WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha fetoprotein radioimmunoassay

  1. The experience with setting-up radioimmunoassay for alpha-1 fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decisive factor in the preparation of radioimmunological alpha-1-fetoprotein determination, provided sufficient commercial or own antisera and standards are available for calibration, is the quality of the preparation for labelling. Alpha-1-fetoprotein was separated by affinity chromatography using Sepharose with alpha-1-fetoprotein-bound antibodies. The isolates thus obtained were labelled with 125I using enzyme and chloramine T and Iodogen techniques. The labelled alpha-1-fetoprotein can be used for RIA. In view of reduced immunoreactivity of the preparation, however, the performance of the radioimmunological determination has so far not matched the quality of imported kits. The technique is currently being optimized. (author)

  2. Dosage of alpha-fetoprotein for radioimmunoassay in maternal blood. Its obstetrical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfo, J.; Jaumandreu, C.A. (Clinica Ginecotocologica ' ' A' ' (Uruguay)); Aguirre de Garcia, B.; Robles, A.M.; Touya, E. (Centro de Medicina Nuclear y Centro de Nefrologia (Uruguay))

    1981-08-01

    Leigthon, Gordon and col. showed that the determination of serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein was useful as a method for the detection of fetal malformations of the neural tube. Due to its important clinical significance, the study of this simple test in women in different stages of pregnancy has been started. A total of 34 patients from the obstetrical external service were studied, with pregnancy stages between 10 and 40 weeks. Having established the incidence and implications of false positive and principally of false negative results, it has been concluded that this technique should be imposed as routine in the evolutive control of pregnancy.

  3. Alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  4. [Alpha Fetoprotein-producing Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Sato, Kimiaki; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) -producing lung adenocarcinoma. A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to right pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed right moderate pneumothorax, a solid tumor in the upper lobe (S3) and mediastinal lymph node swelling. The serum AFP level was as high as 223.0 ng/ml. Frozen examination revealed a low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Clinical significance of human alpha-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yachnin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Deviations from the normal of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, maternal serum and adult human serum can be explained by understanding the normal physiology and the pathophysiology of AFP synthesis and metabolism. AFP is the prototype of oncofetal markers. Emphasis is given to the usefulness of elevated serum AFP levels in the diagnosis and management of primary hepatomas and tumors of germ cell origin. The ability to detect neural tube defects early in gestation by monitoring maternal serum and amniotic fluid AFP concentrations is discussed.

  6. User acceptability of an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine user acceptability among women who were classified as false positives or test negatives in an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme. The study was performed as a questionnaire study over a one-year period from October 1, 1988 to September 30, 1989 at...... Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, and the county hospitals of Sønderjylland, Denmark. The participating subjects were 4104 pregnant women who had had an alpha-fetoprotein test and had completed 30 weeks of gestation, when the questionnaire was delivered. Main outcome measures were degree and...... duration of anxiety, influence on daily life and whether the woman wanted the alpha-fetoprotein test again in a new pregnancy. Three thousand, three hundred and thirty-one questionnaires were analyzed. The participation rate was 81.2%. For 219 women (6.6%), the first alpha-fetoprotein test was abnormal...

  7. Combined serum hepatoma-speciifc alpha-fetoprotein and circulating alpha-fetoprotein-mRNA in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wu; Deng-Fu Yao; Yong-Mei Yuan; Ji-Wei Fan; Xiu-Feng Lu; Xiao-Hua Li; Li-Wei Qiu; Lei Zong; Xin-Hua Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, its prognosis is poor, and early detection is of utmost importance. Although alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a useful marker for detecting and monitoring HCC development, the false-negative or false-positive rates with AFP alone may be as high as 30%-40%for patients with small HCCs. To enhance the speciifcity and accuracy of AFP measurements for HCC, we analyzed AFP expression states in livers, detected the hepatoma-speciifc AFP (HS-AFP) fraction and AFP-mRNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and explored their clinical implications for HCC diagnosis. METHODS:AFP expression and hepatocyte distributions in liver specimens were investigated by an immunohistoche-mical assay. Total RNAs were extracted from circulating blood, synthesized to cDNA through random primers and reverse transcriptase, and fragments of the AFP gene were ampliifed by a nested-PCR assay. The HS-AFP fraction was separated by lectin-afifnity chromatography and its level was detected by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The incidence of AFP was 73.3% in HCC tissues and its expression in HCCs with moderate or low differentiation was signiifcantly stronger than that of HCCs with high differentiation (P CONCLUSIONS: Different AFP expression is present in different parts of HCC tissues. HS-AFP and AFP-mRNA fragments improve sensitivity and speciifcity, and both are useful markers to diagnose HCC or monitor metastasis and relapse.

  8. Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, H; Buckland, C M; Campbell, A G; Thompson, B; Farr, V

    1984-01-01

    Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) values in the second trimester have been related to pregnancy outcome for 100 normal twin pairs, 42 monozygous (MZ) and 58 dizygous (DZ), liveborn after 28 weeks gestation. The median MSAFP value was 1.9 multiples of the median value (MOM) for uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Both very low and very high MSAFP values were associated with twins of low birthweight. MSAFP values were higher in MZ than DZ twin pregnancies particularly those with dizygotes of like-sex. This effect was even more marked when only dichorionic like-sex twin pairs were compared. PMID:6209699

  9. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein (HPAFP) : review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwert, A. C.; Giltay, J. C.; Lentjes, E. G. W. M.; Lock, M. T. W. T.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels are raised in several clinical conditions, ranging from non-pathological conditions to malignancies. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein (HPAFP) is a rare benign disorder with elevated AFP levels. HPAFP is described as a benign autosomal dominantly inheri

  10. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and fetal triploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircon, R A; Towers, C V; Porto, M; Gocke, S E; Garite, T J

    1989-10-01

    Fetal triploidy is commonly found in early pregnancy. The majority of these pregnancies spontaneously abort in the first trimester. Occasionally, the pregnancy progresses to the second and third trimesters. We reviewed the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), fetal pathology, and placental pathology in sex second-trimester pregnancies complicated by fetal triploidy. Four of these patients had MSAFP values greater than 7.5 multiples of the median (MoM). Five of six pregnancies had MSAFP values greater than 2.25 MoM. All five of these patients had a partial mole. Four patients had amniotic fluid AFP values greater than 2.0 MoM. Two fetuses had associated neural tube defects. These were the only patients with positive amniotic fluid ACHE. None of the other patients had fetuses with anomalies that are known to be associated with an elevated MSAFP. The elevated MSAFP appeared to be related to the presence of a partial mole. Two of the five cases with an MSAFP greater than 2.25 MoM did not have sonographic evidence of a significant anomaly. Therefore, karyotyping can be of benefit in evaluating patients with elevated MSAFP. PMID:2480590

  11. Diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine diagnostic value of alpha-fetoproteins (alpha-FP) in liver cancer. Design: Prospective study. Place and duration of study: Department of clinical oncology services Hospital Lahore, during the period from February 1998 to February 2001. Subjects and Methods: Among 200 persons studied, 100 presented with liver mass, jaundice and other symptoms directing toward liver pathology, later confirmed histopathologically, as suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while the other 100 healthy subject came to the department for blood donation and were HBs Ag pasitive on blood screening. All these subjects under went blood test for alpha-FP. This tumor marker was analyzed by using enzyme immunoassay-based kit. Results: The alpha-FP positivity was statistically evaluated. In HCC this test was statistically significant with p value of <0.001. In this study sensitivity of alpha-FP was 72% specificity 89%, positive predictive value 86.7% and negative predictive value of 76.1%. Conclusion: This study showed that alpha-FP was a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of HCC. (author)

  12. Anxiety in women with low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Hopmann, M R; Barsel-Bowers, G; Goldstein, A

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure anxiety in pregnant women who had low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening test levels, received genetic counselling and chose to undergo amniocentesis for fetal chromosome analysis. Their anxiety levels were compared with the levels in women undergoing amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age. The results indicate a higher level of anxiety in women with low alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels.

  13. Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzour, S J; Gabert, H A; Diket, A L; St Amant, M; Miller, J M

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to assess the occurrence of miscarriages, low birth weight, and karyotype abnormalities found with low and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) among women who had genetic amniocentesis performed. A retrospective study of 2,159 women who had MSAFP analysis prior to amniocentesis was conducted. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from record review and physicians follow-up. Limits of MSAFP used in analysis were MOM) (lower levels) and >2.0 MOM (upper levels). Autosomal trisomy was found in 1.6% with low, 0.9% normal, and 0.6% with elevated MSAFP values. Sex chromosome abnormalities were present only in patients with normal MSAFP, [45X (n = 6), 47XXY (n = 2), 69XXX]. Of five open neural tube defects, four had elevated MSAFP and one had a normal value. Omphalocele was identified in four patients, two with normal and two with elevated MSAFP. Gastroschisis was found in one low and one elevated MSAFP. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) values did not correlate with MSAFP values. Patients with low MSAFP levels had a greater prevalence of abnormal karyotype (19 of 249, prevalence = 0.076) than patients with an elevated MSAFP level (2 or 166, prevalence = 0.012 OR (odds ratio) = 0.20 (P value = 0.024) when unadjusted for maternal age, and OR = 0.09 (P value = 0.001) when adjusted for maternal age. Spontaneous abortion occurred more often in patients with elevated (4 of 166, or 4%) than normal or low (20 of 1948, or 1%) values of MSAFP (odds ratio 4.32, P = 0.020 when adjusted for maternal age). Birth weight below 2,500 g was present less frequently with low or normal MSAFP (136 of 1,760, or 7.7%) than in elevated MSAFP (21 of 144 or 14.6%) (odds ratio 2.04, P = 0.005, unadjusted; and odds ratio = 2.32, P = 0.003, adjusted for maternal age). Female fetuses were present more often with low MSAFP (136 of 249, or 55%) than elevated levels 43% (71 of 164, or 43%; P = 0.024). We conclude that patients undergoing genetic amniocentesis with MSAFP

  14. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing rectum adenocarcinoma:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Qin; Qiang Fu; Renliang Wu; Xianglin Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A case with an Alpha-fetoprotein-producing (AFP-producing) carcinoma originating from the rectum was de-scribed. A 41-year-old man, who underwent a pal iative surgery for rectal carcinoma, was diagnosed with occupying liver lesions and a remarkable AFP elevation (3484.61 ng/mL), and the AFP declined obviously 10 days after the pal iative surgery. So we carried out a biopsy of the liver lesions. The histopathology was reported as low dif erentiation adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells via liver biopsy showed:Vil in, CDX-2 was positive, Glypican-3 was partial positive, CK7, CK20, AFP, Hepatocyte were al negative. The initial histopathology was reported as an AFP-producing rectum adeno-carcinoma with liver metastasis, which was a rare disease. So far, only 17 reports, none has been reported in China. Then, we summarize the characteristic of the disease:diagnosed with hepatic metastasis, raised serum AFP and a poor outcome, in addition to primary symptoms. This kind of disease is highly malignant.

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing primary lung carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokusashi Yoshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma is a rare type of lung cancer, with its characteristics not yet fully clarified. We recently encountered a case of this type of lung cancer. The patient was a 69-year-old man who consulted an internist with the chief complaint of epigastric pain. Chest X-ray and CT revealed a lobulated mass measuring 70 mm in diameter in the right lower lung field and a metastasis in the right hilar lymph nodes. Of the tumor markers, the serum AFP was elevated (4620 ng/ml, and the serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were also slightly elevated. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed the diagnosis of lung cancer. Under thoracoscopic assistance, right lower lobectomy + mediastinal lymph node dissection was carried out. Immunostaining showed the tumor cells to be AFP-positive. The tumor was thus diagnosed as an AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma. The patient followed an uneventful clinical course after the surgery, with serum AFP decreasing to the normal range by about 2 weeks after the surgery. As of this writing, no sign of tumor recurrence has been noted. This case is presented here with a review of the literature.

  16. The alpha-fetoprotein enhancer region activates the albumin and alpha-fetoprotein promoters during liver development

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Lin; Long, Lingyun; Green, Michael A.; Spear, Brett T.

    2009-01-01

    The four members of the albumin gene family encode the serum transport proteins albumin, α-fetoprotein, α-albumin, and vitamin D-binding protein. These genes are transcribed primarily in the liver with each having a different pattern of developmental expression. The tight linkage of these genes, particularly that of albumin, α-fetoprotein and α-albumin, and their liver-specific expression, has led to the suggestion that these genes share common regulatory elements. To directly examine whether...

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Maternal Serum alpha-Fetoprotein Levels During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...

  18. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three compar

  19. ORIGIN OF RAISED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN LEVELS IN 2ND-TRIMESTER OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; MARRINK, J; HAGENAARS, AM; REUSS, A; SACHS, ES; JAHODA, MGJ; WLADIMIROFF, JW

    1992-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) subtyping of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) revealed higher concentrations of AFP non-reactive with Con A in sera of 12 pregnant women with second-trimester oligohydramnios and raised total serum AFP levels than in sera of 42 pregnant women with raised total serum AFP levels and a no

  20. FIRST-TRIMESTER MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AS A MARKER FOR FETAL CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal pr

  1. RIA of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An own modification of the double antibody radioimmunoassay for AFP using 125I-labelled AFP as a tracer, rabbit anti-AFP obtained from SEVAC, Prague and precipitating antibodies prepared by the authors is described. The AFP levels measured in the serum and the amniotic fluid using the method were in agreement with those obtained by the means of the AFPK RIA kit by SORIN in the Institute for the Care of Mother and Child in Prague. The AFP concentrations found in the cord serum and the amniotic fluid were confirmed also by the rocket electroimmunoassay according to Laurell. The described AFP RIA seems suitable for the clinical application in prenatal screening for congenital malformations, in difficult pregnancies, in hepatology and the diagnosis and the evaluation of therapy of some human malignancies. (author)

  2. Fifty years of discovery of alpha-fetoprotein as the first tumor marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulina Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein represents the most prominent oncobiomarker, widely used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma for monitoring of tumor progression, presence of metastasis, assessment of cancer prognosis and successful antitumor therapeutic measures. Yuri Semenovich Tatarinov is a Russian scientist who first published antigen specific for human hepatocellular carcinoma in 1963. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of alpha-fetoprotein, 9th International Scientific- Practical Conference entitled “Achievements of fundamental science and translational medicine capabilities in solving actual problems of practical public health”, was held from May 6-8th, 2013 in Astrakhan, Russia. The conference was held in memory of historical scientific work of Yuri Semenovich Tatarinov. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175056

  3. Dexamethasone inhibits alpha-fetoprotein gene transcription in neonatal rat liver and isolated nuclei.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, D. P.; Cote, G J; Massari, R J; Chiu, J F

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on rat alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression has been further examined. Quantitation of serum AFP levels from newborns treated with dexamethasone showed a dose-response relationship between the quantity of dexamethasone administered and the reduction in AFP serum level. RNA blots, utilizing cloned AFP cDNA as probe, showed a marked reduction in AFP mRNA in dexamethasone treated livers. The extent of AFP mRNA depletion was correlated with dexamethasone dosage. The effe...

  4. Electrophoresis and electro-affinity transfer with specific antibodies to alpha-fetoprotein for detection of circulating immune complexes of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketa,Kazuhisa

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A combination of agarose gel electrophoresis and a newly developed technique of electro-affinity transfer was applied to the detection of circulating immune complexes of human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP and anti-AFP. After electrophoretic transfer to nitrocellulose membrane, to which affinity-purified polyclonal horse antibodies to human AFP were bound, the membranes were treated with or without rabbit immunoglobulins to human AFP, followed by overlaying with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG for color development. Artificial complexes formed in vitro from human AFP and rabbit anti-AFP were clearly separated from free AFP by the agarose electrophoresis. The complexes were stained 20-40% as dark as the equivalent amount of free AFP by treatment with rabbit anti-AFP, and 10-20% as dark without the antibody treatment over a wide range of antigen-antibody ratios.

  5. The progressive elevation of alpha fetoprotein for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Estrada Diana

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common cause of primary liver neoplasms and is one of the main causes of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. High Alpha fetoprotein serum levels have been found in 60–70% of patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma; nevertheless, there are other causes that increase this protein. Alpha fetoprotein levels ≥200 and 400 ng/mL in patients with an identifiable liver mass by imaging techniques are diagnostic of hepatocellular carcinoma with high specificity. Methods We analysed the sensitivity and specificity of the progressive increase of the levels of alpha fetoprotein for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis. Seventy-four patients with cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma and 193 with hepatic lesions diagnosed by biopsy and shown by image scans were included. Sensitivity and specificity of transversal determination of alpha fetoprotein ≥ 200 and 400 ng/mL and monthly progressive elevation of alpha fetoprotein were analysed. Areas under the ROC curves were compared. Positive and negative predictive values adjusted to a 5 and 10% prevalence were calculated. Results For an elevation of alpha fetoprotein ≥ 200 and 400 ng/mL the specificity is of 100% in both cases, with a sensitivity of 36.3 and 20.2%, respectively. For an alpha fetoprotein elevation rate ≥7 ng/mL/month, sensitivity was of 71.4% and specificity of 100%. The area under the ROC curve of the progressive elevation was significantly greater than that of the transversal determination of alpha fetoprotein. The positive and negative predictive values modified to a 10% prevalence are of: 98.8% and 96.92%, respectively; while for a prevalence of 5% they were of 97.4% and 98.52%, respectively. Conclusion The progressive elevation of alpha fetoprotein ≥7 ng/mL/month in patients with liver cirrhosis is useful for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients that do not reach

  6. Prussian blue modified amperometric FIA biosensor: one-step immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian-Guo; Miao, Yu-Qing; Chen, Jian-Rong

    2004-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum by use of one-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunobiosensor with disposable screen-printed carbon electrode technology. Prussian blue (PB) was deposited using cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of electrode to catalyze H202 from the reaction of glucose oxidase. It took only about 30 min to complete the whole experimental procedure through flow injection analysis (FIA). A detection range obtained is in the range from 5 to 500 ng/ml AFP. This detection seems to be quick, reliable and practical. PMID:15128097

  7. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mingyue Zhu; Wei Li; Yan Lu; Xu Dong; Yi Chen; Bo Lin; Xieju Xie; Junli Guo; Mengsen Li

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell...

  8. [The clinical significance of PIVKA-II determination in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparative study with alpha-fetoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakon, M; Monden, M; Goto, M; Kanai, T; Umeshita, K; Endo, W; Mori, T

    1990-05-01

    The changes in the plasma level of PIVKA-II (Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II) following the treatment or progress of the disease was studied in 60 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The positivity rate determined by the changes in PIVKA-II was 58.4 percent (35/60 cases) and was about the same as those reported so far, all of which were obtained by a single determination of PIVKA-II. Plasma PIVKA-II was elevated in 61.9 percent (13/21 cases) of alpha-fetoprotein negative patients and it was almost identical with the overall positivity rate. In parallel with serum alpha-fetoprotein, the plasma level of PIVKA-II was decreased after the surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization and was increased when the recurrence or progress of the disease was observed. Furthermore, the nonspecific elevation of PIVKA-II due to the associated liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis was infrequent compared with that of alpha-fetoprotein. In 18 cases positive with both PIVKA-II and alpha-fetoprotein, a close correlation (R = 0.91) was observed between the changes of these markers during the progress or treatment of the disease. Thus, it was suggested that determination of PIVKA-II in blood might be useful not only in the diagnosis but in monitoring the progress or the effectiveness of treatments in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. CONCANAVALIN-A VARIANTS OF ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FIRST TRIMESTER FETUSES WITH TRISOMY-21 AND WITH NORMAL KARYOTYPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; JANSE, HC; BRANDENBURG, H; DEVRIJ, RW; DEBRUIJN, HWA

    1995-01-01

    Total alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations and proportions of AFP non-reactive with the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) were studied in extracellular fluid of 22 first-trimester fetuses. Total AFP concentrations were significantly lower in fetuses with Down's syndrome than in those with Mendelian-in

  10. The immunosuppression role of alpha-fetoprotein in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenbo; Bai, Bing; Bai, Zhongtian; Li, Yan; Yue, Ping; Li, Xun; Qiao, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is perhaps the best-defined tumor marker for HCC, and as such, it is widely used in clinical settings as an adjuvant diagnostic and prognostic tool. Up to 70% of HCC cases exhibit elevated serum level of AFP, but its pathophysiological functions in HCC are poorly defined. It is now known that AFP is not just a fetal form of carrier protein and a tumor marker, it is also critically involved in the regulation of several important cellular functions, such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immune regulation. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent development of AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27448785

  11. Alpha-fetoprotein, the major fetal serum protein, is not essential for embryonic development but is required for female fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Gabant, Philippe; Forrester, Lesley; Nichols, Jennifer; Van Reeth, Thierry; De Mees, Christelle; Pajack, Bernard; Watt, Alistair; Smitz, Johan; Alexandre, Henri; Szpirer, Claude; Szpirer, Josiane

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-fetoprotein gene (Afp) is a member of a multigenic family that comprises the related genes encoding albumin, alpha-albumin, and vitamin D binding protein. The biological role of this major embryonic serum protein is unknown although numerous speculations have been made. We have used gene targeting to show that AFP is not required for embryonic development. AFP null embryos develop normally, and individually transplanted homozygous embryos can develop in an AFP-deficient microenviron...

  12. Alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and Golgi protein 73 may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhiguo Zhang,1 Yanying Zhang,2 Yeying Wang,1 Lingling Xu,3 Wanju Xu3 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhangqiu Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Zhangqiu, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zaozhuang City Wangkai Infection Hospital, Zaozhuang, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, there is no reliable biomarker for use in diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Such a biomarker would aid in making an early diagnosis of AFP-negative HCC, ensuring the timely initiation of treatment. This study examined AFP-L3 and Golgi protein 73 (GP73 as candidate biomarkers for AFP-negative HCC. The affinity adsorption method and enzyme-linked immunoassays were separately used to determine serum levels of AFP-L3 and GP73 in 50 patients with AFP-negative HCC, 30 non-HCC patients, and 50 healthy subjects. Fifty percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for AFP-L3, while 3.33% of non-HCC patients and 2.00% of healthy subjects were AFP-L3 positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of AFP-L3 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy individuals; however, there was no significant difference in the AFP-L3 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy subjects. Sixty-six percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for GP73, while 10% of non-HCC patients and 0% of healthy subjects were GP73-positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of GP73 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy subjects, but there was no significant difference between the GP73 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy individuals. Moreover, 20 patients with AFP-negative HCC were both AFP-L3- and GP73-positive, while no non-HCC patients or healthy subjects tested positive for both markers. Either AFP-L3 or GP73 may be used as a biomarker for diagnosing AFP-negative HCC, while their combined use

  13. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Félix, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after t...

  14. Radioimmunoassay determination of decreased amounts of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase protein in fucosidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews-Smith, G.L.; Alhadeff, J.A. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA). Dept. of Neurosciences)

    1982-03-15

    Purified human liver ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase (EC 3.2.1.51) has been radioiodinated by a chloramine-T procedure to a specific activity of 3.7 x 10/sup 6/ dpm/..mu..g protein without altering its apparent Michaelis constant for the 4-methylumbelliferyl substrate. This /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase has been used in development of a competitive binding radioimmunoassay for ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase which can detect 1-2 ng of enzyme protein and has been employed to quantify the amount of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein in the liver and spleen from a patient with fucosidosis. Less than 1% of the normal amount of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein is present suggesting that normal amounts of catalytically inactive ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not found in this disease.

  15. Elevated Serum Levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein in Patients with Infantile Hemangioma Are Not Derived from within the Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Itinteang, Tinte; Chibnall, Alice M.; Marsh, Reginald; Jonathan C. Dunne; de Jong, Sophie; Davis, Paul F.; Leadbitter, Philip; Tan, Swee T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The embryonic-like stem cell origin of infantile hemangioma (IH) and the observed elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatic IH led us to investigate if this tumor was the source of AFP. Materials and methods We measured serial serum levels of AFP in patients with problematic proliferating IH treated with surgical excision or propranolol treatment. We also investigated the expression of AFP in extrahepatic IH samples using immunohistochemical sta...

  16. Female Mice Deficient in Alpha-Fetoprotein Show Female-Typical Neural Responses to Conspecific-Derived Pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Brock; Matthieu Keller; Quentin Douhard; Julie Bakker

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO) and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with e...

  17. Telomerase Inhibition Decreases Alpha-Fetoprotein Expression and Secretion by Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roula Tahtouh; Anne-Sophie Azzi; Nada Alaaeddine; Soulaima Chamat; Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun; Layal Wardi; Issam Raad; Riad Sarkis; Najibe Abou Antoun; George Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A direct relationship between poor prognosis and the concentration of serum AFP has been observed. Telomerase, an enzyme that stabilizes the telomere length, is expressed by 90% of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of telomerase inhibition on AFP secretion and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Proliferation and viability tests were performed using tetrazolium salt. A...

  18. Fabrication of protein microarrays for alpha fetoprotein detection by using a rapid photo-immobilization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirasa Yodmongkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, protein microarrays based on sandwich immunoassays are generated to quantify the amount of alpha fetoprotein (AFP in blood serum. For chip generation a mixture of capture antibody and a photoactive copolymer consisting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA, methacryloyloxy benzophenone (MaBP, and Na-4-styrenesulfonate (SSNa was spotted onto unmodified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA substrates. Subsequently to printing of the microarray, the polymer and protein were photochemically cross-linked and the forming, biofunctionalized hydrogels simultaneously bound to the chip surface by short UV- irradiation. The obtained biochip was incubated with AFP antigen, followed by biotinylated AFP antibody and streptavidin-Cy5 and the fluorescence signal read-out. The developed microarray biochip covers the range of AFP in serum samples such as maternal serum in the range of 5 and 100 ng/ml. The chip production process is based on a fast and simple immobilization process, which can be applied to conventional plastic surfaces. Therefore, this protein microarray production process is a promising method to fabricate biochips for AFP screening processes.

  19. Serial Changes in Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels During Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug Senol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP has been widely used as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Some patients with hepatitis C show high AFP values, but no evidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of antiviral treatment on the serum AFP in patients with chronic hepatitis C without hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and Method: Thirty seven chronic hepatitis C patients (20 females and 17 males were included in the study. All patients were given a combined treatment of pegylated or conventional interferon (IFN and ribavirin. Serum AFP was measured at baseline and on months 3-6-12 of the therapy. Results: Compared to the pretreatment levels of ALT (88,59 ± 57,22 IU, those at 3, 6 and 12 months were statistically lower (p0,05, to 4,34 ± 4,64 (p>0,05 and to 2,63 ± 2,17 (p10 ng/ml. In these patients, mean serum AFP levels were decreased from pretreatment level of 15,09 ± 5,92 ng/ml to 11,39±3,30, to 6,97±2,53 (p

  20. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the "stemness" markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  1. Alpha-fetoprotein expression is a potential prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dénes G(o)r(o)g; János Reg(o)ly-Mérei; Sándor Paku; László Kopper; Péter Nagy

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) positive and negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples.METHODS: Thirty-seven paraffin-embedded human HCC samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the following antigens: AFP, β-catenin, p53, CD44, MSH-2,MLH-1, and HNF-4. The tumors were divided into two groups based on the AFP expression. The immunophenotypic data and important clinical parameters were studied between the two groups.RESULTS: Twenty-one of the thirty-seven examined HCCs were AFP positive. Seven with nuclear p53 staining were AFP positive, while seven tumors with nuclear β-catenin staining were AFP negative. CD44 staining and high histological tumor grade were more frequent among the AFP-positive HCCs. The other immunophenotypical and dinical parameters did not show statistically significant difference in their distribution between the AFP positive and negative samples.CONCLUSION: AFP expression in HCC correlates with unfavorable prognostic factors, while nuclear β-catenin positivity is more common among the AFP-negative liver tumors. This observation supports the microarray data onin vivo human tumors.

  2. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene's expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment. PMID:27468205

  3. Contribution of alpha-fetoprotein in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Bérénice; Maulat, Charlotte; Suc, Bertrand; Muscari, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the main tumor biomarker available for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although it is neither a good screening test nor an accurate diagnostic tool for HCC, it seems to be a possible prognostic marker. However, its contribution in liver transplantation for HCC has not been fully determined, although its use to predict recurrence after liver transplantation has been underlined by international societies. In an era of organ shortages, it could also have a key role in the selection of patients eligible for liver transplantation. Yet unanswered questions remain. First, the cut-off value of serum AFP above which liver transplantation should not be performed is still a subject of debate. We show that a concentration of 1000 ng/mL could be an exclusion criterion, whereas values of liver transplantation. These recent tools have associated AFP values with morphological criteria, thus refining pre-existing criteria, such as Milan, University of California, San Francisco, or “up-to-seven”. We provide a review of the different criteria submitted within the past years. Finally, AFP can be used to monitor recurrence after transplantation, although there is little evidence to support this claim. Future challenges will be to draft new international guidelines to implement the use of AFP as a selection tool, and to determine a clear cut-off value above which liver transplantation should not be performed.

  4. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing early gastric cancer of the remnant stomach: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yutaka; Sato, Kouhei; Kodama, Masashi; Nanjyo, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A 67-year-old man initially underwent a distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (T1, N0, M0; Stage IA) in March 1995. During the follow-up period, an elevation of the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (98.8 ng/ml) and a liver tumor (S4) were detected. A left hepatectomy was performed in December 1996. Immunohistochemically, AFP-positive cells were present in both the primary gastric tumor and metastasized liver tumor. The serum AFP level normalized immediately, but it elevated again to 22.4 ng/ml. An endoscopic examination revealed a protruding lesion in the remnant stomach. A total resection of the remnant stomach was performed in February 2005. The tumor was evaluated T1, N0, M0; Stage IA, with positive staining for AFP. The patient has survived without any sign of recurrence for more than 11 years after the first diagnosis of cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a long-term survival of AFP-producing gastric cancer with successfully resected metachronous liver metastasis and gastric remnant carcinoma. PMID:17952534

  5. Serum alpha-fetoprotein response can predict prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To evaluate the clinical inference of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and methods: Three hundred and thirteen previously untreated HCC patients were enrolled in the study. The optimal AFP response was defined as >20% decrease from baseline after 1 month of RFA for those with a baseline AFP level of ≥100 ng/ml. The impact of AFP response on prognosis was analysed and prognostic factors were assessed. Results: After a median follow-up of 26.7 ± 19.1 months, 49 patients died and 264 patients were alive. The cumulative 5 year survival rates were 75.3 and 57.4% in patients with an initial AFP of 1.1 (p = 0.009), non-optimal AFP response (p = 0.023), and creatinine >1.5 mg/dl (p = 0.021) were independent risk factors predictive of poor overall survival. Besides, the cumulative 5 year recurrence rates were 83.4 and 100% in optimal and non-optimal AFP responders, respectively (p 5/mm3 (p = 0.048), tumour size >2 cm (p = 0.027), and non-optimal AFP response (p < 0.001) were independent risk factors associated with tumour recurrence after RFA. Conclusions: Serum AFP response may be a useful marker for predicting prognosis in HCC patients undergoing RFA.

  6. Clinical Value of Hepatoma-Specific Alpha-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runzhou Ni; Mingbing Xiao; Fei Jin; Cuihua Lu; Jiefei Huang; Xianyong Meng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the clinical value of hepatoma-specific alpha-fetoprotein (HS-AFP) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS A method of vertical slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with discontinuous buffer system was developed to separate AFP subtypes. After separation, the AFP subtypes were transferred to nitrocellulose and reacted first with rabbit anti-human AFP and then with goat anti-rabbit IgG-HRP. Finally, AFP subtypes were visualized by reacting with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride. A HS-AFP band was determined in 82 cases with HCC and 95 cases with benign liver diseases.The correlations between the positive rates of HS-AFP and serum AFP concentration, tumor size as well as portal vein metastasis were analyzed.RESULTS Serum AFP in the cases with various liver diseases was separated into one to several bands. The fastest band on electrophoresis (FAFP) was found in all patients, while the band at the cathodal site (HSAFP) was detected predominantly in HCC but rarely in benign liver diseases. The positive rate of HS-AFP in HCC was 74.4%, which was significantly higher than that in benign liver diseases (9.1%, 7.3% and 10.0% in liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and acute hepatitis respectively). HSAFP was detected in 3 out of 9 HCC cases with AFP<50 μg/L , but in none of 22 cases of benign liver diseases with the same AFP concentration. HS-AFP correlated with serum AFP concentration and tumor size to some extent, but not with portal vein metastasis.CONCLUSION HS-AFP increases the sensitivity of diagnosing HCC in patients with negative AFP, and is useful in distinguishing high AFP due to HCC from that caused by benign liver diseases.

  7. Contribution of alpha-fetoprotein in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Bérénice; Maulat, Charlotte; Suc, Bertrand; Muscari, Fabrice

    2016-07-28

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the main tumor biomarker available for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although it is neither a good screening test nor an accurate diagnostic tool for HCC, it seems to be a possible prognostic marker. However, its contribution in liver transplantation for HCC has not been fully determined, although its use to predict recurrence after liver transplantation has been underlined by international societies. In an era of organ shortages, it could also have a key role in the selection of patients eligible for liver transplantation. Yet unanswered questions remain. First, the cut-off value of serum AFP above which liver transplantation should not be performed is still a subject of debate. We show that a concentration of 1000 ng/mL could be an exclusion criterion, whereas values of AFP could also prove useful. However, evidence is lacking regarding the values that should be used. Today, the real input of AFP seems to be its integration into new criteria to select patients eligible for a liver transplantation. These recent tools have associated AFP values with morphological criteria, thus refining pre-existing criteria, such as Milan, University of California, San Francisco, or "up-to-seven". We provide a review of the different criteria submitted within the past years. Finally, AFP can be used to monitor recurrence after transplantation, although there is little evidence to support this claim. Future challenges will be to draft new international guidelines to implement the use of AFP as a selection tool, and to determine a clear cut-off value above which liver transplantation should not be performed. PMID:27478538

  8. The intracellular mechanism of alpha-fetoprotein promoting the proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    AIM The existence and properties of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) receptor on the surface of NIH 3T3 cells and the effects of AFP on cellular signal transduction pathway were investigated. METHODS The effect of AFP on the proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells was measured by incorporation of 3H-TdR. Receptor-binding assay of 125I-AFP was performed to detect the properties of AFP receptor in NIH 3T3 cells. The influences of AFP on the [cAMP]i and the activities of protein kinase A (PKA) were determined. Western blot was used to detect the change of K-ras P21 protein expression. RESULTS The proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells treated with 0-80 mg/L of AFP was significantly enhanced. The Scatchard analysis indicated that there were two classes of binding sites with KD of 2.722×10-9M (Bmax=12810 sites per cell) and 8.931× 10-SM (Bmax=l19700 sites per cell) respectively. In the presence of AFP (20 mg/L), the content of cAMP and activities of PKA were significantly elevated . The level of K-ras P21 protein was upregulated by AFP at the concentration of 20 mg/L. The monoclonal antibody against AFP could reverse the effects of AFP on the cAMP content, PKA activity and the expression of K-ras p21 gene. CONCLUSION The effect of AFP on the cell proliferation was achieved by binding its receptor to trigger the signal transduction pathway of cAMP-PKA and alter the expression of K- ras p21 gene.

  9. Elevated serum alpha fetoprotein levels promote pathological progression of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Shan-Shan Wang; Hui Liu; Ning Li; Michael A McNutt; Gang Li; Hui-Guo Ding

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological role of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and its clinical significance in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Clinical analysis of HCC patients and immunohistochemical examination were conducted to eva-luate the relationship between serum AFP level and patient mortality. Confocal microscopy, Western blotting, dimethylthiahzolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and flow cytometry were performed to explore the possible mechanism.RESULTS: Among the 160 HCC patients enrolled in this study, 130 patients survived 2 years (81.25%), with a survival rate of 86.8% in AFP 250 μg/L group, demonstrating a higher mortality rate in HCC patients with higher AFP levels. Surgical treatment was beneficial only in patients with low AFP levels. The mortality rate of HCC patients with high AFP levels who were treated surgically was apparently higher than those treated with conservative management. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that AFP and AFP receptor were merely expressed in tissues of HCC patients with positive serum AFP. Consistently, in vitro analysis showed that AFP and AFPS were expressed in HepG2 but not in HLE cells. AFP showed a capability to promote cell growth, and this was more apparent in HepG2 cells, in which the proliferation was increased by 3.5 folds. Cell cycle analysis showed that the percentage of HepG2 cells in S phase after exposure to AFP was modestly increased.CONCLUSION: HCC patients with higher AFP levels show a higher mortality rate, which appears to be attributable to the growth promoting properties of AFP.

  10. Quantum-dot-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Meijun; Wu Yingsong; Lin Guanfeng; Hou Jingyuan; Li Ming [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Liu Tiancai, E-mail: liutc@smu.edu.cn [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China)

    2012-09-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed to detect AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with QDs-doped microspheres and anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with LTCs and another anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excess amounts of conjugates were used for detecting AFP without rinsing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wedding of QPs and LTCs was suitable for HTRFIA to detect AFP. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) with novel photoproperties are not widely used in clinic diagnosis, and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assays possess many advantages over current methods for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. A novel QD-based homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay was developed and used for detection of AFP, a primary marker for many cancers and diseases. QD-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microparticles (QPs) were prepared by doping oil-soluble QDs possessing a 605 nm emission peak. The antibody conjugates (QPs-E014) were prepared from QPs and an anti-AFP monoclonal antibody, and luminescent terbium chelates (LTCs) were prepared and conjugated to a second anti-AFP monoclonal antibody (LTCs-E010). In a double-antibodies sandwich structure, QPs-E014 and LTCs-E010 were used for detection of AFP, serving as energy acceptor and donor, respectively, with an AFP bridge. The results demonstrated that the luminescence lifetime of these QPs was sufficiently long for use in a time-resolved fluoroassay, with the efficiency of time-resolved Foerster resonance transfer (TR-FRET) at 67.3% and the spatial distance of the donor to acceptor calculated to be 66.1 Angstrom-Sign . Signals from TR-FRET were found to be proportional to AFP concentrations. The resulting standard curve was log Y = 3.65786 + 0.43863{center_dot}log X (R = 0.996) with Y the QPs fluorescence intensity and X the AFP concentration; the calculated sensitivity was 0

  11. Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component.

  12. CRB2 mutations produce a phenotype resembling congenital nephrosis, Finnish type, with cerebral ventriculomegaly and raised alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavotinek, Anne; Kaylor, Julie; Pierce, Heather; Cahr, Michelle; DeWard, Stephanie J; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Alsadah, Adnan; Salem, Fadi; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Mehta, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    We report five fetuses and a child from three families who shared a phenotype comprising cerebral ventriculomegaly and echogenic kidneys with histopathological findings of congenital nephrosis. The presenting features were greatly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) or amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) levels or abnormalities visualized on ultrasound scan during the second trimester of pregnancy. Exome sequencing revealed deleterious sequence variants in Crumbs, Drosophila, Homolog of, 2 (CRB2) consistent with autosomal-recessive inheritance. Two fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly and renal microcysts were compound heterozygotes for p.Asn800Lys and p.Trp759Ter, one fetus with renal microcysts was a compound heterozygote for p.Glu643Ala and p.Asn800Lys, and one child with cerebral ventriculomegaly, periventricular heterotopias, echogenic kidneys, and renal failure was homozygous for p.Arg633Trp in CRB2. Examination of the kidneys in one fetus showed tubular cysts at the corticomedullary junction and diffuse effacement of the epithelial foot processes and microvillous transformation of the renal podocytes, findings that were similar to those reported in congenital nephrotic syndrome, Finnish type, that is caused by mutations in nephrin (NPHS1). Loss of function for crb2b and nphs1 in Danio rerio were previously shown to result in loss of the slit diaphragms of the podocytes, leading to the hypothesis that nephrosis develops from an inability to develop a functional glomerular barrier. We conclude that the phenotype associated with CRB2 mutations is pleiotropic and that the condition is an important consideration in the evaluation of high MSAFP/AFAFP where a renal cause is suspected.

  13. Effect of serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels on pregnancy outcome in late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Feng Tan; Yu-Xiu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels on pregnancy outcome in late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder.Methods: One hundred and twenty-six cases of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy were rolled into the observation group, and 80 healthy pregnant women were rolled into the as control group. The relationship between serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared between the two groups.Results: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of AFP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in the observation group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). In the observation group, with the increase of blood pressure, the serum AFP and uric acid levels were increased, which in the moderate sub-group and severe sub-group were significantly higher than those in mild sub-group, and the severe sub-group was significantly higher than that in the moderate sub-group (allP<0.05). The rate of preterm birth, premature rupture rate, placental abruption rate, fetal distress rate and cesarean section rate in the pregnant women with abnormal serum AFP and uric acid level were significantly higher than that of the normal serum AFP and uric acid group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The serum AFP and uric acid levels in the late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder are significantly higher than those of the normal pregnant women, and are elevated remarkably as the blood pressure rising. When the serum AFP and uric acid levels are abnormal, the adverse outcomes of pregnancy and cesarean section rate increase significantly. Monitoring of serum AFP and uric acid levels is of importance.

  14. Determination of maternal serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) by a Polish AFP radioimmunoassay - a suitable screening method for the detection of neural tube defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    230 double determinations of maternal serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) have been made using a Polish AFP-RIA. On this basis the applicability of this method as screening for neural tube defects has been proved. An additional comparison with a French RIA and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) from the Serum-Werke Dessau confirmed equal accuracy. There were three pathological increased values of AFP. In one case an anencephalus was found and in the other a spina bifida. In the third case the value was normal at the control examination. General AFP screening in pregnant women is recommended. (author)

  15. Clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-L-fucosidase and ferritin levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) and ferritin (SF) levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods: Serum AFP, AFU (with RIA) and SF (with biochemical method) were determined in 52 patients with primary liver cancer and 40 controls. Results: The positive rates of AFP, AFU and SF in patient with liver cancer were 82.7%, 86.6% and 76.9%, respectively. Positive rates with combined measurement of AFP plus AFU, AFP plus SF, and AFP plus AFU, SF were 94.2%, 90.4% and 98.1% respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurement of AFP, AFU and SF can significantly increase the positive rate in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. (authors)

  16. Heat shock protein 70 chaperoned alpha-fetoprotein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Qiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Li; Rui-Fen Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interaction between heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line BEL7402.METHODS: The expression and localization of HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell line BEL-7402 were determined by immunocytochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in HCC cells was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot.RESULTS: Immunocytochemical staining detection showed that HCC cell BEL-7402 expressed a high level of HSP70 and AFP synchronously. Both were stained in cell plasma.AFP existed in the immunoprecipitate of anti-HSP70 mAb,while there was HSP70 in the immunoprecipitate of antiAFP mAb.CONCLUSION: HSP70 chaperones AFP in human HCCcell BEL-7402. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell can be a new route to study the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of HCC.

  17. Downregulation of alpha-fetoprotein siRNA inhibits proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Shan Wang; Xiao-Li Ma; Tong-Gang Qi; Xiang-Dong Liu; Yue-Sheng Meng; Guang-Ju Guan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the function of α-fetoprotein (AFP) in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells.METHODS: A hairpin siRNA expressing plasmid pSilencer3.0-H1-afp was constructed and transfected into SMMC-7721 cells with Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of AFP was monitored by real-time RT-PCR and immunoassays, its effect on SMMC-7721 cell proliferation and cell death was detected by MTT and fluorescenceactivated cell sorter (FACS).RESULTS: The AFP-siRNA expressing plasmid downregulated the expression of AFP obviously (about 34%), and inhibited SMMC-7721 cell proliferation, but did not induce apoptosis.CONCLUSION: Downregulation of AFP siRNA inhibits proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells, but cannot cause apoptosis.

  18. Characteristics of magnetic labeling on liver tumors with anti-alpha-fetoprotein-mediated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang KW

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kai-Wen Huang,1 Jen-Jie Chieh,2 Herng-Er Horng,2 Chin-Yih Hong,3 Hong-Chang Yang41Department of Surgery and Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 2Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 3Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 4Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: For preoperative and intraoperative detection of tumor distribution, numerous multimodal contrast agents, such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs with several examination indicators, are currently in development. However, complex materials, configuration, and cost are required for multimodal contrast agents, accompanied by a high possibility of toxicity and low popularity in clinics. Nevertheless, the magnetic labeling of MNPs using bioprobes should be feasible not only in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, but also in intraoperative examination based on other magnetic properties. In this study, anti-alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-mediated Fe3O4 MNPs, injected into mice with liver tumors, were used to examine the characteristics of magnetic labeling. Using MRI and scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB, based on alternating current (AC susceptibility, the magnetic labeling occurred significantly on the first day post-injection of anti-AFP magnetic fluid (MF, and then decreased over time. However, for both MF without antibodies and an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen MF, no magnetic labeling occured on the first day of their respective post-injection. The favorable agreement indicates that magnetic labeling possesses two magnetic characteristics: distortion of the imaging field and AC susceptibility. In addition, the results of the biopsy tests, anti-AFP staining, and Prussian blue staining show the same dynamics as those of magnetic methodologies and prove that bound MNPs on

  19. Characterization of Alpha-fetoprotein Levels in Three Dolphin Species: Development of Sensitive Immunoassays for Analysis of the Pregnancy-associated Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Yuka; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Fujita, Toshiaki; AMANO, Haruna; KATSUMATA, Etsuko; Arai, Kazutoshi; IWASAKI, Toshihide; Todo, Takashi; HARA, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) were initially developed for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) of the striped dolphin. Utilizing these developed assays, we investigated pregnancy-associated changes in the levels of AFP in the sera of fetuses and pregnant females of three dolphin species; samples were either collected from captive individuals or obtained as fishery by-products. The concentrations of AFP in the fetal serum ranged from 419.0 ...

  20. In vivo screening of hepatocellular carcinoma using AC susceptibility of anti-alpha fetoprotein-activated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Jie Chieh

    Full Text Available With antibody-mediated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs applied in cancer examinations, patients must pay at least twice for MNP reagents in immunomagnetic reduction (IMR of in vitro screening and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of in vivo tests. This is because the high maintenance costs and complex analysis of MRI have limited the possibility of in vivo screening. Therefore, this study proposes novel methods for in vivo screening of tumors by examining the AC susceptibility of bound MNPs using scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID biosusceptometry (SSB, thereby demonstrating high portability and improved economy. The favorable agreement between in vivo tests using SSB and MRI demonstrated the feasibility of in vivo screening using SSB for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC targeted by anti-alpha fetoprotein (AFP-mediated MNPs. The magnetic labeling was also proved by in vitro tests using SSB and biopsy assays. Therefore, patients receiving bioprobe-mediated MNPs only once can undergo in vivo screening using SSB in the future.

  1. A highly sensitive biosensor for tumor maker alpha fetoprotein based on poly(ethylene glycol) doped conducting polymer PEDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min; Song, Zhiling; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Bing; Fan, Xiaojian; Luo, Xiliang

    2016-05-15

    Biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are of great significance in the development of bio-interfaces and biosensors, as they possess excellent biocompatibility and are easy for modification. A novel highly biocompatible polymer composite was synthesized herein through electrochemical polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a PEG derivative, 4-arm PEG terminated with thiol groups. The electrodeposited conducting polymer composite of PEG doped PEDOT (PEDOT/PEG) exhibited flake-like nanostructure, large surface area and outstanding stability. In order to further immobilize antibodies, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced to the PEDOT/PEG composite surface through their unique interaction with the thiol groups. AuNPs modified PEDOT/PEG provided a desirable support for the immobilization of various biomolecules such as antibodies for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a vital tumor biomarker for liver cancer. The fabricated AFP biosensor demonstrated favorable selectivity, high sensitivity, and ultralow detection limit. Furthermore, owing to the presence of PEG polymers that are highly hydrophilic, such AuNPs/PEDOT/PEG based AFP biosensor also exhibited good anti-fouling ability, and it was capable of assaying target AFP in 10% (V/V) human serum samples, indicating highly feasible potential for clinical diagnosis. PMID:26774088

  2. Developmental alterations in the alpha-fetoprotein sugar chain in maternal serum analyzed by lectin affinity electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawahara N

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to investigate developmental alterations of human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP oligosaccharides in maternal serum by lectin affinity electrophoresis and to compare the AFP glycoforms in maternal serum with those in umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid. AFP glycoforms were separated by affinity electrophoresis with concanavalin A (Con A, lentil lectin (LCA, erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (E-PHA and Allomyrina dichotoma lectin (allo A and detected by sensitive antibody affinity blotting. In maternal serum, increased proportions of Con A-nonreactive AFP (AFP-C1, LCA strongly-reactive AFP (AFP-L3 and E-PHA-reactive AFP (AFP-P4 and AFP-P5 decreased gradually during the early gestational weeks. Allo A-nonreactive AFP (AFP-A1 and asialo-AFP were found only in amniotic fluids during early gestational weeks. The percentages of these glycoforms at full term were almost the same among those body fluids. Since the glycoforms of maternal serum AFP were close to those of umbilical cord serum AFP, lectin-affinity electrophoretic analysis of maternal serum AFP may be useful for evaluating the developmental state of fetus by examining the nature of AFP sugar chain.

  3. Des-gamma carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Tohru

    2003-04-01

    We describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented to Tokyo Kousei Nenkin Hospital because of appetite loss and general fatigue. Multiple liver masses and Borrmann type 2 gastric tumor were detected. A clinical diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer was made based on the patient's high levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP; 490 200 ng/mL) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II, 2284 mAU/mL). The patient's general condition worsened gradually and she died 42 days after admission. Autopsy revealed that the predominant histological structure of the gastric tumor was trabecular or sheet-like, although a tubular structure was also found. Venous invasion was prominent. Immunohistochemically, the tumor tissue was positive for AFP and a few tumor cells were positive for PIVKA-II. The histological appearance and immunohistochemical features of the hepatic tumors resembled that of the gastric tumor. This case was pathologically diagnosed as AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. When tumors are found in the stomach and liver and serum PIVKA-II level is abnormally high, the possibility of PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer with liver metastasis should be considered, especially when hepatitis virus markers are negative and liver cirrhosis is not present.

  4. Label-free alpha fetoprotein immunosensor established by the facile synthesis of a palladium-graphene nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, TingTing; Liao, JinFeng; Li, YiSong; Peng, JinRong; Li, WenTing; Chu, BingYang; Li, He; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2014-11-15

    In this study, we established a sensitive label-free immunosensor by palladium-reduced graphene oxide (Pd-rGO), which was prepared by one-pot synthesis under the reduction of extra-injected CO gas. The Pd-rGO nanocomposite structure has been confirmed by TEM, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The Pd-rGO nanocomposite exhibited excellent stability in aqueous dispersion. The Pd-rGO-based label-free electrochemical immunosensor was used for detection of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarker alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The immunosensor determination was based on the fact that due to the formation of antigen-antibody immunocomplex, the decreased response amperometric currents of H2O2 were directly proportional to the concentrations of AFP. The limit of detection of this immunosensor for AFP detection is 5 pg/mL, and is linear from 0.01 to 12 ng/mL. The proposed immunosensor has been used to determine AFP in clinical serum samples with satisfactory results. This suggests the sensor may have great potential utility in the clinic. PMID:24906081

  5. Alpha-Fetoprotein and Novel Tumor Biomarkers as Predictors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Surgery: A Brilliant Star Raises Again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP, and lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3 have been developed with the intent to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and for the surveillance of at-risk patients. However, at present, none of these tests can be recommended to survey cirrhotic patients at risk for HCC development because of their suboptimal ability for routine clinical practice in HCC diagnosis. Starting from these considerations, these markers have been therefore routinely and successfully used as predictors of survival and HCC recurrence in patients treated with curative intent. All these markers have been largely used as predictors in patients treated with hepatic resection or locoregional therapies, mainly in Eastern countries. In recent studies, AFP has been proposed as predictor of recurrence after liver transplantation and as selector of patients in the waiting list. Use of AFP modification during the waiting list for LT is still under investigation, potentially representing a very interesting tool for patient selection. The development of a new predictive model combining radiological and biological features based on biological markers is strongly required. New genetic markers are continuously discovered, but they are not already fully available in the clinical practice.

  6. A highly sensitive biosensor for tumor maker alpha fetoprotein based on poly(ethylene glycol) doped conducting polymer PEDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min; Song, Zhiling; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Bing; Fan, Xiaojian; Luo, Xiliang

    2016-05-15

    Biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are of great significance in the development of bio-interfaces and biosensors, as they possess excellent biocompatibility and are easy for modification. A novel highly biocompatible polymer composite was synthesized herein through electrochemical polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a PEG derivative, 4-arm PEG terminated with thiol groups. The electrodeposited conducting polymer composite of PEG doped PEDOT (PEDOT/PEG) exhibited flake-like nanostructure, large surface area and outstanding stability. In order to further immobilize antibodies, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced to the PEDOT/PEG composite surface through their unique interaction with the thiol groups. AuNPs modified PEDOT/PEG provided a desirable support for the immobilization of various biomolecules such as antibodies for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a vital tumor biomarker for liver cancer. The fabricated AFP biosensor demonstrated favorable selectivity, high sensitivity, and ultralow detection limit. Furthermore, owing to the presence of PEG polymers that are highly hydrophilic, such AuNPs/PEDOT/PEG based AFP biosensor also exhibited good anti-fouling ability, and it was capable of assaying target AFP in 10% (V/V) human serum samples, indicating highly feasible potential for clinical diagnosis.

  7. Relationship between Expression of the Human Alpha-Fetoprotein Gene and DNA Methylation Status of the Promoter Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Chen; Wei Wang; Qiuyue Jin; Ruimin Wang; Wenliang Hu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE DNA methylation has been regarded as an important epigenetic signature reflecting the transcription state of DNA in cells. This study was to conducted to assess the relationship between human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene expression and the DNA methylation status of the promoter region in three different cells, namely two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and normal human fibroblasts.METHODS Transcription of the AFP gene was verified by RT-PCR. After bisulphate treatment of DNA, the methods of MSP and BSP were used to analyze the methylation density and status within single DNA strands of two closely spaced CpG dinucleotides of the promoter region in the different cells.RESULTS RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of the AFP gene in HepG2 cells was significantly higher than in SMMC-7721 cells,and that the AFP gene was not expressed in normal human fibroblasts.By MSP and BSP we observed that the promoter region was demethylated in the AFP-high-expressing cell lines, and that the sites of -2,494 bp and -2,431 bp in the AFP genomic sequence can be used as detection sites for early tumorous diagnosis.CONCLUSION These results indicate that the DNA methylation state of the promoter region has a negative correlation with AFP gene expression.

  8. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency resulting in a hitherto unseen presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Polycythemia but with normal alpha fetoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ryan Owen; Ramachandran Sivakumar; Eui-Sik Suh; Murugiah Seevaratnam

    2006-01-01

    Polycythemia is a known paraneopastic manifestation of hepatoma, but only in the presence of alpha-fetopro (AFP). We present a case of polycythemia in the absence of AFP, and suggest concurrent alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as the cause for breaking this rule. We also suggest a reason for the apparent constant conjunction between polycythemia and AFP in hepatoma.

  9. Characteristics of magnetic labeling on liver tumors with anti-alpha-fetoprotein-mediated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Horng, Herng-Er; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, Hong-Chang

    2012-01-01

    For preoperative and intraoperative detection of tumor distribution, numerous multimodal contrast agents, such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with several examination indicators, are currently in development. However, complex materials, configuration, and cost are required for multimodal contrast agents, accompanied by a high possibility of toxicity and low popularity in clinics. Nevertheless, the magnetic labeling of MNPs using bioprobes should be feasible not only in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but also in intraoperative examination based on other magnetic properties. In this study, anti-alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-mediated Fe(3)O(4) MNPs, injected into mice with liver tumors, were used to examine the characteristics of magnetic labeling. Using MRI and scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB), based on alternating current (AC) susceptibility, the magnetic labeling occurred significantly on the first day post-injection of anti-AFP magnetic fluid (MF), and then decreased over time. However, for both MF without antibodies and an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen MF, no magnetic labeling occured on the first day of their respective post-injection. The favorable agreement indicates that magnetic labeling possesses two magnetic characteristics: distortion of the imaging field and AC susceptibility. In addition, the results of the biopsy tests, anti-AFP staining, and Prussian blue staining show the same dynamics as those of magnetic methodologies and prove that bound MNPs on tumor tissue are rotatable by an AC magnetic field to express AC susceptibility. Therefore, with the simple configuration of antibody-mediated MNPs, magnetic labeling is also feasible for intraoperative examinations using SSB with high mobility and sensitivity. PMID:22787394

  10. Alpha-Fetoprotein Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leads to a Standardized Analysis of Dynamic AFP to Improve Screening Based Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Thomas G; Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Turner, Rebecca M; Jenks, Sara J; Cusack, Pearce; Hey, Shiying; Blunsum, Andrew; Kelly, Sarah; Sturgeon, Catharine; Hayes, Peter C; Bird, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through screening can improve outcomes. However, HCC surveillance remains costly, cumbersome and suboptimal. We tested whether and how serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) should be used in HCC surveillance. Record linkage, dedicated pathways for management and AFP data-storage identified i) consecutive highly characterised cases of HCC diagnosed in 2009-14 and ii) a cohort of ongoing HCC-free patients undergoing regular HCC surveillance from 2009. These two well-defined Scottish patient cohorts enabled us to test the utility of AFP surveillance. Of 304 cases of HCC diagnosed over 6 years, 42% (129) were identified by a dedicated HCC surveillance programme. Of these 129, 47% (61) had a detectable lesion first identified by screening ultrasound (US) but 38% (49) were prompted by elevated AFP. Despite pre-HCC diagnosis AFP >20kU/L being associated with poor outcome, 'AFP-detected' tumours were offered potentially curative management as frequently as 'US-detected' HCCs; and had comparable survival. Linearity of serial log10-transformed AFPs in HCC cases and in the screening 'HCC-free' cohort (n = 1509) provided indicators of high-risk AFP behaviour in HCC cases. An algorithm was devised in static mode, then tested dynamically. A case/control series in hepatitis C related disease demonstrated highly significant detection (pAFP in HCC surveillance. We show proof-of-principle that an automated and further refine-able algorithmic interpretation of AFP can identify patients at higher risk of HCC. This approach could provide a cost-effective, user-friendly and much needed addition to US surveillance. PMID:27308823

  11. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  12. Pregnant women's attitudes for accepting or declining a serum-alpha-fetoprotein test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, M L; Bjurulf, P

    1988-01-01

    This study analyzes attitudes which influence women in their decisions to accept or decline a serum-Alpha-FetoProtein (se-AFP) test. The survey covers all women who have visited antenatal clinics offering the se-AFP test in a given area during a specified period. All in all, the pregnant women answered four questionnaires: three before and one after delivery. 19% of the women declined the se-AFP test. During pregnancy, the women who did not take the se-AFP test said that the reason was anxiety about the results of the test. Many of the women who took the test said that they wanted assurance that the child was healthy. This entails obvious ethical problems when the test is positive. The test-routine does not have a major influence in the decision-making process. A change in routines to shorten the waiting time, and a different cut-off line might influence some of the declining women to accept the test.

  13. Diagnostic Performance of Alpha-Fetoprotein, Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence, Osteopontin, Dickkopf-1 and Its Combinations for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Sun Jang; Sook-Hyang Jeong; Jin-Wook Kim; Yun Suk Choi; Philippe Leissner; Christian Brechot

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), despite its limitations. As complementary biomarkers, protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II), osteopontin (OPN), and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) have been proposed. This study aimed to perform a head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of AFP, PIVKA-II, OPN and DKK-1 as single or in combination to seek the best biomarker or panel, and to investigate the clinical f...

  14. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Takahashi, Emiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Amaike, Manami; Nohara, Mako; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Ebi, Masahide; Funaki, Yasushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3–1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential an...

  15. [Level of prolactin, gonadotrophin, testosterone, and alpha fetoprotein in serum of blood donors with antibodies to hepatitis c virus (anti-HCV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszowska, G; Jagiełło-Wójtowicz, E; Krawczuk, G; Baran, E; Bielec, D; Fijałka-Rymar, M; Surmaczyńska, B

    1993-01-01

    The study was aimed at the determination of serum levels of the investigated hormones (prolactin, gonadotrophins, testosterone and alpha-fetoprotein) in blood donors with antibodies to hepatitis C virus. The observed group consisted of 50 men of age between 22 and 47 years. The blood serum concentrations of hormones were determined by RIA method using the ready made reagent kits. No characteristic changes were observed in the serum hormones levels except for prolactin. Mean value of serum prolactin concentration was higher in blood donors than those in the control group. PMID:7688903

  16. Telomerase inhibition decreases alpha-fetoprotein expression and secretion by hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Tahtouh

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. A direct relationship between poor prognosis and the concentration of serum AFP has been observed. Telomerase, an enzyme that stabilizes the telomere length, is expressed by 90% of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of telomerase inhibition on AFP secretion and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Proliferation and viability tests were performed using tetrazolium salt. Apoptosis was determined through the Annexin V assay using flow cytometry. The concentrations of AFP were measured using ELISA kits. The AFP mRNA expression was evaluated using RT-PCR, and cell migration was evaluated using a Boyden chamber assay. The in vivo effect of costunolide on AFP production was tested in NSG mice. Telomerase inhibition by costunolide and BIBR 1532 at 5 and 10 μM decreased AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by HepG2/C3A cells. The same pattern was obtained with cells treated with hTERT siRNA. This treatment exhibited no apoptotic effect. The AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by PLC/PRF/5 was decreased after treatment with BIBR1532 at 10 μM. In contrast, no effect was obtained for PLC/PRF/5 cells treated with costunolide at 5 or 10 μM. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP concentration. In contrast, the MAPK/ERK pathway appeared to not be involved in HepG2/C3A cells, whereas ERK inhibition decreased the AFP concentration in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Modulation of the AFP concentration was also obtained after the inhibition or activation of PKC. Costunolide (30 mg/kg significantly decreased the AFP serum concentration of NSG mice bearing HepG2/C3A cells. Both the inhibition of telomerase and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP production of HepG2/C3A and PLC/PRF/5 cells, suggesting a relationship between telomerase and AFP expression through the PI3K

  17. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Driven Alpha Fetoprotein Expression to Promote Malignant Behaviors of Normal Liver Cells and Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), HBV-X protein(HBx) is able to induce expression of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in normal liver cells, and AFP harbors a function to promote malignant transformation of normal liver cells, but the role AFP playing in malignant behaviors of HCC cells is still unclear. Methods: Fifty-six liver tissue samples were collected from the clinical patients through hepatectomy(include normal liver tissues, HBV-related hepatitis liver tissues and HBV-related HCC tissues), and diagnosis of these tissues by pathology section, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by immunohisochemical staining and Western blotting; The proliferation of human normal liver cells line L-02 cells and human hepatoma cells line, HLE cells(non AFP-producing) were performed by MTT method; Repaired capacity of L-02 and HLE cells were compared by wound healing assay; Migration and invasion of these cells were analyzed by Transwell chamber assay; HBx expressed vectors(pcDNA3.1-HBx) were constructed and transfected into L-02 and HLE cells, effects of pcDNA3.1-HBx on the malignant behaviors were also detected by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and the expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by Western blotting. Results: we found that expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related HCC and lymph nodes metastasis tissues were significantly elevated compared with HBV-related HCC, non metastasis tissues and HBV-related hepatitis tissues; Expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related hepatitis tissues were significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissues; The growth ratio, migratory and invasive ability, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 of the cells were outstanding promoted while L-02 and HLE cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HBx vectors. The proliferation ratio, migration and invasion ability, and expression of Ras and CXCR4 were significantly inhibited while

  18. Telomerase inhibition decreases alpha-fetoprotein expression and secretion by hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Roula; Azzi, Anne-Sophie; Alaaeddine, Nada; Chamat, Soulaima; Bouharoun-Tayoun, Hasnaa; Wardi, Layal; Raad, Issam; Sarkis, Riad; Antoun, Najibe Abou; Hilal, George

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A direct relationship between poor prognosis and the concentration of serum AFP has been observed. Telomerase, an enzyme that stabilizes the telomere length, is expressed by 90% of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of telomerase inhibition on AFP secretion and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Proliferation and viability tests were performed using tetrazolium salt. Apoptosis was determined through the Annexin V assay using flow cytometry. The concentrations of AFP were measured using ELISA kits. The AFP mRNA expression was evaluated using RT-PCR, and cell migration was evaluated using a Boyden chamber assay. The in vivo effect of costunolide on AFP production was tested in NSG mice. Telomerase inhibition by costunolide and BIBR 1532 at 5 and 10 μM decreased AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by HepG2/C3A cells. The same pattern was obtained with cells treated with hTERT siRNA. This treatment exhibited no apoptotic effect. The AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by PLC/PRF/5 was decreased after treatment with BIBR1532 at 10 μM. In contrast, no effect was obtained for PLC/PRF/5 cells treated with costunolide at 5 or 10 μM. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP concentration. In contrast, the MAPK/ERK pathway appeared to not be involved in HepG2/C3A cells, whereas ERK inhibition decreased the AFP concentration in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Modulation of the AFP concentration was also obtained after the inhibition or activation of PKC. Costunolide (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased the AFP serum concentration of NSG mice bearing HepG2/C3A cells. Both the inhibition of telomerase and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP production of HepG2/C3A and PLC/PRF/5 cells, suggesting a relationship between telomerase and AFP expression through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:25822740

  19. The diagnostic value of combined detection of alpha-fetoprotein, AFP, lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein(AFP-L3) and alpha L fucosidase (AFU) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage%联合检测血清AFP、AFP异质体和AFU对早期肝癌诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 赵业民; 陈增银; 史光军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP), lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein( AFP-L3 ) and alpha L fucosidase ( AFU ) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage. Methods The serum level of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU were detected in 56 patients with primary liver cancer (PLC), 158 patients with benign liver disease, 40 patients with other malignant tumor without PLC and 40 healthy persons.Results The positive rate of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU in the group of PLC were signiifcantly higher than that of in the group of benign liver diseases and in the group of other malignant tumor without PLC ( P<0.01 ). Combined detection have a complementary function for the diagnosis of patients PLC in early stage and the sensitivity rate was 94.60%. The sensitivity in the group of combined detection is higher than that of in the group of single detection ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion The sensitivity rate of single detection for AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage is similar and combined detection could signiifcantly improve the sensitivity rate for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage and decrease the misdiagnosis rate. The combined detection of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU can be used as a newly routine detection method for the high population of the patients with PLC in the early stage especially.%目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein ,AFP)、扁豆凝集素亲和型甲胎蛋白异质体(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein, AFP-L3)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(alpha L fucosidase, AFU)水平联合检测对原发性肝癌(primary liver cancer, PLC)的诊断价值。方法对56例PLC、158例良性肝病患者、40例非PLC恶性肿瘤患者以及40例健康查体者进行AFP、AFP-L3和AFU进行联合检测。结果 PLC组的AFP、AFP-L3、AFU的阳性率明显高于良性肝病和非PLC恶性肿瘤组( P<0.01),PLC患者血清AFP、AFP-L3、AFU三者之间无相关性,联

  20. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. → Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. → Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. → Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. → Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO2) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH4, and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO2 (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO2) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO2 nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3σ) in pH 6.0 PBS-H2O2 system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available electrochemiluminescent analyzer.

  1. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Juan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Su Biling; Li Qunfang; Qiu Bin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Chen Guonan, E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. {yields} Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. {yields} Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. {yields} Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. {yields} Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH{sub 4}, and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO{sub 2} (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3{sigma}) in pH 6.0 PBS-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available

  2. A new mutation in the AFP gene responsible for a total absence of alpha feto-protein on second trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, François M; Hébert, Marylise; Picone, Olivier; Brisset, Sophie; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Benattar, Clarisse; Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Tachdjian, Gérard; Labrune, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Alpha feto-protein (AFP) is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. During the second trimester of pregnancy, APF and βhCG serum concentrations are commonly used for screening Down syndrome. AFP deficiency is rare (estimated to be 1/105 000 newborns) and only one sequence alteration has previously been reported in the AFP gene. We report a new mutation in exon 5 of the AFP gene, leading to a total absence of AFP on 2nd-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome, confirmed on the amniotic fluid. Despite this, fetal development and birth were normal. After PCR-amplification, the whole AFP gene was sequenced. The new mutation was a guanine to adenine transition in position 543 creating a premature stop codon in position 181. In order to search for eventual modifications of the amniotic fluid profile, proteins were separated by electrophoresis and compared with 10 normal amniotic fluids sampled at the same developmental age (18 weeks). In the amniotic fluid of our patient albumin rate was reduced whereas alpha1 and beta protein fractions were increased, suggesting that AFP deficiency may modify the distribution of protein fractions. This observation emphasizes the complex molecular mechanisms of compensation of serum protein deficiency. Studies on other families with AFP deficiency are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:18854864

  3. An Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Immunosensor for Alpha-Fetoprotein Using an Envision Complex-Antibody Copolymer as a Sensitive Label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy is presented for sensitive detection of alfa-fetoprotein (AFP, using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP-functionalized Envision antibody complex (EVC as the label. The Envision-AFP signal antibody copolymer (EVC-AFP Ab2 was composed of a dextran amine skeleton anchoring more than 100 molecules of HRP and 15 molecules of secondary antibody, and acted as a signal tag in the immunosensor. The sensor was constructed using the following steps: First, gold electrode (GE was modified with nano-gold (AuNPs by electro-deposition in HAuCl4 solution. The high affinity of the AuNPs surface facilitates direct formation of a self-assembled thiolated protein G layer. Next, the coated GE was incubated in a solution of AFP capture antibody (AFP Ab1; these antibodies attach to the thiolated protein G layer through their non-antigenic regions, leaving the antigen binding sites for binding of target analyte. Following a sandwich immunoreaction, an EVC-AFP Ab2-AFP-AFP Ab1 immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface, allowing large amounts of HRP on the complex to produce an amplified electrocatalytic current of hydroquinone (HQ in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Highly amplified detection was achieved, with a detection limit of 2 pg/mL and a linear range of 0.005–0.2 ng/mL for AFP in 10 μL undiluted serum; this is near or below the normal levels of most cancer biomarker proteins in human serum. Measurements of AFP in the serum of cancer patients correlated strongly with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These easily fabricated EVC-modified immunosensors show excellent promise for future fabrication of bioelectronic arrays. By varying the target biomolecules, this technique may be easily extended for use with other immunoassays, and thus represents a versatile design route.

  4. Diagnostic sensitivity of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in esophageal carcinoma (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bagaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal carcinomas are very lethal disease relatively unresponsive to therapy. The continued development of new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens offers hope that in the future, this carcinoma may be amenable to either more effective palliative treatment or possibly increased cure. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the marker with best diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG levels were assessed in healthy subjects (n = 50 and patients (n = 50 initially diagnosed of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic examination and biopsy before receiving any therapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 10.0 (SPSS Inc. USA and MedCalc to estimate mean ± standard deviation, the significance of the observed differences (P value, for calculating sensitivity and for plotting receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, AFP, and β-HCG detected in esophagus cancer was 38%, 18%, 10%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion: From the above studied markers, CEA has the highest sensitivity followed by β-HCG, CA19-9 and AFP. Although the sensitivity of tumor markers in esophagus cancer is low, they may be useful additional parameter in the prediction of neoplasms involved at the early stage of tumor growth.

  5. Expression of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and effect of L-4-oxalysine on the expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AIM To investigate alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA expression in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and the effect of L-4-oxalysine (OXL) on the expression.METHODS BEl-7404 human hepatoma cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 media. Human AFP cDNA probe was labelled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP by the random primer labelling method. The expression of AFP mRNA in Bel-7404 cells was determined by an in situ hybridization technique with digoxigenin-labelled human AFP cDNA probe. The positive intensities of AFP mRNA in cells were analyzed by microspectrophotometer and expressed as absorbance at 470nm. For the experiment with OXL, cells were incubated with various concentrations of the agent for 72h.RESULTS Essentially all the hepatoma cells contained AFP mRNA in the cytoplasm, although in various amounts. The specificity of the hybridization reaction was confirmed by control experiments in which the use of RNase-treated BEL-7404 cells, non-AFP-producing cells (HL-60 human leukemia cells) or a nonspecific cDNA probe resulted in negative hybridization. When the cells were treated with OXL (25, 50mg/L), the content of AFP mRNA in the cytoplasm was decreased with the inhibition percentages of 34.3% and 70.1%, respectively (P<0.05).CONCLUSION AFP mRNA was expressed in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and OXL suppressed AFP mRNA expression in the cells.

  6. A novel electrochemical immunosensor using β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase as labels for ultrasensitive detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Hongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Yan, Tao; Li, Na; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin

    2015-09-17

    In this work, a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest interaction was fabricated for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Due to the large specific surface area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the unique supramolecular recognition ability of β-cyclodextrins, ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc) was incorporated into this sensor platform by host-guest interaction to generate an electrochemical signal. And β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase (GOD-CD-Ag), was used as a label to improve the analytical performance of the immunosensor by the dual amplification strategy. The obtained GOD-CD-Ag conjugates could convert glucose into gluconic acid with the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). And then silver nanoparticles could in situ catalyze the reduction of the generated H2O2, dramatically improving the oxidation reaction of Fc. The developed immunosensor shows a wide linear calibration range from 0.001 to 5.0 ng/mL with a low detection limit (0.2 pg/mL) for the detection of AFP. The method, with ideal reproducibility and selectivity, has a wide application prospect in clinical research.

  7. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi; Hao, Fen; Wu, Ying-Song

    2015-09-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC); the HT/HC ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0-1000 IU mL(-1)) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL(-1)) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing.

  8. Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Pham, Van; ThanhTung Pham, Xuan; Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-12-01

    We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL-1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis.

  9. First-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lith, J M

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. The median multiple of the normal median (MOM) in 32 Down's syndrome pregnancies was 0.83 with a 95 per cent confidence interval ranging from 0.60 to 1.04. The difference between the distributions of first-trimester MS-AFP in normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies was statistically significant (t-test: t = 2.34, P MOM = 1.26; seven cases with sex chromosome abnormalities, MOM = 1.07; 22 cases with a chromosomal mosaic pattern in chorionic villi, MOM = 1.08). We conclude that first-trimester MS-AFP can discriminate between normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies, but is not an effective marker. First-trimester MS-AFP has no value as a marker for other fetal chromosomal disorders. PMID:7534926

  10. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizejewski, Gerald J. [Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K{sup +} ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity.

  11. Effect of increasing maximal aerobic exercise on serum gonadal hormones and alpha-fetoprotein in the luteal phase of professional female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otağ, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otağ, İlhan; Beyleroğlu, Malik

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The performance of female athletes during their menstrual period has attracted the attention of researchers for many years. It is known that the menstrual period changes with exercise. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal protein. In this study, the effect of maximal aerobic exercise in the luteal phase on some hormones and AFP in female athletes was researched. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve volunteers and healthy female footballers with normal menstrual cycles volunteered for this study as subjects. All the participants performed a shuttle run test. Blood samples were taken before, after, and one hour after exercise. Serum AFP, estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) values were measured using an auto analyzer and original kits. Heart rate measurements were performed before and after the exercise. [Results] AFP activity had significantly decreased after 1 h of recovery from the exercise in the female soccer players, and estrogen and LH activity had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. Progesterone activity had significantly decreased immediately after the exercise. FSH values had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show there were significant decreases in the values of AFP, which is a cancer parameter, 1 hour after the exercise. This result may be valuable in future physiotherapy studies on the relationship between exercise and cancer. PMID:27134362

  12. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity

  13. Amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein antigen in human serum based on co-immobilizing dinuclear copper complex and gold nanoparticle doped chitosan film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Ning; Meng Linghua; Wang Feng [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ninbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China)], E-mail: ganning@nbu.edu.cn

    2009-09-01

    A sensitive amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was constructed, The immunosensor is prepared by co-immobilizing [Cu{sub 2}(phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}] ({mu}-Cl){sub 2} (CuL), nano-Au/Chitosan(Chit) composite, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and AFP antibody(anti-AFP) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Firstly, CuL was irreversibly absorb on GCE electrode through {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction; then nano-Au/Chit composite was immobilized onto the electrode because of its excellent membrane-forming ability, finally HRP and anti-AFP was adsorbed onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles to construct GCE | CuL/nanoAu-chit/HRP/anti-AFP immunosensor. The preparation procedure of the electrode was characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopy method. The results showed that this immunosensor exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) without the aid of an electron mediator, offers a high-sensitivity (1710 nA {center_dot} ng{sup -1} {center_dot} ml{sup -1}) for the detection of AFP and has good correlation for detection of AFP in the range of 0.2 to 120.0 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.05 ng/ml. The biosensor showed high selectivity as well as good stability and reproductivity.

  14. Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas producing protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Notohara, Kenji

    2006-10-01

    We describe a rare case of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas with production of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The patient was a 49-year-old woman admitted because of high serum levels of PIVKA-II (1.63 AU/ml) and AFP (623 ng/ml) and abnormal ultrasonographic findings of the pancreas, found incidentally at medical checkup. Both ultrasonography and computed tomography showed swelling of the pancreas with small areas of low density, but no hepatic lesions. The serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were not increased. A PIVKA-II and AFP-producing pancreatic cancer was strongly suspected, and total pancreatectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged in trabecular and solid patterns with bile production, and were immunohistochemically positive for PIVKA-II and AFP, resembling hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The tumor was diagnosed as hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas, and the patient has survived 48 months after initial diagnosis. It is important that hepatoid carcinoma be considered as a possible malignant tumor of the pancreas, and simultaneous measurement of the serum levels of AFP and PIVKA-II will enable earlier diagnosis. This is the first report describing hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas producing PIVKA-II.

  15. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3-1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential and the cancer progressed rapidly. We described a case of gastric cancer producing AFP and PIVKA-II in which chemotherapy was effective and resulted in prolonged survival, and these two tumor markers were useful for monitoring the treatment response. Routine health screening using upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors in an apparently healthy 65-year-old man. Whole-body computed tomography (CT revealed multiple hepatic tumors, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a Bormann type 3 tumor in the lower stomach. A biopsy specimen confirmed that the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for AFP, PIVKA-II, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. After chemotherapy, the gastric tumor appeared as a small elevated lesion on EGD, and CT revealed a remarkable reduction in the size of the metastatic liver tumors. The patient is still alive, 35 months after the initial chemotherapy.

  16. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Takahashi, Emiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Amaike, Manami; Nohara, Mako; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Ebi, Masahide; Funaki, Yasushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3-1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential and the cancer progressed rapidly. We described a case of gastric cancer producing AFP and PIVKA-II in which chemotherapy was effective and resulted in prolonged survival, and these two tumor markers were useful for monitoring the treatment response. Routine health screening using upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors in an apparently healthy 65-year-old man. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hepatic tumors, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a Bormann type 3 tumor in the lower stomach. A biopsy specimen confirmed that the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for AFP, PIVKA-II, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. After chemotherapy, the gastric tumor appeared as a small elevated lesion on EGD, and CT revealed a remarkable reduction in the size of the metastatic liver tumors. The patient is still alive, 35 months after the initial chemotherapy. PMID:26034473

  17. Sandwich immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein in human sera using gold nanoparticle and magnetic bead labels along with resonance Rayleigh scattering readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a sensitive sandwich immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). It is making use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and magnetic beads (MBs) as labels, and of resonance Rayleigh scattering for detection. Two antibodies were labeled with GNPs and MBs, respectively, and MB-antigen-GNP complexes were formed in the presence of antigens. The MB labels also serve as solid phase carriers that can be used to magnetically separate the immuno complex. The GNP labels are used as optical probes, and Rayleigh scattering was used to determine the concentration of free GNPs-antibody after separation of the MB-antigen-GNP complexes. The concentration of AFP is related to the intensity of light scattered by free GNPs in the 13.6 pM to 436 pM concentration range, and the limit of detection is 13.6 pM. The method was applied to the determination of AFP in sera of cancer patients, and the results agree well with those obtained by conventional ELISA. (author)

  18. A fluorescent molecularly-imprinted polymer gate with temperature and pH as inputs for detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfa, Paramita; Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Kumar, Deepak; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we have reported a new approach on the use of stimuli-responsive molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for trace level sensing of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is a well know cancer biomarker. The stimuli-responsive MIP is composed of three components, a thermo-responsive monomer, a pH responsive component (tyrosine derivative) and a highly fluorescent vinyl silane modified carbon dot. The synthesized AFP-imprinted polymer possesses excellent selectivity towards their template molecule and dual-stimuli responsive behavior. Along with this, the imprinted polymer was also explored as 'OR' logic gate with two stimuli (pH and temperature) as inputs. However, the non-imprinted polymers did not have such 'OR' gate property, which confirms the role of template binding. The imprinted polymer was also used for estimation of AFP in the concentration range of 3.96-80.0 ng mL(-1), with limit of detection (LOD) 0.42 ng mL(-1). The role of proposed sensor was successfully exploited for analysis of AFP in real human blood plasma, serum and urine sample.

  19. Highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of alpha fetoprotein based on PdNi nanoparticles and N-doped graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Ma, Hongmin; Cao, Wei; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-12-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed for the quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The β-cyclodextrins functionalized graphene sheets (CD-GS) were used as the sensing matrix for immobilizing adamantine-1-carboxylic acid functionalized primary anti-AFP (ADA-Ab1) and enhanced the electron transfer. PdNi alloy nanoparticles decorated N-doped graphene nanoribbons (PdNi/N-GNRs) were used as labels of secondary anti-AFP (Ab2), and PdNi alloy nanoparticles (PdNi NPs) exhibited high catalytic performance towards the reduction of H2O2. Meanwhile, with good dispersion, large specific surface area and good catalytic performance, N-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) significantly amplified the electrochemical signal. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range of 0.0001-16 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.03 pg/mL. Additionally, the proposed immunosensor showed high specificity, good reproducibility and long-term stability, which have promising application in bioassay analysis.

  20. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  1. Application of Latex particles in detecting alpha- fetoprotein (AFP)%乳胶粒子法检测甲胎蛋白的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩全; 曾嫚妮

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the application value of Latex method in detection of alpha - fetoprotein ( AFP). Methods:Repetitive determination tests within and between batches were done on serum specimens, then the determination results were compared and analyzed by Latex method and electrochemiluminescence assay. Results; The results had no significant difference between Latex method and electrochemiluminescence assay, the recoveries were 95.5% for Latex method and 96.7% for electrochemiluminescence assay. Conclusion; Though electrochemiluminescence assay had high sensitivity and precision, it was not suitable for the wide use due to its high cost in instrument and reagent. Latex method had good correlation with electrochemiluminescence assay, which can be applied widely for its rapidness, stable results and low cost.%目的:评价Latex法检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)的临床应用价值.方法:对血清标本做批内批间重复性测定试验及Latex法与电化学发光法进行对比测定.结果:Latex法与电化学发光法检测AFP结果无显著差异,Latex法与电化学发光法平均回收率分别为95.5%和96.7%.结论:电化学发光法灵敏度、精密度高,但其仪器、试剂价格高,不适于全面推广;Latex法与电化学发光法检测AFP结果无显著差异,相关性好,快速、结果稳定,试剂便宜在全自动生化仪上检测,可广泛应用.

  2. Utility-based criteria for selecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation: A multicenter cohort study using the alpha-fetoprotein model as a survival predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Alessandro; Farinati, Fabio; Burra, Patrizia; Trevisani, Franco; Giannini, Edoardo G; Ciccarese, Francesca; Piscaglia, Fabio; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico; Di Marco, Mariella; Caturelli, Eugenio; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Felder, Martina; Sacco, Rodolfo; Morisco, Filomena; Missale, Gabriele; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Svegliati Baroni, Gianluca; Virdone, Roberto; Chiaramonte, Maria; Spolverato, Gaya; Cillo, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The lifetime utility of liver transplantation (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still controversial. The aim of this study was to ascertain when LT is cost-effective for HCC patients, with a view to proposing new transplant selection criteria. The study involved a real cohort of potentially transplantable Italian HCC patients (n = 2419 selected from the Italian Liver Cancer group database) who received nontransplant therapies. A non-LT survival analysis was conducted, the direct costs of therapies were calculated, and a Markov model was used to compute the cost utility of LT over non-LT therapies in Italian and US cost scenarios. Post-LT survival was calculated using the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) model on the basis of AFP values and radiological size and number of nodules. The primary endpoint was the net health benefit (NHB), defined as LT survival benefit in quality-adjusted life years minus incremental costs (US $)/willingness to pay. The calculated median cost of non-LT therapies per patient was US $53,042 in Italy and US $62,827 in the United States. On Monte Carlo simulation, the NHB of LT was always positive for AFP model values ≤ 3 and always negative for values > 7 in both countries. A multivariate model showed that nontumor variables (patient's age, Child-Turcotte-Pugh [CTP] class, and alternative therapies) had the potential to shift the AFP model threshold of LT cost-ineffectiveness from 3 to 7. LT proved always cost-effective for HCC patients with AFP model values ≤ 3, whereas the cost-ineffectiveness threshold ranged between 3 and 7 using nontumor variables.

  3. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  4. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Yiwen; Xiao, Guangyang; Hu, Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2015-04-01

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L{sup −1} and 0.054 μg L{sup −1} with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L{sup −1}) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2–50 μg L{sup −1}. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications. - Highlights: • 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared and characterized. • ICP-MS based magnetic immunoassay approach was developed for quantification of glycoproteins. • AFP and CEA were quantified simultaneously with Au and Ag NPs as element tags. • The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for target glycoproteins.

  5. Propensity Score Matching Analysis of Changes in Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels after Combined Radiotherapy and Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Jeong

    Full Text Available To investigate the value of changes in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels for the prediction of radiologic response and survival outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT who received combined treatment of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE.A database of 154 HCC patients with PVTT and elevated AFP levels (>20 ng/mL treated with 3D-CRT and TACE as an initial treatment between August 2002 and August 2008 was retrospectively reviewed. AFP levels were determined 1 month after radiotherapy, and AFP response was defined as an AFP level reduction of >20% from the initial level. Radiologic response, overall survival (OS, and progression-free survival (PFS rates were compared between AFP responders and non-responders. Propensity-score based matching analysis was performed to minimize the effect of potential confounding bias.The median follow-up period was 11.1 months (range, 3.1-82.7 months. In the propensity-score matching cohort (92 pairs, a best radiologic response of CR or PR occurred in more AFP responders than AFP non-responders (41.3% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.001. OS and PFS were also longer in AFP responders than in non-responders (median OS 13.2 months vs. 5.6 months, p < 0.001; median PFS 8.7 months vs. 3.5 months, p < 0.001.AFP response is a significant predictive factor for radiologic response. Furthermore, AFP response is significant for OS and PFS outcomes. AFP evaluation after combined radiotherapy and TACE appears to be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes in HCC patients with PVTT.

  6. Alpha-fetoprotein, identified as a novel marker for the antioxidant effect of placental extract, exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Placenta, as a reservoir of nutrients, has been widely used in medical and cosmetic materials. Here, we focused on the antioxidant properties of placental extract and attempted to isolate and identify the main antioxidant factors. Porcine placental extracts were prepared through homogenization or acid hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was investigated in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Treatment with homogenized placental extract (H-PE increased the cell viability of H2O2-treated HaCaT cells more than two-fold. H-PE treatment suppressed H2O2-induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death and decreased intracellular ROS levels in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. The antioxidant factors in H-PE were found to be thermo-unstable and were thus expected to include proteins. The candidate antioxidant proteins were fractionated with cation-exchange, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography, and the antioxidant properties of the chromatographic fractions were investigated. We obtained specific antioxidant fractions that suppressed ROS generation and ROS-induced DNA strand breaks. From silver staining and MALDI-TOF analyses, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP precursor was identified as a main marker for the antioxidant effect of H-PE. Purified AFP or ectopically expressed AFP exhibited synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol. Taken together, our data suggest that AFP, a serum glycoprotein produced at high levels during fetal development, is a novel marker protein for the antioxidant effect of the placenta that exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.

  7. Clinical Utility of Alpha Fetoprotein and HCCR-1, Alone or in Combination, in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis, Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jirun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP is the most widely used tumor marker in detecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, it has been indicated that HCCR-1 (human cervical cancer oncogene 1 might be supplementary to AFP in the detection. We conducted a prospective study in 120 normal and 524 liver disease patients to evaluate the significance of simultaneous measurement of 2 tumor markers (AFP and HCCR-1 in the diagnosis of HCC through the cohort study in Korea and China. We also performed immunohistochemical studies using 25 normal subjects (N, 32 liver cirrhosis (LC and 116 HCC tissues. The sensitivities of AFP (20 ng/mL and HCCR-1 (10 ng/mL in HCC were 55.8% (164/294 and 44.2% (130/294, respectively. When AFP was combined with HCCR-1, sensitivities increased to 4.2% (N, 12.7% (chronic hepatitis; CH, 50.0% (LC, and 77.2% (HCC, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in the diagnostic rate for HCC between AFP and HCCR-1, many cases for AFP-negative HCC were positive for HCCR-1 and vice versa. Moreover, the combined use of AFP and HCCR-1 improved the diagnostic rate to 70.8% in small HCC (< 2 cm and 81.6% in large HCC (≥ 2 cm, respectively. AFP and HCCR-1 are independent markers. Our result suggests that the HCCR-1 could be an useful biomarker for HCC while the diagnostic rate could be significantly improved in the combined use of HCCR-1 and AFP.

  8. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using {sup 125}I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of {sup 131}I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by {sup 125}I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to {sup 131}I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system.

  9. Diagnostic Performance of Alpha-Fetoprotein, Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence, Osteopontin, Dickkopf-1 and Its Combinations for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Jang

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is the most widely used serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, despite its limitations. As complementary biomarkers, protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II, osteopontin (OPN, and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1 have been proposed. This study aimed to perform a head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of AFP, PIVKA-II, OPN and DKK-1 as single or in combination to seek the best biomarker or panel, and to investigate the clinical factors affecting their performance.Using 401 stored plasma samples obtained from 208 HCC patients and 193 liver cirrhosis control patients, plasma AFP, PIVKA-II, OPN and DKK-1 levels were measured by ELISA, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed for each biomarker and for every combination of two to four markers.Of the four biomarkers, AFP showed the highest area under the curve (0.786. The sensitivity and specificity for each single biomarker was 62% and 90.2% (AFP>20 ng/mL, 51.0% and 91.2% (PIVKA-II>10 ng/mL, 46.2% and 80.3% (OPN>100 ng/mL, and 50.0% and 80.8% (DKK-1>500 pg/mL, respectively. Among the combinations of two biomarkers, AFP>20 ng/mL or DKK-1>500 pg/mL showed the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity 78.4%, specificity 72.5%. Triple or quadruple combination did not improve the diagnostic performance further. The patient's age, etiology and tumor invasiveness of HCC affected the performance of each marker.AFP was the most useful single biomarker for HCC diagnosis, and the combined measurement of AFP and DKK-1 could maximize the diagnostic yield. Clinical decision should be based on the consideration of various factors affecting the diagnostic performance of each biomarker. Efforts to seek novel HCC biomarkers should be continued.

  10. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L−1 and 0.054 μg L−1 with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L−1) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2–50 μg L−1. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications. - Highlights: • 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared and characterized. • ICP-MS based magnetic immunoassay approach was developed for quantification of glycoproteins. • AFP and CEA were quantified simultaneously with Au and Ag NPs as element tags. • The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for target glycoproteins

  11. Interrelationships among biological activity, disulfide bonds, secondary structure, and metal ion binding for a chemically synthesized 34-amino-acid peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacColl, R; Eisele, L E; Stack, R F; Hauer, C; Vakharia, D D; Benno, A; Kelly, W C; Mizejewski, G J

    2001-10-01

    A 34-amino-acid peptide has been chemically synthesized based on a sequence from human alpha-fetoprotein. The purified peptide is active in anti-growth assays when freshly prepared in pH 7.4 buffer at 0.20 g/l, but this peptide slowly becomes inactive. This functional change is proven by mass spectrometry to be triggered by the formation of an intrapeptide disulfide bond between the two cysteine residues on the peptide. Interpeptide cross-linking does not occur. The active and inactive forms of the peptide have almost identical secondary structures as shown by circular dichroism (CD). Zinc ions bind to the active peptide and completely prevents formation of the inactive form. Cobalt(II) ions also bind to the peptide, and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the cobalt-peptide complex shows that: (1) a near-UV sulfur-to-metal-ion charge-transfer band had a molar extinction coefficient consistent with two thiolate bonds to Co(II); (2) the lowest-energy visible d-d transition maximum at 659 nm, also, demonstrated that the two cysteine residues are ligands for the metal ion; (3) the d-d molar extinction coefficient showed that the metal ion-ligand complex was in a distorted tetrahedral symmetry. The peptide has two cysteines, and it is speculated that the other two metal ion ligands might be the two histidines. The Zn(II)- and Co(II)-peptide complexes had similar peptide conformations as indicated by their ultraviolet CD spectra, which differed very slightly from that of the free peptide. Surprisingly, the cobalt ions acted in the reverse of the zinc ions in that, instead of stabilizing anti-growth form of the peptide, they catalyzed its loss. Metal ion control of peptide function is a saliently interesting concept. Calcium ions, in the conditions studied, apparently do not bind to the peptide. Trifluoroethanol and temperature (60 degrees C) affected the secondary structure of the peptide, and the peptide was found capable of assuming various conformations in solution

  12. 血清AFP、CEA、AFU、GGT-Ⅱ联合检测诊断原发性肝癌的临床价值%Clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes for diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁珠; 殷芳; 刘海; 尤丽英; 杨晋辉; 郑盛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of combined measurement of four serum tumor markers (alpha-fe-toprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes) for diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods 160 patients with primary liver cancer and 120 healthy subjects were measured the serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes was detected by using not continuous PAGE. The results were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software. Results The serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase were significantly higher in the primary liver cancer patients than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The positive rate of single marker of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes was 68.00%, 28.00%, 84.00% and 77.00% respectively, and there were statistical significances during carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes (all P < 0.05). The positive rate of the combined measured of two markers: alpha-fe-toprotein/carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein/alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-fetoprotein/gamma-glutamyltrans-ferase isoenzymes were 75.00%, 84.00% and 89.00% respectively, and there were statistical significances during the positive rates of the combined measured of alpha-fetoprotein/alpha-L-fucosidase, alpha-fetoprotein/gamma-glutamyl-transferase isoenzymes compared with alpha-fetoprotein (all P < 0.05). But the positive rate of combined measurement of four markers was 96.00% and there was evidently statistical significance compared with the alpha-fetoprotein result (P < 0.01). Conclusion The combined measurement of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes can be used as an accessory tool in diagnosis of primary liver cancer.%目的 探讨血清甲胎蛋白、癌胚抗原、

  13. Cytological alteration of cultured rat liver cells by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene with special reference to chromosome changes, changes of growth patterns at a colony level and alpha-fetoprotein production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiwa,Takayoshi

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A near diploid clone derived from a rat liver cell line was continuously treated with various concentrations of 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB in culture. By treatment with 2.8 micrograms/ml, cells with 41 chromosomes formed a mode and which then shifted to 39. The chromosome numbers of cells treated with 5.4 micrograms/ml were widely distributed at early stages, but later the mode shifted to hypotetraploid region. Untreated control cells were confirmed as near diploid. Increased plating efficiency by 3'-Me-DAB as well as the appearance of large sized colonies was obtained. The production of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP by the cells was slightly enhanced by treatment with 3'-Me-DAB. The cells treated with and without 3'-Me-DAB did not produce any tumor in rats 6 months after their intraperitoneal injection.

  14. Clinical evaluation of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma following interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, K; Murata, K; Kaminoh, T; Takada, K; Takashima, S; Nakamura, K; Onoyama, Y

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen patients with unrespectable HCC were treated with various interventional radiology (IVR) procedures. The initial therapeutic response was determined using computed tomography (CT) findings, and determinations of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by Vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) levels. When CT studies of the initial response to IVR were compared with changes in the serum AFP and PIVKA-II levels, the AFP level was found to correlate more closely than the PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level correlated more closely than the AFP level in cases with poor response to IVR. Both of these tumor markers should be measured in combination with the diagnostic imagings for follow-up studies of IVR.

  15. Combined radioimmunoassay of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 11-desoxycortisol, and of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate: Methods and some novel clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods for determining 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17HOP), 11-desoxycortisol (Cpd.-S), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate, are reported. The plasma levels of these hormones were measured in a series of 15 diagnostic groups including adrenal diseases, fertility-related problems and human growth hormone (HGH) deficiency states. The relations of DHEA-S and growth hormone were studied in a group of children with growth retardation who presented an absent response to HGH stimulation tests. The DHEA-S level found in these patients was significantly lower than that of their age-matched controls. Furthermore, in an etiologically different entity, i.e. head-injury patients, similar findings were also made. In a single case with HGH deficiency due to antibodies against HGH, DHEA-S levels were not detectable. It is suggested that the determination of DHEA-S plasma levels can provide further insight into the classification of patients with fertility-related problems. Furthermore, it appears that DHEA-S can be taken as an indicator for the availability of bioactive human growth hormone. The various forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) can be successfully screened and detected by the determination of the plasma levels of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17HOP), of 11-desoxycortisol (Cpd.-S), and of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S). These tests are also relevant in the investigation of patients with hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, and amenorrhea. RIA procedures for the measurement of these hormones are described and new clinical data on DHEA-S are presented in relation to fertility problems both in men and women, such as oligozoospermia, oligomenorrhea and aspermia and, in cases of human growth hormone (HGH), deficiency states such as retarded growth, head-injury patients and, in one case, HGH deficiency due to antibodies directed against HGH. The relations between normo- and hyperprolactinaemia and DHEA-S are also examined

  16. AFP、APF-L3、GP73、AFP-mRNA联合检测在肝细胞癌诊断中的应用价值%The application value of combined detection for serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoprotein-L3, Golgi protein 73 and AFP-mRNA in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永勤; 陈浩; 耿坤静; 杜博勋; 裘银久

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of combined detection for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-fetoprotein-L3 ( AFP-L3 ) , Golgi protein 73 ( GP73 ) and AFP-mRNA in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC). Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of GP73 in 73 cases of HCC,41 cases of liver cirrhosis,36 cases of chronic hepatitis B and 25 healthy subjects. AFP was detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and AFP-L3 was determined by adsorption centrifuging. AFP-mRNA was tested by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. Results There were significant differences in the levels of AFP, AFP-L3, GP73, AFP-mRNA between HCC group and cirrhosis group, normal control group ( P <0.01). The areas evaluated according to ROC curves were 0.691 ( AFP) ,0.859 ( APF-L3), 0.816 (GP73),0.762 (AFP-mRNA) respectively in HCC group,and the sensitivities were 54. 79% ,76. 71% , 80.82% ,53. 42%, respectively, and specificities were 79. 41% ,95. 10% ,82. 35% ,99. 02% , respectively. The areas under ROC curves for the four tumor-related markers were 0.958 by combined detection. The sensitivity of combined detection was significantly increased, which reached 95. 8% , and its specificity was 95. 0% in the diagnosis of HCC. Conclusion The combination detection for AFP, AFP-L3 ,GP73 and AFP-mRNA can obviously enhance the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of HCC,which is superior to individual detection of AFP, AFP-L3.GP73 or AFP-mRNA.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体( AFP-L3)、高尔基体蛋白(GP73)及AFP-mR-NA联合检测在HCC诊断中的价值.方法 收集175例血清、其中肝细胞癌患者73例(HCC组)、肝硬化患者41例(肝硬化组)、慢乙肝患者36例(慢性肝炎组)、正常人25例(正常人组),采用酶联免疫法检测GP73,用化学发光法检测AFP,用亲和吸附离心法检测AFP-L3,采用荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(RTPCR)法检测患者AFP

  17. Effects of curcumin in pediatric epithelial liver tumors: inhibition of tumor growth and alpha-fetoprotein in vitro and in vivo involving the NFkappaB- and the beta-catenin pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortel, Nicola; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; Schmid, Evi; Kirchner, Bettina; Frank, Jan; Kocher, Alexa; Schiborr, Christina; Warmann, Steven; Fuchs, Jörg; Ellerkamp, Verena

    2015-01-01

    In children with hepatocellular carcinoma (pHCC) the 5-year overall survival rate is poor. Effects of cytostatic therapies such as cisplatin and doxorubicin are limited due to chemoresistance and tumor relapse. In adult HCC, several antitumor properties are described for the use of curcumin. Curcumin is one of the best-investigated phytochemicals in complementary oncology without relevant side effects. Its use is limited by low bioavailability. Little is known about the influence of curcumin on pediatric epithelial hepatic malignancies. We investigated the effects of curcumin in combination with cisplatin on two pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines. As mechanisms of action inhibition of NFkappaB, beta-catenin, and decrease of cyclin D were identified. Using a mouse xenograft model we could show a significant decrease of alpha-fetoprotein after combination therapy of oral micellar curcumin and cisplatin. Significant concentrations of curcuminoids were found in blood samples, organ lysates, and tumor tissue after oral micellar curcumin administration. Micellar curcumin in combination with cisplatin can be a promising strategy for treatment of pediatric HCC. PMID:26515460

  18. Radioimmunoassay of thymosin alpha 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention relates to an immunoassay for thymosin α1, a heat stable, acidic polypeptide composed of 28 amino acid residues. This immunopotentiating hormone is a component of thymosin fraction 5 and also has been found to be present in the blood of mammalian subjects. The immunogen utilized to prepare the antibody for the instant assay is readily obtained by covalently bonding thymosin α1 to a conventional immunological carrier material. Thymosin α1 may be radioisotopically labelled with tritium, carbon 14 or iodine 125

  19. 32例产甲胎蛋白胃癌回顾性分析%Retrospective analysis of 32 alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田蓝天; 姚珂; 吴傲; 李龙; 张志程; 裴铁民; 刘连新

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments and prognostic factors of AFPGC. Methods: 468 gastric cancer medical files preserved at the medicalrecord library were retrospectively reviewed. There were 67 patients with elevated serum level of AFP among these patients who were made a definite diagnosis of gastric cancer and subsequently received surgery and systemic combined therapy at the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University (FAHHMU) between January 2001 and January 2007. Having excluded some diseases as hepatocirrhosisjiver tumor, germ cell tumor which can increase the level of serum AFP, 32 (6.8%) patients were made the definite diagnosis of AFPGC. The diagnostic, therapeutic and follow up files were reviewed. Finally, these follow-up results and correlative laboratory data were taken into statistical treatment. Results: There were 32 AFPGC which accounting for 6.8% of the gastric cancer of the corresponding time period. Compared with the negative group, there was a significantly higher incidence of lymph node and liver metastasis in AFPGC group (P = 0.025 and 0.011, respectively). Clinically, AFPGC was not sensitive to the commonly used chemotherapy regimens and it couldn't suppress the progression of AFPGC. 20 of the AFPGC patients died of tumor liver metastatis and the mean postoperative servial time of the cohort was 35.7 months. Conclusion; AFPGC has more aggressive behavior than that of AFP-negative gastric cancer. Patients with AFPGC are proned to proceed liver metastatis and the prognosis is very poor. Radical correction is the preferred way to deal with AFPGC and the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary.%目的:探讨产甲眙蛋白胃癌(α-fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinoma,AFPGC)的临床病理学特征、治疗及预后影响因素.方法:回顾分析2001年1月-2007年1月在哈尔滨医科大学附属第一医院确诊并完成治疗的468例胃癌患者住院病案

  20. Electrochemical immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein determination based on ZnSe quantum dots/Azure I/gold nanoparticles/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modified Pt electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel amperometric enzyme immunosensor with amplified sensitivity for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was constructed with layer-by-layer assembly of ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe QDs)/Azure I/gold nanoparticles (nanoAu)/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on Pt electrode. Firstly, citrate coated nanoAu was immobilized on the PEDOT polymer film, which was electrochemically synthesized in ionic liquid electrolyte of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]). Then, Azure I was immobilized on nanoAu/PEDOT composite matrix as a redox probe and was used to immobilize ZnSe QDs. Subsequently, AFP antibody (anti-AFP) was adsorbed onto the surface of ZnSe layer. Finally, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was employed to block sites against nonspecific binding and amplify the current signal of the antigen–antibody reaction. The modification processes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy. The factors influenced the performances of the proposed immunosensors were studied in detail. Because of the synergism between Azure I and nanoAu/PEDOT to facilitate electron-transfer process, and the small diameter of ZnSe QDs favorable for stabilization of biological activity to a large extent, the immunosensor displayed a high sensitivity, fast analytical time, a relatively low detection limit of 1.1 fg/mL at 3 times of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3), and a especially broad linear response to AFP in a ranges from 5 × 10−5 to 250 ng/mL. Moreover, the selectivity, repeatability, and stability of the proposed immunosensor were acceptable

  1. 血清CA125、甲胎蛋白及胎盘生长因子在胎盘早剥预测中的初步研究%A preliminary study of serum CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor for prediction of placental abruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世凯; 宋莉莉; 陈铎

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测胎盘早剥、重度子痫前期及正常妊娠孕妇的血清CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平,探讨其与胎盘早剥的关系,为胎盘早剥的预测及早期诊断提供理论依据.方法:采用微粒酶免疫分析法( MEIA)和双抗体夹心ELISA法检测孕妇血清CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平.结果:胎盘早剥组CA125和甲胎蛋白明显高于其他两组,胎盘生长因子明显低于其他两组(P<0.05).结论:检测外周血CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平对于预测胎盘早剥具有一定的临床价值.%Objective: To detect the levels of serum CA125, alpha-fetoprotein, and placental growth factor in the pregnant women with placental abruption, the pregnant women with severe preeclampsia, and the normal pregnant women, explore their relationships with placental abruption, provide a theoretical basis for prediction and early diagnosis of placental abruption. Methods: Micropartical enzyme immu-noassay and double - antibody sandwich ELISA were used to detect the levels of serum CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor. Resnlts: The levels of serum CA123 and alpha - fetoprotein in placental abruption group were significantly higher than those in the other two groups, the level of placental growth factor in placental abruption group was significantly lower than those in the other two groups (P <0.05) . Conclusion: Detecting the levels of CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor in peripheral blood has a certain clinical value for predicting placental abruption.

  2. Radioimmunoassay for methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbits and a goat immunized with a methotrexate-hemocyanin conjugate produced antibodies that bind [3H]methotrexate. The goat antibodies were used for the development of a radioimmunoassay for methotrexate. The radioimmunoassay is specific: 105 to 106 times more folic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid, or folinic acid are required to compete effectively with methotrexate for the antibodies to methotrexate. As little as 100 picograms of methotrexate can be detected in the assay. The radioimmunoassay was used to follow the disappearance of methotrexate in the plasma of two patients with malignancies following its intravenous administration. (auth)

  3. Radioimmunoassay for methaqualone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for methaqualone and its major metabolites is described. Included within this disclosure is the preparation of novel methaqualone haptens, the preparation of antigens from such haptens by coupling to an immunogenic carrier material, the use of such antigens to elicit antibodies selective to methaqualone and its major metabolites and an improved radiolabelled derivative of a methaqualone analog used in the practice of said radioimmunoassay. 4 claims

  4. 慢性乙型肝炎免疫清除期甲胎蛋白与HBV DNA清除的相关性研究%Correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein level and HBV DNA clearance in immune clearance phase of patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞晓鹰; 徐洪涛; 杨秀珍; 咸建春; 沈美龙

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨乙型肝炎免疫清除期,甲胎蛋白(AFP)与HBV DNA清除之间的相关性。方法收集处于免疫清除期发病2周内AFP升高5倍以上患者共58例,分为非抗病毒治疗组(下称观察组)31例和核苷(酸)类似物抗病毒治疗组(下称阳性对照组)27例,另取同期住院AFP阴性首次发病的慢性乙型肝炎核苷(酸)类似物抗病毒患者30例作为阴性对照组。分析影响HBV DNA清除率的相关因素。结果阳性对照组及阴性对照组患者均行抗病毒治疗,HBV DNA定量与各临床数据之间均无相关性,观察组HBV DNA定量与各指标之间的关系结果显示,AFP与HBV DNA清除具有显著相关性(r=0.8420,P=0.018),以下依次为ALT(r=0.7888,P=0.027)和总胆红素(TBil)(r=0.7816,P=0.032)。HBsAg(r=0.0480,P=0.413)和HBeAg(r=0.3356,P=0.191)与HBV DNA清除无显著相关性。结论对乙型肝炎免疫清除期AFP升高5倍以上患者,可先进行密切病情观察,根据病情需要进行抗病毒治疗。%Objectives To investigate the relationship between serum alpha-fetoprotein level and HBV DNA clearance in immune clearance phase of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods Total of 58 cases with CHB, who were in immune clearance phase and the serum alpha-fetoprotein level>5 upper limits of normal in two weeks since disease onset were enrolled. Among which 31 cases received non-antiviral therapy as experimental group, and 27 cases received antiviral therapy as positive control group. While other 30 cases with CHB who were in immune clearance phase and the serum alpha-fetoprotein level were normal in two weeks since disease onset, were enrolled as negative control group. And the correlation factors of HBV DNA clearance were analyzed, respectively. Results There were no signiifcant correlation between HBV DNA clearance and other data in patients who received antiviral therapy in positive and negative

  5. Clinical application of alpha-fetoprotein variant to screening benign and mlaignant liver dis-eases%甲胎蛋白异质体在鉴别良恶性肝病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶绍能; 周建国; 程光华; 戴云海; 张新路; 阮昊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨小扁豆凝集素结合型甲胎蛋白异质体( AFP-L3)在良恶性肝病鉴别诊断中的临床价值。方法:应用装有耦联了小扁豆凝集素( LCA)的微量离心柱分离131例肝病患者的AFP-L3,用化学发光免疫检测血清AFP和AFP-L3含量,计算AFP-L3占AFP总量的百分比( AFP-L3%)。结果:与肝硬化( LC)和慢性肝炎( CH)组相比,肝癌( HCC)组中患者血清AFP、AFP-L3与AFP-L3%均升高,经Kruskal-Wallis 秩和检验有统计学意义(χ2=31.457,41.983,413.77;P=0.000,0.000,0.000)。AFP、AFP-L3和AFP-L3%相应ROC曲线下面积(AUC)分别为0.628、0.718和0.795,其差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。以AFP-L3%≥6.90%判断为阳性,AFP-L3%诊断肝细胞癌敏感性和特异性分别为66.7%和82.4%。结论:AFP-L3对肝细胞癌诊断准确度明显高于AFP,微量离心柱法检测AFP-L3在良恶性肝脏病变鉴别诊断中具有重要临床价值。%Objective:To verify the clinical value of applying the isoform of alpha -fetoprotein variant(AFP-L3) to screening benign and malignant liver diseases.Methods:AFP-L3 was isolated 131 patients with liver disease using the micro-spin column coupled with lens culinaris agglutinin ( LCA) .Chemi-luminescent immunoassay was performed to determine the content of serum AFP and AFP-L3,and AFP-L3% was calculated.Results:The serum levels of AFP and AFP-L3 as well as AFP-L3% were significantly higher in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and chronic hepatitis (CH),and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of the variance showed statistical difference (χ2 =31.457,41.983,41.377;P=0.000,respectively).The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of AFP,AFP-L3 and AFP-L3 % was 0.628,0.718 and 0.795,respectively,and the differ-ences were significant (P<0.05).Sensitivity and specificity by AFP-L3 %(≥6.90% cut-off value) for diagnosis of HCC were66 .7

  6. 孕中期异常甲胎蛋白与不良妊娠结局的相关性%The association between second - trimester maternal serum abnormal alpha - fetoprotein and adverse pregnancy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴满武; 俞信忠; 杨志浩; 张涛; 罗婷婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨孕中期甲胎蛋白(AFP)与不良妊娠结局的相关性,为妊娠管理提供建议.方法 对孕中期14 008例孕妇进行唐氏筛查.研究组:①AFP MoM>2.0孕妇338例.②AFP MoM<0.5孕妇224例.依据AFP MoM值不同分组.对照组:AFP MoM值都在正常范围内的孕妇318例.回顾分析妊娠结局资料.结果 ①AFP MoM>2.0的孕妇发生出生缺陷(ρ<0.01)的机会明显比正常孕妇高.②AFP MoM> 3.5的孕妇发生出生缺陷(P<0.001)和早产(P<0.05)的机会明显比正常孕妇高.③AFP MoM> 5.0的孕妇发生出生缺陷(P<0.001)、早产(P<0.01)和胎儿窘迫(P<0.05)的机会明显比正常孕妇高.④AFP MoM<0.5和<0.25的孕妇均未发现与不良妊娠结局相关.结论 异常水平的标志物除了能够提供开放性神经管缺损风险外,还能提供不良妊娠结局的风险信息,而这些信息对产前遗传咨询和妊娠管理是非常重要.%Objective; Aim of this study is to determine the association between risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and abnormal maternal serum alpha - fetoprotein in second trimester screening. Abnormal levels of maternal serum markers provide information which is important for counseling and pregnancy management. Methods: A total of 14 008 pregnant women underwent maternal serum Down' s syndrome screening. Study groups include:①338 cases were found to have a serum AFP of > 2.0 multiples of the median ( MoM). ②cases serum were found to have a serum AFP 2.0 MoM have higher occurrence of birth defects (P 3. 5 MoM have higher occurrence of birth defects ( P 5.0 MoM have higher occurrence of birth defects (P < 0. 001) and preterm labor ( P < 0. 01) and fetal stress ( P < 0. 05). ④Pregnant women with a serum AFP of < 0. 5 M < 0. 25 MoM were found to have no association with adverse outcomes. Conclusion: Abnormal levels of maternal serum markers can provide risk information of adverse outcomes in addition to the risks for open neural tube defects

  7. Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K.; Smith, R.N. (Metropolitan Police Forensic Science Laboratory, London (UK))

    1983-09-01

    Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available (1-/sup 3/H)(-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and ..cap alpha..-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml/sup -1/ for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml/sup -1/ for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of pancreatic glucagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents some of the problems and concepts related to the development of a radioimmunoassay of pancreatic glucagon. A specific derivatization of glucagon for raising specific anti-glucagon antisera is introduced, and special procedures for diminishing the non-specific effect are outlined. (G.T.H.)

  9. Diagnosis value of alpha-fetoprotein heterogeneity in primary hepatic carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体在原发性肝癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 王利健; 骆剑明; 吴荣辉; 楼跃民; 朱笑频

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白异质体在肝脏良恶性疾病诊断中的意义.方法:采用微量离心柱法对240例肝病患者(原发性肝癌70例,肝癌术后10例,肝硬化63例,慢性肝炎97例),采用化学发光法检测AFP及AFP-L3水平,计算AFP-L3和AFP比例.结果:原发性肝癌组患者血清中的AFP,AFP-L3%阳性率显著高于肝癌术后组,肝硬化组和慢性肝炎组.AFP-L3%的灵敏度为86.96%,特异性为88.30%,Youden指数为0.75.AFP的灵敏度为75.68%,特异性为85.54%,Youden指数为0.61.从Youden指数可以知道AFP-L3%是比AFP更好的诊断肝癌的指标.原发性肝癌组患者血清中的AFP、AFP-L3%含量显著高于肝癌术后组、肝硬化组和慢性肝炎组(F值分别为74.45、54.85,P值均<0.01).诊断为原发性肝癌病人中,当AFP> 400 ng/ml时,AFP-L3%的阳性率为95.23%.AFP-L3%与AFP水平无相关性.结论:AFP-L3%对于肝癌的诊断有较高的灵敏性和特异性;是比AFP更好的诊断指标;可以作为诊断肝癌的独立指标.%Objective: To explore the significance of alpha - fetoprotein heterogeneity (AFP - L3) in differential diagnosis of malignant liver disease. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 240 patients, 70 cases with hep-atocellular carcinoma, 10 cases with postoperative liver cancer, 63 cases with cirrhosis, 97 cases with chronic hepatitis. AFP - L3 was isolated by microspincolumn with lens culinaris agglutinin. The levels of AFP and AFP - L3 were detected by chemiluminescence method. Results: The ratios of AFP and AFP - 13% in hepatocellular carcinoma group were significantly higher those in hepatectomy group, liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis group (χ2 values were 87. 30, 142.22, P <0. 01 ). For AFP - L3% , sensitivity was 86. 96% , specificity was 88. 30% , and the Youden index was 0. 75, while for AFP, sensitivity was 75. 68% , specificity was 85. 54% , Youden index was 0. 61. From the Youden index, it can be seen the AFP - L3

  10. Radioimmunoassay of enkephalins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using iodine (125I) tracers of high specific radioactivity, the authors have developed the specific radioimmunoassay of methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) and leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk). The immunosera are obtained by immunizing rabbits with Met-Enk or Leu-Enk combined with ovalbumin by means of carbodiimide. The specificity and the sensitivity of these radioimmunoassays (IC50 of 0.57 nM and 0.55 nM for the assay of Met-Enk and Leu-Enk, respectively) afford a means of estimating the enkephalin levels in extracts of various regions of the rat brain. The highest levels are in the striatum and the hypothalamus and the lowest in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. (author)

  11. Alfa-fetoprotein secreting ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are relatively infrequent neoplasms that account for approximately 8% of all primary ovarian tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells derived from gonadal sex cords (granulosa and Sertoli cells, specialized gonadal stroma (theca and Leydig cells, and fibroblasts. They may show androgenic or estrogenic manifestations. We report such a tumor associated with markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in a young female presenting with a mass and defeminising symptoms. Serum AFP levels returned to normal on removal of tumor.

  12. The Value of Combined Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Heteroplasmon-L3 Concentration and AFP-L3/Alpha-fetoprotein Ratio Detection in the Early Diagnosis of Primary Liver Cancer%联合检测血清甲胎蛋白异质体浓度与甲胎蛋白异质体百分含量在原发性肝癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩云; 韩素桂; 贾红莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of combined serum alpha-fetoprotein inform (AFP-L3) and AFP-L3/AFP as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods A total of 137 patients from the People's Hospital of Tangshan of Hebei Union University were included in our study.They were treated in hospital from March to November 201 1.All the patients were at the age of 28 to 77 years old,and 98 of them were men,and 39 were women.According to the pathological diagnosis,patients were divided into two groups.HCC group had 92 patients,and benign liver disease group had 45 patients including 37 with liver cirrhosis and 8 with chronic hepatitis.ELISA method was used to test the serum AFP-L3 level.At the same time,microcentrifugal column method was adopted to separate AFP-L3 from the patients' serum,and electrochemical luminescence method was used to detect the separated AFP-L3 and total AFP levels.Then,we calculated the ratio of AFP-L3/AFP.We also calculated the statistical indexes of AFP-L3 level and AFP-L3/AFP ratio in the diagnosis of HCC,such as sensitivity,specificity and Youden index.The above indexes of combined AFP-L3 level and AFP-L3/AFP ratio were also detected to evaluated its diagnostic value.Results HCC group AFP-L3 level (109.04 ± 62.51) ng/mL was significantly higher than that of the benign liver disease group [(25.96 ± 49.43) ng/mL; t=8.28,P < 0.001].HCC group serum AFP-L3/AFP ratio (17.35% ± 14.48%) was significantly higher than that of the benign liver disease group (5.62% ± 6.38%,t=6.545,P < 0.000 1).With serum AFP-L3 level > 38.0 ng/mL as a critical value of primary liver cancer diagnosis,the sensitivity was 83.69%,and the specificity was 88.88%.For AFP-L3/AFP ratio > 10% as a critical value in primary liver cancer diagnosis,the sensitivity was 83.69%,and the specificity was 95.55%.When serum AFP-L3 level > 38.0 ng/mL and AFP-L3/AFP ratio > 7.5% were combined in primary liver cancer diagnosis

  13. Comparative study of radioimmunoassay dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioimmunoassay is frequently used in clinical chemistry for the concentration determination of several substances like hormones as thyrotropine and thyroxine. In this experiment the dates of tyroxine radioimmunoassay are processed by three methods: a) like the recommendation of the IAEA, b) Dr. G. Chase method, c) according to the provider. The best method was Dr. Chase's. (author)

  14. Radioimmunoassay of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified human spleen ferritin was labelled with 125I. On Sepharose 6-B gel filtration four species of labelled products were separated: a component with a higher molecular weight than ferritin; a component which is eluted in the same volume as unlabelled ferritin; and two labelled compounds with molecular weights lower than ferritin. When these labelled materials were used in a double antibody radioimmunoassay, the higher molecular weight fraction showed variable and high non-specific binding and was poorly displaced by unlabelled ferritin; the fraction behaving like true ferritin gave good standard curves and showed non-specific binding of less than 1%. The remaining two components showed poor binding to rabbit antiferritin. Using labelled material from the second fraction, a double antibody radioimmunoassay capable of measuring 2μg ferritin protein/litre of serum was developed. Inter-and intra-assay variation was between 3% and 8% over a concentration range of 0 to 250 μg ferritin protein/litre. Good agreement between serum ferritin levels assayed by the present method and by an immunoradiometric method was obtained. Labelled ferritin was stable for at least six weeks. The simplicity of the methodology makes it possible to assay serum ferritin in large batches. (author)

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein triggers hepatoma cells escaping from immune surveillance through altering the expression of Fas/FasL and tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand and its receptor of lymphocytes and liver cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Sen Li; Qiu-Ling Ma; Qian Chen; Xin-Hua Liu; Ping-Feng Li; Guo-Guang Du; Gang Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of α-fetoprotein (AFP)in escaping from the host immune surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: AFP purified from human umbilical blood was administrated into the cultured human lymphoma Jurkat T cell line or hepatoma cell line, Bel7402 in vitro. The expression of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosisinducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor (TRAILR) mRNA were analyzed by Northern blot and Western blot wasused to detect the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL)protein.RESULTS: AFP (20 mg/L) could promote the expression of FasL and TRAIL, and inhibit the expression of Fas and TRAILR of Bel7402 cells. For Jurkat cell line, AFP could suppress the expression of FasL and TRAIL, and stimulate the expression of Fas and TRAILR. AFP also could synergize with Bel7402 cells to inhibit the expression of FasL protein and TRAIL mRNA in Jurkat cells. The monoclonal antibody against AFP (anti-AFP) could abolish these functions of AFP.CONCLUSION: AFP is able to promote the expression of FasL and TRAIL in hepatoma cells and enhance the expression of Fas and TRAILR in lymphocytes. These could elicit the escape of hepatocellular carcinoma cells from the host's lymphocytes immune surveillance.

  16. 联合检测甲胎蛋白、α-岩藻糖苷酶、β2-微球蛋白及透明质酸对诊断原发性肝癌的意义%Significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein, alpha fucosidase, beta 2-microglobulin and hyaluronic acid in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨联合检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、β2-微球蛋白(β2-m)及透明质酸(HA)对诊断原发性肝癌的意义.方法 选取2012年3月~ 2014年3月在我院治疗的原发性肝癌患者60例、其他消化系癌症患者50例、肝硬化患者50例及正常健康人60例,检测所有患者血清AFP、AFU、β2-m及HA水平.结果 原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA水平及阳性检出率明显高于其他消化系癌症组、肝硬化组及正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四项联合检测的敏感性、诊断符合率均优于单项检测,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 联合检测AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四种肿瘤标志物能提高早期原发性肝癌的敏感性和诊断率,为临床早期诊治提供可靠参考.%Objective To investigate the significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha fucosidase (AFU), beta 2-microglobulin (β2-m) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods 60 patients with primary liver cancer, 50 cases of other digestive system cancer, 50 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 60 normal people from 2012 March to 2014 March in our hospital were selected,and serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA levels of all patients were detected.Results The levels and positive rates of serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA of patients with primary liver cancer were significantly higher than those of patients with other digestive system cancer, liver cirrhosis and normal people, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). The sensitivity and diagnostic accordance rate of combined detection of serum AFU, AFU, β2-m and HA in patients with primary liver cancer were better than those of the single detection, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined detection of AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA four tumor markers can improve the sensitivity and diagnosis rate of

  17. 血清甲胎蛋白、a-L-岩藻糖苷酶、al-抗胰蛋白酶在原发性肝癌诊断中的应用%The application of serum alpha fetoprotein,a-L-fucosidase and alphao-antitrypsin detection in diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权翠侠; 王庆国; 滕晓梅

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(alpha fetoprotein,AFP)、a-L-岩藻糖苷酶(a-L-fucosidase,AFU)、al-抗胰蛋白酶(alphao-antitrypsin,AAT)在原发性肝癌(PHC)患者诊断中的应用价值.方法 选择126例原发性肝癌患者、397例良性肝病患者以及206名健康对照者,应用化学发光法测定AFP,新型CNPF(2-氯-4-硝基苯-a-L-岩藻吡喃糖苷)连续监测法测定AFU,速率散射比浊法测定AAT.结果 原发性肝癌组AFP、AFU、APT与良性肝痛组及健康对照组差异有显著性(P<0.01),单独检测对PHC诊断的阳性率分别为73.8%、85.7%、84.1%,三者联合检测可将PHC诊断阳性率提高到96%.结论 血清AFU、AAT、与AFP互为补充,联合检测可提高对PHC的诊断率.

  18. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [14C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  19. Radioimmunoassay for serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development and evaluation of a serum ferritin radioimmunoassay, in which 125I-labeled ferritin and rabbit anti-ferritin antibody are used. Goat anti-rabbit gamma-globulin antibody, together with polyethylene glycol, is used as the separating reagent. The assay has a working range up to 500 μg of ferritin per litre, and a sample requirement of 75 μl of serum for assay at two dilutions. The assay requires 24 h. It has a sensitivity of 1.5 μg of ferritin per litre and a long-term precision (CV) of 13%. Reference intervals for a population of men were 18 to 330 μg/litre, with no marked age dependence, while those for a population of women older than 50 years were 18 to 200 μg/litre. Many apparently healthy women in the 20 to 50 year age group have much lower concentrations. Serum ferritin concentrations of <18 μg/litre are indicative of iron deficiency, defined as the absence of stainable iron in an aspirate of bone marrow

  20. Diagnosis of abnormalities of fetal nervous system by using MRI imaging and detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein%MRI联合血清甲胎蛋白检测诊断胎儿神经系统异常的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶琼; 金松; 凌奕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of MRI imaging and detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein in diagnosis of abnormalities of fetal nervous system. Methods Thirty pregnant women with normal nervous system and 30 pregnant women with abnormal nervous system by ultrasound and MRI in the Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College from Juanurary 2011 o May 2012 were collected for AFP test. The pregnant women with abnormal nerous system by ultrasound were reexamined by using MRI. e results were compared. Results The levels of AFP in normal and abnormal fetus of nervous sstem were statistically differnet (P>0.05) The accurate diagbnosis rate, false positive rate and false negative rates of ultrasound and MRI in diagnosis of prenatal fetus were statistically different (x2=3.41-6.23, P< 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the rates of accurate diagnosis by MRI and MRI incombination with detection of alpha-fetoprotein.Conclusion MRI imaging technology is superior to ultrasound in diagnosis of fetus with abnormal nervous system as it can provide accuarte brain of the clinical application of fetal ultrasound is more advantages, and it can provide more accurate information of brain parenchyma and reduce misdiagnosis rate.and abortion rate%目的 显示MRI在诊断胎儿神经系统异常中的优势,及探讨MRI联合AFP在胎儿神经系统异常的价值.方法 对2011年1月~2012年5月在我院门诊及住院行产前胎儿B超及宫内MRI检查的孕妇,其中B超显示神经系统正常的有30例,B超提示神经系统异常的30例,两者均行血清AFP检查,B超提示异常的孕妇行MRI检查,对妊娠结局进行随访.比较分析B超、磁共振及磁共振联合血清甲胎蛋白检测对胎儿神经系统畸形诊断准确性.结果 (1)血清甲胎蛋白在正常胎儿与胎儿神经系统畸形的结果比较差异有统计学意义(P>0.05);(2)产前胎儿超声与核磁共振诊断准确率、假阳性率、假阴性比

  1. 三种肿瘤标志物联合检测在原发性肝细胞癌中的应用价值%Value of combined detection of α-L-fucosidase,sialie acid and alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 刘寓; 李莲

    2011-01-01

    Aim To detect the serum concentrations of Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP),α-L-fucosidase(AFU)and sialic acid (SA)for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods The levels of AFP,AFU and SA in 47 confirmed primary hepatocellular carninoma cases,45 cirrhosis cases and 42 healthy controls were determined with chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.Results The diagnostic rate could enhanced by 97.87% through combined detection of the levels of AFP, AFU and SA.Conclusion The positive rate of diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma can obviously enhanced by joint detection of AFP, AFU and SA, and it is suitable for clinical application.%目的 探讨联合检测患者血清中的甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)以及唾液酸(SA)时原发性肝细胞癌(PHC)诊断的应用价值.方法 采用化学发光酶免疫法、速率法和分光光度法,分别检测原发性肝细胞癌患者、肝硬化和健康对照者的AFP、AFU和SA等三种肿瘤标志物的血清含量,并进行统计学分析.结果 AFP、AFU、SA 三者联合检测、可以将诊断率提高到97.87%.结论 三种肿瘤标志物AFP、α-L-AFU、SA多指标联合检测可显著提高原发性肝细胞癌(PHC)诊断阳性率,适宜于临床实验室推广应用.

  2. Radioimmunoassay in the detection of insulin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some antihypertensive drugs have been shown to cause clinically significant alteration in the endocrine function. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a new antihypertensive drug, rilmenidine on insulin secretion, which is an important determinant for glucose metabolism. In-vitro method was used to study the direct effect of rilmenidine on glucose induced insulin secretion using isolated rat pancreas. Insulin was assayed using radioimmunoassay. Concentrations of rilmenidine used were based on the peak plasma concentration achieved with an oral standard dose of 1 mg. This study showed that rilmenidine at low concentration was able to stimulate insulin secretion whereas at higher concentration inhibited the insulin secretion. This probably was due to its effect on the imidazoline receptor and the alpha2 adrenoceptor known to induce and inhibit insulin secretion respectively. (Author)

  3. Retrospective study of the diagnostic value of quantitative alpha-fetoprotein in infants with terato-mas%婴儿畸胎瘤甲胎蛋白量化检测的临床意义探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小庆; 王珊; 刘苗; 阮味维

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨婴儿期畸胎瘤血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)定量检测值与同月龄儿正常参考值上限的比值对成熟型、未成熟型及恶性畸胎瘤的辅助鉴别意义。方法回顾性分析1991年10月至2010年5月我们收治的166例畸胎瘤患儿临床资料。化学发光法定量检测血清AFP含量,将患儿检测值与正常同月龄儿参考值上限的比值作为血清AFP比值,结合成熟型、未成熟型及恶性畸胎瘤的病理诊断,分析血清AFP比值在鉴别3种不同类型畸胎瘤中的规律及其临床意义。结果①131例成熟型畸胎瘤血清AFP比值最大16.34(绝对值670 ng/mL);13例未成熟型畸胎瘤血清AFP比值差异明显,7例Ⅰ级未成熟型畸胎瘤,最小AFP比值1.25,最大39.27;5例Ⅱ级未成熟型畸胎瘤,最小AFP比值1.23,最大139.51,其中2例比值大于83.17;1例Ⅲ级未成熟型畸胎瘤,AFP超出检测值上限;22例恶性畸胎瘤最小AFP比值83.17(绝对值499 ng/mL),13例超出检测上限;②未成熟型畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率(12例,92.31%)和恶性畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率(22例,100%)均高于成熟型畸胎瘤(58例,44.28%)(P<0.05),未成熟型畸胎瘤与恶性畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率无明显差异(P>0.05);<9月龄婴儿血清AFP阳性率(33例,84.62%)高于9月龄婴儿(59例,46.46%)(P<0.05);性腺内畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率(20例,76.92%)高于性腺外(72例,51.43%)(P<0.05)。结论婴儿期畸胎瘤AFP阳性率受年龄、发病部位及肿瘤病理类型等因素的影响。血清AFP比值在不同类型畸胎瘤有相应变化规律,可用于术前辅助判断畸胎瘤良恶性及制定手术方案,对动态随访治疗效果有重要意义,结合病理检查对于术后是否化疗有决定作用。%Objetive To explored the differential diagnostic value of quantitative Serum alpha

  4. Radioimmunoassay of plasma corticotrophin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay has been established, based on antibodies against the N-terminal part of the ACTH molecule with a high affinity, a detection limit of 2 pg ACTH when assaying 200 ul unextracted plasma, and implying a total incubation time of three days. The antibody has been obtained by immunizing guinea-pigs with synthetic human 1-24 ACTH coupled to bovine serum albumin. The selected antibody has an equilibrium constant of 4 x 1011 litres/mole in a final dilution of 1/320.000. The antiserum reacts with synthetic human 1-39 ACTH as well as with synthetic human 1-24 ACTH, and the hormonally inactive synthetic human 11-24 ACTH fragment as well as alpha- and beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormones do not cross-react in the assay. The interassay coefficient of variation of replicate estimates was 11-13%. The reproducibility of the standard curve have been evaluated by calculating the amount of ACTH corresponding to 5% of the (B/T)o value, 1.2+-0.4 pg ACTH/tube+-SD and 50% of (B/T)o value, 15.7+-2.6 pg ACTH/tube+-SD. Validation of the assay has been obtained by assaying samples from patients with verified adrenal disorders, and the accuracy is supported by ACTH determinations in test, where metyrapon had been administered intravenously. A stimulation of ACTH production by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia has been found as well. Special attention is always paid as to the conditions for the blood sampling. A reference interval of 10-76 ng/l has been found (115 normal subjects). (orig.)

  5. Homologous radioimmunoassay of human prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfiltration on Sephadex G-75 showed a heterogenity of prolactin in serum of patients with prolactinoma and in culture medium of a prolactinoma. Serum of patients with prolactinoma and culture medium of a prolactinoma were examined as possible sources of prolactin by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Polyacrylamide electrophoresis revealed both preparations as contaminated by other proteins. Nevertheless prolactin isolated form culture medium of a prolactinoma is good enough as a tracer in our radioimmunoassay because contaminating proteins in this preparation do not inferfere in our system. An hPRL antiserum created in a rabbit against a crude fraction of human serum of a patient with prolactinoma was tested by titration, saturation studies, and ion exchange chromatography. In comparison with lactoperoxidase-iodinated prolactin Chloramine T iodinated prolactin showed higher loss of immunochemical properity, however higher specific activity. Specifity and precision in our radioimmunoassay system were described and the conditions of optimal sensitivity in our assay were evaluated. (orig.)

  6. Feto portador de síndrome de turner e tetralogia de fallot associadas à elevação de alfafetoproteína materna Fetal turner syndrome and tetralogy of fallot associated with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vieira Neto

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Turner fetal e suas complicações, a hidropisia e o higroma cístico, podem produzir alteração dos marcadores bioquímicos de soro materno inicialmente utilizados no rastreamento de síndrome de Down e de defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. Os autores relatam o caso de uma gestante de 37 anos, que foi rastreada para síndrome de Down e DTN no início do 2º trimestre. Foi constatado aumento da alfafetoproteína de soro materno (MSAFP e o rastreamento foi considerado positivo para DTN. Foi realizado exame ultra-sonográfico tridimensional, que não demonstrou nenhuma anormalidade fetal ou placentária, caracterizando o caso como elevação idiopática de MSAFP. No 3º trimestre, a gravidez evoluiu com acentuada oligoidrâmnia e alteração do fluxo uteroplacentário, obrigando à instituição de terapia com corticosteróides e parto cesáreo na 34ª semana gestacional. O concepto do sexo feminino foi encaminhado à UTI neonatal, onde foram diagnosticadas tetralogia de Fallot e síndrome de Turner. Esse caso incentivou os autores a rever a literatura sobre marcadores bioquímicos de soro materno na síndrome de Turner e nas malformações cardíacas congênitas. Ao final, propõe-se um protocolo para elevação idiopática de MSAFP.Turner syndrome and its complications, hydrops and cystic hygroma, can produce alterations in maternal serum biochemical markers used in screening for Down's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTD. The authors report the case of a 37-year-old pregnant woman, screened for Down's syndrome and NTD in the second trimester of pregnancy. The maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP level was increased and the test was considered screen positive for NTD. A three-dimensional ultrasound investigation was performed, but no fetal or placental anomalies were found, indicating a case of unexplained increased msafp. In the third trimester severe oligohydramnios and disturbances in uteroplacental arterial circulation

  7. 血清甲胎蛋白异质体3测定在原发性肝癌早期筛查中作用%Value of serum alpha-fetoprotein detection in early screening of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云龙; 廖志军; 邓国孙; 丁罡

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) in early screening of primary liver cancer. Methods Lentil lectin coupled with ( LCA) micro-centrifuge column was separated to obtain AFP-L3 from 116 cases of chronic liver disease and primary liver cancer .AFP before separation and AFP-L3 after separation were detected with chemoluminescence , and their levels were then calculated .Results Statistical differences could be seen in the average value of AFP-L3 between the patients with pri-mary liver cancer and patients with chronic liver disease (P<0.01).Conclusion The level detected with micro-centrifuge column was of importance in early screening of primary liver cancer .%目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白异质体3(AFP-L3)在原发性肝癌早期筛查中的作用。方法以装有耦联小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的微量离心柱分离慢性肝病、原发性肝癌共116例患者AFP-L3,用化学发光方法检测分离前后AFP-L3,计算AFP-L3在AFP中的含量比例。结果原发性肝癌组AFP-L3含量比例均值[(36.89±2.13)%],与慢性肝病组[(7.45±2.32)%]相比差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论微量离心柱法测定AFP-L3的含量在原发性肝癌的早期筛查中具有重要意义。

  8. Simultaneous use of two prostaglandin radioimmunoassays employing two antisera of differing specificity. II. Relative stability of prostaglandins E1, E2, and F1alpha in cell cultures of BALB/c 3T3 and SV3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzi, E.M.; Stylos, W.A.

    1976-11-01

    The relative stability of Prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2 and F1..cap alpha.. in cultures of BALB/c 3T3 and SV3T3 cells has been evaluated using 3 different approaches. First, total recovery of tritium in the ethyl acetate phase following incubation and extraction of PGF1..cap alpha.. and PGE1 demonstrated greater stability for PGF1..cap alpha.. (88.8 percent) than PGE1 (65.9 percent). Second, analysis of incubated, extracted, tritiated PGs by thin layer chromatography revealed decreases of up to 23 percent in the PGE zone following incubation of 3H-PGE1. With increasing time of incubation, decreases in the PGE zone were accompanied by increase in PGA-like compounds. 3H-PGF1..cap alpha.. demonstrated greater stability, having greater than 90 percent recovery of the tritium in the PGF zone. A third approach to the assessment of PG stability in culture was the comparison of the production of individual PGs by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The data obtained by RIA indicated a lag in the increase of PGA and PGB, until an initial rise in PGE was noted, suggesting that PGA and PGB may be secondary products arising from PGE which exhibits only partial stability in culture. By employing two RIAs, one for total PGE and one for PGA and PGB, the composite determination PG (E + (A + B)) can be used to provide a more meaningful determination of PG production because of the instability of the PGs. On the other hand, individual determinations are helpful in assessing the stability of PGEs in cell cultures.

  9. Prognostic value of the content of lentil lectin-rcactive alpha-fetoprotein-L3 in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体3含量对早期肝癌的预后价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凯; 马宽生; 高峻; 刘念洲; 王曙光

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨甲胎蛋白异质体3(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein-L3,AFP-L3)的含量对早期肝癌的预后价值.方法 97例早期肝癌患者根据术前AFP和AFP-13的含量分为:(1)AFP阳性、AFP-L3阴性组(29例):AFP>20 μg/L & AFP-13<15%;(2)AFP-L3、AFP均低含量组(16例):15%≤AFP-L3≤50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L;(3)AFP-L3、AFP均高含量组(13例):AFP-L3>50% & AFP>200 μg/L;(4)AFP-L3高含量、AFP低含量组(24例):AFP-13>50%& 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L;(5)AFP-L3低含量、AFP高含量组(15例):15%≤AFP-L3≤50% & AFP>200 μg/L.对各组患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后1、2、3年生存率和无瘤生存率进行分析.结果 AFP-13阴性患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后3年生存率和无瘤牛存率明显优于AFP-L3阳性患者(χ2=21.051,10.043,4.450,6.977,25.566,P<0.05).AFP-L3高含量组患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后1、2、3年生存率和无瘤生存率明显低于低含量组(χ2=7.938,3.488,9.085,P<0.05).结论 AFP-L3含量的增高提示肿瘤恶性程度高,预后不良,尤其是AFP水平低时.手术前后检测AFP-L3含量对于患者预后的评价具有指导意义.%Objective To explore the prognostic value of the content of lentil lectin-reactive alphafetoprotein-L3(AFP-L3)in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).Methods According to the content of alpha.fetoprotein(AFP)and AFP-L3 before the treatment,97 patients with early-stage HCC were divided into group A(AFP>20 μg/L & AFP-L3<15%,n=29),group B(15%≤AFP-13≤50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L,n=16),group C(AFP-13>50%& AFP>200 μg/L,n=13),group D(AFP-L3>50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L,n=24)and group E(15%≤AFP-L3≤50%& AFP>200 μg/L,n=15).The degree of tumor differentiation,the 1-,2-,3-year survival rates and tumor-free survival rates of the patients were analyzed.Results The degree of tumor differentiation.3-year survival rate and tumor-free survival rate of patients in group A were significantly higher than

  10. The diagnostic value of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin and alpha-fetoprotein in primary hepatocellular carcinoma%去γ-羧基凝血酶原、甲胎蛋白在原发性肝细胞癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明军; 陈洪; 陆枫林; 朱家沂

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肿瘤标志物去γ-羧基凝血酶原(des-γ-carboxy prothrombin,DCP)、甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)联合检测对原发性肝细胞癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)的诊断价值.方法:172例研究对象分为正常对照组25例、慢性肝炎组20例、肝硬化组51例及HCC组76例,酶联免疫法(ELISA)测定血清DCP浓度,电化学发光免疫法(ECLIA)测定血清AFP浓度,应用Logistic回归、ROC曲线对DCP、AFP、两者联合检测结果进行分析评价.结果:(1)正常对照组、慢性肝炎组、肝硬化组及HCC组DCP平均浓度分别为(17.72±9.59)、(26.12±12.64)、(37.45±18.26)和(806.71±639.79) mAU/mL,DCP浓度在4组间呈递增趋势(P<0.05),且HCC组DCP浓度显著高于其他3组(P<0.01).正常对照组、慢性肝炎组、肝硬化组及HCC组AFP平均浓度分别为(7.93±5.42)、(14.59±11.91)、(16.29±14.10)和(547.47±544.98) ng/mL,HCC组AFP浓度明显高于其他3组(P<0.01).(2)DCP、AFP单独诊断HCC的ROC曲线下面积(AUROC)分别为0.891、0.813,DCP综合诊断效能优于AFP (P< 0.05);通过Logistic回归模型形成的联合预测因子(combining predictors,Comb)为分析指标,DCP、AFP联合检测时AUROC为0.932,优于DCP或AFP单独检测(P<0.05).(3)通过ROC曲线确定DCP、AFP及Comb诊断HCC的最佳界定值分别为73.35 mAU/mL、35.38 ng/mL、0.28,此时具有较高的灵敏度和特异度.结论:DCP对我国HCC患者具有较好的诊断价值,运用Logistic回归、ROC曲线及诊断界定值综合分析DCP、AFP对HCC进行诊断,大大提高了诊断效能.%Objective This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic values of the combined detection of the serum levels of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients' with hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Serum levels of DCP and AFP were measured in 76 patients with HCC, 51 patients with liver cirrhosis, 20 chronic hepatitis patients and 25 healthy subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  11. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  12. Radioimmunoassay in obstetrics and gynecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulakov, V.I.; Laricheva, T.P. (Moskovskij Oblastnoj NII Akusherstva i Ginekologii)

    1983-08-01

    A review of two main trends in the development of methods of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the field of hormonal diagnosis is given: RIA in gynecologic endocrinology, RIA in obstetric endocrinology. The analysis of the first method has shown that in hormonally dependent diseases of the woman genital sphere the leading role belongs to disturbances in the endocrine hypothalamus-hypophysics-gonad system. The analysis of the second method has shown that main attention should be given to investigation into hormonal function of the fetoplacental system, which ensures correlation of complicated interrelations of mother and fetus the full length of pregnancy.

  13. Diagnostic Value of Des-gamma Carboxyprothrombin(DCP), Lectin-bound AFP(AFP-L3) and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Expression in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma%DCP、AFP-L3和AFP在原发性肝细胞癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付水; 齐娟飞; 朱海燕; 祁志荣; 陈红艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the alone and joint diagnostic value of des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP) , lectin-bound AFP(AFP-13) and alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and provide a novel method for diagnosis for PHC and screening for high risk population. Methods The levels of serum DCP,AFP-L3 and AFP were measured in 53 patients with hepa-tocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of cirrhosis, 60 cases of chronic hepatitis, 52 normal healthy subjects established as control group, and analyse the result statistically. Results The levels of serum DCP,AFP-L3 and AFP were significantly higher in the hepatocellular carcinoma than those in other groups. The diagnostic sensitivities of DCP,AFP-I3 and AFP to hepatocellular carcinoma were 77.36% , 69.81% and 60.38% respectively, the specificity were 89.57% , 88.34% and 77.91% , individually. The joint detection could improve sensitivity up to 94.34%. Conclusion DCP was a high sensitivity and specificity marker for diagnosis of PHC. The combined assay of serum tumor markers possess more value in the diagnosis of PHC, especially in AFP negative patients.%目的:探讨血清中脱γ一羧基凝血酶原(DCP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)和甲胎蛋白(AFP)对原发性肝细胞癌(PHC)单独和联合诊断的意义,为PHC诊治提供一种新方法,以及对高危人群作筛选.方法:采集 53 例PHC、51 例肝硬化、60 例慢性肝炎和 52 例健康对照者的血清分别检测 DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP,并对其统计分析.结果:PHC患者的 DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP 均显著高于肝硬化、慢性肝炎和健康对照者,DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP在PHC组中的灵敏度分别为 77.36 %、69.8 1% 和60.38 %,特异性分别为89.57 %、88.34 % 和 77.91 %.三者联检时,其诊断的敏感度可提高至 94.34 %.结论:DCP 对PHC诊断具有较好的敏感度和特异性,联检DCP、AFP-L3和AFP可有效提高PHC尤其是AFP阴性PHC的诊断效率,对PHC的早期诊治具有一定指导意义.

  14. 采用ROC曲线评价a-L-岩藻糖苷酶,5-核苷酸酶,甲胎蛋白在肝癌诊断、预后预测中的价值%Study on using ROC curve evaluation ofα-L-fucosidase,5'-nucleo tidase and alpha fetoprotein diagnostic and predictive value in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧敏; 刘平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨 a-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、5-核苷酸酶(5’-NT)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)检测对原发性肝癌(PHC)的诊断价值。方法肝癌患者(肝癌组)40例,手术后6个月,根据肝癌是否复发,分为复发组和非复发组。另入选健康体检者(对照组)60例,测定3组 AFU、5’-NT、AFP 水平,应用受试者工作曲线(ROC)评估三者对肝癌的诊断和预测价值。结果 AFU、5’-NT 和 AFP 在肝癌组和对照组间比较差异均有统计学意义。AFU、5’-NT 和 AFP 3种指标单独检测时,ROC 曲线下面积分别为0.904,0.870,0.866。手术前以及手术后复发组 AFU 浓度均高于非复发组。手术前以及手术后复发组5’-NT 浓度与非复发组相比差异无统计学意义。手术后复发组 AFP 血清浓度高于非复发组,手术前复发组 AFP 血清浓度与非复发组相比差异无统计学意义。结论通过 ROC 曲线评价,检测 AFU 和5’-NT两种指标可用于对 PHC 的诊断,AFU 可以用于肝癌预后的预测。%Objective To explore the diagnosis value of α-L-fucosidase (AFU),5'-nucleo tidase (5 ’-NT)and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)detection in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma(PHC).Methods The study involved 40 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma as experimental group and 60 cases of physical examination as control group, using ROC curve to make a comparative analysis.The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who experienced surgical treatment were followed up for average six months.The patients were divided into relapse group and non-recurrent group,to AFU,5-NT,AFP levels were detected to assess the predictive value.Results The level of AFU,5’-NT and AFP in PHC group were higher than those in control group (P <0.05).The area under the ROC curve for the three indexes were 0.904,0.870 and 0.866,respectively.The concentrations of AFU in preoperative and postoperative detection were significantly higher than those of non-recurrent group.However,5 - NT

  15. Value of early alpha fetoprotein detection in predicting prognosis of patients with drug-induced liver injury%早期甲胎蛋白测定对药物性肝损害患者转归的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琰; 汤紫荣; 曹艳菊; 屈昌民; 梁淑文; 房慧; 胡瑾华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of early alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection in predicting prognosis of patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI).Methods Clinical data of 160 DILI patients who were admitted to 302th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army from July 2011 to July 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.According to the levels of AFP within 1 week after admittion,the patients were divided into high AFP group (AFP≥20 μg/L,80 cases) and normal group (AFP <20 μg/L,80 cases).The AFP and liver function were measured.Results There were no statistical differences in sex,average age,alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) between high AFP group and normal group (P > 0.05).However,high AFP group showed higher level of AFP,total bilirubin and total hospitalization days compared with those in normal group[82(45,153) ng/L vs 9(3,20) ng/L,(173 ±25) μmol/L vs (70 ± 15) μmol/L,(22.3 ± 1.8) d vs (11.6 ± 1.2) d] (P < 0.01).In high AFP group the incidence of severe case was 22.5 % (18/80),statistically higher than that in normal group [1.3 % (1/80)] (P < 0.01).Conclusions High level of AFP in early stage indicates severe inflammation and poor prognosis,which may be used as an important marker for assessing the liver injury and predicting the prognosis in patients with DILI.%目的 探讨早期甲胎蛋白水平测定对药物性肝损害(DILI)转归的预测价值.方法 纳入2011年7月至2014年7月解放军第三○二医院诊断为DILI的住院患者160例,根据入院后1周内初次甲胎蛋白检测值将其分为甲胎蛋白增高组(甲胎蛋白≥20 μg/L)和甲胎蛋白正常组(甲胎蛋白<20μg/L),每组80例.对2组患者进行生存预后分析.结果 甲胎蛋白增高组和甲胎蛋白正常组年龄、性别、丙氨酸转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);甲胎蛋白、总胆红素及住院时间比较,差异有统计学意义[82(45,153) ng/L比9

  16. Optimization of AFP-radioimmunoassay using Antibody Capture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a substance produced by the unborn baby. When the neural tube is not properly formed large amounts of AFP pass into the amniotic fluid and reach the mother's blood. By measuring AFP in the mother's blood and amniotic fluid, it is possible to tell whether or not there is a chance that the unborn baby has a neural tube defect. AFP also used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. There are many different techniques for measuring AFP in blood, but the most accurate one is the immunoassay technique. The immunoassays can be classified on the basis of methodology into three classes; (1) the antibody capture assays, (2) the antigen capture assay, (3)the two-antibody sandwich assays. In this present study, the antibody capture assay in which the antigen is attached to a solid support, and labeled antibody is allowed to bind, will be optimized

  17. Methadone radioimmunoassay: two simple methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two simple and economical radioimmunoassays for methadone in blood or urine are described. Haemolysis, decomposition, common anticoagulants and sodium fluoride do not affect the results. One assay used commercially-available [1-3H](-)-methadone hydrobromide as the label, while the other uses a radioiodinated conjugate of 4-dimethylamino-2,2-diphenylpentanoic acid and L-tyrosine methyl ester. A commercially-available antiserum is used in both assays. Normethadone and α-methadol cross-react to a small extent with the antiserum while methadone metabolites, dextropropoxyphene, dipipanone and phenadoxone have negligible cross-reactivities. The 'cut-offs' of the two assays as described are 30 and 33 ng ml-1 for blood, and 24 and 21 ng ml-1 for urine. The assay using the radioiodinated conjugate can be made more sensitive if required by increasing the specific activity of the label. (author)

  18. Measurement of ferritin in serum by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the measurement of circulating ferritin concentrations by direct radioimmunoassay is presented. The method described is simple to operate, precise, and sensitive and is suitable for the routine diagnostic measurement of ferritin in either plasma or serum. (author)

  19. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  20. Specificity of radioimmunoassays for relaxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specificities of two radioimmunoassays (RIA) for relaxin, based upon crude porcine relaxin (NIH-R-P1;RIA I) and a highly purified porcine relaxin (RIA II) have been studied concurrently using purified hormones and plasma samples. A labelled fraction, selected from radio-iodinated NIH-R-P1 and used in that RIA, was also bound to antiserum raised to the highly purified relaxin. Hence a third RIA was possible in which both the crude and the purified relaxins inhibited in the ng/ml range. Porcine insulin and the connecting peptide of porcine proinsulin did not inhibit any of the assay systems whereas porcine proinsulin did inhibit in each assay at the μg/ml range. Concurrent measurements by assays I and II have been made in sheep plasma obtained during both delivery of the lamb and suckling. The peak values obtained by assays I and II are 3 and 6 min out of phase during suckling and delivery respectively; the NIH-R-P1 relaxin immunoactivity appearing first. The plasma inhibition curves of both appear to be the sum of individual contributions from relaxin and relaxin-like peptides, such as prorelaxin and its fragments, as seen by different antisera. Both assays, however, give qualitatively similar indices of relaxin immunoactivity. The RIA developed for the more purified peptide would be expected to yield a better quantitative estimate of relaxin secretion but this, like specificity, cannot be shown absolutely. (author)

  1. Bleomycin clinical pharmacology by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, S.W.; Strong, J.E.; Broughton, A.; Frazier, M.L.; Benjamin, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bleomycin pharmacokinetics were studied by radioimmunoassay in 11 patients who received 7-30 U intravenously (IV) and eight patients who received 4-30 U subcutaneously (SC). For patients who received IV bleomycin plasma disappearance was biphasic, with a mean initial half-life of 0.26 h and a terminal half-life of 2.3 h. Mean plasma drug clearance was 67.8 ml/min/m/sup 2/ and the volume of distribution was 13.2 l/m/sup 2/. Urinary excretion accounted for 63.9% of the drug in 24 h. After SC administration peak plasma levels occurred in 1.1 h, with a mean elimination half-life of 4.3 h. Mean plasma drug clearance was 60.5 ml/min/m/sup 2/ and the volume of distribution was 19.2 l/m/sup 2/. Bleomycin plasma clearance correlated well with serum creatinine (r/sup 2/=0.72). Bleomycin has a rapid plasma elimination and urinary excretion. Bleomycin bioavailability after SC administration appears comparable to that seen after IV administration as determined by the areas under the plasma disappearance curves. Prolonged plasma levels are seen after SC injection, suggesting this route of administration can produce plasma concentrations comparable to those attained with continuous IV infusions.

  2. 甲胎蛋白对耐药基因MDR1表达及肝癌细胞化疗敏感性的影响%Influence of alpha-fetoprotein on the expression of drug-resistance gene MDR1 and chemotherapeutic sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 杨健; 张金玲; 金涛; 何前进; 李常海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on the expression of drug-resistance gene MDR1 and chemotherapeutic sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.Methods A HCC cell line SMMC-7721/AFP, which was stably transfected with AFP gene, was established.mRNA and protein expressions of AFP and MDR1 were detected by real-time PCR and Western Blot,respectively.The sensitivity of SMMC-7721/AFP and SMMC-7721/EGFP cells with or without MDR1 silencing by siRNA to doxorubicin was tested by MTT assay.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of MDR1 genes-coded protein Pgp in 60 cases of HCC tissues, and the relationship between Pgp expression and serum AFP levels was analyzed.Results AFP mRNA and protein could be detected in SMMC-7721/AFP cells, but not in control cells, indicating that the AFP stably transfected cell line was successfully established.MDR1 mRNA and protein levels were higher in SMMC-7721/AFP cells than those in SMMC-7721/EGFP cells.MDR1 mRNA level in SMMC-7721/AFP cells was (52.7 ± 1.5) times as high as that in SMMC-7721/EGFP cells (P < 0.05).The resistance to doxorubicin was increased by (12.8 ± 1.1) times after AFP transfection (P < 0.05).The chemosensitivity to doxorubicin was increased after the expression of MDR1 was knocked down by siRNA.The expression of Pgp in HCC tissues was positively correlated with the serum AFP levels.Conclusion AFP could induce drug-resistance to doxorubicin in HCC cells by increasing the expression of MDR1.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)对耐药基因MDR1表达和肝癌细胞化疗敏感性的影响.方法 建立稳定表达AFP的肝癌细胞系SMMC-7721/AFP,分别通过Real-time PCR和蛋白印迹检测转染前后AFP和MDR1的表达.MTT法测定SMMC-7721/AFP和SMMC-7721/EGFP细胞对阿霉素的化疗敏感性.siRNA沉默SMMC-7721/AFP细胞中MDR1的表达,观察细胞对阿霉素化疗敏感性的变化.采用免疫组织化学染色法检测60例肝癌组织中MDR1编码蛋

  3. Diagnostic value of alpha fetoprotein (AFP),α-L-fucosidase(AFU) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199)combined detection in early stage orimary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC)%AFP、AFU、CA199联合检测对早期原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓爱红; 彭燕华; 周少雄; 沈永坚; 肖海萍; 何彩云; 林经良

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、糖类抗原199(CA199)对早期原发性肝癌(primary carcinoma of the liver,PHC)联合检测的诊断价值。方法:选取2013年1月到2014年5月佛山市第二人民医院肝科门诊初诊患者,通过病史、症状和查体拟诊为疑似PHC患者,再采用诊断金标准将疑似患者(研究对象)确诊分为PHC(48例)和非PHC(76例),所有研究对象均检测血清AFP、AFU和CA199,检测AFP和CA199采用化学发光法,检测AFU采用全自动生化仪器法,采用循证检验医学的方法统计各诊断价值性能指标。结果:PHC组患者AFP、AFU和CA199水平较非PHC组非常显著升高(P<0.01)。单一指标AFP、AFU和CA199检测PHC的诊断灵敏度分别为74.3%、51.4%、51.4%。单一指标AFP、AFU和CA199检测PHC的诊断特异性分别为82.4%、94.1%、94.1%。3指标并联灵敏度最高,为86.4%,其漏检率为13.6%。3指标串联和AFU/CA199串联特异性最高,约为96.5%,其误诊率为3.5%。结论:3指标并联是最佳PHC筛查联合指标,AFU和CA199串联是最佳PHC确诊联合指标。%Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of the alpha fetoprotein (AFP), α-L- fucosidase(AFU), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) and their combinations in Early Stage Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma (PHC). Methods:Selected the Hepatological outpatients at their first visit to the second people’s hospital of Foshan from January,2013 to May,2014.Suspicious PHC patients were diagnosed by medical history, symptoms and physical check,and suspicious PHC patients were classified into PHC patients(n=48) and non-PHC patients(n=76) following the diagnosed gold criteria.The concentration of AFP and CA199 was determined by Chemiluminescence method.The concentration of AFU were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument.The assessed parameters of diagnostic value were measured using the evidence-based laboratory

  4. Construction of lentiviral vectors carrying small interference RNA of alpha-fetoprotein gene and its efficiency of target gene silencing%携带甲胎蛋白基因小干扰RNA慢病毒载体的构建及其对靶基因的沉默效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程木华; 李建芳; 张峰; 曾凤伟; 谢良骏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To construct lentiviral vectors carrying small interference RNA (siRNA) of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) followed by transfection into hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to assess the efficiency of AFP gene silencing.Methods The AFP-specific positive siRNA and non-specific negative siRNA were designed and constructed prior to insertion to the recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene.This was followed by transfection into human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 and subsequent screening of cell strains with GFP expression,and were assigned into lentivirustransfected positive siRNA group and lentivirus-transfected negative siRNA group respectively.Furthermore,liposome-transfected positive siRNA group,liposome-transfected negative siRNA group,siRNA group which treated with AFP siRNA but without transfection reagent,and blank control group were established simultaneously.The efficiency of transfection was assessed under fluorescent microscope,and the relative expression of AFP mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells was determined via fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting assay.In addition,the inhibition rate of AFP gene expression was compared among all groups.Results Lentiviral vectors were associated with effective transfection of siRNA into HepG2 cells.The siRNA transfected with lentivirus yielded considerably higher inhibition rate of AFP mRNA than that with liposomes,as evidenced by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (92.1%vs 74.3%,P<0.05).Immunoblotting assay showed that higher inhibition rate of AFP protein was in favor of siRNA transfected with lentivirus,but not with liposomes (88.2% vs 63.7%,P<0.05).Conclusion AFP siRNA transfected with lentivirus is associated with more effective inhibition of AFP expression in HepG2 cells.%目的 构建携带甲胎蛋白(AFP)基因小干扰RNA(siRNA)的慢病毒载体并转染肝癌细胞,评价其

  5. The clinical significance of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated estriol in perinatal screening%甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇在产前筛查中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞春玉; 吴学礼

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇在产前筛查中的临床意义。方法:选取我院2014年12月至2015年6月孕周为15~20周的妊娠孕妇血清标本2070例,予以产前甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇的检测,并且结合孕妇的年龄、孕周、体质量等因素,运用配套的仪器产前筛查风险软件统计唐氏综合症、18–三体综合征及神经管缺陷的风险比例,予以高危孕妇做详细确诊,并依据随访与诊断结果比较高危组与低危组甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素、非结合雌三醇水平,及出生缺陷阳性确诊率,产前筛查孕妇的年龄分布与出生缺陷的筛查阳性率。结果:高危组甲胎蛋白水平显著高于低危组[(28.74±1.35) vs.(6.93±1.20)μg/L],人绒毛膜促性腺激素水平显著高于低危组[(2.43±0.37) vs.(1.76±0.25) ng/L],非结合雌三醇水平明显低于低危组[(5.35±1.23) vs.(7.26±1.14)μg/L],两组比较差异明显(P35岁孕妇(26.24%);高危组孕妇出生缺陷总确诊阳性率(7.14%)明显高于低危孕妇(0.21%),两组比较差异显著。结论:甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇产前筛查能够有效筛查出生缺陷的概率,达到优生,值得推广运用。%Objective: To investigate the clinical signiifcance of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3) in perinatal screening.Methods: Selected 2 070 serum samples in pregnant women with gestational age of 15~20 weeks from December 2014 to June 2015 in our hospital, detected AFP, HCG and uE3 in prenatal testing, and combining with the age, gestational age, body weight and other factors, counted the riskratio of Down syndrome, trisomy 18 and the proportion of risk of neural tube defects by supporting instrument risk prenatal screening sotfware to diagnose in detail for high-risk women, and compared

  6. 甲胎蛋白与异常凝血酶原在鉴别诊断肝细胞癌中的价值%Alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma from other liver tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪文斌; 肖年军; 罗英; 刘哲; 张宁; 孔哲; 卢实春

    2016-01-01

    目的 评估术前血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)与异常凝血酶原(DCP)在肝脏肿瘤患者中鉴别肝细胞癌的价值.方法 选取2015年1月1日至2015年5月1日解放军总医院肝胆外科收治的影像学检查证实为肝脏肿瘤的患者141例.检测患者术前血清甲胎蛋白及异常凝血酶原浓度.以病理结果或临床诊断标准(射频消融及介入栓塞治疗患者)为金标准,绘制受试者工作特征曲线并分析AFP及DCP在肝脏肿瘤患者中鉴别肝细胞癌的价值.结果 141例肝脏肿瘤患者中肝细胞癌98例,非肝细胞癌43例(包括肝内胆管细胞癌16例、肝血管瘤12例、转移性肝癌10例、局灶性结节增生3例、炎性假瘤2例).肝细胞癌组患者术前甲胎蛋白显著高于非肝细胞癌组患者[80.0(3.9~1 375.0) μg/L比2.1(1.6 ~3.2) μg/L,Z=6.98,P<0.01];肝细胞癌组患者术前异常凝血酶原显著高于非肝细胞癌组患者[141.5(24.0~978.0) AU/L比19.0(14.0 ~ 25.5) AU/L,Z=5.18,P<0.01].AFP及DCP在肝脏肿瘤患者诊断肝细胞癌的受试者工作曲线下面积(AUROC)分别为0.87(95% CI:0.81 ~0.93)及0.78(95% CI:0.69 ~0.86)(截断值分别为3.6 μg/L及35 AU/L),二者差异无统计学意义(Z=1.72,P=0.085).以20 μg/L为AFP的临界值,其诊断肝细胞癌的灵敏度为56.1%,特异度为95.4%;以40 AU/L为DCP的临界值,其灵敏度为69.4%,特异度为83.7%.在肝细胞癌患者,AFP与DCP两者检测结果相关(x2=9.12,P<0.01),相关系数r=0.292.二者联合检测(平行试验)诊断肝细胞癌的灵敏度为79.6%,特异度为81.4%.结论 DCP是肝细胞癌的有效肿瘤标志物.在肝脏肿瘤患者,DCP与AFP鉴别肝细胞癌患者能力类似;联合DCP与AFP检测有助于提高诊断灵敏度,减少漏诊.尽管肝细胞癌的诊断主要依据影像学检查,但在肿瘤影像学表现不典型时,肿瘤标志物有助于肝细胞癌的诊断.%Objective To compare the clinical utility of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and

  7. Radioimmunoassay for C-peptide and proinsulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proinsulin, the biosynthetic precursor of insulin, was discovered by Steiner et al. (1967) and shown to be converted to insulin and C-peptide in the β-cell. The first part of this paper deals with aspects of the radioimmunoassay for C-peptide with special emphasis on the development and the sources of errors encountered in our laboratory (Heding, 1975; Naithani et al., 1975). The second part deals with the many problems involved in the determination of human proinsulin and describes a direct and specific radioimmunoassay developed for measuring proinsulin in serum with a detection limit of less than 0.01 pmol/ml. (Auth.)

  8. Clinical studies of IGFBP-2 by radioimmunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Horn, N; Kratzsch, J;

    1993-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for human IGFBP-2 was developed using a polyclonal antiserum directed against a partial sequence (hIGFBP-2(176-190)). The tracer was prepared by radioiodination of a [Tyr]o-hIGFBP-2(176-190) derivative. The assay was used to study IGFBP-2 levels in numerous clinical an...

  9. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  10. The application of lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein ratio in the differential diagnosis of primary liver cancer%甲胎蛋白异质体比率在原发性肝癌鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓玲; 王晶晶; 赵巧玉; 黄梁镔

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of lentil lectin‐reactive alpha‐fetoprotein ratio (AFP‐L3% ) applied in the dif‐ferential diagnosis between hepatitis B infection of primary liver cancer and benign liver disease .Methods We included 108 cases of chronic HBV infection ,including 50 cases of primary liver cancer ,42 cases of cirrhosis ,16 cases of chronic hepatitis .Chemilumines‐cence detection was used to detect alpha‐fetoprotein (AFP) and AFP‐L3 content ,AFP‐L3 and the ratio of AFP (AFP‐L3% ) was calculated .Results AFP≥400 ng/mL as primary liver cancer diagnostic threshold ,the sensitivity and specificity were 36% ,84% , when used AFP‐L3% ≥ 10% as primary liver cancer diagnostic threshold ,the sensitivity and specificity were 62% ,83% . Conclusion AFP‐L3% is a better clinical indicator to distinguish between primary liver cancer and benign liver disease .AFP‐L3%can be used as a clinical indicator to differential diagnosis between HBV infection of primary liver cancer and benign liver disease .%目的:探讨甲胎蛋白异质体比率(A FP‐L3%)在乙型肝炎感染原发性肝癌和良性肝病鉴别诊断中的应用。方法慢性乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)感染108例,其中原发性肝癌50例、肝硬化42例、慢性肝炎16例。运用化学发光法检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)及AFP‐L3水平,计算AFP‐L3%。结果以AFP≥400 ng/mL作为原发性肝癌诊断阈值时,灵敏度及特异度分别为36%、84%;以AFP‐L3%≥10%作为原发性肝癌诊断阈值时,灵敏度及特异度分别为62%、83%。结论 AFP‐L3%更能区分原发性肝癌和良性肝病。临床上可结合A FP‐L3%作为鉴别诊断 HBV感染原发性肝癌和良性肝病的指标。

  11. Radioimmunoassays of 7-hydroxymethotrexate and methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antisera against 7-hydroxymethotrexate were raised in rabbits by injection of 7-hydroxymethotrexate coupled to bovine serum albumin. A 125I-radiolabelled probe was synthesised by radioiodination of 7-hydroxymethotrexate conjugated to tyrosine methyl ester. We developed with these reagents a liquid phase radioimmunoassay for 7-hydroxymethotrexate in which methotrexate did not interfere significantly (cross-reactivity factor = 2.5 X 10-4). Similar techniques were used also for the development of a specific radioimmunoassay for methotrexate, which minimally cross-reacted with 7-hydroxymethotrexate. The assessment of the specificity of these assays showed that parallel monitoring of methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate in human plasma was possible. Coefficients of variation for duplicate determinations were less than 15% between 0.06 and 1.2 nmol/l for methotrexate and between 0.08 and 9 nmol/l for 7-hydroxymethotrexate. (Auth.)

  12. Anamnesis of the radioimmunoassay: A historical reminiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallee, E.

    1984-01-27

    Anamnesis of the Radioimmunoassay - A Historical Reminiscence: Several requirements have to be met before the first radioimmunoassay of a proteohormone (i.e., insulin) could be developed. One of these requirements was that iodination ought not substantially impair the immunologic properties of the insulin molecule. Since the reversibility of antigen adsorption to antibodies is the most important basis of all immunoassays, the adsorptive behavior of proteins first had to be studied at extremely low protein concentrations. Only after these requirements had been investigated was direct electrophoretic detection of a nonprecipitating anti-hormone antibody possible by desorption of insulin on filter paper. Later, the inaccuracy of the species specificity of insulin-binding antibodies proved to be particularly useful for the determination of insulin in human sera.

  13. A radioimmunoassay for serum medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimanker, K; Saxena, B N; Fotherby, K

    1978-04-01

    When injected intramuscularly in a dose of 150 mg, Depo Provera, a microcrystalline suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), will provide a contraceptive effect for at least 3 months. This paper describes a sensitive radioimmunoassay for MPA which has been used in the author's laboratory for the past 2 years. MPA was converted to MPA-3-CMO and the oxime was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by the mixed anahydride method. 4 rabbits were immunized with the antiserum. A high titre of MPA antibodies was detected 6 months after immunization. Serum from the rabbit with the highest titre of antibodies to MPA was subjected to radioimmunoassay. 7 days after the intramuscular injection of 150 mg Depo-Provera, serum levels of MPA were found in the range of 1750 to 9000 pg/ml. By 75 days, the levels had decreased to 680-2600 pg/ml. The method was found to have adequate accuracy, precision and sensitivity. PMID:661315

  14. Development of a radioimmunoassay for formoterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, K.; Murase, K.; Shiobara, Y.

    1983-10-01

    The development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the ..beta../sub 2/-stimulant formoterol is described. The sensitivity of the method is 0.1 ng/ml in plasma and urine, when a l-ml sample is used. The cross-reactivity of the antiserum with formoterol glucuronide was 30%. Since formoterol is metabolized extensively to formoterol glucuronide in rats, dogs and human, extraction with ethyl ether prior to the radioimmunoassay was carried out. Satisfactory agreement was obtained for levels of formoterol in plasma and urine when they were determined by RIA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentration of formoterol was determined in dog plasma and human urine after oral administration of formoterol fumarate to dogs (61 mcg/kg) and humans (40 mcg).

  15. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), various experiments such as 125I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  16. Methods in radioimmunoassay, toxicology, and related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were discussed at the conference: past, present, and potential of radioimmunoassay; measurement of biogenic amines at the picogram level; parathyroid hormone; in vitro radioisotope methods for clinical evaluation of vitamin B12 and folic acid metabolism; forensic toxicology; role of biotransformation reactions in prenatal and postnatal chemical toxicity; the use of electrochemical techniques in FDA analytical procedures; and atomic absorption in food analysis

  17. Radioimmunoassay of proinsulin and hyperproinsulinemic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is: (a) to present an improved radioimmunoassay for proinsulin with a lower detection limit, and discuss its sources of error, and (b) to present extended studies on serum proinsulin in patients with insulinomas and hyperthyroidism, and a thorough analysis of the percentage of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) constituted by proinsulin in controls before, during and after stimulation with oral glucose. (Auth.)

  18. A radioimmunoassay for urinary and serum dexamethasone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay suitable for measuring dexamethasone concentrations in serum and urine specimens following the low dose dexamethasone suppression test (0.25-1.0 mg dexamethasone) is reported. The assay has a sensitivity of 0.26 nmol/L, a between-assay coefficient of variation (CV) for dexamethasone concentrations between 1.15 and 15.40 nmol/L ranging from 11.7 - 5.5% and recoveries of 91 - 103%. (author)

  19. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/106 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/106 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG

  20. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  1. Direct radioimmunoassay for estriol-16-glucuronide in urine for monitoring pregnancy and induction of ovulation. [Tritium tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haning, R.V. Jr.; Satin, K.P.; Lynskey, M.T.; Levin, R.M.; Speroff, L.

    1977-08-01

    Antibodies to estriol-16..cap alpha..-(..beta..-D-glucuronide) were raised in sheep with the use of keyhole limpet hemocyanin and bovine serum albumin conjugates of estriol-16..cap alpha..-(..beta..-D-glucuronide). A simple, rapid method is presented for direct radioimmunoassay of estriol-16..cap alpha..-(..beta..-D-glucuronide) in urine with dextran-coated charcoal used for separation of free from bound and deionized water used for dilutions. The method is thrifty in its use of reagents. The assay has been evaluated in the pregnancy range, and the sensitivity has been extended into the range necessary for monitoring induction of ovulation with pergonal.

  2. Radioimmunoassay techniques and their application in veterinary parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parasitology radioimmunoassay has been largely employed as a technique for detecting antibodies. Three types of this assay are outlined here and a brief comparison is made with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Examples where radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been used in parasitology are given. It is concluded that in veterinary parasitology radioimmunoassay is of greater value as a tool in the study of immune mechanisms to parasites rather than as a diagnostic technique. (author)

  3. Radioimmunoassay for human growth hormone (HGH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for human growth hormone (HGH) has been developed, which is highly specific, sensitive, precise, and reliable. The assay is based on the competitive binding principle of radioimmunoassay and utilizes a guinea pig anti-HGH serum and 125I-HGH. The tracer can be used for 3-4 weeks without further purification. Separation of antibody-bound from free 125I-HGH is achieved by the use of an immuno-immobilized precipitating reagent in the presence of 4% polyethylenglycol. Under these conditions the unspecific binding is as low as 2% of the total radioactivity. The standard curve covers the range of 0.05 to 1.6 nmol/l. At higher HGH concentrations (0.8 to 1.6 nmol/l) the inter- and intraassay coefficients of variation are 12-14 and 5-8%, respectively. For determination of HGH concentration plasma, serum or buffer-diluted samples may be used. Recovery of HGH added to 11 individual plasma and serum samples was 103.7 +- 6.3 and 106.5+- 10.1% (x +- S.D.), respectively. Recovery of endogenous HGH in 5 acromegalic sera after dilution with buffer was 102.2 +- 4.2% (x +- S.D.). The levels of circulating HGH obtained with this assay in normal women and men were found to be in the range of 0-0.5 and 0-0.4 nmol/l, respectively. (author)

  4. Radioimmunoassay of influenza A virus haemagglutinin. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual rabbits differed greatly in their antibody response to the ''strain-specific'' and ''cross-reactive'' antigenic determinants on the hemagglutinin (HA) subunit of influenza virus recombinant MRC11 (H3N2) and influenza virus Dunedin (H3N2), after immunization with whole virus or bromelain-released hemagglutinin (B-HA). Consequently, diverse cross-reactions between these viruses and A/Hong Kong/68 virus were found in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test as well as in homologous radioimmunoassay (125I-B-HA from MRC11: anti MRC11 serum, and 125I-B-HA from Dunedin: anti Dunedin serum) when sera from different animals were employed. Radioimmunoassay (RIA), over and above to the HI test, was also able to differentiate clearly the respective HAs with antisera reacting to the same HI titre with both corresponding influenza virus strains. Thus it appeared that antigenic differences could be identified with higher sensitivity by homologous RIA than by the HI test and that multiple antigenic determinants were reactive on the 125I-B-HA in the RIA procedure employed. MRC11 and A/HK/68 viruses were also compared by heterologous RIA (125I-B-HA from MRC11: anti A/HK/68 serum). It was found that preferentially antigenic determinants with a high degree of cross-reactivity could be studied in the heterologous system. (author)

  5. Report on the national seminar on radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliberations of the National Seminar on Radioimmunoassays (RIA) held at Bombay during 16-20 January 1978 are reported. Various aspects of the application of RIA techniques in India were discussed in the seminar. They included the basic requirements of RIA in India, the state-of-the-art of RIA in India, radiation protection in RIA, quality control of RIA, usefulness and limitations of RIA in clinical diagnosis and use of RIA in tropical infectious diseases. Difficulties encountered in the practice of RIA techniques in India were found to be mainly related to availability of 125I, RIA kits, antisera and hormones. The need for establishing a centralised assay service for RIA was examined and it was concluded that such a step would be premature in the present situation. Recommendations made and guidelines spelt out deal with resources for RIA, research, referral assay service, training and information exchange and dissemination. (M.G.B.)

  6. Radioimmunoassay of cholecystokinin in tissue and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological and pathophysiological role of the pancreas hormone, the polypeptide 'cholecystokinin' (CCK) is not well-established yet. This is due to the lack of specific and reliable radioimmunoassays for CCK. The aim of this thesis is to develop such an assay meeting the requirements of high specificity and sensitivity. Several problems were faced, such as (1) the cross-reactivity of existing antibodies with the stomach hormone gastrin and (2) changes in immunoreactivity caused by the introduction of the labelling isotope 125I and various labels (prepared according to the Bolton-Hunter method) into the polypeptide. The reliability of the assay for the measurement in human tissue and blood is extensively evaluated, inter alia, in patients with pancreas insufficiency (alcohol, cystic fibrosis) and with coeliac disease. (Auth.)

  7. Radioimmunoassay of influenza A virus haemagglutinin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemagglutinin released from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to the strain A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] by bromelain treatment and purified by rate zonal centrifugation (further on B-HA) was examined for possible contamination by neuraminidase. Specific enzymatic activities of the MRC11 virus and the B-HA respectively showed that B-HA contained less than 0.1% of enzymatically active neuraminidase originally present in the virus. Gel double diffusion tests, specificities of rabbit antisera induced by B-HA as well as radioimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that B-HA was devoid of any antigenically active neuraminidase. Precipitation of 125I-labelled B-HA with antisera to influenza virus recombinants with N2 neuraminidase was evidently caused by antibodies to host antigenic determinant(s) present in these sera. As for purity and radioimmunoprecipitation properties, B-HA is quite suitable for radioimmunoassay experiments. (author)

  8. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for 21-deoxycortisol: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for 21-deoxycortisol is described. The immunogen, 21-deoxycortisol-3-(0-carboxymethyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin, was prepared, the antisera raised against it were studied and the reliability of the assay was checked. The antiserum selected cross-reacted with 11-deoxycortisol (0.08%), corticosterone (0.25%), cortisol (0.6%) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (1.6%). 21-deoxycortisol was separated by celite partition chromatography and eluted in the 70/30 (v/v) isooctane/ethyl acetate fraction together with 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone. The radioimmunoassay was used to measure 21-deoxycortisol in the plasma of normal subjects and patients with androgen excess. In normal subjects, men (0.19 ng/ml +/- 0.08) and women (0.18 ng/ml +/- 0.09) had similar basal levels (mean +/- SD). One hour after ACTH stimulation, these levels were increased by a factor of 3.5. In 7 patients treated for classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, basal values varied between 9.1 and 39.9 ng/ml (measured at 8 a.m.). In 7 untreated women with late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (with 21-hydroxylase deficiency), ACTH-stimulated levels were increased to between 9 and 25.5 ng/ml. In 14 heterozygous carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, diagnosed by HLA genotyping, all ACTH-stimulated levels were well above the highest corresponding levels in normal subjects, whereas 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels remained within the normal range in 9 of the cases. (author)

  10. Radioimmunoassay for 21-deoxycortisol: clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueux, B.; Fiet, J.; Villette, J.M.; Brerault, J.L.; Vexiau, P.; Julien, R. (Laboratoire de Biochimie Hormonale, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris); Pham-Huu-Trung, M.T.; Gourmelen, M. (INSERM U 142 and Laboratoire d' Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Trousseau, Paris); Galons, H. (Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris)

    1985-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for 21-deoxycortisol is described. The immunogen, 21-deoxycortisol-3-(0-carboxymethyl) oxime-bovine serum albumin, was prepared, the antisera raised against it were studied and the reliability of the assay was checked. The antiserum selected cross-reacted with 11-deoxycortisol (0.08%), corticosterone (0.25%), cortisol (0.6%) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (1.6%). 21-deoxycortisol was separated by celite partition chromatography and eluted in the 70/30 (v/v) isooctane/ethyl acetate fraction together with 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone. The radioimmunoassay was used to measure 21-deoxycortisol in the plasma of normal subjects and patients with androgen excess. In normal subjects, men (0.19 ng/ml +/- 0.08) and women (0.18 ng/ml +/- 0.09) had similar basal levels (mean +/- SD). One hour after ACTH stimulation, these levels were increased by a factor of 3.5. In 7 patients treated for classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, basal values varied between 9.1 and 39.9 ng/ml (measured at 8 a.m.). In 7 untreated women with late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (with 21-hydroxylase deficiency), ACTH-stimulated levels were increased to between 9 and 25.5 ng/ml. In 14 heterozygous carriers of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, diagnosed by HLA genotyping, all ACTH-stimulated levels were well above the highest corresponding levels in normal subjects, whereas 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels remained within the normal range in 9 of the cases.

  11. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  12. 南昌地区妊娠14~20周妇女血清甲胎蛋白和游离绒毛膜促性腺激素的MOM值测定及临床应用%Detection and clinical application of MOM values of serum alpha-fetoprotein and free human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnant women during 14~20 gestational weeks in Nanchang region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖华; 刘艳秋; 刘淮

    2011-01-01

    目的:运用计算出的AFP及F-βHCG的MOM值与目前采用的MOM值对孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,期待能更有效地筛查出南昌地区胎儿神经管缺陷及唐氏综合征高危孕妇.方法:依据2005~2007年到江西省妇幼保健院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇各孕周AFP、F-βHCG的中位数,计算出AFP、F-βHCG的MOM值,用计算出的MOM值(研究组)和目前采用的MOM值(对照组)分别对2008年来该院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,对筛查出的高危孕妇进行羊水检测和随访,比较两种MOM值对胎儿神经管缺陷畸形和唐氏综合征筛查的阳性率、假阴性率及假阳性率.结果:神经管缺陷畸形、唐氏综合征阳性率研究组高于对照组,具有统计学意义(P<0.01);假阴性率研究组与对照组比较,结果无统计学意义;假阳性率研究组较对照组降低,结果具有统计学意义,(神经管缺陷畸形P<0.05,唐氏综合征P<0.01).结论:应用本地区MOM值进行神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,能更有效地筛查出本地区的神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征胎儿.%Objective: To screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome by calculated MOM values and values currently used of serum alpha - fetoprotein (AFP) and free β human chorionic gonadotropin (F - β HCG) in pregnant women, in order to screen out the high risk pregnant women of fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome in Nanchang region.Methods: The MOM values of AFP and F - β HCG were calculated according to the medians of AFP and F - β HCG in pregnant women of different gostational weeks who visited the prenatal diagnosis outpatient of the hospital from 2005 to 2007, then the calculated MOM values ( study group) and the MOM values currently used ( control group) were used to screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome among the pregnant women who visited the prenatal

  13. Quantification of the adrenal cortex hormones with radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V.; Carrera D, A. A.; Ibarra M, C. M., E-mail: vbadillocren@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The pathologies of the adrenal cortex -adrenal insufficiency and Cushing syndrome- have their origin on the deficit or hypersecretion of some of the hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex, which is divided in three zones anatomically defined: the external zone, also called the zona glomerulosa, which is the main production site of aldosterone and mineralocorticoids; the internal zone, or zona reticularis, that produces androgens; and the external zone, or zone 1 orticotrop, which is responsible for producing glucocorticoids. In this work, a quantitative analysis of those hormones and their pathologic trigger was made; the quantification was made in the laboratory by means of highly sensitive and specific techniques, in this case, the radioimmunoassay, in which a radioisotope I-125 is used. This technique is based on the biochemical bond-type reaction, because it requires of a substance called the linker, which bonds to another called ligand. This reaction is also known as antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab), where the results of the reaction will depend on the quantity of antigen in the sample and on its affinity for the antibody. In this work, a 56 patients (of which 13 were men and 43 women) study was made. The cortisol, the ACTH, the androsterone and the DHEA values were very elevated in the majority of the cases corresponding to women, predominating cortisol; while in men, a notorious elevation of the 17 {alpha}-OH-PRG and of the DHEA-SO{sub 4} was observed. Based on that, we can conclude that 51 of them did not have mayor complications, because they just went to the laboratory once, while the remaining 5 had a medical monitoring, and they visited the laboratory more than one occasion, tell about a difficulty on their improvement. According to the results, an approximate relation of 8:2 women:men, respectively, becomes clear to the hormonal pathologies of the adrenal cortex. (Author)

  14. Radio-immunoassay of somatostatin from isolated rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain aspects of radio-immunoassay of somatostatin from isolated rat pancreatic islets are described. Somatostatin-14, and not somatostatin-28, is secreted from isolated rat pancreatic islets. Less somatostatin secretion is measured per islet owing to purity of tracer in the radio-immunoassay. Theophylline apparently cross-reacts with somatostatin in the assay described, and this has to be taken into consideration when studying somatostatin release induced by theophylline in isolated islets. (author)

  15. The radioimmunoassay of human serum inhibin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of circulating inhibin is essential to the advancement of our understanding of its role in the control of FSH secretion. Recently, sensitive in vitro bioassay systems have been described which have allowed the measurement of inhibin bioactivity in the peripheral serum of immature female rats, sheep and women (C. Tsonis, personal communication) following ovarian hyperstimulation with exogenous gonadotrophins. Inhibin bioactivity has also been shown to rise in ovarian venous blood in the late follicular phase of women and during FSHG administration to primates. Such studies have some important limitations, in particular, the bioassay systems employed lack the sensitivity required for the study of normal physiology, and questions regarding the specificity of in vitro bioassay in application to serum samples have arisen following the reports of FSH releasing factors (transforming growth factor-beta inhibin B subunit dimers) that may confound the accurate assessment of inhibin bioactivity. This paper reports on the development of sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems applicable to human serum utilizing highly purified preparations of 58kDa and 31kDa bovine follicular fluid (bFF) inhibin. The development of two RIA systems utilizing antisera raised to either or 31kDa bFF inhibin is detailed and their application to the study of inhibin physiology in the human female during ovulation inducting, the normal menstrual cycle and gestation described

  16. Serum erythropoietin levels by radioimmunoassay in polycythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgegaard, G.; Miller, O.; Caro, J.; Erslev, A. (Cardeza Foundation for Hematological Research, Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa.)

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for erythropoietin (Epo) was developed and validated against the polycythaemic mouse assay. The correlation was good, with a r=0.94. Several other criteria of specificity were also filled by the RIA, which had a lower detection limit of 5 mU/ml. The mean serum-Epo level in 6 patients with secondary polycythaemia, 50.2 +- 26.2 mU/ml, was significantly higher than in a group of 11 normal subjects, 28.7 +- 7.2 mU/ml (P<0.0002). However, the Epo level in 31 polycythaemia vera (PV) patients, M = 21.9 +- 6.6 mU/ml, was not significantly different from normal (P = 0.006). Since previous studies with bioassay of heat-treated and concentrated plasma samples have shown a decreased serum-Epo level in PV, Epo levels were measured before and after heat treatment and concentration of samples from normals and polycythaemics. It was found that the levels of immunoreactive material increased after heat treatment and 40 times concentration in samples from normals and patients with secondary polycythaemias, but decreased in PV. We conclude that the Epo levels in serum in the low range measured by our and previous RIA:s probably are not true Epo levels but are partly due to an unspecific serum effect, that was removed by heat treatment.

  17. Radioimmunoassay in developing countries: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is probably the most commonly performed nuclear medicine technique. It is an in vitro procedure, where no radioactivity is administered to the patient. But this alone is not the reason for its widespread use. It provides the basis for extremely sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, and its use in present day medicine has brought a virtual information explosion in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. The fact that the technology involved is within the technical and economic capabilities of the developing world is evident from the increasing demand for its introduction or expansion of existing services. RIA facilities need not be restricted to urban hospitals, as in the case of in vivo nuclear medicine techniques, but may be extended to smaller district hospitals and other laboratories in peripheral areas. It is also possible to send blood samples to a central laboratory so that a single centre can serve a wide geographical area. There are many laboratories in the industrialized world that receive a major proportion of samples for assay by mail. In recent years, substantial RIA services have been established in many of the developing countries in Asia and Latin America. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) have made vital contributions to these activities and have played a catalytic role in assisting member states to achieve realistic goals. In the past five years, more than 250 individual RIA laboratories in developing member states have been beneficiaries of IAEA projects

  18. Radioimmunoassay of renin in human renal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed to quantitatively determine renin in human kidney tissue. The angiotensin I split off angiotensinogs by renin was radioimmunologically determined. The renin-renin substrate reaction rate followed a saturation kinetics, as it increased the larger the substrate content in the incubation medium until it acquired a maximum value; the reaction rate decreased with substrate concentrations over 40 mg/ml incubation medium. The discontinuance of the renin reaction after incubation by adding acid, boiling and neutralizing again, gave highest renin values. The RIA scattering was 8.3% for double determination of the same sample, for the determination in different RIA additions 7.0%. The detection limit was 20 pg angiotensin I. A direct comparison of radioimmunoassay and bioassay exhibited a very significant agreement of both methods, where the radioimmunologically measured renin values were on average four times larger than those obtained using biological technique. The definition of the so-called normal values for absolute and specific renin concentration in human kidney tissue enabled one to assess the renin values in various syndromes. (orig./MG)

  19. Radioimmunoassay of penicilloyl groups in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penicilloyl-protein conjugates may be formed in man or animals after therapeutic treatment but cannot be detected by the classical microbiological assay methods used for penicillin. Allergies have been noted in consumers of products coming from animals treated with penicillin (milk particularly). Although these compounds present a risk to public health, they passed unnoticed through hygienic food inspection. Therefore a specific and sensitive method was devised for the assay of these derivatives in biological fluids where they can be present in trace amounts. An iodine-125 labelled conjugate has been prepared. Already usable for the detection of antipenicilloyl antibodies in sera of penicillin allergic patients, it has been used for the development of a radioimmunoassay of penicilloyl groups. Assay is done directly on milk, urine and serum without previous extraction and with a detection limit of a few ppb. It permits a rapid, specific and easy to handle determination in the sera of hospital patients as well as in the inspection of animal products at the slaughter house and at the dairy

  20. The diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein, α-L-fucosidase,gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶、γ-谷氨酰转移酶、碱性磷酸酶及糖类抗原19-9联合检测在原发性肝癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘倩雄

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),α-L-fucosidase(AFU),gamma-glutamyltransferase(GGT),alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9(CA19-9) in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma(PHC).Methods Seventy-eight PHC patients as PHC group,76 patients with other liver diseases as other liver diseases group and 60 healthy volunteers as control group.The level of serum AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 and positive rate in each group were compared.Results The level of AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in PHC group were (276.3 ±72.6)μg/L,(63.1 ± 11.7) U/L,(268.5 ±57.2) U/L,(293.4 ±61.7) U/L and (56.9 ± 12.5) μg/L,in other liver diseases group were (81.6 ± 12.1) μg/L,(28.3 ±7.3) U/L,(54.9 ±7.8) U/L,(116.5 ± 23.8) U/L and (27.8 7.1) μ g/L,in control group were (13.8 ± 2.7) μ g/L,(12.6 ± 3.9) U/L,(12.3 ± 3.2) U/L,(47.2 ± 11.3) U/L and (12.9 ± 3.4) μ g/L.The level of above index in PHC group and other liver diseases group were significantly higher than those in control group,while the level of above index in PHC group were significantly higher than those in other liver diseases group (P < 0.01 or < 0.05).The positive rate of AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in PHC group were 62.8%(49/78),79.5%(62/78),83.3% (65/78),85.9% (67/78),66.7% (52/78),and significantly higher than those in other liver diseases group[31.6%(24/76),32.9%(25/76),27.6%(21/76),22.4%(17/76),15.8 %(12/76)].The positive rate of AFP in control group was 0,the positive rate of AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in control group were 1.7% (1/60),3.3% (2/60),1.7% (1/60),8.3% (5/60),which significantly lower than those in other two groups.The positive rate of combined detection in PHC group was 100.0%(78/78),which significantly higher than that in other liver diseases group [40.8%(31/76)] and control group[8.3%(5/60)](P< 0.01).Conclusion The combined detection of AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in PHC diagnosis has a higher sensitivity,and thus to make

  1. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 ..mu..U/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 ..mu..U/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 ..mu..U/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of human epidermal growth factor (urogastrone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a polypeptide hormone that stimulates growth of a variety of tissues. Although it was originally discovered in male mouse submaxillary glands, EGF has recently been isolated from human urine. A heterologous radioimmunoassay for human EGF (hEGF) has been developed, using purified hEGF as reference standard and radioiodinated tracer and antibodies raised against mouse EGF. Purified hEGF specifically displaced radioiodinated hEGF from the antibodies; no other human peptide hormone tested demonstrated any cross-reaction. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of RIA-hEGF in normal adult males and females was 97.8 +- 10.7 and 72.0 +- 4.5 (mean +- SE) μg/total volume, or 51.7 +- 4.5 and 57.0 +- 4.9 μg/g of creatinine, respectively. Urinary excretion in normal children increased with age, from less than 40 μg/24 h at 4 years of age to adult levels at about the age of puberty. The concentration of RIA-hEGF in human saliva ranged from 5.6 to 16.8 ng/ml, was about 80 ng/ml in human milk and was undetectable in human amniotic fluid (<1.4 ng/ml). It was recently been suggested that human EGF is identical with human urogastrone. However, the tissue secreting this ''new'' human hormone and the role of hEGF in health and disease have yet to be determined

  3. Radioimmunoassay of ADH in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple efficient procedure for extracting and concentrating arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) from urine has been coupled with a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay in order to measure antidiuretic hormone (ADH) excretion in normal human under various physiological stimuli. Antisera have been raised in rabbits injected with lysine-vasopressin (LVP) or AVP coupled with bovine serum albumin. The antiserum selected for the assay which inhibits the antidiuresis induced in the rat by AVP is used at a final dilution of 1 : 50,000 and possesses a high association constant of 1x1011 l.mol-1. The limit of detection of the RIA system is 0.5 μUI/ml of urine (1.25 pg). Urinary ADH has been extracted from urine by Miller and Moses method. Mean recovery of added vasopressin averaged 90.2%+-11 (SD) and assay of serial dilutions of such extracts showed that they behave in the assay system in the same way as synthetic AVP standards. Moreover comparison of the results obtained by the RIA to those given by the biological method using the ethanol anesthetized rat showed excellent correlation (r=0.9p<0.001). Under ad libitum fluid and food intake, mean daily urinary excretion of AVP (uncorrected for recovery) determined in 22 subjects was found to be 30.58+-11.64mU/h with no significant difference between men and women. In response to an oral waterload ADH became undetectable at the peak of diuresis. Following a 16 hr fluid deprivation, ADH rose moderately. A significant correlation has been found between urine osmolality and AVP excretion rate

  4. Diagnostic value of α-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth to sixth most common malignancy. An increase in its incidence is looming in Cuba as a result of the population aging and the increase of morbi-mortality due to liver cirrhosis (CH). α-fetoprotein (AFP) by SUMA®, was used in this work as a tumor marker technique in 189 Cirrhotic patients evaluated at the CIMEQ, between January 1999 and September 2005. The main factors associated with an elevation of AFP were HCC, viral cirrhosis, and the age of 50 years or more. Presented CHC 22 (11.64%) patients, who had an average age of 55 years and the predominant sex was male (86,36%). The most important cause associated with this malignant disease was viral CH, mainly the virus of hepatitis C. This tumor marker showed a sensitivity and specificity of 68.18% and 92.17%, respectively. When combined with abdominal ultrasound was increase 86.36% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Elevated AFP levels associated with tumor prognosis factors. It can be concluded that the AFP had value in the diagnosis of HCC. This work is the first of its kind carried out in Cuba, and allows the design of a workable strategy for the research, monitoring and prognosis of HCC, having a wide network of laboratories SUMA®,, with a low cost per each determination. (author)

  5. Examination of illegal, non declared injection preparations on anabolic hormones and development of a radioimmunoassay for 19-nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    Procedures are described for the identification and quantification of anabolic hormones in preparations for injection. To perform radioreceptorassays for the most important groups of anabolics, estrogens and androgens, hydrolysis of esters is absolutely necessary in order to release the active substances from depot preparations. After moderate hydrolysis (30 min; 45/sup 0/C) it was possible to identify 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. as active substance in three various illegal solutions for injection and one of them contained in addition estradiol-17..beta... After more drastic hydrolysis (2 h; 70/sup 0/C) there was a strong disintegration of 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. and new more polar compounds were found, e.g. in small amounts 6-ketoestradiol, with estrogenic activity. Among the anabolic steroids only trenbolone-17..beta.. behaved in similar manner, and the disintegration during drastic hydrolytic conditions gave an indication for the existence of 19-norsteroids. Specific radioimmunoassays and GC/MS were used for final identification of the anabolic agents. Quantitation was carried out with HPLC/UV and radioimmunoassays after moderate hydrolysis. Since 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. was identified a specific radioimmunoassay for this hormone was developed. Antibodies were raised against 19-nortestosterone-17..beta..-HS-BSA in order to be able to measure 19-nortestosterone-17..cap alpha.., 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.., and 19-norandrostenedione which were expected as the main bovine metabolites.

  6. Determination of thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacka, K.; Kasowicz, J.; Furmaniak-Wehr, J.; Gembicki, M. (Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland))

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies have been detected in patient's serum by immunofluorescence and hemagglutination techniques as well as by radioimmunoassay. The aim was to introduce the solid-phase radioimmunoassay for thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies determination. The microsomal fraction was adsorbed on the walls of polystyrene tubes. In the next stage patient's serum was added. The retention of antibodies bound to microsomes on the tube walls was detected by adding /sup 125/I-protein A. The occurrence of antimicrosomal antibodies in the group of patients with Graves' disease was 88%; in case of myxedema autoantibodies were found in 70%. In patients with chronic thyroiditis antimicrosomal antibodies were present in 90% and in the group of non-toxic goiter the incidence was 25%. In the control group antimicrosomal antibodies were found in 8%. The solid-phase radioimmunoassay for thyroid antimicrosomal antibody determination proved to be a useful, sensitive and reproducible method for clinical studies.

  7. Estimation of antibodies to human cytomegalovirus by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 125I labelled IgG fraction against rabbit IgG of goat origin was employed for the detection of CMV IgG and IgM antibodies in the double indirect radioimmunoassay. The results were compared with those obtained in complement fixation, indirect immunofluorescence and anti-complement immunofluorescence tests. The application of labelled anti-fc antisera, instead of antisera against whole IgG in the tests for detection of specific CMV IgG antibody resulted in increased sensitivity of radioimmunoassay and reduction of non-specific cytoplasmatic reactions in preparations stained by indirect immunofluorescence. The absorption of sera with protein A rich staphylococci and aggregates to immunoglobulin eliminated unwanted secondary IgM staining caused by rheumatoid factors both in indirect immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay tests for CMV antibodies. (author)

  8. Synthesis and radioiodination of analogues of substance P for the building up of a radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, M.; Schmidt, H.E.; Ehrlich, A.; Forner, K.; Klauschenz, E.; Furkert, J.; Rathsack, R.; Niedrich, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Inst. fuer Wirkstofforschung; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1984-02-01

    The substance P (SP) analogs (Lys(MSOC)/sup 3/)-SP, (Tyr/sup 8/)-SP, (Tyr/sup 8/,Nle/sup 11/)-SP and (p-HPA/sup 1/)-SP have been synthesized by classical methods of peptide synthesis as well as by the liquid phase peptide synthesis (LPPS) to allow conjugation with protein in the N..cap alpha..-position and radioiodination. (Tyr/sup 8/)-SP and (p-HPA-Arg/sup 1/)-SP have been radioiodinated by the chloramine T- and the lactoperoxidase method. A complete S-oxidation of SP was observed, when the chloramine T procedure was used, but this modification does not disturb the assay. The introduction of the (/sup 125/I-pHPA-Arg/sup 1/)-SP-tracer led to considerable improvements of our SP-radioimmunoassay.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of methotrexate: use of 75Se-labelled methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    75Se labelled methotrexate has been used as the radiolabel in a radioimmunoassay for methotrexate and its use compared with that of 3H- methotrexate. The gamma-labelled drug has proved to be extremely reliable and easier to use than 3H- methotrexate. Results obtained with it compare well with those obtained with tritiated drug. There are practical advantages in using a gamma-emitter, and it is suggested that the modified radioimmunoassay is invaluable for routine monitoring of methotrexate in patients undergoing chemotherapy with the drug. (author)

  10. Antitumor immunity induced by DNA vaccine encoding alpha-fetoprotein/heat shock protein 70

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Guo-Zhen Liu; Ai-Li Song; Hai-Yan Li; Yu Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a DNA vaccine encoding human alphafetoprotein (hAFP)/heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and to study its ability to induce specific CTL response and its protective effect against AFP-expressing tumor.METHODS: A DNA vaccine was constructed by combining hAFP gene with HSP70 gene. SP2/0 cells were stably transfected with pBBS212-hAFP and pBBS212-hAFP/HSP70eukaryotic expression vectors. Mice were primed and boosted with DNA vaccine hAFP/HSP70 by intramuscular injection, whereas plasmid with hAFP or HSP70 was used as controls. ELISPOT and ELISA were used to detect IFN-γ-producing splenocytes and the level of serum anti-AFP antibody from immunized mice respectively. In vivo tumor challenge was measured to assess the immune effect of the DNA vaccine.RESULTS: By DNA vaccine immunization, the results of ELISPOT and ELISA showed that the number of IFN-γ-producing splenocytes and the level of serum anti-AFP antibody were significantly higher in rhAFP/HSP70 group than in hAFP and empty plasmid groups (95.50±10.90IFN-γ spots/106 cells vs 23.60±11.80 IFN-γ spots/106 cells,7.17±4.24 IFN-γ spots/106 cells, P<0.01; 126.50±8.22 μg/mL vs 51.72±3.40 μg/mL, 5.83±3.79 μg/mL, P<0.01). The tumor volume in rhAFP/HSP70 group was significantly smaller than that in pBBS212-hAFP and empty plasmid groups (37.41±7.34 mm3 vs381.13±15.48 mm3, 817.51±16.25 mm3,P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Sequential immunization with a recombinant DNA vaccine encoding AFP and heat shock protein70 could generate effective AFP-specific T cell responses and induce definite antitumor effects on AFP-producing tumors, which may be suitable for some clinical testing as a vaccine for HCC.

  11. Effects of alpha fetoprotein on escape of Bel 7402 cells from attack of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement of AFP against apoptosis of tumor cell has been implicated in its evasion of immune surveillance. However, the molecular events of immune escape mechanisms are still unknown. The major observations reported here relate to a possible mechanism by which heptoloma Bel 7402 cells escape immune surveillance in vitro. Western blotting and a well-characterized cofocal scanning image were performed to analyze the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3 in co-cultured Bel 7402 and Jurkat cells. After co-culture with Jurkat cells, up-regulated Fas and reduced FasL expression could be observed. Treatment with AFP could remarkably inhibit the elevated Fas and, whereas, induce the FasL expression in co-cultured Bel 7402 cells. Cells co-culture could induce the expression of caspase-3 in both cells line. The elevated caspase-3 in Bel 7402 cells was abolished following the treatment of AFP. The expression of caspase-3 was elevated in co-cultured Jurkat cells treated with AFP. No detectable change on the expression of survivin was examined in both cells line. Monoclonal antibody against AFP treatment alone did not obviously influence the growth of cells, as well as the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3. However, the effect of AFP could be blocked by antibody. our results provide evidence that AFP could promote the escape of liver cancer cells from immune surveillance through blocking the caspase signal pathway of tumor cells and triggering the Fas/FasL interaction between tumor cells and lymphocytes

  12. [Alpha fetoprotein and neonatal jaundice. Contribution to the study of a physiopathologic mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourne, C E; Brettes, J P; Guez, G; Ritter, J; Gandar, R

    1977-01-01

    The increase in the maternal plasma A.F.P. level is due to an hypoxia of the foetus. The prospective study of 851 single pregnancies shows that there is a significant rise in the A.F.P. levels during the last days of the pregnancy if the babies are going to exhibit a so-called physiological jaundice at birth: the decrease of the A.F.P. levels in these cases is four times slower than in normal cases. The prospective study of another group of 404 pregnancies gave the same results for the A.F.P. level of the blood of the umbilical cord. Statistical analysis showed that the pathological conditions capable of increasing the A.F.P. levels are related to neo-natal jaundice. The neo-natal jaundice may be due to a factor of foetal hypoxia capable of inducing an over stimulation of the foetal erythropoiesis. The results of this mechanism would be a quantitative disequilibrium between an increased hemolysis and a reduced bilirubine fixation capacity during the neo-natal period.

  13. Unexpected role of α-fetoprotein in spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futoshi Yazama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heat shock severely affects sperm production (spermatogenesis and results in a rapid loss of haploid germ cells, or in other words, sperm formation (spermiogenesis is inhibited. However, the mechanisms behind the effects of heat shock on spermatogenesis are obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify the inhibitory factor of spermiogenesis, experimental cryptorchid (EC mice were used in this study. Here we show that α-fetoprotein (AFP is specifically expressed in the testes of EC mice by proteome analysis. AFP was also specifically localized spermatocytes by immunohistochemical analysis and was secreted into the circulation system of EC mice by immunoblot analysis. Since spermatogenesis of an advanced mammal cannot be reproduced with in vitro, we performed the microinjection of AFP into the seminiferous tubules of normal mice to determine whether AFP inhibits spermiogenesis in vivo. AFP was directly responsible for the block in spermiogenesis of normal mice. To investigate whether AFP inhibits cell differentiation in other models, using EC mice we performed a partial hepatectomy (PH that triggers a rapid regenerative response in the remnant liver tissue. We also found that liver regeneration is inhibited in EC mice with PH. The result suggests that AFP released into the blood of EC mice regulates liver regeneration by inhibiting the cell division of hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AFP is a well-known cancer-specific marker, but AFP has no known function in healthy human beings. Our findings indicate that AFP expressed under EC conditions plays a role as a regulatory factor in spermatogenesis and in hepatic generation.

  14. Immunodiagnosis of opportunistic mycoses: detection of fungal antigenemia by radioimmunoassays in systemic candidiasis and aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed radioimmunoassays to the Candida carbohydrate, mannan, and to an Aspergillus cell wall carbohydrate. They evaluate these radioimmunoassays with sera from rabbit models of disseminated mycoses, and further evaluate the radioimmunoassays for their diagnostic usefulness in a panel of patient sera. (Auth.)

  15. Detection of sputum eicosanoids in cystic fibrosis and in normal saliva by bioassay and radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J T; Barnes, N C; Piper, P J; Costello, J F

    1987-01-01

    We have measured arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, leukotrienes (LTs) and prostanoids (Ps), in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and in normal saliva using bioassay and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Almost three times as much LTB4 is present in CF extracts compared with slow reacting substances (SRSs). Leukotrienes were not detected in normal saliva. In CF sputum there is a three-fold increase in the level of the vasodilator prostanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the stable metabolite of prostacyclin, 6-oxo PGF1 alpha compared with the vasoconstrictor prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a hydrolysis product of thromboxane A2. Experiments with BW755c (25 micrograms ml-1, n = 3) indicated that the majority of this activity was not produced during the extraction procedure. The detection of LTs and Ps in sputum of CF patients shows that these substances are present at biologically active concentrations and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:3028454

  16. Development of a radioimmunoassay of tetracycline and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for tetracycline was developed in the context of the present work. The determination of tetracycline content in biological samples is to be made valid using tetracycline RIA. As well as the carbodiimide method, a by radioimmunologists extremely seldomly used way involving a condensation reaction between protein and haptene via the Mannich reaction was successfully applied. Antibodies were produced using a conventional immunisation method after Abraham, the other applied alternative method after Vaitukaitis et al. The general working methods had to be adapted to the tetracycline RIA. All variable parameters of the antigen-antibody bond were tested to optimize the incubation conditions of the system as well as to control the tracer for a degradation. The detection limit of RIA is 10-12, the measuring range from 10-12 to 10-10 mol for tetracycline hydrochloride and rolitetracycline respectively and up to 10-9 mol for its derivates. The investigations for cross reactions showed a high specificity for tetracycline (100%) and its intravenously appliable pyrrolidino-methyl derivative rolitetracycline (88%). Standard curves could be drawn up using either of the two compounds tetracycline and rolitetracycline as standard. The pharmaco-kinetic behaviour of the parenteral administrable tetracycline was analyzed as example for the possible applications of the tetracycline radioimmunoassay. Parallel animal tests administring 3H tetracycline hydrochloride were performed for radioimmunoassay reference. The possible application of tetracycline radioimmunoassay in food analysis is discussed. (orig./MG)

  17. Specific and direct radioimmunoassay for human proinsulin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine radioimmunoassay for human proinsulin in serum has been developed. The reagents used were: antibodies against the C-peptide part of the proinsulin molecule, human proinsulin as the standard and 125I-labelled sythetic human Tyr-C-peptide as the tracer. (orig.)

  18. Double-antibody radioimmunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive double-antibody radioimmunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin C2 is described. The assay procedure employs anti-rabbit gamma globulin, prepared in goats, to precipitate the antigen-antibody complex of enterotoxin C2 and anti-enterotoxin C2. The test is sensitive to 100 pg of enterotoxin

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Maternal Serum α-Fetoprotein Levels During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...

  20. Overcoming the radiological and legislative obstacles in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of radioimmunoassays especially the safety of protein iodination with 125I is discussed. Two types of users, namely the research worker and the routine user in the clinical laboratory, should be regarded. The possible hazards of the so-called 'do-it-yourself' iodinations are described and compared with those of routine use of commercial kits and reagents. As there is no significant hazard involved in radioimmunoassay in clinical chemistry laboratories using commercially supplied reagents, there should be, to the author's opinion, no significant legislative difficulties. The interpretation of the ICRP recommendations and the practice of legislation in the USA and Europe, especially the United Kingdom and teh Federal Republic of Germany is described. (MG)

  1. A rapid easy—to—perform solid phase digoxin radioimmunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBin; ZhouMei-Ying; 等

    1998-01-01

    A solid-phase-radioimmunoassay(SPRIA) for the monitoring of blood digoxin level has been developed,in which a secondary antibody-coated polystyrene tubes are used.This noval method seems to be simple to use and only takes about an half hour.The standard curve is linear from 0.25to 4μg/L.The sensitivity of the detection is 0.1μg/L.Reproducibility studies with 3 control sera of 0.5-2.5μg/L give intraassay CV<5% and interassay CV<10%.The specimens are measured and compared with those of the conventional radioimmunoassay and the values are well correlated(r=0.96,Y=1.022X+0.04μg/L)。

  2. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for the detection of clenbuterol residues in treated cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaut, Ph.; Dubois, M. (Lab. d' hormonologie, Marloie (Belgium)); Pri-Bar, I.; Buchman, O. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev); Degand, G.; Ectors, F. (Liege Univ. (Belgium))

    A radioimmunoassay for clenbuterol detection in cattle has been validated and used to monitor treated cattle. The tracer used was 4-amino-3,5-dichloro-{alpha}(tert-butylaminomethyl) benzyl alcohol (benzyl-{sup 3}H)(clenbuterol) prepared by catalytic tritiation with tritium gas of 4-amino-3,5-dibromo-{alpha}-(tert-butylamino)-acetophenone, followed by chlorination at positions 3 and 5 in the aromatic ring. The rabbit antiserum was raised against a diazotized clenbuterol/human serum albumin conjugate. The assay described was sensitive (7.8 pg/tube) and reproducible. The intra- and inter-assay variability, which was assessed by measuring known quantities of clenbuterol in plasma, urine and faeces, was satisfactory for RIA. When this assay was used to monitor treated cattle the concentrations of clenbuterol in plasma, urine and faeces were directly related to the administered dose. The absorption and elimination of clenbuterol in cattle was rapid. Data obtained were consistent with results obtained in other species where a rapid clearance rate was also demonstrated. (author).

  3. Radioimmunoassay of steroids in homogenates and subcellular fractions of testicular tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassays for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha, 17beta-diol (DIOL) in homogenates of whole testis, interstitial tissue and seminiferous tubules as well as subcellular fractions of the latter were developed. Steroids were extracted with acetone, submitted to several solvent partitions and isolated by a celite: propylene glycol: ethylene glycol column chromatography. Anit-T serum was used for the assay of T and DTH, and a specific anti-Diol serum for DIOL. Subcellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation. The nuclear fraction was purified by centrifugation in a dense sucrose buffer followed by several washings. Losses were corrected according to recovery of DNA. Optimal conditions for purification of acetone extracts at minimal losses were established. Validation of the method was studied testing linear regression of logit-log transformations of standard curves and parallelism with unknowns. T was the steroid present in higher concentrations in all samples studied. It is concluded that the present method for determination of endogenous androgen concentrations in testicular tissue is valid and might be useful in studing testicular function. (orig.)

  4. Error in anti-DNA antibody radioimmunoassay after gallium scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretti, D.; Rooney, P.; Williams, G.; Decker, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    Significant interference with the accurate measurement of anti-DNA antibodies occurs after gallium-67 scanning. The observed effect is dependent on the radioimmunoassay used. False-negative results are observed with a modified Farr assay whereas false-positive results are noted in the millipore filter assay. These spurious values are the result of persistent radioactivity in the patients' sera after administration of /sup 67/Ga citrate.

  5. Typing of murine cell-surface antigens by cellular radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labelled Protein A was used for detecting antigen-antibody complexes on gultaraldehyde fixed cells attached to microtiter plates. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for revealing H-2 private and public specificities as well as Ia and Lyt antigens. As plates may be kept for months, several reactivities can be tested in one step on a large panel rendering a regular supply of animals unnecessary. (Auth.)

  6. Semiautomated radioimmunoassay for mass screening of drugs of abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid, semiautomated radioimmunoassay system for detection of morphine, barbiturates, and amphetamines is described. The assays are applicable to large drug abuse screening programs. The heart of the system is the automatic pipetting station which can accomplish 600 pipetting operations per hour. The method uses 15 to 30 μl for the amphetamine and combined morphine/barbiturate assays. A number of other drugs were tested for interference with the assays and the results are discussed

  7. Diagnostic value of prostatic acid phosphatase as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were determined with 4 different radioimmunoassays and with the standard enzymatic method (p-nitrophenylphosphate) in 35 patients with prostatic carcinoma. Staging of localized tumors was based on histopathological evaluation after radial prostatectomy and pelvic lymphnode dissection (pTsub(1-3), pN0). In tumor lesions Tsub(1-2) N0 M0 elevated PAP-serum concentrations were found by RIA-determination in only one patient. Increased PAP serum levels were observed in 43-78% of carcinomas stage T3 N0 M0 and in 54-83% in stage Tsub(2-4) Nsub(x) M1 tumors, depending on the test kit used for the PAP determination. Concentrations for PAP obtained with the 4 different RIA-kits used, varied significantly and thus are not comparable. No false positive results were observed in sera of 9 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Elevated PAP serum levels were found in a significantly higher frequency when determined by radioimmunoassay than by the enzymatic method. The results clearly indicate, that PAP is of no value for early recognition of carcinoma of the prostate even when measured by radioimmunoassay. However, the RIA-method seems to be of clinical importance in estimating the course of advanced local and metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate. (orig.)

  8. The value of Golgi protein 73 detection combined with alpha-fetoprotein,α-L-fucosidase,α-antitrypsin in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer%高尔基体蛋白73联合甲胎蛋白、α-L 岩藻糖苷酶、α-抗胰蛋白酶检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华; 梁红梅; 胥慧; 周庭雄; 王建蔚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic value of the golgi protein 73 (GP73) combined with alpha‐fetoprotein (AFP) ,α‐L‐fucosidase (AFU) andα‐antitrypsin(α‐AT) detection in primary hepatic carcinoma(PHC) .Methods 100 patients with PHC ,100 patients with hepatitis and cirrhosis ,and 100 healthy people hospitalized in the hospital from October 2011 to May 2013 were en‐rolled in the study .Serum AFP levels were detected by using Beckman DxI800 chemiluminescent analyzer ,serum AFU ,α‐AT levels were detected by using Beckman DxC800 automatic biochemical analyzer ,and GP73 levels were measured by using enzyme‐linked immunosorbent GP73 quantitative detection kits .Results In patients with PHC and patients with hepatitis and cirrhosis ,serum GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT levels were significantly higher than healthy people(P<0 .05) .In patients with PHC ,GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT levels were significantly higher than those in patients with hepatitis and cirrhosis(P<0 .05) .The sensitivities of single serum GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT detection were 75% ,72% ,23% ,67% respectively and specificity were 95% ,95% ,100% ,97% respective‐ly .The sensitivity and specificity of the 4 tumor markers′combined detection were 99% and 100% .The sensitivity of combined de‐tection was significantly different from single detection(P<0 .05) .Conclusion GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT may improve the diagnostic efficiency of primary liver cancer .%目的:研究高尔基体蛋白73(GP73)联合甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α‐L岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、α‐抗胰蛋白酶(α‐AT)检测对原发性肝癌诊断的价值。方法选取2011年10月至2013年5月在该院住院及就诊的原发性肝癌、肝炎和肝硬化患者及健康体检者各100例作为研究对象,使用Beckman DxI800化学发光分析仪检测血清AFP水平;用Beckman DxC800全自动生化分析仪检测血清AFU、α‐AT水平;用GP73酶联免疫定量检测试剂盒测定 GP73水平。结果原发性

  9. Radioimmunoassay of serum β2-microglobulin in donor's blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) was tested by radioimmunoassay in 149 donors' and 54 healthy volunteers' blood. The results were 203 +- 33.0 nmol/l and 176 +- 26.2 nmol/l, respectively. There was significant difference statistically between them (P2-MG content. In order to increase the quality of donated blood and to keep the health of blood donor, it is suggested that the high content of serum β2-MG is the indicator of too frequent blood donating. The results also showed that the content of β2-MG in donor's blood is not a normal reference value

  10. Isotopic methods or immuno diagnosis: The Radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work offers an explanation about the more used isotopic techniques for immuno diagnosis: the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). It describes the basic principles of these assays, the antigen-antibody reaction, the radioiodination methods with I-125 for antigens and antibodies, the purification and characterization of labelled compounds. On the order hand they present work gives a review of the methods for separate the bound and free fractions. At the end it offers the principles of the quality control of immunoassay and the future lines of research in the field of RIA and IRMA

  11. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  12. Radioimmunoassay for determination of thyroglobulin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We described the development and analytical evaluation of a radioimmunoassay with double antibody in liquid phase for human serum thyroglobulin determination using a set of reagents produced in the National Institute of Endocrinology. The reference interval for normal population was 5.7 - 44 ng/ml (X± 2DS; n=170). The intra-assay precipision was 8.1 % (control serum A) and 7.0 (control serum B) and the inter-assay precision was 9.1 % (control serum A) and 9.2 % (control serum B). The sensibility was 4.7 ng/ml and the recovery was 95 %

  13. Investigations of serum HPL during pregnancy using two different radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interassay investigations showed that it is absolutely necessary to standardize the HPL antisera as well as the standard sera, as it is otherwise impossible to compare and interpret the findings of different HPL radioimmunoassays. The investigations have shown that in addition to conventional clinical examinations and laboratory test methods (urine estriol determination, DHEAS-dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate test-, urine pregnandiol determination, and determination of heat-resisting alkaline serum phosphatase), HPL concentration determination is a parameter of the nutritive function of the placenta. (orig.)

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for platelet derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with insulin and epidermal growth factor, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the most important and powerful mitogens. The authors developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a double incubation solid phase for human PDGF, in some biological fluids. Immunoglobulins were immobilized via protein A. using purified recombinant protein A at 1 mg/L with monoclonal antibody against human recombinant PDGF (BB) at 1000 fmol/tube, a binding capacity of approx. 17% was obtained. Non-specific binding (NSB%) was 50 ng/mL in 9 of 10 serum samples tested. (author). 18 refs, 8 figs

  15. New method of iodinating collagens for use in radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roll, F.J.; Madri, J.A.; Furthmayr, H.

    1979-07-15

    Purified collagens from a variety of species were iodinated to a high specific activity with the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of /sup 125/I-labeled p-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid (Bolton-Hunter reagent). Labeling had no effect on the immunoreactivity of the collagen as determined by hemagglutination inhibition. This compound presumably acylates the abundant epsilon-amino groups of lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues in the collagen molecule. Using this method it is possible to label pepsin-extracted collagen from which the terminal nonhelical extensions containing tyrosine have been cleaved. The application of Bolton-Hunter-labeled collagens to radioimmunoassay of affinity-purified antibodies against collagen is demonstrated.

  16. Radioimmunoassay for free and bound forms of abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the quanitation of abscisic acid (ABA) has been developed. The assay is extremely sensitive and measuring ranges extend from 10 pg to 10 ng. Although the assay was free of contaminant interference when applied to avocado material, crude extract analysis yielded a composite of free and bound forms of ABA. Equivalents of 20 mg of plant material were spotted onto silica gel plates (GF245 solvent:toluene:ethyl acetate : acetic acid 25:15:3), developed and the relative Rf zones removed and subjected to RIA. The technique was tested on avocados

  17. The development of a general solid-phase radioimmunoassay method. Application to follicle stimulating hormone and to luteinizing hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid phase method of radioimmunoassay utilizing a second antibody adsorbed onto tubes was developed. Polyethylene tubes were selected for their adsorption capacity. The following topics were emphasized: the rate of labelled antigen uptake on the second antibody adsorbed on the tubes through the medium of the first antibody; the influence of the second antibody on the antigen-first antibody reaction and comparison with the immunoprecipiting technique; the various factors able to influence the calibration curve and applications to assay optimization; the performances of hFSH AND hLH assays

  18. Detection and purification of rat and goat immunoglobulin G antibodies using protein G-based solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the newly described streptococcal surface protein, protein G, which has powerful immunoglobulin G binding properties, solid-phase radioimmunoassays were developed for the quantitation of goat and rat immunoglobulin G bound to the plastic surface of microtiter plates. The binding of goat immunoglobulin G to the surface via a specific antigen (guinea pig alpha1-microglobulin) permitted the determination of antigen-specific antibodies with a detection limit of 50-100 ng. Optimum assay conditions were established and the whole assay procedure could be brought to completion at room temperature in less than a working day. The value of the assays was illustrated by monitoring rat and goat immunoglobulin G antibodies during their purification from whole sera by classical chromatographic procedures. (Auth.)

  19. Radioimmunoassay in the evaluation of the hormonal activity of hypophyseal adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, R.Ya.; Kasumova, S.Yu.; Barabanov, V.M. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Nejrokhirurgii; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Morfologii Cheloveka)

    1983-08-01

    Direct correlation was found between the results of a radioimmunoassay electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in cases of STH-secreting and hormonally inactive hypophyseal adenomas. In hyperprolactinemia and a simultaneous increase in the levels of 2 or more hormones the results of the radioimmunoassay coincided with those of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in 50-70% of the cases.

  20. Design and optimization of radioimmunoassay for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and optimization of radioimmunoassay for T4. The results of a radioimmunoassay are influenced by the equipment, the laboratory personnel, the quality of the reagents used and especially by the assay design. A good essay design should yield analytical results with high precision and sensitivity within the desired concentration range and can be performed rapidly and easily at low cost. In order to optimize the assay design for T4 the following parameters were studied: amount and dilution of reagents, incubation temperature and length of time prior to separation, reagent volume and sequence of reagent addition. Optimal results for T4 assay were achieved using 25 ul of T4 standard (or samples), 100 ul of 125I labelled T4 (30,000 cpm) and 100 ul of T4 antiserum (1:200 dilution), incubated at room temperature for 1 hour or at 370C for 45 minutes. The following results were obtained under these conditions: a non specific binding value of (6,8+-0,7)%, a maximum binding (B/T) of (67,8+-2,2)%, a value of (5,0+-0,7)ug/dl for ED50. Results for low medium, and high quality control samples were (1,8+-0,1)ug/dl, (5,6+-0,3)ug/dl, and (14,9+-0,6)ug/dl respectively. (author). 12 figs, 6 refs

  1. Double-antibody radioimmunoassay for factor VIII-related antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma protein required for the support of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was isolated from antihemophilic factor concentrate and radiolabeled with 125I. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed, with use of specific rabbit anti-VIII related antigen serum and goat anti-rabbit globulin. The assay is sensitive, reproducible, and technically simple to perform. Values obtained in normal subjects ranged from 0.65 to 1.53 units, similar to our normal range for VIII coagulant activity (0.67 to 1.43 units). However, normal or increased values of VIII-related antigen were observed in VIII coagulant-deficient hemophiliacs. Also, concentrations of VIII-related antigen significantly exceeded coagulant concentrations in several patients with liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation, or both. Of a broad selection of congenital coagulation disorders examined, only patients with von Willebrand's disease had decreased VIII-related antigen concentrations, and these corresponded to the lowered concentration of ristocetin cofactor in the patients. In three transfused patients, VIII-related antigen values correlated with the concentration of the cofactor. Our results suggest that the radioimmunoassay of VIII-related antigen is a simple and valuable adjunct in the study of patients with clotting abnormalities

  2. Coefficient Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotis Panayides

    2013-01-01

    Heavy reliance on Cronbach’s alpha has been standard practice in many validation studies. However, there seem to be two misconceptions about the interpretation of alpha. First, alpha is mistakenly considered as an indication of unidimensionality and second, that the higher the value of alpha the better. The aim of this study is to clarify these misconceptions with the use of real data from the educational setting. Results showed that high alpha values can be obtained in multidimensional scale...

  3. Development of a new radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin using recombinant erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Beckman, B.S.; Brookins, J.W.; Powell, J.S.; Lanham, W.; Blaisdell, S.; Keay, L.; Li, S.C.; Fisher, J.W. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The development of a 24 hour radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin (EPO) using EPO derived from recombinant DNA as both immunogen and ligand is described in the present paper. Mixed breed rabbits immunized with 10 micrograms/kg of EPO derived from a stably transfected cell line (MD) produced antibodies to EPO with high titer (up to 1:896,000 final dilution in the tube), high affinity (8.4 x 10(11) liter/M), and good specificity. Purified EPO from the above source or from AmGen Biologicals (AG) were successfully radioiodinated with the chloramine-T method and used as ligand in the radioimmunoassay. Standard dose-response curves prepared with EPO from both commercial sources were not significantly different and showed a sensitivity of 0.75 to 0.96 mU/tube. The dose-response curves in both systems also showed parallelism with serially diluted serum from a patient with aplastic anemia. Within-assay and between-assay precision were determined by assaying multiple replicates of a serum pool. Recovery of exogenous EPO added to a serum pool averaged 97% for both systems. The range of normal human serum EPO was determined by assaying the sera of 153 hematologically-normal adult subjects and was found to be 1.1 to 27.3 mU/ml for MD EPO and 0.5 to 16.7 mU/ml for AG EPO. Sera from several patients with hematologic abnormalities were also assayed, including those of 36 patients with anemia of end-stage renal disease (mean +/- SEM, 29.5 +/- 4.0 mU/ml; P less than 0.01). In conclusion, this new, more rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay system can be used to measure EPO levels in sera from normal human subjects and patients with several types of anemia, and should also be very useful in therapeutic drug monitoring of patients receiving EPO from various commercial sources.

  4. Farm application of radioimmunoassay technology in dairy cattle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)

  5. Radioimmunoassay of 17-OH progesterone and its clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using highly sensitive radioimmunoassay method the serum level of 17-OH progesterone is estimated, at 2- or 4-day intervals, in forty-one healthy women with a normal menstrual and ovulatory cycle. The alteration in its concentration is compared with the one of progesterone. It is found that the curve of 17-OH progesterone secretion closely follows the curve of progesterone secretion which may be used as a sign of ovulatory cycle occurrence. The level of 17-OH progesterone is assayed also in three children presenting congenital adrenal hyperplasia and fourteen women with ovarial hyperandrogenism of nontumor origin. It is established that 17-OH progesterone level is considerably raised among the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and may therefore serve as a reliable diagnostic criterion. 17-OH progesterone level in women presenting ovarial hyperandrogenism cannot be used as a diagnostic indicator because its increase is statistically insignificant

  6. Radioimmunoassay of hair for determining opiate-abuse histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroin and morphine metabolites can be detected in hair with the use of commerically available radioimmunoassay reagents and with minor sample preparation. Hair samples obtained from morphine-treated mice and heroin users contained nanogram levels of the drug per milligram of hair (single human hair). The results of the hair analyses for all subjects admitting the use of heroin were positive, whereas the results of only 30% of thin-layer chromatographic urinanalyses of these same subjects were positive. In addition, differences in drug concentration for sections of hair near the scalp and near the distal end correlated with the length of time the drug had been used. These results exemplify the potential advantages of the use of hair analysis over urine and serum analyses in terms of accessibility, sample stability, and long-term retention of information

  7. Radioimmunoassay data processing program for IBM PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medical Applications Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has previously developed several programs for use on the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C programmable calculator to facilitate better quality control in radioimmunoassay through improved data processing. The program described in this document is designed for off-line analysis using an IBM PC (or compatible) for counting data from standards and unknown specimens (i.e. for analysis of counting data previously recorded by a counter), together with internal quality control (IQC) data both within and between batch. The greater computing power of the IBM PC has enabled the imprecision profile and IQC control curves which were unavailable on the HP-41C version. It is intended that the program would make available good data processing capability to laboratories having limited financial resources and serious problems of quality control. 3 refs

  8. Production of biological reagents for radioimmunoassay second antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental production of second antibody to be used in hormonal assays, in which the first antibody is raised in rabbits, is described. Four sheep were immunized with the rabbit immunoglobulin prepared at IPEN-CNEN laboratory. Their antisera were evaluated by the human thyrotropin radioimmunoassay employing materials provided by the National Hormone and Pituitary Program (USA), in comparison with a reference antiserum of known quality, produced in goat by the Radioassay Systems Laboratories - RSL (USA). From the fourth booster injection the animals developed antiserum with titer similar to that exhibited by the commercial product, even presenting higher values. These antisera are now being examinated for the optimal conditions of precipitation before be packed for future use and distribution. (author)

  9. The radioimmunoassay of human placental protein 14 (PP14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of human placental protein 14 in maternal serum is described. The mean concentration of this protein in serum from 22 normal pregnant women showed a decline during the third trimester from 120 μg/l at 27 weeks gestation to 65 μg/l at term. Serum samples from 16 patients with intra-uterine growth retardation tended to contain lower concentrations of placental protein 14, these results reaching significance at weeks 36-38 of gestation. Of seven patients with pre-eclampsia from whom two or more blood samples were taken, four showed increases in concentration of this protein as pregnancy proceeded, compared with the normal pattern of decreasing values. (Auth.)

  10. Radioimmunoassay for trypsin in newborn-screening for cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, J.; Niehaus, C.

    1982-11-01

    In 4,956 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin was measured in dried blood on filter paper using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. About 90% of all results were below 40 ng/ml. In 13 infants the concentration of immunoreactive trypsin exceeded 80 ng/ml. These infants were examined clinically, including sweationtophoresis. We found three children suffering from cystic fibrosis. One further child showing an elevated concentration of chloride in the sweat (60 mval/ml) could not be reexamined. The concentration of immunoreactive trypsin in the cystic fibrosis children was 230, 297, and in one case 108 ng/ml at the 76th day of life, whereas the values for the 9 other children were between 80 and 154 ng/ml. We believe these results justify to use this test for a much higher number of infants, especially because it is inexpensive and can easily be added to existing newborn screening programs for inborn errors of metabolism.

  11. Purification, characterization and development of radioimmunoassay of human liver ribonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human liver ribonuclease (RNase) was purified 3600-fold into an electrophoretically homogeneous state by column chromatography on phosphocellulose, gel filtration, poly(G) affinity chromatography, and heparin affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the RNase estimated by SDS disc electrophoresis was 19500. RNase was a heat- and pH-stable protein, and optimum activity was obtained at pH 7.0. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human liver RNase has been developed and the assay was shown to be sensitive (20 ng/ml), reproducible and specific. A good parallel relationship was observed between the standard curve and the dilution curves for serum and urine. No cross-reactivity was demonstrated between human liver and pancreatic RNase (less than 1%). In 44 normal subjects, the mean serum concentration of liver RNase determined by the RIA was found to be 99.4 ng/ml (SD+-66.3). (Auth.)

  12. The application of radioimmunoassay to diagnosis of liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of serum hyaluronic acid and serum prolactin were determined by radioimmunoassay in patients with liver diseases. The results show that the level of serum hyaluronic acid in patients with CAH or liver cirrhosis is significantly higher than those of normal control subjects. The difference is remarkable (P<0.01). The mean value of patient group gradually increases with the increasing of liver damage. The serum hyaluronic acid can be used as a predictive indicator to diagnose CAH and early liver cirrhosis. In addition, the level of serum prolactin in patients with liver cirrhosis is also much higher than those of normal control subjects. Thus the serum prolactin may be used as an associate biochemical marker for detecting liver cirrhosis. The mechanism of the change of serum hyaluronic acid and prolactin in patients with liver diseases is presented

  13. Radioimmunoassay of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.Y.; Niblock, A.E.; Henderson, A.R.

    1984-08-01

    A description is given of the development of a sensitive, specific radioimmunoassay for the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoenzymes of human aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; EC 2.6.1.1). Isoenzymes from human heart tissue were purified to homogeneity and used to raise high-titer antisera in rabbits. The antisera were partly purified by selective column chromatography. The Bolton-Hunter reagent was used to radioiodinate the isoenzymes. The assay requires 100 microL of serum, includes a solid-phase second-antibody separation, and can be completed in less than 3 h. There was no cross reactivity between the two isoenzymes. As little as 5 micrograms (50 pmol) of each aspartate aminotransferase can be measured per liter of serum.

  14. Standardisation of radioimmunoassay for human insulin employing magnetizable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a convenient and flexible solid phase radioimmunoassay for human insulin employing magnetizable cellulose particles. Anti-porcine insulin antibody was covalently linked to magnetizable cellulose particles to form a stable and economical solid phase immunosorbent system. The tracer was prepared by radioiodinating insulin with 125I using Chloramine-T oxidation method. The analytical sensitivity of assay observed was 5.5 μIU/mL. Intra-assay and inter-assay variations were found to be <12 % along with analytical recovery of 93-109 %. The developed assay can be used for the routine analysis of clinical samples. In addition, concentration of the solid phase magnetizable immunosorbent can be easily varied as per the specific requirement for research purposes. (author)

  15. Measurement of plasma canine C peptide by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for canine C peptide (CCP) was established using synthetic CCP, a specific antiserum, and rabbit anti-guinea pig serum. Radioiodination was performed according to a modified chloramine T method. Tracer preparations have been used for 6 weeks after iodination. The standard curve ranges from 0.028 to 3.0 nmol/l. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3-5% and the inter-assay CV was 6-9% in the optimal range between 0.3 and 0.8 nmol/l. The average recovery of CCP added to plasma samples was 100.6% (n = 9). Canine insulin, porcine proinsulin, bovine proinsulin, and human C peptide exhibited no cross-reactivity. The mean fasting plasma CCP concentration was 0.089 +- 0.021 nmol/l in normal dogs and -0.005 +- 0.007 nmol/l (mean +- SEM) in diabetic dogs, respectively. (author)

  16. Production of antisera for radioimmunoassay of human proinsulin: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In attempt to the production of anti proinsulin antisera for the radioimmunoassay, five guinea pigs received 50 μg of biosynthetic human proinsulin (Eli Lilly and Company, US) injected subcutaneously. Booster injections were administered at 3 weeks intervals and blood was taken 14 days after the injection. Just after the tenth week, three guinea pigs developed antisera with titers of 1:15.000, 1:1.500 and 1:300 and one of them presented titer lower than 1:300. The evaluation of the specificity of those three antisera showed cross-reactivity only with insulin, which antibodies were not sufficiently sensitive for the assay of endogenous proinsulin from healthy subjects, being only suitable for the measurement of circulating proinsulin in patients with hyper proinsulinemia. Alternative schedules of immunization in order to obtain more sensitive antisera are discussed. (author)

  17. Radioimmunoassay of hair for determining opiate-abuse histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A.M.; Jones, P.F.; Baumgartner, W.A.; Black, C.T.

    1979-07-01

    Heroin and morphine metabolites can be detected in hair with the use of commerically available radioimmunoassay reagents and with minor sample preparation. Hair samples obtained from morphine-treated mice and heroin users contained nanogram levels of the drug per milligram of hair (single human hair). The results of the hair analyses for all subjects admitting the use of heroin were positive, whereas the results of only 30% of thin-layer chromatographic urinanalyses of these same subjects were positive. In addition, differences in drug concentration for sections of hair near the scalp and near the distal end correlated with the length of time the drug had been used. These results exemplify the potential advantages of the use of hair analysis over urine and serum analyses in terms of accessibility, sample stability, and long-term retention of information.

  18. A different approach to the radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) was linked to hemocyanin by means of a dinitrophenylene moiety. TRH (pGlu-His-Pro-NH2) was made to react with a large excess of 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene to yield Nsup(im)-[5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl]TRH. After removal of excess reagent the derivative was coupled to hemocyanin with a minimum of side-reactions. From two rabbits out of four immunized with this material valuable antisera were obtained, which were used in the radioimmunoassay of the hypothalamic hormone at a final dilution of 1:7,500 and 1:15,000, respectively. The properties, especially with regard to specificity, of these antisera were studied and compared with another antiserum, which was obtained using a conjugate having TRH linked to thyroglobulin via a p-azophenyl-acetyl moiety. Despite the difference between the derivatives, i.e. the nature and the point of attachment of the side chains, the specificities of the assays were very similar. Deamidation of TRH, deletion of either one of the terminal residues, hydrolysis of the lactam of the pyroglutamyl residue, and replacing Pro-NH2 by Pro-Gly-NH2 or by an octapeptide chain yield peptides with strongly diminished cross-reactivities. However, Nsup(im)-benzyl-TRH and pGlu-Phe-Pro-NH2 were 5-10 times as active as TRH probably due to a closer physico-chemical similarity to the arrangement of the haptens in the conjugates. This suggests that the sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay may be increased markedly by conversion of TRH into the Nsup(im)-dinitrophenyl derivative and by using a related compound for radioiodination. (orig.)

  19. Gene Cloning of Murine α-Fetoprotein Gene and Construction of Its Eukaryotic Expression Vector and Expression in CHO Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易继林; 田耕

    2003-01-01

    To clone the murine α-fetoprotein (AFP) gene, construct the eukaryotic expression vector of AFP and express in CHO cells, total RNA were extracted from Hepa 1-6 cells, and then the murine α-fetoprotein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1. The recombinant of vector was identified by restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing. A fter transient transfection of CHO cells with the vector, Western blotting was used to detect the expression of AFP. It is concluded that the 1.8kb murine α-fetoprotein gene was successfully cloned and its eukaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed.

  20. Is inconsistency of α-fetoprotein level a good prognosticator for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To identify the clinical outcomes of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with inconsistent α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels which were initially high and then low at recurrence.METHODS: We retrospectively included 178 patients who underwent liver resection with high preoperative AFP levels (≥ 200 ng/dL). Sixty-nine HCC patients had recurrence during follow-up and were grouped by their AFP levels at recurrence: group Ⅰ, AFP ≤ 20 ng/dL (n = 16); group Ⅱ, AFP 20-200 ng/dL (n = 24); and group Ⅲ, AFP ≥ 200 n...

  1. Radioimmunoassay for human pancreatic amylase: comparison of human serum amylase by measurement of enzymatic activity and by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human pancreatic amylase has been developed for the determination of human serum amylase content. The assay was shown to be sensitive (7 ng/mI), reproducible and specific, but human pancreatic amylase and salivary amylase could not be distinguished by the antiserum used. In normal subjects, the mean concentration of amylase determined by the RIA was found to be 122.1 ng/ml (range: 55-250 ng/ml). A good correlation was observed between the concentration of amylase and its enzymatic activity in normal subjects. In some instances with high amylase activity, however, the rise in enzymatic activity was not accompanied by increasing amount of amylase content. (Auth.)

  2. Comparison of specific radioactivities of human alpha-lactalbumin iodinated by three different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thean, E.T. ( Monash Medical School, Prahran, Victoria (Australia))

    1990-08-01

    Radioiodination provides an extremely sensitive method for the detection of low levels of proteins. In the development of a sensitive radioimmunoassay for human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), the protein was labeled to high specific activity (approaching 2000 Ci/mmol) with lactoperoxidase, chloramine-T, and Iodogen. Despite high specific activities of the labeled protein by each method, there was a considerable difference in their binding affinity with monoclonal anti-human alpha-LA antibodies due to varying degrees of protein damage. Iodination of human alpha-LA with Iodogen resulted in labels of the highest specific activity and immunoreactivity with the monoclonal antibodies used.

  3. Preparation and characterization of 125I-labelled proinsulin for radioimmunoassay (Preprint No. CT-62)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine proinsulin is iodinated with 125I. The labelled proinsulin was purified over sephadex. The preparation was characterized for stability and immunoreactivity. A radioimmunoassay was standardized using this labelled preparation. (author)

  4. Control of routine radioimmunoassays: a computer program for calculation of control charts for precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program is proposed allowing the automatic calculation of control charts for accuracy and precision. The calculated charts enable the analyst to control easily the daily results for a determined radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  5. Radioimmunoassay for detection of VP1 specific neutralizing antibodies of foot and mouse disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the detection of antibodies against a specific region of the VP1 protein of the A24 and O1 serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus. The antibody titers from the radioimmunoassay showed a positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titers determined by a mouse protection assay. The specificity of the assay resides in the peptide used as antigen. The assay is rapid, reproducible and does not require the use of whole virions. (orig.)

  6. The Predictive Power of Serum α-Fetoprotein and Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin for Survival Varies by Tumor Size in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Daisuke; Fukumoto, Takumi; Kido, Masahiro; Takebe, Atsushi; Tanaka, Motofumi; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Koyama, Tatsuki; Ku, Yonson

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) are frequently used as tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The authors hypothesized different patient populations with varying tumor sizes would influence the predictive power of tumor markers for survival in HCC patients. The authors investigated the influence of tumor size on predictive powers of AFP and DCP. 181 patients underwent hepatectomy for HCC from 2003 to 2008 at Kobe University Hospital. Tumor markers were measured before and at 1 month post-hepatectomy. The Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that preoperative serum AFP was associated with survival; its effects depended on tumor size. Hazard ratios (HRs) for preoperative AFP were maximum for medium-sized HCC, and for DCP, HRs were maximum in small-sized tumors. Post-hepatectomy, both tumor markers were associated with survival, revealing significant interactions with tumor size. HRs for postoperative AFP were greater than 1 for relatively wide range tumors (3-11 cm). HRs for postoperative DCP increased with tumor size, with a strong prognostic predictive power for tumors >5 cm. The predictive power of serum tumor markers varied by tumor size in HCC patients. By selecting the appropriate tumor marker, its predictive power can be improved. PMID:27363395

  7. Specific radioimmunoassay of human β-endorphin in unextracted plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an antiserum against human β-endorphin (β-EP) crossreacting <2% with human β-lipotropin (β-LPH) by weight we have developed a radioimmunoassay that can detect 1 pg β-EP in diluted raw plasma. In a.m. fasting plasma of 14 normal subjects β-EP ranged from <5 to 45 pg/ml. β-EP was elevated in untreated, but normal in successfully treated Cushing's disease; undetectable in a patient with adrenal adenoma; extremely high in Nelson's syndrome; and elevated in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma before, but undetectable after tumor resection. In subjects with intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, β-EP was undectectable after dexamethasone and increased after metyrapone administration and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. β-EP concentration was considerably lower in serum than in simultaneously collected plasma, but increased in serum left unfrozen for several hours after clot removal. Thus, β-EP behaves like a hormone responding to the same stimuli as ACTH and β-LPH and blood appears to contain enzymes both generating and destroying immunoreactive β-EP

  8. Radioimmunoassay for plasma corticotropin in frogs (Rana esculenta L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay technique has been developed for measuring frog plasma corticotropin (ACTH) without prior extraction. Using synthetic porcine ACTH as a reference standard, 131I-labeled synthetic human ACTH (sp act greater than 500 mCi/mg) as tracer and rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum, the lower measurable value was estimated at about 4 pg ACTH. Only human and porcine ACTH, ACTH, and frog pituitary ACTH reacted with the rabbit anti-porcine ACTH serum. No cross-reactivity has been found with synthetic ACTH, αMSH, and bovine βMSH. Appearance of damaged 131I-h ACTH components after storage in plasma solutions was followed for 7 days. The conditions making it possible to reduce ACTH damage have been ascertained. The average plasma corticotropin level (+- CI) was found to be 38.8 +- 7.8 pg/ml without any significant difference between males and females. These results suggest that frog ACTH secretion has much in common with mammalian secretions

  9. Laboratory training manual on radioimmunoassay in animal reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproduction must always be regarded as one of the major limiting factors in animal production and many of the modern methods for improving reproduction rely heavily on the ability to measure hormone levels in blood and milk. This has produced a world-wide demand for laboratory facilities to carry out hormone assays and the need for specialist training to allow these assays to be undertaken. The need to measure nanogram and picogram quantities and the use of radionuclides require a good deal of skill and care and this Manual has been prepared to aid training and provide the sort of information that rarely appears in scientific papers. It represents a further step in the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's series of Laboratory Training Manuals, and has been designed to aid training programmes of the type carried out during the Joint FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on Radioimmunoassay and its Application in Research on Animal Reproduction at Cornell University in July 1982. Many of the laboratory exercises described in this Manual are based on those conducted during the course

  10. A radioimmunoassay for lignin in plant cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignin detection and determination in herbaceous tissue requires selective, specific assays which are not currently available. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to study lignin metabolism in these tissues. A β-aryl ether lignin model compound was synthesized, linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin using a water-soluble carbodiimide, and injected into rabbits. The highest titer of the antiserum obtained was 34 ηg/mL of model derivatized BSA. An in vitro system was developed to characterize the RIA. The model compound was linked to amino activated polyacrylamide beads to mimic lignin in the cell walls. 125I Radiolabelled protein A was used to detect IgG antibody binding. The RIA was shown in the in vitro system to exhibit saturable binding. The amount of antibody bound decreased when the serum was diluted. Immunoelectrophoresis and competitive binding experiments confirmed that both aromatic rings of the lignin model compound had been antigenic. Chlorogenic acid, a phenolic known to be present in plant cells, did not compete for antibody binding. The RIA was used to measure lignin in milled plant samples and barley seedlings. Antiserum binding to wheat cell walls and stressed barley segments was higher than preimmune serum binding. Antibody binding to stressed barley tissue decreased following NaClO2 delignification. The RIA was found to be less sensitive than expected, so several avenues for improving the method are discussed

  11. An Interlaboratory study of lipid effects on steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid effects on the performances of routine steroid radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been assessed using the scheme of the CNR interlaboratory quality control program. Cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assays have been considered. In the study, ca 80 laboratories were supplied with two sets of control plasma samples with different triglyceride contents (pool N, ca 120 mg/dl; pool L, ca 310 mg/dl), each corresponding to three steroid levels (level 0: charcoaldeprived samples; levels 1 and 2: the same added with increasing steroid amounts). A comparison of the neat results obtained by partecipants for both levels 1 and 2 of N and P panels - after subtraction of the concentrations estimated for level 0 - gave a direct information on lipid effects (triglycerides being assumed as an index of lipemia). In no case the abnormality high triglyceride content proved effective in practical terms, though significant differences were observed for testosterone and progesterone (ca 10% underestimation in pool L) and for estradiol (ca 10% overestimation in pool L)

  12. Radioimmunoassay of fibrinopeptide A: Modifications of technique and clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1971 Nossel and coworkers developed a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for the determination of plasma concentration of fibrinopeptide A. Our own experience gained using this test is reported here as well as a number of improvements in methodology which have not only led to a shortening of the whole test procedure to one day but also to greater ease of handling. The modifications concern a gel adsorption procedure for the extraction of FPA from defibrinated plasma samples, the double antibody method for separating free and antibody-bound tracer-phase in assay and automatic evaluation of test results with the aid of a suitable computer programme. Considerations concerning the specificity of conclusions drawn from the test, in particular the necessity of keepin gout interfering plasmin-induced fibrinogen break-down products, play an important role in all changes of methodology. An attempt was made to define a normal range for FPA-plasma levels and a mean value of 1.51 ng/ml at a standard deviation of 0.69 ng/ml was obtained from 42 clinically healthy test patients. Pathologically evaluated FPA-levels were regularly found in patients with septic or thrombotic illness. (orig./MG)

  13. Development and clinical application of human gastrin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of human gastrin levels in the blood is very important for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. This work describes the radioimmunoassay of gastrin developed according to Russell et al. and its clinical application measuring fasting levels of this hormone in normal subjects, gastrectomized, chagasics, patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), pernicious anemia (PA) and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Synthetic human gastrin was used for radioiodination and as standard, while the specific antibody was raised in rabbits. Gastrin was radioiodinated by a modification of the chloramine T technique and purified by anion exchange chromatography in QAE-Sephadex A-25 to a specific activity around 200 uCi/ug. The assays were performed by incubation of 125I-gastrin, standard gastrin (zero to 500 pmol/l) or unknown samples with the antiserum for 4 days at 40C. The antibody bound and free 125 I-gastrin was separated by adsorption of the latter to the charcoal. The basal gastrin values of normal subjects ranged from 2 to 74 pmol/l, being these levels higher in the chagasics (from 6 to 261 pmol/l). Higher levels of gastrin were determined in patients with CRF (from 12 to 350 pmol/l), PA (from 160 to 680 pmol/l) and with ZES(1010 pmol/l), while very low levels were confirmed in gastrectomized (from 1 to 8 pmol/l). (author)

  14. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation. Versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of the efficient steroid-separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM) and the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstanedione, androsterone and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol in 1- to 2-ml samples of both blood serum and amniotic fluid as well as in 300- to 600-mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyser, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and has decreased the experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (author)

  15. Specific and direct proinsulin radioimmunoassay for the evaluation of insulinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a highly specific human proinsulin (hPI) radioimmunoassay (RIA) developed by using biosynthetic hPI as immunogen, standard and tracer. Proinsulin was radioiodinated by the iodogen method and purified on QAE-Sephadex A-25 to a specific activity of 6.5 MBq/μg. The antiserum was raised in a guinea pig and then adsorbed against insulin and C-peptide conjugate to Sepharose to improve its specificity. The range of the standard curve extended from 0.004 to 16 pmol/mL, with a 50% displacement between 0.19-0.26 pmol/mL and the minimal detectable concentration between 0.01-0.04 pmol/mL. This sensitive and specific RIA proved suitable for measurements of serum hPI concentrations in patients with insulinomas, which levels ranged from 0.11 to 1.80 pmol/mL (n = 8). (author). 18 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  16. Radioimmunoassay for C-peptide in diabetic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct insulin radioimmunoassay (RIA) studies in a diabetic are no longer meaningful once insulin therapy has been instituted. For this reason, use is made of RIA for blood C-peptide, a proinsulin component reflecting endogenous insulin secretion independently of insulin therapy. The paper reports experience with C-peptide RIA studies carried out on blood from 273 diabetic children of normal body weight and 11.3 years average age, as well as 31 healthy children (control group). Diabetes duration ranged from 7 days to 14 years. The basic level of C-peptide in diabetic children is lower than that of healthy ones. Glucose stimulation produces C-peptide elevation in healthy but not in diabetic children. Glucagon stimulation produced a further rise of blood C-peptide in the healthy children. Diabetics showed very modest response to glucagon stimulation. C-peptide secretion in diabetic children proved to be inversely proportional to the duration of the diabetes. These findings in children with diabetes mellitus indicated their insulin secretion by beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans to be substantially decreased and unresponsive to glucose and glucagon stimulation. 3 figs, 1 tab

  17. Radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of atypical form of thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livshits, G.Ya.

    1984-11-01

    Fifty-six patients with ''unmotivated'' disorder of the cardiac rhythm were examined. A combined radionuclide study including a study of iodoabsorptive function with a standard technique, thyroid visualization and determination of the thyroxin, triiodothyronine level in the blood serum with the radioimmunoassay using standard diagnostic kits, was conducted, Latent thyroid hyperfunction was revealed in 24 patients (42.8%). Study of iodoabsorptive function revealed pathological changes in 8 patients only, whereas raaioimmunoassay revealed a significant elevation of the peripheral thyroid hormone level as compared to that of the control group in 24 patients. The conclusion is that patients with ''unmotivated'' disorder of the cardiac rhythm often suffer from latent thyrotoxicosis which is the main etiological factor and trigger mechanism of arrhythmias. In such a situation they are the only clinical symptom of thyrotoxicosis that makes it possible to regard this form of disease as monosymptomatic. The early detection of the cause of cardiac rhythm disorder and the prescription of pathogenetic thyrostatic therapy resulted in the return of the cardiac cycle rate to normal in all the patients with sinus tachycardia and prevented relapses of the paroxysmal forms of rhythm disorder.

  18. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  19. Beta 2-Microglobulin clearance as measured by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.

    1980-07-01

    We describe a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 mu) in serum and urine. We incubated aliquots of diluted samples at room temperature for 1 h with /sup 125/I-labeled beta 2 mu and a rabbit antiserum monospecific for human beta 2 mu, and separated the phases by the double-antibody technique. The logit-log transformed dose-response curve was linear in the range 2 to 64 ng, equivalent to 0.5 to 16 mg/L of serum and 0.5 to 320 mg/L of urine. Assay sensitivity was 2.4 ng of beta 2 mu. Validation studies included tests of precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 25 normal individuals, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 mg/L and 40 to 360 micrograms/24 h; the clearance of beta 2 mu was 8 to 130 microL/min. In 21 renal allograft recipients tested one to five weeks after transplantation, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 mg/L and 7.2 to 611 mg/24 h; beta 2 mu clearance was 0.60 to 33.3 mL/min. Values for both serum and urine correlated well with severity of allograft rejection.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for immunolobulin G in serum and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.

    1979-12-01

    We describe a radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and urine. Aliquots of diluted samples and /sup 125/I-labeled IgG were incubated in antibody-coated tubes at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the supernates were decanted, and the radioactivity in tubes containing the bound fraction was counted. The dose-response curve in the range of 0.4-500 mg/L of urine or 640-40 000 mg/L of serum was linear on logit-log transformation and iterative weighted regression. Assay sensitivity was 10 ng of IgG. Validation studies included testing for precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 14 apparently normal individuals, serum IgG = 4.0-10.9 gL, urine IgG = 1.1-4.8 mg/24 h, and IgG clearance = 0.2 x 10/sup -4/ to 4.8 x 10/sup -4/ mL/min. In 20 patients with renal allografts, serum IgG = 15.8-66 g/L, urine IgG = 9.6-626 mg/24 h, and IgG clearance = 9 x 10/sup -4/ to 1.99 x 10/sup -1/ mL/min. IgG values correlate well with severity of renal allograft rejection.

  1. An Evaluation by TSH Radioimmunoassay on Familial Thyroid Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of thyroid disorders is connected with iodine deficiency, defective synthesis or releasing of thyroid hormone and endemicity. Genetic factors are known as a single gene defects, interaction of multiple genes with environmental factors, as well as chromosomal aberrations. Diofnosis thyroid disorders is enforced by 13I uptake test, thyroid scanning with 131I or 99mTc and serum radioimmunoassays of T3, T4, free T4 and TSH. They were largely classified as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, simple goiter and normal. The pedigree of 58 families was drawn by propositus, and then the correlation between thyroid disorders and TSH levels was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) The offsprings and their mothers of 15 families were hypothyroidism, THS level was 5 folds for offsprings and 4 folds for mothers in comparison with control group. 2) 13 families were hyperthyroidism in siblings but their mothers were normal in thyroid function, TSH level of the siblings was lower than control group. 3) Though the offsprings and their mothers of 10 families were similar to TSH level of control group, they are all simple goiter, familial thyroid disorders, in other thyroid function test. The familial thyroid disorders suggested that these transmitted from mothers to offsprings with X-linked dominant or autosomal dominant inheritance.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of pepsinogens I and Ⅱin human serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoZhi-Jian; JiangMeng-Jun; 等

    1998-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay(RIA) for pepsinogens I and II(PGI and II)in serum is developed by using the purified PG I and II from human gastric mucosa.The assay range was 8-2560644g/L for PG I and 2-640644g/L for PGⅡ,the sensitivity was 1.3 and 0.6μg/L,respectively.The reproducibilities of PGI-RIA(106.9%) and PGⅡ-RIA(106.7%)are quite well.The within-and detween-assay coefficient of variation(CV) of each RIA was 5.1% and 6.3% for PGI,7.2% and 8.9% for PGⅡ,The serum PG Ⅰlevel in healthy volunteer was 60.41±14.98μg/L(mean±SD).significantly higher than the serum PGⅡ level which was 20.70±9.64μg/L.Therefore,the PGI-RIA and PGⅡ-RIA are useful tools in studying the relation between serum pepsinogen levels and various peptic disorders.

  3. Association of liver inflammation with alpha-fetoprotein and treatment response in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Samar Samir Youssef; Sameh Mohamed Seif

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) or liver inflammation resulting from infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of chronic liver disease and leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The burden of chronic HCV-related liver disease in Egypt continues to rise and the interaction of liver inflammation with biomarkers and response to therapy is scarcely discussed. Moreover, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) is considered as a moderately accurate test for indicating liver infl...

  4. Primary intracranial germ cell tumor with abnormal high value of alpha-fetoprotein after the radiation therapy. Report of case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Mabuchi, Shouji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Nishio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    A 7-year-old boy was admitted to Hokkaido University Hospital complaining of headache and vomiting. On admission he was slightly confused and presented Parinaud's sign. CT scan revealed abnormal high density mass with contrast enhancement effect at the pineal region and obstructive hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies showed the normal value of human chorionic gonadotropin and no trace of alphafetoprotein. Germinoma was most suspected based on the findings of CT scan and laboratory studies. The radiation therapy was carried out for a month and CT scan taken after the radiation therapy revealed marked reduction of the size of the tumor at the pineal region, and he was discharged. But he was re-admitted 3 months after the discharge complaining of headache and vomitting again. CT scan showed the recurrence of the tumor and laboratory studies showed abnormal high value of A.F.P. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the sub-occipital craniectomy was performed by the Stein's approach, and the tumor was removed. Pathologically the tumor was a typical yolk sac tumor. This case is a very interesting case because it suggests an alternation of the element of the germ cell tumor by the radiation therapy. At first admission, germinoma was the main element of the tumor judging from the effectiveness of the radiation therapy and laboratory studies. But the main element of the tumor seemed to have changed to yolk sac tumor after the radiation therapy. The relation between the tumor markers and the types of the germ cell tumor and histopathological characters of the intracranial germ cell tumor were discussed.

  5. Gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang Wool Eom; So-Youn Jung; Hongman Yoon; Myeong-Cherl Kook; Keun Won Ryu; Jun Ho Lee; Young-Woo Kim

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma .A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer that was detected during screening by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Initial laboratory data showed the increased serum level of AFP and EGD revealed a 5-cm ulcerofungating mass in the greater curvature of the gastric antrum.The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth Ⅱ gastrojejunostomy. Histopathological evaluation confirmed double primary gastric cancer: gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma. At 2 wk postoperatively, his human chorionic gonadotropin and AFP levels had reduced and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were initiated. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed at 4 years postoperatively.

  6. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  7. Serum Aminoglycoside Assay by Enzyme-Mediated Immunoassay (EMIT): Correlation with Radioimmunoassay, Fluoroimmunoassay, and Acetyltransferase and Microbiological Assays

    OpenAIRE

    White, L O; Scammell, L. M.; Reeves, D S

    1981-01-01

    Enzyme-mediated immunoassay (EMIT) serum aminoglycoside assay results were accurate and precise and correlated well with radioimmunoassay, fluoroimmunoassay, and acetyltransferase and microbiological assay determinations.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone: characterization of a monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of cell-hybridization techniques by Koehler and Milstein in 1975 to produce monoclonal antibodies (MA) was a definite improvement in methodological tools of radioimmunoassay, quite apart from all other applications of this technique in immunohistochemistry, affinity chromatography, target-directed drug delivery systems etc. MAs would ideally be suited in RIAs, when the specificity is the crucial aspect of the determination. However, for reasons which are not completely understood, assays with MAs very often lack the attribute of being highly sensitive. Despite several reports in the literature on MAs against human growth hormone (HGH), none of these seem sensitive enough to be of use in clinical chemistry, where a too strongly marked specificity may even be unwanted. However, from the scientific point of view, MAs against polypeptide hormones are of great interest. An MA to HGH was developed with a sensitivity limit of 0.2 ng. The titre of the ascites fluid is higher than 1:106 and the specificity against human placental lactogen, human prolactin and rat growth hormone is nearly complete. A critical step of the RIA procedure is the separation of bound and free hormone. A combination of human immunoglobulin (Sandoglobulin) with polyethylene glycol gives optimal results. A Scatchard plot reveals an affinity constant of 4x10-11M-bar and a maximal binding capacity of 2x108cpm/μL. In conclusion, our monoclonal antibody represents an excellent investigational tool for endocrine research and it seems to be the most sensitive and specific MA to HGH described to date. However, for practical clinical applications, there seems to be little advantage of an MA over a conventional polyclonal antiserum. (author)

  9. Quantification of rat kisspeptin using a novel radioimmunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Kinsey-Jones

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin is a hypothalamic peptide hormone that plays a pivotal role in pubertal onset and reproductive function. Previous studies have examined hypothalamic kisspeptin mRNA expression, either through in situ hybridisation or real-time RT-PCR, as a means quantifying kisspeptin gene expression. However, mRNA expression levels are not always reflected in levels of the translated protein. Kisspeptin-immunoreactivity (IR has been extensively examined using immunohistochemistry, enabling detection and localisation of kisspeptin perikaya in the arcuate nucleus (ARC and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV. However, quantification of kisspeptin-IR remains challenging. We developed a specific rodent radioimmunoassay assay (RIA capable of detecting and quantifying kisspeptin-IR in rodent tissues. The RIA uses kisspeptin-10 as a standard and radioactive tracer, combined with a commercially available antibody raised to the kisspeptin-10 fragment. Adult female wistar rat brain samples were sectioned at 300 µm and the ARC and AVPV punch micro-dissected. Brain punches were homogenised in extraction buffer and assayed with rodent kisspeptin-RIA. In accord with the pattern of kisspeptin mRNA expression, kisspeptin-IR was detected in both the ARC (47.1±6.2 fmol/punch, mean±SEM n = 15 and AVPV (7.6±1.3 fmol/punch, mean±SEM n = 15. Kisspeptin-IR was also detectable in rat placenta (1.26±0.15 fmol/mg. Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that hypothalamic kisspeptin-IR had the same elution profile as a synthetic rodent kisspeptin standard. A specific rodent kisspeptin-RIA will allow accurate quantification of kisspeptin peptide levels within specific tissues in rodent experimental models.

  10. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  11. Development of radioimmunoassay system for osteocalcin and applications in clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed an in-house, heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) system for human osteocalcin (Oc) using bovine OC as antigen, reference preparation and tracer and separation with polyethylene glycol (PEG). This RIA system is based on a satisfactory cross-reaction of antibovine serum with human Oc. The standard curve doses ranged between 1.5 and 6.0 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (%CV), from 20 batches, were 5-7% and 10-15%, respectively. This Oc-RIA system was applied to estimate the normality range in human subjects of both sexes, aged 1 to 70 years. In children and adolescents high Oc values and rather large variations between individuals were found. The OC serum levels decrease in young and adult subjects but increase significantly through decades seven and eight (p < 0.001) possibly due to the osteoporotic processes in the aged. Children and adolescents of both sexes with longitudinal growth deficiency (n = 318) were submitted to the insulin stimulation test (IST). According to the human growth hormone (hGH) increase in their sera they were grouped as responders or non-responders. The Oc measured in basal conditions showed non-significant differences between these two groups except at the age of 10 years (p < 0.01): the hGH responder group presented the peak increase earlier than the hGH non-responder group, with the peak values at the age of 13 years. Further, the serum Oc variations were followed in the sera of three patients diagnosed as having parathyroid adenoma. The results showed that high pre-operatory Oc levels increased a short time after surgery (patients No. 1) and decreased slowly thereafter (patient No. 2) or increased (patient No. 3). The serum Oc is a sensitive marker of bone growth in normal children and in children with growth deficiency. It may be used as an indicator of osteoporosis in aged subjects and may occasionally replace parathormone measurement. However, in interpreting an Oc-RIA result

  12. Electrochemical Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for α-Fetoprotein Based on Glucose Detection with Multienzyme-Nanoparticle Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Gan; Bo Li; Li Lin; Bo Situ; Han-Kun Zhou; Xiao-Mao Yin; Xiao-Hui Yan; Qin-Lan Liu; Lei Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Since glucose biosensors are one of the most popular and widely used point-of-care testing devices, a novel electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for protein biomarkers has been developed based on a glucose detection strategy. In this study, α-fetoprotein (AFP) was used as the target protein. An electrochemical ELISA system was constructed using anti-AFP antibodies immobilized on microwell plates as the capture antibody (Ab1) and multi-label bioconjugates as signal tracer....

  13. Fe3O4/Au magnetic nanoparticle amplification strategies for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alfa-fetoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ning Gan1*, Haijuan Jin1*, Tianhua Li1, Lei Zheng21The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to devise a novel electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of alfa-fetoprotein based on Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles as a carrier using a multienzyme amplification strategy.Methods and results: Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved using bioconjugates containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP and a secondary antibody (Ab2 linked to Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles (Fe3O4/Au-HRP-Ab2 at a high HRP/Ab2 ratio. After a sandwich immunoreaction, the Fe3O4/Au-HRP-Ab2 captured on the electrode surface produced an amplified electrocatalytic response by reduction of enzymatically oxidized hydroquinone in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The high content of HRP in the Fe3O4/Au-HRP-Ab2 could greatly amplify the electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current increased with increasing alfa-fetoprotein concentration in the sample, and exhibited a dynamic range of 0.005–10 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL.Conclusion: The amplified immunoassay developed in this work shows good precision, acceptable stability, and reproducibility, and can be used for detection of alfa-fetoprotein in real samples, so provides a potential alternative tool for detection of protein in the laboratory. Furthermore, this immunosensor could be regenerated by simply using an external magnetic field.Keywords: Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles, alfa-fetoprotein, sandwich immunoassay, electrochemical immunosensor

  14. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  15. What type of statistical model to choose for the analysis of radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current techniques used for statistical analysis of radioimmunoassays are not very satisfactory for either the statistician or the biologist. They are based on an attempt to make the response curve linear to avoid complicated computations. The present article shows that this practice has considerable effects (often neglected) on the statistical assumptions which must be formulated. A more strict analysis is proposed by applying the four-parameter logistic model. The advantages of this method are: the statistical assumptions formulated are based on observed data, and the model can be applied to almost all radioimmunoassays

  16. The use of the radioimmunoassay for detection of diethylstilbestrol in fecal samples of fattened calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fecal samples of fattened calves is described. The antibody used in this test showed no cross reactions with natural estrogens or other steroids. Blank values (fecal samples without DES) varied between 0 an 4,9 ng DES-equivalent/g sample. The distribution of blank values shows the significant proof of existence of DES in concentrations above 10 ng/g sample. The method has been applied for the control of living calves at the producer. Examples of illegal DES applications are given. The described radioimmunoassay is suitable for routine analysis as a control for illegal estrogen treatment. (orig.)

  17. Specific antiserum to Leu-enkephalin and its use in a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the preparation of an immunogenic protein-conjugate of Leu-enkephalin and the specificity of an antiserum generated to this antigen in rabbits. Such an antiserum, when used in a radioimmunoassay as described herein, should provide a useful tool for studying the role of both Leu- and Met-enkephalin in the 'Pain Pathway'. According to a recent hypothesis, enkephalin levels in the central nervous system should determine not only the pain threshold but phenomena such as tolerance, physical dependence and the withdrawl syndrome as well. From this respect, the importance of a radioimmunoassay is obvious

  18. IN VITRO CELL CULTURE AND HORMONE RADIOIMMUNOASSAY OF HUAMAN PITUITARY ADENOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汉魁; 林祥通; 等

    1994-01-01

    Tissues from 30 human pituitary adenomas are monolayer-cell-cultured in vitro.Hormone secretion of GH,PRL,TSH,LH and FSH by cells into medium is detected by radioimmunoassay .The pattern and amount of hormone(s0 in the medium are used to determine the nature of the cells and thus to establish functional classification of pituitary adenomas.The results show that cell culture technique provides and easy and suitable mode for investigating the nature of pituitary adenomas.Hormone radioimmunoassay of culture medium is precise and reliable and represents the whole adenoma tissue.Further studies can lead to clearer understandngs of the pathology of pituitary adenomas.

  19. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  20. Maternal Serum α-Fetoprotein Screening for the Detection of Neural Tube Defects—Report of a Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Barbara F.; Robertson, Robert D.; Lebherz, Thomas B.; King, William; Schroth, Phillip C.

    1983-01-01

    We tested 10,715 low-risk pregnancies in a voluntary maternal serum α-fetoprotein screening program for the detection of neural tube defects in California. In all, 5.3 percent of women had one elevated serum level, 3.3 percent were referred for sonography and 1.5 percent for amniocentesis. There were 12 cases of open neural tube defects (1.1 per 1,000); all of the mothers had one elevated serum αfetoprotein level: nine (75 percent) completed the protocol and the neural tube defects were correctly identified. No normal pregnancies were terminated. The risk of an open neural tube defect occurring was about 1 in 50 after the first abnormal serum level and 1 in 15 at amniocentesis. We found significantly increased risk for fetal death and low birth weight after one elevated serum α-fetoprotein level, though the likelihood of a normal pregnancy outcome was about 80 percent. Maternal serum screening was also useful in identifying twin pregnancies and correcting underestimated gestational dates. PMID:6191442

  1. Cholangiolocellular carcinoma with rapid progression initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, Tomoaki; Kato, Tatsushi; Hirohata, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yuya; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) is a rare malignant liver tumor derived from hepatic progenitor cells, which exist in the canals of Hering. We encountered a case of CoCC with an extremely poor clinical course, initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein (AFP). A 72-year-old male presented with a liver tumor and abnormally elevated serum AFP levels (16,399 ng/ml). We preoperatively diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma and performed extended right hepatectomy, after which the serum AFP levels remarkably decreased to 97 ng/ml. Postoperatively, the disease was pathologically diagnosed as CoCC. Furthermore, immunohistochemical pathological findings were alcian blue negative, cytokeratin (CK) 7 partially positive, CK19 positive, hepatocyte paraffin-1 negative, membranous negative for epithelial membrane antigen, and AFP negative. Fifty-five days later, intra- and extrahepatic recurrence developed, and the patient died 65 days after surgery. Although CoCCs show favorable outcomes, these characteristics of our case were not previously reported. It is necessary to accumulate more information on CoCC. PMID:27363839

  2. α-Fetoprotein-producing ovarian tumor in a postmenopausal woman with germ cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Shiori; Yasuda, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    α-Fetoprotein (AFP)-producing ovarian tumors (APOTs) are rarely encountered in postmenopausal women, irrespective of whether they are of the germ cell or non-germ cell type. The APOTs that do occur in postmenopausal women are characterized by variable histologies such as hepatoid carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and epithelial malignancies, most of which are combined. We herein present a case with APOT, which arose in a 58-year-old, gravida 2, para 2, postmenopausal woman. Preoperatively, the tumor, which was in the right ovary, was found to produce AFP (102768.0 ng/mL). The tumor was evenly composed of glands mimicking secretory endometrial gland or fetal gut accompanied by abundant stroma. Immunohistochemically, these glands were positive for SALL4, glypican-3, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β. We considered the present case as an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma with adenofibroma showing germ cell differentiation, but it seemed controversial that this tumor should be designated as a yolk sac tumor of the glandular type. The expression profiles of SALL4, OCT4, glypican-3, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β were thought to provide interesting implications to characterize the present case. PMID:22056036

  3. 亲和层析微柱法测定肝癌特异性AFP及其在肝癌诊断中的临床价值%Quantitative analysis of hepatoma-specific α-fetoprotein (HS-AFP) by a new mini-column affinity chromatography and its clinical value in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wu; Dengfu Yao; Liwei Qiu; Xiaoxiao Gu; Xinhua Wu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish a convenient and economic method to determine hepatoma-specific α-fetoprotein (HS-AFP) for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: HS-AFP from serum of HCC patients was separated by a mini-column Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)-affinity chromatography. The levels of serum total AFP and separated HS-AFP were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Circulating AFP was separated into three peaks (AFP-1, AFP-2, and AFP-3) by LCA-affinity chromatography. During the elution course, the AFP-1 and AFP-2 could be eluted with TE buffer. HS-AFP (AFP-3) from sera of HCC patients was eluted dearly on the LCA-sepharose gel mini-column with a solution containing a-methyl-D-mannoside. It was a part of total AFP and only found in sera of HCC patients. A ratio of more than 15% for HS-AFP to total AFP in serum was considered as a specific marker for HCC diagnosis with higher sensitivity (92.7%) and specificity(88.2%). Conclusion: The new assay for circulating HS-AFP analysis is more sensitive, repeatable, and convenient. Its clinical application would be useful to early diagnosis of HCC.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of plasma corticotropin in the edible Frog Rana esculenta L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the green Frog (Rana esculenta) the plasma contains a polypeptide immunologically related to human and porcine corticotropins. A radioimmunoassay capable of detecting 4.10-12 g hog ACTH has been used for a direct plasma ACTH assay in the Frog. Using this method the ACTH rate was determined both in untreated frogs and in animals under various experimental conditions

  5. Radioimmunoassay measurement of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in cows during machine milking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R.; Wehowsky, G.; Schulz, J.; Schulze, H.; Bothur, D. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Koerperkultur und Sport, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic); Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin)

    1982-07-01

    The response of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin to machine milking in cows was studied by radioimmunoassay. Depending on the method of machine milking used, plasma oxytocin increased to a greater or lesser degree after teat cup application. Plasma vasopressin was not affected by the milking procedures.

  6. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in rats as determined by radioimmunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerlink, T.; Krift, T.P. van der; Post, M.; Wirtz, K.W.A.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein from rat liver was used to measure levels of PC-transfer protein in rat tissues. The assay as described before (Teerlink T., Poorthuis B.J.H.M., Van der Krift T.P. and Wirtz K.W.A., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 665 (1981) 74–80) was modified

  7. Automated approach to radioimmunoassays of somatotropin (human growth hormone) and insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation of human somatotropin and insulin assays to the automated Centria radioimmunoassay system [Clin. Chem. 21, 1305 (1975)] is reported. For the somatotropin assay, reaction conditions include a borate/bovine serum albumin buffer (pH 8.4) and a 20-h incubation at 40C. Assay results for clinical samples compared favorably (correlation coefficient = 0.930) with values obtained from a reference laboratory. The means determined for 92 patients' samples were 4.3 μg/liter (reference laboratory) and 5.1 μg/liter (Centria). Intra- and inter-run precision ranged from 3.2 to 15.9%. For the insulin assay, a phosphate/bovine serum albumin buffer (pH 7.4) is used, with a 20-h incubation at 40C. Previously analyzed insulin samples from a reference laboratory were determined by the Centria analyzer with excellent correlation (r = 0.965). Means for patients' samples were 43.0 milli (USP) units of insulin per liter (reference laboratory) and 47.5 milliunits of insulin per liter (Centria). In both assays an anionicexchange gel is used in the separation step. The criterion of parallelism, an indication of the validity of a radioimmunoassay, was satisfied in both assays. The Centria radioimmunoassay system offers the advantage of automating all the critical steps of these radioimmunoassays

  8. Preparation of iodine - 125 - labeled insulin for radioimmunoassay: comparison of chloramine T and iodogen iodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoichiometric iodination of porcine insulin was performed to the general method of Hunter and Greenwood with modifications recommended by Roth. These method was compared with radioidination using Iodogen. Films of Iodogen react rapidly in the solid phase with aqueous mixtures of I -and proteins. For two methods satisfactory activity of the labeled porcine insulin was obtained and characteristics of the radioimmunoassay were studied. (author)

  9. Improvements in the labelling technique of human proinsulin for radioimmunoassay use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the labelling technique of human proinsulin were done viewing the attainment of a tracer with a higher specific activity (SA) and consequently a increasing in the radioimmunoassay sensitivity: employment of polypropylene vials recovered with Iodogen dissolved in dichloromethane and evaporates used up to 15 months and the tracers showed high SA and purity, with a shelf-live of a months. (author)

  10. Radioimmunoassay in situ used to detect products of cloning mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA and clinical micro samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the recombinants, which constructed in the laboratory, using plasmids as vector, one strain which express antigen of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by detecting in situ radioimmunoassay was obtained. The authors detected 7 children samples which were throat washing liquids of children suspected of atypical pneumoniae, 4 of them positive by using above method. This data indicated that it was suitable for clinical diagnosis directly

  11. Radioimmunoassay in the evaluation of the hormonal activity of hypophyseal adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct correlation was found between the results of a radioimmunoassaly electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in cases of STH-secreting and hormonally inactive hypophyseal adenomas. In hyperprolactinemia and a simultaneous increase in the levels of 2 or more hormones the results of the radioimmunoassay coincided with those of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in 50-70% of the cases

  12. $\\alpha_s$ review (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2016-01-01

    The current world-average of the strong coupling at the Z pole mass, $\\alpha_s(m^2_{Z}) = 0.1181 \\pm 0.0013$, is obtained from a comparison of perturbative QCD calculations computed, at least, at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy, to a set of 6 groups of experimental observables: (i) lattice QCD "data", (ii) $\\tau$ hadronic decays, (iii) proton structure functions, (iv) event shapes and jet rates in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (v) Z boson hadronic decays, and (vi) top-quark cross sections in p-p collisions. In addition, at least 8 other $\\alpha_s$ extractions, usually with a lower level of theoretical and/or experimental precision today, have been proposed: pion, $\\Upsilon$, W hadronic decays; soft and hard fragmentation functions; jets cross sections in pp, e-p and $\\gamma$-p collisions; and photon F$_2$ structure function in $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ collisions. These 14 $\\alpha_s$ determinations are reviewed, and the perspectives of reduction of their present uncertainties are discussed.

  13. The $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Day, J P; Elhanafy, M; Smith, E; Woodhouse, R; Papp, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-$\\alpha$ resonance energies, experimental phase shifts and three-$\\alpha$ binding energies. We found that essentially a simple gaussian can provide a good description of two-$\\alpha$ and three-$\\alpha$ experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.

  14. Dual-signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical immunosensing of α-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Jie; Ma, Meng-Jie; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2012-12-01

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical immunoassay of cancer biomarker α-fetoprotein (AFP) is proposed that uses titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) coupled with AFP-CdTe-GOx bioconjugate, which featured AFP antigen and glucose oxidase (GOx) labels linked to CdTe quantum dots (QDs) for signal amplification. The synthesized CdTe QDs yielded a homogeneous and narrow size distribution, which allowed the binding of AFP and GOx on CdTe QDs. Greatly enhanced sensitivity for AFP came from a dual signal amplification strategy. First, an effective matching of energy levels between the conduction bands of CdTe QDs and TiO(2) allowed for fast electron injection from excited CdTe QDs to TiO(2) upon irradiation, which reduced the recombination process of electron-hole pairs and prompted photoelectrochemical performance. Second, GOx enzyme could catalyze glucose to produce H(2)O(2), which acted as a sacrificial electron donor to scavenge the photogenerated holes in the valence band of CdTe QDs, further causing an enhanced photocurrent. Thus, on the basis of the dual signal amplification strategy, the competitive immunosensor based on the specific binding of anti-AFP antibodies to AFP and AFP-CdTe-GOx bioconjugates was achieved. This proposed biosensor for AFP possessed largely increased linear detection range from 0.5 pg/mL to 10 μg/mL with a detection limit of 0.13 pg/mL. The proposed amplification strategy shows high sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility and can become a promising platform for other protein detection. PMID:23140135

  15. Expression and location of α-fetoprotein during rat colon development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yan Liu; Dan Dong; Peng Sun; Jun Du; Luo Gu; Ying-Bin Ge

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of a-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, and its involvement during rat colon development.METHODS: Colons from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses, young and adult (8 wk old) animals were used in this study. Expression levels of AFP in colons of different development stage were detected by reversetranscriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. To identify the cell location of AFP in the developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and AFP, respectively. RESULTS: The highest levels of AFP mRNA were detected in colons of rats at embryonic day 18.5 (e18.5). Compared to e18.5 d, the AFP expression was significantly decreased during rat development [85% for e20.5, P < 0.05, 58% for postnatal day 0.5 (P0.5), P < 0.05, 37% for P7, P < 0.05, 24% for P14, P < 0.05, and 11% for P21, P < 0.05] and undetected in adult rats. Only the 72-kDa isoform of AFP was detected by Western blotting, the expression pattern was similar to AFP mRNA and conformed to the results of mRNA expression. The AFP positive staining was identical to different distribution patterns in fetuses, young and adult animals and positive staining for both AFP and vimentin was overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each stage tested. CONCLUSION: This study has for the first time This study has for the first time demonstrated that AFP is localized in the mesenchyme of rat colon from the embryo to the weaning stage by immunofluorescence and presents 72-kDa isoform in the developing rat colons by Western blotting. The dynamic expression of AFP in the various developmental stages of the colon indicates that AFP might be involved in many aspects of colon development.

  16. Alpha One Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tested Find Support Find Doctor What Is Alpha-1? Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Alpha-1) is a ... results for inhaled augmentation More News Our Number One Goal: Find a cure for Alpha-1. Website ...

  17. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, YANG-LONG; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43–1.62] in OYST. However, a high po...

  18. Measurement of dihydro testosterone by radioimmunoassay after celite column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring dihydro testosterone after celite column chromatography is developed. One milliliter of serum containing 1000 cpm of tritiated dihydro testosterone was extracted with hexane: ethyl acetate (2:3): dried, diluted with non saturated iso octane and injected in the column previously washed with 3.5 ml of pure iso octane. The serum was eluted from the column with pure iso octane (3.5 ml) followed by 5% ethyl acetate in iso octane. The quantity of tritiated dihydro testosterone which was recovered ranged from 50% to 80% in all assays. The sensitivity of the method was 4 ng/d l. The intra-assay variation was less than 9% and the inter-assay variation was less than 9,7%. It was measured dihydro testosterone, testosterone and testosterone/dihydro testosterone ratio in the following groups: Group 1- forty-one normal adult subjects in basal conditions, Group 2 - six normal adult subjects, evaluated in basal conditions and after stimulus with 6000 International Unity of human Chorionic Gonadotropin; Group 3- six pre-puberal children with unilateral cryptochidism. Group 4- eight patients with male pseudo hermaphroditism due to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency in basal conditions and after HCG. (author)

  19. Measurement of Steroids in Rats after Exposure to an Endocrine Disruptor: Mass Spectrometry and Radioimmunoassay Demonstrate Similar Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available radioimmunoassays (RIAs) are frequently used in toxicological studies to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIAs to t...

  20. A solid phase radioimmunoassay for free triiodothyronine in serum:assay development and validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A solid phase radioimmunoassay for free triiodothyroninein serum was developed based on double-antibody coated tubes.The method was turned out to be reliable with good reproducibility,higher sensitivity and easy performance.The measurable range of FT3 in serum was 1.2 to 38pmol/L.The mean coefficients of variationwithin and between assays were 1.79%~3.18% and 4.72%~9.31%,respectively.The FT3 concentrations in euthyroid serum as determined by this methodwere 2.8 to 7.8pmol/L.The FT3 values determined by this new methodcorrelated well with those measured by a commercial radioimmunoassay(r=0.853).

  1. Radioimmunoassay of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone in patients with adrenal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Yakovlev, A.A.; Yugrinov, O.G.; Gandzha, T.I. (Kievskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehndokrinologii i Obmena Veshchestv (Ukrainian SSR))

    1983-02-01

    The results are presented of a study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 89 patients with aldosteronoma, corticosteroma, pheochromocytoma and hypertension. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure aldosterone concentration and renin activity in the peripheral blood and blood from vena cava inferior, the renal and adrenal veins, the circadian cycle of their content and the responsiveness of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex and the juxtaglomerular renal system under the influence of lasix intake and the change over from a horizontal into vertical position. Patients with adrenal tumors have shown disorders of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone function. Radioimmunoassay of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system promotes early detection of adrenal tumors in the general population of patients with hypertension and can be used for control over therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Determination of degree of oncologic disease spreading with the use of radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort to evaluate the possibility of applying tumor morkers to determine the degree of oncologic desease propagation is made. Radioimmunoassay of 431 patients with tumors with different localization is performed. In patients with lung, esophagus, stomach, rectum cancer the level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the blood serum is studied, with mammary gland cancer - the CEA, ferritin and prolactin levels. An increase of CEA level is detected under wide-spread forms of lung, esophagus, stomach and rectum cancer, and an increase of CEA, ferritin and prolactin levels-under mammary gland cancer. It is shown that radioimmunoassay of tumor marker level is quite information content as to the evaluation of tumor process propagation under digestive tract, lung and mammary gland cancer. 12 refs.; 5 tabs

  3. Quality characteristics of chemicals for the radioimmunoassay of thyroxine and thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay is a form of saturation analysis in which the test material competes with labelled antigen for a limited amount of antibody, the amount of label displaced being a measure of the antigen in the test sample. In this country, the kits for Radioimmunoassay (RIA) are imported, and this increase the cost of it. Because this lack of production, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has developed RIA's kits for the thyroxine (T4), Thyrotropin (TSH) and Triyodotironine (T3) hormones. This work presents the conclusions of the test recommended by the WHO. The quality test were: recuperation, cross reactions, basic parameters, intra and inter assay variations, sensibility and others. The results show that the RIA's kits of the ININ have a good behavior and can be use in the clinical laboratory. (Author)

  4. Demonstration onf anticollagen antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluids by 14C-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, J.; Steffen, C.; Kolarz, G.; Kojer, M.; Smolen, J.

    1978-03-01

    Twenty-seven synovial fluids from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 17 synovial fluids from controls were investigated in a new radioimmunoassay for anticollagen antibodies. In vitro labeled human 14C-collagen of type I in native or denatured state was used as antigen. Passive hemagglutination was used in comparison. Parameters for defining positive results in radioimmunoassay were evaluated on the basis of control synovial fluids. Synovial fluids from 20 RA patients (74%) showed antibodies to denatured collagen; synovial fluids from 8 RA patients (30%) also demonstrated antibodies to native collagen. Control fluids of posttraumatic effusions were negative; among the other controls synovial fluid from 1 psoriatic arthritis patient reacted positively. Inhibition experiments showed that antibodies to denatured collagen cross-reacted with native collagen. Inhibition with human denatured type III collagen displayed strong cross-reactivity of anti-type I collagen antibodies with type III collagen.

  5. Immunoradiometric assay for prolactin in serum and tissue; Comparison with radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnami, Shumpei; Nakata, Hajime; Eto, Sumiya (University of Occupational and Environmental Health Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    Prolactin (PRL) concentrations in sera and tumors of patients with various pituitary tumors were measured by both immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). PRL concentrations in sera and tumor tissues measured by IRMA were well correlated with those measured by RIA. PRL concentrations in sera reflected those of tumors removed. This IRMA is a simple and useful method for PRL determination in serum and tissue. (author).

  6. Interferences in radioimmunoassay of aflatoxins in food and fodder samples of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-reactions and resulting nonspecific binding of substances with structures resembling aflatoxins (derivatives of coumarin, and cinnamonic and benzoic acids, etc.) were investigated. The concentrations of these substances causing erroneously high or false positive values in radioimmunoassay were determined. One μg aflatoxin B1/kg sample may be simulated by the occurrence of 5 g coumarin, 10 g caffeic acid, 16 g chlorogenic acid, or 15 g vanillin/kg fodder or food sample

  7. Comparison of radioimmunoassay and fluorescent polarization immunoassay for quantitative determination of vancomycin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman, B H; Berg, H G; Strate, R G; Rotschafer, J C

    1983-01-01

    A new fluorescent polarization immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, North Chicago, Ill.) was compared with a standard radioimmunoassay (American Diagnostics Corp., Newport Beach, Calif.) in 34 patients being treated with vancomycin. A total of 123 serum samples were divided and quantitatively analyzed for vancomycin by both assay methods. The results obtained indicated that the two assay methods are comparable (y = 1.01x - 0.81; r = 0.99).

  8. The insulin radioimmunoassay kit prepared by IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification and methodological aspects of the insulin radioimmunoassay kit produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil are described. The limitations taking care and the following quality control parameters or procedures are discussed: specific radioactivity, comparison between two insulin - 125I purification procedures, affinity constant 'K' of the antigen - antibody reaction, minimal detectable dose (MDD), kinetics degradation of the radioinsulin, radioassay imprecision profile, radioassay performance temperature dependence and normal values histogram. (Author)

  9. Quantification of adsorbed human serum albumin : a comparison between radioimmunoassay and simple null ellipsometry

    OpenAIRE

    Benesch, Johan; Askendal, A.; Tengvall, P.

    2000-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and null ellipsometry are two common methods to quantify adsorbed proteins. However, the accuracy of null ellipsometry with a constant protein refractive index (n 1.465, k 0) at l 632.8 nm has this far not been explored. The present study compared the methods, and the degree of agreement between the simplified single wavelength null ellipsometry and RIA to quantify adsorbed proteins was explored on different surfaces. The quantification methods agreed well w...

  10. Influence of various desinfectants on the radioimmuno-assay for Australia antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At normal room temperature dilution series were produced out of pooled serum, serum previously treated with UV irradiation and beta propiolacton, and serum of patients with hepatitis type B and various desinfectants. After differing incubation times the Australia antigen titre was measured in the radioimmunoassay. Electronmicroscopic examinations should detect possible morphologic changes of the Dane particles. The counts/min. measured for Australia antigen after an incubation with aldehyde-containing preparations, are below the limit value with serum treated previously with UV light and beta propiolacton; in negative Australia-antigen-positive serum the counts/min. are close to the limit value. The antigenity is clearly reduced. The comparison with an insulin containing serum showed that also the radioimmunoassay was influenced by the aldehyde. A direct influence of the aldehydes on the protein seems to be possible. From this results that the radioimmunoassay for Australia antigen cannot be used as the exclusive method for measuring the efficacy of desinfectants compared to Dane particles. The morphologic changes of the Dane particles observed in the electronic microscope confirm the supposition that the desinfectants influence the hepatitis viruses. (orig./MG)

  11. A sensitive and selective radioimmunoassay for serum 24, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and selective radioimmunoassay for 24,25-dihyroxycholecalciferol (24,25(OH)2D3) has been developed. Antisera with a high titre and affinity to 24,25(OH)2D3 were raised in rabbits immunized with a protein conjugate of the 3-hemisuccinate derivative of 24,25(OH)2D3. Serum samples were extracted by methanol/dichloromethane and the lipid extracts purified on Sephadex LH 20 and chromatographed by single step HPLC on a straight phase silica column. The radioimmunoassay is capable of measuring 24,25(OH)2D3 in the '24,25(OH)2D complex' isolated by HPLC and containing the comigrating metabolites: 24,25(OH)2D3, 24,25(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D3-26,23 lactone and 25,26(OH)2D2. The detection limit of 2 pg/assay tube is marked improvement compared to the competitive protein binding assay using rachitic rat serum. Measured by the radioimmunoassay 24,25(OH)2D3 ranged from 0.05 to 1.96 ng/ml with a mean of 0.85 ng/ml in 34 healthy adults. For comparison 24,25(OH)2D, measured simultaneously by competitive protein binding with rachitic rat serum, ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 ng/ml with a mean of 1.76 ng/ml. (author)

  12. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold2 software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed. PMID:27023588

  13. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, diethylstilbestrol (DES and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold2 software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69% and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%. Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  14. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed. PMID:27023588

  15. α-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Chen; Peng Sun; Xiao-Yan Liu; Dan Dong; Jun Du; Luo Gu; Ying-Bin Ge

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoidinduced precocious maturation in rat colon. METHODS: Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 μg/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486), a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. RESULTS: Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017). These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-dold and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023). Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon.

  16. α-Fetoprotein promoter-driven Cre/LoxP-switched RNA interference for hepatocellular carcinoma tissue-specific target therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fei Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a potential treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC therapy, but the lack of cellular targets and sustained efficacy limits its application. The purpose of this study is to develop an HCC tissue-specific RNAi system and investigate its possibility for HCC treatment. METHODS: Two different HCC-specific RNAi systems in which therapeutic miRNA or shRNA against target gene (Beclin 1 was directly or indirectly driven by alpha-fetoprotein promoter (AFP-miRNA and AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA were constructed. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and HCCLM3 and non-HCC cell lines (L-02, Hela and SW1116 were infected with the systems. The effectiveness and tissue-specificity of the systems were examined by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. The efficacy of the systems was further tested in mouse model of HCC by intravenous or intratumoral administration. The feasibility of the system for HCC treatment was evaluated by applying the system as adjuvant therapy to enhance sorafenib treatment. An AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system targeting Atg5 gene (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA-Atg5 was constructed and its efficacy in sensitizing HCC cells (MHCC97L/PLC to sorafenib treatment was examined by apoptosis assay in vitro and tumorigenesis assay in vivo. RESULTS: The AFP-miRNA system could silence target gene (Beclin 1 but required a high titer which was lethal to target cells. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently knockdown target gene while maintain high HCC specificity. Intratumoral injection of the AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently silence target gene (Beclin 1 in vivo while intravenous administration could not. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system target Atg5 gene could significantly sensitize MHCC97L/PLC cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis in vitro and tumor growth suppression in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: An efficient HCC tissue-specific RNAi system (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA was successfully established. The system

  17. ROLE OF ALPHA FETO PROTIEN AS A MARKER IN DIAGNOSIS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES IN RURAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM : In India, especially in rural population multiple factors adversely affect the incidence of premature rupture of membrane. The purpose of this study is to test the amniotic fluid Alpha feto protein as a reliable mar ker for the detection of PPROM and to test its efficacy for the purpose in the rural India. STUDY DESIGN : This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, NIMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. This was a cross sectional study during period of one year with sample size of 100 patients . METHOD S : Patients who were at ≥24 weeks of gestation with the complains of leaking per vaginum. Sample for Alpha - fetoprotein (AFP estimation was collected by instilling 5 ml of distilled wa ter into vagina, irrespective of pooling of amniotic fluid and sent to the biochemistry lab for the analysis and for the estimation of alpha fetoprotein by using Electroluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. RESULT: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value are 92%, 98%, 92% and 98% respectively. CONCLUSION: The AFP can be used as reliable marker to avoid unnecessary obstretic interventions for diagnosis of PROM.

  18. Radioimmunoassay for somatomedin C: comparison with radioreceptor assay in patients with growth-hormone disorders, hypothyroidism, and renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, R.C.; Brown, A.S.; Turtle, J.R.

    1982-03-01

    An antiserum (Tr4) was raised in rabbits against a basic somatomedin C-like peptide preparation. Using high-immunoreactivity somatomedin C tracer, we compared the performance of radioimmunoassays in which we used the Tr4 antiserum distributed by the National Pituitary Agency (NPA) with that of the human placental-membrane somatomedin radioreceptor asay (RRA). In their cross reactivity towards various somatomedin-like and unrelated peptides, the two radioimmunoassay methods were almost identical, although NPA antiserum, with about fourfold higher titer than Tr4 antiserum, showed a slightly greater sensitivity for most peptides tested. Radioimmunoassay of acid-ethanol-extracted plasma samples from normal persons and acromegalic, hypopituitary, hypothyroid, and renal-failure patients revealed no analytical differences between the antisera (for 122 samples, r = 0.979 between methods). Somatomedin values for acromegalic and hypopituitary samples showed no overlap with normals. Values for hypothyroid and pre-dialysis renal-failure samples were significantly lower than normal. By comparison, the RRA showed greater cross reactivity towards some somatomedin-like peptides and gave significantly lower values than radioimmunoassay for acromegalic and hypothyroid plasma extracts, and significantly higher values for hypopituitary and renal-failure samples. We conclude that the radioimmunoassay methods clearly are of greater diagnostic value than RRA for clinical somatomedin measurement.

  19. Chemotherapy by Intravenous Administration of Conjugates of Daunomycin with Monoclonal and Conventional Anti-Rat α -fetoprotein Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Yutaka; Hurwitz, Esther; Kashi, Rina; Sela, Michael; Hibi, Nozomu; Hara, Akihiko; Hirai, Hidematsu

    1982-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to rat α -fetoprotein (AFP) were produced by hybridization of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with rat AFP. The monoclonal antibodies as well as horse anti-rat AFP were coupled via a dextran bridge to daunomycin. Both types of conjugates were tested in vitro and in vivo for their anti-tumor activity. They were equally cytotoxic to rat AH66 hepatoma cell line in culture. Rats challenged with hepatoma cells were treated with the conjugates either by intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. Daunomycin conjugates with horse anti-AFP and monoclonal mouse anti-AFP were capable of delaying the tumor development more efficiently than the controls of antibodies or free drug, mixtures of drug with antibodies, and a conjugate of drug and normal immunoglobulin. The specific conjugates were considerably more effective when the treatments were given intravenously. The specific conjugates produced 60% long-term survival, whereas the controls delayed only slightly tumor development.

  20. Use of radioimmunoassay procedures for the determination of sex hormones in animal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B. (Institut fuer Veterinaermedizin des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (Robert von Ostertag-Institut), Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-07-01

    Radioimmunoassay methods for the determination of sex steroids and other compounds with sex hormone-like activities in various edible animal tissues and endocrine glands have been developed. Reliability of these methods, allowing quantification in a range of 10/sup -11/ M, has been adequately demonstrated. When applied to monitoring residues of anabolic sex hormones in edible tissues of veal calves, physiological baseline levels of some endogenous ''anabolic'' steroids (like testosterone, oestrogens) were established; in the case of xenobiotics residues at the scheduled time of slaughter could be quantified (trenbolone) and a regulatory method to implement the ban of diethylstilbestrol was introduced.

  1. Evaluation of the RIAKALK: a microcomputer radioimmunoassay data-processing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work evaluates the applicability of the RIAKALK program for the processing of radioimmunoassay (RIA) data at IPEN-CNEN/SP laboratory. The RIAKALK was written in Applesoft BASIC and had to be adapted to run on the IBM-PC under SIM/DOS operating system of our microcomputer. Its suitability was tested on laboratory data of several hormonal RIAs, comparing the results processed computationally with those obtained manually. The program proved to be quite suitable for the analysis of these data, being thus implanted at the laboratory. (author)

  2. Detection and quantitation of T-2 mycotoxin in rat organs by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard radioimmunoassay was compared with radiochromatography for the ability to detect unlabeled T-2 mycotoxin in organs from exposed animals. When 10% of HT-2, the only known metabolite that cross-reacts with T-2, was included and expressed as T-2 equivalents in the radiochromatographic detection, correlation between toxin detection in liver, spleen, and kidney by the 2 techniques was r = 0.98. An unknown metabolite was detected in heart extract by radiochromatography. Inclusion of this material in the T-2 equivalents detected by radiochromatography indicated a near-perfect correlation among all 4 tissues

  3. Studies on the Radioimmunoassay of Human Growth Hormone - 1. Evaluation of the method of determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing the commercial radioimmunoassay kit, the author assayed HGH and evaluated the problems of the method. The method had the sensitivity of 0.5 mug/ml degree and could determine the plasma HGH concentration directly without the help of plasma extraction. Also it was specific for the HGH, when tested by a dilution method using test utilizing the plasma of the acromegalic patient. The author also obtained the 125I labelled HGH of specific activity of 156. 3 μCi/μg, performing the chloramine-T method.

  4. Radioiodination of recombinant human growth hormone and its use in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human growth hormone (hGH) using 125I-labelled tracer prepared from DNA recombinant hGH (r-hGH) and characterization of the tracer in the assay system are described. The radioiodination of r-hGH resulted in high yield of immunoreactive tracer. The immunoreactive fraction could be purified by gel-filtration on sephadex G-75. The quality of radioiodinated tracer of r-hGH has been found to be same as that of the tracer obtained from pituitary hGH (p-hGH) with respect to immunoreactivity, assay sensitivity and RIA standard curve parameters. (author)

  5. Diagnosis application of ACTH radioimmunoassay in diseases of hypothalamus, hypophysis and adrenal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of 900-1,100 am plasma ACTH radioimmunoassay were studied in 10 patients with Cushing's disease before and after treatment, three patients with Cushing's syndrome with adrenal tumours, one Nelson's syndrome patient; 13 patients with Addison's disease and 12 patients with hypo-pituitarism. Twenty-seven normal subjects were controls. The measurement of basal plasma ACTH gave good differentiation between: a. pituitary Cushing's disease from adrenal tumors; b. Addison's disease from hypo-pituitarism. However this assay has a limited value for the differentiation between Cushing's disease from normal subjects and it is often unhelpful in the differential diagnosis of hypo-pituitarism from normal subjects. (author)

  6. Radioimmunoassay for quantitation of 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine (D4T) in human plasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X.J.; Chakboub, H; Ferrua, B; Moravek, J; Guedj, R; Sommadossi, J P

    1996-01-01

    2',3'-Didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine (D4T, or stavudine) has been recently approved for the treatment of AIDS. In the present study, a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the quantitation of D4T in human plasma. The RIA is a double-antibody competitive binding assay which uses anti-D4T antiserum raised in rabbits as the primary antibody, a tritiated derivative of D4T as the radioactive tracer, and goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G as the secondary antibody. No cross-r...

  7. Isolation of a somatomedin binding protein from human preterm amniotic fluid: development of a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis investigates the nature and biological behaviour of a somatomedin binding protein, identified in preterm amniotic fluid (AF). For that purpose a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed. Purified AF binding protein (AFBP) was iodinated by the chloramine-T method, and dilutions of partially purified AFBP were designated as the standard, with the results expressed in μg equivalent protein/ml. The sensitivity of the assay was improved by adoption of the nonequilibrium procedure. AFBP values were twice as high in preterm AF as in term AF. (Auth.)

  8. A simple and rapid characterization of influenza virus isolates by monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay is described with infectious allantoic fluid directly bound to solid phase, suitable for the detection and further characterization of influenza virus isolates. This simple and rapid method was applied for the description of isolates obtained from different regions of Czechoslovakia during the influenza epidemic in 1983. The results confirmed that all 13 examined isolates represented influenza A viruses possessing H3 subtype haemagglutinin very similar to haemagglutinin of influenza viruses A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2), A/Belgium/2/81 (H3N2) and A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2). (author)

  9. Magnetic antibody immunoassay (MAIA) - a new improved separation technique in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a short description of the principle of radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, the special difficulties connected with the separation steps are discussed. Centrifugation is subject to inaccuracies and both time-consuming and technically complicated. Moreover it involves the risk of microbial or radioactive contamination. A new solid-phase procedure is presented using magnetizable particles as solid phase which are for instance bonded with the antibody. Separation is effected by collection of the magnetizable particles and the attached antibodies using a permanent magnet and subsequent decanting of the supernatant. The method is explained using two examples (cortisol, digoxin). (ZDE)

  10. A radioimmunoassay method for the rapid detection of Candida antibodies is experimental systematic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbits were employed as experimental models to evaluate a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for the diagnosis of systematic candidiasis. Ten rabbits were incubated subcutaneously to mimic superficial candidiasis and were found to produce no antibodies to Candida as determined by both immunodiffusion and RIA procedures. However, 94 per cent of 18 rabbits systematically infected by intravenous injection of Candida cells were observed to produce antibody as assessed by the RIA technique. These data encourage further tests with human sera and the continued development of this RIA procedure as a useful tool in the early serodiagnosis of systematic candidiasis. (Auth.)

  11. Results of the HPL determination using a new enzymatic immunoassay - comparison with a commercial radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leis, D.; Schneider, B.; Keller, A.; Braun, S.

    1982-01-06

    An enzymatic immunoassay recently developed by the firm Organon, Oss, Netherlands, to determine HPL in the serum of pregnant women was compared to a widely used radioimmunoassay marketed by the firm Amersham-Buchler, Braunschweig. The values determined showed a good correlation. The accuracy of measurement was within the generally accepted range for immunological assays of this kind. The assay procedures are comparable with regard to the expenditure of time and work. A great advantage of the EIA is due to the absence of radioactive substances, which permits this test to be performed in any laboratory equipped with a centrifuge and photometer.

  12. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of antibodies to collagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay using 125I-protein A is described for the detection of antibodies to collagens of different types. The optimal conditions for the adsorption of collagen onto polystyrene microplates, then the incubations with the antiserum and finally with the 125I-protein A have been evaluated. The technique was applied successfully to antisera raised in rabbit, goat, guinea pig and mouse against human type I, II, III, IV, V and bovine type I, II, 1α2α3α, X1-X7 collagens

  13. Radioimmunoassay for pantothenic acid in blood and other tissues. [/sup 3/H and /sup 14/C tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyse, B.W.; Wittwer, C.; Hansen, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    We described a radioimmunoassay for pantothenic acid in biological tissues. D-Pantothenic acid was conjugated with bovine serum albumin by use of a bromoacetyl derivative of pantothenic acid, and antibody to this antigen was raised by injecting it into the foot pads of rabbits. For the radioimmunoassay, a 100-fold dilution of the resulting antiserum was incubated with radiolabeled panthothentic acid. The antibodies were precipitated and dissolved, and the radioactivity of the solution was measured in a liquid scintillation counter. Between 5 and 125 ng of pantothenic acid can be detected in 75 ..mu..L of tissue extract. Validation included recovery and precision studies, parallelism with tissue extracts, and competitive binding studies. Results of the radioimmunoassay and those of microbiological assay with use of Lactobacillus plantarum correlated well (r = 0.80).

  14. Insulin and C-peptide in human brain neurons (insulin/C-peptide/brain peptides/immunohistochemistry/radioimmunoassay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional distribution and cellular localization of insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivities were studied in human cadaver brains using the indirect immunofluorescence method, the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and radioimmunoassay. Products of the immune reactions to both polypeptides were observed in most nerve cells in all areas of the brain examined. Immunostaining was mainly restricted to the cell soma and proximal dendrites. Radioimmunoassay revealed that human brain contains insulin and C-peptide in concentrations much higher than the blood, the highest being in the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that the 'brain insulin' is - at least in part - produced in the CNS. (author)

  15. Utilization of DNA recombinant techniques for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents for pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complementary DNA (cDNA) of human growth hormone (hGH) and human prolactin (hPRL) have been cloned in bacteria after screening a library that was obtained starting directly from human pituitary mRNA. Recombinant hGH (rec-hGH) was also expressed and secreted in E. coli periplasmic space and subsequently purified through three different chromatographic steps. After testing its purity, potency and identity with purified hGH (pit-hGH), rec-hGH was used for the preparation of radioimmunoassay reagents. Its suitability for radioiodination and immunological equivalence to pit-hGH were confirmed, its relative immunological activity being 1.037 ± 0.063 in comparison with a well known reference preparation, NIDDK-hGH-RP-1, from the National Institute of Diabetics and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA. The synthetic hPRL gene was also obtained from the same cDNA pituitary library, its identity to the published sequence coding for the human hormone being demonstrated. An expression vector is now being constructed, following a strategy similar to that already used for rec-hGH preparation, purification and testing, pursuing the same goal of radioimmunoassay reagents preparation. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  16. Purification of tracer for somatomedin C radioimmunoassay by hydrophobic interaction chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, R.C.; Brown, A.S.

    1982-03-01

    A tracer for use in the somatomedin C radiommunoassay by hydrophobic interaction chromatography was purified. Material showing greatest immunoreactivity binds to Octyl Sepharose CL-4B (Pharmacia) in a buffer mixture consisting of 130 mL of acetonitrile and 870 mL of 0.1 mol/L NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/, pH 7.8, but is eluted by increasing the acetonitrile content to 180 mL/L. As compared with tracer purified by binding to specific antiserum in liquid phase, precipitating the complex with second antibody, and then dissociating by gel chromatography at acid pH, this tracer shows equal immunoreactivity against specific somatomedin C antiserum. Either preparation allows excellent discrimination between extracts of normal, acromegalic, and hypopituitary plasma samples; thus either is suitable for use in the somatomedin C radioimmunoassay. Tracer purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography is rapid and inexpensive. It may be useful in preparing highly immunoreactive tracers for other peptide radioimmunoassays.

  17. Radioimmunoassay measurements of serum thyrotropin in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum TSH was measured by means of double antibody radioimmunoassay using a commercial Kit Daiichi, in 21 normal subjects, 200 patients with thyroid disease and 130 patients with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases. Serum TSH concentrations in normal subjects were <2 to 8 μU/ml which rose to 8-40 μU/ml after administration of 500 μg TRH intravenously. Serum TSH was undetectable and did not respond to TRH in all untreated patients and in some euthyroid patients with Graves' disease after treatment. Undetectable TSH and no response to TRH were also observed in most patients with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule and those with subacute thyroiditis in the acute phase. In some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and all patients with adult myxedema and cretinism, serum TSH levels were increased and showed hyperresponse to TRH. The ratio of bioassay and radioimmunoassay potency estimates for TSH in sera obtained before TRH was not statistically different from that obtained after TRH administration to patients with primary hypothyroidism. Elevated serum TSH was promptly decreased by the administration of thyroid hormone to the patients. More than 50% of patients with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and craniopharyngioma showed normal basal TSH and no or low response of TSH to TRH. Administration of TRH failed to stimulate a rise in serum TSH in 2 sisters with isolated TSH deficiency with cretinism. Basal TSH was undetectable and showed delayed response to TRH in patients with anorexia nervosa. (auth.)

  18. Detection of pregnancy by radioimmunoassay of a pregnancy serum protein (PSP60) in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mialon, M.M.; Renand, G.; Camous, S.; Martal, J.; Menissier, F. (Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France))

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy and efficiency of pregnancy diagnoses in cattle by pregnancy serum protein (PSP60) radioimmunoassay, a progesterone radioimmunoassay or oestrus detection were compared. Blood samples were taken from 349 suckling heifers and cows ( 1 191 inseminations) at 28, 35, 50 and 90 d post-insemination for PSP60 determination and at 22-23 d for progesterone. Females were declared nonpregnant when plasma PSP60 concentration was lower than 0.2 ng/ml at 28, 35 and 50 d and 0.5 ng/ml at 90 d. When compared with rectal palpation at 90 d, the accuracy of positive (negative) diagnoses by progesterone assay was 80% (100%) in heifers and 75% (99%) in cows. The accuracy of positive diagnoses by PSP60 assay increased with gestation stage from 90% on d 28 in heifers (74% in cows) to 100% (99% in cows) at the time of rectal palpation. This accuracy was 84% on d 28 in cows when the interval from calving to blood sampling was higher than 115 d. Whatever the stage, the accuracy of negative diagnoses was higher than 90%. Efficiency in detecting pregnant or nonpregnant females on d 28 was equivalent to the progesterone assay. The method for detecting oestrus applied in this experiment was as efficient as the PSP60 or progesterone test at any stage of gestation. The PSP60 test is very flexible, which makes its use particularly interesting in naturally mated suckling herds because of the uncertainty regarding the date of fertilization. (authors).

  19. Comparative assessment of immunization procedures for development of anti proinsulin antisera for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two schedules of immunization were employed for developing anti proinsulin antisera for radioimmunoassay. Biosynthetic human proinsulin-h P I (Elli Lilly. US), was injected subcutaneously in guinea pigs in multiple sites. In the first schedule were used 50 u g of h P I and the booster injections were administered 4 weeks after the primary immunization and then at 3-week intervals. In the second schedule was used 250 u g of h P I and boosters were done 7, 9 and 18 weeks later. As the antisera were not sufficiently specific for h P I they were purified and assessed for kinetic of precipitation and avidity. Both immunization schedules gave comparable responses. The antisera generated by the use of 50 u g of h P I presented higher cross-reactivity with insulin while the reactivity with cpeptide was of the same order in both antiserum groups. The avidity was very variable in the two groups and the three most sensitive antisera required 24 h at 4o C for achieving maximum binding with the 125 I-h P I. However, only one antiserum (from the first group) was suitable for the radioimmunoassay. This study emphasizes the difficulties of making valid comparisons between different immunization procedures, especially in the cases when highest avidity is required. (author)

  20. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIA methods of determining progestorone using the SORIN kit made in Italy and the NEN kit made in Great Britain were compared. Plasma extraction, the initial sample size for examination and recovery, the range of calibration curves of the two kits, the variation coefficient, the values of the blank sample and the values of progesterone determined in the normal menstrual cycle are discussed in detail. Variation coefficient: Sorin (calibration curve 9 to 11%, biological material 9.2%), NEN (calibration curve 12%, biological material 27.8%); determinations of progesterone levels during a normal menstrual cycle were 10 to 15% higher with the NEN kit; tritiated samples were measured with a 30 to 37% efficiency using the SORIN kit and 15 to 18% efficiency using the NEN kit. The turbidity and later sediment which formed during the determination of steroid hormones in biological materials after the addition of the scintillation solution did not reduce the efficiency of measurement. Priority is given to the SORIN kit. (L.O.)

  1. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.

  2. Application of a monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha-lactalbumins from various species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoclonal antibody to bovine alpha-lactalbumin was prepared and purified. The binding ability of alpha-lactalbumin from different species (cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, human, monkey, and guinea pig) was examined by a competitive radioimmunoassay. The order in strength of the binding affinity was cow goat, giraffe, horse, cynomolgus monkey and human, pig, and guinea pig. The order of evolutional divergence calculated from the amino acid composition was cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, guinea pig and human, and monkey. The orders in both cases were similar. Hence, it is suggested that immunological divergence as deduced by a monoclonal antibody is likely to be close to the evolutional divergence of alpha-lactalbumin

  3. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  4. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  5. A fluorescent turn-on detection scheme for α-fetoprotein using quantum dots placed in a boronate-modified molecularly imprinted polymer with high affinity for glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) capable of selective fluorescent turn-on recognition of the tumor biomarker α-fetoprotein. The technique is making use of amino-modified Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as solid supports, 4-vinylphenylboronic acid and methyl methacrylate as the functional monomers, γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane as the grafting agent, and α-fetoprotein as a template. A graft imprint is created on the surface of the QDs. The functional monomers are shown to play an important role in the formation of the binding sites and in preventing nonspecific protein binding. The resulting MIP-QDs display a good linear response to α-fetoprotein in the 50 ng · L−1 to 10 μg · L−1 concentration range, and the limit of detection is 48 ng · L−1. In our perception, the method has a wide scope in that it may be adapted to various other glycoproteins. (author)

  6. Preparation of {sup 125}I-iodotyraminehemisuccinyltaxol ({sup 125}ITHT) for competitive taxol radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Awh, Ok Doo; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyun Suk; Hong, Jun Pyo; Lee, Eun Sook [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    Taxol(Paclitaxel), an antineoplastic agent, has been used in the treatment of ovarian and breast cancers. The determination of optimal Taxol concentrations in human serum was required for enhancing therapeutic effect and maintaining the appropriate Taxol level in blood. This study was aimed to synthesize radiolabeled Taxol derivatives as radiotracer in competitive radioimmuoassay for monitoring Taxol concentrations in blood and to determine the usefulness of its derivatives. Hemisuccinyltaxol(HT) was synthesized by esterification of Taxol with succinic anhydride. Tyraminehemisuccinyltaxol (THT) was synthesized by coupling of HT with tyramine using isobutylchloroformate as coupling agent and purified by HPLC. By using chloramine-T(5.25 mg/ml, 10 {mu}l) as oxidant agent, THT (4 mg/ml, 30 {mu}l) was labeled with {sup 125}I (37 MBq, 1 mCi). To estimate the stability of purified THT, {sup 125}I-iodotyraminehemisuccinyltaxol ({sup 125}ITHT) was dissolved in 80% acetonitrile aqueous solution, and the solution was incubated at 4 .deg. C and 37 .deg. C for 7 days. At various time intervals, the stability of THT and {sup 125}ITHT was monitored. The titer of Taxol monoclonal antibody, 3G5A7, was determined by competitive radioimmunoassay using {sup 125}ITHT as a labeled antigen. A standard dose-response curve was demonstrated by Taxol competitive radioimmunoassay. HT and THT were synthesized with 79.9% and 19.5% yield, respectively. The labeling yield of {sup 125}ITHT was 93%. After 7 days, the chemical purity of THT was 96.5% at 4 .deg. C, and 97.5% at 37 .deg. C. After 3 days, {sup 125}ITHT was stable with 94.7% at 4 .deg. C and 93.4% at 37 .deg. C. After 7 days radiochemical purity was diminished to 88.1% at 4 .deg. C and 86.1% at 37 .deg. C. The titer of Taxol monoclonal antibody, 3G5A7, was determined to 1:256. A standard dose-response cure demonstrated good collinearity (R{sup 2}=0.971) as Taxol concentration-dependent manner. Competitive radioimmunoassay using {sup 125

  7. Monoclonal antibodies directed to human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I). Use for radioimmunoassay and immunopurification of IGF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubli, U.K. (Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Biochemisches Inst.); Baier, W.; Celio, M.R. (Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Anatomisches Inst.); Binz, H.; Humbel, R.E. (Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Immunologie und Virologie)

    1982-11-22

    Mouse hybridomas secreting antibodies to human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) were produced by fusion of spleen cells of hyperimmunised mice with FO mouse-myeloma cells. Eight clones producing antibodies against human IGF I have been isolated, two of which have been characterised. One was used in a radioimmunoassay, the other for immunopurification of IGF.

  8. Antitumor immunopreventive effect in mice induced by DNA vaccine encoding a fusion protein of α-fetoprotein and CTLA4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Tian; Ji-Lin Yi; Ping Xiong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To develop a tumor DNA vaccine encoding a fusion protein of murine AFP and CTLA4, and to study its ability to induce specific CTL response and its protective effect against AFP-producing tumor.METHODS: Murine α-fetoprotein (mAFP) gene was cloned from total RNA of Hepa1-6 cells by RT-PCR. A DNA vaccine was constructed by fusion murine α-fetoprotein gene and extramembrane domain of murine CTLA4 gene. The DNA vaccine was identified by restriction enzyme analysis,sequencing and expression. EL-4 (mAFP) was developed by stable transfection of EL-4 cells with pmAFP. The frequency of cells produdng IFN-γ in splenocytes harvested from the immunized mice was measured by ELISPOT. Mice immunized with DNA vaccine were inoculated with EL-4 (mAFP) cells in back to observe the protective effect of immunization on tumor. On the other hand, blood samples were collected from the immunized mice to check the functions of liver and kidney.RESULTS: 1.8 kb mAFP cDNA was cloned from total RNA of Hepa1-6 cells by RT-PCR. The DNA vaccine encoding a fusion protein of mAFP-CTLA4 was constructed and confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis, sequencing and expression. The expression of mAFP mRNA in EL-4 (mAFP) was confirmed by RT-PCR. The ELISPOT results showed that the number of IFN-γ-producing cells in pmAFP-CTLA4 group was significantly higher than that in pmAFP, pcDNA3.1 and PBS group. The tumor volume in pmAFP-CTLA4 group was significantly smaller than that in pmAFP, pcDNA3.1 and PBS group, respectively. The hepatic and kidney functions in each group were not altered.CONCLUSION: AFP-CTLA4 DNA vaccine can stimulate potent specific CTL responses and has distinctive antitumor effect on AFP-producing tumor. The vaccine has no impact on the function of mouse liver and kidney.

  9. Faddeev calculation of 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems using alpha alpha resonating-group method kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M

    2004-01-01

    We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...

  10. Establishment of 25-OH-vitamin D reference interval by radioimmunoassay and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish reference interval of 25-OH-vitamin D (25-OH-Vit D) by radioimmunoassay and provide suggestion for clinical applications. Method: Collecting 204 healthy persons specimens, and validating and establishing reference interval of 25-OH-Vit D by treatment of outlying observations, judgement of data distributions and analysis of test results. Results: The reference interval of 25-OH-Vit D established in our laboratory is 16.0-39.7 ng/ml for adolescents and 11.7-40.0 ng/ml for adults. Conclusions: The levels of 25-OH-Vit D in humans depend on their age, sex and life style. Some people's vitamin D intake is not enough. Doctors should pay attention to the sufficient 25-OH-Vit D needed when evaluate vitamin D intake. (authors)

  11. Possibility of radioimmunoassay using for the estimation of endocrine status in autoimmune pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for assessing the functioning and potentialities of different hormonal systems was studied as well as pathogenetic role of revealed violations and interconnection of them and clinical symptomatology and the type of therapy performed in case of pathology (illustrated by the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)). RIA method was used to assess the features of function of gonads, adrenal cortex and pituitary body - thyroid system in RA patients (45-60 y.o.) by means of study of the concentration of corresponding hormones and regulatory proteins in combination with pharmacological load of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) before and after the therapy. Grave violations in endocrine homeostasis were found in the form of androgen-extragen disbalance, adrenal insufficiency and hypothyrosis in combination with hormone level dissociation resulted from pharmacological sample with ACTH. Revealed violations are connected with clinical symptomatology, criticality and lingering of disease

  12. Radioimmunoassay of plasma vasopressin. Technique and applicaton to some clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work was to develop a sensitive and reliable radioimmunological determination of plasma vasopressin for routine use. Part one is devoted to an outline of the physiological aspects of antidiuretic hormone with emphasis on the vasopressin regulation and secretion mechanisms, especially osmotic regulation. Part two describes our analysis technique by successive stages and gives, for each point considered, a comparative review of the methods described in the literature. Part three reports our results obtained on normal subjects during dehydration tests and in some pathological cases. Our radioimmunoassay is similar to that of Robertson. In 2 observations of diabetes insipidus no detectable amount of vasopressin was measured in contradiction with the results obtained by most authors. On the whole our purpose has been fulfilled. However this work contains inadequacies which are underlined and will have to be corrected in later studies

  13. Radioimmunoassay of salivary steroid hormones for easy diagnosis of and adrenal functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary levels of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay in fertile and infertile women. progesterone concentration was also determined in sera of both groups. Results have shown salivary progesterone to be promising in the assessment of ovarian function. Positive and significant correlation was obtained between serum and salivary progesterone for both considered groups. Although, concentrations of estradiol in saliva seems to be useful in predicting the time of ovulation onset however, further evaluations, are still needed. High levels of salivary cortisol were obtained reflecting stress during menses, ovulation and awaiting for the onset of the next cycle. Consequently, salivary cortisol is a good monitor for adrenal function. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Study and development of a radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone sensitive at 10/sup -12/M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillens, H.; Rousselet, F. (Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, (France)); Paillard, F. (Hopital Tenon, Paris (France))

    1982-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone is described. The antiserum was obtained by immunization of rabbits with lysine vasopressin conjugated to hemocyanine. The specificity of the antibody was selective and directed against the pentapeptide ring of the vasopressin molecule: oxytocin showed no cross-reactivity at 10/sup -9/M. The labelled hormone (/sup 125/I-AVP) prepared using the chloramine-T method had a high specific activity (1860 Ci/mmol). Incubation was performed in an equilibrium system. Comparative studies of different separation methods of bounds and free /sup 125/I-AVP showed that the sensitivity and the precision of the standard curve were better using charcoal dextran. The limit of detection of the assay was 1,6 pg per ml.

  15. A homologous radioimmunoassay for canine prolactin: plasma levels huring the reproductive cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the purification of canine prolactin, involving preparative isoelectrofocusing. Canine prolactin has a molecular weight of 23 000 daltons, an isoelectric point of 5.7 and exhibits a high degree of homogeneity in polyacrylamide gels stained by means of a silver method. A specific, homologous radioimmunoassay is described using the Bolton-Hunter method for preparation of the labelled ligand, with a sensitivity of 0.1 ng/tube. Basal plasma prolactin levels of 2-4 ng/ml obtained through the oestrous cycle remained fairly constant but a rise of 9 ng/ml was found at the end of dioestrus in non-pregnant bitches. Level also rose 30 days after mating to reach a peak of about 50 ng/ml near parturition and during early lactation. (author)

  16. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay of immunoglobulins G, A and M: applicability in analysis of sucrose gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, E.F.; Danielsen, H. (Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). Medical Department C); Johansen, A.S. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Institute of Medical Biochemistry); Larsson, L.I. (Unit of Histochemistry, University Institute of Pathology, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    1984-01-01

    A simple and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of immunoglobulins G, A and M in sucrose gradients is described. The solid-phase consisted of immunoglobulins adsorbed to polystyrene tubes. Using buffers without detergent and /sup 125/I-labeled sheep anti-rabbit IgA as radioligand, the assay was able to detect 0.8 ng per tube in the IgG assay and 1.6 ng per tube in the IgA and IgM assays. Standard curves with antigen dissolved in 10% and 32% sucrose were superimposable and did not deviate from standard curves with antigen dissolved in buffer without sucrose. Using these techniques on ultracentrifugation samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Schoenlein-Henoch nephritis and IgA glorulonephritis is was possible to detect both immunoglobulin fragments and immunoglobulin aggregates at the same time without prior dialysis of the samples.

  17. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  18. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone and its application in pituitary dysfunction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, specific and sensitive Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the measurement of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in serum samples. 123I-labelled HGH has been used as a tracer and dextran coated charcoal system has been employed to separate antibody bound hormone from the unbound one. The assay offers sensitivity of 0.16 ng/ml with a reproducibility of 7% intraassay and inter-assay variations. Serum HGH levels were measured at fasting-resting state and during insulin stimulation test in (1) 15 normal subjects (controls) and (2) 31 patients with stunted growth, whereas (3) in 7 acromegalic patients the same were measured at fasting-resting state and after oral glucose administration. This procedure has been used to distinguish dwarfs due to growth hormone deficiency from other conditions unrelated to pituitary disease and to confirm acromegaly. (author)

  19. Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melatonin, the chief hormone of the pineal gland in vertebrates, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. Among many functions, melatonin synchronizes circadian and circannual rhythms, stimulates immune function, may increase life span, inhibits growth of cancer cells in vitro and cancer progression and promotion in vivo, and was recently shown to be a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger and antioxidant. Hydroxyl radicals are highly toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that damage cellular DNA and other macromolecules. Herein we report that melatonin, in varying concentrations, is also found in a variety of plants. Melatonin concentrations, measured in nine different plants by radioimmunoassay, ranged from 0 to 862 pg melatonin/mg protein. The presence of melatonin was verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that the consumption of plant materials that contain high levels of melatonin could alter blood melatonin levels of the indole as well as provide protection of macromolecules against oxidative damage. (au) 30 refs

  20. Simple solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human leukemia-associated cell membrane antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a simple solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed to determine detergent-extracted human leukemia-associated cell membrane antigens. In the assay, 96-well microtiter plates are coated with human leukemia cell membrane antigens containing a T cell leukemia or a non-T cell leukemia antigen in the presence of a detergent, and treated with 1.6% bovine serum albumin solution. The coated antigens were reacted with an appropriate murine monoclonal antibody (mAb). The bound mAb is determined by a second reaction with 125I-labeled F(ab')2 of goat anti-mouse Ig. The best antigen dose-dependent antibody binding results were obtained using the plates coated with antigens in the presence of taurocholate. In addition, the usefulness of the present assay with taurocholate during the purification of the antigens was demonstrated. (Auth.)

  1. Radioimmunoassay of the new opiate analgesics alfentanil and sufentanil. Preliminary pharmacokinetic profile in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiels, M.; Hendriks, R.; Heykants, J. (Janssen Pharmaceutical, Beerse (Belgium))

    1983-02-01

    The development of two analogous radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures based on dextran-charcoal separation is described for the quantification of alfentanil and sufentanil. Immunization of rabbits with conjugates of bovine serum albumin and carboxy-derivatives of the respective drugs resulted in the production of antisera capable of detecting less than 0.05 ng ml/sup -1/ of the parent analgesics with high specificity and almost no cross-reactivity with major metabolites. Excellent agreement was obtained between RIA - without prior extraction - and gas chromatography for alfentanil concentrations in human plasma. Because of sufentanil's low therapeutic levels no comparison could be made between its RIA and an alternative assay, however, there was strong evidence for the specificity of the assay when applied directly to plasma.

  2. Trace analysis of ecdysones by gas--liquid chromatography, radioimmunoassay, and bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay was compared to a gas-liquid chromatographic assay and a bioassay as a method for quantifying ecdysone titers in arthropods. In addition a continuous-development thin layer chromatographic technique was evaluated as a means for separating various ecdysone analogues. The carboxymethoxyamine derivative of β-ecdysone was synthesized and characterized by several spectral methods. This derivative was conjugated to bovine serum albumin to afford a suitable antigen and injected into rabbits. The antisera produced shows a moderate affinity for β-ecdysone and cross-reacts with many ecdysone analogues. Ecdysones were also quantified directly as trimethylsilyl ethers using a 63Ni electron capture detector in a gas-liquid chromatographic system. Less than 50 pg of material could be detected per injection. Both of these techniques and the Musca domestica bioassay were used for the comparative analysis of a number of biological samples. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed. (U.S.)

  3. Radioimmunoassay determination of urinary prostaglandins in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of urinary determinations of E-2 prostaglandines by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 24-hour urine are presented for three groups: progressive systemic sclerotic patients with normotension and with elevated or normal APR, progressive systemic sclerotic patients with hypertension and with normal or low APR, control group of normal subjects. In a recent report of progressive systemic sclerosis in patients we demonstrated changes in the urine concentratrion of APR levels, sodium excretion and in total blood volume. Based on these findings we felt the need to perform quantifications of E-2 prostaglandines (PGE-2) in 24-hour recently taken urine samples stored at 700 and measure the sodium amounts excreted in the urine. We concluded that urinary determination of E-2 prostaglandines was the most suitable for our study as it allowed the establishment of relationships between APR, aldosterone and metabolic sodium balance. (author)

  4. Development of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the detection of methotrexate in the serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This double-antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) designed to detect methotrexate (MTX) in the serum is a precise, rapid and cost-saving quantitative procedure, which meets all the requirements regarding accuracy and reproducibility. Its main components are anti-methotrexate as antiserum, 3H-MTX as tracer substance and a second antibody as separating agent. The measuring technique using tritium is based on a method involving removal of the supernate by suction after separation of the antibody, dissolution of the precipitate in NaCl and addition of the scintillator. As opposed to separation techniques based on carbon the radioactivity to be determined is contained in the precipitate, not in the supernate. The procedure permits the required amount of scintillator and the associated radioactive waste to be reduced by 90%. A further decisive advantage is its low limit of detection. (TRV)

  5. Methotrexate concentrations in biological fluids: Comparison of results obtained by radioimmunoassay and direct ligand binding radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive (sensitivity 2.2 x 10-9 mol/l) and specific (practically no cross-reaction with circulating folates) radioimmunoassay for the determination of methotrexate concentrations in biological fluids is described and compared with a commercial competitive protein binding assay. Antiserum with high titer was produced in rabbits immunized with MTX-human serum albumin conjugate. Fitness for use in pharmacokinetic drug level determinations was shown in three patients, who received both low doses and high dose therapy combined with citrovorum factor rescue. An excellent correlation was found between plasma and urine MTX concentrations obtained by RIA and competitive protein binding assay. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was found adequately describing the serum decay curves, but there was a great interindividual variability in the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters. (author)

  6. Radioimmunoassay of haemoglobin F in K 562 cells following induction with renin substrate and erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenloef, K.; Fyhrquist, F.; Hortling, L.; Groenhagen-Riska, C. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Minerva Inst. for Medical Research; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). 4th Dept. of Medicine)

    1985-06-01

    To test the hypothesis of renin substrate (RS: angiotensinogen) being a precursor of erythropoietin (EP), the capacity of RS and EP to induce Hb synthesis was compared in cultured human erythroid leukaemia cells of the K 562 line after prestimulation with haemin. For this purpose a radioimmunoassay for haemoglobin F (HbF) was developed. This assay was shown to be specific for HbF, reproducible, and sensitive for 0.1 ng of HbF. The cells were induced by RS and EP to increased HbF production. Cells stimulated with RS or EP showed increased benzidine staining. These data support the hypothesis that renin substrate is a likely precursor of erythropoietin.

  7. Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbels, R.; Klenke, E.; Schnakenberg, E.; Ehlers, C.; Schloot, W. [Univ. of Bremen, Center of Human Genetics and Genetic Counselling, Bremen (Germany); Reiter, R.J. [The Univ. of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Dept. of Cellular and Structural Biology, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Goebel, A.; Schiware, H.W. [Gemeinschaftslabor Dr. Schiwara et al., Breman (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    Melatonin, the chief hormone of the pineal gland in vertebrates, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. Among many functions, melatonin synchronizes circadian and circannual rhythms, stimulates immune function, may increase life span, inhibits growth of cancer cells in vitro and cancer progression and promotion in vivo, and was recently shown to be a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger and antioxidant. Hydroxyl radicals are highly toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism that damage cellular DNA and other macromolecules. Herein we report that melatonin, in varying concentrations, is also found in a variety of plants. Melatonin concentrations, measured in nine different plants by radioimmunoassay, ranged from 0 to 862 pg melatonin/mg protein. The presence of melatonin was verified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our findings suggest that the consumption of plant materials that contain high levels of melatonin could alter blood melatonin levels of the indole as well as provide protection of macromolecules against oxidative damage. (au) 30 refs.

  8. Radioimmunoassay for Ascaris specific protein and its clinical approach to gastro-intestinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for Ascaris specific protein (ASP) and measured the serum levels in control subjects average; 5.94 +- 5.94 ng/ml) and in patients with Ascaris and a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In all Ascaris carriers, very high concentration of ASP (average; 151.4 ng/ml) was observed. 12 out of 38 patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly high serum levels of ASP. The high titer of ASP and the presence of antibody to ASP, previously described, may suggest the close relationship between ASP and ulcerative colitis. RIA for ASP, also provides simple method for screening the patients with Ascaris and hence may open the new field in parasitology. (author)

  9. Comparison of different standards used in radioimmunoassay for atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Nielsen, M. Damkjær; Giese, J.

    1991-01-01

    Six different standards for determination of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in human plasma samples have been compared using our radio-immunoassay for ANF: International standard 85/669, National Biological Standard Boards, UK; Bachem standard, Torrance, USA; Bachem standard, Bubendorf......, Switzerland; Bissendorf standard, Wedemark, Germany; Peninsula standard, Belmont, USA; UCB-Bioproducts standard, Brussels, Belgium, Standard curves obtained with different preparations were in parallel but showed considerable quantitative differences. Standard curves referring to the Bissendorf standard...... and the International standard, respectively, were almost identical. The dose required for 50% of binding inhibition (ID50s) determined with the Peninsula, UCB and Swiss Bachem standards were higher and ID50 for the American Bachem standard was much lower than ID50 for the International standard. In consequence...

  10. Iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, C.P.; Stead, A.H.; Mason, P.A.; Law, B.; Moffat, A.C.; McBrien, M.; Cosby, S.

    1986-05-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine is described. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and an easily synthesised radio-iodinated derivative of clonazepam that allows the use of relatively simple gamma-counting procedures. The assay can detect low therapeutic levels of all of the benzodiazepines currently available in the UK in 50-..mu..l samples of blood and urine (1-50 ng ml/sup -1/, depending on the drug); no prior sample preparation is required. It is inexpensive, rapid, simple to perform and is broadly specific for the benzodiazepine class of drugs. The assay offers a most suitable means of screening large numbers of samples of forensic interest for the presence of the benzodiazepines.

  11. An iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine is described. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and an easily synthesised radio-iodinated derivative of clonazepam that allows the use of relatively simple gamma-counting procedures. The assay can detect low therapeutic levels of all of the benzodiazepines currently available in the UK in 50-μl samples of blood and urine (1-50 ng ml-1, depending on the drug); no prior sample preparation is required. It is inexpensive, rapid, simple to perform and is broadly specific for the benzodiazepine class of drugs. The assay offers a most suitable means of screening large numbers of samples of forensic interest for the presence of the benzodiazepines. (author)

  12. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin and its potential in the diagnosis of fetal hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for erythropoietin (EPO) in the serum and amniotic fluid was set up, based on donated rabbit antibody and a commercial tracer. EPO levels obtained by means of the RIA correlated well with the results obtained by means of ELISA or a commercial RIA kit. Retrospective evaluations of EPO levels in umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid samples obtained during 171 vaginal or Cesarean section deliveries have shown that already in the course of spontaneous vaginal delivery a moderate increase of EPO in umbilical cord serum can be detected. The marked increase of EPO levels in both cord serum and amniotic fluid was always observed in relation to a severe fetal distress. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs

  13. Development and Optimization of Sepharose Solid Phase Radioimmunoassay for Estimation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was oriented to develop, optimize and validate solid phase radioimmunoassay, through many studies on Sepharose, for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in humane serum. Preparation of polyclonal antibodies was carried out in host rabbit animals against TSH antigen followed by partial purification of 1gG. Linkage of antibody 1gG to activated Sepharose CL-4B was carried out after activation of Sepharose with 1,1- carbonyldiimidazole. Labeling of TSH was carried out using chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent and the labeled tracer was purified through PD-10 column. Extensive studies were carried out to obtain the optimum conditions of using solid phase Sepharose to reach higher separation efficiency. The results of validation tests reveal that the local solid phase system is precise and accurate for evaluation of thyroid disorders

  14. Direct radioimmunoassay of proinsulin and insulin in human plasma by the chromatographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific method for direct radioimmunoassay of IRP and IRI separately in human plasma has been described. The method is used for extraction of total insulin and separation of IRP from IRI by paper chromatography to be assayed separately. The separation of the two components is identified and confirmed by column chromatography, paper chromatography and ultraviolet spectral analysis in comparison with the standard compounds. 134 plasma samples of different cases were investigated for the determination of IRI, IRP and IRT. Out of these 39 were normals, 16 normal obes, 21 juvinil diabetes, 18 overt adult diabetes, 10 recent adult diabetes, 12 hypothyroidism and 18 bilharzial hepatosplenomegaly. They were used to evaluate the test levels in comparison with blood sugar concentration. (author)

  15. Radioimmunoassay studies on repair of ultraviolet damaged DNA in cultured animal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV (ultraviolet) damaged DNA and its repair of various cultured animal cells were observed by radioimmunoassay using anti-serum against the UV irradiation induced heat-degenerated DNA. There is some difference among the cells of used animals according to their DNA repairabilities. The cells were divided into four groups according to the existence or strength of their repairabilities. 1) excision repair type: cells of men and chimpanzees. 2) photoreactivation type: cells derived from Tachydromus tachydromoides and chicks. 3) photoreactivation with excision repair: cells of rats, kangaroos and mosquitos. 4) non-excision repair type: cells of mice, Meriones and rats. Animal cells have plural types of repair. Main types of repair will differ according to the kind of animals. (Ichikawa, K.)

  16. Radioimmunoassay of trypsin in dried blood importance for the neonatal detection of cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demonstration of very high levels of immunoreactive trypsin in the blood of newborn infants with cystic fibrosis has provided a new way of detecting the disease soon after birth. A radioimmunoassay of trypsin in the eluate of blood dried on filter paper has now been developed. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method, as well as the good correlation observed between the values obtained and those of the conventional plasma assay, indicate that it is reliable and well adapted to the newborn. The new assay can easily be inserted into the present system of neonatal disease detection. A preliminary assessment of more than 5000 tests enables the authors to report an early diagnosis of proven cystic fibrosis and to discuss an essential aspect of mass-detection methods: the indicence of false-positive results

  17. Analysis of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for antibodies to cytoplasmic antigen fractions of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in individual polystyrene microtiter cups has been adapted for measurement of antibody to various cytoplasmic and carbohydrate antigen fractions of Candida albicans. The assay was optimized for sensitivity, precision and linearization of serum dilution curves. The optimized procedure allows computerized measurement of anti-Candida antibodies and can be used for measurement of antibody over a wide concentration range. The procedure obviates variation due to changes in day-to-day counts as a result of isotope decay and end-point antibody dilutions. The assay has been used to demonstrate a Poisson-like distribution of antibody levels in the sera of persons showing no symptoms of candidiasis. The minimum antibody level detectable by the assay is about two orders of magnitude lower than the lowest level found in human serum and 4 orders of magnitude lower than the most sensitive test used hitherto, the hemagglutination test. (Auth.)

  18. Direct radioimmunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay is described for detecting IgM-class antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The assay achieves a preliminary separation of IgM from other serum proteins by immunoadsorption to anti-IgM-coated wells in microtitre plates. The IgM is then tested for antigen specificity by measuring its ability to bind radiolabelled M. pneumoniae. Positive results are confirmed by retesting sera after treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol. The assay is specific for IgM-class antibodies and specific for M. pneumoniae. It is not affected by competitive inhibition from IgG and avoids the use of density gradient centrifugation or gel filtration to separate IgM from other immunoglobulins. It is sensitive, reproducible, rapid, simple and requires very little serum. (Auth.)

  19. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk; Radioinmunoensayo para progesterona en leche bovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Miriam [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: mirian@fctn.isctn.edu.cu; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro [Centro de Isotopos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  20. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique of steroid hormones in the laying hens, Gallus domesticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been applied to many organic compounds of biological interest. In this work, commercially available antisera developed for various steroid hormones were used in the analysis of steroid hormones in the laying hens. The RIA procedure for plasma steroid hormones was divided into three phases: sample preparation, incubation of the antibody-3H-steroid complex with prepared samples and a standard curve and separation of antibody bound 3H-steroid from free 3H-steroid. Results showed that it is possible to use commercially available antiserum source for the determination of steroid hormones in this species. This approach has the advantage of savings in both time and money, by eliminating time losses in screening potential animals producing steroid antiserum and the costs of maintaining these animals

  1. A sensitive radioimmunoassay for the determination of antibodies to mouse hepatitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay is described for the detection of antibodies to mouse hepatitis virus. Viruses were purified by velocity and isopycnic gradient centrifugation and 96-well plastic plates were coated with viral antigens. To allow the detection of most serotypes of low titered antisera, a pool of antigens from several viral serotypes were employed. The second antibody, an affinity-purified goat antimouse immunoglobulin, detects IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. This assay is more sensitive than either the plaque reduction assay or the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and proved to be useful for screening mouse colonies for the presence of mouse hepatitis virus, following seroconversion in experimental animals and in the production of monoclonal antibodies to both structural and nonstructural proteins. (Auth.)

  2. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of surface antigens expressed on intact lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the measurement of lymphocyte surface antigens. The assay was performed in microplates, using cells that were initially fixed to the wells by air drying. The method was used for the measurement of Thy-1, Lyt-1,2,3, IL-2-R, H-2Kb and DR antigens on the surface of mouse thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells, mouse cell lines CTLL, EL-4 and DA-1 and human thymocytes and consisted of sequential incubations with rat or mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against the above antigens, rabbit anti-rat or goat anti-mouse IgG and 125I-protein A. The assay permits the processing of large numbers of samples, is easy to perform, reliable and highly specific. (Auth.)

  3. A new method for measuring antibody using radiolabeled protein A in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A micro solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed which utilizes radiolabeled staphylococcal Protein A ([125I] Protein A) in place of radiolabeled anti-immunoglobulin ([125I]anti-IgG) for the measurement of antibody. For the assay, antigen is adsorbed to the wells of a microtiter plate followed by dilutions of serum and [125I]-Protein A in subsequent steps. It was found that this assay can be used to measure antibody (Ab) against a variety of antigens in human and rabbit but not goat immune serum. Binding of [125I]-Protein A and [125I]anti-IgG to human and rabbit IgG was comparable. It was possible to quantify this amount of Ab in human serum by reference to immune rabbit serum. The sensitivity of this assay for rabbit antibody was 1 ng/ml. (Auth.)

  4. Radioimmunoassay for anticollagen-antibodies using 14C-labelled collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for anticollagen antibodies is described. 14C-labelled human acid-soluble collagen of high specific activity (5 x 106 dpm/mg) is used as antigen either in native or denatured state. Experimentally induced anticollagen antibodies or RA synovial fluids containing antibodies to collagen are reacted with the labelled antigen. The immune complexes formed are precipitated with goat antiserum to rabbit globulins ('second antibody'). A systematic investigation of the labelled collagen in regard to cleavage by enzymes, fibril formation and specificity showed that no gross alteration had been caused by the labelling procedure. The assay furnishes information on the avidity, specificity and immunoglobulin class of experimental or pathological anticollagen antibodies. It can also be used as sensitive assay for collagen in biological fluids

  5. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of surface antigens expressed on intact lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savion, S.; Sharabi, Y.; Shoham, J.

    1987-02-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the measurement of lymphocyte surface antigens. The assay was performed in microplates, using cells that were initially fixed to the wells by air drying. The method was used for the measurement of Thy-1, Lyt-1,2,3, IL-2-R, H-2K/sup b/ and DR antigens on the surface of mouse thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells, mouse cell lines CTLL, EL-4 and DA-1 and human thymocytes and consisted of sequential incubations with rat or mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against the above antigens, rabbit anti-rat or goat anti-mouse IgG and /sup 125/I-protein A. The assay permits the processing of large numbers of samples, is easy to perform, reliable and highly specific. 13 refs.; 10 figs.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of tumor markers in serum of patients with renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having noted an increased serum level of TPA and CEA in patients with renal carcinoma the authors extended these studies by using a larger number of tumor markers. In 15 patients (11 men and 4 women after menopause) aged 33 to 74 years who had renal carcinoma, among them 3 with tumor metastases, the serum concentration of TPA, CA 12-5, CEA, AFP, ferritin, prolactin, β-HCG, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Monoclonal antibodies were used in the determination of serum CA 12-5 and CEA. In all patients surgical treatment, irradiation, or cytostatic therapy had not been performed. In serum the normal range was exceeded by TPA in 7 patients, CA 12-5 in 3, CEA and AFP in one each, ferritin in 12, prolactin in 2, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin in 10 patients. In one man serum prolactin was reduced. Serum β-HCG was normal in all patients. According to these results serum ferritin, TPA, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin are of great value as tumor markers in patients with renal carcinoma. In several patients the increase of serum β/sub 2/-microglobulin may be ascribed partly to deterioration of renal function. As no consistent patterns of tumor markers in serum were observed it is recommended to determine several tumor markers and not only one of them during the follow-up of patients. Radioimmunoassays for measuring the serum level of tumor markers, especially ferritin, TPA, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin, may considerably assist in the management of patients with renal carcinoma by providing early information about tumor recurrence or metastases

  7. AFP-L3在肝细胞癌诊断中的临床价值%Diagnostic role of alpha-fetoprotein variants in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鹏; 褚瑞海; 张彩彩; 郭欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中AFP-L3含量对肝细胞癌诊断的临床意义.方法 利用微量离心柱法分离得到AFP-L3,采用化学发光法分别检测总AFP与AFP-L3含量,进而计算AFP-L3与总AFP的比值.结果 肝细胞癌患者血清中AFP及AFP-L3的水平均显著高于其他各组,而不同AFP浓度的肝细胞癌患者组AFP-L3的阳性率无明显差异.结论 AFP-L3作为肿瘤标志物对肝细胞癌的早期诊断及良、恶性肝病的鉴别有一定的临床价值.

  8. A resected case of metachronous liver metastasis from lung cancer producing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Yukio; Takada, Yasutsugu; Enomoto, Tsuyoshi; Fukao, Katashi; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Iijima, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    A resected case of huge liver metastasis of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung is described. A 77-year-old man who presented a solitary huge liver tumor was admitted to our hospital. He had undergone right lower lobectomy of the lung for lung cancer one year before. The view of imaging studies was not a typical one of hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum levels of AFP and PIVKA-II were 334,500ng/mL and 3,890mAU/mL, respectively, and the proportion of AFP L3 was 97.9%. It was thought that they were strongly diagnostic for hepatocellular carcinoma. Extended right lobectomy of the liver was performed. Microscopically, it was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and diagnosed as liver metastasis from the formerly resected lung cancer. The tumor was composed of cells with both sheet-like growth and tubule formation. The neoplastic cells, in the sheet-like growth resembled hepatocellular carcinoma cells. By immunohistochemical staining with anti-AFP and anti-PIVKA-II antibodies, cancer cells of both the primary and metastatic lesions were positive. The patient eventually died of multiple liver and bone metastasis 6 months after the operation.

  9. 甲胎蛋白与肝癌免疫的研究进展%Advanced progress in alpha-fetoprotein and hepatocarcinoma immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 王小平; 胥冰; 蔺焕萍; 张克佩

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological cancers in the world with less effective therapy .Excepting for its diagnosis in liver cancer , AFP has become the target for liver cancer immunotherapy .Although AFP′s immunogenicity is weak and can promote the immune escapes by inhibiting the function of dendritic cells , natural killer cells and T lymphocytes , AFP has drawn more attention in liver cancer immunotherapy .By in vitro modification , the immunogenicity and immune effect of AFP could be enhanced.The important role of AFP in development , progression and immunity of liver cancer can lay a better foundation in hepato-carcinoma immunotherapy .%肝癌是常见的消化道恶性肿瘤,目前没有较好的治疗措施。甲胎蛋白在肝癌细胞中高表达,除了用于肝癌诊断外,其作为肿瘤相关抗原已成为肝癌免疫治疗的靶点。虽然甲胎蛋白免疫原性较弱,并通过抑制树突状细胞,自然杀伤细胞以及T淋巴细胞功能促进肝癌细胞免疫逃逸,但其在肝癌免疫治疗中的作用也日益受到重视,通过体外修饰增强其免疫原性促进免疫应答,从而提高杀伤肝癌细胞免疫效应。甲胎蛋白在肝癌发生、发展及免疫中的作用为研究其在肝癌中的免疫治疗奠定了良好的基础。

  10. Heterogeneity of human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in urea-acrylamide gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E. P.; Miller, J. B.; Yachnin, S.

    1977-01-01

    HAFP was purified from five patients with hepatoma, one with gastric cancer, and one with an embryonal cell tumor, as well as from fetal liver and a monkey tumor cell line grown in tissue culture. The pattern of microheterogeneity of purified HAFP was defined for each HAFP isolate, and was demonstrated to be present in native sera, using crossed immunoelectrophoresis in agarose gels and isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels containing 8 M urea. Three, and in one case four, species were seen in agarose, and were further resolved to reveal 6 major species with isoelectric focusing which could be correlated with the agarose gel variants. We have demonstrated a relationship between the immunosuppressive potency of certain HAFP preparations and the proportion of specific HAFP isomers which they contain as shown by these techniques. We have desialylated each of our preparations and demonstrated that this does not alter immunosuppressive potency but leaves residual complex microheterogeneity. Desialylated HAFP isolates contain six major HAFP isomers by isoelectric focusing, indicating that HAFP heterogeneity is based upon multiple charge differences in the HAFP molecule, apart from sialic acid content. The nature of these charge differences remain to be determined. We postulate that these charge differences modulate the immunosuppressive potency of HAFP.

  11. Electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for α-fetoprotein based on glucose detection with multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Lan; Yan, Xiao-Hui; Yin, Xiao-Mao; Situ, Bo; Zhou, Han-Kun; Lin, Li; Li, Bo; Gan, Ning; Zheng, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Since glucose biosensors are one of the most popular and widely used point-of-care testing devices, a novel electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for protein biomarkers has been developed based on a glucose detection strategy. In this study, α-fetoprotein (AFP) was used as the target protein. An electrochemical ELISA system was constructed using anti-AFP antibodies immobilized on microwell plates as the capture antibody (Ab1) and multi-label bioconjugates as signal tracer. The bioconjugates were synthesized by attaching glucoamylase and the secondary anti-AFP antibodies (Ab2) to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). After formation of the sandwich complex, the Ab2-glucoamylase-AuNPs conjugates converted starch into glucose in the presence of AFP. The concentration of AFP can be calculated based on the linear relation between AFP and glucose, the concentration of which can be detected by the glucose biosensor. When the AFP concentration ranged from 0.05 to 100 ng/mL, a linear calibration plot (i (µA) = 13.62033 - 2.86252 logCAFP (ng/mL), r = 0.99886) with a detection limit of 0.02 ng/mL was obtained under optimal conditions. The electrochemical ELISA developed in this work shows acceptable stability and reproducibility, and the assay for AFP spiked in human serum also shows good recovery (97.0%-104%). This new method could be applied for detecting any protein biomarker with the corresponding antibodies. PMID:24129276

  12. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang-Long; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-1.62] in OYST. However, a high postoperative AFP level was associated with worse OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.48) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43) compared to a low postoperative AFP level in patients with OYST. In addition, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was associated with a decrease in OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.50) and RFS (OR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.08-0.57). In conclusion, the postoperative, but not the preoperative, AFP level was found to be a prognostic factor in patients with OYST. In particular, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with OYST. PMID:25469282

  13. The Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigen α-Fetoprotein Is Enhanced by a Fusion with a Transmembrane Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vector to induce an immune response against a well-tolerated self-antigen. Methods. rMVA vectors expressing different form of α-fetoprotein (AFP were produced and characterized. Naïve mice were vaccinated with MVA vectors expressing the AFP antigen in either a secreted, or a membrane-bound, or an intracellular form. The immune response was monitored by an IFNΓ ELISpot assay and antibody detection. Results. Vaccination with the membrane-associated form of AFP induced a stronger CD8+ T-cell response compared to the ones obtained with the MVA encoding the secreted or the intracellular forms of AFP. Moreover, the vaccination with the membrane-bound AFP elicited the production of AFP-specific antibodies. Conclusions. The AFP transmembrane form is more immunogenic. Expressing a membrane-bound form in the context of an MVA vaccination could enhance the immunogenicity of a self-antigen.

  14. Electrodeposition of CdSe quantum dots and its application to an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for α-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the first label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for α-fetoprotein (AFP). It is based on the use of CdSe quantum dots that were electrodeposited directly on a gold electrode from an electrolyte (containing cadmium sulfate, EDTA and selenium dioxide) by cycling the potential between 0 and -1.2 V (vs. SCE) for 60 s. The electrodeposited dots were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Under optimal conditions, the specific immunoreaction between AFP and anti-AFP resulted in a decrease of the ECL signal because of the steric hindrance and the transfer inhibition by peroxodisulfate. The quenching effect of the immunoreaction on the intensity of the ECL was used to establish a calibration plot which is linear in the range from 0.05 to 200 ng mL-1. The detection limit is 2 pg mL-1. The assay is highly sensitive and satisfactorily reproducible. In our opinion it opens new avenues to apply ECL in label-free biological assays. (author)

  15. Review of alpha_s determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present knowledge on the strong coupling is briefly summarized. The most precise determinations of alpha_s, at different energies, are reviewed and compared at the Z mass scale, using the predicted QCD running. The impressive agreement achieved between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions constitutes a beautiful and very significant test of Asymptotic Freedom, establishing QCD as the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. The world average value of the strong coupling is found to be alpha_s(M_Z^2)= 0.1186 \\pm 0.0007.

  16. Review of alpha_s determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present knowledge on the strong coupling is briefly summarized. The most precise determinations of alpha_s, at different energies, are reviewed and compared at the Z mass scale, using the predicted QCD running. The impressive agreement achieved between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions constitutes a beautiful and very significant test of Asymptotic Freedom, establishing QCD as the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. The world average value of the strong coupl...

  17. Using serum α-fetoprotein for prognostic prediction in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: what is the most optimal cutoff?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yang Hsu

    Full Text Available The prognostic ability of α-fetoprotein (AFP for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was examined by using different cutoff values. The optimal AFP cutoff level is still unclear.A total of 2579 HCC patients were consecutively enrolled in Taiwan, where hepatitis B is the major etiology of chronic liver disease. Four frequently used AFP cutoff levels, 20, 200, 400, 1000 ng/mL, were investigated. One-to-one matched pairs between patients having AFP higher and lower than the cutoffs were selected by using the propensity model. The adjusted hazard ratios of survival difference were calculated with Cox proportional hazards model.Patients with a higher AFP level were associated with more severe cirrhosis, more frequent vascular invasion, higher tumor burden and poorer performance status (all p0.05. Patients with AFP <20 ng/mL had significantly better long-term survival than patients with AFP ≧20 ng/mL (p<0.0001, and patients with AFP <400 ng/mL had significantly better overall outcome than patients with AFP ≧400 ng/mL (p = 0.0186. There was no difference of long-term survival between patients divided by AFP levels of 200 and 1000 ng/mL. The adjusted hazard ratios of AFP ≧20 ng/mL and AFP ≧400 ng/mL were 1.545 and 1.471 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-1.838 and 1.178-1.837, respectively.This study shows the independently predictive ability of baseline serum AFP level in HCC patients. AFP levels of 20 and 400 ng/mL are considered feasible cutoffs to predict long-term outcome in unselected HCC patients.

  18. TGF-β Signaling Cooperates with AT Motif-Binding Factor-1 for Repression of the α-Fetoprotein Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Sakata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Fetoprotein (AFP is known to be highly produced in fetal liver despite its barely detectable level in normal adult liver. On the other hand, hepatocellular carcinoma often shows high expression of AFP. Thus, AFP seems to be an oncogenic marker. In our present study, we investigated how TGF-β signaling cooperates with AT motif-binding factor-1 (ATBF1 to inhibit AFP transcription. Indeed, the expression of AFP mRNA in HuH-7 cells was negatively regulated by TGF-β signaling. To further understand how TGF-β suppresses the transcription of the AFP gene, we analyzed the activity of the AFP promoter in the presence of TGF-β. We found that the TGF-β signaling and ATBF1 suppressed AFP transcription through two ATBF1 binding elements (AT-motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, both AT-motifs were required for transcriptional repression upon TGF-β stimulation. Furthermore, Smads were found to interact with ATBF1 at both its N-terminal and C-terminal regions. Since the N-terminal (ATBF1N and C-terminal regions of ATBF1 (ATBF1C lack the ability of DNA binding, both truncated mutants rescued the cooperative inhibitory action by the TGF-β signaling and ATBF1 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings indicate that TGF-β signaling can act in concert with ATBF1 to suppress the activity of the AFP promoter through direct interaction of ATBF1 with Smads.

  19. Electrochemical Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for α-Fetoprotein Based on Glucose Detection with Multienzyme-Nanoparticle Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since glucose biosensors are one of the most popular and widely used point-of-care testing devices, a novel electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for protein biomarkers has been developed based on a glucose detection strategy. In this study, α-fetoprotein (AFP was used as the target protein. An electrochemical ELISA system was constructed using anti-AFP antibodies immobilized on microwell plates as the capture antibody (Ab1 and multi-label bioconjugates as signal tracer. The bioconjugates were synthesized by attaching glucoamylase and the secondary anti-AFP antibodies (Ab2 to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. After formation of the sandwich complex, the Ab2-glucoamylase-AuNPs conjugates converted starch into glucose in the presence of AFP. The concentration of AFP can be calculated based on the linear relation between AFP and glucose, the concentration of which can be detected by the glucose biosensor. When the AFP concentration ranged from 0.05 to 100 ng/mL, a linear calibration plot (i (µA = 13.62033 − 2.86252 logCAFP (ng/mL, r = 0.99886 with a detection limit of 0.02 ng/mL was obtained under optimal conditions. The electrochemical ELISA developed in this work shows acceptable stability and reproducibility, and the assay for AFP spiked in human serum also shows good recovery (97.0%–104%. This new method could be applied for detecting any protein biomarker with the corresponding antibodies.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin to assess the suitability of gluten free foods for patients with coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (United Medical School of Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Lennox, E.S. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1985-03-01

    Coeliac disease is a clinical condition characterised by malabsorption secondary to abnormalities of the small intestine. The condition is known to be exacerbated by wheat gliadin, rye, barley and possibly oats. The only assays that are available for testing for the presence of wheat gluten in foods are double diffusion against rabbit anti-gliadin antiserum and measurement of Kjeldahl nitrogen in products derived from wheat flour. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin with a detection limit of 1 ng. Nominally gluten free foods based on wheat starch have been shown to contain up to 1.9 x 10/sup -2/% wheat gliadin. Bread made from Nutregen wheat starch which has now been withdrawn contains 6.4 mg gliadin per standard 30 g slice. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin could be used to define standards for the suitability of gluten free products based on wheat starch for patients with coeliac disease.

  1. Basic conditions for radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin, and plasma levels of erythropoietin in normal subjects and anemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Hideaki; Ohta, Kazuo; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Murakami, Akihiko; Ueda, Masatsugu; Sasaki, Ryuzou; Chiba, Hideo

    1987-02-01

    We have developed a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin. The sensitivity of our assay is 0.5 mU or 5 mU/ml and is sufficient to detect normal plasma erythropoietin levels. The mean plasma erythropoietin titer of normal Japanese with our radioimmunoassay was found to be 21.9 +- 12.0 mU/ml (n = 199). The validity of the method was further confirmed by the observations that the plasma erythropoietin titers were inversely related to hemoglobin levels in patients with nonuremic anemias, lower in uremic patients than in patients with nonuremic anemias with similar hemoglobin levels, markedly elevated in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia, and in a low normal range in patients with polycythemia vera.

  2. Detection of influenza virus by means of immune sera to MP and RNP inner proteins in solid phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) was shown suitable for detection of influenza virus in various biological materials using immune sera to membrane protein and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) isolated from strain A/USSR/90/77. Either serum was able to detect influenza A viruses with different hemagglutinins (H1,H3,H7) and did not react with influenza B viruses. SPRIA detected 0.3 ng viral protein per 1 ml, i.e., its sensitivity was 20 times higher than that of the hemagglutination test. Neither serum revealed the virus in the extract from choroallantoic membrane of infected chicken embryos. Competitive radioimmunoassay showed that the antigenic specificity of A/PR/8/34 virus RNP differed from that of A/USSR/90/77 virus RNP. (author)

  3. Detection of influenza virus by means of immune sera to MP and RNP inner proteins in solid phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trushinskaya, G.N.; Ivanova, V.T.; Zaktel' skaya, L.Ya.

    1984-11-01

    Solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) was shown suitable for detection of influenza virus in various biological materials using immune sera to membrane protein and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) isolated from strain A/USSR/90/77. Either serum was able to detect influenza A viruses with different hemagglutinins (H1,H3,H7) and did not react with influenza B viruses. SPRIA detected 0.3 ng viral protein per 1 ml, i.e., its sensitivity was 20 times higher than that of the hemagglutination test. Neither serum revealed the virus in the extract from choroallantoic membrane of infected chicken embryos. Competitive radioimmunoassay showed that the antigenic specificity of A/PR/8/34 virus RNP differed from that of A/USSR/90/77 virus RNP.

  4. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for human neutrophil elastase: a sensitive method for determining secreted and cell-associated enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measuring neutrophil elastase in the range 0.08-4 ng/ml has been developed. A monospecific, precipitating antibody capable of inhibiting elastinolysis was produced by repeated immunizations of a goat. The IgG fraction and affinity-purified antibodies of this serum were then obtained and used to develop this radioimmunoassay. There was no cross-reactivity in binding of the radiolabeled antisera with lactoferrin, cathepsin G, or serine proteinases with amino-terminal amino acid sequence homology. Although serum influences the measurement of catalytically active neutrophil elastase when compared to diisopropylfluorophosphate-treated neutrophil elastase, antigenic elastase may still be measured in body fluids. Furthermore, this assay is more sensitive than commercially available substrates used for quantitating neutrophil elastase by functional activity. We have found this quantitative assay extremely useful in balance studies to measure secreted and cell-associated elastase and in screening of biological fluids for the presence of the enzyme

  5. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for plasma testosterone using a plastic microtiter tray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to simplify radioimmunoassay for plasma testosterone and to measure many samples at the same time, a method of solid phase radioimmunoassay utilizing a plastic disposable microtiter tray (DMT) by which chromatography can be omitted was investigated. Other steroids except for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) had a low degree of cross reactivity with the antiserum. Five α-DHT which could be measured together with testosterone in this assay was not a problem clinically because of its strong androgenic activity. The best standard curve was obtained when the antiserum was diluted to 1:1000. The sensitivity of this assay was 10 pg-tube. The maximal adsorption of antibody to plastic DMT was observed when the pH of the antiserum was within the range of 6.5-9.5 and the precoating time was 24 hr at room temperature. The best pH of the incubation buffer was 0.8, and the antigen-antibody reaction became a plateau when the incubation exceeded 6 hrs. The water blank in this assay was 4.6 +- 2.1 pg/tube. The recovery of testosterone (50, 100, 200 pg) when added to 0.1 ml female plasma was 99 +- 6.8%. Coefficients of variation within assay and between assays were below 11.2% and 20.0%, respectively. Correlation between this method and the dextran-coated charcoal method was fairly good (r=0.938). Plasma testosterone levels in 10 normal males and 12 normal females were 616 +- 202 (mean +- SD) ng/dl and 66 +- 29 (mean +- SD) ng/dl, respectively. The levels were low in patients with hypopituitarism, hypogonadism and acromegaly. They were normal in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma, but they were high in a patient with adrenal carcinoma. In a patient with testicular feminization, the level was 632 ng/dl. This increased after the administration of HCG, and decreased to 127.5 ng/dl after castration. (auth.)

  6. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  7. Application of ochratoxin A mycotoxin radioimmunoassay in screening tests of foods and feeds of plant origin of cereal type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple procedure was tested of preparing food and feed samples of plant origin, for radioimmunoassay of ochratoxin A. All 27 food samples subjected to testing met the general hygiene regulations for foods (MPC - ochratoxin A 20 μg.kg-1), and so did all 23 samples of the tested feeds. The proposed method of sample preparation is not suitable for the examination of animal-origin foods because some proteins (albumin) might interfere. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 15 refs

  8. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  9. A peptide derived from α-fetoprotein prevents the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancers sensitive and resistant to tamoxifen

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Bennett; Mesfin, Fassil B.; Andersen, Thomas T.; Gierthy, John F.; Jacobson, Herbert I.

    2002-01-01

    An 8-mer peptide (EMTOVNOG) derived from α-fetoprotein was compared with tamoxifen for activity against growth of human breast cancer xenografts implanted in immune-deficient mice. Both peptide and tamoxifen prevented growth of estrogen-receptor-positive MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer xenografts. A subline of MCF-7, made resistant to tamoxifen by a 6-month exposure to this drug in culture, was found to be resistant to tamoxifen in vivo. Peptide completely prevented the xenograft growth of...

  10. Use Of Progesterone Radioimmunoassay for The Monitoring Reproductive status of Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The artificial insemination (AI) has been widely applied for the rapid improvements of genetic and reproductive efficiency, especially in the developing countries. In Indonesia it was introduced for a long time ago, but the fertility rate of insemination cows, however, is still low. Due to the limitation or relying on visual observation and rectal palpation far determining reproductive status, monitoring milk progesterone can help to improve reproductive efficiency and economic benefits. To analyse progesterone concentration, milk samples were collected in vials containing sodium azide tablets.The milk samples were collected twice a week for about six weeks long, and stored at 4oC in the refrigerator until analysed. Progesterone concentration in milk samples was determined by using solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with 125I labelled progesterone as tracer. The progesterone standards were prepared in skim milk and range from 0 to 40 nmol/I. The results of progesterone assay on samples of milk collected from five cows indicated that two cows with low progesterone, signifies that these cows had inactive ovaries (anoestrus), three other cows with post calving catalytic progesterone interpretation, and after subsequent insemination two cows getting pregnant. The accurate determination of progesterone levels can be used to confirm oestrus and diagnose non-pregnancy as well as to moriitor postpartum ovarian activity, early embryonic death and ovarian disorder

  11. Direct radioimmunoassay of 17. beta. -estradiol in ether extracts of bovine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, M.B.

    Anabolic estrogens such as 17..beta..-estradiol or 17..beta..-estradiol benzoate are used to promote growth and increase feed efficiency in food-producing cattle. This paper describes a technique to produce a more specific antibody to 17..beta..-estradiol by intradermal immunization using microquantities of 6-(carboxymethyl)-17..beta..-estradiol oxime bovine serum albumin and the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure to measure directly the amounts of 17..beta..-estradiol in ether extracts of bovine serum without using cleanup procedures. Results demonstrated that a specific and sensitive antibody was produced, and a titer of 1:10,000 was used in the RIA procedure. Antibody cross-reactivity with ..beta..-estradiol metabolites and other anabolic estrogens was negligible. The untreated bovine sera showed 0-24 pg of apparent 17..beta..-estradiol/mL, while 0-31 pg/mL total estrogens had been reported in the literature. This assay can measure 5-100 pg in 20-250..mu..L/sample. This method can be used before or immediately after slaughter to monitor the residual amounts of estradiol used in the treatment of cattle.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R. (Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport)

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of serum antibodies with B-streptococcus specificity in pregnant women and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    In a specific competitive radioimmunoassay of purified rabbit antibodies, labeled with iodine 125 against group- and type-antigens of streptococcus agalactiae (streptococci type B), we investigated the amount of serum anti-bodies providing specificity of streptococci type B in not preselected pregnant women, newborn and babies with colonies of streptococci type B or with diseases due to streptococci type B and in some of their mothers. These antibodies could be detected in 26 of 45 pregnant women and in 3 of 7 children with colonies of streptococci type B. 5 of 18 newborn with the ''early-onset'' type of infection and 6 of 7 of their mothers provided antibodies with specificity of streptococci type B as did one of two newborn with the ''late onset'' type of infection. Contrary to the supposition of Baker and Kasper and in accordance with the findings of Wilkinson, the ''risk group'' cannot be determined only by detecting the antibodies against streptococci type B. The risk group comprises those persons in whom the colonisation of streptococci agalactiae leads to the frequently life-threatening infecton of neonatals with streptococci type B.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of bovine, ovine and porcine luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody and a human tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for bovine (bLH), ovine (oLH) and porcine (pLH) luteinizing hormone was developed using a human 125ILH tracer from a commercial kit and a monoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. Standard curves demonstrated similar binding kinetics when bLH, oLH and pLH were incubated with tracer and antibody for 2 h at room temperature. A 30-min delay in the addition of the tracer gave sufficient sensitivity when analysing pLH. Separation of antibody-bound LH from free hormone was achieved by using second antibody-coated micro Sepharose beads. The assay was validated and the performance compared with that of an RIA currently in use for determination of bLH (coefficient of correlation: 0.99 and 0.98). Regardless of the standards used, intra-assay coefficients of variation were <10% for LH concentrations exceeding 1 μg/L. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were <15%. The assay was used for clinical evaluation demonstrating the pre-ovulatory LH surge in two cyclic cows, LH pulsatility in an oophorectomized ewe and LH response to GnRH injection in a boar. (au) (7 refs.)

  15. Radioimmunoassay for the detection of HBeAg and anti-HBe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, A R; Ferroni, P; Bonino, F; Recchia, S; Aricò, S; Palla, M; Caspani, B

    1979-01-31

    We describe a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, based on the "sandwich" principle, using anti-HBe1/anti-HBe2 containing IgG precoated to polystirene beads as the solid-phase, and 125I-anti-HBE as labelled antibody for the detection of HBeAg and a two steps competitive procedure for the detection of anti-HBe. Comparison of titre obtained by ID and RIA or reference sera containing HBeAg and anti-HBe revealed that RIA is about 200 fold more sensitive than ID in detecting both HBeAg and anti-HBe. Moreover an increase in the detection rate of HBeAg from 5.9% (ID) to 15% (RIA) and of anti-HBe from 47.8% (ID) to 74.2% (RIA) and consequently a reduction of the frequency of negative samples for both HBeAg and anti-HBe from 46.3% (ID) to 10.8% (RIA) was determined by testing sera from HBsAg asymptomatic carriers. With regard to specificity, the frequency of presumptive HBeAg positive samples not confirmed was of 1 out of 29 (3.4%). Technical improvements of sensitivity and specificity of the described RIA are under development. PMID:95390

  16. Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

  17. Evaluation Of Low Level Laser Therapy On Body Constitution And Leptin Hormone By Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymmetric fat distribution with excessive fat accumulation in particular areas often affects a person's self-image, self esteem, and overall quality of life. Purpose of the study: to investigate the efficacy of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on body constitution and leptin hormone by radioimmunoassay. Methods: Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30- 40 years. They were divided into two groups of equal number. Procedures: -Group A (Overweight group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 25- 29.9-Group B (Obese group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 30.both groups received LLLT, for 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. BMI, WC, HC, WHR, serum Leptin, cholesterol and triglyceride level were measured before and after finishing the study. Results: There was significant improvement in anthropometric measurements( on both abdomen and thigh fats) of both groups treated with low level laser therapy, decrease in serum leptin level in over weight group and increase in triglyceride serum level in both groups within normal level Conclusion: low level laser therapy is effective as a noninvasive and safe method of body contouring .

  18. Using micro-quantity of chloramine T in chicken pro-latin labelling and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of chicken plasma prolactin. The assay used chPRL(AFP-10328B) as reference standard, chPRL(AFP-4444B) as the radio labelled ligand, rabbit anti-chicken PRL (AFP-151040789) as first antibody, and donkey anti-rabbit IgG antiserum as second antibody. For iodide ratio labelling of chicken PRL, a modified chloramine T method which reduced the amount of chloramine T and omitted sodium metabisulfite, and produced the labelled hormone with a specific activity of 29μCi/μg was used. The assay sensitivity was 0.34 ng/ml. the ED75, ED50 and ED25 of standard curve were 1.30, 3.71 and 10.60 ng/ml, respectively. Both coefficients of variations between and within assay were less than 15%. Serial dilutions of chicken samples showed a parallel inhibition curve to that of the standards. Plasma PRL concentrations of samples from hens at different reproductive states measured by this assay revealed significant differences and rational changing trends. These results validate the assay

  19. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described. (author)

  20. Serum ferritin evaluation with radioimmunoassays specific for HeLa and liver ferritin types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin is an index of body iron stores but its concentration, besides iron overload, increases also in liver diseases and malignancy, and appears to be a promising tumor indicator. Ferritinemia is evaluated by immunological methods. Ferritin is a multimeric protein composed of 24 subunits of two types: the heavier type (called H) has a molecular weight of about 21,000 Msub(r), and the lighter one (called L) of about 19,000 Msub(r). In the present study antibodies specific for HeLa ferritin (which contains 15% of L and 85% of H subunit) and for crystallized liver ferritin (10% H and 90% L subunit) were produced. The antibodies appeared to be specific for the two subunits and were used to develop radioimmunoassays to test sera from normal tumor and iron-overloaded patients. The levels of ferritin detected by the liver-assay and by the HeLa-assay were significantly different. In iron-overload the proportion of serum ferritin detected by the HeLa-assay was smaller than in normal and tumor patients. (Auth.)

  1. Measurement of serum ferritin by radioimmunoassay: results in normal individuals and patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritins are iron-containing proteins found in normal tissues; they increase in concentration in many tumors and the blood of tumor-bearing individuals. We utilized a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measurement of serum ferritin and defined the upper limit of normal as 146 ng/ml for women (mean 34 ng/ml) and 193 ng/ml for men (mean 93 ng/ml). Serum ferritin levels exceeded these limits in preoperative sera of 41 percent of women with mammary carcinoma (mean 199 ng/ml) and in 67 percent of women with locally recurrent or metastatic mammary carcinoma (mean 671 ng/ml). Individuals with hepatic inflammatory states are known to have high serum ferritin, and ferritin was increased in 43 percent of patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis (mean 364 ng/ml) and in 13 percent of patients with ulcerative colitis or gastroduodenal ulcers (mean 106 ng/ml). Measurement of serum ferritin may be useful in evaluation of patients with breast cancer and in monitoring their response to therapy. (auth)

  2. Direct comparison of a radioimmunoassay and an immunoradiometric technique in the measurement of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two immunoassay systems for measuring human growth hormone are compared: 1) radioimmunoassay and 2) a two site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in which the unknown amount of antigen is measured directly by combination with labelled antibody present in excess. Emphasis is placed on comparing the precision, sensitivity and assay range of these two techniques performed under identical experimental conditions. A comparison of the experimentally determined dose response curve parameters together with the total added radioactivity showed that the midpoints were very similar for both techniques. A comparison of the precision of the two systems showed that although the RIA data was very precise, the two site IRMA technique had better overall reproducibility. The minimal detectable dose (MDD) was 77ng/l plasma for RIA and 6ng/l for two site IRMA. For the RIA technique, the assay range extended over a 19-fold range while the same criteria resulted in a 113-fold range for the two site IRMA. (U.K.)

  3. Characterization of dimeric forms of human pituitary growth hormone by bioassay, radioreceptor assay, and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven highly purified dimeric forms of human pituitary growth hormone, composed of the monomeric forms 20 K hGH, 22K hGH and 24 k hBH linked together by noncovalent or covalent bounds, have been characterized by an in vitro bioassay (the Nb2 assay), a radioreceptor assay and a radioimmunoassay. Considerable differences in the ability to displace labelled recombinant hGH were observed in the radioreceptor assay. The seven dimeric forms varied over a range between 22 K hGH (most effective) and 20 K hGH. The three covalently-linked dimeric forms had nearly identical affinity constants. The mitogenic action of all but one of the hGH dimers in the Nb2 assay was in the same mutual order as the receptor binding activity in the radioreceptor assay. In the RIA, all dose-response curves were parallel except for those obtained with 20 K hGH and with the dimeric form (20 K-20 K)hGH. In this assay, dimeric variants of the constituents 22 K hGH and 24 K hGH were approximately twice as active as 22 K hGH on a molar basis, suggesting about the same affinity between the the antibodies and each of the monomeric forms. Determination of the amino acid compositions of the dimeric forms provided support for their content of monomeric constituents as established earlier by electrophoretic analysis. (author)

  4. Radioimmunoassay of serum SP 1 and HPL in normal and abnormal pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum concentrations of the pregnancy-specific β1-glycoprotein (SP 1) and human placental lactogen (HPL) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 372 blood samples obtained from 40 women in the second half of a normal singleton pregnancy. The mean level of SP 1 steadily increased from 40 μg/ml in the 22nd week of pregnancy to 168 μg/ml in the 36th week of gestation and thereafter reached a plateau. The half-life of SP 1 during the first week after delivery was about 39 h. The clinical value of SP 1 in comparison to HPL estimation was assessed in a prospective study of a few high risk pregnancies. There were no significant differences between serum SP 1 and HPL levels in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with or without intrauterine growth retardation and in twin pregnancies. Serum HPL and SP 1 levels were equally effective in predicting placental insufficiency with fetal growth retardation. (orig./AJ)

  5. Measles and canine distemper virus antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies against measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) of sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 28 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and matched neurological controls. When the groups were compared for MV antibody titers and CDV antibody titers of sera and MV/CDV serum antibody titer ratios, no significant difference was found. The CDV antibody titers and the MV antibody titers were in good correlation. CDV antibodies showed RIA titration curves typical of low avidity antibodies. In tests for MV antibodies in CSF, 82% of the MS patients and 19% of the controls were positive, whereas 36% of the MS patients and 4% of the controls were positive in CDV RIA. The correlation between MV and CDV antibody levels, the low avidity of CDV antibodies and the fact that absorption of the specimens with MV antigen abolished all CDV antibody activity suggest that the CDV antibodies are MV antibodies cross-reacting with CDV. It is concluded that canine distemper virus is unlikely to be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. (author)

  6. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T4 and T3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T4 and T3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  7. Rubella serology by solid-phase radioimmunoassay: its potential for screening programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera from 269 adult females who had experienced naturally acquired or vaccine-induced infection by rubella virus, including immune persons challenged intranasally with rubella vaccine (RA27/3) as well as sera from 100 patients attending antenatal clinics, were tested for rubella antibodies by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition tests (HAI), as well as a newly developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for rubella immunoglobulin G(IgG) antibodies. Following both naturally acquired and vaccine-induced infection, titres by RIA were approximately ten-fold higher than by HAI. The RIA test was particularly useful in assessing the true immune status of those with apparently low levels of HAI antibody and has the added advantage that pretreatment of sera to remove inhibitors of haemagglutination and red cell agglutinins is unnecessary. The RIA test has potential for the large-scale screening programmes which need to be carried out if the Department of Health and Social Security recommendation, that women attending antenatal and family planning clinics be screened for rubella antibodies, is to be effectively met. (author)

  8. Suicidal insulin poisoning with nine day survival: recovery in bile at autopsy by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of insulin fifty years ago enabled doctors to successfully treat an eleven year old boy dying from diabetes mellitus and thereby ushered in a new medical era. While millions of subsequent patients were thus able to lead productive lives, others turned this miraculous substance into self-destructive purposes, while a few attempted (and possibly succeeded in) carefully concealed homicidal undertakings. The first ''murder by insulin'' case, prosecuted with a conviction in Great Britain fifteen years ago, employed a laborious bioassay method to demonstrate the hormone at the site of injection. A recent series of insulin poisonings in California was dependent on pathological changes in the brain from anoxia (hypoglycemia) coupled with history and investigation rather than chemical measurements, although an immunoassay method was used for confirmation in the final case. Instances of suicidal attempts by self-administered insulin have been reported with analyses performed by radioimmunoassay, now employed in clinical laboratories to measure many hormonal and therapeutic substances. We have applied this principle from pathologic and toxicologic aspects in an effort to enhance the diagnostic capability of the forensic pathologist, who must examine and properly certify such deaths

  9. Comparison of three radioligands, selenium-75, iodine-125, and tritium, in the radioimmunoassay of methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassays for methotrexate are described, involving use of a rabbit antiserum to a conjugate of the drug and bovine serum albumin and the drug labeled with tritium, selenium-75, or iodine-125. Of the two gamma emitters, the 75Se-labeled drug was prepared by the Radiochemical Centre, Amersham, England and the 125I-labeled drug in the laboratory, by the Chloramine T iodination technique. The stability of labels with both methods allows use of the faster, cheaper, and simpler gamma-counting techniques, with results available after 3 h. All three methods have acceptable sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility, and are specific for methotrexate, with no significant interference from naturally occurring folates or leucovorin. The assays in which the gamma emitters are used have significant practical advantages over the beta emitter and are much better suited to automation and clinical application. The main advantage of 75Se-labeled methotrexate is its longer half-life, 121 days, as compared with 60 days for 125I

  10. Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, J.T. (Air Force Drug Testing Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with the Abuscreen amphetamine radioimmunoassay reagents was determined for both the standard and high specificity antibody systems. Compounds tested included 2-methoxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DMA), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (BDMPEA), 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and N-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (N-OH MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine (mescaline). Blank negative reference material was spiked with 1,000 to 100,000 ng/mL of the amphetamine analogue and used as sample in the assays. MDA was the only analogue that showed cross reactivity equal to or greater than that of amphetamine. None of the other analogue compounds demonstrated a positive result at even the highest concentration; however several showed depressed counts at various concentration levels.

  11. A method for tissue extraction and determination of prostate concentrations of endogenous androgens by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for simultaneously determining concentrations of major androgens in prostate has been developed. Extraction techniques used to isolate the androgens from minced tissue include homogenization with high-speed blades in Delsal's solvent mixture, adsorption to silica gel, followed by column and one thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Radioimmunoassays (RIA) of small aliquots of TLC eluates are used to quantitate picogram amounts of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstanediols (Diol) and to estimate testosterone (T) and androstenedione (Ad). Contamination of blanks was reduced to RIA sensitivity limits primarily by treatment of glassware in a self-cleaning oven. The specificity of the method for each androgen was established by TLC separations of known prostate metabolites, antisera specificities, and parallelism of sample aliquots to androgen RIA standards. The overall precision, in terms of coefficients of variation, was 21% for DHT and 24% for Diol. T and Ad could not be measured with acceptable precision because their very low concentrations in prostate (<=0.5 ng/g tissue) were less than RIA sensitivity limits. Accuracy studies indicated recoveries ranging from 96% for Diol to 121% for DHT. In human benign hypertrophic prostate tissue, DHT averaged 153 ng/g soluble protein (5.8 ng/g tissue) which was 17 times higher than values obtained in human spleen and kidney; Diol in prostate showed no consistent differences from values noted in kidney or spleen

  12. Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

  13. Optimisation of Liquid Phase Separation on an Aflatoxin B1 Radioimmunoassay Kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which grow on a wide variety of food, feeds and their products. Aflatoxin, particularly aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) has wide biological activities including toxic, teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Therefore the AfB1 content in foods should be met the requirement of food safety standard. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique is one of immunochemical methods or immunoassays which has been considered to be sensitive, specific, accurate and practical for detection of aflatoxin. This technique is based on immunological reaction using radioactive tracer. AfB1 was indirectly radiolabelled and then purified by using a solvent extraction. The tracer was then undergone a immunological testing by using a polyclonal antibody of AfB1. In order to produce AfB1 RIA kit which meets the standard quality’s requirement there are two parameters that have to be optimised. First is optimisation of kit components which consist : standard AfB1, AfB1 tracer (125I-AfB1) and AfB1 antibody. (author)

  14. Comparison of VIDAS and Radioimmunoassay Methods for Measurement of Cortisol Concentration in Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Proverbio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay (RIA is the “gold standard” method for evaluation of serum cortisol concentration. The VIDAS cortisol test is an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay designed for the MiniVidas system. The aim of this study was to compare the VIDAS method with RIA for measurement of bovine serum cortisol concentration. Cortisol concentrations were evaluated in 40 cows using both VIDAS and RIA methods, the latter as the reference method. A paired Student’s -test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plot, and Deming regression analysis were used to compare the two methods. There was no statistically significant difference between mean serum cortisol concentrations measured by VIDAS or RIA methods (. Both methods were able to detect significant differences in mean low and high cortisol concentrations ( RIA and VIDAS. The correlation coefficient was low, but a Bland-Altman plot and Deming regression analysis show neither constant nor proportional error. The VIDAS method produced slightly higher values than RIA, but the difference was small and in no case did the mean value move the normal range. Results suggest that VIDAS method is suitable for the determination of bovine serum cortisol concentration in studies of large numbers of animals.

  15. Sequential radioimmunoassay of unconjugated and conjugated estrogen in male human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohashi,Teruhisa

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available A sequential radioimmunoassay procedure for unconjugated and conjugated estrone, estradiol-17 beta and estriol in male human plasma was developed. The blank values in this assay for unconjugated estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol conjugated estrone, estradiol-17 beta and conjugated estriol were 0.36 +/- 1.14 pg, 3.90 +/- 2.75 pg, 2.25 +/- 2.08 pg, 0.92 +/- 1.51 pg, 5.02 +/- 2.86 pg and 3.12 +/- 2.97 pg, respectively. Mean values of unconjugated estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol, conjugated estrone, estradiol-17 beta and conjugated estriol in plasma from 28 normal adult males were 38.4 +/- 13.4 pg/ml, 32.6 +/- 9.90 pg/ml, 4.06 +/- 3.68 pg/ml, 34.2 +/- 13.8 pg/ml, 40.4 +/- 12.3 pg/ml and 31.8 +/- 7.41 pg/ml, respectively. Both unconjugated and conjugated estrogen levels in patients with liver cirrhosis were elevated and conjugated estrogen, especially estriol levels, in patients with renal insufficiency were markedly elevated.

  16. Determination of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen by radioimmunoassay in chronic liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno,Motowo

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc was measured by radioimmunoassay using CORAB (Abbott Laboratories in 10 cases of chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH, 46 cases of chronic aggressive hepatitis (CAH, 33 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC and 53 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in relation to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and its antibody (anti-HBs. Ninety-eight point four percent of patients with HBsAg and 93.8% of patients with anti-HBs were positive for anti-HBc and the titers of anti-HBc in patients with HBsAg were significantly higher than those with anti-HBs. Thirty-five point five percent of patients negative for either HBsAg or anti-HBs were positive for anti-HBc. The titers of anti-HBc in patients with CPH, CAH and LC were relatively low, whereas 7 (46.8% of the HCC patients negative for either HBsAg or anti-HBc had high titers of anti-HBc. The significance of the presence of anti-HBc alone is discussed.

  17. Screening for neonatal hypothyroidism by thyroxine and thyrotrophin radioimmunoassays using dried blood samples on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine and automated methodology for thyroxine (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) using dried blood samples on filter paper is described. T4-RIA was performed on one single dot (5 mm diameter equivalent to 4 μl of serum) while two dots were necessary for TSH-RIA. Reference filter papers were introduced in each assay for quality control. In a preliminary study on 4,155 neonates, samples generally obtained between the 5th-7th day gave a mean 'dot-T4' of 97.95 +- 36.04 nmol/l and a mean 'dot-TSH' of 10.19 mU/l +- 8.25, corresponding to 2.47 mU/l of serum. Within an 18-month period (November 1976 - April 1978), a total of 16,522 neonates have been screened allowing detection of three cases of congenital hypothyroidism (incidence 1:5507), two cases of congenitally low TBG and thirty-three cases of transient hypothyroidism. (author)

  18. Optimization of the radioimmunoassays for measuring fentanyl and alfentanil in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettler, J.; White, P.F.

    1984-09-01

    Measurement of serum fentanyl and alfentanil concentrations by radioimmunoassay (RIA) may result in significant errors and high variability when the technique described in the available fentanyl and alfentanil RIA kits is used. The authors found a 29-94% overestimation of measured fentanyl and alfentanil serum levels when 3H-fentanyl or 3H-alfentanil was added lastly to the mixture of antiserum and sample. This finding is related to a reduction in binding sites for the labeled compounds after preincubation of sample and antiserum. If this sequence is used, it becomes necessary to extend the incubation period up to 6 h for fentanyl and up to 10 h for alfentanil in order to achieve equilibration between unlabeled and labeled drug with respect to antiserum binding. However, when antiserum is added lastly to the mixture of sample and labeled drug, measurement accuracy and precision for fentanyl and alfentanil serum concentrations are enhanced markedly. In addition, it is important to perform the calibration curves and sample measurements using the same medium (i.e., serum alone or a serum/buffer dilution). In summary, to optimize the RIA for fentanyl and alfentanil, the authors recommend the following: 1) adding the antiserum lastly to the mixture of sample and labeled drug; 2) performing calibration curves using patient's blank serum when possible; 3) carefully examining and standardizing each step of the RIA procedure to reduce variability, and, finally; 4) comparing results with those of other established RIA laboratories.

  19. A soluble-phase proinsulin radioimmunoassay and its use in diagnosis of hypoglycaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soluble-phase proinsulin assay has been developed which does not require solid-phase antibody-binding. A human proinsulin standard curve is prepared in insulin-free and proinsulin-free plasma for comparison with unknown plasma samples. Proinsulin and insulin are bound with excess anti-insulin antiserum, and free C-peptide is removed by charcoal adsorption. The supernatant is then assayed using a routine C-peptide radioimmunoassay which utilises anti-C-peptide antiserum. The sensitivity of the assay (2 standard deviations above zero) is 9 pmol/L using 200 μL plasma sample. The assay is free from insulin cross-reactivity up to 100 mU/L and C-peptide up to 2000 pmol/L. Between-assay CV is 13% at 100 pmol/L. The assay has been used in subjects with hypoglycaemia of various aetiologies and has shown that a raised plasma proinsulin in the presence of hypoglycaemia can occur in sulphonylurea-induced and reactive hypoglycaemia as well as in insulinomas. After hyperglycaemic clamps at 7.5, 10 and 15 mmol/L glucose, type II diabetics both on and off sulphonylurea, were found to have lower proinsulin concentrations compared with normal subjects, commensurate with the diabetics' lower insulin responses. (author)

  20. Insulin radioimmunoassay kit (125I) using polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and a double antibody separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin is a polypeptide hormone formed from proinsulin in the b-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It has a widespread effect on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Diabetes mellitus is the result of an insulin deficiency brought about either by insufficient insulin secretion or by rapid insulin catabolism. The determination of the insulin level is important for differential etiologic diagnosis and subsequent therapy and prognosis. Insulin radioimmunoassay kit provides a sensitive, precise and specific assay for insulin concentration in serum. Standard and insulin in the patient sample compete with tracer for binding sites on an insulin antibody. The antigen-antibody combination, which forms during incubation time, will be separated from free insulin by different methods. The separation technique using the double antibody technique combined with Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) is presented. The results are compared with the separation method using PEG alone and with double antibody technique. Antiserum to insulin was produced in rats immunized with porcine insulin, while rabbits immunized with rat-g globulin were used as a source for the second antibody.The tested PEG was PEG 6000. The best results were obtained using the double antibody at a 1/50 dilution combined with 7.5 PEG solutions. The time for precipitating the antibody bound fraction by this technique was established to be 30 minutes. The results obtained using this method as separation technique for insulin - antibody complex were better than those obtained using the double antibody techniques or PEG as precipitating agent alone. (authors)

  1. Soluble-phase proinsulin radioimmunoassay and its use in diagnosis of hypoglycaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, B.A.; Matthews, D.R.; Turner, R.C.

    1987-07-01

    A soluble-phase proinsulin assay has been developed which does not require solid-phase antibody-binding. A human proinsulin standard curve is prepared in insulin-free and proinsulin-free plasma for comparison with unknown plasma samples. Proinsulin and insulin are bound with excess anti-insulin antiserum, and free C-peptide is removed by charcoal adsorption. The supernatant is then assayed using a routine C-peptide radioimmunoassay which utilises anti-C-peptide antiserum. The sensitivity of the assay (2 standard deviations above zero) is 9 pmol/L using 200 ..mu..L plasma sample. The assay is free from insulin cross-reactivity up to 100 mU/L and C-peptide up to 2000 pmol/L. Between-assay CV is 13% at 100 pmol/L. The assay has been used in subjects with hypoglycaemia of various aetiologies and has shown that a raised plasma proinsulin in the presence of hypoglycaemia can occur in sulphonylurea-induced and reactive hypoglycaemia as well as in insulinomas. After hyperglycaemic clamps at 7.5, 10 and 15 mmol/L glucose, type II diabetics both on and off sulphonylurea, were found to have lower proinsulin concentrations compared with normal subjects, commensurate with the diabetics' lower insulin responses.

  2. Heterogeneity of human plasma insulin: techniques for separating immunoreactive components and their determination by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When human plasma is filtered on Sephadex G-SO fine, insulin immunoreactivity is recovered in two peaks: 'big insulin', the higher molecular weight component and 'little insulin', the lower molecular component, having elution volumes that correspond to those of porcine proinsulin 125I and porcine insulin 125I respectively. The presence of another form of immunoreactive insulin 'big big insulin' was detected from an insuloma suspect and its elution pattern corresponding to serum albumin. The eluates correspondent to 'big' and 'little' insulin as well as 'big big' component were assayed by radioimmunoassay using crystalline human insulin as a standard, porcine insulin 125 tracer and anti insulin serum. The antibody, raised in guinea-pigs, was sensitive and potent being adequate for the assay. The reactivity of insulin and proinsulin was tested against the antibody. The relative proportions of several components of total immunoreactive insulin in plasma were studied in basal conditions in five normal subjects and in the patient JSC with pancreatic insulin-secreting tumor as well as after glucose stimuli in all tolbutamide in JSC. (author)

  3. Atrial natriuretic factor: radioimmunoassay and effects on adrenal and pituitary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowska, J.; Horky, K.; Schiffrin, E.L.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; De Lean, A.; Hamet, P.; Tremblay, J.; Anand-Srivastava, M.B.; Januszewicz, P.

    1986-06-01

    A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) in rat and human plasma and in rat atria. The two atria contain about 20 ..mu..g ANF per rat. The right atrium contained 2.5 times more ANF than did the left. Ether anesthesia and morphine markedly increased IR-ANF in rat plasma. The concentration of IR-ANF in plasma of clinically normal human subjects was 65.3 +/- 2.5 pg/ml. Paroxysmal tachycardia and rapid atrial pacing significantly increased IR-ANF in human plasma. Two- to seven-fold higher concentrations were found in coronary sinus blood than in the peripheral circulation. In the plasma of rats and humans, circulating ANF is probably a small-molecular-weight peptide. ANF acts on the adrenal and the pituitary. ANF inhibits aldosterone secretion from rat zona glomerulosa and steroid secretion by bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. ANF stimulated the basal secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vitro and inhibited KCl-stimulated release of AVP.

  4. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for corticosterone and deoxycortisol in human serum: Sex differences in the mean serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific radioimmunoassay is described which allows the simultaneous determination of serum corticosterone and deoxycortisol. The normal serum concentration of both steroids were found to be dependent on sex and menstrual cycle. Mean concentrations (+-S.D.) in males, females (follicular phase) and females (luteal phase) were 4210 +- 2170 ng/l, 2410 +- 1480 ng/l and 4390 +- 2320 ng/l for corticosterone and 499 +- 273 ng/l, 207 +- 152 ng/l and 335 +- 182 ng/l for deoxycortisol. After adrenal stimulation by corticotropin itself or by insulin induced hypoglycemia, the serum concentrations of corticosterone became significantly higher than those of deoxycortisol. After oral administration of dexamethasone serum concentrations of both steroids were suppressed to levels below the limit of the normal range. One hour after oral metyrapone administration at midnight, serum corticosterone decreased, while serum deoxycortisol increased by a factor of about five. After eight hours serum concentrations of both steroids were increased considerably. Corticosterone attained levels slightly higher than the normal range and deoxycortisol rose to levels which were higher than the normal mean concentrations by a factor of about 500. (orig./AS)

  5. Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3) in human amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of amniotic fluid iodothyronine concentrations may enable antenatal detection of fetal thyroid abnormalities; however, the delineation of normal ranges is complicated by methodological problems associated with strong and highly variable protein-binding, and specificity of antisera. Improved radioimmunoassays of thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) have been developed to overcome these problems. In normal pregnancy, mean rT3 concentrations at <17 weeks, 17-22 weeks and 35-42 weeks gestation were 3.6 nmol/l (n=21), 6.1 nmol/l (n=14) and 0.66 nmol/l (n=39) respectively; corresponding mean T4 concentrations were 2.4 nmol/l, 6.5 nmol/l and 3.6 nmol/l. rT3 concentrations showed a strong positive correlation with T4 concentration in each age range; however, the molar ratio of rT3 : T4 decreased progressively with gestational age, from 1.69 at <17 weeks to 0.19 at 35-42 weeks. In both mid- and late gestation, rT3 and T4 concentrations were strongly correlated with total amniotic fluid protein concentrations. (Auth.)

  6. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of nRNP immune complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for complement (C)-fixing nuclear ribonucleoprotein nRNP:anti-nRNP immune complexes (nRNP ICs). The assay was based on the ability of the C-fixing nRNP ICs to bind strongly to immobilized F(ab')2 anti-C3. The extent of binding was quantified by incubating the C-fixing nRNP ICs bound to anti-C3 with 125I-labeled anti-nRNP-specific IgG. The interaction between anti-C3 and C-fixing nRNP ICs was rapid, time- and concentration-dependent and sensitive over a broad range of nRNP IC concentrations in an antigen-antibody ratio of 8:1. The assay was preliminarily applied for serum samples obtained from patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and elevated concentrations of nRNP immune complexes were found in 3 out of 5 patients with MCTD. This assay appears to be applicable to the detection and quantification of circulating nRNP ICs in patients with MCTD. (Auth.)

  7. Research of antibodies anti DNA native by radioimmunoassay methods and of Crithidia luciliae: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-nDNA antibodies represent a characteristic feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Different techniques for the determination of anti-nDNA antibodies have been described. In Brazil, this test is usually made by immunofluorescence (IF) with Crithidia luciliae, which has a nDNA-rich kinetoplast. The technique of radioimmunoassay (RIA) is not routinely used in Brazil. This study compares the two techniques comparing their sensitivity and specificity. Sera of 82 patients from Belo Horizonte, MG were examined. Diagnoses were:65 SLE, 14 mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), 2 Sjoegren syndrome, and 1 progressive systemic sclerosis. Ages ranged from 32 months of 70 years. Result classification was equal (positive or negative in both techniques) or different (positive or negative in both techniques) or different (positive in one technique and negative in the other). 84 percent of the results were equal. Different results had the following distribution: 8.5 percent positive in RIA and negative in IF, and 7.5 percent positive in IF and negative in RIA. Of the 33 cases with positive results in both techniques, 29 (88 percent) were SLE and 4(12 percent) were MCTD. Results indicate a high specificity for SLE in both RIA and IF, and similar sensitivity for connective tissue diseases. (author)

  8. Assessing dehydroepiandrosterone in saliva: a simple radioimmunoassay for use in studies of children, adolescents and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While salivary assays for some hormones are widely used, the availability of assays for salivary DHEA is limited. By adapting a commercially available radioimmunoassay serum kit, we developed a reliable, efficient and sensitive measure of DHEA in saliva that does not require separation or extraction. The minimum detection limit was 4.0 pg/ml. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV%) were on average 4.05, and inter-assay CVs averaged 9.70. Method accuracy, determined by spike recovery, and linearity, determined by serial dilution, averaged 99.55 and 92.03%. Levels in matched serum and saliva samples showed strong linear relationships for adult males and females. Specific guidelines are developed for sample collection, storage, and preparation procedures. Reference ranges for salivary DHEA levels are provided for 64 children ages 8-11, 96 adolescents ages 12-17 and 48 adults ages 30-45. Salivary DHEA levels are shown to reflect developmental, gender and diurnal differences. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Radioimmunoassays Of Hormonal Changes Associated With Dysphoric Disorder In Premenstrual Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Maha G. Soliman

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrinological changes that occur in patients with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD are poorly understood. The mechanism is likely to be a complex interaction between gonadal hormones and neurotransmitters. Melatonin is the predominant pineal neurohormone. The gonadal changes associated with melatonin are mediated via the hypothalamus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate melatonin concentrations in patients with PMDD. Also serum prolactin (PRL and progesterone levels were estimated for any correlation with melatonin secretion. During the symptomatic late luteal phase, serum melatonin concentrations were determined by Radioimmunoassay (RIA in 12 women with PMDD and 12 normal control women (NC. Also serum PRL and progesterone were estimated to all women by RIA. Melatonin concentration in patient with PMDD was significantly lower than in NC (mean 25.25 VS 79.25 P< 0.05. Serum PRL levels were significantly higher in PMDD subjects than in NC (mean 39.08 VS 20.17 P < 0.05. Serum progesterone levels were lower in PMDD than NC (mean 20.42 VS 33.58 P < 0.05. The results showed inverse correlation between melatonin and PRL levels (r = 0.931, P < 0.001 and direct correlation between melatonin and progesterone levels (r=0.894, p < 0.001. No correlation was found between PRL and progesterone level. Findings of the study suggest that lowered melatonin levels in women with PMDD may be due to involvement of the pineal gland in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  10. Neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage; Immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay and pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alafaci, C.; Jansen, I. (Department of Experimental Research, Lund University, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)); Uddman, R. (Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Lund University, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)); Delgado, T.; Svendgaard, N.A. (Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Edvinsson, L. (Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Ekman, R. (Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    The involvement of noradrenaline (NA), neuropeptide Y, (NPY), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been examined in the late phase of spasm after an experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a rat model. Immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay of blood vessels from the circle of Willis did not show significant differences in NPY- and VIP-like immunoreactivity 2 days post SAH as compared to control vessels. The postjunctional effects of NA, NPY, 5-HT, Ach and VIP were studied two days after SAH using a sensitive in vitro system. NPY induced contractions were significantly (p<0.01) weaker (lower E{sub max}) in SAH as compared to control rats while the relaxant responses to ACh and VIP were slightly increased after SAH. These observations reveal that in a rat model of SAH, with an approximately 20% in vivo constriction at two days, dynamic changes occur in cerebral artery reactivity without any obvious change in sympathetic or parasympathetic perivascular nerve networks. (author).

  11. A solid phase radioimmunoassay for detection of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods for measuring autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients' serum were developed to improve the sensitvity and quantitative precision of the determinations. Two mechanical systems were studied: (1) acetone fixed cell monolayers in glass tubes and (2) antigen coated plastic beads. Both systems were senssitive and reproducible. The most sensitive, versatile system involves the coating of the plastic beads with nuclear antigen(s), incubation overnight with sera and labelling with 125I conjugated antihuman globulin. Linear binding of this radioactive tag is obtained over a wide range of SLE serum dilutions and the slopes of the serum dilution titration curves are almost identical for all SLE patients' sera tested. Therefore, a standard titration curve can be constructed from the results with a positive serum, and end-point dilutions of unknown sera estimated from results obtained with a single serum dilution. Alternatively, binding ratios of unknown sera can be usefully compared at fixed dilutions with standard positive and negative sera. For example, high binding ratios (>3.0) were obtained with 19/20 SLE sera and 0/20 control sera. Antigens used in these systems include crude, whole-cell lysates and lysates from purified nuclei

  12. Radioimmunoassay for anileridine, meperidine, and other N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vunakis, H.; Freeman, D.S.; Gjika, H.B.

    1975-10-01

    Antibodies that bind an /sup 125/I-tyramyl derivative of N-succinylanileridine have been produced in animals immunized with N-succinylanileridine-hemocyanin conjugate. Several congeners and metabolites have been tested as competitors of this antigen-antibody reaction. The concentrations (in picomoles) required for 50 percent inhibition have been found to be: anileridine (0.2), meperidine (3.5), piminodine (3.8), diphenoxylate (20.5), normeperidine (20.0), meperidine acid (45,000) and anileridine acid (3,400). Although ester hydrolysis results in changes in inhibiting capacities on the order of 10/sup 4/, major structural changes in the substituent on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring are not readily recognized by the antibody. This radioimmunoassay can be used to study a variety of N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters by relating the results to the standard curve obtained for the drug under investigation. For all practical purposes, alphaprodine, morphine and methadone do not interfere with the assay.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for anileridine, meperidine, and other N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies that bind an 125I-tyramyl derivative of N-succinylanileridine have been produced in animals immunized with N-succinylanileridine-hemocyanin conjugate. Several congeners and metabolites have been tested as competitors of this antigen-antibody reaction. The concentrations (in picomoles) required for 50 percent inhibition have been found to be: anileridine (0.2), meperidine (3.5), piminodine (3.8), diphenoxylate (20.5), normeperidine (20.0), meperidine acid (45,000) and anileridine acid (3,400). Although ester hydrolysis results in changes in inhibiting capacities on the order of 104, major structural changes in the substituent on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring are not readily recognized by the antibody. This radioimmunoassay can be used to study a variety of N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters by relating the results to the standard curve obtained for the drug under investigation. For all practical purposes, alphaprodine, morphine and methadone do not interfere with the assay

  14. A sensitive and simplified radioimmunoassay for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay system for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] with an improved extraction procedure has been developed. Following one-step extraction and prepurification of 1,25(OH)2D3 by 'Extrelut-1' minicolumns final purification was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a radial compression separation system equipped with a μPorasil cartridge. Recovery of 1,25(OH)2[3H]D3 after HPLC was 77+-2.6% (mean +- SD, n = 51). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.8 pg/tube resulting in a detection limit of 3 ng/l, when 1 ml of serum was extracted. Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 12% and 16.8%, respectively. Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 concentration in 30 normal subjects was 55 +- 12 ng/l (mean +- SD). Patients with chronic renal failure had reduced 1,25(OH)2D3 serum levels (mean 5.4 ng/l, range 3-11 ng/l, n=10). (Auth.)

  15. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  16. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  17. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Imaging alpha particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  19. The alpha channeling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  20. Diversity of post-partum ovarian activity in white lumpoon cattle monitored by progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While Lumpoon (WL) cows, a native cattle breed in northern Thailand, were used as experimental animals to: (1) assess effects of parity, season, ambient temperature, body weight change (BWC) and body condition score (BCS) onpost-partum ovarian activity (POA); (2) reduce post-partum anoestrus interval by supplementation of trace minerals, Ca and P, and; (3) compare rectal temperature between Holstein x Native crossbred and WL cows under heat stress conditions. Two groups of WL cows were used. The first group were at Mae Hia Research Station and Training Centre, Chiang Mai University, and comprised 62 primiparous and multiparous cows. The second group were in village farms, where 6 cows per group were allocated to 3 treatments; control, trace minerals and trace minerals with additional Ca plus P supplementation. The cows in both University and village farms were allowed to graze in natural pasture during the day and were kept in housing at night. Milk and plasma progesterone, assayed by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA), were used for monitoring ovarian activity. At the University farm 48% of animals resumed POA by 40 days post-partum and 85% by 100 days post-partum. There were no significant differences in the intervals to onset of POA due to parity numbers. In village farms, supplementation of trace minerals and trace mineral with additional Ca plus P tended to shorten days from calving to first mating. The study showed that the WL cows are well adapted to their environment in northern Thailand. 24 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Determination of metallothionein in tissues by radioimmunoassay and by cadmium saturation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of reported basal metallothionein (MT) values in animal tissues has made it necessary that the presently available methods be further developed and compared for their accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) to quantitate MT in animal tissues was developed and its performance compared to that of a cadmium saturation method. The procedure is more accurate and reliable but no more time-consuming than other techniques in current use. It offers the advantages of greater specificity and sensitivity thus enabling the determination of basal levels of MT in tissues and the analysis of small samples, for example, biopsies, cultured cells, in vitro protein synthesis, etc. The use of a polyclonal antiserum is advantageous in that total MT can be determined in any tissue from a variety of animal species. Both nonspecific and specific interference in the assay can be eliminated by heat treatment of the sample followed by a short preincubation with cadmium. The sensitivity of the RIA is 10 ng MT/g tissue. The cadmium saturation assay is unsuitable for the measurement of low levels of MT due to its nonspecific nature and its detection limit (10 μg MT/g tissue) but it is useful were large amounts of the protein are present in a tissue. Difficulties arising in the analysis of MT by both methods are discussed and solutions are offered. The basal levels of MT in the brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, small intestine, and spleen of rats are determined by RIA and are shown to be generally lower than the currently accepted values measured by other techniques

  2. Comparison of radioimmunoassay and enhanced chemiluninescent method by evaluation of serum FT3, FT4, TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of radioimmunoassay and the enhanced chemiluminescent assay technique by measurement of FT3, and FT4 was done in the sera of 318 patients. The parameters for the selection of a better technique included accuracy, precision, sensitivity, diagnostic efficiency, pairwise comparison and cost effectiveness. Amerlite system for the determination of FT3 and FT4 was found to be better in accuracy and precision than RIA. The Standard Deviation (SD) and the Coefficient of Variation (CV) by the repetitive analysis of samples were less than 5% in FT3 and FT4 analysis by Amerlite system, while those of RIA were about 10%. The results of RIA (DPC) were similar in accuracy, precision and sensitivity to RIA (Amersham). The lower detection limit of FT3 and FT4 by RIA was better than Amerlite. Pairwise comparison of thyroid hormones in 318 patients showed excellent linear relationship between the two assay techniques. FT3 values had slight difference in the results of the two systems but the correlation coefficient was 0.972. All these statistical parameters pointed towards a good linear relationship. In a separate study, comparison of enhanced luminescence system with immunoradiometric assay by evaluation of TSH was conducted in 128 patients. The accuracy and precision of IRMA was found to be better than its counterpart. Regarding the cost effectiveness, careful analysis revealed almost same expenditure per test by both the assay procedures. Amerlite system is modern, fully automated, free of radiation, has no more shelf life of the assay kits but carries disadvantages of being a closed system, having critical time of reading the signal with limited capacity of Amerlite analyzer. The disadvantages of RIA are the relatively shorter shelf life of the kit and the problem of waste disposal. Keeping all the merits and demerits of each system in mind it was concluded that Amerlite system is better in FT3 and FT4 analysis while TSH (IRMA) is superior to its counterpart. (author)

  3. Bioassay of circulating luteinizing hormone in the rhesus monkey: comparison with radioimmunoassay during physiological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of biologically active LH in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum was measured by a highly sensitive bioassay based upon testosterone production by dispersed rat interstitial cells. The sensitivity of the in vitro bioassay was equal to or higher than that of radioimmunoassay, with detection limits of 0.1 mIU of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or 10 ng of a Rhesus pituitary gonadotropin preparation (LER-1909-2). Parallel dose-response curves were obtained for hMG and Rhesus monkey pituitary gonadotropin. The method permits bioassay of LH in 20--100 μl of serum from adult male monkeys, and from female monkeys during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Bioactive LH concentrations could be assayed in 0.25 to 5 μl of serum from mid-cycle, postmenopausal, and castrated female monkeys. Serum LH was undetectable in two hypophysectomized adult female monkeys and six intact immature animals, and was 13 +- 6 (SD) mIU/ml in adult male monkeys. In adult females, follicular phase LH levels ranged from 17 to 169 mIU/ml, with a mean of 76 +- 52 mIU/ml. The midcycle LH peak was 1738 +- 742 mIU/ml and the luteal phase values ranged from 6-47 mIU/ml, with a mean of 35 +- 5 mIU/ml. Serum LH concentrations ranged from 100 to 900 mIU/ml in two menopausal females, and from 590--1480 mIU/ml in castrated females. Treatment of castrated female monkeys with estrogen plus progesterone produced an initial two-fold rise in sepum LH within 3 days, followed by a gradual decline to one-fourth to one-tenth of the initial levels after 10 days of treatment. Serum LH was suppressed to undetectable levels during the third week, and remained so for the duration of the 60-day treatment period

  4. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  5. Coupling of antibodies to magnetic particles for radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silanized magnetic particles have been developed by means of a number of different methods for coupling antibodies for use in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of thyroid related hormones. Coarse and fine iron oxide particles were prepared by use of chemical precipitation of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride in NaOH or NH4OH under different reaction conditions. Carbodiimide, glutaraldehyde, glutaric anhydride and spacer arms coupling methods were studied for immobilization of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) antibodies on magnetic particles, respectively. The effect of the magnetic particle preparation and the properties of the particles on the couplings was discussed. The influence of coupling conditions, such as reaction time, coupling media and pH, concentration of coupling reagent and coupling ratio of antibody and magnetic particles, on the preparation of magnetic particle antibodies and the assay performance was also investigated. A comparison of five types of magnetic particles from different sources for coupling TSH antibody for TSH IRMA application was made. Silanized magnetic particles and other types of particles showed comparable results. Five TSH antibodies, including two polyclonal and three monoclonal antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles respectively, were used in TSH IRMA. It was found that each of them and a commercial monoclonal TSH antibody as label formed good sandwich partners and gave a high signal to low levels of TSH. T3, T4 and TSH antibodies coupled to silanized magnetic particles have been used in total T3, total T4, blood spot total T4 RIA and TSH IRMA. The storage stability and reproducibility were satisfactory. These magnetic antibodies have also been employed for free T3, free T4 RIA and blood spot TSH IRMA, but some of the technical problems remained to be solved. 13 refs, 7 tabs

  6. Two direct radioimmunoassays for 17 beta-estradiol evaluated for use in monitoring in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haning, R V; Meier, S M; Boehnlein, L M; Gerrity, M; Shapiro, S S

    1984-05-01

    Two direct 125I radioimmunoassays for 17 beta-estradiol were evaluated by comparing results with those obtained by a comparison RIA involving extraction and chromatography (x) and with ultrasound parameters of ovarian activity. The correlation coefficients (R2) for the Immuchem Covalent-Coat Solid Phase 125I results (y1) and the Pantex Immuno-direct results (y2) with the comparison method results were 0.56 and 0.96, respectively, after log transformation of data (N = 42). Similar differences were observed in the correlations with the ultrasound parameters. We also evaluated the untransformed data by linear regression and obtained: y1 = 254 + 0. 410x (R2 = 0.65) and y2 = 48.2 + 0. 749x (R2 = 0.96). Between- and within-assay variations for a serum pool containing 17 beta-estradiol at 1278 pg/mL were respectively 9.0% and 9.4% for Immuchem , 3.3% and 6.7% for Pantex , and 7.3% and 9.4% for the comparison method; for the 267 pg/mL pool, these were 21.8% and 16.6% for Immuchem , 4.7% and 4.6% for Pantex , and 21.2% and 13.1% for the comparison method. Differences in the results obtained with the Pantex method and the comparison method were not clinically significant for monitoring superovulation for in vitro fertilization; the performance of the Immuchem method was less satisfactory. PMID:6713642

  7. Effect of trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids on blood levels of prostaglandins E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2. cap alpha. / and of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, G.S.; Panosyan, A.G.; Karagezyan, K.G.; Gevorkyan, G.A.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of the trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (THODA) fraction on blood levels of some eicosanoids and, in particular, of prostaglandins E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2..cap alpha../(PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../), and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) in rats with alloxan diabetes was studied. Concentrations of PGE/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../, and 5-HETE in peripheral blood plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. To assess the loss of substances during extraction and chromatography, /sup 3/H/sub 8/-PGE/sub 2/, /sup 3/H/sub 8/-PGF/sub 2..cap alpha.., and /sup 3/H/sub 8/-5-HETE were used. Plasma PGE/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../, and 5-HETE levels in albino rats with alloxan diabetes and after injection of THODA are shown.

  8. Morphological Changes of Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line HepG2 Transfected by Recombinant Adenovirus Carrying Melittin Gene and α-fetoprotein Promotor%含rAFP的蜂毒素基因重组腺病毒转染的HepG2细胞形态学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永安; 张亚妮; 顾伟; 李柏; 董惠娟; 凌昌全

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过构建含有重组AFP(recombinant alpha-fetoprotein,rAFP)启动子的携蜂毒素(melittin,Mel)基因的重组腺病毒(adenovirus,Ad),观察感染Ad-rAFP-Mel的HepG2细胞形态学变化.方法 采用倒置显微镜、苏木精-伊红(hematoxylin-eosin,HE)染色、Hoechst 33258染色、透射电镜观察Ad-rAFP-Mel作用过的肝癌细胞死亡情况、细胞器的结构变化等形态学变化.结果 倒置显微镜下观察结果显示,随着病毒感染复数的增加和时间的延长,活细胞数量减少;HE染色显示坏死与凋亡并存;Hoechst 33258 染色显示确有凋亡存在;透射电镜证实Ad-rAFP-Mel作用于肝癌细胞后,肝癌细胞凋亡和坏死兼而有之.结论 Ad-rAFP-Mel能够抑制 HepG2 细胞的生长,细胞死亡呈现坏死与凋亡兼有的特征.

  9. Development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassays in microbiological and immunological diagnosis. 3. Comparative studies for the detection of virus antibodies with passive hemagglutination test, radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay, resp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, H.; Struy, H.; Morenz, J. (Medizinische Akademie, Magdeburg (German Democratic Republic))

    1982-06-01

    Radioimmuno- and enzyme immunoassays (solid phase RIA and ELISA) developed by the authors for the determination of antibodies of adeno-2- and parainfluenza-1-viruses are described and the detection sensibility for antibodies is compared with that of the conventional passive hemagglutination test. The sensibility of the radioimmunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies against adeno-2-viruses is nearly 10 times higher than that of the passive hemagglutination. RIA and ELISA show no essential differences in their detection sensibilities in the detection of IgG antibodies against parainfluenza-1-viruses.

  10. Clinical evaluation of three tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis: alpha-fetoprotein-L3, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin and alpha-fetoprotein%甲胎蛋白异质体3、异常凝血酶原、甲胎蛋白检测肝细胞癌的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝妙欢; 欧阳文婷; 林建华; 吴兴平

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析3种肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)、异常凝血酶原(DCP)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)单独或联合检测肝细胞癌(HCC)的临床意义.方法 分别用电化学发光法检测AFP,ELISA法检测AFP-L3、DCP,利用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)分析3种标志物单独和联合检测肝细胞癌(随机组和AFP阴性组)的敏感性、特异性、曲线下面积、阳性预测值和阴性预测值.比较肝细胞癌组与健康对照组和疾病对照组的AFP-L3、DCP、AFP水平的差异.分析治疗前AFP阴性肝细胞癌病例联合检测AFP-L3、DCP的意义.结果 ①单独检测肝细胞癌病例的3种肿瘤标志物.AFP-L3的敏感性、特异性分别是48.7%、97.7%;DCP的敏感性、特异性分别是42.5%、98.4%;AFP的敏感性、特异性分别是68.7%、94.6%.联合检测AFP-L3、DCP和AFP,敏感性、特异性分别是87.5%、92.2%.②肝细胞癌随机组的AFP-L3、DCP、AFP水平与健康对照组和疾病组比较差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01).⑨AFP阴性肝细胞癌组的AFP和AFP-L3水平与肝良性疾病组比较差异无统计学意义.但DCP水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 AFP-L3、DCP与AFP单独检测时AFP的敏感性最高,而DCP的特异性最高,是区分肝硬化与AFP阴性的肝细胞癌血清学的良好指标.AFP-L3、DCP与AFP的联合检测能提高肝细胞癌血清学检测的敏感性和特异性,在肝细胞癌诊断方面比目前大多数传统的组合方法更优胜、更准确.

  11. Diagnostic value of combined detection of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G, alpha fetoprotein and alpha fetoprotein-L3 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值血清可溶性人类白细胞抗原G和甲胎蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨收平; 李海英; 张丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨可溶性人类白细胞抗原 G(HLA-G)在原发性肝癌(PHC)患者血清中的表达水平及其与甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)联合检测对 PHC 诊断价值。方法选择45例 PHC 患者、34例肝硬化患者和43例健康体检者。采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定 HLA-G 水平,应用预装有耦联小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的琼脂糖微量离心柱分离 AFP-L3,采用化学发光法测定 AFP 和 AFP-L3,并计算 AFP-L3/AFP 值(AFP-L3%),以 AFP>20μg/L,AFP-L3%>10%为阳性判断标准。并对3组 HLA-G、AFP、AFP-L3水平进行统计学分析。结果 PHC组、肝硬化组 HLA-G、AFP、AFP-L3水平与健康组比较差异有统计学意义(P 20 μg/L and AFP-L3% > 10% .Statistical analysis was used for HLA-G,AFP,AFP-L3 in three groups.Results There were significant significance in HLA-G,AFP and AFP-L3 levels among PHC group,liver cirrhosis group and health group (P <0.01 ),and between PHC group and liver cirrhosis group (P < 0.01 ).As for PHC diagnosis,the sensitivity of AFP was 48.9%,and the specificity 58.4%;the sensitivity of AFP-L3 66.7%,and the specificity 64.9%;the sensitivity of HLA-G was 80.0%,and the specificity 75.3%.Compared with AFP and AFP-L3,HLA-G was more sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of PHC (P <0.05).The combined detection of three markers in the diagnosis of HCC showed the sensitivity 91.1%,and specificity 84.4%.Compared the sensitivity of combined detection with single usage of HLA-G,AFP or AFP-L3,the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion The combined detection of HLA-G,AFP and AFP-L3 has important clinical significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC.

  12. Local versus nonlocal $\\alpha\\alpha$ interactions in $3\\alpha$ description of $^{12}$C

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Y; Descouvemont, P; Fujiwara, Y; Matsumura, H; Orabi, M; Theeten, M

    2008-01-01

    Local $\\alpha \\alpha$ potentials fail to describe $^{12}$C as a $3\\alpha$ system. Nonlocal $\\alpha \\alpha$ potentials that renormalize the energy-dependent kernel of the resonating group method allow interpreting simultaneously the ground state and $0^+_2$ resonance of $^{12}$C as $3\\alpha$ states. A comparison with fully microscopic calculations provides a measure of the importance of three-cluster exchanges in those states.

  13. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during

  14. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during

  15. Bremsstrahlung in $\\alpha$ Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, N; Hagino, K; Ono, A; Brink, D M

    1999-01-01

    A quantum mechanical analysis of the bremsstrahlung in $\\alpha$ decay of $^{210}$Po is performed in close reference to a semiclassical theory. We clarify the contribution from the tunneling, mixed, outside barrier regions and from the wall of the inner potential well to the final spectral distribution, and discuss their interplay. We also comment on the validity of semiclassical calculations, and the possibility to eliminate the ambiguity in the nuclear potential between the alpha particle and daughter nucleus using the bremsstrahlung spectrum.

  16. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  17. Novel /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for the analysis of. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in human body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.

    A cannabinoid radioimmunoassay (RIA) that detects some of the major ..delta../sup 9/-THC metabolites is developed and evaluated for use in forensic science. It incorporates a novel /sup 125/I radiotracer, is sensitive, reliable, relatively quick, and simple to use. The RIA uses a commercially available antiserum and detects a number of cannabinoid metabolites, including ..delta../sup 9/-THC-11-oic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of blood and urine samples submitted for forensic analysis.

  18. Separation of radioimmunoassay in magnetic phase with particles prepared at the IPEN and its comparison with conventional methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work two main objectives were chosen. The first was the preparation for the execution of the magnetic phase separation technique, useful for the radioimmunoassay as well as for the most modern and most efficient immunoradiometric assay. The second objective, of a theoretical-practical kind and directly linked to the first, was the realization of a study about the precision of the technique with synthesized products compared with imported products and with two liquid phase separation techniques: the second antibody and polyethyleneglycol (PEG). This analysis was performed with the help of precision profiles built according to R.P.Ekins' recommendations. (author)

  19. Three instructive cases of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation--and how a radioimmunoassay proved the diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, S K; Coulter, A R

    1977-08-01

    Three unusual cases are described, in which, in separate incidents, young snake bite victims were found comatose. Tiger snake vemon was detected by radioimmunoassay in the urine and serum, and in one case on the clothing of these children. Gross myoglobinuria was present in all cases. The three cases demonstrate clearly the myolytic potential of tiger snake venom if specific treatment (administration of antivenom) is delayed. Extreme elevation of serum enzyme levels was found in the two victims who survived. Evidence was obtained that the major neurotoxin of tiger snake venom is absorbed at least partly via the lymphatics and that some is excreted in the urine. PMID:904526

  20. Clinical Value of Combined Measurement of Serum Alpha- Fetoprotein, Alpha- L- Fucosidase and Ferritin Levels in the Diagnosis of Primary Liver Cancer%AFP、AFU、SF联检对原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱民; 柴小红; 靳颖; 董雪梅

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)和铁蛋白(SF)联检对提高原发性肝癌阳性检出率的意义.方法:检测52例原发性肝癌患者和40例正常对照组血清AFP、AFU、SF的含量.结果:AFP、AFU、SF三项指标对原发性肝癌患者的阳性率分别为82.7%、86.5%、76.9%.AFP+AFU、AFP+SF、AFP+AFU+SF联检阳性率分别为94.2%、90.4%、98.1%.结论:血清AFP、AFU、SF联检可提高对原发性肝癌的诊断阳性率.