism. With this goal in mind, we prove the relativistic covariance of the Helmholtz decomposition of the vector potential. This one translates into a generalized compensation for all directions of propagation, on the basis of the tangent to Poincar\\'{e}'s ellipse, between the scalar potential and the longitudinal component of the vector potential. The adoption by Poincar\\'{e} ...

  1. Fine Structure Zonal Flow Excitation by Beta-induced Alfven Eigenmode

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear excitation of low frequency zonal structure (LFZS) by beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) is investigated using nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. It is found that electrostatic zonal flow (ZF), rather than zonal current, is preferentially excited by finite amplitude BAE. In addition to the well-known meso-scale radial envelope structure, ZF is also found to exhibit fine radial structure due to the localization of BAE with respect to mode rational surfaces. Specifically, the zonal electric field has an even mode structure at the rational surface where radial envelope peaks.

  2. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, R.

    2008-01-28

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  3. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  4. Crystal structure of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader protease Nsp1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuna; Xue, Fei; Guo, Yu; Ma, Ming; Hao, Ning; Zhang, Xuejun C; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xuemei; Rao, Zihe

    2009-11-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV), a positive-strand RNA virus that belongs to the Arteriviridae family of Nidovirales, has been identified as the causative agent of PRRS. Nsp1alpha is the amino (N)-terminal protein in a polyprotein encoded by the PRRSV genome and is reported to be crucial for subgenomic mRNA synthesis, presumably by serving as a transcription factor. Before functioning in transcription, nsp1alpha proteolytically releases itself from nsp1beta. However, the structural basis for the self-releasing and biological functions of nsp1alpha remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of nsp1alpha of PRRSV (strain XH-GD) in its naturally self-processed form. Nsp1alpha contains a ZF domain (which may be required for its biological function), a papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) domain with a zinc ion unexpectedly bound at the active site (which is essential for proteolytic self-release of nsp1alpha), and a carboxyl-terminal extension (which occupies the substrate binding site of the PCP domain). Furthermore, we determined the exact location of the nsp1alpha self-processing site at Cys-Ala-Met180 downward arrowAla-Asp-Val by use of crystallographic data and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The crystal structure also suggested an in cis self-processing mechanism for nsp1alpha. Furthermore, nsp1alpha appears to have a dimeric architecture both in solution and as a crystal, with a hydrophilic groove on the molecular surface that may be related to nsp1alpha's biological function. Compared with existing structure and function data, our results suggest that PRRSV nsp1alpha functions differently from other reported viral leader proteases, such as that of foot-and-mouth disease. PMID:19706710

  5. Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure study and atomistic simulation of Ge/Si nanoislands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katcho, N.A. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, IQFR-CSIC, c. Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); ICMA, Dep. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Richard, M.-I. [Aix-Marseille Universite, IM2NP-CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Proietti, M.G., E-mail: proietti@unizar.es [ICMA, Dep. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Renevier, H., E-mail: hubert.renevier@grenoble-inp.fr [LMGP, Grenoble INP - Minatec, Grenoble (France); Leclere, C. [LMGP, Grenoble INP - Minatec, Grenoble (France); Favre-Nicolin, V. [CEA-UJF, INAC, SP2M, Grenoble (France); Zhang, J.J.; Bauer, G. [Institut fuer Halbleiter - und Festkoerperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    We applied Grazing Incidence Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure to the study of the structure of Ge dome-shaped nanoislands, grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Si (0 0 1) substrates at a temperature of 650 Degree-Sign C. We determined the vertical composition of the islands showing the presence of a strong Ge/Si intermixing that is nearly constant from bottom to top. In particular, an abrupt change is found at the substrate interface where the composition switches from pure Si to Ge{sub 0.6}Si{sub 0.4}. The analysis of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure oscillations of the spectra is crucial to obtain the true composition profile. We performed atomistic simulations to investigate the role of the strained substrate underneath the dome on the diffraction results and to quantify the resolution of our method. Anomalous Diffraction spectra and Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure oscillations have been simulated for a real size and real shape cluster including faceting, giving a more detailed data interpretation and understanding of the Ge-Si intermixing mechanism.

  6. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 ± 12 and 102 ± 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 × 1018 Mx to 8.6 × 1019 Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 × 1020 Mx and 7.6 × 1020 Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  7. Complete study of excitonic fine-structure splitting in GaN/AlN quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, Gerald; Winkelnkemper, Momme; Schliwa, Andrei; Hoffmann, Axel; Bimberg, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Kindel, Christian [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kako, Satoshi [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Takeshi; Oishi, Hiroaki [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Arakawa, Yasuhiko [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    A detailed understanding of the excitonic fine structure in quantum dots (QDs) is indispensable for their use in quantum cryptography devices. While the fine structure in As-based QDs has been studied extensively, there is a lack of such investigations for N-based QDs, which might operate at room temperature. We present the first complete study of excitonic fine-structure splitting (FSS) in GaN/AlN QDs. Our experimental studies reveal a huge FSS of up to 7 meV with a strong dependence on the emission energy inverse to that in As-based QDs. Our theoretical studies, performed with a configuration-interaction method based on realistic 8-band-k.p Hartree-Fock states, confirm the experimental results and identify the origin of FSS as lattice strain induced. Based on our results it is possible to induce a strain gradient (by micro mechanic techniques or structuring methods), which will reduce the FSS to zero for the emission of entangled photon pairs.

  8. Fine structural analysis of the stinger in venom apparatus of the scorpion Euscorpius mingrelicus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Yigit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the morphology, histology and fine structure of the stinger, a part of the venom apparatus of Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae were studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The stinger, located at the end section of the telson, is sickle-shaped. The venom is ejected through a pair of venom pores on its subterminal portion. Both venom ducts extend along the stinger without contact with each other since they are separated by connective tissue cells. The stinger cuticle is composed of two layers. Additionally, there are many pore canals and some hemolymph vessels in the cuticle. This work constitutes the first histological and fine structure study on Euscorpius mingrelicus stinger.

  9. Solar Cycle Fine Structure and Surface Rotation from Ca II K-Line Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeff; Keil, Steve; Worden, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of three and a half decades of data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program yields evidence for four components to the variation: (a) the solar cycle, with considerable fine structure and a quasi-periodicity of 122.4 days; (b) a stochastic process, faster than (a) and largely independent of it, (c) a quasi-periodic signal due to rotational modulation, and of course (d) observational errors (shown to be quite small). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these chromospheric parameters. Time-frequency analysis is especially useful for extracting information about differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the connection between its behavior and fine structure of the solar cycle on approximately one-year time scales. These results further suggest that similar analyses will be useful at detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light-curves such as those being produced at NASA's Kepler observatory.

  10. Number Archetypes and “Background” Control Theory Concerning the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Várlaki

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze in detail the central role of number ‘137’, the so-calledFine Structure Constant in the collaboration of Pauli and Jung. First, we present the fascinationor the obsession of Pauli for the interpretation of number ‘137’. Second, we treat thespontaneous messages originating from unconscious concerning number ‘137’ in the wellknowndreams of Pauli. We restrict our investigations to the dreams containing the especiallyimportant formulae of Fine Structure Constant (4π3 + π2 + π, and also that containingthe so-called background models of mathematical control systems. Third, we shortlymention four of the numerous synchronicities arising during the Pauli–Jung collaboration.

  11. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods applied to measuring the fine structure constant from quasar spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julian; Mortlock, Daniel; Webb, John; Murphy, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Recent attempts to constrain cosmological variation in the fine structure constant, α, using quasar absorption lines have yielded two statistical samples which initially appear to be inconsistent. One of these samples was subsequently demonstrated to not pass consistency tests; it appears that the optimisation algorithm used to fit the model to the spectra failed. Nevertheless, the results of the other hinge on the robustness of the spectral fitting program VPFIT, which has been tested through simulation but not through direct exploration of the likelihood function. We present the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to this problem, and demonstrate that VPFIT produces similar values and uncertainties for Δα/α, the fractional change in the fine structure constant, as our MCMC algorithm, and thus that VPFIT is reliable.

  12. Two-loop self-energy corrections to the fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate two-loop higher order binding corrections to the fine structure, which contribute to the spin-dependent part of the Lamb shift. Our calculation focuses on the so-called 'two-loop self-energy' involving two virtual closed photon loops. For bound states, this correction has proved to be notoriously difficult to evaluate. The calculation of the binding corrections to the bound-state two-loop self-energy is simplified by a separate treatment of hard and soft virtual photons. The two photon-energy scales are matched at the end of the calculation. We explain the significance of the mathematical methods employed in the calculation in a more general context, and present results for the fine-structure difference of the two-loop self-energy through the order of α8. (author)

  13. Measuring the fine structure constant with Bragg diffraction and Bloch oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenghui; Estey, Brian; Parker, Richard; Dudley, Jordan; Müller, Holger

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated a new scheme for atom interferometry based on large-momentum-transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. In this new scheme, we have achieved a resolution of δα / α =0.25ppb in the fine structure constant measurement, which gives up to 4.4 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves. We have suppressed many systematic effects known in most atom interferometers with Raman beam splitters such as light shift, Zeeman effect shift as well as vibration. We have also simulated multi-atom Bragg diffraction to understand sub-ppb systematic effects, and implemented spatial filtering to further suppress systematic effects. We present our recent progress toward a measurement of the fine structure constant, which will provide a stringent test of the standard model of particle physics.

  14. Measuring h /mCs and the Fine Structure Constant with Bragg Diffraction and Bloch Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated a new scheme for atom interferometry based on large-momentum-transfer Bragg beam splitters and Bloch oscillations. In this new scheme, we have achieved a resolution of δα / α =0.25ppb in the fine structure constant measurement, which gives up to 4.4 million radians of phase difference between freely evolving matter waves. We suppress many systematic effects, e.g., Zeeman shifts and effects from Earth's gravity and vibrations, use Bloch oscillations to increase the signal and reduce the diffraction phase, simulate multi-atom Bragg diffraction to understand sub-ppb systematic effects, and implement spatial filtering to further suppress systematic effects. We present our recent progress toward a measurement of the fine structure constant, which will provide a stringent test of the standard model of particle physics.

  15. Special Features of Polarization-Induced Relaxation in Structurally Disordered Finely Dispersed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Tanaev, A. B.; Bezrukova, Ya. V.; Ezhova, L. I.; Baryshnikov, D. S.; Marchuk, S. D.; Berezovskii, P. P.

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric characteristics of finely dispersed hydrated natural coal from the Krasnoyarsk Strip Mine are measured in wide ranges of external measuring electric field frequencies, environmental temperatures, and humidities. The frequency, temperature, and concentration dispersions of the dielectric permittivity are revealed for the examined structures. An analysis of the results obtained demonstrates that a cluster layer of the polar aqueous matrix characterized by rigid fixing of water molecules is formed at the interphase boundaries of the examined system. It is demonstrated that this layer plays the role of the potential barrier that complicates transitions for both free water molecules and surface active dispersed coals oriented by the electric field. This layer can increase the electric strength of the examined disordered finely dispersed structures.

  16. Fine Structure of the R Absorption Lines of Cr3+ in Antiferromagnetic Dysprosium Aluminum Garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Kajiura, Masako; Sugano, Satoru

    1981-11-01

    The absorption spectrum of a Cr3+ ion in an antiferromagnetic disprosium aluminum garnet with the Néel temperature TN of 2.5 K, is measured in the red region between 1.7 K and 4.2 K. It is shown that the fine structure of the R1 and R2 lines at 1.7 K can be explained by using an effective Hamiltonian for the t2g3 2E excited state of Cr3+ in the surrounding of the ordered Dy3+ spins. The gross feature of the observed temperature dependence of the fine structure is shown to be reproduced by assuming appropriate exchange interactions of Cr3+ with Dy3+.

  17. Relationships between structure and activity in the [alpha]-amylase family of starch-metabolising enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, E.A. (Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-07-01

    [alpha]-Amylases are known to be multidomain proteins, i.e., the molecules consist of several folding units. Each [alpha]-amylase is believed, however, to have a catalytic domain consisting of a barrel of eight parallel [beta]-strands surrounded by eight [alpha]-helices, with an extra helix inserted after the sixth [beta]-strand. The [beta]-strands and helices alternate along the polypeptide chain and are linked together by irregular loops. Amino acid residues situated on the loops joining the C-terminal end of each [beta]-strand to the N-terminal end of the following helix make up the active site of the enzymes. A similar structure has been found in cyclodextrin glucanotransferases and it is now believed that such a ([beta]/[alpha])[sub 8]-barrel also constitutes the catalytic domain of enzymes active on [alpha]-1,6-glucosidic bonds, and of enzymes with dual specificity for both [alpha]-1,4- and [alpha]-1,6-bonds. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of [alpha]-amylases and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase has made possible identification of structural features important for enzymic activity and specificity. By analogy, some general conclusions are reached concerning pullulanase, isoamylase, oligo-1,6-glucosidase, neopullulanase and branching enzymes. (orig.)

  18. Crystal structure of rice alpha-galactosidase complexed with D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Zui; Kaneko, Satoshi; Momma, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2003-05-30

    alpha-Galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-linked galactosyl residues from galacto-oligosaccharides and polymeric galacto-(gluco)mannans. The crystal structure of rice alpha-galactosidase has been determined at 1.5A resolution using the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure consisted of a catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain and was essentially the same as that of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, which is the same member of glycosyl hydrolase family 27. The catalytic domain had a (beta/alpha)8-barrel structure, and the C-terminal domain was made up of eight beta-strands containing a Greek key motif. The structure was solved as a complex with d-galactose, providing a mode of substrate binding in detail. The d-galactose molecule was found bound in the active site pocket on the C-terminal side of the central beta-barrel of the catalytic domain. The d-galactose molecule consisted of a mixture of two anomers present in a ratio equal to their natural abundance. Structural comparisons of rice alpha-galactosidase with chicken alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase provided further understanding of the substrate recognition mechanism in these enzymes. PMID:12657636

  19. Constraint on the time variation of the fine-structure constant with the SDSS-III/BOSS DR12 quasar sample

    CERN Document Server

    Albareti, Franco D; Gutiérrez, Carlos M; Prada, Francisco; Pâris, Isabelle; Schlegel, David; López-Corredoira, Martín; Schneider, Donald P; Manchado, Arturo; García-Hernández, D A; Petitjean, Patrick; Ge, Jian

    2015-01-01

    From the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12, which covers the full Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) footprint, we investigate the possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time scales. We analyze the largest quasar sample considered so far in the literature, which contains 10,363 spectra with $z<1$. All the BOSS quasar spectra are selected from a visually inspected quasar catalog. We apply the emission line method on the [O III] doublet (4960, 5008 A) and obtain $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha= \\left(1.4 \\pm 2.3\\right)\\times10^{-5}$ for the relative variation of the fine-structure constant. We also investigate the possible sources of systematics: misidentification of the lines, sky OH lines, H$\\beta$ and broad line contamination, optimal wavelength range for the Gaussian fits, chosen polynomial order for the continuum spectrum, signal-to-noise ratio and good quality of the fits. The uncertainty of the measurement is dominated by the sky subtraction. The results presente...

  20. Clonal diversity and fine-scale genetic structure in a high andean treeline population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peng, Y.; Macek, P.; Macková, Jana; Romoleroux, K.; Hensen, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2015), s. 59-65. ISSN 0006-3606 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601110702; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : AFLP * clonal diversity * clonal propagation * fine-scale genetic structure * Polylepis reticulata * treeline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.084, year: 2014

  1. Fusion reaction yield in focused discharges with variable energy and plasma fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same linear correlation between the distribution parameters (ΔT and Max ΔV) of the radial current density J between electrodes and the fusion reaction yield per pulse, Y, in the plasma focus (PF) pinch was quantitatively determined from different PF machines. Contact prints of current-sheath fragments (CSF) ejected from the pinch are obtained from 2.5-MeV-D+ ions. CSF's show the same submillimetric fine structure of the pinch. (author) 3 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  3. Fine defective structure of silicon carbide powders obtained from different starting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomila T.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine defective structure of silicon carbide powders obtained from silicic acid-saccharose, aerosil-saccharose, aerosil-carbon black, and hydrated cellulose-silicic acid gel systems was investigated. The relation between IR absorption characteristics and the microstructure of SiC particles obtained from different starting materials was established. The numerical relationship between the lattice parameter a and the frequency νTO is presented.

  4. Fine defective structure of silicon carbide powders obtained from different starting materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tomila T.V.; Vlasova M.V.; Kakazey M.G.; Vyshnyakova K.L.; Ragulya A.V.; Pereselentseva L.N.

    2006-01-01

    The fine defective structure of silicon carbide powders obtained from silicic acid-saccharose, aerosil-saccharose, aerosil-carbon black, and hydrated cellulose-silicic acid gel systems was investigated. The relation between IR absorption characteristics and the microstructure of SiC particles obtained from different starting materials was established. The numerical relationship between the lattice parameter a and the frequency νTO is presented.

  5. INJECTION-BASED STABILIZATION OF PERVIOUS SOILS, CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES USING PARTICULARLY FINELY DISPERSED BINDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko Igor Yakovlevich; Bazhenov Marat Ildarovich

    2012-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of maintenance of buildings and structures of architectural merit. Expedient resolution of this problem consists in the application of a mineral hydraulic binder that has a particularly fine, gradually and smoothly changing granulometric composition and explicit and steady chemical and mineral composition. The above binder is recovered as a result of the air separation of Portland cement. The above binder comprises Portland clinker, furnace slag, ...

  6. Fine-scale spatial structure of root-associated fungi within a single plant root system

    OpenAIRE

    Thoen, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is an ancient and prevalent symbiosis between plants and fungi, and is crucial for growth and survival for a number of plants. Host plants can form ECM with multiple fungi, yet little is known about the fine-scale structure of root associated fungi within single root systems. The motivation for this study was to increase our knowledge about the richness, diversity and spatial distribution of fungal root symbionts within single root systems. An entire root system of the EC...

  7. Retinal photoreceptor fine structure in the short-tailed stingray. Dasyatis brevicaudata

    OpenAIRE

    Braekevelt, Charlie R.

    1994-01-01

    The fine structure of the retinal photoreceptors has been studied by light and electron microscopy in the short-tailed stingray (Dasyatis brevicaudata). The duplex retina of this elasmobranch contains rods and cones in a ratio of about 10:l. No multiple receptors were noted nor was a repeating or mosaic arrangenient of the cones obvious. Only lightadapted specimens were studied but retinomotor movements of the photoreceptors were felt to be minimal or absen...

  8. Evolution of fine structure populations as a test of solid target effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of fine structure components of Balmer α transition following electron capture by fully stripped 33 MeV/u Kr36+ ions in carbon targets has been studied in the target thicknesses range 10 - 200 μg/cm2. Our results cannot be explained by a rate-equations model (binary collisions including l-changing process), but constitute a first indication of a possible wake-field induced Stark mixing of the substates. (orig.)

  9. Energies, fine structures and transition wavelengths of the core-excited states in Be * ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fine structures of doubly excited resonances of lithium-like beryllium are calculated using the saddle-point and saddle-point complex-rotation methods. A restricted variational method is used to obtain a more accurate value for the nonrelativistic energy. Relativistic and mass polarization corrections to the resonance energy are included. Transition wavelengths are also calculated and compared with other theories and experimental results.

  10. The 16th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hagelstein, M.; Rothe, J.

    2016-05-01

    This preface of the proceedings volume of the 16th International Conference on X- ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) gives a glance on the five days of cutting-edge X-ray science which were held in Karlsruhe, Germany, August 23 - 28, 2015. In addition, several satellite meetings took place in Hamburg, Berlin and Stuttgart, a Sino-German workshop, three data analysis tutorials as well as special symposia on industrial catalysis and XFELs were held at the conference venue.

  11. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Mn XIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S. D. Postgraduate College - Affiliated to Chowdhary Charan Singh University, Meerut-250 004, Muzaffarnagar-251 001 (India); Msezane, A Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    We have performed large scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 98 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2} 2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2} 3p, 3s3p{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2}3d, 3p{sup 3}, 3s3p3d, 3p{sup 2} 3d, 3s3d{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2} 4s, 3s{sup 2} 4p, 3s{sup 2}4d, 3s{sup 2} 4f and 3s3p4s configurations of Al-like manganese. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained with the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. From our radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. Differences between our calculated lifetimes and those of Froese Fisher et al (2006 At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 92 607) for several fine-structure levels are discussed.

  12. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Vikas [Department of Physics, Dronacharya College of Engineering (Affiliated to Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow), Greater Noida (UP), 201 308 (India); Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S D (Postgraduate) College (Affiliated with Choudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut), Muzaffarnagar - UP, 251 001 (India)], E-mail: tayalvikas11@rediffmail.com

    2009-11-15

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 (Configuration Interaction Version 3) calculations of excitation energies from ground states for 141 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the levels of the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}) 3l{sup 2}, 3l3l' and 3l4l configurations of Cu XVIII. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Since mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, it becomes difficult to identify these uniquely. Our excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement (better than 1.0%) with the available experimental results. From our calculated radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates are found to be in good agreement with other theoretical results, while the lifetimes agree very well with the experimental values (wherever available). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  13. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentlehner, D.; Slenczka, A., E-mail: alkwin.slenczka@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-01-07

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broad (Δν > 100 cm{sup −1}) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time.

  14. Fine-scale Structures of Flux Ropes Tracked by Erupting Material

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ting

    2013-01-01

    We present the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes respectively tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 04. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to "peel off" the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are respectively composed of 85$\\pm$12 and 102$\\pm$15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1$\\arcsec$.6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in the opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of the fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6$\\times10^{18}$ Mx to 8.6$\\times10^{19}$ Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller...

  15. Collisional Excitation of the [CII] Fine Structure Transition in Interstellar Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Paul F; Pineda, Jorge L; Velusamy, T

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the collisional excitation of the 158 micron (1900.5 GHz) fine structure transition of ionized carbon (C+) in terms of line intensities produced by simple cloud models. The single C+ fine structure transition is a very important coolant of the atomic interstellar medium and of photon dominated regions in which carbon is partially or completely in ionized form. The [CII] line is widely used as a tracer of star formation in the Milky Way and other galaxies. Excitation of the [CII] fine structure transition can be via collisions with hydrogen molecules, atoms, and electrons. Velocity-resolved observations of [CII] have become possible with the HIFI instrument on Herschel and the GREAT instrument on SOFIA. Analysis of these observations is complicated by the fact that it is difficult to determine the optical depth of the [CII] line due to the relative weakness and blending of the components of the analogous transition of 13C$+. We discuss the excitation and radiative transition of the [CII] line, deriv...

  16. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broad (Δν > 100 cm−1) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time

  17. Multipoint MMS observations of fine-scale SAPS structure in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, P. J.; Matsui, H.; Foster, J. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R. E.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Argall, M. R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Paulson, K. W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.

    2016-07-01

    We present detailed observations of dynamic, fine-scale inner magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at ˜3.9 RE in the Region 2 Birkeland field-aligned current (FAC). We find that observed electrodynamic spatial/temporal scales are primarily characteristic of magnetically mapped ionospheric structure. On 15 September 2015, conjugate Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft and Millstone Hill radar observations show plasmasphere boundary region subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) electric fields at L = 4.0-4.2 near 21 MLT. MMS observations reveal high-altitude ˜1 mV/m fine-scale radial and azimuthal electric field perturbations over ≤0.15 L with high spatial coherence over ≥2-3 min and show outward motion within a broader FAC of ˜0.12 μA/m2. Our analysis shows that MMS electric field fluctuations are most likely reflective of SAPS ionospheric structure at scales of ˜22 km and with ionospheric closure of small-scale filamentary FAC perturbations. The results highlight the ionosphere's importance in regulating fine-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere structure.

  18. Correlation effects on fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Ca VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Vikas [Department of Physics, Dronacharya College of Engineering, Greater Noida (UP) (Affiliated to Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow) (India); Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S. D. (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar (UP), Affiliated to Choudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut - 250 004 (India); Sharma, M K [Department of Physics, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ghaziabad (UP) (Affiliated to Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow) (India)

    2009-11-01

    Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3p{sup 4}, 3s{sup 2}3p4s, 3s{sup 2}3p4p, 3s{sup 2}3p4d, and 3s{sup 2}3p4f configurations of Si-like Calcium are calculated using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions obtained with the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The energy splitting of 70 fine-structure levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions and, also the lifetimes of fine-structure levels are presented and compared with available experimental and other theoretical results.

  19. Fine-structure energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes in Fe XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy levels and radiative rates for transition among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the 3s23p2, 3s3p3,3s23p3d, 3p4, 3s3p23d, 3s23d2, 3p23d2, 3p33d, 3s3p3d2, 3s23p4s, 3s23p4p, 3s23p4d, 3s23p4f and 3s3p24s configurations of Si-like Iron are calculated through the CIV3 computer code using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. The energy splitting of 390 fine-structure levels, oscillator strengths and radiative rates for electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions and, also the lifetimes of fine-structure levels are presented and compared with available experimental and other theoretical results.

  20. Evolution of nuclear retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) phosphorylation sites. Serine gain provides fine-tuned regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarut, Eric; Amal, Ismail; Markov, Gabriel V; Stote, Roland; Dejaegere, Annick; Laudet, Vincent; Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    The human nuclear retinoic acid (RA) receptor alpha (hRARα) is a ligand-dependent transcriptional regulator, which is controlled by a phosphorylation cascade. The cascade starts with the RA-induced phosphorylation of a serine residue located in the ligand-binding domain, S(LBD), allowing the recruitment of the cdk7/cyclin H/MAT1 subcomplex of TFIIH through the docking of cyclin H. It ends by the subsequent phosphorylation by cdk7 of an other serine located in the N-terminal domain, S(NTD). Here, we show that this cascade relies on an increase in the flexibility of the domain involved in cyclin H binding, subsequently to the phosphorylation of S(LBD). Owing to the functional importance of RARα in several vertebrate species, we investigated whether the phosphorylation cascade was conserved in zebrafish (Danio rerio), which expresses two RARα genes: RARα-A and RARα-B. We found that in zebrafish RARαs, S(LBD) is absent, whereas S(NTD) is conserved and phosphorylated. Therefore, we analyzed the pattern of conservation of the phosphorylation sites and traced back their evolution. We found that S(LBD) is most often absent outside mammalian RARα and appears late during vertebrate evolution. In contrast, S(NTD) is conserved, indicating that the phosphorylation of this functional site has been under ancient high selection constraint. This suggests that, during evolution, different regulatory circuits control RARα activity. PMID:21297158

  1. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of eight tropical tree species as analysed by RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, B; Caron, H; Bandou, E; Maggia, L; Chevallier, M H; Leveau, A; Kremer, A

    2001-10-01

    The fine-scale spatial genetic structure of eight tropical tree species (Chrysophyllum sanguinolentum, Carapa procera, Dicorynia guianensis, Eperua grandiflora, Moronobea coccinea, Symphonia globulifera, Virola michelii, Vouacapoua americana) was studied in populations that were part of a silvicultural trial in French Guiana. The species analysed have different spatial distribution, sexual system, pollen and seed dispersal agents, flowering phenology and environmental demands. The spatial position of trees and a RAPD data set for each species were combined using a multivariate genetic distance method to estimate spatial genetic structure. A significant spatial genetic structure was found for four of the eight species. In contrast to most observations in temperate forests, where spatial structure is not usually detected at distances greater than 50 m, significant genetic structure was found at distances up to 300 m. The relationships between spatial genetic structure and life history characteristics are discussed. PMID:11737299

  2. The Structure of Neurexin 1[alpha] Reveals Features Promoting a Role as Synaptic Organizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fang; Venugopal, Vandavasi; Murray, Beverly; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2014-10-02

    {alpha}-Neurexins are essential synaptic adhesion molecules implicated in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The {alpha}-neurexin extracellular domain consists of six LNS domains interspersed by three EGF-like repeats and interacts with many different proteins in the synaptic cleft. To understand how {alpha}-neurexins might function as synaptic organizers, we solved the structure of the neurexin 1{alpha} extracellular domain (n1{alpha}) to 2.65 {angstrom}. The L-shaped molecule can be divided into a flexible repeat I (LNS1-EGF-A-LNS2), a rigid horseshoe-shaped repeat II (LNS3-EGF-B-LNS4) with structural similarity to so-called reelin repeats, and an extended repeat III (LNS5-EGF-B-LNS6) with controlled flexibility. A 2.95 {angstrom} structure of n1{alpha} carrying splice insert SS3 in LNS4 reveals that SS3 protrudes as a loop and does not alter the rigid arrangement of repeat II. The global architecture imposed by conserved structural features enables {alpha}-neurexins to recruit and organize proteins in distinct and variable ways, influenced by splicing, thereby promoting synaptic function.

  3. Quad-plane stereoscopic PIV for fine-scale structure measurements in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Y.; Tomita, K.; Shimura, M.; Fukushima, N.; Tanahashi, M.; Miyauchi, T.

    2016-05-01

    The fine-scale structure in turbulence is investigated by quad-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (QPSPIV). The quad-plane consists of two each of different polarizations and wavelengths, and it provides three velocity components at four independent parallel planes. Measurements have been undertaken in the developed region of a turbulent round jet with a spatial resolution sufficient to capture the small-scale structures. The advantage of the QPSPIV is presented in terms of the spectral response in the evaluation of the out-of-plane velocity gradient. The full velocity gradient tensor is computed with a fourth-order finite difference scheme in the out-of-plane direction as well as the in-plane directions. The turbulence quantities, such as the vorticity components, the energy dissipation rate and the second and third invariants of the velocity gradient tensor, are computed according to their faithful definitions. The coherent fine-scale eddies are extracted from the present QPSPIV data. The probability density functions of the diameter and the maximum azimuthal velocity of the extracted eddies exhibit their peak at approximately 8η and 1.5u_k, respectively, where η and u_k are the Kolmogorov length and velocity. These values agree well with the data in the literature. The phase-averaged distributions of turbulence quantities around the coherent fine-scale eddy indicate an apparent elliptic feature around the axis. Furthermore, the state of the strain rate exerting the eddy is quantified from the phase-averaged distributions of eigenvalues of the strain rate tensor and the alignment of the corresponding eigenvectors against the axis. The present study gives a solid experimental support of the coherent fine-scale structures in turbulence, and the technique can be applied to various flow fields and to the higher Reynolds number condition.

  4. Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Human IL-7/IL-7R[alpha] Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Craig A.; Dohm, Julie A.; Walsh, Scott T.R.; (OSU); (UPENN)

    2009-03-06

    IL-7 and IL-7R{alpha} bind the {gamma}{sub c} receptor, forming a complex crucial to several signaling cascades leading to the development and homeostasis of T and B cells. We report that the IL-7R{alpha} ectodomain uses glycosylation to modulate its binding constants to IL-7, unlike the other receptors in the {gamma}{sub c} family. IL-7 binds glycosylated IL-7R{alpha} 300-fold more tightly than unglycosylated IL-7R{alpha}, and the enhanced affinity is attributed primarily to an accelerated on rate. Structural comparison of IL-7 in complex to both forms of IL-7R{alpha} reveals that glycosylation does not participate directly in the binding interface. The SCID mutations of IL-7R{alpha} locate outside the binding interface with IL-7, suggesting that the expressed mutations cause protein folding defects in IL-7R{alpha}. The IL-7/IL-7R{alpha} structures provide a window into the molecular recognition events of the IL-7 signaling cascade and provide sites to target for designing new therapeutics to treat IL-7-related diseases.

  5. The Ly<alpha> and Ly profiles in solar prominences and prominence fine structure

    CERN Document Server

    Vial, J -C; Ajabshirizadeh, A

    2007-01-01

    We present the first combined Ly and Ly profiles in solar prominences obtained by the SOHO/SUMER instrument and discuss their important spatial variability with respect to predictions from 1D and multithread models.

  6. Structure of alpha-glycerophosphate Oxidase from Streptococcus sp.: a Template for the Mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Colussi; D Parsonage; W Boles; T Matsuoka; T Mallett; P Karplus; A Claiborne

    2011-12-31

    The FAD-dependent {alpha}-glycerophosphate oxidase (GlpO) from Enterococcus casseliflavus and Streptococcus sp. was originally studied as a soluble flavoprotein oxidase; surprisingly, the GlpO sequence is 30-43% identical to those of the {alpha}-glycerophosphate dehydrogenases (GlpDs) from mitochondrial and bacterial sources. The structure of a deletion mutant of Streptococcus sp. GlpO (GlpO{Delta}, lacking a 50-residue insert that includes a flexible surface region) has been determined using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion data and refined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Using the GlpO{Delta} structure as a search model, we have also determined the intact GlpO structure, as refined at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. The first two domains of the GlpO fold are most closely related to those of the flavoprotein glycine oxidase, where they function in FAD binding and substrate binding, respectively; the GlpO C-terminal domain consists of two helix bundles and is not closely related to any known structure. The flexible surface region in intact GlpO corresponds to a segment of missing electron density that links the substrate-binding domain to a {beta}{beta}{alpha} element of the FAD-binding domain. In accordance with earlier biochemical studies (stabilizations of the covalent FAD-N5-sulfite adduct and p-quinonoid form of 8-mercapto-FAD), Ile430-N, Thr431-N, and Thr431-OG are hydrogen bonded to FAD-O2{alpha} in GlpO{Delta}, stabilizing the negative charge in these two modified flavins and facilitating transfer of a hydride to FAD-N5 (from Glp) as well. Active-site overlays with the glycine oxidase-N-acetylglycine and d-amino acid oxidase-d-alanine complexes demonstrate that Arg346 of GlpO{Delta} is structurally equivalent to Arg302 and Arg285, respectively; in both cases, these residues interact directly with the amino acid substrate or inhibitor carboxylate. The structural and functional divergence between GlpO and the bacterial and mitochondrial GlpDs is also discussed.

  7. Crystal structures of truncated alphaA and alphaB crystallins reveal structural mechanisms of polydispersity important for eye lens function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Benesch, Justin L.P.; Landau, Meytal; Ding, Linlin; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Huang, Qingling; Robinson, Carol V.; Horwitz, Joseph; Eisenberg, David (UCLA); (Oxford); (HHMI)

    2010-08-23

    Small heat shock proteins alphaA and alphaB crystallin form highly polydisperse oligomers that frustrate protein aggregation, crystallization, and amyloid formation. Here, we present the crystal structures of truncated forms of bovine alphaA crystallin (AAC{sub 59-163}) and human alphaB crystallin (ABC{sub 68-162}), both containing the C-terminal extension that functions in chaperone action and oligomeric assembly. In both structures, the C-terminal extensions swap into neighboring molecules, creating runaway domain swaps. This interface, termed DS, enables crystallin polydispersity because the C-terminal extension is palindromic and thereby allows the formation of equivalent residue interactions in both directions. That is, we observe that the extension binds in opposite directions at the DS interfaces of AAC{sub 59-163} and ABC{sub 68-162}. A second dimeric interface, termed AP, also enables polydispersity by forming an antiparallel beta sheet with three distinct registration shifts. These two polymorphic interfaces enforce polydispersity of alpha crystallin. This evolved polydispersity suggests molecular mechanisms for chaperone action and for prevention of crystallization, both necessary for transparency of eye lenses.

  8. Streams and caustics: the fine-grained structure of LCDM haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Vogelsberger, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We present the first and so far the only simulations to follow the fine-grained phase-space structure of galaxy haloes formed from generic LCDM initial conditions. We integrate the geodesic deviation equation in tandem with the N-body equations of motion, demonstrating that this can produce numerically converged results for the properties of fine-grained phase-space streams and their associated caustics, even in the inner regions of haloes. Our effective resolution for such structures is many orders of magnitude better than achieved by conventional techniques on even the largest simulations. We apply these methods to the six Milky Way-mass haloes of the Aquarius Project. At 8 kpc from halo centre a typical point intersects about 10^14 streams with a very broad range of individual densities; the ~10^6 most massive streams contribute about half of the local dark matter density. As a result, the velocity distribution of dark matter particles should be very smooth with the most massive fine-grained stream contrib...

  9. Atomic calculations and search for variation of the fine-structure constant in quasar absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    A brief review of the search for variation of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra is presented. Special consideration is given to the role of atomic calculations in the analysis of the observed data. A range of methods which allow to perform calculations for atoms or ions with different electron structure and which cover practically all periodic table of elements is discussed. Critical compilation of the results of the calculations as well as a review of the most recent results of the analysis are presented.

  10. Fine structure of 25 extragalactic radio sources. [interferometric observations of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittels, J. J.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.; Hutton, L. K.; Marandino, G. E.; Niell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Interferometric observations taken at 7.8 GHz (gamma approximately = 3.8 cm) with five pairings of antennae of 25 extragalactic radio sources between April, 1972 and May, 1973 are reported. These sources exhibit a broad variety of fine structure from very simple to complex. The total flux and the correlated flux of some of the sources underwent large changes in a few weeks, while the structure and total power of others remained constant during the entire period of observation. Some aspects of the data processing and a discussion of errors are presented. Numerous figures are provided and explained. The individual radio sources are described in detail.

  11. Atomic calculations and search for variation of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2008-01-01

    A brief review of the search for variation of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra is presented. Special consideration is given to the role of atomic calculations in the analysis of the observed data. A range of methods which allow to perform calculations for atoms or ions with different electron structure and which cover practically all periodic table of elements is discussed. Critical compilation of the results of the calculations as well as a review of the most recent results of the analysis are presented.

  12. Solution spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ X-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A purpose-built spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ fluorescence XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) measurements of bulk solution species during constant-potential electrolysis is described. The cell performance was demonstrated by the collection of europium L3-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) throughout the course of electrolysis of an aqueous solution of EuCl3·6H2O in 1 M H2SO4. The europium L3-edge resonances reported here for the EuIII and EuII ions demonstrate that their 2p3/2 → 5d electronic transition probabilities are not the same

  13. Fine Structure in Swift Heavy Ion Tracks in Amorphous SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the observation of a fine structure in ion tracks in amorphous SiO2 using small angle x-ray scattering measurements. Tracks were generated by high energy ion irradiation with Au and Xe between 27 MeV and 1.43 GeV. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, the tracks consist of a core characterized by a significant density deficit compared to unirradiated material, surrounded by a high density shell. The structure is consistent with a frozen-in pressure wave originating from the center of the ion track as a result of a thermal spike

  14. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to b

  15. 3-cm Fine Structure Masers: A Unique Signature of Supermassive Black Hole Formation via Direct Collapse in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The direct collapse black hole (DCBH) scenario describes the isothermal collapse of a pristine gas cloud directly into a massive, M_BH=10^4-10^6 M_sun black hole. In this paper we show that large HI column densities of primordial gas at T~10^4 K with low molecular abundance - which represent key aspects of the DCBH scenario - provide optimal conditions for pumping of the 2p-level of atomic hydrogen by trapped Lyman alpha (Lya) photons. This Lya pumping mechanism gives rise to inverted level population of the 2s_1/2-2p_3/2 transition, and therefore to stimulated fine structure emission at 3.04 cm (rest-frame). We show that simplified models of the DCBH scenario amplify the CMB by up to a factor of 10^5, above which the maser saturates. Hyperfine splitting of the 3-cm transition gives rise to a characteristic broad (FWHM ~ tens of MHz in the observers frame) asymmetric line profile. This signal subtends an angular scale of ~ 1-10 mas, which translates to a flux of ~ 0.3-3 microJy, which is detectable with ultra...

  16. Nonlinear Schroedinger-Poisson definition of fine-structure-constant's value {approx}1/137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinisch, G, E-mail: Gilbert.Reinisch@oca.e [Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur BP 4229 06304 - Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2010-06-01

    By numerically investigating the nonlinear Schroedinger-Poisson eigenstates of a condensed Bose gas of charged particles that is confined in a two-dimensional axisymmetric parabolic potential 1/2 m{sub e{omega}}{sup 2}r{sup 2} (e.g. quantum-dot helium), it is shown that the probability amplitude between two nonlinear-and hence non-orthogonal-eigenstates displays an interference pattern scaled (within 0.03 %) by graphic equation Since {alpha} = e{sup 2}/ h-bar c {approx} 1/137 is the fine structure constant, this stunning result-indeed velocity of light c does not enter the present non-relativistic model-is tentatively explained by the existence of a 'nonlinear' bound state of the trapped particle-particle interaction Coulomb field whose energy cal E = half pi hbar omega defines the induced emission or absorption equilibrium processes between two appropriate chemical potentials. Besides, a non-decoherence quantum-classical transition with increasing nonlinearity is pointed out. As a possible experimental test for the present theory, the 0s{sup 2} {yields}1s{sup 2} nonlinear transition in an {h_bar} {omega} = 1.66meV GaAs quantum-dot helium is emphasized.

  17. Structure and function of carboxypeptidase A alpha in supercooled water.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J. S.; Gehring, H; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    The spectral and enzymatic characteristics of chromophoric derivatives of carboxypeptidase A alpha (EC 3.4.17.1) have been examined at subzero temperatures in supercooled water-in-oil emulsions. Substrate and temperature dependencies of enzyme kinetics indicated the existence of a solution-like enzyme phase that greatly extends the temperature range (greater than 60 degrees C) over which the activity of this enzyme can be measured. The emulsion spectra were virtually identical to those of sol...

  18. Alpha-cluster structure in even-even nuclei around $^{94}$Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, M A

    2015-01-01

    $Background$: The $\\alpha$-cluster model was successful for describing spectroscopic properties of light nuclei near the shell closures. Evidences of the $\\alpha$-cluster structure in $^{94}$Mo were shown, motivating the search for the same structure in other intermediate mass nuclei. $Purpose$: The systematic analysis of the $\\alpha$-cluster structure in $^{94}$Mo and four even-even neighbouring nuclei. $Method$: The $\\alpha$-cluster model with the local potential approach. $Results$: A good general description of the experimental ground state bands is obtained with only one variable parameter. It is shown that the employed $\\alpha+\\textrm{core}$ potential is weakly dependent on the angular momentum $L$ and such dependence may be described satisfactorily by a simple $L$-dependent factor for the five nuclei. The radial parameter of the $\\alpha+\\textrm{core}$ potential reveals a linear trend in relation to the total nuclear radius and the sum of the $\\alpha$-cluster and core radii. The calculated $B(E2)$ trans...

  19. Structural and functional characterization of the oxidoreductase alpha-DsbA1 from Wolbachia pipientis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Mareike; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Jarrott, Russell; Shouldice, Stephen R; Wouters, Merridee A; Frei, Patrick; Glockshuber, Rudi; O'Neill, Scott L; Heras, Begoña; Martin, Jennifer L

    2009-07-01

    The alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis is a highly successful intracellular endosymbiont of invertebrates that manipulates its host's reproductive biology to facilitate its own maternal transmission. The fastidious nature of Wolbachia and the lack of genetic transformation have hampered analysis of the molecular basis of these manipulations. Structure determination of key Wolbachia proteins will enable the development of inhibitors for chemical genetics studies. Wolbachia encodes a homologue (alpha-DsbA1) of the Escherichia coli dithiol oxidase enzyme EcDsbA, essential for the oxidative folding of many exported proteins. We found that the active-site cysteine pair of Wolbachia alpha-DsbA1 has the most reducing redox potential of any characterized DsbA. In addition, Wolbachia alpha-DsbA1 possesses a second disulfide that is highly conserved in alpha-proteobacterial DsbAs but not in other DsbAs. The alpha-DsbA1 structure lacks the characteristic hydrophobic features of EcDsbA, and the protein neither complements EcDsbA deletion mutants in E. coli nor interacts with EcDsbB, the redox partner of EcDsbA. The surface characteristics and redox profile of alpha-DsbA1 indicate that it probably plays a specialized oxidative folding role with a narrow substrate specificity. This first report of a Wolbachia protein structure provides the basis for future chemical genetics studies. PMID:19265485

  20. Structures of multi-branched dextrins produced by saccharifyiing alpha-amylase from starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, K; Yamamoto, T

    1975-11-01

    From the digest of beta-limit dextrin (prepared from glutinous rice starch) with saccharifying alpha-amylase of Bacillus subtilis [EC 3.2.1.1] (BSA), two extensibely branched dextrins consisting of nine (No. 6, Fig. 1) and ten (No 7, Fig.1) glucose units were isolated by paper chromatography. Structural analysis using various enzymes revealed that No. 6 and No. 7 were both mixtures of four triply branched dextrins. They had structures which were built up with 63-alpha-glucosylmaltotriose and/or 62-alpha-glucosylmaltose as a linking unit. However, the branching configuration and the minimum alpha-1, 4-glucosidic linkages existing between two branches followed one of the three structures shown below: (see article). PMID:814118

  1. The Effect of Quantum-Mechanical Interference on Precise Measurements of the n = 2 Triplet P Fine Structure of Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many decades, improvements in both theory and experiment of the fine structure of the n = 2 triplet P levels of helium have allowed for an increasingly precise determination of the fine-structure constant. Recently, it has been observed that quantum-mechanical interference between neighboring resonances can cause significant shifts, even if such neighboring resonances are separated by thousands of natural widths. The shifts depend in detail on the experimental method used for the measurement, as well as the specific experimental parameters employed. Here, we review how these shifts apply for the most precise measurements of the helium 23P fine-structure intervals

  2. Searching for variations in the fine-structure constant and the proton-to-electron mass ratio using quasar absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julian A.

    2012-02-01

    (abridged) Quasar absorption lines provide a precise test of the assumed constancy of the fundamental constants of physics. We have investigated potential changes in the fine-structure constant, alpha, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu. The many-multiplet method allows one to use optical fine-structure transitions to constrain (Delta alpha)/alpha at better than the 10^(-5) level. We present a new analysis of 154 quasar absorbers with 0.2 1.6 sub-samples independently yield consistent estimates of the dipole direction, which suggests that the effect is not caused by telescope systematics. We consider a number of systematic effects and show that they are unable to explain the observed dipole effect. We have used spectra of the quasars Q0405-443, Q0347-383 and Q0528-250 from VLT/UVES to investigate the absorbers at z=2.595, 3.025 and 2.811 in these spectra respectively. We find that (Delta mu)/mu=(10.1 +/- 6.6) x 10^(-6), (8.2 +/- 7.5) x 10^(-6) and (-1.4 +/- 3.9) x 10^(-6) in these absorbers respectively. A second spectrum of Q0528-250 provides an additional constraint of (Delta mu)/mu=(0.2 +/- 3.2_stat +/- 1.9_sys) x 10^(-6). The weighted mean of these values yields (Delta mu)/mu=(1.7 +/- 2.4) x 10^(-6), the most precise constraint on evolution in mu at z>1.

  3. Structural and immunocytochemical studies on alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency (Schindler/Kanzaki disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Matsuzawa, Fumiko; Aikawa, Sei-ichi; Doi, Hirofumi; Kotani, Masaharu; Nakada, Hiroshi; Fukushige, Tomoko; Kanzaki, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA) deficiency (Schindler/Kanzaki disease) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous genetic disease with a wide spectrum including an early onset neuroaxonal dystrophy (Schindler disease) and late onset angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (Kanzaki disease). In alpha-NAGA deficiency, there are discrepancies between the genotype and phenotype, and also between urinary excretion products (sialyl glycoconjugates) and a theoretical accumulated material (Tn-antigen; Gal NAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr) resulting from a defect in alpha-NAGA. As for the former issue, previously reported genetic, biochemical and pathological data raise the question whether or not E325K mutation found in Schindler disease patients really leads to the severe phenotype of alpha-NAGA deficiency. The latter issue leads to the question of whether alpha-NAGA deficiency is associated with the basic pathogenesis of this disease. To clarify the pathogenesis of this disease, we performed structural and immunocytochemical studies. The structure of human alpha-NAGA deduced on homology modeling is composed of two domains, domain I, including the active site, and domain II. R329W/Q, identified in patients with Kanzaki disease have been deduced to cause drastic changes at the interface between domains I and II. The structural change caused by E325K found in patients with Schindler disease is localized on the N-terminal side of the tenth beta-strand in domain II and is smaller than those caused by R329W/Q. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the main lysosomal accumulated material in cultured fibroblasts from patients with Kanzaki disease is Tn-antigen. These data suggest that a prototype of alpha-NAGA deficiency in Kanzaki disease and factors other than the defect of alpha-NAGA may contribute to severe neurological disorders, and Kanzaki disease is thought to be caused by a single enzyme deficiency. PMID:14685826

  4. Structure-function of human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: genes and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, T M; Jin, Y; Steckelbroeck, S; Lanisnik Rizner, T; Lewis, M

    2004-02-27

    Four soluble human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) isoforms exist which are aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily members. They share 86% sequence identity and correspond to: AKR1C1 (20 alpha(3 alpha)-HSD); AKR1C2 (type 3 3 alpha-HSD and bile-acid binding protein); AKR1C3 (type 2 3 alpha-HSD and type 5 17 beta-HSD); and AKR1C4 (type 1 3 alpha-HSD). Each of the homogeneous recombinant enzymes are plastic and display 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductase and 3 alpha- 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidase activities with different k(cat)/K(m) ratios in vitro. The crystal structure of the AKR1C2.NADP(+).ursodeoxycholate complex provides an explanation for this functional plasticity. Ursodeoxycholate is bound backwards (D-ring in the A-ring position) and upside down (beta-face of steroid inverted) relative to the position of 3-ketosteroids in the related rat liver 3 alpha-HSD (AKR1C9) structure. Transient transfection indicates that in COS-1 cells, AKR1C enzymes function as ketosteroid reductases due to potent inhibition of their oxidase activity by NADPH. By acting as ketosteroid reductases they may regulate the occupancy of the androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors. RT-PCR showed that AKRs are discretely localized. AKR1C4 is virtually liver specific, while AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 are dominantly expressed in prostate and mammary gland. AKR1C genes are highly conserved in structure and may be transcriptionally regulated by steroid hormones and stress. PMID:15026176

  5. Structural changes in fine-grained high-temperature steels under the influence of temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine-grained high-temperature steels have gained great importance as materials for reactor pressure vessels. Alloying with small additions of carbide-forming elements does not only preserve the fine grain but also helps to achieve a certain retention of hardness which improves the high-temperature strength of these steels. During welding, a narrow zone of the basic material is heated over the transition temperature. The result is a coarse-grained, austenitic structure. In order to find out whether such structural changes caused by welding may damage the material during heat treatment or operation, the mechanical properties of some types of structures were tested with regard to their strength, their notched bar impact strength, and their creep rupture strength, and the findings were interpreted with the aid of scans of the surfaces of fracture and electron microscope pictures of the microstructure. The results show that the toughness of the structure of a heat influence region of the steels investigated would decrease further at operating temperatures above 2000C and below the appropriate tempering temperature if the additional heat treatment in the tempering temperature region after welding were omitted. The toughness of the heat influence region is increased by annealing to such a degree that it almost reaches that of the basic material. (GSCH)

  6. Accurate Electron Affinity of Iron and Fine Structures of Negative Iron ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Luo, Zhihong; Li, Jiaming; Ning, Chuangang

    2016-01-01

    Ionization potential (IP) is defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an atom, while electron affinity (EA) is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron is attached to a neutral atom. Both IP and EA are critical for understanding chemical properties of an element. In contrast to accurate IPs and structures of neutral atoms, EAs and structures of negative ions are relatively unexplored, especially for the transition metal anions. Here, we report the accurate EA value of Fe and fine structures of Fe(-) using the slow electron velocity imaging method. These measurements yield a very accurate EA value of Fe, 1235.93(28) cm(-1) or 153.236(34) meV. The fine structures of Fe(-) were also successfully resolved. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations, and also paves the way for improving the EA measurements of other transition metal atoms to the sub cm(-1) accuracy. PMID:27138292

  7. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Luikart, Gordon; Sage, George K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Adams, Layne G.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale of genetic structure and the amount of gene flow in 301 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the landscape level using 15 nuclear microsatellites and 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region. Dall’s sheep exhibited significant genetic structure within contiguous mountain ranges, but mtDNA structure occurred at a broader geographic scale than nuclear DNA within the study area, and mtDNA structure for other North American mountain sheep populations. No evidence of male-mediated gene flow or greater philopatry of females was observed; there was little difference between markers with different modes of inheritance (pairwise nuclear DNA F ST = 0.004–0.325; mtDNA F ST = 0.009–0.544), and males were no more likely than females to be recent immigrants. Historical patterns based on mtDNA indicate separate northern and southern lineages and a pattern of expansion following regional glacial retreat. Boundaries of genetic clusters aligned geographically with prominent mountain ranges, icefields, and major river valleys based on Bayesian and hierarchical modeling of microsatellite and mtDNA data. Our results suggest that fine-scale genetic structure in Dall’s sheep is influenced by limited dispersal, and structure may be weaker in populations occurring near ancestral levels of density and distribution in continuous habitats compared to other alpine ungulates that have experienced declines and marked habitat fragmentation.

  8. Simplicial edge representation of protein structures and alpha contact potential with confidence measure

    CERN Document Server

    Li, X; Liang, J; Li, Xiang; Hu, Changyu; Liang, Jie

    2003-01-01

    Protein representation and potential function are essential ingredients for studying proteins folding and protein prediction. We introduce a novel geometric representation of contact interactions using the edge simplices from alpha shape of protein structure. This representation can eliminate implausible neighbors not in physical contact, and can avoid spurious contact between two residues when a third residue is between them. We develop statistical alpha contact potential. A studentized bootstrap method is then introduced for assessing the 95% confidence intervals for each of the 210 parameters. We found with confidence that there is significant long range propensity (>30 residues apart) for hydrophobic interactions. We test alpha contact potential for native structure discrimination using several decoy sets, and found it often has comparable performance with atom-based potentials requiring more parameters. We also show that alpha contact potential has better performance than potential defined by cut-off dis...

  9. INFLUENCE OF FINE-DISPERSED BORON CARBIDE ON THE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON-BORON ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nevar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of boron carbide as fine-dispersed material input into the melt on structure morphology, founding, technological and exploitation characterisstics of cast iron-boron material is shown.

  10. TRIM5alpha disrupts the structure of assembled HIV-1 capsid complexes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lesa R; Aiken, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    The host restriction factor TRIM5alpha provides intrinsic defense against retroviral infections in mammalian cells. TRIM5alpha blocks infection by targeting the viral capsid after entry but prior to completion of reverse transcription, but whether this interaction directly alters the structure of the viral capsid is unknown. A previous study reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha protein stably associates with cylindrical complexes formed by assembly of recombinant HIV-1 CA-NC protein in vitro and that restriction leads to accelerated HIV-1 uncoating in target cells. To gain further insight into the mechanism of TRIM5alpha-dependent restriction, we examined the structural effects of TRIM5 proteins on preassembled CA-NC complexes by electron microscopy. Incubation of assembled complexes with lysate of cells expressing the restrictive rhesus TRIM5alpha protein resulted in marked disruption of the normal cylindrical structure of the complexes. In contrast, incubation with lysate of control cells or cells expressing comparable levels of the nonrestrictive human TRIM5alpha protein had little effect on the complexes. Incubation with lysate of cells expressing the TRIMCyp restriction factor also disrupted the cylinders. The effect of TRIMCyp was prevented by the addition of cyclosporine, which inhibits binding of TRIMCyp to the HIV-1 capsid. Thus, disruption of CA-NC cylinders by TRIM5alpha and TRIMCyp was correlated with the specificity of restriction. Collectively, these results suggest that TRIM5alpha-dependent restriction of HIV-1 infection results from structural perturbation of the viral capsid leading to aberrant HIV-1 uncoating in target cells. PMID:20410272

  11. Prospect of China's Auroral Fine-structure Imaging System (CAFIS) at Zhongshan station in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shun-lin; HAN De-sheng; HU Hong-qiao; HUANG De-hong; ZHANG Bei-chen; YANG Hui-gen

    2008-01-01

    A new auroral imaging system is reported which is planned to be deployed at Zhongshan Station in Antarctica in the end of 2009. The system will focus on study of optical auroras in small scales and be called China' s Auroral Fine-structure Imaging System (CAFIS). The project of CAFIS is carried out by support of 'the tenth five-year plan for capacity building' of China. CAFIS will be a powerful groundbased platform for aurora observational experiments. Composing and advantages of CAFIS are introduced in this brief report. Some potential study topics involved CAFIS are also considered.

  12. Fusion reaction yield in focused discharges with variable energy and plasma fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolotti, A.; Brzosko, J.S.; Chiara, P. De; Kilic, H.; Mezzetti, F.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.; Wang, J. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States)]|[Ferrara Univ. (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    The same linear correlation between the distribution parameters ({Delta}T and Max {Delta}V) of the radial current density J between electrodes and the fusion reaction yield per pulse, Y, in the plasma focus (PF) pinch was quantitatively determined from different PF machines. Contact prints of current-sheath fragments (CSF) ejected from the pinch are obtained from 2.5-MeV-D{sup +} ions. CSF`s show the same submillimetric fine structure of the pinch. (author) 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Chemical evolution of Mg isotopes versus the time variation of the fine structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the synthesis of Mg25,26 at the base of the convective envelope in low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch stars can produce the isotopic ratios needed to explain the low-z subset (with z<1.8) of the many-multiplet data from quasar absorption systems without invoking a time variation of the fine structure constant. This is supported by observations of high abundances of the neutron-rich Mg isotopes in metal-poor globular-cluster stars. We conclude that the quasar absorption spectra may be providing interesting information on the nucleosynthetic history of such systems

  14. Electron-impact fine-structure transitions in Cu XX from its ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R-matrix method is used to calculate collision strengths for electron-impact excitation of Cu XX from its ground state. Configuration interaction wavefunctions are used to represent the lowest 15 LS coupled states which are retained in the R-matrix expansion. Effective collisions strengths are calculated for transitions from the ground state to fine-structure levels of the excited states by employing a transformation of the LS coupled reactance matrices, and by assuming a Maxwellian distribution for the incident electron. This is the first detailed calculation on this ion in which the effects of exchange, channel couplings and short-range correlation effects are taken into account. (author)

  15. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy studies of thiol-capped copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monodisperse Copper nanoparticles with controllable sizes of 0.6 and 1.8nm were synthesized via modifying Brust-Schiffrin two-phase method. This route involves a slow reduction of [TOA]2[CuBr4] precursor in toluene, with particles sizes rationally controlled by the S/Cu ratio. Size-dependent inter-atomic distance contraction in the thiol-capped copper nanoparticles was investigated by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The analysis revealed a shortened Cu-Cu inter-atomic distance, indicating strong surface interaction, in accord with the larger effect expected for ultrasmall particals (<2nm).

  16. On the relationship between multi-channel envelope and temporal fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; Decorsiere, Remi Julien Blaise; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is broadly defined as the slow changes in time of the signal, where as the temporal fine structure (TFS) are the fast changes in time, i.e. the carrier wave(s) of the signal. The focus of this paper is on envelope and TFS in multi-channel systems. We discuss the difference...... providing an increasingly better approximation to the auditory system. A corollary from these results is that it is not possible to generate a test signal containing contradictory information in its multi-channel envelope and TFS....

  17. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in a multi-oak-species (Quercus spp.) forest

    OpenAIRE

    Curtu AL; Craciunesc I; Enescu CM; Vidalis A; Sofletea N

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of fine-scale spatial distribution of multilocus genotypes can provide valuable insights into the biology of forest tree species. Here we tested for the existence of spatial genetic structure (SGS) in a four-oak-species forest with contrasting species abundances and hybridization rates. A total of 483 adult trees were mapped over 8.6 ha and genotyped using 10 highly polymorphic genomic regions. A weak but significant SGS was observed in each of the four oak species, with Quercus frai...

  18. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.A.P. Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  19. Constraining f(R) theories with temporal variation of fine structure constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisabr, Yousef, E-mail: y-bisabr@srttu.ed [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-26

    It is well known that f(R) theories in Einstein frame is conformally equivalent to quintessence models in which the scalar field minimally couples with gravity. If there exists a matter system in Jordan frame, then it interacts with the scalar field in Einstein frame due to the conformal transformations. This interaction, in general, may lead to changes of fundamental constants. Here we will consider possible time variation of fine structure constant in a general f(R) theory. We will use observational bounds on these variations and argue that it provides a criterion for constraining f(R) models.

  20. Improved self-absorption correction for extended x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.H.; Bridges, F.

    2003-06-04

    Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) data collected in the fluorescence mode are susceptible to an apparent amplitude reduction due to the self-absorption of the fluorescing photon by the sample before it reaches a detector. Previous treatments have made the simplifying assumption that the effect of the EXAFS on the correction term is negligible, and that the samples are in the thick limit. We present a nearly exact treatment that can be applied for any sample thickness or concentration, and retains the EXAFS oscillations in the correction term.

  1. Tuning Photoluminescence Energy and Fine Structure Splitting in Single Quantum Dots by Uniaxial Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a photoluminescence (PL) energy red-shift of single quantum dots (QDs) by applying an in-plane compressive uniaxial stress along the [110] direction at a liquid nitrogen temperature. Uniaxial stress has an effect not only on the confinement potential in the growth direction which results in the PL shift, but also on the cylindrical symmetry of QDs which can be reflected by the change of the full width at half maximum of PL peak. This implies that uniaxial stress has an important role in tuning PL energy and fine structure splitting of QDs

  2. Calculation of the fine structure of the level in Rydberg state of lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The level shift and level formula of lithium atom in Rydberg states are achieved by means of the calculation of polarization of the atomic core (including the contribution of dipole moment, quadrupole moment and octupole moment);meanwhile, the effect of relativity theory, the orbital angular momentum L and the spin angular momentum S coupling (LS coupling), and high order correction of the effective potential are considered. The some fine structures (N=5~12,L=4~9,J=L±1/2) and the corresponding level intervals in Rydberg states can be calculated by the above-mentioned level formula and compared with correlated experimental data.

  3. Fine and superfine structure of Decameter-Hectometer type II burst on 2011 June 7

    CERN Document Server

    Dorovskyy, V V; Konovalenko, A A; Brazhenko, A I; Panchenko, M; Poedts, S; Mykhaylov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the type II bursts with herringbone structure observed both by ground based radio telescopes (UTR-2, URAN-2) and spaceborn spectrometers (STEREO A-B) are discussed. The burst was recorded on 7 June, 2011 in the frequency band 3--33~MHz. It was characterized by extremely rich fine structure. The statistical analysis of more than 300 herringbone sub-bursts constituting the burst was performed separately for the positively (reverse) and negatively (forward) drifting sub-bursts. The sense and the degree of circular polarization of the herringbone sub-bursts were measured in the respectively wide frequency band (16--32~MHz). A second order fine frequency structure of the herringbone sub-bursts was firstly observed and processed. Using STEREO COR1 (A,B) and SOHO LASCO C2 images the direction and radial speed of the CME responsible for the studied type II burst were determined. The possible location of the type II burst source on the flank of the shock was found.

  4. Position-sensitive change in the transition metal L-edge fine structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, Ahmet; Phillips, Patrick J.; Klie, Robert F. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Studying the structure and composition of solid-state materials on the atomic scale has become nearly routine in transmission electron microscopy with the development of novel electron optics and electron sources. In particular, with spatial resolutions better than 0.1 nm and energy resolution smaller than 100 meV, the stoichiometry, bonding, and coordination can now be examined on similar scales. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) have played a crucial role in identifying charge ordering, valence, and as spin state transitions in transition metal perovskite oxides. In this letter, we investigate the effects of ever-decreasing electron-probe sizes on the measured near-edge fine-structure of the transition metal core-loss edge using EELS. We find that for certain transition metal perovskites, the position of the electron probe with respect to the atomic column is crucial in determining the correct valence state. Several reasons for the observed position-sensitive EELS fine-structure are discussed.

  5. Fine structure in 14C emission from 223Ra and 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the energy spectrum of 14C nuclei emitted in the spontaneous radioactivity of 223Ra and 224Ra has been carried out, using thin and intense sources (480 MBq for 223Ra and 3550 MBq for 224Ra). The sources were obtained by implanting mass-separated beams into Al and vitreous C catchers. The measurement was performed with a superconducting solenoidal spectrometer. Our discovery, previously reported, of fine structure in the energy spectrum of 14C emission from 223Ra, which is analogous to the one known for α emission, is confirmed. Only 13% of the branching ratio in 14C decay leads to the ground state of the residual nucleus, while 81% to the first excited state. For 14C emission from 224Ra, a lower limit of 2 for the hindrance factor has been measured for the transition to the first excited state in the residual nucleus. Also, a precise identification in Z with an ExΔE telescope has been performed for the radiation from the 223Ra source. Our measurements of fine structure in 14C emissions open this field to nuclear structure studies

  6. An intramolecular disulfide bond designed in myoglobin fine-tunes both protein structure and peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei-Bin; Yuan, Hong; Zhou, Hu; Gao, Shu-Qin; Nie, Chang-Ming; Tan, Xiangshi; Wen, Ge-Bo; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-06-15

    Disulfide bond plays crucial roles in stabilization of protein structure and in fine-tuning protein functions. To explore an approach for rational heme protein design, we herein rationally introduced a pair of cysteines (F46C/M55C) into the scaffold of myoglobin (Mb), mimicking those in native neuroglobin. Molecular modeling suggested that it is possible for Cys46 and Cys55 to form an intramolecular disulfide bond, which was confirmed experimentally by ESI-MS analysis, DTNB reaction and CD spectrum. Moreover, it was shown that the spontaneously formed disulfide bond of Cys46-Cys55 fine-tunes not only the heme active site structure, but also the protein functions. The substitution of Phe46 with Ser46 in F46S Mb destabilizes the protein while facilitates H2O2 activation. Remarkably, the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond of Cys46-Cys55 in F46C/M55C Mb improves the protein stability and regulates the heme site to be more favorable for substrate binding, resulting in enhanced peroxidase activity. This study provides valuable information of structure-function relationship for heme proteins regulated by an intramolecular disulfide bond, and also suggests that construction of such a covalent bond is useful for design of functional heme proteins. PMID:27117233

  7. Application of Bloch oscillations and atomic interferometry for the measurement of the h/m ratio and the determination of the fine structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to determine the h/mRb ratio between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms, and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha, from the accurate measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon. To perform this measurement we combine the high efficiency of Bloch oscillations with the high sensitivity of a Ramsey-Borde interferometer. The Bloch oscillations technic allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to the atoms (up to 1600 recoil momenta). An interferometric Ramsey-Borde velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transitions, allows us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 3 ppb (3*10-9), in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (3.4 ppb), lead us to a determination of alpha with a relative uncertainty of 4.8 ppb. The value of α-1 is 137.03599887(65). It is the best determination of alpha, independent from quantum electrodynamics

  8. Magnetic properties and fine structure of Fe-Co alloys with vanadium and chromium additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhavadov, D.M.; Tyapkin, Yu.D. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR))

    1982-11-01

    Magnetic properties of alloys iron-cobalt, iron-cobalt-vanadium, iron-cobalt-chromium have been investigated. Measurements of permeability, coercive force Hsub(c), B/sub 25/ and B/sub 100/ magnetic saturation on alloy samples on which electrical resistance previously is measured and fine crystalline structure is studied by the methods of transmission electron microscopy, diffusion scattering of X rays and electrons and NGR. Comparison of properties and structure makes possible to bind Hsub(c), B permeability values with such structure features as a long-range order of B2 type, short-range decomposition order and Cottrell clouds formation in vanadium containing alloys and a complex short-range order in chromium-containing alloys.

  9. Gaussian Beam Tunneling through a Gyrotropic-Nihility Finely-Stratified Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Tuz, Vladimir R

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional Gaussian beam transmission through a ferrite-semiconductor finely-stratified structure being under an action of an external static magnetic field in the Faraday geometry is considered. The beam field is represented by an angular continuous spectrum of plane waves. In the long-wavelength limit, the studied structure is described as a gyroelectromagnetic medium defined by the effective permittivity and effective permeability tensors. The investigations are carried out in the frequency band where the real parts of the on-diagonal elements of both effective permittivity and effective permeability tensors are close to zero while the off-diagonal ones are non-zero. In this frequency band the studied structure is referred to a gyrotropic-nihility medium. It is found out that a Gaussian beam keeps its parameters unchanged (beam width and shape) when passing through the layer of such a medium except of a portion of the absorbed energy.

  10. He I vector magnetic field maps of a sunspot and its superpenumbral fine-structure

    CERN Document Server

    Schad, T A; Lin, H; Tritschler, A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced inversions of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the He I triplet at 1083 nm are used to generate unique maps of the chromospheric magnetic field vector across a sunspot and its superpenumbral canopy. The observations were acquired by the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) on 29 January 2012. Multiple atmospheric models are employed in the inversions, as superpenumbral Stokes profiles are dominated by atomic-level polarization while sunspot profiles are Zeeman-dominated but also exhibit signatures perhaps induced by symmetry breaking effects of the radiation field incident on the chromospheric material. We derive the equilibrium magnetic structure of a sunspot in the chromosphere, and further show that the superpenumbral magnetic field does not appear finely structured, unlike the observed intensity structure. This suggests fibrils are not concentrations of magnetic flux but rather distinguished by individualized thermalization. We also dire...

  11. Extended-x-ray-absorption-fine-structure study of small Fe molecules isolated in solid neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used rare gas matrix isolation techniques in combination with extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to study the variation in interatomic distances for small Fe molecules in solid neon. A considerable contraction in the interatomic distances was observed for the metal molecules. An Fe-Fe distance of 2.03 +- l0.03 A for the lowest concentration of metal was observed. This is in good agreement with early EXAFS measurements in Fe2-Ar. We also carried out a careful study of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and observed the appearance of considerable structure for a 1.5-at. % Fe sample. The XANES spectra were analyzed in terms of 1s-to-(3d,4s) and 1s-to-4p transitions

  12. Fine structure of Tibetan kefir grains and their yeast distribution, diversity, and shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Lu

    Full Text Available Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs, a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species--Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic

  13. Calculation of the fine-structure parameters for np 5 n' f configurations of rare-gas atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, G. P.; Kapel'Kina, E. L.; Semenov, R. I.

    2000-12-01

    In the single-configuration approximation, fine-structure parameters are calculated semiempirically in the intermediate coupling scheme for the configurations 2p 5 nf( n=4 6) of NeI, 3 p 5 nf( n=4 7) of ArI, and 4 p 54 f of KrI. With the fine-structure parameters obtained, the coefficients of expansion of the wave functions in basis functions of the LS-coupling scheme and the gyromagnetic ratios are calculated. To the authors’ knowledge, analogous data are absent in the literature. The correctness of the fine-structure parameters obtained is confirmed by values of the fine-splitting constant, which is well known for other configurations of rare-gas atoms with an almost filled p shell.

  14. Primary structure of human alpha 2-macroglobulin. V. The complete structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottrup-Jensen, Lars; Stepanik, Terrence M; Kristensen, Torsten;

    1984-01-01

    the alpha 2-macroglobulin subunit is discussed. A comparison of stretches of sequences from alpha 2-macroglobulin with partial sequence data for complement components C3 and C4 indicates that these proteins are evolutionary related. The properties of alpha 2-macroglobulin are discussed within the...... context of proteolytically regulated systems with particular reference to the complement components C3 and C4....

  15. Sensitivity to temporal fine structure and hearing-aid outcomes in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElviraPerez Vallejos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effect of sensitivity to temporal fine structure on subjective measures of hearing aid outcome.Design: Prior to receiving hearing aids, participants completed a test to assess sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS, the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP, and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing (SSQ-A. Follow-up appointments, comprised the GHABP, the SSQ-B , and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aid Outcomes (IOI-HA.Study sample: 75 adults were recruited from direct referral clinics. Results: Two thirds of participants were found to have good sensitivity to TFS; listeners with good sensitivity to TFS rated their hearing abilities higher at pre-fitting (SSQ-A than those with poor sensitivity to TFS. At follow-up, participants with good sensitivity to TFS showed a small improvement on SSQ-B over listeners with poor sensitivity to TFS. Conclusions: The clinical identification of a patient’s ability to process TFS information at an early stage in the treatment pathway could prove useful in managing expectations about hearing aid outcomes.

  16. Fine structure of uterus and non-functioning paruterine organ in Orthoskrjabinia junlanae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, Janetta V; Kornienko, Svetlana A; Jones, Malcolm K

    2016-06-01

    Some cyclophyllidean cestodes provide protection for their eggs in the external environment by providing them with additional protective layers around the egg membranes. In attempting to examine such adaptations, the microanatomy and fine structure of the uterus of pregravid and gravid proglottids of the cyclophyllidean cestode Orthoskrjabinia junlanae, a parasite of mammals that inhabit a terrestrial but moist environment, were studied. In the initial stages of uterine development, developing embryos locate freely in the lumen of a saccate uterus that later partitions into chambers. Each chamber that forms encloses several embryos. The chambers are surrounded by muscle cells that synthesize extracellular matrix actively. The paruterine organs consist of stacks of flattened long outgrowths of muscular cells, interspersed with small lipid droplets. In the gravid proglottids, the size of paruterine organ increases and consists of flattened basal and small rounded apical parts separated by constrictions. The fine structure of the organ wall remains the same: sparse nuclei and stacks of flattened cytoplasmic outgrowths but internal invaginations or lumen in the paruterine organ are absent. Completely developed eggs remain localized in the uterus. Based on the comparative morpho-functional analysis of uterine and paruterine organs and uterine capsules in cestodes, we conclude that these non-functioning paruterine organ in O. junlanae is an example of an atavism. We postulate that the life cycle of the parasite, which infects mammals living in wet habitats, where threats of desiccation of parasite ova is reduced, has favoured a reversion to a more ancestral form of uterine development. PMID:26997340

  17. Fine structure of the topological defect core: Disclination in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Shiyanovskii, Sergij; Park, Heung-Shik; Kim, Young-Ki; Hearn, Tristan; Reichel, Lothar; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    Topological defects represent an important concept in many branches of modern physics ranging from cosmology and optics to hard and soft matter. One of the most difficult problems is the fine structure of the so-called core region of defects, where the deformations of the order parameter are so strong that the phenomenological description valid in the far field becomes invalid. Experimental exploration of the fine core structure is usually hindered by the small size (atomic/molecular level) of the core, where optical or even electron microscopy techniques are invalid. In this work, we take advantage of the peculiar nature of the so-called lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLC) of a nematic type that carry disclinations with a core extending over macroscopic distances (tens of micrometers), large enough to explore their spatial variation by optical and electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the director and the scalar order parameter (associated with the degree of orientational order) show a profound change in the core region. In particular, as one approaches the center of the defect, the azimuthal dependency of the director field changes dramatically and the scalar order parameter shows a strong dependence on the strength of splay and bend deformations. This work is supported by NSF Grant DMS-1434185.

  18. Analysis of near edge fine structure and electronic populations in sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlL and OK near edge fine structures in sapphire are studied using electron energy loss microspectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope; an analysis of the electronic populations of atoms Al and O, and a comparison between different partial cross sections are given. The authors consider the ionization of an atom in a homogeneous solid to interpret the elemental effects in the ionization region near edges. The chemical effects in the region near edge onset are interpreted by using extended Hueckel molecular orbital theory and Bloch's theorem including the effects of translation symmetry in crystals to calculate the electronic transitions from core-shell to unoccupied valence-shell. The authors also consider the additional chemical effects, which arise from the elastic backscattering of the atomic ionization waves by the atoms neighboring the exited atom, giving rise to the so-called extended fine structure in the ionization region. The agreement between the calculated results and the experimental energy loss spectra of sapphire from single-phase region is good

  19. Fine structure of a resonantly excited p -shell exciton in a CdTe quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleński, T.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Wojnar, P.; Kossacki, P.

    2016-05-01

    We present a polarization-resolved photoluminescence excitation study of the absorption spectrum of a p -shell neutral exciton in a single CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot. We find that the fine structure of the p -shell exciton is completely analogous to the fine structure of the s -shell exciton, including the selection rules and the effects of a magnetic field applied in Faraday and Voigt configurations. The energy spectrum of the p -shell exciton is found to be well described by introducing respective isotropic and anisotropic constants of the exchange interaction between a p -shell electron and a p -shell hole. The typical values of these exchange constants averaged over several randomly selected quantum dots yield δ0p p=(0.92 ±0.16 ) meV and δ1p p=(0.58 ±0.25 ) meV. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nonresonant relaxation of the p -shell exciton conserves the exciton spin to a very high degree for both bright and dark exciton configurations.

  20. Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    de Martino, I; Ebeling, H; Kocevski, D

    2016-01-01

    We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to pr...

  1. Fine-scale genetic structure and gene flow within Costa Rican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A J; Jourde, B; Breyne, P; Colpaert, N; Navarro, C; Wilson, J; Cavers, S

    2003-03-01

    Fine-scale structure of genetic diversity and gene flow were analysed in three Costa Rican populations of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla. Population differentiation estimated using AFLPs and SSRs was low (38.3 and 24%) and only slightly higher than previous estimates for Central American populations based on RAPD variation (20%). Significant fine-scale spatial structure was found in all of the surveyed mahogany populations and is probably strongly influenced by the limited seed dispersal range of the species. Furthermore, a survey of progeny arrays from selected mother trees in two of the plots indicated that most pollinations involved proximate trees. These data indicate that very little gene flow, via either pollen or seed, is occurring between blocks of mahogany within a continuous or disturbed forest landscape. Thus, once diversity is removed from a forest population of mahogany, these data suggest that recovery would be difficult via seed or pollen dispersal, and provides an explanation for mahogany's apparent susceptibility to the pressures of logging. Evidence is reviewed from other studies of gene flow and seedling regeneration to discuss alternative extraction strategies that may maintain diversity or allow recovery of genetic resources. PMID:12634811

  2. Modification of thermal, optical and structural properties of bayfol nuclear track detector by alpha particles irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of alpha particle dose on the thermal, optical and structural properties of Bayfol solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) was investigated. Non-isothermal studies were carried out using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal gravimetric (DTG) to obtain the activation energy of decomposition for Bayfol detector. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that the Bayfol samples decompose in one main break down stage. Samples from 250 cm thickness sheets were exposed to alpha particles in the dose range 3.5-67.03 Gy. The variation of transition temperatures with the alpha particle dose has been determined using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results indicate that the irradiation with alpha particles in the dose range 26.81-67.03 Gy decreases the melting temperature of the Bayfol samples and this is most suitable for applications requiring the molding of this polymer at lower temperatures. Also, the alpha particle dose gives advantage for increasing the correlation between melting temperatures and the amount of crystalline regions that is related to both cross-linking and degradation phenomena. In addition, optical and structural property studies using refractive index, IR spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction measurements were performed on non irradiated and irradiated Bayfol samples. The results indicate that the anisotropic character, absorbance and the degree of ordering of the Bayfol polymer are dependent on the alpha particle dose

  3. Unresolved fine-scale structure in solar coronal loop-tops

    CERN Document Server

    Scullion, Eamon; Wedemeyer, Sven; Antolin, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer sub-structures within coronal loop cross sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop sub-structures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1- m Solar Telescope (SST) / CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) / Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High resolution imaging of the chromospheric H-alpha 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in H-alpha...

  4. The Behaviour of Varying-Alpha Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Magueijo, J

    2002-01-01

    We determine the behaviour of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' $\\alpha (t)$ during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing $\\alpha (t)$, radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which $\\alpha$ increases, $\\alpha$ remains constant in universes like our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then $\\alpha$ tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive $\\alpha$ to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of $\\alpha$ from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes.

  5. MHD wave modes resolved in fine-scale chromospheric magnetic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Verth, G

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, due to significant improvements in the spatial and temporal resolution of chromospheric data, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave studies in this fascinating region of the Sun's atmosphere have risen to the forefront of solar physics research. In this review we begin by reviewing the challenges and debates that have manifested in relation to MHD wave mode identification in fine-scale chromospheric magnetic structures, including spicules, fibrils and mottles. Next we go on to discuss how the process of accurately identifying MHD wave modes also has a crucial role to play in estimating their wave energy flux. This is of cardinal importance for estimating what the possible contribution of MHD waves is to solar atmospheric heating. Finally, we detail how such advances in chromospheric MHD wave studies have also allowed us, for the first time, to implement cutting-edge magnetoseismological techniques that provide new insight into the sub-resolution plasma structuring of the lower solar atmospher...

  6. Fine structures of organic photovoltaic thin films probed by frequency-shift electrostatic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kento; Ie, Yutaka; Aso, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    The localized charge and electrostatic properties of organic photovoltaic thin films are predominating factors for controlling energy conversion efficiency. The surface potential and electrostatic structures of organic photovoltaic thin films were investigated by frequency shift mode Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). The KFM images of a poly[2-methoxy-5-(3‧,7‧-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]/phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PCBM) blend thin film reveals that the PCBM domains precipitate as the topmost layer on the thin films. We find fine structures that were not observed in the topography and KFM images. The bias dependence of the EFM images suggests that the EFM contrast reflects the field-induced polarization, indicating the presence of charge trapping sites.

  7. Fine structure in the cosmic ray spectrum: Further analysis and the next step

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D

    2011-01-01

    An analysis is made of the fine structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum: new facets of present observations and their interpretation and the next step. It is argued that less than about 10% of the intensity of the helium `peak' at the knee at $\\simeq 5PeV$ is due to just a few sources (SNR) other than the single source. The apparent concavity in the rigidity spectra of protons and helium nuclei which have maximum curvature at about 200 GV is confirmed by a joint analysis of the PAMELA, CREAM and ATIC experiments. The spectra of heavier nuclei also show remarkable structure in the form of `ankles' at several hundred GeV/nucleon. Possible mechanisms are discussed. The search for `pulsar peaks' has not yet proved successful.

  8. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on fine structure of chicken thrombocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effect of ultraviolet light on fine structure of thrombocytes in irradiated-chickens (Golden comet) was investigated. Perinuclear space and surface connecting system (scs) were dilated. Mitochondria and ribosomes were slightly increased in number. The agranular endoplasmic reticulum was spread out, forming cisterna in some areas. The well-developed Golgi complex showed enlargements in its all parts. An abundant amount of secundary lysosomes were formed. The vacuoles were also enlarged and increased in number. There seemed various electron-dense granules and lamellar structures in the vacuoles, and different-sized dense bodies in the cytoplasm. The glycogen particles which were normally in small amount, were locally increased in number, with irradiation. All findings were more pronounced after the second irradiation

  9. High-sensitivity x-ray absorption fine structure investigation of arsenic shallow implant in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-sensitivity fluorescence-yield x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) has been investigated to characterize the local structure around arsenic shallow implant in silicon. Fluorescence-yield XAFS experiments were performed using a high-brilliance synchrotron radiation beam from an in-vacuum-type undulator in a third-generation light source. In addition to investigating the efficiency of high-brilliance undulator x-rays during the fluorescence-yield XAFS measurements, we compared the analytical performance of both the wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) and the energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) based on the silicon drift detector (SDD). It was confirmed that the WDS reduces the influence of scattering background due to the high spectral resolution. Another advantage of the WDS is high counting rate measurements. It was found that fluorescence-yield XAFS using undulator x-rays combined with the WDS permits superior sensitivity measurements.

  10. Fine structure and optical properties of biological polarizers in crustaceans and cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Cronin, Thomas W.

    2008-04-01

    The lighting of the underwater environment is constantly changing due to attenuation by water, scattering by suspended particles, as well as the refraction and reflection caused by the surface waves. These factors pose a great challenge for marine animals which communicate through visual signals, especially those based on color. To escape this problem, certain cephalopod mollusks and stomatopod crustaceans utilize the polarization properties of light. While the mechanisms behind the polarization vision of these two animal groups are similar, several distinctive types of polarizers (i.e. the structure producing the signal) have been found in these animals. To gain a better knowledge of how these polarizers function, we studied the relationships between fine structures and optical properties of four types of polarizers found in cephalopods and stomatopods. Although all the polarizers share a somewhat similar spectral range, around 450- 550 nm, the reflectance properties of the signals and the mechanisms used to produce them have dramatic differences. In cephalopods, stack-plates polarizers produce the polarization patterns found on the arms and around their eyes. In stomatopods, we have found one type of beam-splitting polarizer based on photonic structures and two absorptive polarizer types based on dichroic molecules. These stomatopod polarizers may be found on various appendages, and on the cuticle covering dorsal or lateral sides of the animal. Since the efficiencies of all these polarizer types are somewhat sensitive to the change of illumination and viewing angle, how these animals compensate with different behaviors or fine structural features of the polarizer also varies.

  11. Radiation induced structural changes in alpha-copper-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During irradiation of alpha-copper-zinc alloys with high energy electrons and protons a decrease of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short range order is observed through radiation enhanced diffusion followed by an increase of the electrical resistivity through the formation of radiation induced interstitial clusters. The initial formation rate of interstitial clusters increases about linearly with the displacement rate for electron and proton irradiation. The largest initial formation rate is found between 60 and 1300C becoming negligibly small above 1580C and decreases drastically below 600C. The dynamic steady state interstitial cluster concentration increases with decreasing irradiation temperature in the investigated temperature range between 158 and 400C. Above 1580C the formation rate of interstitial clusters is negligibly small. Thus the transition temperature for radiation induced interstitial cluster formation is 1580C, depending mainly on the migration activation energy of vacancies. The radiation induced interstitial clusters are precipitates in those alloys in which the diffusion rate of the undersized component atoms via an interstitialcy diffusion mechanism is larger than that of the other atoms

  12. Weighted difference of g-factors of light Li-like and H-like ions for an improved determination of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Yerokhin, V A; Harman, Z; Tupitsyn, I I; Keitel, C H

    2016-01-01

    A weighted difference of the $g$-factors of the Li- and H-like ion of the same element is studied and optimized in order to maximize the cancellation of nuclear effects. To this end, a detailed theoretical investigation is performed for the finite nuclear size correction to the one-electron $g$-factor, the one- and two-photon exchange effects, and the QED effects. The coefficients of the $Z\\alpha$ expansion of these corrections are determined, which allows us to set up the optimal definition of the weighted difference. It is demonstrated that, for moderately light elements, such weighted difference is nearly free from uncertainties associated with nuclear effects and can be utilized to extract the fine-structure constant from bound-electron $g$-factor experiments with an accuracy competitive with or better than its current literature value.

  13. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to be practically inapplicable. To overcome this difficulty, an approximate method is proposed that models the interaction of the layer with an incident electromagnetic field via a boundary condition t...

  14. The Effects of Instrumental Elliptical Polarization on Stellar Point Spread Function Fine Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Joseph C.; Kern, Brian D.; Breckinridge, James B.; Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    We present procedures and preliminary results from a study on the effects of instrumental polarization on the fine structure of the stellar point spread function (PSF). These effects are important to understand because the the aberration caused by instrumental polarization on an otherwise diffraction-limited will likely have have severe consequences for extreme high contrast imaging systems such as NASA's planned Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission and the proposed NASA Eclipse mission. The report here, describing our efforts to examine these effects, includes two parts: 1) a numerical analysis of the effect of metallic reflection, with some polarization-specific retardation, on a spherical wavefront; 2) an experimental approach for observing this effect, along with some preliminary laboratory results. While the experimental phase of this study requires more fine-tuning to produce meaningful results, the numerical analysis indicates that the inclusion of polarization-specific phase effects (retardation) results in a point spread function (PSF) aberration more severe than the amplitude (reflectivity) effects previously recorded in the literature.

  15. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and

  16. Fine-structure energy levels and radiative decay rates in Al-like vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 97 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the (1s22s22p6)3s23p(2P0), 3s3p2(2S,2P,2D,4P), 3s23d(2D), 3p3(4S0,2P0,2D0), 3s3p(3P0)3d(2P0,2D0,2F0,4P0,4D0,4F0), 3s3p(1P0)3d(2P0,2D0,2F0), 3p2(1S)3d(2D), 3p2(1D)3d(2S,2P,2D,2F,2G), 3p2(3P)3d(2P,2D,2F,4P,4D,4F), 3s3d2(2S,2P,2D,2F,2G,4P,4F), 3s24s(2S), 3s24p(2P0), 3s24d(2D), 3s24f(2F0), 3s3p(3P0)4s(2P0,4P0) and 3s3p(1P0)4s(2P0) states of V XI are performed using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions. The calculations used the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available NIST results. From our radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. Generally, very good agreement between our calculated lifetimes and those from sophisticated calculation is realized for many fine-structure levels. However, a few significant differences are noted and discussed.

  17. Study of the structure of hadronic events and determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130 GeV and 136 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bencze, G L; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Brambilla, Elena; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buijs, A; Bujak, A T; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Burgos, C; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Castello, R; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coan, T E; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Dénes, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabbretti, R; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Fernández, G; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Gailloud, M; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; González, E; Gougas, Andreas; Goujon, D; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L J; Hangarter, K; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; He, J T; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Ilyas, M M; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapinos, P; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; Koffeman, E; Köngeter, A; Koutsenko, V F; Koulbardis, A; Krämer, R W; Kramer, T; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Lenti, M; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lindemann, B; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Ludovici, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Macchiolo, A; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Maolinbay, M; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Möller, M; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nowak, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Raghavan, R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Redaelli, M; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Ricker, A; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Röhner, S; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Salicio, J M; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Schöneich, B; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schulte, R; Schultze, K; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seiler, P G; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Sticozzi, F; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Toker, O; Tonisch, F; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Urbàn, L; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vuilleumier, L; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weill, R; Willmott, C; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zaccardelli, C; Zalite, A; Zemp, P; Zeng, J Y; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, G J; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Van der Zwaan, B C C

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the structure of hadronic events recorded by the L3 detector at center-of-mass energies of 130 and 136 GeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 pb-1 collected during the high energy run of 1995. The shapes of the event shape distributions and the energy dependence of their mean values are well reproduced by QCD models. From a comparison of the data with resummed O(alpha_s^2) QCD calculations, we determine the strong coupling constant to be alpha_s(133 GeV) = 0.107 +/- 0.005(exp) +/- 0.006(theor).

  18. Atlas of fine structures of dynamic spectra of solar type IV-dm and some type II radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents an atlas of spectral fine structures of solar radio bursts of types IV and II around 1 m wavelength, as obtained with a multichannel spectrograph at Dwingeloo. The structures form largely a collection of observations of these events during late 1968 through 1974, thus covering almost entirely the declining branch of solar cycle 20. The spectrograph has an extra enhanced contrast output with properties quite different from those of the commonly used swept frequency spectrographs. The corresponding instrumental characteristics and effects are discussed. A classification of fine structures and an analysis of their statistical properties and of those of the pertinent radio events are also given. (Auth.)

  19. Observation of Fine Lung Structure by Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Using 800, 1060, and 1300 nm Supercontinua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shutaro; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kitatsuji, Masashi; Ohshima, Hiroyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Matsushima, Miyoko; Kawabe, Tsutomu

    2012-04-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of isolated rat lungs was demonstrated by ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using supercontinua at 800, 1060, and 1300 nm wavelengths. The detailed structure of the trachea, including cartilage, mucosa, and annular ligaments, were observed clearly. In the imaging of visceral pleura and alveoli, when phosphate-buffered saline was instilled into the lung, the penetration depth of imaging was improved, and clear images of the fine structure of the lung, including alveoli, were observed owing to the index-matching effect. The wavelength dependence of the light source was discussed for the observation of fine structure and imaging contrast.

  20. Fine-structure energy levels and radiative lifetime in Mo XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy levels, radiative lifetime and various transition parameters for allowed transitions among the 1508 fine-structure levels belong to the (1s22s22p63s23p6) 3d104l, 3d94l2, 3d105l, 3d94l4m, 3d106l, 3d107l and so on configurations of the Cu-like ions Mo XIV have been calculated by using the expanded fully relativistic GRASP code. The results are compared with those available in the literature, and the accuracy of the present data is assessed. Energy levels are expected to be accurate to within 0.81%. The authors have found some long lifetime levels

  1. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: GN — Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant α. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that α is the fine structure constant ≈ 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of α. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the “dark-matter” effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  2. Fine structure and spectral index measurements in natural uranium - graphite lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments described in this report have been carried out for the most part in the critical facility MARIUS, and a few during the start up of the EDF-1 power reactor. The first part deals with the fine structure measurements made in various lattices and with their analysis. Integration over the neutron spectrum of the mono-kinetic disadvantage factor derived by the A.B.H method yields results in good agreement with the experiments. The second part deals with spectral indexes measurements (Pu/U, In/Mn) made at room temperature in MARIUS. Comparison are made of experiments with calculations using various thermalization models. Experiments carried out at higher temperatures in EDF-1 are also described. (authors)

  3. Measurement of isotope shifts, fine and hyperfine structure splittings of the lithium D lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium D lines were studied using a diode laser that was frequency modulated by an electro-optic modulator, to excite an atomic beam. The transmission of part of the laser beam through an etalon was monitored to correct for the nonlinearity of the laser scan. The results for the 6,7Li 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 hyperfine splittings agree very well with the best existing data while those for the D1 isotope shift and 6,7Li fine structure splittings disagree significantly from data obtained by a previous laser atomic beam experiment. Our result for the D1 isotope shift is very close to the latest value computed using Hylleraas variational theory. (authors)

  4. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure investigation of annealed carbon expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Somers, Marcel A. J.;

    2012-01-01

    Carbon expanded austenite synthesized through carburizing of austenitic stainless steel powder at 380°C was annealed at 470°C and investigated with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and synchrotron powder diffraction (SPD). SPD showed that the samples consisted of carbon expanded...... austenite and Hägg carbide, Ξ-M5C2. EXAFS showed that the Cr atoms were mainly present in environments similar to the carbides Hägg Ξ-M5C2 and M23C6. The environments of the Fe and Ni atoms were concluded to be largely metallic austenite. Light optical micrograph of stainless steel AISI 316 gas......-carburized in a temperature regime around 470°C. The surface zone is converted into carbon expanded austenite; the high interstitial content of carbon dissolved in the surface results in highly favorable materials properties. In the present article the local atomic environment of (annealed) carbon expanded...

  5. Outlier SNP markers reveal fine-scale genetic structuring across European hake populations (Merluccius merluccius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milano, I.; Babbucci, M.; Cariani, A.;

    2014-01-01

    fishery. Analysis of 850 individuals from 19 locations across the entire distribution range showed evidence for several outlier loci, with significantly higher resolving power. While 299 putatively neutral SNPs confirmed the genetic break between basins (FCT = 0.016) and weak differentiation within basins...... even when neutral markers provide genetic homogeneity across populations. Here, 381 SNPs located in transcribed regions were used to assess largeand fine-scale population structure in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a widely distributed demersal species of high priority for the European...... integrating information from neutral and adaptive evolutionary patterns towards a better assessment of genetic diversity. Accordingly, the generated outlier SNP data could be used for tackling illegal practices in hake fishing and commercialization as well as to develop explicit spatial models for defining...

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Agave Americana L. Fibres: Correlation Between Fine Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msahli, S.; Chaabouni, Y.; Sakli, F.; Drean, J. Y.

    In this study, results of a mechanical behavior study of fibres extracted from the agave Americana L. plant, the most abundant variety in Tunisia, are presented. These results deal with the principal and mechanical characteristics of these fibres which are the elongation at break, the elasticity modulus and the rupture facture. These results permitted to situate these fibres, compared to the other textile fibres, as materials that can be used in technical applications such as reinforcing composites or geotextile. In order to understand the mechanical properties of these fibres, a correlation study between the properties already cited and the fine structure was done. The obtained results showed that the mechanical properties of agave Americana L. fibres are closely related to the individual fibers deformations and to the natural matrix (lignin and gums) that links these elementary fibres.

  7. Fine structure cross sections from reactance matrices - a more versatile development of the program JAJOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from calculations with LS-coupled wave functions (reactance matrices and term coupling coefficients) are used to compute collision strengths for transitions between fine structure levels. The imput is carefully checked. The algebraic transformation uses Racah algebra, the coefficients are computed as required. An optional further transformation to allow for intermediate coupling in the target requires term coupling coefficients to be supplied by the user. The collision strength are computed using either of two formulae, corresponding to weak or strong coupling respectively. This version of JAJOM is very flexible. Using the prepocessor included with this deck machine dependent features, array lengths, and mode of operation are all inserted according to the user's requirements. (Auth.)

  8. Determining biological fine structure by differential absorption of soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of soft x-ray contact microscopy in examining histochemically treated human tissue embedded in plastic and exposed as unstained thin sections is demonstrated. When our preliminary data revealed that we could clearly image not only the histochemical reaction product, but the unstained biological fine structure of the surrounding tissues, we decided to test our hypothesis further and see if we could image unstained biological molecular aggregates as well. For this part of the investigation, we chose to examine hydrated proteoglycan aggregates. Proteoglycans are an essential component of the organic matrix of cartilage, and play a primary role in the retention and maintenance of extracellular water. To avoid any artifacts due to the introduction of exogeneous materials, and examine the proteoglycan aggregates in their hydrated, natural configuration, we made contact x-ray images of isolated proteoglycan aggregates in water

  9. Fine structure in the tunneling characteristic of MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a progress in the in situ preparation of superconducting MgB2 thin films by thermal evaporation of Mg combined with B sputtering. By sputtering the boron from a red-hot sintered target we were able to increase the substrate temperature up to 550 C. The film properties, like Tc and the residual resistivity, significantly improved compared to films deposited at lower substrate temperatures. In the negative second derivative of the current-voltage characteristic measured on sandwich-type crossed-strip tunnel junctions on MgB2 films with a Tc of 35 K, theoretically predicted fine structures could be resolved which were missing in our former tunnelling experiments using films with a lower Tc of 32 K. Better crystalline order within the MgB2 grains is evidently the key to the details of the electron-phonon coupling

  10. Dust-cloud structures behind a shock wave moving over a deposited layer of fine particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Boyi; XIONG Yi; CHEN Qian; A.N. OSIPTSOV

    2005-01-01

    The present paper investigates dispersed-phase flow structures of a dust cloud induced by a normal shock wave moving at a constant speed over a flat surface deposited with fine particles. In the shock-fitted coordinates, the general equations of dusty-gas boundary layer flows are formulated within the framework of a multi-fluid model and parametric numerical studies of the carrier- and dispersedphase flow fields are performed. The problem associated with crossing particle trajectories and the formation of local particle accumulation regions are solved by using the full Lagrangian method for the dispersed phase. The basic features of the near-wall two-phase flow under consideration including the role of Saffman force in the particle entrainment and the development of discontinuities or singularities in the particle density profiles are discussed. The effects associated with account of the non-uniformity of particle size and the finiteness of the particle Knudsen numbers are studied in detail.

  11. Representations of U(2∞ and the Value of the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Klink

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated in which all of the interactions are in the four-momentum operator and Lorentz transformations are kinematic. Interactions are introduced through vertices, which are bilinear in fermion and antifermion creation and annihilation operators, and linear in boson creation and annihilation operators. The fermion-antifermion operators generate a unitary Lie algebra, whose representations are fixed by a first order Casimir operator (corresponding to baryon number or charge. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the four-momentum operator are analyzed and exact solutions in the strong coupling limit are sketched. A simple model shows how the fine structure constant might be determined for the QED vertex.

  12. Strong configuration mixing among the fine-structure levels of Cl+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale configuration interaction (CI) calculation using Program CIV3 of Hibbert is performed for the lowest 62 fine-structure levels of the singly charged chlorine ion. Our calculated energy levels agree very well with most of the NIST results and confirm the identification of the lowest 1Po as actually 3s2 3p3 (2Do)3d 1Po rather than the generally employed 3s3p51Po in measurements and calculations. Discrepancies in the energy positions of some symmetries are found and discussed. Some large oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions in both length and velocity gauges are presented. Their close agreement gives credence to the accuracy of our CI wavefunctions. (letter to the editor)

  13. The Young Modulus of Black Strings and the Fine Structure of Blackfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Harmark, Troels; Obers, Niels A

    2011-01-01

    We explore corrections in the blackfold approach, which is a worldvolume theory capturing the dynamics of thin black branes. The corrections probe the fine structure of the branes, going beyond the approximation in which they are infinitely thin, and account for the dipole moment of worldvolume stress-energy as well as the internal spin degrees of freedom. We show that the dipole correction is induced elastically by bending a black brane. We argue that the long-wavelength transport coefficient capturing this response is a relativistic generalization of the Young modulus of elastic materials and we compute it analytically. Using this we draw predictions for black rings in dimensions greater than six. Furthermore, we employ our corrected blackfold equations to various multi-spinning black hole configurations in the blackfold limit, finding perfect agreement with known analytic solutions.

  14. Automatic detection and high resolution fine structure analysis of conic X-ray diffraction lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauch, J.; Henschel, F. [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Schulze, M. [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Photogrammetrie und Fernerkundung, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The presented method demonstrates a first step in the development of a high resolution ''Residual stress microscope'' and facilitates through the implementation of largely automated procedures a fast detection of diffraction lines in the form of conic sections. It has been implemented for, but is not exclusively used for the Kossel technique and the ''X-ray Rotation-Tilt Method'' (XRT). The resulting multifaceted evaluable data base of many X-ray diffraction radiographies can be used not only for the systematic analysis of anomalies in diffraction lines (reflection fine structure), but also for direct calculation and output of precision residual stress tensors. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Single shot near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantouvalou, I.; Witte, K.; Martyanov, W.; Jonas, A.; Grötzsch, D.; Streeck, C.; Löchel, H.; Rudolph, I.; Erko, A.; Stiel, H.; Kanngießer, B.

    2016-05-01

    With the help of adapted off-axis reflection zone plates, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra at the C and N K-absorption edge have been recorded using a single 1.2 ns long soft X-ray pulse. The transmission experiments were performed with a laser-produced plasma source in the laboratory rendering time resolved measurements feasible independent on large scale facilities. A resolving power of E/ΔE ˜ 950 at the respective edges could be demonstrated. A comparison of single shot spectra with those collected with longer measuring time proves that all features of the used reference samples (silicon nitrate and polyimide) can be resolved in 1.2 ns. Hence, investigations of radiation sensitive biological specimen become possible due to the high efficiency of the optical elements enabling low dose experiments.

  16. Relations between frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure processing, and speech reception in impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure (TFS) processing, and speech reception were assessed for six normal-hearing (NH) listeners, ten sensorineurally hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with similar high-frequency losses, and two listeners with an obscure dysfunction (OD). TFS processing was...... obtained for full-spectrum and lowpass-filtered sentences with different interferers. Both the HI listeners and the OD listeners showed poorer performance than the NH listeners in terms of frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception. While a correlation was observed between the monaural and...... binaural TFS-processing deficits in the HI listeners, no relation was found between TFS processing and frequency selectivity. The effect of noise on TFS processing was not larger for the HI listeners than for the NH listeners. Finally, TFS-processing performance was correlated with speech reception in a...

  17. Fine structures in Fe3Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Zhang Yonglan; X Holly

    2002-12-01

    The fine structure in the Fe–Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel (HDA) was examined by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electron diffraction technique, etc. The test results indicated that the Fe–Al alloy layer of the new aluminized steel mainly composed of Fe3Al, FeAl and -Fe (Al) solid solution. There was no brittle phase containing higher aluminum content, such as FeAl3 (59.18% Al) and Fe2Al7 (62.93% Al). The tiny cracks and embrittlement, formerly caused by these brittle phases in the conventional aluminum-coated steel, were effectively eliminated. There was no microscopic defect (such as tiny cracks, pores or loose layer) in the coating. This is favourable to resist high temperature oxidation and corrosion of the aluminized steel.

  18. Reflection-extented-x-ray-absorption-fine-structure spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report an investigation of the carbon K-edge Reflection-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (refl-EXAFS) spectra from graphite, diamond and glassy carbon. There is good phase shift transferability between the two well-known bonding types in diamond and graphite, provided that appropriate inner potential corrections to the K-edge energy are made. The model spectra from diamond and graphite were used to investigate the nature of glassy carbon. It was found that, for the particular form of glassy carbon used in this study, the bonding more closely resembled sp3 than sp2. This result is preliminary pending evaluation of the influence of surface oxygen

  19. Study on Fine Structure of Gas Atomized LaNi5-based Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai JING; Hong GUO; Shuguang ZHANG; Zili MA; Shaoming ZHANG

    2003-01-01

    The fine structure of hydrogen storage alloy powders MINi4.3-xCoxMn0.4Al0.3(x=0.75, 0.45, 0.10; MI: La-rich mischmetal) prepared by rapidly solidifying gas atomization was investigated using a Rietveld analysis method. Two setsof CaCu5-type crystal constants were observed in the studied alloys and one set was larger than the other. Withdecreasing powder radius the solidification rate of powder increased, and so did the percentage of a particle partwith larger crystal constants. The reason why there were two sets of crystal constants might be the difference ofsolidification rate between the outside and inside of a particle.

  20. Fine structure of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in 28Si and 27Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, I. T.; Buthelezi, Z.; Carter, J.; Cooper, G. R. J.; Fearick, R. W.; Förtsch, S. V.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Neveling, R.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Pysmenetska, I.; Richter, A.; Roth, R.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Smit, F. D.

    2016-08-01

    The isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in 28Si and 27Al has been investigated with high-energy-resolution proton inelastic scattering at Ep=200 MeV and at scattering angles close to the maximum of Δ L =2 angular distributions with the K600 magnetic spectrometer of iThemba LABS, South Africa. Characteristic scales are extracted from the observed fine structure with a wavelet analysis and compared for 28Si with random-phase approximation and second random phase approximation calculations with an interaction derived from the Argonne V18 potential by a unitary transformation. A recent extension of the method to deformed nuclei provides the best description of the data, suggesting the significance of Landau damping.

  1. Properties and Modeling of Unresolved Fine Structure Loops Observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, David H; Warren, Harry P

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have discovered a new class of numerous low-lying dynamic loop structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFS) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. In this letter, we combine IRIS measurements of the properties of a sample of 108 UFS (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) with 1-D non-equilibrium ionization simulations using the HYDRAD hydrodynamic model to examine whether the UFS are now truly spatially resolved in the sense of being individual structures rather than composed of multiple magnetic threads. We find that a simulation of an impulsively heated single strand can reproduce most of the observed properties suggesting that the UFS may be resolved, and the distribution of UFS widths implies that they are structured on a spatial scale of 133km on average. Spatial scales of a few hundred km appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal st...

  2. Uniform Catalytic Site in Sn-beta Zeolite Determined using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bare,S.; Kelly, S.; Sinkler, W.; Low, J.; Modica, F.; Valencia, S.; Corma, A.; Nemeth, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Sn silicate zeolite, Sn-{beta}, has been shown to be an efficient, selective heterogeneous catalyst for Baeyer-Villiger oxidations. Using primarily a multishell fit to extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data, we show that the Sn does not randomly insert into the {beta}-zeolite structure but rather occupies identical, specific, crystallographic sites. These sites are the T5/T6 sites in the six-membered rings. Moreover, the Sn is substituted in pairs on opposite sides of these six-membered rings. We believe that it is the specific, uniform crystallographic location of the Sn in the crystal structure that leads to sites with uniform catalytic activity, and consequently to the high chemical selectivity demonstrated for this catalyst. This manifests itself in the almost enzyme-like selectivity of this catalyst in Baeyer-Villiger oxidations. This uniform site distribution of the Sn suggests that there is likely a symbiotic relationship between the structure-directing agent in the zeolite synthesis and the Sn heteroatoms during the framework formation.

  3. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency fp to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both fp and 2 fp radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in fp than 2 fp emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 fp radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 fp radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  4. [Histochemical findings of and fine structural changes in motor endplates in diseases with neuromuscular transmission abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshiro; Motomura, Masakatsu; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro

    2011-07-01

    We herein review the histochemical findings and fine structural changes of motor endplates associated with diseases causing neuromuscular transmission abnormalities. In anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG), type 2 fiber atrophy is observed, and the motor endplates show a reduction in the nerve terminal area, simplification of the postsynaptic membrane, decreased number of acetylcholine receptors, and deposition of immune complexes. In anti-MuSK antibody-positive MG, the fine structure shows a decrease in the postsynaptic membrane length, but the secondary synaptic cleft is preserved. There is no decrease in the number of AChRs, and there are no deposits of immune complexes at the motor endplates. Patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome show type 2 fiber atrophy, their motor endplates show a decrease in both the mean postsynaptic area and postsynaptic membrane length in the brachial biceps muscle. Congenital myasthenic syndrome with episodic apnea is characterized only by small-sized synaptic vesicles; the postsynaptic area is preserved. In subjects with congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency, quantitative electron microscopy reveals a significant decrease in the nerve terminal size and presynaptic membrane length; further, the Schwann cell processes extend into the primary synaptic cleft, and partially or completely occlude the presynaptic membrane. The postsynaptic folds are degenerated, and associated with pinocytotic vesicles and labyrinthine membranous networks. Patients with slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome show type 1 fiber predominance, and their junctional folds are typically degenerated with widened synaptic space and loss of AChRs. Patients with AChR deficiency syndrome caused by recessive mutations in AChR subunits also show type 1 fiber predominance, and while most junctional folds are normal, some are simplified and have smaller than normal endplates. Rapsin and Mu

  5. New algorithm improves fine structure of the barley consensus SNP map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endelman Jeffrey B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to integrate information from multiple linkage maps is a long-standing problem in genetics. One way to visualize the complex ordinal relationships is with a directed graph, where each vertex in the graph is a bin of markers. When there are no ordering conflicts between the linkage maps, the result is a directed acyclic graph, or DAG, which can then be linearized to produce a consensus map. Results New algorithms for the simplification and linearization of consensus graphs have been implemented as a package for the R computing environment called DAGGER. The simplified consensus graphs produced by DAGGER exactly capture the ordinal relationships present in a series of linkage maps. Using either linear or quadratic programming, DAGGER generates a consensus map with minimum error relative to the linkage maps while remaining ordinally consistent with them. Both linearization methods produce consensus maps that are compressed relative to the mean of the linkage maps. After rescaling, however, the consensus maps had higher accuracy (and higher marker density than the individual linkage maps in genetic simulations. When applied to four barley linkage maps genotyped at nearly 3000 SNP markers, DAGGER produced a consensus map with improved fine structure compared to the existing barley consensus SNP map. The root-mean-squared error between the linkage maps and the DAGGER map was 0.82 cM per marker interval compared to 2.28 cM for the existing consensus map. Examination of the barley hardness locus at the 5HS telomere, for which there is a physical map, confirmed that the DAGGER output was more accurate for fine structure analysis. Conclusions The R package DAGGER is an effective, freely available resource for integrating the information from a set of consistent linkage maps.

  6. Fine-structure energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes in Si-like nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale CIV3 calculations of excitation energies from ground state as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the fine-structure levels of the terms belonging to the (1s22s22p6)3s23p2, 3s3p3, 3p4, 3s23p3d, 3s23p4s, 3s23p4p, 3s23p4d and 3s23p4f configurations of Ni XV, are performed using very extensive configuration-interaction wave functions. The relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available NIST results. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. It is noted that our calculated radiative rates show significant disagreement (23-30%) with those calculated by Ishikawa and Vilkas (2002 Phys. Scr. 65 219) for the transitions involving the 3s3p3(5S2) level. For this high spin level 3s3p3(5S2) our calculated lifetime is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental value of Träbert et al (1989 Z. Phys. D 11 207). In this calculation, we also predict many additional new and accurate data for various optically allowed and intercombination transitions to complete the void in the existing data. (paper)

  7. The crystal structure of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II alpha

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bäumlová, Adriana; Chalupská, Dominika; Rozycki, B.; Jovic, M.; Wisniewski, E.; Klíma, Martin; Dubánková, Anna; Kloer, D. P.; Nencka, Radim; Balla, T.; Bouřa, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 10 (2014), s. 1085-1092. ISSN 1469-221X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 333916 - STARPI4K Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : crystal structure * kinase * membrane * Monte Carlo simulations * phosphatidyl inositol Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.055, year: 2014

  8. Cultural transmission of tool use combined with habitat specializations leads to fine-scale genetic structure in bottlenose dolphins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopps, Anna M.; Ackermann, Corinne Y.; Sherwin, William B.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Kruetzen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Socially learned behaviours leading to genetic population structure have rarely been described outside humans. Here, we provide evidence of fine-scale genetic structure that has probably arisen based on socially transmitted behaviours in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in western Shark Bay, Weste

  9. Analysis of the structure of mycolic acids of Mycobacterium simiae reveals a particular composition of alpha-mycolates in strain 'habana' TMC 5135, considered as immunogenic in tuberculosis and leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, Lilian; Valdivia, José A; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L

    2007-12-01

    Structural analysis of mycolic acids from Mycobacterium simiae (including some 'habana' strains) was carried out using (1)H-NMR and MS. Results indicated that this species presents a general pattern of alpha-, alpha'- and keto-mycolates. alpha-Mycolates were composed of a complex mixture of 82 to 89 carbon atoms (C82-C89), with the predominant molecular species containing two di-substituted cyclopropane rings. Among keto-mycolates (C84-C89), those containing one trans di-substituted cyclopropane ring were the most abundant. The alpha'-mycolates were monounsaturated (C64, C66). According to MS and (1)H-NMR data, the strains studied differed in fine structural details of alpha-mycolates and keto-mycolates. Notably, strain 'habana' TMC 5135 (belonging to the 'habana' group, and considered as highly immunogenic in tuberculosis and leprosy) presented a particular composition of alpha-mycolates, with a major component (C87) containing one cis plus one trans di-substituted cyclopropane ring, unlike the type strain of M. simiae and other strains of the 'habana' group (IPK-220 and IPK-337R), in which the major component (C84) contained two cis di-substituted cyclopropane rings. In spite of this finding, the 'habana' strains were closely related to each other and mainly differed from the type strain of M. simiae in some details of the fine structure of keto-mycolates. The present work indicated that within an identical general pattern of mycolic acids, there is a complex composition in M. simiae and structural variation among different strains, as reported for pathogenic species of the genus. Noteworthy was the particular composition of alpha-mycolates in strain 'habana' TMC 5135. PMID:18048929

  10. Alpha particle spectroscopy by gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gridded ionization chamber has been constructed with the aim of determining its ultimate energy resolution in alpha spectroscopy, utilizing a cooled FET pre-amplifier of the type normally employed with semiconductor detectors. With suitable mechanical collimation of the alpha particles, their fine structure has been measured with an energy resolution of -11.5 keV (fwhm), achieved using an Ar + 0.75% C2H2 mixture as the filling gas. (orig.)

  11. Structural and functional characterization of two alpha-synuclein strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousset, Luc; Pieri, Laura; Ruiz-Arlandis, Gemma; Gath, Julia; Jensen, Poul Henning; Habenstein, Birgit; Madiona, Karine; Olieric, Vincent; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H.; Melki, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    α-synuclein aggregation is implicated in a variety of diseases including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy. The association of protein aggregates made of a single protein with a variety of clinical phenotypes has been explained for prion diseases by the existence of different strains that propagate through the infection pathway. Here we structurally and functionally characterize two polymorphs of α-synuclein. We present evidence that the two forms indeed fulfil the molecular criteria to be identified as two strains of α-synuclein. Specifically, we show that the two strains have different structures, levels of toxicity, and in vitro and in vivo seeding and propagation properties. Such strain differences may account for differences in disease progression in different individuals/cell types and/or types of synucleinopathies.

  12. Fine structure and functional comments of mouthparts in Platypus cylindrus (Col., Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhoucine, Latifa; Bouhraoua, Rachid T; Prats, Eva; Pulade-Villar, Juli

    2013-02-01

    Oak pinhole borer, Platypus cylindrus is seen in recent years as one of the biggest enemies directly involved in the observed decline of cork oak in Mediterranean forests with all the economic implications. As an ambrosia beetle, it has developed its effective drilling mouthpart enough to make tunnels in hardwood of the tree. The fine structural aspects of the mouthpart using the field emission scanning electron microscopy are analyzed about 23 adults collected in galleries of infested cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in a littoral forest of northwest Algeria. These adults are preserved in alcohol 70%, cleaned and coated with gold. The mouthparts of this beetle consist commonly of a labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae and the labium but with adapted structure to excavate galleries in the hardwood. In this role is also involved the first pair of legs. The function that present the different structures related to the construction of the tunnels is discussed. Both of maxillary and labial palpi direct the food to the mouth and hold it while the mandibles chew the food. The distal ends of these palpi are flattened and have shovel-like setae. Females have larger maxillary palpi than males and this is related to the particular biology of each sex. PMID:23182681

  13. Structures and properties of Fe-C fine particles prepared by AC arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Cunye; Zhao, Baogang; Lin, Yaoqiang; Deng, Zhaojing

    1999-05-01

    Fe-C fine particles are produced by an alternating arc discharge between iron and carbon electrodes in an Ar gas atmosphere at pressures of 8, 14 and 18 kPa. The crystal structure, morphology and surface composition have been studied, respectively, by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Magnetic properties and Curie temperatures have also been determined by a vibrating sample magnetometer. Results show that the particles are of two different crystal structures, one is hexagonal FeC and the other is cubic iron. The iron particles have a multi-layered structure composed of an α-Fe core wrapped by Fe 3O 4, FeO and FeO(OH) shells. It is found that the compositions and the specific saturation magnetization of the Fe-C particles prepared in different pressures of Ar gas are not the same, but their Curie temperatures are all 580±5°C.

  14. Fine-scale genetic structure of Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) at contrasting elevations of the altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2013-03-01

    Montane forests provide the natural framework to test for various ecological settings at distinct elevations as they may affect population demography, which in turn will affect the spatial genetic structure (SGS). We analyzed the fine-scale SGS of Nothofagus pumilio, which dominates mountain areas of Patagonia, in three pairs of sites at contrasting elevations (low- vs. high-elevation). Within a total area of 1 ha fresh leaf tissue from 90 individuals was collected at each of the six studied stands following a spatially explicit sampling design. Population genetic diversity parameters were analyzed for all sampled individuals using five polymorphic isozyme loci, and a subset of 50 individuals per stand were also screened for five microsatellite loci. The SGS was assessed on 50 individuals/stand, using the combined datasets of isozymes and microsatellites. Most low-elevation stands consisted of older individuals with complex age structures and genetically diverse plots. In contrast, high-elevation stands and one post-fire low-elevation population yielded even-aged structures with evidence of growth suppression, and were genetically homogeneous. All stands yielded significant SGS. Similarly to mature stands of the non-sprouter congener Nothofagus dombeyi, multi-age low-altitude N. pumilio yielded significant SGS weakened by competing species of the understory and the formation of seedling banks. Alike the sprouter Nothofagus antarctica, high-altitude stands produced significant SGS as a consequence of occasional seedling establishment reinforced by vegetative spread. PMID:23456320

  15. Active region fine structure observed at 0.08 arcsec resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, R; Hoch, S; Soltau, D; Berkefeld, T; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Denker, C; Balthasar, H; Hofmann, A; Strassmeier, K G; Staude, J; Feller, A; Lagg, A; Solanki, S K; Collados, M; Sigwarth, M; Volkmer, R; Waldmann, T; Kneer, F; Nicklas, H; Sobotka, M

    2016-01-01

    The various mechanisms of magneto-convective energy transport determines the structure of sunspots and active regions. We characterise the appearance of light bridges and other fine structure details and elaborate on their magneto-convective nature. We present speckle-reconstructed images taken with the broad band imager at the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope in the 486nm and 589nm bands. We estimate the spatial resolution from the noise characteristics of the image bursts and obtain 0.08" at 589nm. We describe structure details in individual best images as well as the temporal evolution of selected features. We find branched dark lanes extending along thin (~1") light bridges in sunspots at various heliocentric angles. In thick (~2") light bridges the branches are disconnected from the central lane and have a `Y' shape with a bright grain toward the umbra. The images reveal that light bridges exist on varying intensity levels and that their small-scale features evolve on time scales of minutes. Faint light bridges sh...

  16. Luminescence and fine structure correlation in ZnO permeated porous silicon nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallach, D; Muñoz-Noval, A; Torres-Costa, V; Manso-Silván, M

    2015-08-28

    Nanocomposites formed by porous silicon (PS) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have potential for applications in optoelectronic devices. However, understanding the distribution of both materials in the nanocomposite, and especially the fine structure of the synthesized ZnO crystals, is key for future device fabrication. This study focuses on the advanced characterization of a range of PS-ZnO nanocomposites by using photon- and ion-based techniques, such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), respectively. PS substrates formed by the electrochemical etching of p(+)-type Si are used as host material for the sol-gel nucleation of ZnO nanoparticles. Different properties are induced by annealing in air at temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 800 °C. Results show that wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles form only at temperatures above 200 °C, coexisting with Si quantum dots (QDs) inside a PS matrix. Increasing the annealing temperature leads to structural and distribution changes that affect the electronic and local structure of the samples changing their luminescence. Temperatures around 800 °C activate the formation of a new zinc silicate phase and transform PS into an amorphous silicon oxide (SiOx, x≈ 2) matrix with a noticeably reduced presence of Si QDs. Thus, these changes affect dramatically the emission from these nanocomposites and their potential applications. PMID:26202423

  17. Fine structure of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the phenomenon of fine structure in the region of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in a number of heavy and medium-heavy nuclei is systematically investigated for the first time. High energy-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments were carried out in September-October 2001 and in October 2003 at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility in South Africa with an incident proton energy of 200 MeV. The obtained data with the energy resolution of triangle E58Ni,89Y,90Zr,120Sn,142Nd,166Er,208Pb), thereby establishing the global character of this phenomenon. Fine structure can be described using characteristic energy scales, appearing as a result of the decay of collective modes towards the compound nucleus through a hierarchy of couplings to complex degrees of freedom. For the extraction of the characteristic energy scales from the spectra an entropy index method and a novel technique based on the wavelet analysis are utilized. The global analysis of available data shows the presence of three groups of scales, according to their values. To the first group belong the scales with the values around and below 100 keV, which were detected in all the nuclei studied. The second group contains intermediate scales in the range of 100 keV to 1 MeV. These scales show large variations depending on the nuclear structure of the nucleus. The largest scales above 1 MeV are classified to the third group, describing the global structure of the resonance (the width). The interpretation of the observed scales is realized via the comparison with microscopic model calculations including the coupling of the initial one-particle-one-hole excitations to more complex configurations. A qualitative agreement of the experimentally observed scales with those obtained from the theoretical predictions supports the suggestion of the origin of fine structure from the coupling to the two-particle-two-hole states. However, quantitatively, large deviations are observed for

  18. Flexibility of alpha-helices: results of a statistical analysis of database protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberly, Eldon G; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Wingreen, Ned S; Tang, Chao

    2003-03-14

    Alpha-helices stand out as common and relatively invariant secondary structural elements of proteins. However, alpha-helices are not rigid bodies and their deformations can be significant in protein function (e.g. coiled coils). To quantify the flexibility of alpha-helices we have performed a structural principal-component analysis of helices of different lengths from a representative set of protein folds in the Protein Data Bank. We find three dominant modes of flexibility: two degenerate bend modes and one twist mode. The data are consistent with independent Gaussian distributions for each mode. The mode eigenvalues, which measure flexibility, follow simple scaling forms as a function of helix length. The dominant bend and twist modes and their harmonics are reproduced by a simple spring model, which incorporates hydrogen-bonding and excluded volume. As an application, we examine the amount of bend and twist in helices making up all coiled-coil proteins in SCOP. Incorporation of alpha-helix flexibility into structure refinement and design is discussed. PMID:12614621

  19. Can a many-nucleon structure be visible in bremsstrahlung emission during $\\alpha$ decay?

    CERN Document Server

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We analyze if the nucleon structure of the $\\alpha$ decaying nucleus can be visible in the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra of the emitted photons which accompany such a decay. We develop a new formalism of the bremsstrahlung model taking into account distribution of nucleons in the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclear system. We conclude the following: (1) After inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model the calculated bremsstrahlung spectrum is changed very slowly for a majority of the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclei. However, we have observed that visible changes really exist for the $^{106}{\\rm Te}$ nucleus ($Q_{\\alpha}=4.29$ MeV, $T_{1/2}$=70 mks) even for the energy of the emitted photons up to 1 MeV. This nucleus is a good candidate for future experimental study of this task. (2) Inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model increases the bremsstrahlung probability of the emitted photons. (3) We find the following tendencies for obtaining the nuclei, which have bremsstrahlung spectra more sensitive to the ...

  20. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  1. Unresolved fine-scale structure in solar coronal loop-tops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scullion, E.; Van der Voort, L. Rouppe; Wedemeyer, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Antolin, P., E-mail: scullie@tcd.ie [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer substructures within coronal loop cross-sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop substructures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope/CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High-resolution imaging of the chromospheric Hα 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in Hα) known as a coronal rain, to investigate their fine-scale structure. We identify, through analysis of three data sets, large-scale catastrophic cooling in coronal loop-tops and the existence of multi-thermal, multi-stranded substructures. Many cool strands even extend fully intact from loop-top to footpoint. We discover that coronal loop fine-scale strands can appear bunched with as many as eight parallel strands within an AIA coronal loop cross-section. The strand number density versus cross-sectional width distribution, as detected by CRISP within AIA-defined coronal loops, most likely peaks at well below 100 km, and currently, 69% of the substructure strands are statistically unresolved in AIA coronal loops.

  2. Deformation mechanisms leading to auxetic behaviour in the {alpha}-cristobalite and {alpha}-quartz structures of both silica and germania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, A [Centre for Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Evans, K E [Advanced Technologies Research Institute, School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)], E-mail: A.Alderson@bolton.ac.uk

    2009-01-14

    Analytical expressions have been developed in which the elastic behaviour of the {alpha}-quartz and {alpha}-cristobalite molecular tetrahedral frameworks of both silica and germania are modelled by rotation, or dilation or concurrent rotation and dilation of the tetrahedra. Rotation and dilation of the tetrahedra both produce negative Poisson's ratios (auxetic behaviour), whereas both positive and negative values are possible when these mechanisms act concurrently. Concurrent rotation and dilation of the tetrahedra reproduces with remarkable accuracy both the positive and negative {nu}{sub 31} Poisson's ratios observed for silica {alpha}-quartz and {alpha}-cristobalite, respectively, when loaded in the x{sub 3} direction. A parametric fit of the concurrent model to the germania {alpha}-quartz experimental {nu}{sub 31} Poisson's ratio is used to predict {nu}{sub 31} for germania {alpha}-cristobalite, for which no experimental value exists. This is predicted to be +0.007. Strain-dependent {nu}{sub 31} trends, due to concurrent rotation and dilation in the silica structures, are in broad agreement with those predicted from pair-potential calculations, although significant differences do occur in the absolute values. With the model of concurrent dilation and rotation of the tetrahedra we predict that an alternative uniaxial stress ({sigma}{sub 3})-induced phase exists for both silica, {alpha}-quartz and {alpha}-cristobalite, and germania, {alpha}-cristobalite, having geometries in reasonable agreement with {beta}-quartz and idealized {beta}-cristobalite, respectively.

  3. Observation of the fine structure for rovibronic spectral lines in visible part of emission spectra of $D_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, B P; Zhukov, A S

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the fine structure of rovibronic spectral lines in visible part of emission spectra of $D_2$ molecule has been observed. Observed splitting in visible doublets is about 0.2 cm$^{-1}$ in good accordance with previous observations in the infrared part of the spectrum ($a^3\\Sigma_g^+ \\to c^3\\Pi_u$ electronic transition) by means of FTIR and laser spectroscopy. Relative intensities of the fine structure components are in agreement with our calculations of adiabatic line strengths for Hund's case "b" coupling scheme.

  4. Interesting features of n2D Rydberg series fine-structure splittings along the sodium-like isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a simplified multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (SMCDF) scheme based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) theory, we study the systematic variations of the fine-structure splittings of n2D3/2,5/2 Rydberg series along the sodium-like isoelectronic sequence, i.e. the fine-structure orderings vary with increasing atomic number Z. The competition between the spin-orbit interactions and the exchange interactions due to relativistic effects of the nd orbital wavefunctions well explain such variations. Furthermore, the effect of Breit interactions which plays the secondary role is studied. (authors)

  5. Alpha-synuclein gene structure,evolution,and protein aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Xiong; Peng Zhao; Zhiyun Guo; Jianhua Zhang; Diqiang Li; Canquan Mao

    2010-01-01

    α-synuclein,a member of the synuclein family,is predominately expressed in brain tissues,where it is the major component of Lewy bodies,the major hallmark of Parkinson's disease.We analyzed the phylogenetics,gene structure,and effects of different forms of α-synuclein on in vitro protein aggregation.The synuclein phylogenetic tree showed that sequences could be classified into α,β,and γ protein groups.The orthologous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein showed similar evolutionary distance to the paralogous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein.Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the amino-acid sequence of human α-synuclein can be divided into three regions: N-terminal amphipathic region(1-60),central hydrophobic non-amyloid beta component segment(61-95),and the C-terminal acidic part(96-140).The mutant site of A30P is at the second exon of α-synuclein,whereas E46K is located at the third exon of α-synuclein.α-synuclein alternative splicing results in four isomers,and five exons,all of which participate in protein coding,comprising 140 amino acids to produce the major α-synuclein in vivo.The threeα-synuclein isoforms are products of alternative splicing,α-synuclein 126,112 and 98.We also review the genetic and cellular factors that affect the aggregation of α-synuclein and compounds that inhibit aggregation.A better understanding of α-synuclein sequences,structure,and function may allow better targeted therapy and diagnosis of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Determining Orientational Structure of Diamondoid Thiols Attached to Silver Using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Lee, J I; Fabbri, J D; Wang, D; Nielsen, M; Randel, J C; Schreiner, P R; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J P; Carlson, R K; Terminello, L J; Melosh, N A; van Buuren, T

    2008-10-07

    Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is a powerful tool for determination of molecular orientation in self-assembled monolayers and other surface-attached molecules. A general framework for using NEXAFS to simultaneously determine molecular tilt and twist of rigid molecules attached to surfaces is presented. This framework is applied to self-assembled monolayers of higher diamondoid, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures. Diamondoid monolayers chemisorbed on metal substrates are known to exhibit interesting electronic and surface properties. This work compares molecular orientation in monolayers prepared on silver substrates using two different thiol positional isomers of [121]tetramantane, and thiols derived from two different pentamantane structural isomers, [1212]pentamantane and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane. The observed differences in monolayer structure demonstrate the utility and limitations of NEXAFS spectroscopy and the framework. The results also demonstrate the ability to control diamondoid assembly, in particular the molecular orientational structure, providing a flexible platform for the modification of surface properties with this exciting new class of nanodiamond materials.

  7. Development of powder diffraction anomalous fine structure method and applications to electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A powder diffraction anomalous fine structure (P-DAFS) method is developed both in analytical and experimental techniques and applied to cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The DAFS method, which is an absorption spectroscopic technique through a scattering measurement, enables us to analyze the chemical states and the local structures of a certain element at different sites, thanks to the nature of x-ray diffraction, where the contributions from each site are different at each diffraction. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries frequently exhibit the interchange between Li and a transition metal, which is known as the cation mixing phenomena. This cation mixing significantly affects the whole electrode properties; therefore, the site-distinguished understanding of the roles of the transition metal is essential for further material design by controlling and positively utilizing this cation mixing phenomenon. However, the developments of the P-DAFS method are required for the applications to the practical materials such as the electrode materials. In the present study, a direct analysis technique to extract the absorption spectrum from the scattering without using the conventional iterative calculations, fast and accurate measurement techniques of the P-DAFS method, and applications to a typical electrode material of Li1-xNi1+xO2, which exhibits the significant cation mixing, are described. (author)

  8. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, V A; Atkinson, P M; Pezzulo, C; Sorichetta, A; Weiss, D; Bird, T; Erbach-Schoenberg, E; Tatem, A J

    2015-04-01

    The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × 1 km using a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model. Results showed that land cover, travel time to major settlements, night-time lights and vegetation index were good predictors and that accounting for fine-scale variation, rather than assuming a uniform proportion of under 5 year olds can result in significant differences in health metrics. The largest gaps in estimated bednet and vaccination coverage were in Kano, Katsina and Jigawa. Geolocated household surveys are a valuable resource for providing detailed, contemporary and regularly updated population age-structure data in the absence of recent census data. By combining these with covariate layers, age-structure maps of unprecedented detail can be produced to guide the targeting of interventions in resource-poor settings. PMID:25788540

  9. Fine-scale genetic structure of grape phylloxera from the roots and leaves of Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, A M; Hoffmann, A A

    2004-02-01

    Patterns of variation at microsatellite loci suggest that root populations of the pest grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) are largely parthenogenetic in Australian vineyards. To investigate reproduction in leaf galling phylloxera and the association between these individuals and phylloxera on roots, we examined in detail genetic variation in phylloxera from a vineyard block. Some genotypes found on leaf galls within this block were not present on roots, whereas others spanned both zones. There was no evidence that genotypes on roots were the product of sexual reproduction in leaf galls. mtDNA variation was not associated with the location of the phylloxera clones. The spatial distribution of genotypes within a root population was further investigated by intensively sampling phylloxera from another vineyard block. Join-count spatial autocorrelation statistics were used to explore fine-scale spatial structure. Clones were nonrandomly distributed within the block and there was evidence that the distribution of clones followed rows. These findings suggest firstly that there is limited dispersal of root and leaf feeding phylloxera, and secondly that factors, other than vine host, are likely to be important and contribute to clonal structure within populations. PMID:14679391

  10. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure: Multiple layers of emitters and multiple initial states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, W.R.A.; Kellar, S.A.; Moler, E.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (US)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Chemistry; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.; Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (US). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Hussain, Z. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) has been applied to experimental systems involving multiple layers of emitters and non-s core-level photoemission in an effort to broaden the utility of the technique. Most of the previous systems have been comprised of atomic or molecular overlayers adsorbed onto a single-crystal, metal surface and the photoemission data were taken from an s atomic core-level in the overlayer. For such a system, the acquired ARPEFS data is dominated by the p{sub o} final state wave backscattering from the substrate atoms and is well understood. In this study, we investigate ARPEFS as a surface-region structure determination technique when applied to experimental systems comprised of multiple layers of photoemitters and arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission. Understanding the data acquired from multiple layers of photoemitters is useful for studying multilayer interfaces, ''buried'' surfaces, and clean crystals in ultra- high vacuum. The ability to apply ARPEFS to arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission obviously opens up many systems to analysis. Efforts have been ongoing to understand such data in depth. We present clean Cu(111) 3s, 3p, and 3d core-level, normal photoemission data taken on a high resolution soft x-ray beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California and clean Ni(111) 3p normal photoemission data taken at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Upton, New York, USA.

  11. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure: Multiple layers of emitters and multiple initial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) has been applied to experimental systems involving multiple layers of emitters and non-s core-level photoemission in an effort to broaden the utility of the technique. Most of the previous systems have been comprised of atomic or molecular overlayers adsorbed onto a single-crystal, metal surface and the photoemission data were taken from an s atomic core-level in the overlayer. For such a system, the acquired ARPEFS data is dominated by the po final state wave backscattering from the substrate atoms and is well understood. In this study, we investigate ARPEFS as a surface-region structure determination technique when applied to experimental systems comprised of multiple layers of photoemitters and arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission. Understanding the data acquired from multiple layers of photoemitters is useful for studying multilayer interfaces, ''buried'' surfaces, and clean crystals in ultra- high vacuum. The ability to apply ARPEFS to arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission obviously opens up many systems to analysis. Efforts have been ongoing to understand such data in depth. We present clean Cu(111) 3s, 3p, and 3d core-level, normal photoemission data taken on a high resolution soft x-ray beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California and clean Ni(111) 3p normal photoemission data taken at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Upton, New York, USA

  12. Evidence for the distortion product frequency place as a source of distribution product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure in humans. I. Fine structure and higher-order DPOAE as a function of the frequency ratio f2/f1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauermann, M; Uppenkamp, S; van Hengel, PWJ; Kollmeier, B

    1999-01-01

    Critical experiments were performed in order to validate the two-source hypothesis of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) generation. Measurements of the spectral fine structure of DPOAE in response to stimulation with two sinusoids have been:performed with normal-hearing subjects. The

  13. Cultural transmission of tool use combined with habitat specializations leads to fine-scale genetic structure in bottlenose dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Kopps, Anna M.; Ackermann, Corinne Y.; William B Sherwin; Simon J Allen; Bejder, Lars; Krützen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Socially learned behaviours leading to genetic population structure have rarely been described outside humans. Here, we provide evidence of fine-scale genetic structure that has probably arisen based on socially transmitted behaviours in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in western Shark Bay, Western Australia. We argue that vertical social transmission in different habitats has led to significant geographical genetic structure of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes. Dolphins with mtDNA hap...

  14. Benthic biofilm structure controls the deposition-resuspension dynamics of fine clay particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W. R.; Roche, K. R.; Drummond, J. D.; Boano, F.; Packman, A. I.; Battin, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In fluvial ecosystems the alternation of deposition and resuspension of particles represents an important pathway for the downstream translocation of microbes and organic matter. Such particles can originate from algae and microbes, the spontaneous auto-aggregation of organic macromolecules (e.g., "river sown"), terrestrial detritus (traditionally classified as "particulate organic matter"), and erosive mineral and organo-mineral particles. The transport and retention of particles in headwater streams is associated with biofilms, which are surface-attached microbial communities. Whilst biofilm-particle interactions have been studied in bulk, a mechanistic understanding of these processes is lacking. Parallel macroscale/microscale observations are required to unravel the complex feedbacks between biofilm structure, coverage and the dynamics of deposition and resuspension. We used recirculating flume mesocosms to test how changes in biofilm structure affected the deposition and resuspension of clay-sized (Biofilms were grown in replicate 3-m-long recirculating flumes over variable lengths of time (0, 14, 21, 28, and 35) days. Fixed doses of fluorescent clay-sized particles were introduced to each flume and their deposition was traced over 30 minutes. A flood event was then simulated via a step increase in flowrate to quantify particle resuspension. 3D Optical Coherence Tomography was used to determine roughness, areal coverage and height of biofilms in each flume. From these measurements we characterised particle deposition and resuspension rates, using continuous time random walk modelling techniques, which we then tested as responses to changes in biofilm coverage and structure under both base-flow and flood-flow scenarios. Our results suggest that biofilm structural complexity is a primary control upon the retention and downstream transport of fine particles in stream mesocosms.

  15. FINE STRAND-LIKE STRUCTURE IN THE SOLAR CORONA FROM MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, P. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Van Doorsselaere, T., E-mail: patrick.antolin@nao.ac.jp [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, Bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-06-01

    Current analytical and numerical modeling suggest the existence of ubiquitous thin current sheets in the corona that could explain the observed heating requirements. On the other hand, new high resolution observations of the corona indicate that its magnetic field may tend to organize itself in fine strand-like structures of few hundred kilometers widths. The link between small structure in models and the observed widths of strand-like structure several orders of magnitude larger is still not clear. A popular theoretical scenario is the nanoflare model, in which each strand is the product of an ensemble of heating events. Here, we suggest an alternative mechanism for strand generation. Through forward modeling of three-dimensional MHD simulations we show that small amplitude transverse MHD waves can lead in a few periods time to strand-like structure in loops in EUV intensity images. Our model is based on previous numerical work showing that transverse MHD oscillations can lead to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that deform the cross-sectional area of loops. While previous work has focused on large amplitude oscillations, here we show that the instability can occur even for low wave amplitudes for long and thin loops, matching those presently observed in the corona. We show that the vortices generated from the instability are velocity sheared regions with enhanced emissivity hosting current sheets. Strands result as a complex combination of the vortices and the line-of-sight angle, last for timescales of a period, and can be observed for spatial resolutions of a tenth of loop radius.

  16. Fine-structure energy levels and radiative decay rates in Al-like vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S D (Postgraduate) College, Muzaffarnagar-251 001 (Affiliated to Chowdhary Charan Singh University, Meerut - 250 004) (India); Msezane, A Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)], E-mail: g_p_gupta1@yahoo.co.in

    2010-04-15

    Large-scale calculations of excitation energies from ground state for 97 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p({sup 2}P{sup 0}), 3s3p{sup 2}({sup 2}S,{sup 2}P,{sup 2}D,{sup 4}P), 3s{sup 2}3d({sup 2}D), 3p{sup 3}({sup 4}S{sup 0},{sup 2}P{sup 0},{sup 2}D{sup 0}), 3s3p({sup 3}P{sup 0})3d({sup 2}P{sup 0},{sup 2}D{sup 0},{sup 2}F{sup 0},{sup 4}P{sup 0},{sup 4}D{sup 0},{sup 4}F{sup 0}), 3s3p({sup 1}P{sup 0})3d({sup 2}P{sup 0},{sup 2}D{sup 0},{sup 2}F{sup 0}), 3p{sup 2}({sup 1}S)3d({sup 2}D), 3p{sup 2}({sup 1}D)3d({sup 2}S,{sup 2}P,{sup 2}D,{sup 2}F,{sup 2}G), 3p{sup 2}({sup 3}P)3d({sup 2}P,{sup 2}D,{sup 2}F,{sup 4}P,{sup 4}D,{sup 4}F), 3s3d{sup 2}({sup 2}S,{sup 2}P,{sup 2}D,{sup 2}F,{sup 2}G,{sup 4}P,{sup 4}F), 3s{sup 2}4s({sup 2}S), 3s{sup 2}4p({sup 2}P{sup 0}), 3s{sup 2}4d({sup 2}D), 3s{sup 2}4f({sup 2}F{sup 0}), 3s3p({sup 3}P{sup 0})4s({sup 2}P{sup 0},{sup 4}P{sup 0}) and 3s3p({sup 1}P{sup 0})4s({sup 2}P{sup 0}) states of V XI are performed using extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions. The calculations used the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available NIST results. From our radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. Generally, very good agreement between our calculated lifetimes and those from sophisticated calculation is realized for many fine-structure levels. However, a few significant differences are

  17. Varying Alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2009-01-01

    We review properties of cosmological theories for the variation of the fine structure 'constant'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that are consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5.

  18. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature — from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or α-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force — we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by α-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54◦ North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82◦ North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  19. Variation of fine structure constant and nuclear size from isotope shift of Group III elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretation of precise isotope-shift (IS) theory is formalism dependent, and care must be exercised in interpreting these results and those obtained from relativistic many-electron ab-initio calculations. Here nuclear size or specifically, nuclear charge radii have been estimated with high accuracy. Important consequence of IS is shifting of spectral lines which is observed in quasar medium. Accurate calculation of IS will provide light on the variation of fine structure constant α as shifting depends on both. Now interestingly both of the phenomena have same magnitude of effects. So without highly accurate study of IS, nobody can comment on α variation. The study of particle physics beyond standard model demands precise calculation of Parity non-conservation (PNC) effect. PNC effect depends on the charge distribution of the nucleus. The shifting of the energy levels due to the change of the model of the nucleus from point type to Fermi distribution type is a great tool to calculate the most realistic rms radius of the nucleus. This shifting is called the Volume Shift or Field Shift (FS). So calculations with higher accuracy of volume shift take important role in these studies. A large number of researchers involved in this field since last two decades. They used different theories but none of them are all order method, which is extremely necessary for Specific Mass Shift (SMS) Calculations. We are applying here the relativistic coupled cluster (RCC) theory in self-consistent way. RCC is well known as highly correlated all order method. Here we present the IS- study on a few Group III elements. The group III elements are single valence elements. P1/2 state is their ground state and P3/2 state is their first excited state which is a metastable state. We study how the lifetime of this metastable state is effected by all three parts of the IS which are SMS, NMS and FS. The most abundant isotopes of the elements of this group such as 11B, 27AI, 69Ga etc. possess a

  20. Novel laboratory methods for determining the fine scale electrical resistivity structure of core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, E. P.; Gunn, D. A.; Jackson, P. D.; Lovell, M. A.; Aydin, A.; Prance, R. J.; Watson, P.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution electrical resistivity measurements are made on saturated rocks using novel laboratory instrumentation and multiple electrical voltage measurements involving in principle a four-point electrode measurement but with a single, moving electrode. Flat, rectangular core samples are scanned by varying the electrode position over a range of hundreds of millimetres with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. Two approaches are tested involving a contact electrode and a non-contact electrode arrangement. The first galvanic method uses balanced cycle switching of a floating direct current (DC) source to minimise charge polarisation effects masking the resistivity distribution related to fine scale structure. These contacting electrode measurements are made with high common mode noise rejection via differential amplification with respect to a reference point within the current flow path. A computer based multifunction data acquisition system logs the current through the sample and voltages along equipotentials from which the resistivity measurements are derived. Multiple measurements are combined to create images of the surface resistivity structure, with variable spatial resolution controlled by the electrode spacing. Fine scale sedimentary features and open fractures in saturated rocks are interpreted from the measurements with reference to established relationships between electrical resistivity and porosity. Our results successfully characterise grainfall lamination and sandflow cross-stratification in a brine saturated, dune bedded core sample representative of a southern North Sea reservoir sandstone, studied using the system in constant current, variable voltage mode. In contrast, in a low porosity marble, identification of open fracture porosity against a background very low matrix porosity is achieved using the constant voltage, variable current mode. This new system is limited by the diameter of the electrode that for practical reasons can only be

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nitroaromatic peptoids: fine tuning peptoid secondary structure through monomer position and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sarah A; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Blackwell, Helen E

    2009-02-20

    N-substituted glycine oligomers, or peptoids, have emerged as an important class of foldamers for the study of biomolecular interactions and for potential use as therapeutic agents. However, the design of peptoids with well-defined conformations a priori remains a formidable challenge. New approaches are required to address this problem, and the systematic study of the role of individual monomer units in the global peptoid folding process represents one strategy. Here, we report our efforts toward this approach through the design, synthesis, and characterization of peptoids containing nitroaromatic monomer units. This work required the synthesis of a new chiral amine building block, (S)-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethanamine (s2ne), which could be readily installed into peptoids using standard solid-phase peptoid synthesis techniques. We designed a series of peptoid nonamers that allowed us to probe the effects of this relatively electron-deficient and sterically encumbered alpha-chiral side chain on peptoid structure, namely, the peptoid threaded loop and helix. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of the peptoids revealed that the nitroaromatic monomer has a significant effect on peptoid secondary structure. Specifically, the threaded loop structure was disrupted in a nonamer containing alternating N-(S)-1-phenylethylglycine (Nspe) and Ns2ne monomers, and the major conformation was helical instead. Indeed, placement of a single Ns2ne at the N-terminal position of (Nspe)(9) resulted in a destabilized form of the threaded loop structure relative to the homononamer (Nspe)(9). Conversely, we observed that incorporation of N-(S)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethylglycine (Nsnp, a p-nitro monomer) at the N-terminal position stabilized the threaded loop structure relative to (Nspe)(9). Additional experiments revealed that nitroaromatic side chains can influence peptoid nonamer folding by modulating the strength of key intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the peptoid threaded loop structure. Steric

  2. Crystal Structure of the Nonerythroid [alpha]-Spectrin Tetramerization Site Reveals Differences between Erythroid and Nonerythroid Spectrin Tetramer Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehboob, Shahila; Song, Yuanli; Witek, Marta; Long, Fei; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Johnson, Michael E.; Fung, Leslie W.-M. (UIC)

    2010-06-21

    We have solved the crystal structure of a segment of nonerythroid {alpha}-spectrin ({alpha}II) consisting of the first 147 residues to a resolution of 2.3 {angstrom}. We find that the structure of this segment is generally similar to a corresponding segment from erythroid {alpha}-spectrin ({alpha}I) but exhibits unique differences with functional significance. Specific features include the following: (i) an irregular and frayed first helix (Helix C{prime}); (ii) a helical conformation in the junction region connecting Helix C{prime} with the first structural domain (D1); (iii) a long A1B1 loop in D1; and (iv) specific inter-helix hydrogen bonds/salt bridges that stabilize D1. Our findings suggest that the hydrogen bond networks contribute to structural domain stability, and thus rigidity, in {alpha}II, and the lack of such hydrogen bond networks in {alpha}I leads to flexibility in {alpha}I. We have previously shown the junction region connecting Helix C{prime} to D1 to be unstructured in {alpha}I (Park, S., Caffrey, M. S., Johnson, M. E., and Fung, L. W. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 21837-21844) and now find it to be helical in {alpha}II, an important difference for {alpha}-spectrin association with {beta}-spectrin in forming tetramers. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation studies of the structure of the tetramerization site, a triple helical bundle of partial domain helices, show that mutations in {alpha}-spectrin will affect Helix C{prime} structural flexibility and/or the junction region conformation and may alter the equilibrium between spectrin dimers and tetramers in cells. Mutations leading to reduced levels of functional tetramers in cells may potentially lead to abnormal neuronal functions.

  3. Fine-scale analysis reveals cryptic landscape genetic structure in desert tortoises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Latch

    Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of landscape features on genetic variation is essential for understanding how landscapes shape patterns of gene flow and spatial genetic structure of populations. Most landscape genetics studies have focused on patterns of gene flow at a regional scale. However, the genetic structure of populations at a local scale may be influenced by a unique suite of landscape variables that have little bearing on connectivity patterns observed at broader spatial scales. We investigated fine-scale spatial patterns of genetic variation and gene flow in relation to features of the landscape in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, using 859 tortoises genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci with associated data on geographic location, sex, elevation, slope, and soil type, and spatial relationship to putative barriers (power lines, roads. We used spatially explicit and non-explicit Bayesian clustering algorithms to partition the sample into discrete clusters, and characterize the relationships between genetic distance and ecological variables to identify factors with the greatest influence on gene flow at a local scale. Desert tortoises exhibit weak genetic structure at a local scale, and we identified two subpopulations across the study area. Although genetic differentiation between the subpopulations was low, our landscape genetic analysis identified both natural (slope and anthropogenic (roads landscape variables that have significantly influenced gene flow within this local population. We show that desert tortoise movements at a local scale are influenced by features of the landscape, and that these features are different than those that influence gene flow at larger scales. Our findings are important for desert tortoise conservation and management, particularly in light of recent translocation efforts in the region. More generally, our results indicate that recent landscape changes can affect gene flow at a local scale and that their

  4. A New Catalogue of Fine Structures Superimposed on Solar Microwave Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Jun Fu; Yi-Hua Yan; Yu-Ying Liu; Min Wang; Shu-Juan Wang

    2004-01-01

    The 2.6-3.8 GHz, 4.5-7.5 GHz, 5.2-7.6 GHz and 0.7-1.5 GHz component spectrometers of Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS) started routine observations, respectively, in late August 1996, August 1999, August 1999, and June 2000. They just managed to catch the coming 23rd solar active maximum. Consequently, a large amount of microwave burst data with high temporal and high spectral resolution and high sensitivity were obtained. A variety of fine structures (FS)superimposed on microwave bursts have been found. Some of them are known, such as microwave type Ⅲ bursts, microwave spike emission, but these were observed with more detail; some are new. Reported for the first time here are microwave type U bursts with similar spectral morphology to those in decimetric and metric wavelengths, and with outstanding characteristics such as very short durations(tens to hundreds ms), narrow bandwidths, higher frequency drift rates and higher degrees of polarization. Type N and type M bursts were also observed. Detailed zebra pattern and fiber bursts at the high frequency were found. Drifting pulsation structure (DPS) phenomena closely associated with CME are considered to manifest the initial phase of the CME, and quasi-periodic pulsation with periods of tens ms have been recorded. Microwave "patches", unlike those reported previously, were observed with very short durations (about 300 ms), very high flux densities (up to 1000 sfu), very high polarization (about 100% RCP), extremely narrow bandwidths(about 5%), and very high spectral indexes. These cannot be interpreted with the gyrosynchrotron process. A superfine structure in the form of microwave FS (ZPS,type U), consisting of microwave millisecond spike emission (MMS), was also found.

  5. Fine structure of the CCl3 UV absorption spectrum and CCl3 kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.

    1992-01-01

    The UV gas-phase spectrum of CCl3 was recorded in the range 220-300 nm using pulse radiolysis of CHCl3/SF6 or CCl4/Ar gas mixtures. The UV spectrum exhibits a pronounced vibrational fine structure which is assigned to transition into the (C2A1'(3s)) Rydberg state. The vibronic progression has a...

  6. Log spiral of revolution highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator for fluorescence x-ray absorption edge fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed an x-ray monochromator based on a log spiral of revolution covered with highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Such a monochromator is used for obtaining x-ray absorption edge fine structure by the fluorescence method, and is particularly useful for measuring the fine structure of dilute element A in a concentrated matrix of element B, where B is to the left of A in the Periodic Table. Using the log spiral monochromator, we measure good Cr x-ray fine structure in an alloy of 1% Cr in a V matrix, whereas the corresponding spectrum is severely distorted by the V background if nonmonochromatized fluorescence is used. We also obtain excellent rejection of Mn fluorescence relative to Cr fluorescence in a Cr80Mn20 alloy, and can tune the monochromator such that the entire Mn step height is significantly smaller than the Cr x-ray absorption edge fine structure oscillations for this system. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Surface Structure and Chemical Switching of Thioctic Acid Adsorbed on Au(111) as Observed Using Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulenberg, R W; van Buuren, T; Vance, A L; Terminello, L J; Willey, T M; Bostedt, C; Fadley, C S

    2004-01-06

    Thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) is a molecule with a large disulfide-containing base, a short alkyl-chain with four CH{sub 2} units, and a carboxyl termination. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of thioctic acid adsorbed on Au(111) have been investigated with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine film quality, bonding and morphology. Using standard preparation protocols for SAMs, that is, dissolving thioctic acid in ethanol and exposing gold to the solution, results in poor films. These films are highly disordered, contain a mixture of carboxyl and carboxylate terminations, have more than monolayer coverage, and exhibit unbound disulfide. Conversely, forming films by dissolving 1 mmol thioctic acid into 5% acetic acid in ethanol (as previously reported with carboxyl-terminated alkyl-thiols) forms ordered monolayers with small amounts of unbound sulfur. NEXAFS indicates tilted over endgroups with the carboxyl group normal on average 38{sup o} from the surface normal. Slight dichroism in other features indicates alkyl chains statistically more upright than prostrate on the surface. Reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared (RA-FTIR) spectra indicate hydrogen bonding between neighboring molecules. In such well-formed monolayers, a stark reorientation occurs upon deprotonation of the endgroup by rinsing in a KOH solution. The carboxylate plane normal is now about 66{sup o} from sample normal, a much more upright orientation. Data indicate this reorientation may also cause a more upright orientation to the alkyl portion of the molecules.

  8. A dynamical model for the penumbral fine structure and the Evershed effect in sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, H U

    1998-01-01

    Relying on the assumption that the interchange convection of magnetic flux tubes is the physical cause for the existence of sunspot penumbrae, we propose a model in which the dynamical evolution of a thin magnetic flux tube reproduces the Evershed effect and the penumbral fine structure such as bright and dark filaments and penumbral grains. According to our model, penumbral grains are the manifestation of the footpoints of magnetic flux tubes, along which hot subphotospheric plasma flows upwards with a few km/s. Above the photosphere the hot plasma inside the tube is cooled by radiative losses as it flows horizontally outwards. As long as the flowing plasma is hotter than the surroundings, it constitutes a bright radial filament. The flow confined to a thin elevated channel reaches the temperature equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere and becomes optically thin near the outer edge of the penumbra. Here, the tube has a height of approximately 100 km above the continuum and the flow velocity reaches up t...

  9. Preferred Compression Speed for Speech and Music and Its Relationship to Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J; Sęk, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel amplitude compression is widely used in hearing aids. The preferred compression speed varies across individuals. Moore (2008) suggested that reduced sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) may be associated with preference for slow compression. This idea was tested using a simulated hearing aid. It was also assessed whether preferences for compression speed depend on the type of stimulus: speech or music. Twenty-two hearing-impaired subjects were tested, and the stimulated hearing aid was fitted individually using the CAM2A method. On each trial, a given segment of speech or music was presented twice. One segment was processed with fast compression and the other with slow compression, and the order was balanced across trials. The subject indicated which segment was preferred and by how much. On average, slow compression was preferred over fast compression, more so for music, but there were distinct individual differences, which were highly correlated for speech and music. Sensitivity to TFS was assessed using the difference limen for frequency at 2000 Hz and by two measures of sensitivity to interaural phase at low frequencies. The results for the difference limens for frequency, but not the measures of sensitivity to interaural phase, supported the suggestion that preference for compression speed is affected by sensitivity to TFS. PMID:27604778

  10. Repetitive Thermomechanical Processing towards Ultra Fine Grain Structure in 301, 304 and 304L Stainless Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Momeni; S.M. Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Thermomechanical processing as a combination of cold rolling and annealing was performed on austenitic stainless steels 301,304 and 304L. Two cold rolling steps each one up to a reduction of 75% were combined with an intermediate annealing at 800℃ for 20 min. The final annealing was performed at.the same temperature and time. Cold rolling contributed to martensite formation at the expense of metastable austenite in the studied materials. Austenite in 301 was found to be less stable than that in 304 and 304L. Hence, higher strength characteristics in the as-quenched 301 stainless steels were attributed to the higher volume fraction of martensite. Both α'-martensite and ε-martensite were found to form as induced by deformation. However, the intensity of ε-martensite increased as the stability of austenite decreased. Annealing after cold rolling led to the reversion of austenite with an ultra fine grained structure in the order of 0.5-1 μm from the strain induced martensite. The final grain size was found to be an inverse function of the amount of strain induced martensite. The thermomechanical processing considerably improved the strength characteristics while the simultaneous decrease of elongation was rather low.

  11. The Potamophylax nigricornis group (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: resolution of phylogenetic species by fine structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Applying the phylogenetic species concept and the sexual selection theory we have reviewed some natal aspects of incipient species and their accelerated evolution. How can we recognise early stages of divergence? Which selection pressures are at work during speciation? Which pathways accelerate the speed of speciation? Which kinds of trait variabilities makes difficult to find initial split criteria? Elaborating the principles of Fine Structure Analysis (FSA and the morphological Initial Split Criteria (ISP it was discovered that the European spring dwelling caddisfly Potamophylax nigricornis doesn’tbelong to a single species. It represents an entire species group with seventeen peripatric species evolving on the southernperipheries of the distributional area. Four new species subgroups have been erected: Potamophylax nigricornis new species subgroup, P. elegantulus new species subgroup, P. horgos new species subgroup, P. simas new species subgroup. Eleven new species have been described: Potamophylax apados sp. nov., P. fules sp. nov., P. fureses sp. nov., P. hasas sp. novov., P. horgos sp. nov., P. kethas sp. nov., P. lemezes sp. nov., P. peremes sp. nov., P. simas sp. nov., P. tuskes sp. nov., P. ureges sp. nov. One Potamophylax sp. nov. has been differentiated and three new species status have been documented:Potamophylax elegantulus (Klapálek stat. n., P. mista (Navás stat. nov., P. testaceus (Zetterstedt stat. nov.

  12. Dynamic magnetization models for soft ferromagnetic materials with coarse and fine domain structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirka, S.E., E-mail: zirka@email.dp.ua [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Moroz, Y.I. [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Steentjes, S.; Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chwastek, K. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, al. AK 17, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Zurek, S. [Megger Instruments Ltd., Archcliffe Road, Dover, Kent, CT17 9EN (United Kingdom); Harrison, R.G. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    We consider dynamic models, both numerical and analytical, that reproduce the magnetization field H(B) and the energy loss in ferromagnetic sheet materials with different domain structures. Conventional non-oriented (NO) and grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels are chosen as typical representatives of fine-domain and coarse-domain materials. The commonly-accepted loss separation procedures in these materials are critically analyzed. The use of a well-known simplified (“classical”) expression for the eddy-current loss is identified as the primary source of mistaken evaluations of excess loss in NO steel, in which the loss components can only be evaluated using the Maxwell (penetration) equation. The situation is quite different in GO steel, in which the loss separation is uncertain, but the total dynamic loss is several times higher than that explained by any version (numerical or analytical) of the classical approach. To illustrate the uncertainty of the loss separation in GO steel, we show that the magnetization field, and thus the total loss, in this material can be represented with equal accuracy using either the existing three-component approach or our proposed two-component technique, which makes no distinction between classical eddy-current and excess fields and losses. - Highlights: • Critical analysis of a ferromagnetic-material loss-separation principle. • This is to warn materials-science engineers about the inaccuracies resulting from this principle. • A transient model having a single dynamic component is proposed.

  13. Electromagnetic emissions and fine structures observed near main ionospheric trough during geomagnetic storms and their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórka, Dorota; Marek, Michał; Matyjasiak, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic conditions triggered by the solar activity affect the ionosphere, its fine and global structures. Very intense magnetic storms substantially change the plasma density, concentration and circulation. Especially sensitive region is located near auroral oval, where most energy is deposited during geomagnetic storms. In this region and just below it, where the main ionospheric trough is located, we observe enhanced electromagnetic emissions in different frequency ranges. In particular the AKR-like (Auroral Kilometric Radiation) emissions are seen at frequencies of the order of hundreds of kHz in the ionosphere, just below the auroral oval. Analyzing spectrograms from DEMETER mission and comparing them with electron density measurements from DEMETER, we found that AKR-like emissions are seen near poleward wall of the main ionospheric trough, during geomagnetic storms. Main ionospheric trough is known as a turbulent region which properties change as the geomagnetic storm evolves. This work is an attempt to determine how the presence of the different emissions affect main ionospheric trough parameters such as location, width and depth. Data used in this study come from DEMETER and RELEC missions. This work was partly supported by NCN grant Rezonans 2012/07/B/ST9/04414.

  14. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynska, Michael R.; Webb, John K.; King, Julian A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Flambaum, Victor V.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of 0.4 ≤ zabs ≤ 2.3 observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of Δα/α = (0.22 ± 0.23) × 10-5, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular, we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of Δα/α measurements, thus unnecessarily reducing the overall precision. We further show that fitting absorption systems with too few velocity components also results in a significant increase in the scatter of Δα/α measurements, and in addition causes Δα/α error estimates to be systematically underestimated. These results thus identify some of the potential pitfalls in analysis techniques and provide a guide for future analyses.

  15. Impact of instrumental systematic errors on fine-structure constant measurements with quasar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Jonathan B.; Murphy, Michael T.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new `supercalibration' technique for measuring systematic distortions in the wavelength scales of high-resolution spectrographs. By comparing spectra of `solar twin' stars or asteroids with a reference laboratory solar spectrum, distortions in the standard thorium-argon calibration can be tracked with ˜10 m s-1 precision over the entire optical wavelength range on scales of both echelle orders (˜50-100 Å) and entire spectrographs arms (˜1000-3000 Å). Using archival spectra from the past 20 yr, we have probed the supercalibration history of the Very Large Telescope-Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph (VLT-UVES) and Keck-High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (HIRES) spectrographs. We find that systematic errors in their wavelength scales are ubiquitous and substantial, with long-range distortions varying between typically ±200 m s-1 per 1000 Å. We apply a simple model of these distortions to simulated spectra that characterize the large UVES and HIRES quasar samples which previously indicated possible evidence for cosmological variations in the fine-structure constant, α. The spurious deviations in α produced by the model closely match important aspects of the VLT-UVES quasar results at all redshifts and partially explain the HIRES results, though not self-consistently at all redshifts. That is, the apparent ubiquity, size and general characteristics of the distortions are capable of significantly weakening the evidence for variations in α from quasar absorption lines.

  16. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars ,Lepisosteus oculatus ,Actinopterygii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light,scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy.In the enamel,slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed,suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians.Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus,rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage.In the maturation stage,a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts,while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm.The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells,stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts,but there was no stratum intermedium.It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  17. Far-infrared Fine-Structure Line Diagnostics of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Farrah, Duncan; Spoon, Henrik; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Pearson, Chris; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Smith, Howard; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Clements, David; Efstathiou, Andreas; Cormier, Diane; Afonso, Jose; Petty, Sara; Harris, Kathryn; Hurley, Peter; Borys, Colin; Verma, Aprajita; Cooray, Asantha; Salvatelli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of six fine-structure lines in 25 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies at z<0.27. The lines, [O III]52, [N III]57, [O I]63, [N II]122, [O I]145, and [C II]158, are mostly single gaussians with widths <600 km s-1 and luminosities of 10^7 - 10^9 Solar. There are deficits in the [O I]63/L_IR, [N II]/L_IR, [O I]145/L_IR, and [C II]/L_IR ratios compared to lower luminosity systems. The majority of the line deficits are consistent with dustier H II regions, but part of the [C II] deficit may arise from an additional mechanism, plausibly charged dust grains. This is consistent with some of the [C II] originating from PDRs or the ISM. We derive relations between far-IR line luminosities and both IR luminosity and star formation rate. We find that [N II] and both [O I] lines are good tracers of IR luminosity and star formation rate. In contrast, [C II] is a poor tracer of IR luminosity and star formation rate, and does not improve as a tracer of either quantity if the [C II] deficit i...

  18. Strain-tuning of the excitonic fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumhof, Johannes D.; Ding, Fei; Herklotz, Andreas; Doerr, Kathrin; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Krapek, Vlastimil; Klenovsky, Petr [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Joens, Klaus D.; Hafenbrak, Robert; Michler, Peter [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For the creation of polarization entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) it is important to decrease the fine structure splitting (FSS) of the neutral exciton to energies comparable to the emission linewidth. We employ a piezoelectric actuator (PMN-PT) to manipulate the excitonic emission of GaAs/AlGaAs as well as InGaAs/GaAs QDs embedded in {approx}200 nm thick (Al)GaAs membranes. By attaching the membranes on the PMN-PT we can apply anisotropic strain to the nanostructures. Polarization resolved {mu}-photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to estimate the excitonic FSS as well as the orientation of the linear polarization of the emitted light. The strain makes it possible to manipulate the FSS in a range of 70 {mu} eV. We also observe rotations of up to 70 of the linear polarization of the light emitted by neutral excitons. These effects can be explained as an strain-induced anticrossing of the bright excitonic states.

  19. Upper Chromospheric Magnetic Field of a Sunspot Penumbra: Observations of Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, J; Solanki, S K; Feller, A; Collados, M; Suárez, D Orozco; Schlichenmaier, R; Franz, M; Balthasar, H; Denker, C; Berkefeld, T; Hofmann, A; Kiess, C; Nicklas, H; Yabar, A Pastor; Rezaei, R; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; von der Lühe, O; Waldmann, T

    2016-01-01

    The fine-structure of magnetic field of a sunspot penumbra in the upper chromosphere is to be explored and compared to that in the photosphere. High spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations were recorded with the 1.5-meter GREGOR telescope using the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS). The observed spectral domain includes the upper chromospheric He I triplet at 1083.0 nm and the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and Ca I 1083.3 nm spectral lines. The upper chromospheric magnetic field is obtained by inverting the He I triplet assuming a Milne-Eddington type model atmosphere. A height dependent inversion was applied to the Si I 1082.7 nm and Ca I 1083.3 nm lines to obtain the photospheric magnetic field. We find that the inclination of the magnetic field shows variations in the azimuthal direction both in the photosphere, but also in the upper chromosphere. The chromospheric variations remarkably well coincide with the variations in the inclination of the photospheric field and resemble the well-known sp...

  20. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2002-02-01

    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas antiserotonin staining is only weak. While cytological homology of the ampullary cells with those of other organs is probable, the ampullary system as a whole is regarded as a synapomorphy of the Polyplacophora or Chitonida. PMID:11748704

  1. Influence of dense quantum plasmas on fine-structure splitting of Lyman doublets of hydrogenic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic calculations are performed to study the effects of oscillatory quantum plasma screening on the fine-structure splitting between the components of Lyman-α and β line doublets of atomic hydrogen and hydrgen-like argon ion within dense quantum plasmas, where the effective two-body (electron–nucleus) interaction is modeled by the Shukla–Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential. The numerical solutions of the radial Dirac equation for the quantum plasma-embedded atomic systems reveal that the oscillatory quantum screening effect suppresses the doublet (energy) splitting substantially and the suppression becomes more prominent at large quantum wave number kq. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, much larger amount of suppression is noticed at larger values of kq, and the corresponding results represent the screening effect of an exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction. The Z4 scaling of the Lyman doublet splitting in low-Z hydrogen isoelectronic series of ions in free space is violated in dense quantum plasma environments. The relativistic data for the doublet splitting in the zero screening (kq = 0) case are in very good agreement with the NIST reference data, with slight discrepancies (∼0.2%) arising from the neglect of the quantum electrodynamic effects

  2. Updated constraints on spatial variations of the fine-structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, A. M. M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Recent work by Webb et al. has provided indications of spatial variations of the fine-structure constant, α, at a level of a few parts per million. Using a dataset of 293 archival measurements, they further show that a dipole provides a statistically good fit to the data, a result subsequently confirmed by other authors. Here we show that a more recent dataset of dedicated measurements further constrains these variations: although there are only 10 such measurements, their uncertainties are considerably smaller. We find that a dipolar variation is still a good fit to the combined dataset, but the amplitude of such a dipole must be somewhat smaller: 8.1 ± 1.7 ppm for the full dataset, versus 9.4 ± 2.2 ppm for the Webb et al. data alone, both at the 68.3% confidence level. Constraints on the direction on the sky of such a dipole are also significantly improved. On the other hand the data can't yet discriminate between a pure spatial dipole and one with an additional redshift dependence.

  3. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  4. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in a multi-oak-species (Quercus spp. forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtu AL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of fine-scale spatial distribution of multilocus genotypes can provide valuable insights into the biology of forest tree species. Here we tested for the existence of spatial genetic structure (SGS in a four-oak-species forest with contrasting species abundances and hybridization rates. A total of 483 adult trees were mapped over 8.6 ha and genotyped using 10 highly polymorphic genomic regions. A weak but significant SGS was observed in each of the four oak species, with Quercus frainetto, the species with the lowest density in the sampling plot, exhibiting the strongest SGS. The values of the Sp statistic were 0.0033, 0.0035, 0.0042, and 0.0098 for Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto, respectively. The spatial correlogram of the total population was significantly different when hybrids were removed from the analysis, which suggests that hybridization influenced the SGS. Interspecific SGSs were significantly correlated with the rates of hybridization. Implications of the obtained results for the conservation and management of forest genetic resources are discussed.

  5. Implication of Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Fine-Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sze-Shiang; Yan, Mu-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of fine-structure constant α ≡ e2/hbar c in cosmology have been reported in analysis of combination Keck and VLT data. This paper studies the variations based on consideration of basic spacetime symmetry in physics. Both laboratory α 0 and distant α z are deduced from relativistic spectrum equations of atoms (e.g., hydrogen atom) defined in inertial reference systems. When Einstein's Λ≠0, the metric of local inertial reference systems in SM of cosmology is Beltrami metric instead of Minkowski, and the basic spacetime symmetry has to be de Sitter (dS) group. The corresponding special relativity (SR) is dS-SR. A model based on dS-SR is suggested. Comparing the predictions on α-varying with the data, the parameters are determined. The best-fit dipole mode in α's spatial varying is reproduced by this dS-SR model. α-varyings in whole sky are also studied. The results are generally in agreement with the estimations of observations. The main conclusion is that the phenomenon of α-varying cosmologically with dipole mode dominating is due to the de Sitter (or anti de Sitter) spacetime symmetry with a Minkowski point in an extended special relativity called de Sitter invariant special relativity (dS-SR) developed by Dirac-Inönü-Wigner-Gürsey-Lee-Lu-Zou-Guo.

  6. Fine structures in 14C emission of 223Ra and 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the energy spectrum of 14C nuclei emitted in the spontaneous radioactivity from 223Ra and 224Ra has been carried out, using thin and intense sources (480 MBq for 223Ra and 3550 MBq for 224Ra). The sources were obtained by implanting mass-separated beams from ISOLDE (CERN) into Al and vitreous C catchers. The measurement was performed with the supraconducting solenoidal spectrometer SOLENO installed at Orsay. The discovery, of a fine structure in the energy spectrum of 14C emission from 223Ra, which is analogous to the one known for α emission, is confirmed. Only 13% of the branching ratio in 14C decay leads to the ground state of the residual nucleus, while 8l% to the first excited state. For 14C emission of 224Ra, a lower limit of 2 for the hindrance factor has been measured for the transition to the first excited state in the residual nucleus. Also, a precise identification in Z with a E·ΔE telescope has been performed for the radiation from the 223Ra source. (author) 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. The running fine structure constant α(E) via the Adler function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an up-to-date analysis for a precise determination of the effective fine structure constant and discuss the prospects for future improvements. We advocate to use a determination monitored by the Adler function which allows us to exploit perturbative QCD in an optimal well controlled way. Together with a long term program of hadronic cross section measurements at energies up to a few GeV, a determination of α(MZ) at a precision comparable to the one of the Z mass MZ should be feasible. Presently α(E) at E>1 GeV is the least precisely known of the fundamental parameters of the SM. Since, in spite of substantial progress due to new BaBar exclusive data, the region 1.4 to 2.4 GeV remains the most problematic one a major step in the reduction of the uncertainties are expected from VEPP-2000 [B. Khazin, these proceedings; S. Eidelman, Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl. 162 (2006) 323] and from a possible 'high-energy' option DAFNE-2 at Frascati [P. Raimondi, these proceedings; G. Venanzoni, Acta Phys. Polon. B 38 (2007) 3421; F. Ambrosino et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 50 (2007) 729]. The up-to-date evaluation reads Δαhad(5)(MZ2)=0.027515±0.000149 or α-1(MZ2)=128.957±0.020

  8. The Oklo bound on the time variation of the fine-structure constant revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault; Dyson, Freeman

    1996-02-01

    It has been pointed out by Shlyakhter that data from the natural fission reactors which operated about two billion years ago at Oklo (Gabon) had the potential of providing an extremely tight bound on the variability of the fine-structure constant α. We revisit the derivation of such a bound by (i) reanalyzing a large selection of published rare-earth data from Oklo, (ii) critically taking into account the very large uncertainty of the temperature at which the reactors operated, and (iii) connecting in a new way (using isotope shift measurements) the Oklo-derived constraint on a possible shift of thermal neutron-capture resonances with a bound on the time variation of α. Our final (95% C.L.) results are: -0.9 × 10 -7 < ( αOklo - αnow)/ α < 1.2 × 10 -7 and -6.7 × 10 -17yr-1 < αdotaveraged/α < 5.0 × 10 -17yr-1.

  9. Dynamic magnetization models for soft ferromagnetic materials with coarse and fine domain structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider dynamic models, both numerical and analytical, that reproduce the magnetization field H(B) and the energy loss in ferromagnetic sheet materials with different domain structures. Conventional non-oriented (NO) and grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels are chosen as typical representatives of fine-domain and coarse-domain materials. The commonly-accepted loss separation procedures in these materials are critically analyzed. The use of a well-known simplified (“classical”) expression for the eddy-current loss is identified as the primary source of mistaken evaluations of excess loss in NO steel, in which the loss components can only be evaluated using the Maxwell (penetration) equation. The situation is quite different in GO steel, in which the loss separation is uncertain, but the total dynamic loss is several times higher than that explained by any version (numerical or analytical) of the classical approach. To illustrate the uncertainty of the loss separation in GO steel, we show that the magnetization field, and thus the total loss, in this material can be represented with equal accuracy using either the existing three-component approach or our proposed two-component technique, which makes no distinction between classical eddy-current and excess fields and losses. - Highlights: • Critical analysis of a ferromagnetic-material loss-separation principle. • This is to warn materials-science engineers about the inaccuracies resulting from this principle. • A transient model having a single dynamic component is proposed

  10. Fine structure and meiotic behaviour of the male multiple sex chromosomes in the genus Alouatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, A J; Rahn, M I

    2005-01-01

    The meiotic cytology and fine structure of the sex multiples in males from two species of the genus Alouatta are presented and compared with descriptions from other species of this genus. As shown in pachytene by synaptonemal complex analysis and in metaphase I by spreading, there is a quadrivalent in male meiosis in A. caraya, which is formed by an X(1)X(2)Y(1)Y(2) complex, while in A. palliata there is a trivalent formed by an X(1)X(2)Y(1) complex. Chromosome painting with human probes shows that A. caraya sex multiples share the same components as those of A. seniculus sara and A. seniculus arctoidea. However, as shown here for A. palliata and by others in A. fusca, there are differences among the multiples of some species. It is shown that in this genus there are several varieties of sex multiples that share some features, and that the origin of these multiples is most probably a primitive development in the genus Alouatta. PMID:15545739

  11. Helical motions of fine-structure prominence threads observed by Hinode and IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takenori J; Tsuneta, Saku

    2016-01-01

    Fine-structure dynamics in solar prominences holds critical clues to understanding their physical nature of significant space-weather implications. We report evidence of rotational motions of horizontal helical threads in two active-region prominences observed by the \\emph{Hinode} and/or \\emph{IRIS} satellites at high resolution. In the first event, we found transverse motions of brightening threads at speeds up to 55~km~s$^{-1}$ seen in the plane of the sky. Such motions appeared as sinusoidal space--time trajectories with a typical period of $\\sim$390~s, which is consistent with plane-of-sky projections of rotational motions. Phase delays at different locations suggest propagation of twists along the threads at phase speeds of 90--270~km~s$^{-1}$. At least 15 episodes of such motions occurred in two days, none associated with any eruption. For these episodes, the plane-of-sky speed is linearly correlated with the vertical travel distance, suggestive of a constant angular speed. In the second event, we found...

  12. Dynamic magnetization models for soft ferromagnetic materials with coarse and fine domain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirka, S. E.; Moroz, Y. I.; Steentjes, S.; Hameyer, K.; Chwastek, K.; Zurek, S.; Harrison, R. G.

    2015-11-01

    We consider dynamic models, both numerical and analytical, that reproduce the magnetization field H(B) and the energy loss in ferromagnetic sheet materials with different domain structures. Conventional non-oriented (NO) and grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels are chosen as typical representatives of fine-domain and coarse-domain materials. The commonly-accepted loss separation procedures in these materials are critically analyzed. The use of a well-known simplified ("classical") expression for the eddy-current loss is identified as the primary source of mistaken evaluations of excess loss in NO steel, in which the loss components can only be evaluated using the Maxwell (penetration) equation. The situation is quite different in GO steel, in which the loss separation is uncertain, but the total dynamic loss is several times higher than that explained by any version (numerical or analytical) of the classical approach. To illustrate the uncertainty of the loss separation in GO steel, we show that the magnetization field, and thus the total loss, in this material can be represented with equal accuracy using either the existing three-component approach or our proposed two-component technique, which makes no distinction between classical eddy-current and excess fields and losses.

  13. UVES radial velocity accuracy from asteroid observations. Implications for the fine structure constant variability

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P; Monai, S; Centurion, M; Bonifacio, P; D'Odorico, S; Monaco, L

    2007-01-01

    High resolution observations of the asteroids Iris and Juno have been performed by means of the UVES spectrograph at the ESO VLT to obtain the effective accurac y of the spectrograph's radial velocity. The knowledge of this quantity has impo rtant bearings on studies searching for a variability of the fine structure cons tant carried on with this instrument. Asteroids provide a precise radial velocit y reference at the level of 1 m/s which allows instrumental calibration and the recognition of small instrumental drifts and calibration systematics. In particu lar, radial velocity drifts due to non uniform slit illumination and slit optica l misalignment in the two UVES spectrograph arms can be investigated. The positi on of the solar spectrum reflected by the asteroids are compared with the solar wavelength positions or with that of asteroid observations at other epochs or wi th the twilight to asses UVES instrumental accuracy . Radial velocities offsets in the range 10--50 m/s are generally observed likely du...

  14. Alpha decay as a probe for the structure of neutron-deficient nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The advent of radioactive ion beam facilities and new detector technologies have opened up new possibilities to investigate the radioactive decays of highly unstable nuclei, in particular the proton emission, $\\alpha$ decay and heavy cluster decays from neutron-deficient (or proton-rich) nuclei around the proton drip line. It turns out that these decay measurements can serve as a unique probe for studying the structure of the nuclei involved. On the theoretical side, the development in nuclear many-body theories and supercomputing facilities have also made it possible to simulate the nuclear clusterization and decays from a microscopic and consistent perspective. In this article we would like to review the current status of these structure and decay studies in heavy nuclei, regarding both experimental and theoretical opportunities. We then discuss in detail the recent progress in our understanding of the nuclear $\\alpha$ formation probabilities in heavy nuclei and their indication on the underlying nuclear st...

  15. The contribution of visual information to the perception of speech in noise with and without informative temporal fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Paula C; Kitterick, Pádraig T; Morris, Saffron D; Sumner, Christian J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding what is said in demanding listening situations is assisted greatly by looking at the face of a talker. Previous studies have observed that normal-hearing listeners can benefit from this visual information when a talker's voice is presented in background noise. These benefits have also been observed in quiet listening conditions in cochlear-implant users, whose device does not convey the informative temporal fine structure cues in speech, and when normal-hearing individuals listen to speech processed to remove these informative temporal fine structure cues. The current study (1) characterised the benefits of visual information when listening in background noise; and (2) used sine-wave vocoding to compare the size of the visual benefit when speech is presented with or without informative temporal fine structure. The accuracy with which normal-hearing individuals reported words in spoken sentences was assessed across three experiments. The availability of visual information and informative temporal fine structure cues was varied within and across the experiments. The results showed that visual benefit was observed using open- and closed-set tests of speech perception. The size of the benefit increased when informative temporal fine structure cues were removed. This finding suggests that visual information may play an important role in the ability of cochlear-implant users to understand speech in many everyday situations. Models of audio-visual integration were able to account for the additional benefit of visual information when speech was degraded and suggested that auditory and visual information was being integrated in a similar way in all conditions. The modelling results were consistent with the notion that audio-visual benefit is derived from the optimal combination of auditory and visual sensory cues. PMID:27085797

  16. Influence of the geometric structure on the V L3 near edge X-ray absorption fine structure from vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Hävecker, M.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Mayer, R; Fait, M.; Bluhm, H.; Schlögl, R.

    2002-01-01

    We present the V L3 near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of a vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) catalyst. The spectrum is related to the V3d-O2p hybridised unoccupied states. The overall peak position at the V L3-absorption edge is determined by the formal oxidation state of the absorbing vanadium atom. Details of the absorption fine structure are influenced by the geometric structure of the compound. Empirically we found a linear relationship between the energy position of severa...

  17. Influence of the geometric structure on the V L3 near edge X-ray absorption fine structure from vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Mayer, Ralf W.; Fait, Martin; Bluhm, Hendrik; Schlögl, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We present the V L3 near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of a vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) catalyst. The spectrum is related to the V3d-O2p hybridised unoccupied states. The overall peak position at the V L3-absorption edge is determined by the formal oxidation state of the absorbing vanadium atom. Details of the absorption fine structure are influenced by the geometric structure of the compound. Empirically we found a linear relationship between the energy position of severa...

  18. Primary structure, developmental expression, and immunolocalization of the murine laminin alpha4 chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivanainen, A; Kortesmaa, J; Sahlberg, C; Morita, T; Bergmann, U; Thesleff, I; Tryggvason, K

    1997-10-31

    The complete primary structure of the mouse laminin alpha4 chain was derived from cDNA clones. The translation product contains a 24-residue signal peptide preceding the mature alpha4 chain of 1,792 residues. Northern analysis on whole mouse embryos revealed that the expression was weak at day 7, but it later increased and peaked at day 15. In adult tissues the strongest expression was observed in lung and cardiac and skeletal muscles. Weak expression was also seen in other adult tissues such as brain, spleen, liver, kidney, and testis. By in situ hybridization of fetal and newborn tissues, expression of the laminin alpha4 chain was mainly localized to mesenchymal cells. Strong expression was seen in the villi and submucosa of the developing intestine, the mesenchymal stroma surrounding the branching lung epithelia, and the external root sheath of vibrissae follicles, as well as in cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers. In the developing kidney, intense but transient expression was associated with the differentiation of epithelial kidney tubules from the nephrogenic mesenchyme. Immunohistologic staining with affinity-purified IgG localized the laminin alpha4 chain primarily to lung septa, heart, and skeletal muscle, capillaries, and perineurium. PMID:9346933

  19. Structure and properties of alpha-SiC polycrystals sintered at high static pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtun, V.I.; Volkogon, V.M.; Semenenko, N.P.; Krivoshei, G.S. (Institut Problem Materialovedeniia, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))

    1990-01-01

    Practically porosity-free single-phase alpha-SiC polycrystals with high mechanical properties have been produced by sintering in the temperature range 1973-2173 K at 7 GPa. The high Vickers hardness (15 GPa), microhardness (23.8 GPa), and fracture toughness (4.6 MPa sq rt of m) of the crystals are attributed to their structural characteristics, such as high stacking fault and dislocation densities. 14 refs.

  20. Development of a two-dimensional imaging system of X-ray absorption fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Misaki; Sumiwaka, Koichi; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Ozutsumi, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Toshiaki; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    A two-dimensional imaging system of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) has been developed at beamline BL-4 of the Synchrotron Radiation Center of Ritsumeikan University. The system mainly consists of an ionization chamber for I(0) measurement, a sample stage, and a two-dimensional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for measuring the transmitted X-ray intensity. The X-ray energy shift in the vertical direction, which originates from the vertical divergence of the X-ray beam on the monochromator surface, is corrected by considering the geometrical configuration of the monochromator. This energy correction improves the energy resolution of the XAFS spectrum because each pixel in the CMOS detector has a very small vertical acceptance of ∼0.5 µrad. A data analysis system has also been developed to automatically determine the energy of the absorption edge. This allows the chemical species to be mapped based on the XANES feature over a wide area of 4.8 mm (H) × 3.6 mm (V) with a resolution of 10 µm × 10 µm. The system has been applied to the chemical state mapping of the Mn species in a LiMn(2)O(4) cathode. The heterogeneous distribution of the Mn oxidation state is demonstrated and is considered to relate to the slow delocalization of Li(+)-defect sites in the spinel crystal structure. The two-dimensional-imaging XAFS system is expected to be a powerful tool for analyzing the spatial distributions of chemical species in many heterogeneous materials such as battery electrodes. PMID:22898951

  1. A surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure study of tellurium adsorbed onto Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, S. R.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Wilks, S. P.; Dunstan, P. R.; Dunscombe, C. J.; Williams, R. H.

    1996-09-01

    The adsorption of tellurium on Si(100) has been studied using surface extended X-ray adsorption fine structure (SEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW). This particular system is of interest due to its potential applicability in the surfactant aided growth of CdHgTeCdTeSi(100) based infra-red detectors. The Te/Si(100) structure was generated by depositing a thick layer (˜ 100 Å) of CdTe onto a clean Si (2 × 1) double domain surface, and annealing the sample to 350°C. This resulted is a ˜ 1 ML Te terminated surface where the (2 × 1) reconstruction was lost in favour of a (1 × 1) symmetry. X-ray absorption of the Te L 3 edge ( E = 4341 eV), with a photon energy range of 4440-4700 eV, was probed using a total yield detection scheme. The SEXAFS results indicated that the Te atoms sat in 2-fold bridge sites directly above a fourth layer Si atom. The corresponding bond length was measured to be 2.52 ± 0.05 Å. The XSW measurements of the (400) reflection gave a coherent position of 1.63 ± 0.03 Å and a coherent fraction of 0.65. This is consistent with the breaking of the SiSi dimers and thus could be an example of the phenomena of adsorbate-induced dereconstruction of the surface. These results are compared with those of Bennet et al. who examined a similar system using soft X-ray photoemission (SXPS) and the STM study of Yoshikawa et al.

  2. Composite fermions and the first-Landau-level fine structure of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxton, W. C.; Haxton, Daniel J.

    2016-04-01

    A set of scalar operators, originally introduced in connection with an analytic first-Landau-level (FLL) construction of fractional quantum Hall (FQHE) wave functions for the sphere, are employed in a somewhat different way to generate explicit representations of both hierarchy states (e.g., the series of fillings ν =1 /3 , 2/5, 3/7,⋯) and their conjugates (ν =1 , 2/3, 3/5,⋯) as noninteracting quasielectrons filling fine-structure subshells within the FLL. This yields, for planar and spherical geometries, a quasielectron representation of the incompressible FLL state of filling p /(2 p +1 ) in a magnetic field of strength B that is algebraically identical to the IQHE state of filling ν =p in a magnetic field of strength B /(2 p +1 ) . The construction provides a precise definition of the quasielectron/composite fermion that differs in some respects from common descriptions: they are eigenstates of L ,Lz ; they and the FLL subshells they occupy carry a third index I that is associated with breaking of scalar pairs; they absorb in their internal wave functions one, not two, units of magnetic flux; and they share a common, simple structure as vector products of a spinor creating an electron and one creating magnetic flux. We argue that these properties are a consequence of the breaking of the degeneracy of noninteracting electrons within the FLL by the scale-invariant Coulomb potential. We discuss the sense in which the wave function construction supports basic ideas of both composite fermion and hierarchical descriptions of the FQHE. We describe symmetries of the quasielectrons in the ν =1 /2 limit, where a deep Fermi sea of quasielectrons forms, and the quasielectrons take on Majorana and pseudo-Dirac characters. Finally, we show that the wave functions can be viewed as fermionic excitations of the bosonic half-filled shell, producing at ν =1 /2 an operator that differs from but plays the same role as the Pfaffian.

  3. Fine structures in the optical absorption spectra of photochemical silver in silver halides? A call for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Mladen

    2007-01-01

    A survey is presented of the work done so far to check earlier claims that a fine structure may be observed to occur under certain circumstances in the impurity spectral range of the optical absorption spectra of silver halides following photostimulation in the intrinsic range. This structure, associated with the photochemical formation of silver specks, has been questioned over the years. We now weigh carefully the experimental evidence on the silver halides against a background of similar d...

  4. Time-resolved pump-probe X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of Gaq3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium(tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) (Gaq3) belongs to a class of metal organic compounds, used as electron transport layer and emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes. Many research activities have concentrated on the optical and electronic properties, especially of the homologue molecule aluminum(tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3). Knowledge of the first excited state S1 structure of these molecules could provide deeper insight into the processes involved into the operation of electronic devices, such as OLEDs and, hence, it could further improve their efficiency and optical properties. Until now the excited state structure could not be determined experimentally. Most of the information about this structure mainly arises from theoretical calculations. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is a well developed technique to determine both, the electronic and the geometric properties of a sample. The connection of ultrashort pulsed X-ray sources with a pulsed laser system offers the possibility to use XAFS as a tool for studying the transient changes of a sample induced by a laser pulse. In the framework of this thesis a new setup for time-resolved pump-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy at PETRA III beamline P11 was developed for measuring samples in liquid form. In this setup the sample is pumped into its photo-excited state by a femtosecond laser pump pulse with 343 nm wavelength and after a certain time delay probed by an X-ray probe pulse. In this way the first excited singlet state S1 of Gaq3 dissolved in benzyl alcohol was analyzed. A structural model for the excited state structure of the Gaq3 molecule based on the several times reproduced results of the XAFS experiments is proposed. According to this model it was found that the Ga-NA bond length is elongated, while the Ga-OA bond length is shortened upon photoexcitation. The dynamics of the structural changes were not the focus of this thesis. Nevertheless the excited state lifetime of Gaq3

  5. Energies, expectation values, fine structures and hyperfine structures of the ground state and excited states for boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1s22s22p 2P ground state and the 1s22s2np (n = 3, 4) 2P, 1s22s23s 2S, 1s22s2p2 4P, 2L (L = S, P, D), 1s22s2p3s 4P0, 1s22s2p3p 4S, and 1s22p3 4S0, 2L0 (L = P, D) excited states of boron are calculated using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method with multiconfiguration interaction wave functions. Energies, expectation values such as the electron density at the nucleus ρ(0) and radial moments and fine-structure splittings are calculated. Hyperfine structure parameters and magnetic coupling constants of these states are also calculated. The present results are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental data available in the literature and should provide valuable reference data for future theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. (authors)

  6. A unified description for dipoles of the fine-structure constant and SnIa Hubble diagram in Finslerian universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a Finsler spacetime scenario of the anisotropic universe. The Finslerian universe requires both the fine-structure constant and the accelerating cosmic expansion to have a dipole structure and the directions of these two dipoles to be the same. Our numerical results show that the dipole direction of the SnIa Hubble diagram locates at (l,b) = (314.6 circle ± 20.3 circle,-11.5 circle ± 12.1 circle) with magnitude B = (-3.60 ± 1.66) x 10-2. The dipole direction of the fine-structure constant locates at (l,b) = (333.2 circle ± 8.8 circle,-12.7 circle ± 6.3 circle) with magnitude B = (0.97 ± 0.21) x 10-5. The angular separation between the two dipole directions is about 18.2 circle. (orig.)

  7. A unified description for dipoles of the fine-structure constant and SnIa Hubble diagram in Finslerian universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Lin, Hai-Nan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Chang, Zhe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    We propose a Finsler spacetime scenario of the anisotropic universe. The Finslerian universe requires both the fine-structure constant and the accelerating cosmic expansion to have a dipole structure and the directions of these two dipoles to be the same. Our numerical results show that the dipole direction of the SnIa Hubble diagram locates at (l,b) = (314.6 {sup circle} ± 20.3 {sup circle},-11.5 {sup circle} ± 12.1 {sup circle}) with magnitude B = (-3.60 ± 1.66) x 10{sup -2}. The dipole direction of the fine-structure constant locates at (l,b) = (333.2 {sup circle} ± 8.8 {sup circle},-12.7 {sup circle} ± 6.3 {sup circle}) with magnitude B = (0.97 ± 0.21) x 10{sup -5}. The angular separation between the two dipole directions is about 18.2 {sup circle}. (orig.)

  8. Constraining the Variation of the Fine-structure Constant with Observations of Narrow Quasar Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songaila, A.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine-structure constant α over cosmological time, using high-resolution spectra of high-redshift quasars observed with 10 m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We use the many multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high-resolution (R = 72, 000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems. We consider both systematic uncertainties in spectrograph wavelength calibration and also velocity offsets introduced by complex velocity structure in even apparently simple and weak narrow lines and analyze their effect on claimed variations in α. We find no significant change in α, Δα/α = (0.43 ± 0.34) × 10-5, in the redshift range z = 0.7-1.5, where this includes both statistical and systematic errors. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Δα/α arising from absorption line structure can be considerably larger than assigned statistical errors even for apparently simple and narrow absorption systems. We find a null result of Δα/α = (- 0.59 ± 0.55) × 10-5 in a system at z = 1.7382 using lines of Cr II, Zn II, and Mn II, whereas using Cr II and Zn II lines in a system at z = 1.6614 we find a systematic velocity trend that, if interpreted as a shift in α, would correspond to Δα/α = (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10-5, where both results include both statistical and systematic errors. This latter result is almost certainly caused by varying ionic abundances in subcomponents of the line: using Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II in the analysis changes the result to Δα/α = (- 0.47 ± 0.53) × 10-5. Combining the Mg II and Fe II results with estimates based on Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II gives Δα/α = (- 0.01 ± 0.26) × 10-5. We conclude that spectroscopic measurements of quasar absorption lines are not yet capable of

  9. Constraining the variation of the fine-structure constant with observations of narrow quasar absorption lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songaila, A.; Cowie, L. L., E-mail: acowie@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine-structure constant α over cosmological time, using high-resolution spectra of high-redshift quasars observed with 10 m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We use the many multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high-resolution (R = 72, 000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems. We consider both systematic uncertainties in spectrograph wavelength calibration and also velocity offsets introduced by complex velocity structure in even apparently simple and weak narrow lines and analyze their effect on claimed variations in α. We find no significant change in α, Δα/α = (0.43 ± 0.34) × 10{sup –5}, in the redshift range z = 0.7-1.5, where this includes both statistical and systematic errors. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Δα/α arising from absorption line structure can be considerably larger than assigned statistical errors even for apparently simple and narrow absorption systems. We find a null result of Δα/α = (– 0.59 ± 0.55) × 10{sup –5} in a system at z = 1.7382 using lines of Cr II, Zn II, and Mn II, whereas using Cr II and Zn II lines in a system at z = 1.6614 we find a systematic velocity trend that, if interpreted as a shift in α, would correspond to Δα/α = (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10{sup –5}, where both results include both statistical and systematic errors. This latter result is almost certainly caused by varying ionic abundances in subcomponents of the line: using Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II in the analysis changes the result to Δα/α = (– 0.47 ± 0.53) × 10{sup –5}. Combining the Mg II and Fe II results with estimates based on Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II gives Δα/α = (– 0.01 ± 0.26) × 10{sup –5}. We conclude that spectroscopic measurements of

  10. Constraining the variation of the fine-structure constant with observations of narrow quasar absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine-structure constant α over cosmological time, using high-resolution spectra of high-redshift quasars observed with 10 m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We use the many multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high-resolution (R = 72, 000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems. We consider both systematic uncertainties in spectrograph wavelength calibration and also velocity offsets introduced by complex velocity structure in even apparently simple and weak narrow lines and analyze their effect on claimed variations in α. We find no significant change in α, Δα/α = (0.43 ± 0.34) × 10–5, in the redshift range z = 0.7-1.5, where this includes both statistical and systematic errors. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Δα/α arising from absorption line structure can be considerably larger than assigned statistical errors even for apparently simple and narrow absorption systems. We find a null result of Δα/α = (– 0.59 ± 0.55) × 10–5 in a system at z = 1.7382 using lines of Cr II, Zn II, and Mn II, whereas using Cr II and Zn II lines in a system at z = 1.6614 we find a systematic velocity trend that, if interpreted as a shift in α, would correspond to Δα/α = (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10–5, where both results include both statistical and systematic errors. This latter result is almost certainly caused by varying ionic abundances in subcomponents of the line: using Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II in the analysis changes the result to Δα/α = (– 0.47 ± 0.53) × 10–5. Combining the Mg II and Fe II results with estimates based on Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II gives Δα/α = (– 0.01 ± 0.26) × 10–5. We conclude that spectroscopic measurements of quasar absorption lines are not yet

  11. Fine structure of the MT=1 Gamow-Teller resonance in 147gTb→147Gd β+/EC decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MT = +1 Gamow-Teller resonance has been observed in 147gTb→147Gd β+/EC decay. The fine structure of this resonance has been identified and analyzed. Qualitative agreement of the fine structure with the calculated β+ strength function is obtained using the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model

  12. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on the Processing of Auditory Temporal Fine Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J

    2016-01-01

    Within the cochlea, broadband sounds like speech and music are filtered into a series of narrowband signals, each of which can be considered as a relatively slowly varying envelope (ENV) imposed on a rapidly oscillating carrier (the temporal fine structure, TFS). Information about ENV and TFS is conveyed in the timing and short-term rate of nerve spikes in the auditory nerve. There is evidence that both hearing loss and increasing age adversely affect the ability to use TFS information, but in many studies the effects of hearing loss and age have been confounded. This paper summarises evidence from studies that allow some separation of the effects of hearing loss and age. The results suggest that the monaural processing of TFS information, which is important for the perception of pitch and for segregating speech from background sounds, is adversely affected by both hearing loss and increasing age, the former being more important. The monaural processing of ENV information is hardly affected by hearing loss or by increasing age. The binaural processing of TFS information, which is important for sound localisation and the binaural masking level difference, is also adversely affected by both hearing loss and increasing age, but here the latter seems more important. The deterioration of binaural TFS processing with increasing age appears to start relatively early in life. The binaural processing of ENV information also deteriorates somewhat with increasing age. The reduced binaural processing abilities found for older/hearing-impaired listeners may partially account for the difficulties that such listeners experience in situations where the target speech and interfering sounds come from different directions in space, as is common in everyday life. PMID:27080640

  13. Studying the fine structure of coherent echo spectra using data from Irkutsk incoherent scatter radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Potekhin, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Studying the processes generating different-scale inhomogeneities is one of the challenging problems of ionospheric physics. Plasma instabilities are one of the physical mechanisms by which small-scale inhomogeneities are formed. The main forms of instability in the ionospheric E-layer are two-stream and gradient-drift ones. The inhomogeneities generated by them lead to an abnormally intense radio scattering of different wavelengths (known as coherent echo (CE) or radio aurora) in the E-layer. Therefore, the method of radiowave backscattering is among the widely used methods for studying such inhomogeneities. The CE phenomenon has been investigated most intensely at high and equatorial latitudes, where the conditions for the CE origination are formed rather regularly. For the last decade, CE has also been intensely studied at midlatitudes, where it is observed less frequently and its formation conditions are less known. In 1998-2006, the purposeful studies of the midlatitude CE peculiarities were performed at the Irkutsk incoherent scatter (IS) radar, with a particular emphasis on its coherent properties. It was for the first time found out that the spectra of some data sets had a fine comb-shaped structure, which generated well-known single-humped CE spectra as a result of statistical averaging. In the scope of this study, unique coherent methods for processing individual data sets of CE signals were developed, making it possible to reveal the peculiarities of unaveraged CE-signal spectra. To describe these peculiarities, we proposed a new model of the inhomogeneity spectrum, which is the superposition of the discrete set of spatial harmonics with close wave numbers. The model was shown to adequately describe the scattered signal characteristics observed experimentally.

  14. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schuler, Timothy, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [State University of New York College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  15. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent

  16. [Study on the fine structure of K-feldspar of Qichun granite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Deng-Wen; Hong, Han-Lie; Fan, Kan; Wang, Chao-Wen; Yin, Ke

    2013-03-01

    Fine structure of K-feldspar from the Qichun granite was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods to understand the evolution of the granitic magmatism and its correlation to molybdenite mineralization. The XRD results showed that K-feldspar of the potassic alteration veins has higher ordering index and triclinicity and is namely microcline with triclinic symmetry. K-feldspar of the early cretaceous granite has relatively lower ordering index and has widening [131] peak and is locally triclinic ordering. K-feldspar of the late cretaceous granite has lowest ordering index and sharp [131] peak and is honiogeneously monoclinic. The FTIR results showed that the IR spectra of the Qichun K-feldspar are similar to that of orthoclase reported by Farmer (1974). The 640 cm-1 absorption band increases while the 540 cm-' absorption band decreases with increase in K-feldspar ordering index, also, the 1,010 cm-1 absorption band separates into 1,010 and 1,046 cm-1 absorption bands, with a change in the band shape from widening to sharp outline. The ICP-MS results suggested that K-feldspar of the early cretaceous granite has relatively higher metal elements and rare earth elements, and the granite exhibits better mineralization background, K-feldspar of the potassic alteration veins has markedly lower Sr and Ba, indicating that the alteration fluid originated from the granitic magmatism, and hence, potassic alteration is a good indicator for molybdenite exploration. PMID:23705418

  17. Quasiparticle band structure for the Hubbard systems: Application to. alpha. -CeAl sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F. (Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain (ES)); Balle, S. (Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca, Spain (ES)); Salvador, R. (Control Data Corporation, TALLAHASSEE, FL (USA) Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4052 (USA))

    1990-04-01

    A self-energy formalism for determining the quasiparticle band structure of the Hubbard systems is deduced. The self-energy is obtained from the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction whose bare value is the correlation energy {ital U}. A method for integrating the Schroedingerlike equation with the self-energy operator is given. The method is applied to the cubic Laves phase of {alpha}-CeAl{sub 2} because it is a clear Hubbard system with a very complex electronic structure and, moreover, this system provides us with sufficient experimental data for testing our method.

  18. Synthetic differential emission measure curves of prominence fine structures. II. The SoHO/SUMER prominence of 8 June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, S.; Parenti, S.; Anzer, U.; Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: This study is the first attempt to combine the prominence observations in Lyman, UV, and EUV lines with the determination of the prominence differential emission measure derived using two different techniques, one based on the inversion of the observed UV and EUV lines and the other employing 2D non-LTE prominence fine-structure modeling of the Lyman spectra. Methods: We use a trial-and-error method to derive the 2D multi-thread prominence fine-structure model producing synthetic Lyman spectra in good agreement with the observations. We then employ a numerical method to perform the forward determination of the DEM from 2D multi-thread models and compare the synthetic DEM curves with those derived from observations using inversion techniques. Results: A set of available observations of the June 8, 2004 prominence allows us to determine the range of input parameters, which contains models producing synthetic Lyman spectra in good agreement with the observations. We select three models, which represent this parametric-space area well and compute the synthetic DEM curves for multi-thread realizations of these models. The synthetic DEM curves of selected models are in good agreement with the DEM curves derived from the observations. Conclusions: We show that the evaluation of the prominence fine-structure DEM complements the analysis of the prominence hydrogen Lyman spectra and that its combination with the detailed radiative-transfer modeling of prominence fine structures provides a useful tool for investigating the prominence temperature structure from the cool core to the prominence-corona transition region.

  19. Avoiding unrealistic priors: the case of dark energy constraints from the time variation of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, P P

    2016-01-01

    We critically assess recent claims suggesting that upper limits on the time variation of the fine-structure constant tightly constrain the coupling of a dark energy scalar field to the electromagnetic sector, and, indirectly, the violation of the weak equivalence principle. We show that such constraints depend crucially on the assumed priors, even if the dark energy was described by a dynamical scalar field with a constant equation of state parameter $w$ linearly coupled to the electromagnetic sector through a dimensionless coupling $\\zeta$. We find that, although local atomic clock tests, as well as other terrestrial, astrophysical and cosmological data, put stringent bounds on $|\\zeta| {\\sqrt {|w+1|}}$, the time variation of the fine-structure constant cannot be used to set or to improve upper limits on $|\\zeta|$ or $|w+1|$ without specifying priors, consistent but not favoured by current data, which strongly disfavour low values of $|w+1|$ or $|\\zeta|$, respectively. We briefly discuss how this might chang...

  20. Flare processes evolution and polarization changes of fine structures of solar radio emission in the April 11, 2013 event

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, Gennady; Tan, Baolin; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Chengming; Fu, Qijun; Karlicky, Marian; Fomichev, Valery

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of positions and sizes of radio sources in the observations of solar radio spectral fine structures in an M6.5 flare on April 11, 2013 were observed simultaneously by several radio instruments at four different observatories: Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometers at Huairou (SBRS/Huairou), Ondrejov Radio spectrograph in the Czech Republic (ORSC/Ondrejov), Badary Broadband Microwave spectropolarimeter (BMS/Irkutsk), and spectrograph/IZMIRAN (Moscow, Troitsk). The fine structures include microwave zebra patterns (ZP), fast pulsations, and fibers. They were observed during the flare brightening located at the tops of a loop arcade. The dynamics of the polarization was associated with the motion of the flare exciter, which was observed in EUV images at 171A and 131A (SDO/AIA). Combining magnetograms observed by the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) with the homologous assumption of EUV flare brightening and ZP bursts, we deduced that the observed ZPs correspond to the ordinary radio...

  1. Fine structure of the P states in heavy quarkonium and the nature of the spin-dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failure of existing theories to agree with the experimental measurements of the fine structure of the Χ states of the bb-bar and cc-bar systems is discussed. Various possible explanations, such as mixing of the 2P triplet with the 1F triplet are ruled out. The fact is used that the spin-independent potential is well-determined in the relevant range to extract accurate determinations of expectation values of the spin-dependent potentials, providing tests for future theories. It is found that the usual ansatz that the qq-bar interaction has effective vector and scalar contributions only is very unlikely to be sufficient to explain the fine structure of the 3P levels and to accommodate the recent measurement of the mass of the 1P state in charmonium. (author) 22 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Hydrogen-induced transverse cracks in welded joints of higher-stength fine-grained structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crack formation in the heat affected zone of welded joints on fine-grained structural steels is described by means of ultrasonic tests and metallographic examinations. Among them, there are the results of a demonstration experiment where two welded joints of 1m length on a test plate of the manganiferous steel StE51 (DIN 1.8907) have been produced. The examinations show that transverse cracks in higher-strength fine-grained structural steels are not to be attributed to relaxation embrittlement. Their occurrence is strongly favored by the hydrogen introduced by welding. In addition, the type of material, the chemical composition within the limits of analysis, segregations but also stress conditions and manufacturing play a part. (GSC)

  3. Electrical control of quantum-dot fine-structure splitting for high-fidelity hole spin initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, J. D.; Baumberg, J. J.; Xu, X. L.; Irvine, A. C.; Williams, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate electrical control of the neutral exciton fine-structure splitting in a single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dot by significantly reducing the splitting to near zero through the application of a vertical electric field in the fast electron tunneling regime. This is verified by performing high-resolution photocurrent spectroscopy of the two fine-structure split exciton eigenstates as a function of reverse bias voltage. Using the qubit initialization scheme for a quantum-dot hole spin based on rapid electric-field ionization of a spin-polarized exciton, our results suggest a practical approach towards achieving qubit initialization with near-unity fidelity in the absence of magnetic fields.

  4. New fabrication methodology for fine-feature high-aspect-ratio structures made from high-Z materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Clark, David; Appleby, Michael

    1999-08-01

    Radiological imagin relies heavily on collimators to achieve diagnostic x-ray images. These collimating structures are required due to the lack of efficient x-ray reflectors or refractors needed to make lenses or mirrors. In order to achieve higher resolution x-ray images, finer collimator geometries are needed. The two critical parameters that define the fineness of a collimator are the length of the collimator structure and the aperture size. Current collimator fabrication technology provides structures with coarse cell sizes, which require long structural lengths, to achieve image optimization. Finer collimator geometries would help reduce the overall length of collimating structures. Tecomet, of Woburn, MA has developed a new technology to fabricate fine-featured, high aspect ratio structures made from high Z materials. These collimating structures have been made from tungsten with aspect ratios above 50:1 and geometry features less than 20 microns. This technology has enabled advancements in the design of x-ray coded apertures. This has opened the door to new ideas for x-ray imaging. Optimization coders, made from tungsten, can now be designed and fabricated to achieve very high angular resolution. Significant reduction in weight is realized due to the reduction in collimator thickness. The collimators made using these fabrication methods also provide greater long-term structural stability compared to collimators used in diagnostic x-ray imaging using lead.

  5. Achieving Fine Beta Grain Structure in a Metastable Beta Titanium Alloy Through Multiple Forging-Annealing Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Ahmad; Ding, Yunpeng; Cui, Jianzhong; Xia, Kenong

    2016-07-01

    A coarse-grained (order of 1 mm) Ti-5553 metastable beta alloy was subjected to multiple passes of low-temperature forging and multiple forging plus annealing cycles, respectively. In the forging only processing, strain was concentrated in the shear bands formed and accumulated with each forging pass, resulting in a heterogeneous microstructure and eventual cracking along the shear bands. In contrast, the introduction of a short beta annealing after each forging step led to fine recrystallized grains (50 to 100 µm) formed in the shear bands, and a uniformly refined beta grain structure after four cycles. This is attributed to the strengthening effect of the fine grains, causing redistribution of most severe strains to the coarse grain region in the subsequent forging, consistent with the simulated results by finite element analysis. The analyses of the microstructures and simulated strain distributions revealed that the critical strain for recrystallization is between 0.2 and 0.5 and the strain to fracture to be ~0.8 to 0.9. The fine-grained (50 to 100 µm) beta alloy, however, fractured at a much smaller strain of <0.4 during the next forging step, owing to the formation of stress-induced martensitic α″ which is more prevalent in fine grains than in coarse ones.

  6. Spatial hearing benefits demonstrated with presentation of acoustic temporal fine structure cues in bilateral cochlear implant listenersa)

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, Tyler H.; Kan, Alan; Goupell, Matthew J.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Most contemporary cochlear implant (CI) processing strategies discard acoustic temporal fine structure (TFS) information, and this may contribute to the observed deficits in bilateral CI listeners' ability to localize sounds when compared to normal hearing listeners. Additionally, for best speech envelope representation, most contemporary speech processing strategies use high-rate carriers (≥900 Hz) that exceed the limit for interaural pulse timing to provide useful binaural information. Many...

  7. Fine structure characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for decontamination of nitrites and nitrates in wastewater and groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Kuen-Song Lin et al

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the chemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite species by zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVIN) in aqueous solution and related reaction kinetics or mechanisms using fine structure characterization. This work also exemplifies the utilization of field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to reveal the speciation and possible reaction pathway in a very complex...

  8. Structural complex of sterol 14[alpha]-demethylase (CYP51) with 14[alpha]-methylenecyclopropyl-[delta]7-24, 25-dihydrolanosterol[S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Liu, Jialin; Waterman, Michael R.; Nes, W. David; Lepesheva, Galina I. (Vanderbilt); (TTU); (NWU)

    2012-06-28

    Sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) that catalyzes the removal of the 14{alpha}-methyl group from the sterol nucleus is an essential enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, a primary target for clinical and agricultural antifungal azoles and an emerging target for antitrypanosomal chemotherapy. Here, we present the crystal structure of Trypanosoma (T) brucei CYP51 in complex with the substrate analog 14{alpha}-methylenecyclopropyl-{Delta}7-24,25-dihydrolanosterol (MCP). This sterol binds tightly to all protozoan CYP51s and acts as a competitive inhibitor of F105-containing (plant-like) T. brucei and Leishmania (L) infantum orthologs, but it has a much stronger, mechanism-based inhibitory effect on I105-containing (animal/fungi-like) T. cruzi CYP51. Depicting substrate orientation in the conserved CYP51 binding cavity, the complex specifies the roles of the contact amino acid residues and sheds new light on CYP51 substrate specificity. It also provides an explanation for the effect of MCP on T. cruzi CYP51. Comparison with the ligand-free and azole-bound structures supports the notion of structural rigidity as the characteristic feature of the CYP51 substrate binding cavity, confirming the enzyme as an excellent candidate for structure-directed design of new drugs, including mechanism-based substrate analog inhibitors.

  9. A comparison of fine structures in high-resolution x-ray-absorption spectra of various condensed organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, A; Zou, Y; Huebner, D; Urquhart, S G; Schmidt, Th; Fink, R; Umbach, E

    2005-07-22

    We report on a high-resolution C-K and O-K near-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) study of large aromatic molecules in condensed thin films, namely, anhydrides 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, benzoperylene-(1,2)-dicarboxylic acid anhydride, and 1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid anhydride and the quinoic acenaphthenequinone. Due to the high-energy resolution of the third-generation synchrotron source BESSY II we observe large differences in the NEXAFS fine structures even for very similar molecules, resulting in a wealth of new information. The rich fine structure can unambiguously be assigned to the coupling of electronic transitions to vibronic excitations. Backed by ab initio calculations we present a detailed analysis of the spectra that allows the complete interpretation of the near-edge features. It also yields information on the vibronic properties in the electronically excited state as well as on the response of the electronic system upon core excitation. The strong differences in the electron-vibron coupling for different molecules are discussed. PMID:16095371

  10. On the origin of fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra of the β-sialon:Eu2+ green phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsei Takahashi, Ken-ichi Yoshimura, Masamichi Harada, Yoshitaka Tomomura, Takashi Takeda, Rong-Jun Xie and Naoto Hirosaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoluminescence (PL and PL excitation (PLE spectra of Si6−zAlzOzN8−z (β-sialon:Eu2+ phosphors with small z values (z=0.025–0.24 were studied at room temperature and 6 K. The PL and PLE spectra exhibit fine structure with the PL lines being as sharp as 45–55 nm even at room temperature; this fine structure was enhanced by decreasing the z value. These results can be used for expanding the color gamut of liquid crystal displays, particularly in the blue–green region. From low-temperature measurements, the fine PLE structure was ascribed to discrete energy levels of 7FJ states. The 4f65d excited states of Eu2+ are considered to be localized near the 4f orbital. This is because the bonding of Eu2+ with surrounding atoms is ionic rather than covalent. Lattice phonon absorptions were also observed in the PLE spectrum, revealing that the optically active Eu2+ ions are located in the β-sialon crystal. The PL spectrum of the sample with the smallest z value (0.025 consists of a sharp zero-phonon line and lattice phonon replicas, which results in a sharp and asymmetric spectral shape.

  11. Chemistry as a function of the fine-structure constant and the electron-proton mass ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In standard computations in theoretical quantum chemistry the accepted values of the fundamental physical constants are assumed. Alternatively, the tools of computational quantum chemistry can be used to investigate hypothetical chemistry that would result from different values of these constants, given the same physical laws. In this work, the dependence of a variety of basic chemical quantities on the values of the fine-structure constant and the electron-proton mass ratio is explored. In chemistry, the accepted values of both constants may be considered small, in the sense that their increase must be substantial to seriously impact bond energies. It is found that if the fine-structure constant were larger, covalent bonds between light atoms would be weaker, and the dipole moment and hydrogen-bonding ability of water would be reduced. Conversely, an increase in the value of the electron-proton mass ratio increases dissociation energies in molecules such as H2, O2, and CO2. Specifically, a sevenfold increase in the fine-structure constant decreases the strength of the O-H bond in the water molecule by 7 kcal mol-1 while reducing its dipole moment by at least 10%, whereas a 100-fold increase in the electron-proton mass ratio increases the same bond energy by 11 kcal mol-1.

  12. Equal channel angular pressing technique for the formation of ultra-fine grained structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem O. Sanusi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Equal channel angular pressing is one of the techniques in metal forming processes in which an ultra-large plastic strain is imposed on a bulk material in order to make ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline metals and alloys. The technique is a viable forming procedure to extrude materials by use of specially designed channel dies without substantially changing the geometry by imposing severe plastic deformation. This technique has the potential for high strain rate superplasticity by effective grain refinement to the level of the submicron-scale or nanoscale. Wereview recent work on new trends in equal channel angular pressing techniques and the manufacturing of die-sets used for the processing of metals and alloys. We also experimented on a copper alloy using the equal channel angular pressing technique to examine the microstructural, mechanical and hardness properties of the ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline materials produced. After deformation, all samples were subjected to a hardness test and the results showed improved mechanical behaviour of the ultra-fine grained copper alloy that was developed. This research provides an opportunity to examine the significance of the equal channel angular pressing process for metals and alloys. That is, these ultra-fine grained materials can be used in the manufacturing of semi-finished products used in the power, aerospace, medical and automotive industries.

  13. Astronomical constraints on the cosmic evolution of the fine structure constant and possible quantum dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carilli, CL; Menten, KM; Stocke, JT; Perlman, E; Vermeulen, R; Briggs, F; de Bruyn, AG; Conway, J; Moore, CP

    2000-01-01

    We present measurements of absorption by the 21 cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen toward radio sources at substantial look-back times. These data are used in combination with observations of rotational transitions of common interstellar molecules to set limits on the evolution of the fine

  14. Structural basis of nucleic-acid recognition and double-strand unwinding by the essential neuronal protein Pur-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Janine; Bao, Han; Hartlmüller, Christoph; Wang, Zhiqin; Windhager, Almut; Janowski, Robert; Madl, Tobias; Jin, Peng; Niessing, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal DNA-/RNA-binding protein Pur-alpha is a transcription regulator and core factor for mRNA localization. Pur-alpha-deficient mice die after birth with pleiotropic neuronal defects. Here, we report the crystal structure of the DNA-/RNA-binding domain of Pur-alpha in complex with ssDNA. It reveals base-specific recognition and offers a molecular explanation for the effect of point mutations in the 5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome. Consistent with the crystal structure, biochemical and NMR data indicate that Pur-alpha binds DNA and RNA in the same way, suggesting binding modes for tri- and hexanucleotide-repeat RNAs in two neurodegenerative RNAopathies. Additionally, structure-based in vitro experiments resolved the molecular mechanism of Pur-alpha's unwindase activity. Complementing in vivo analyses in Drosophila demonstrated the importance of a highly conserved phenylalanine for Pur-alpha's unwinding and neuroprotective function. By uncovering the molecular mechanisms of nucleic-acid binding, this study contributes to understanding the cellular role of Pur-alpha and its implications in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26744780

  15. FAR-INFRARED FINE-STRUCTURE LINE DIAGNOSTICS OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrah, D.; Petty, S. M.; Harris, K. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Lebouteiller, V.; Spoon, H. W. W. [Cornell University, CRSR, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bernard-Salas, J.; Pearson, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Rigopoulou, D. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcalá, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Efstathiou, A. [School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Cormier, D. [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Afonso, J. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Hurley, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Borys, C. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Verma, A. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Cooray, A.; Salvatelli, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    We present Herschel observations of 6 fine-structure lines in 25 ultraluminous infrared galaxies at z < 0.27. The lines, [O III]52 μm, [N III]57 μm, [O I]63 μm, [N II]122 μm, [O I]145 μm, and [C II]158 μm, are mostly single Gaussians with widths <600 km s{sup –1} and luminosities of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} L{sub ☉}. There are deficits in the [O I]63/L{sub IR}, [N II]/L{sub IR}, [O I]145/L{sub IR}, and [C II]/L{sub IR} ratios compared to lower luminosity systems. The majority of the line deficits are consistent with dustier H II regions, but part of the [C II] deficit may arise from an additional mechanism, plausibly charged dust grains. This is consistent with some of the [C II] originating from photodissociation regions or the interstellar medium (ISM). We derive relations between far-IR line luminosities and both the IR luminosity and star formation rate. We find that [N II] and both [O I] lines are good tracers of the IR luminosity and star formation rate. In contrast, [C II] is a poor tracer of the IR luminosity and star formation rate, and does not improve as a tracer of either quantity if the [C II] deficit is accounted for. The continuum luminosity densities also correlate with the IR luminosity and star formation rate. We derive ranges for the gas density and ultraviolet radiation intensity of 10{sup 1} < n < 10{sup 2.5} and 10{sup 2.2} < G{sub 0} < 10{sup 3.6}, respectively. These ranges depend on optical type, the importance of star formation, and merger stage. We do not find relationships between far-IR line properties and several other parameters: active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, merger stage, mid-IR excitation, and SMBH mass. We conclude that these far-IR lines arise from gas heated by starlight, and that they are not strongly influenced by AGN activity.

  16. Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to obtain and characterize (surface morphology and fine structure) two types of materials: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 hydroxyapatite powder (HAp) as biocompatible ceramic materials and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels as metallic biomaterials, which are the components of the metal–ceramic composites used for medical implants in reconstructive surgery and prosthetic treatment. The HAp was synthesized by coprecipitation method, heat treated at 200 °C, 800 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stainless steel 316L type was made by casting, annealing and machined with a low speed (100 mm/s) in order to obtain a smooth surface and after that has been studied from residual stresses point of view in three polishing regimes conditions: at low speed polishing (150 rpm), at high speed polishing (1500 rpm) and high speed-vibration contact polishing (1500 rpm) using wide angle X-ray diffractions (WAXD). The chemical compositions of AISI 316 steel samples were measured using a Foundry Master Spectrometer equipped with CCD detector for spectral lines and the sparking spots of AISI 316L samples were analyzed using SEM. By XRD the phases of HAp powders have been identified and also the degree of crystallinity and average size of crystallites, and with SEM, we studied the morphology of the HAp. It has been found from XRD analysis that we obtained HAp with a high degree of crystallinity at 800 °C and 1200 °C, no presence of impurity and from SEM analysis we noticed the influence of heat treatment on the ceramic particles morphology. From the study of residual stress profiles of 316L samples were observed that it differs substantially for different machining regimes and from the SEM analysis of sparking spots we revealed the rough surfaces of stainless steel rods necessary for a better adhesion of HAp on it.

  17. Spatial variation in the fine-structure constant -- new results from VLT/UVES

    CERN Document Server

    King, Julian A; Murphy, Michael T; Flambaum, Victor V; Carswell, Robert F; Bainbridge, Matthew B; Wilczynska, Michael R; Koch, F Elliot

    2012-01-01

    (abridged) We present a new analysis of a large sample of quasar absorption-line spectra obtained using UVES (the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph) on the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. In the VLT sample (154 absorbers), we find evidence that alpha increases with increasing cosmological distance from Earth. However, as previously shown, the Keck sample (141 absorbers) provided evidence for a smaller alpha in the distant absorption clouds. Upon combining the samples an apparent variation of alpha across the sky emerges which is well represented by an angular dipole model pointing in the direction RA=(17.3 +/- 1.0) hr, dec. = (-61 +/- 10) deg, with amplitude (0.97 +0.22/-0.20) x 10^(-5). The dipole model is required at the 4.1 sigma statistical significance level over a simple monopole model where alpha is the same across the sky (but possibly different to the current laboratory value). The data sets reveal a number of remarkable consistencies: various data cuts are consistent and there is cons...

  18. Structural dynamics of the alpha-neurotoxin-acetylcholine-binding protein complex: hydrodynamic and fluorescence anisotropy decay analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Ryan E; Johnson, David A; Shi, Jianxin; Hansen, Scott B; Taylor, Palmer

    2005-12-20

    The three-fingered alpha-neurotoxins have played a pivotal role in elucidating the structure and function of the muscle-type and neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To advance our understanding of the alpha-neurotoxin-nAChR interaction, we examined the flexibility of alpha-neurotoxin bound to the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), which shares structural similarity and sequence identities with the extracellular domain of nAChRs. Because the crystal structure of five alpha-cobratoxin molecules bound to AChBP shows the toxins projecting radially like propeller "blades" from the perimeter of the donut-shaped AChBP, the toxin molecules should increase the frictional resistance and thereby alter the hydrodynamic properties of the complex. alpha-Bungarotoxin binding had little effect on the frictional coefficients of AChBP measured by analytical ultracentrifugation, suggesting that the bound toxins are flexible. To support this conclusion, we measured the anisotropy decay of four site-specifically labeled alpha-cobratoxins (conjugated at positions Lys(23), Lys(35), Lys(49), and Lys(69)) bound to AChBP and free in solution and compared their anisotropy decay properties with fluorescently labeled cysteine mutants of AChBP. The results indicated that the core of the toxin molecule is relatively flexible when bound to AChBP. When hydrodynamic and anisotropy decay analyses are taken together, they establish that only one face of the second loop of the alpha-neurotoxin is immobilized significantly by its binding. The results indicate that bound alpha-neurotoxin is not rigidly oriented on the surface of AChBP but rather exhibits segmental motion by virtue of flexibility in its fingerlike structure. PMID:16342951

  19. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunit...

  20. The primary structure of elongation factor EF-1 alpha from the brine shrimp Artemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hemert, F.J. van; Amons, R; Pluijms, W J; van Ormondt, H; Möller, W.

    1984-01-01

    cDNA as well as amino acid sequencing has revealed the complete primary structure of elongation factor EF-1 alpha from the brine shrimp Artemia. A comparison with the published sequences of bacterial EF-Tu, mitochondrial EF-Tu and chloroplastic EF-Tu shows that distinct areas of these polypeptide chains are conserved in evolution. The evolutionary distance between prokaryotic and eukaryotic types of EF-Tu is larger than among bacterial and organellar EF- Tus . A number of regions present in b...

  1. Local structure of Th complexes on montmorillonite clay mineral determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research at the Waste Management Laboratory, PSI, concentrates on the understanding of safety relevant mechanisms and processes that govern the release of radionuclides from waste matrices, and their transport through engineered barrier systems and the surrounding geosphere. For this reason, detailed sorption studies of radionuclides in clay and cement systems are conducted. The studies are combined with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy measurements in order to understand the sorption mechanisms at an atomic level. In this manuscript, a case study of Th(IV) uptake on montmorillonite is presented. EXAFS samples were prepared by incubating a montmorillonite suspension with Th for seven days at pH = 5 (Thinitial: 4.3 x 10-5 to 4 x 10-4 M). The resulting Th loadings on the clay varied between 14 and 166 μmol/g. LIII-Th EXAFS spectra of Th-treated montmorillonite were measured at the Rossendorf Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Data analysis revealed the presence of two O shells at 2.27 angstrom and 2.45 angstrom in all samples. The spectra at low Th uptake suggest the presence of Si/A1 and Th backscattering atoms at distances of 3.85 angstrom and 3.77 angstrom respectively. The presence of a Th-Si/A1 backscattering pair suggests that Th is bound to Si tetrahedra by a double corner-sharing manner. At higher Th uptake, however, the spectrum shows a strong similarity with the spectrum of amorphous Th(OH)4 and suggests that Th is predominately present as a newly formed Th(OH)4-like phase. (authors)

  2. Peptide fine specificity of anti-glycoprotein 100 CTL is preserved following transfer of engineered TCR alpha beta genes into primary human T lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Schaft, Niels; Willemsen, Ralph; De Vries, Jolanda; Lankiewicz, Birgit; Essers, B.W.; Gratama, Jan-Willem; Figdor, C. G.; Bolhuis, Reinder

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTCR with known antitumor reactivity can be genetically introduced into primary human T lymphocytes and provide promising tools for immunogene therapy of tumors. We molecularly characterized two distinct TCRs specific for the same HLA-A2-restricted peptide derived from the melanocyte differentiation Ag gp100, yet exhibiting different stringencies in peptide requirements. The existence of these two distinct gp100-specific TCRs allowed us to study the preservation of peptide fine spe...

  3. Breit-Pauli oscillator strengths for transitions among fine-structure levels of Cl I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, P; Hibbert, A [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-28

    We have undertaken an extensive calculation to obtain the oscillator strengths for all optically allowed and intercombination E1 transitions in Cl I between the fine-structure levels of the odd-parity configurations 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}, 3p{sup 4}({sup 1}D)4p, 3p{sup 4}({sup 3}P)np(4 {<=} n {<=} 5) and the even-parity configurations 3s3p{sup 6}, 3p{sup 4}({sup 3}P, {sup 1}D, {sup 1}S)ns(4 {<=} n {<=} 5), 3p{sup 4}({sup 3}P)6s, 3p{sup 4}({sup 3}P, {sup 1}D)3d, 3p{sup 4}({sup 3}P)4d, within the Breit-Pauli approximation, using the method of interaction of configurations (CI) enveloped in the general atomic structure code CIV3. The CI wavefunctions have been constructed from a common orthogonal set of 23 one-electron functions (OEFs), which have been carefully selected to ensure that the LS dependency of the orbitals and all important correlation effects have been accurately represented. In the LS-coupling regime, the configuration state functions (CSFs) included in the atomic wavefunction expansions were obtained from all single- and double-electron replacements to the OEFs for each symmetry from the orbitals in the set of dominant configurations 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}, 3s3p{sup 6}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 4}nl. At the LSJ stage we retain only those CSFs with eigenvector components {>=}0.0005 in magnitude. We then make a further ad hoc refinement to the calculation, whereby the diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements are adjusted so that the theoretical energy differences coincide with the relevant experimental values. Alternative energy level classifications are proposed for a number of heavily mixed J = 5/2 and J = 3/2 levels based on our calculations, and are supported by the experimental measurements of Schectman et al (1993 Astrophys. J. 406 735). Our results are compared with experimental and available theoretical data. We observe excellent agreement in the length and velocity forms of the oscillator strengths, demonstrating a marked improvement over previous work by Ojha and

  4. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, Jan; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, NOV (2014), s. 393-397. ISSN 0969-806X. [1st International Conference on Dosimetry and its Applications (ICDA). Prague, 23.6.2013-28.6.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Alpha coutning * neutron activation analysis * X-ray fluorescence * thermoluminescence dating * dose rate Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2014

  5. Seasonal variation in the biomass and non-structural carbohydrate content of fine roots of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) plantations in a dry tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Srivastava, K

    1986-06-01

    Seasonal variation in the biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate content (TNC) of fine roots of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) were studied in 19- and 29-year-old plantations in a dry tropical region. Fine root TNC content was highest during the dry summer (May), and lowest in the early part of the rainy season (July). Generally, seasonal trends in TNC content were the opposite of those in fine root biomass. The TNC concentration of roots increased with diameter and decreased with soil depth. In the 19-year-old plantation, fine root TNC content was approximately 12% higher than in the 29-year-old plantation. PMID:14975904

  6. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics. PMID:27071459

  7. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics.

  8. Displacive phase-transition of cuprite Ag2O revealed by extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The low-temperature phase-transition of silver oxide (Ag2O) has been investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy as a function of temperature. The thermal evolution of the local structure around Ag atoms has been determined. In particular, below the phase-transition temperature at ∼35 K, a progressive splitting of the Ag-Ag next-nearest-neighbor distances is observed. This definitely supports the idea that the phase-transition of Ag2O is due to displacive disorder of the Ag atoms.

  9. Dressing of fine grained diamond grinding wheels for ultra precision grinding of structured molds in brittle hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletek, Thomas; Klocke, Fritz; Hünten, Martin; Dambon, Olaf

    2013-09-01

    The manufacturing of structured molds calls for alternatives in terms of grinding wheel geometry and dressing. To manufacture geometric features in the micron range on molds, sharp edged fine grained grinding wheels can be used. A dressing procedure with metal alloy blocks is used to create sharp edged grinding wheels. This paper presents results and achieved tip radii of dressed resin bonded and metal bonded grinding wheels. Furthermore, a grinding test on a tungsten carbide mold is carried out to create a diffractive structure and the achieved form accuracy and surface roughness are presented.

  10. Investigation into phase composition and fine structure of type Sm(Co, Cu, Fe, Zr)sub(7. 4) magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznichenko, K.N.; Savich, A.N.; Samartseva, G.P.; Andreeva, A.V.

    The structure and phase composition of the sintered Sm(Cosub(0.67)Fesub(0.21)Cusub(0.10)Zrsub(.0.013))sub(7.4) alloy after homogenization (at 1180 and 1190 deg C) and ageing (at 800-400 deg C) are studied by the methods of microstructural, electronoscopic, X-ray and microsound analyses. It is stated that phase precipitations along the grain boundaries belong in both cases to the 2:17 type compound with the composition slightly differing from the matrix. Cellular decomposition having coarse nature in the homogenized and more fine - in the aged state is observed in the alloy structure.

  11. The 1.9 a structure of human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase: The molecular basis of Schindler and Kanzaki diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nathaniel E; Garman, Scott C

    2009-10-23

    alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGAL; E.C. 3.2.1.49) is a lysosomal exoglycosidase that cleaves terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues from glycopeptides and glycolipids. In humans, a deficiency of alpha-NAGAL activity results in the lysosomal storage disorders Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease. To better understand the molecular defects in the diseases, we determined the crystal structure of human alpha-NAGAL after expressing wild-type and glycosylation-deficient glycoproteins in recombinant insect cell expression systems. We measured the enzymatic parameters of our purified wild-type and mutant enzymes, establishing their enzymatic equivalence. To investigate the binding specificity and catalytic mechanism of the human alpha-NAGAL enzyme, we determined three crystallographic complexes with different catalytic products bound in the active site of the enzyme. To better understand how individual defects in the alpha-NAGAL glycoprotein lead to Schindler disease, we analyzed the effect of disease-causing mutations on the three-dimensional structure. PMID:19683538

  12. Structure and diversity of the T-cell receptor alpha chain in the Mexican axolotl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Dumay, A M; Aubet, G; Charlemagne, J

    1997-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate cDNA clones encoding putative T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha chains in an amphibian, the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Five TCRalpha-V chain-encoding segments were identified, each belonging to a separate family. The best identity scores for these axolotl TCRalpha-V segments were all provided by sequences belonging to the human TCRalpha-V1 family and the mouse TCRalpha-V3 and TCRalpha-V8 families. A total of 14 different TCRA-J segments were identified from 44 TCRA-V/TCRA-J regions sequenced, suggesting that a large repertoire of TCRA-J segments is a characteristic of most vertebrates. The structure of the axolotl CDR3 alpha chain loop is in good agreement with that of mammals, including a majority of small hydrophobic residues at position 92 and of charged, hydrophilic, or polar residues at positions 93 and 94, which are highly variable and correspond to the TCRA-V/J junction. This suggests that some positions of the axolotl CDR3 alpha chain loop are positively selected during T-cell differentiation, particularly around residue 93 that could be selected for its ability to makes contacts with major histocompatibility complex-associated antigenic peptides, as in mammals. The axolotl Calpha domain had the typical structure of mammalian and avian Calpha domains, including the charged residues in the TM segment that are thought to interact with other proteins in the membrane, as well as most of the residues forming the conserved antigen receptor transmembrane motif. PMID:9002443

  13. Surface structure of CdSe Nanorods revealed by combined X-rayabsorption fine structure measurements and ab-initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruguete, Deborah A.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Li, Liang-shi; Williamson, Andrew; Fakra, Sirine; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-27

    We report orientation-specific, surface-sensitive structural characterization of colloidal CdSe nanorods with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional theory calculations. Our measurements of crystallographically-aligned CdSe nanorods show that they have reconstructed Cd-rich surfaces. They exhibit orientation-dependent changes in interatomic distances which are qualitatively reproduced by our calculations. These calculations reveal that the measured interatomic distance anisotropy originates from the nanorod surface.

  14. Improvement in SOFC anode performance by finely-structured Ni/YSZ cermet prepared via heterocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Yoji; Yamamoto, Katsutoshi; Muramatsu, Atsushi

    2006-03-30

    A novel preparation technique for a nanostructured anode for a solid oxide fuel cell is investigated. By mixing nanometer-sized NiO and YSZ powders in a pH-controlled aqueous media, a fine mixture of nanoparticles is successfully obtained through heterocoagulation. The anode prepared from thus prepared mixture has a large triple phase boundary and shows a great improvement in the anode performance by increasing the electric conductivity and effective surface area. PMID:16553437

  15. Structure and alternate tissue-preferred transcription initiation of the mouse alpha B-crystallin/small heat shock protein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Frederikse, P H; Dubin, R A; Haynes, J I; Piatigorsky, J

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence (-865 to +3515) of the murine alpha B-crystallin/small heat shock protein gene, a major soluble protein of the vertebrate eye lens. Its 3 exon/2 intron structure is identical to that of the rat, hamster and human gene, with the exons being much more conserved than the introns. Previous reports indicated that there are two sizes of alpha B-crystallin mRNA; a larger alpha B-crystallin mRNA predominates in the lung and brain and is also found i...

  16. Measurement of the radial diffusion constant at AQUILON 2 by means of the study of the distortion of the fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives several measurements of the radial diffusion constant of thermal neutrons by means of the study of the interaction of macroscopic flux and of fine structure in Aquilon II. The use of two type of clusters allows to compare the effect of the fuel distribution on the radial diffusion constant. Two types of measurement have been used: - macroscopic or 'amont-aval' method in which the perturbation brought by the microscopic flux on the macroscopic flux is measured; - microscopic or 'fine structure' method, which analyses the distortion of the fine structure of a cell under the effect of the macroscopic flux. (authors)

  17. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Group B Streptococcus Alpha C Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auperin,T.; Bolduc, G.; Baron, M.; Heroux, A.; Filman, D.; Madoff, L.; Hogle, J.

    2005-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis among neonates and an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Invasive diseases due to GBS are attributed to the ability of the pathogen to translocate across human epithelial surfaces. The alpha C protein (ACP) has been identified as an invasin that plays a role in internalization and translocation of GBS across epithelial cells. The soluble N-terminal domain of ACP (NtACP) blocks the internalization of GBS. We determined the 1.86-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of NtACP comprising residues Ser{sup 52} through Leu{sup 225} of the full-length ACP. NtACP has two domains, an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich and a C-terminal three-helix bundle. Structural and topological alignments reveal that the {beta}-sandwich shares structural elements with the type III fibronectin fold (FnIII), but includes structural elaborations that make it unique. We have identified a potential integrin-binding motif consisting of Lys-Thr-Asp{sup 146}, Arg{sup 110}, and Asp{sup 118}. A similar arrangement of charged residues has been described in other invasins. ACP shows a heparin binding activity that requires NtACP. We propose a possible heparin-binding site, including one surface of the three-helix bundle, and nearby portions of the sandwich and repeat domains. We have validated this prediction using assays of the heparin binding and cell-adhesion properties of engineered fragments of ACP. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the highly conserved Gram-positive surface alpha-like protein family, and it will enable the internalization mechanism of GBS to be dissected at the atomic level.

  18. Effect of polyols on the native structure of {alpha}-chymotrypsin: A comparable study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Awanish; Attri, Pankaj [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India); Venkatesu, Pannuru, E-mail: venkatesup@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India)

    2012-05-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin in polyols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have performed DSC, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our {Delta}G{sub u} of CT in polyol increase as polyol concentration increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All polyols acted as enhancers for CT stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results show that trehalose is strong stabilizer. - The influence of polyols on the structure and stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin (CT) have been explored by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have predicted the thermodynamic folding properties (transition temperature (T{sub m}), enthalpy change ({Delta}H), heat capacity change ({Delta}C{sub p}) and Gibbs free energy change ({Delta}G{sub u}) from DSC to understand the clear picture of folding studies of CT. All polyols (trehalose, sucrose, sorbitol, and glycerol) acted as enhancers for CT stability, with varying efficacies and efficiencies. The DSC, CD and fluorescence spectral analysis clearly showed the ability of polyols to protect the native structural conformation of enzyme and preventing the unfolding which occurs in the aqueous media. These results explicitly explain that stabilizing polyols are preferentially excluded from the surface of CT, since water has a higher tendency toward favourable interactions with functional groups of the CT than with polyols.

  19. De novo backbone and sequence design of an idealized alpha/beta-barrel protein: Evidence of stable tertiary structure

    OpenAIRE

    Offredi, Fabrice; Dubail, Fabien; Kischel, Philippe; Sarinski, K.; Stern, A S; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Hoch, J. C.; Prosperi, Christelle; François, Jean-Marie; Mayo, S. L.; Martial, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    We have designed, synthesized, and characterized a 216 amino acid residue sequence encoding a putative idealized alpha/beta-barrel protein. The design was elaborated in two steps. First, the idealized backbone was defined with geometric parameters representing our target fold: a central eight parallel-stranded beta-sheet surrounded by eight parallel alpha-helices, connected together with short structural turns on both sides of the barrel. An automated sequence selection algorithm, based on th...

  20. Structural Stability and Unfolding Properties of Thermostable bacterial alpha-amylases: A Comparative Study on Homologous Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Fitter, J.; Haber-Pohlmeier, S.

    2004-01-01

    In a comparative investigation on two thermostable alpha-amylases [Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BAA), T(m) = 86 degrees C and Bacillus licheniformis (BLA), T(m) = 101 degrees C], we studied thermal and guanidine hydrochloride (GndHCl)-induced unfolding using fluorescence and CD spectroscopy, as well as dynamic light scattering. Depletion of calcium from specific ion-binding sites in the protein structures reduces the melting temperature tremendously for both alpha-amylases. The reduction is ne...

  1. Fine-structure energy levels and lifetimes in Al-like iron and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.P.; Msezane, A.Z. [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2001-11-14

    Large-scale CIV3 calculations are performed for the excitation energies from the ground state for 53 fine-structure levels as well as for some oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the levels of the terms (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p({sup 2}P{sup o}), 3s3p{sup 2}({sup 2}S,{sup 2}P,{sup 2}D,{sup 4}P), 3s{sup 2}3d({sup 2}D), 3p{sup 3}({sup 4}S{sup o}, {sup 2}P{sup o}, {sup 2}D{sup o}), 3s3p({sup 3}P{sup o})3d({sup 2}P{sup o}, {sup 2}D{sup o}, {sup 2}F{sup o}, {sup 4}p{sup o}, {sup 4}D{sup o},{sup 4}F{sup o}), 3s3p({sup 1}P{sup o})3d({sup 2}P{sup o}, {sup 2}D{sup o}, {sup 2}F{sup o}), 3s{sup 2}4s({sup 2}S), 3s{sup 2}4p({sup 2}P{sup o}), 3s{sup 2}4d({sup 2}D), 3s{sup 2}4f({sup 2}F{sup o}), 3s3p({sup 3}P{sup o})4s({sup 2}P{sup o}, {sup 4}P{sup o}) and 3s3p({sup 1}P{sup o})4s({sup 2}P{sup o}) of Fe XIV and Ni XVI. In this calculation, a large number of configurations which include up to n=5 orbitals are used to ensure convergence. The important relativistic effects in intermediate coupling are incorporated by means of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Our calculated excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results for both Fe XIV and Ni XVI. We also predict new data for Ni XVI for the levels arising from the configurations with n=4 orbitals where there are no theoretical or experimental results available. From our transition probabilities, we have calculated radiative lifetimes of the high-spin levels 3s3p{sup 2} {sup 4}P and 3s3p3d {sup 4}F{sup o}. A large difference in the lifetime (about a factor of four) of the latter level of Fe XIV between our calculated value (using our adjusted energies), on the one hand, and the experimental result of Trabert et al and other theoretical calculations, on the other hand, is explained through subtleties in the energy values. The new predicted lifetime for the 3s3p3d {sup 4}F{sub 3

  2. X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Investigation of Copper(II) Mixed Ligand Complexes with Pyridinedicarboxylic Acid as Primary Ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, D. Ah.; Gaur, A.; Soni, B.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2015-05-01

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra at the K-edge of the copper complexes Cu(PDC)(Mim)3 H2O ( 1) and Cu(PDC)2(EA)2H2O ( 2) (where PDC - Pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, Mim - 2-methylimidazole, and EA - ethyl acetate) have been investigated. The experimental extended X-ray absorption fine structure data of complex 1 have been analyzed by fitting the theoretical model generated from its own crystallographic data. The crystallographic data for complex 2 are not available. It has been found by comparing the intensity of the pre-edge peaks and X-ray absorption near edge structure features of complexes 1 and 2 that both complexes possess square pyramidal geometry around the copper centers and thus complex 2 is analogous to complex 1. Hence, the theoretical model generated for complex 1 has been fitted to the experimental EXAFS data of complex 2 to determine the structural parameters of complex 2. The coordination geometry of both complexes has been depicted. Further, the chemical shifts have been used to determine the oxidation state as well as to estimate the effective nuclear charge on the copper atom.

  3. Fine refinement of solid state structure of racemic form of phospho-tyrosine employing NMR Crystallography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Piotr; Pawlak, Tomasz; Oszajca, Marcin; Lasocha, Wieslaw; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2015-02-01

    We present step by step facets important in NMR Crystallography strategy employing O-phospho-dl-tyrosine as model sample. The significance of three major techniques being components of this approach: solid state NMR (SS NMR), X-ray diffraction of powdered sample (PXRD) and theoretical calculations (Gauge Invariant Projector Augmented Wave; GIPAW) is discussed. Each experimental technique provides different set of structural constraints. From the PXRD measurement the size of the unit cell, space group and roughly refined molecular structure are established. SS NMR provides information about content of crystallographic asymmetric unit, local geometry, molecular motion in the crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding pattern. GIPAW calculations are employed for validation of quality of elucidation and fine refinement of structure. Crystal and molecular structure of O-phospho-dl-tyrosine solved by NMR Crystallography is deposited at Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center under number CCDC 1005924. PMID:25240460

  4. Crystal structures of the psychrophilic alpha-amylase from Alteromonas haloplanctis in its native form and complexed with an inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Aghajari, N.; Feller, G; Gerday, C.; Haser, R.

    1998-01-01

    Alteromonas haloplanctis is a bacterium that flourishes in Antarctic sea-water and it is considered as an extreme psychrophile. We have determined the crystal structures of the alpha-amylase (AHA) secreted by this bacterium, in its native state to 2.0 angstroms resolution as well as in complex with Tris to 1.85 angstroms resolution. The structure of AHA, which is the first experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of a psychrophilic enzyme, resembles those of other known alpha-amy...

  5. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of chlorine-like chromium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Man Mohan; Avnindra K Singh; Alok K S Jha; Narendra Singh

    2005-07-01

    We have done relativistic calculations for the evaluation of energy levels, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and lifetimes for Cr VIII ion. Use has been made of configuration interaction technique by including Briet–Pauli approximation. The energies of various levels from the ground state to excited levels of 3s3p6, 3s23p43d, 3s23p44s, 3s23p44d of Cr VIII are given in LSJ coupling scheme after fine-tuning and are compared with the experimental results compiled in the NIST Data Base. Many new lines have been predicted which have not appeared so far in the NIST Data.

  6. Method of Making Fine Lithium Iron Phosphate/Carbon-Based Powders with an Olivine Type Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Dhamne, Abhijeet (Inventor); Skandan, Ganesh (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Processes for producing fine LiFePO.sub.4/C and nanostructured LiFe.sub.xM.sub.1-xPO.sub.4/C composite powders, where 1.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.1 and M is a metal cation. Electrodes made of either nanostructured LiFe.sub.xM.sub.1-xPO.sub.4 powders or nanostructured LiFe.sub.xM.sub.1-xPO.sub.4/C composite powders exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. That will provide high power density, low cost and environmentally friendly rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

  7. Structure-based analysis of high pressure adaptation of alpha-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takami

    2003-07-25

    Deep-sea fishes occur to depths of several thousand meters, and at these abyssal depths encounter pressures that shallower living fishes cannot tolerate. Tolerance of abyssal pressures by deep-sea fish is likely to depend in part on adaptive modifications of proteins. However, the types of structural modifications to proteins that allow function at high pressure have not been discovered. To elucidate the mechanisms of protein adaptation to high pressure, we cloned the alpha-skeletal actin cDNAs from two abyssal Coryphaenoides species, C. armatus and C. yaquinae, and identified three amino acid substitutions, V54A or L67P, Q137K, and A155S, that distinguish these abyssal actins from orthologs of alpha-actin from non-abyssal Coryphaenoides. These substitutions, Q137K and A155S, prevent the dissociation reactions of ATP and Ca2+ from being influenced by high pressure. In particular, the lysine residue at position 137 results in a much smaller apparent volume change in the Ca2+ dissociation reaction. The V54A or L67P substitution reduces the volume change associated with actin polymerization and has a role in maintaining the DNase I activity of actin at high pressure. Together, these results indicate that a few amino acid substitutions in key functional positions can adaptively alter the pressure sensitivity of a protein. PMID:12740368

  8. Pressure-dependent changes in the structure of the melittin {alpha}-helix determined by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwadate, Mitsuo; Asakura, Tetsuo [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Biotechnology (Japan); Dubovskii, Peter V.; Yamada, Hiroaki; Akasaka, Kazuyuki [Kobe University, Graduate School of Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry of Faculty of Science (Japan); Williamson, Michael P. [University of Sheffield, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-15

    A novel method is described, which uses changes in NMR chemical shifts to characterise the structural change in a protein with pressure. Melittin in methanol is a small {alpha}-helical protein, and its chemical shifts change linearly and reversibly with pressure between 1 and 2000 bar. An improved relationship between structure and HN shift has been calculated, and used to drive a molecular dynamics-based calculation of the change in structure. With pressure, the helix is compressed, with the H-O distance of the NH-O=C hydrogen bonds decreased by 0.021 {+-} 0.039 A, leading to an overall compression along the entire helix of about 0.4 A, corresponding to a static compressibility of 6 x10{sup -6} bar{sup -1}. The backbone dihedral angles {phi} and {psi} are altered by no more than {+-} 3 deg. for most residues with a negative correlation coefficient of -0.85 between {phi}{sub i} and {psi}{sub i-1}, indicating that the local conformation alters to maintain hydrogen bonds in good geometries. The method is shown to be capable of calculating structural change with high precision, and the results agree with structural changes determined using other methodologies.

  9. The $g$-factor of light ions for an improved determination of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Yerokhin, V A; Harman, Z; Tupitsyn, I I; Keitel, C H

    2015-01-01

    A weighted difference of the $g$-factors of the H- and Li-like ions of the same element is theoretically studied and optimized in order to maximize the cancelation of nuclear effects between the two charge states. We show that this weighted difference and its combination for two different elements can be used to extract the fine-structure constant from near-future bound-electron $g$-factor experiments with an accuracy improvement by orders of magnitude as compared to its present literature value.

  10. Statistics of fine dispersion structures events in energetic particle spectra: their origin and role in the outer magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Lutsenko; E. A. Gavrilova; T. V. Grechko

    2008-01-01

    Fine Dispersion Structures (FDS) in energetic particle spectra in outer magnetosphere were discovered in DOK-2 experiments onboard of Interball-1 and -2 spacecrafts (1995–2000). First results of these studies were published in 2000–2005. It was shown that FDS can be a result of a gradient-curvature drift of ions and electrons around the Earth after their pulse injection from the geotail plasma sheet to some point in the night side of the outer magnetosphere. Since that time hundreds of such e...

  11. Correlation between preheating and crack prevention in the welding of unalloyed high-strength fine-grained structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the problem of how to find the right preheating temperature in the welding of unalloyed, fine-grained high-strength structural steels. Possibilities are critically evaluated with the result that Uwer's formulas for the calculation of heat removal are well suited for a determination of the necessary preheating for the welding process. This is illustrated by some of the author's own experiments. On the basis of this newly gained knowledge, a revision of the 1976 iron and steel material sheet No.W088 is proposed. (orig./IHOE) 891 IHOE/orig. 892 MKO

  12. Atomic Transition Frequencies, Isotope Shifts, and Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine Structure Constant for Studies of Quasar Absorption Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Kozlov, M. G.; Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest spatial and temporal variation of fundamental "constants" in the Universe. A change in the fine structure constant, α = {e}2/hslash c , could be detected via shifts in the frequencies of atomic transitions in quasar absorption systems. Recent studies using 140 absorption systems from the Keck telescope and 153 from the Very Large Telescope, suggest that α varies spatially (61). That is, in one direction on the sky α seems to have been smaller at the time of absorption, while in the opposite direction it seems to have been larger.

  13. Effective collision strengths for fine structure transitions from the ground state to n = 3 levels in Ca XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R-matrix method is used to calculate electron impact collision strength in Ca XI from its ground state. Configuration interactions are used to represent the first fifteen LS coupled states which are retained in the R-matrix expansion. Effective collision strengths are calculated for transitions between the fine structure levels of the ground state and those of the excited states by employing a transformation of the LS-coupled reactance matrices, and by assuming a Maxwellian velocity distribution for the incident electrons. (orig.)

  14. Optical Transitions in Highly Charged Californium Ions with High Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine-Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Ong, A.

    2012-08-01

    We study electronic transitions in highly charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, α. The transitions are in the optical range despite the large ionization energies because they lie on the level crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf16+ is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf16+ has very large nuclear charge and large ionization energy, resulting in the largest α sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters.

  15. 100-picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure of FeII(1,10-phenanthroline)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying photo-induced molecular dynamics in liquid with sub-nanosecond time-resolution and sub-Angstrom spatial resolution gives information for understanding fundamental chemical process in the photo-induced cooperative phenomena of molecular systems and also for developing new materials and devices. Here, we present time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure on the spin-crossover complex FeII tris-(1,10-phenanthroline) dissolved in aqueous solution. We utilized femtosecond laser at 400nm pulse for excitation and 100ps X-ray pulse for probe.

  16. 100-picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure of FeII(1,10-phenanthroline)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tokushi; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Tomita, Ayana; Ichikawa, Hirohiko; Chollet, Matthieu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2009-02-01

    Studying photo-induced molecular dynamics in liquid with sub-nanosecond time-resolution and sub-Angstrom spatial resolution gives information for understanding fundamental chemical process in the photo-induced cooperative phenomena of molecular systems and also for developing new materials and devices. Here, we present time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure on the spin-crossover complex FeII tris-(1,10-phenanthroline) dissolved in aqueous solution. We utilized femtosecond laser at 400nm pulse for excitation and 100ps X-ray pulse for probe.

  17. Atomic sulfur: Frequency measurement of the J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition at 56.3 microns by laser magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John M.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Zink, Lyndon R.

    1994-01-01

    The J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition in atomic sulfur (S I) in its ground (3)P state has been detected in the laboratory by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance. The fine-structure interval has been measured accurately as 5,322,492.9 +/- 2.8 MHz which corresponds to a wavelength of 56.325572 +/- 0.000030 micrometers.

  18. Landscape-Level and Fine-Scale Genetic Structure of the Neo tropical Tree Protium spruceanum (Burseraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of genetic structure at different scales and correlation with the current landscape is fundamental for evaluating the importance of evolutionary processes and identifying conservation units. Here, we used allozyme loci to examine the spatial genetic structure (SGS) of 230 individuals of Protium spruceanum, a native canopy-emergent in five fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest (1 to 11.8 ha), and four ecological corridors (460 to 1000 m length). Wright's FST statistic and Mantel tests revealed little evidence of significant genetic structure at the landscape-scale (FST=0.027; rM=-0.051, P=.539). At fine-scale SGS, low levels of relatedness within fragments and corridors (Sp=0.008, P>.05) were observed. Differences in the levels and distribution of the SGS at both spatial scales are discussed in relation to biological and conservation strategies of corridors and forest fragments.

  19. Some Features of Raman Scattering by Molecules Adsorbed on Metal Crystal Faces and a Fine Light Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Polubotko, A M

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes some experiments on Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on the face (111) of silver monocrystals performed by A. Campion et al. From the existence of the forbidden line of benzene, the conclusion about existence of the surface field, caused by atomic structure of the surface is made. The relatively large intensity of this line allows to make a conclusion about large influence of the electromagnetic field spatial inhomogeneity in crystals on their optical properties. The difference between this field and a regular plane wave, which usually describes propagation of electromagnetic field in solids is named as a fine light structure. The influence of this structure on optical properties of solids is pointed out.

  20. Fine structure of strength function for β+/EC decay of 160gHo (25.6 min)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strength function for the β+/EC decay of the deformed 160gHo (25.6 min) nucleus has been obtained from the experimental data. The fine structure of the strength function Sβ(E) is analyzed. It is found to have a pronounced resonant structure for Gamow-Teller transitions. In Sβ(E) with μτ=+1 the Gamow-Teller resonance is observed to split into two components. This splitting is associated with anisotropy of isovector density oscillation in deformed nuclei. The β+/EC strength function for first-forbidden transitions is obtained in the Coulomb (ξ) approximation. It is shown that Sβ(E) for first-forbidden transitions does not have a pronounced resonant structure