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Sample records for alpha detection

  1. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  2. Remote Optical Detection of Alpha Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, J.; Hannuksela, V.; Toivonen, J.; Ihantola, S.; Peraejaervi, K.; Toivonen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha emitting radiation sources are typically hard to detect with conventional detectors due to the short range of alpha particles in the air. However, previous studies have shown that remote detection of alpha radiation is possible by measuring the ionization-induced fluorescence of air molecules. The alpha-induced ultraviolet (UV) light is mainly emitted by molecular nitrogen and its fluorescence properties are well known. The benefit of this method is the long range of UV photons in the air. Secondly, the detection is possible also under a strong beta and gamma radiation backgrounds as they do not cause localized molecular excitation. In this work, the optical detection was studied using two different detection schemes; spectral separation of fluorescence from the background lighting and coincidence detection of UV photons originating from a single radiative decay event. Our spectrally integrated measurements have shown that one alpha decay event yields up to 400 fluorescence photons in the air and all these UV photons are induced in a 5 ns time-window. On the other hand, the probability of a background coincidence event in 5 ns scale is very rare compared to the number of background photons. This information can be applied in fluorescence coincidence filtering to discriminate the alpha radiation initiated fluorescence signal from much more intense background lighting. A device called HAUVA (Handheld Alpha UV Application) was built during this work for demonstration purposes. HAUVA utilizes spectral filtering and it is designed to detect alpha emitters from a distance of about 40 cm. Using specially selected room lighting, the device is able to separate 1 kBq alpha emitter from the background lighting with 1 second integration time. (author)

  3. Alpha detection on moving surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Orr, C.; Luff, C.

    1998-01-01

    Both environmental restoration (ER) and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) require characterization of large surface areas (walls, floors, in situ soil, soil and rubble on a conveyor belt, etc.) for radioactive contamination. Many facilities which have processed alpha active material such as plutonium or uranium require effective and efficient characterization for alpha contamination. Traditional methods for alpha surface characterization are limited by the short range and poor penetration of alpha particles. These probes are only sensitive to contamination located directly under the probe. Furthermore, the probe must be held close to the surface to be monitored in order to avoid excessive losses in the ambient air. The combination of proximity and thin detector windows can easily cause instrument damage unless extreme care is taken. The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) system addresses these problems by detecting the ions generated by alpha particles interacting with ambient air rather than the alpha particle directly. Thus, detectors based on LRAD overcome the limitations due to alpha particle range (the ions can travel many meters as opposed to the several-centimeter alpha particle range) and penetrating ability (an LRAD-based detector has no window). Unfortunately, all LRAD-based detectors described previously are static devices, i.e., these detectors cannot be used over surfaces which are continuously moving. In this paper, the authors report on the first tests of two techniques (the electrostatic ion seal and the gridded electrostatic LRAD detector) which extend the capabilities of LRAD surface monitors to use over moving surfaces. This dynamic surface monitoring system was developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and at BNFL Instruments. All testing was performed at the BNFL Instruments facility in the UK

  4. Alpha particles detection in nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, M.

    1976-01-01

    The method for the manufacturing of the detection films follows these steps: preparation of the mass which includes nitrocellulose in the form of cotton as raw material ethyl acetate, cellosolve acetate, isopropyl and butyl alcohols as solvents and dioctyl phtalate as plasticiser; dilution of the paste; pouring of the diluted mass; and drying of the detection films. The results obtained experimentally are: The determination of the development times of the different thicknesses of the manufactured films. Response linearity of the detectors, variation of the number of tracks according to the distance of the source to the detector. Sizes of the diameter of the tracks depending of the distance detector-alpha emmission source. As a conclusion we can say the the nitrocellulose detectors are specific for alpha radiation; the more effective thicknesses in uranium prospecting works were those of 60 microns, since for the laboratory works the thicknesses of 30 to 40 microns were the ideal; the development technique of the detection films is simple and cheap and can be realized even in another place than the laboratory; this way of the manufacturing of nitrocellulose detection film sensitive to alpha nuclear radiation is open to future research. (author)

  5. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  6. Standoff alpha radiation detection for hot cell imaging and crime scene investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerst, Thomas; Sand, Johan; Ihantola, Sakari; Peräjärvi, Kari; Nicholl, Adrian; Hrnecek, Erich; Toivonen, Harri; Toivonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the remote detection of alpha contamination in a nuclear facility. Alpha-active material in a shielded nuclear radiation containment chamber has been localized by optical means. Furthermore, sources of radiation danger have been identified in a staged crime scene setting. For this purpose, an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera was used to capture photons generated by alpha-induced air scintillation (radioluminescence). The detected radioluminescence was superimposed with a regular photograph to reveal the origin of the light and thereby the alpha radioactive material. The experimental results show that standoff detection of alpha contamination is a viable tool in radiation threat detection. Furthermore, the radioluminescence spectrum in the air is spectrally analyzed. Possibilities of camera-based alpha threat detection under various background lighting conditions are discussed.

  7. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil contamination and waste monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Close, D.A.; McAtee, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Alpha contamination monitoring has been traditionally limited by the short range of alpha particles in air and through detector windows. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) described in this paper circumvents that limitation by detecting alpha-produced ions, rather than alpha particles directly. Since the LRAD is sensitive to all ions, it can monitor all contamination present on a large surface at one time. Because air is the ''detector gas,'' the LRAD can detect contamination on any surface to which air can penetrate. We present data showing the sensitivity of LRAD detectors, as well as documenting their ability to detect alpha sources in previously unmonitorable locations, and verifying the ion lifetime. Specific designs and results for soil contamination and waste monitors are also included

  8. Alpha detection for decontamination and decommissioning: Results and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.

    1995-01-01

    Alpha detectors based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology have numerous uses, both potential and demonstrated, in facility D ampersand D. These monitors operate by detecting the ions created by alpha particles interacting with ambient air. Thus, detection is not limited by the short range of the alpha particle and no window is required between the contamination and the detection region. These properties make LRAD-based detectors ideal for operation in field environments where complex objects to be monitored are the norm and reliability is crucial. Three monitors of particular interest in D ampersand D operations are the building surface monitor, the internal volume monitor for use on the inner surfaces of pipes, ducts, and tanks, and the conveyer belt monitor for concrete rubble and structural steel. Surface monitors have been used extensively, both in laboratory and field environments, internal volume monitors have been tested in the laboratory, and the conveyer system is still a conceptual design. These monitors and related applications demonstrate the utility of LRAD-based monitors for D ampersand D operations as well as exploring some of the new ways that fieldable monitoring systems can be used for D ampersand D. Ion collection sensing technology can be used to solve many of the alpha detection problems unique to the D ampersand D field

  9. Geometric effects in alpha particle detection from distributed air sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.R.; Leitao, R.M.S.; Marques, A.; Rivera, A.

    1994-08-01

    Geometric effects associated to detection of alpha particles from distributed air sources, as it happens in Radon and Thoron measurements, are revisited. The volume outside which no alpha particle may reach the entrance window of the detector is defined and determined analytically for rectangular and cylindrical symmetry geometries. (author). 3 figs

  10. New technique for alpha particles detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, A.A.; Khattab, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    Man possesses no biological sensors of ionizing radiation as a consequence he must depend entirely on instrumentation for the detection and measurement of radiation. The recent discovery of the solid state nuclear track detection ( SSNTD ) techniques and its advantages over other dosimeters made them a useful tool for radiation dosimetry. This work is devoted to review and illustrate the application of SSNTD technique in some branches of science and technology specially the newly produced TASTRAK obtained from Track Analysis System Limited, Bristol, UK. The detector is successfully irradiated, chemically etched and calibrated for the aim of the Alpha radiation dosimetry

  11. Development of rabbit monoclonal antibodies for detection of alpha-dystroglycan in normal and dystrophic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa J Fortunato

    Full Text Available Alpha-dystroglycan requires a rare O-mannose glycan modification to form its binding epitope for extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin. This functional glycan is disrupted in a cohort of muscular dystrophies, the secondary dystroglycanopathies, and is abnormal in some metastatic cancers. The most commonly used reagent for detection of alpha-dystroglycan is mouse monoclonal antibody IIH6, but it requires the functional O-mannose structure for recognition. Therefore, the ability to detect alpha-dystroglycan protein in disease states where it lacks the full O-mannose glycan has been limited. To overcome this hurdle, rabbit monoclonal antibodies against the alpha-dystroglycan C-terminus were generated. The new antibodies, named 5-2, 29-5, and 45-3, detect alpha-dystroglycan from mouse, rat and pig skeletal muscle by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In a mouse model of fukutin-deficient dystroglycanopathy, all antibodies detected low molecular weight alpha-dystroglycan in disease samples demonstrating a loss of functional glycosylation. Alternately, in a porcine model of Becker muscular dystrophy, relative abundance of alpha-dystroglycan was decreased, consistent with a reduction in expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in affected muscle. Therefore, these new rabbit monoclonal antibodies are suitable reagents for alpha-dystroglycan core protein detection and will enhance dystroglycan-related studies.

  12. Spontaneous Alpha Power Lateralization Predicts Detection Performance in an Un-Cued Signal Detection Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Boncompte

    Full Text Available Focusing one's attention by external guiding stimuli towards a specific area of the visual field produces systematical neural signatures. One of the most robust is the change in topological distribution of oscillatory alpha band activity across parieto-occipital cortices. In particular, decreases in alpha activity over contralateral and/or increases over ipsilateral scalp sites, respect to the side of the visual field where attention was focused. This evidence comes mainly from experiments where an explicit cue informs subjects where to focus their attention, thus facilitating detection of an upcoming target stimulus. However, recent theoretical models of attention have highlighted a stochastic or non-deterministic component related to visuospatial attentional allocation. In an attempt to evidence this component, here we analyzed alpha activity in a signal detection paradigm in the lack of informative cues; in the absence of preceding information about the location (and time of appearance of target stimuli. We believe that the unpredictability of this situation could be beneficial for unveiling this component. Interestingly, although total alpha power did not differ between Seen and Unseen conditions, we found a significant lateralization of alpha activity over parieto-occipital electrodes, which predicted behavioral performance. This effect had a smaller magnitude compared to paradigms in which attention is externally guided (cued. However we believe that further characterization of this spontaneous component of attention is of great importance in the study of visuospatial attentional dynamics. These results support the presence of a spontaneous component of visuospatial attentional allocation and they advance pre-stimulus alpha-band lateralization as one of its neural signatures.

  13. Detection of {alpha} particles with the aid of a fluorescence counter; Detection des particules {alpha} a l'aide d'un compteur a fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koechlin, Y

    1951-07-01

    The operation principle of the fluorescence counter, used as {alpha} particles detector, is analyzed in the first part. Detection can be done in two ways: by counting the pulses due to each {alpha} particle, or by integrating all pulses and measuring the average current obtained. In the second part, three series of measurements are presented: 1 - two fluorescent substances (zinc sulfate and anthracene) are placed in front of the photocathode of three types of photomultipliers (RCA 931A, EMI 4588, and EMI 5311). These substances are bombarded with the {alpha} radiations of a Po source and then irradiated by the {beta} and {gamma} radiations of a Ra source in order to study the light emission of these thin film substances when submitted to the three types of radiations. The results show that thanks to the amplitude of the emitted light pulses, the fluorescence counter, when submitted to the three types of radiations, allows to distinguish between the {alpha} radiations of the polonium and the {beta} and {gamma} radiations of the radium source. The output current of a 931A, when measured with a galvanometer, allows to detect Po sources with an intensity of about 10{sup -6} curie. This is observed when its photocathode receives the light from a ZnS-Ag coating bombarded by the {alpha} particles of Po. The quantum efficiency of the counter is close to 100% for the {alpha} particles of Po. This efficiency is evaluated by comparison with the efficiency of a thin wall Geiger-Mueller counter. Moreover, when a thin crystal of anthracene is used as detector, the energy of the incident particles can be measured with a 2% preciseness. (J.S.)

  14. Determination of alpha particle detection efficiency of an imaging plate (IP) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.M; Iida, Takao; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the detection efficiency of the imaging plate (IP) detector, the true radioactivity of the alpha particles, which sampled in the collection media, should be known. The true radioactivity could be accurately predicted with the help of the reference alpha spectrometer measurement. The detection efficiency calculated for the IP was estimated with the theoretical curve and the experimental data. It is assumed that the air sample contained the decay products of both 222 Rn and 220 Rn series, the most significant sources of alpha particles. The present study estimated the detection efficiency of the IP as 39.3% with an uncertainty of 2.9 that is well enough to confirm the future use of the IP as a radiation detector. Experimental materials and methods are described. (S.Y.)

  15. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Efficient alpha particle detection by CR-39 applying 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Soltani, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha particles can be detected by CR-39 by applying either chemical etching (CE), electrochemical etching (ECE), or combined pre-etching and ECE usually through a multi-step HF-HV ECE process at temperatures much higher than room temperature. By applying pre-etching, characteristics responses of fast-neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 by HF-HV ECE versus KOH normality (N) have shown two high-sensitivity peaks around 5–6 and 15–16 N and a large-diameter peak with a minimum sensitivity around 10–11 N at 25°C. On the other hand, 50 Hz-HV ECE method recently advanced in our laboratory detects alpha particles with high efficiency and broad registration energy range with small ECE tracks in polycarbonate (PC) detectors. By taking advantage of the CR-39 sensitivity to alpha particles, efficacy of 50 Hz-HV ECE method and CR-39 exotic responses under different KOH normalities, detection characteristics of 0.8 MeV alpha particle tracks were studied in 500 μm CR-39 for different fluences, ECE duration and KOH normality. Alpha registration efficiency increased as ECE duration increased to 90 ± 2% after 6–8 h beyond which plateaus are reached. Alpha track density versus fluence is linear up to 10 6  tracks cm −2 . The efficiency and mean track diameter versus alpha fluence up to 10 6  alphas cm −2 decrease as the fluence increases. Background track density and minimum detection limit are linear functions of ECE duration and increase as normality increases. The CR-39 processed for the first time in this study by 50 Hz-HV ECE method proved to provide a simple, efficient and practical alpha detection method at room temperature. - Highlights: • Alpha particles of 0.8 MeV were detected in CR-39 by 50 Hz-HV ECE method. • Efficiency/track diameter was studied vs fluence and time for 3 KOH normality. • Background track density and minimum detection limit vs duration were studied. • A new simple, efficient and low-cost alpha detection method

  17. Antihydrogen detection in ALPHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydomako, Richard, E-mail: rhydomako@phas.ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Bruun Andresen, Gorm [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, Mohammad Dehghani [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, William [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Butler, Eoin [CERN, European Laboratory for Particle Physics (Switzerland); Bowe, Paul David [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Cesar, Claudo Lenz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fsica (Brazil); Chapman, Steve [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, Michael [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, Joel [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, David Russell [TRIUMF (Canada); Hangst, Jeffrey Scott [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, Walter Newbold [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, Ryugo S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayden, Michael Edward [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, Andrew James [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Jonsell, Svante [Stockholm University, Fysikum (Sweden); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The ALPHA project is an international collaboration, based at CERN, with the experimental goal of performing precision spectroscopic measurements on antihydrogen. As part of this endeavor, the ALPHA experiment includes a silicon tracking detector. This detector consists of a three-layer array of silicon modules surrounding the antihydrogen trapping region of the ALPHA apparatus. Using this device, the antihydrogen annihilation position can be determined with a spatial resolution of better than 5 mm. Knowledge of the annihilation distribution was a critical component in the recently successful antihydrogen trapping effort. This paper will describe the methods used to reconstruct annihilation events in the ALPHA detector. Particular attention will be given to the description of the background rejection criteria.

  18. First Results of Using a UVTron Flame Sensor to Detect Alpha-Induced Air Fluorescence in the UVC Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita J. Crompton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC wavelength range (180–280 nm. A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref., 430-8587, Japan, designed to detect the UVC emissions from flames for fire alarm purposes, was tested in various gas atmospheres with a 210Po alpha source to determine if this could provide an avenue for stand-off alpha detection. The results of the experiments show that this detector is capable of detecting alpha-induced air fluorescence in normal indoor lighting conditions, as the interference from daylight and artificial lighting is less influential on this detection system which operates below the UVA and UVB wavelength ranges (280–315 nm and 315–380 nm respectively. Assuming a standard 1 r 2 drop off in signal, the limit of detection in this configuration can be calculated to be approximately 240 mm, well beyond the range of alpha-particles in air, which indicates that this approach could have potential for stand-off alpha detection. The gas atmospheres tested produced an increase in the detector count, with xenon having the greatest effect with a measured 52% increase in the detector response in comparison to the detector response in an air atmosphere. This type of alpha detection system could be operated at a distance, where it would potentially provide a more cost effective, safer, and faster solution in comparison with traditional alpha detection methods to detect and characterise alpha contamination in nuclear decommissioning and security applications.

  19. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  20. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma}. On

  1. Sensitive radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to recombinant human interferon-alpha A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palleroni, A.V.; Trown, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of antibodies to recombinant human leukocyte interferon A (rHuIFN-alpha A) in human serum has been developed and validated against the standard antiviral neutralization bioassay (ANB). The assay measures the binding of 125 I-labeled rHuIFN-alpha A to immunoglobulins in serum. Aliquots of patients' sera are incubated with 125 I-rHuIFN-alpha A and the complexes formed between antibodies in the sera and the 125 I-rHuIFN-alpha A are precipitated with goat anti-human IgG serum. The radioactivity in the immune precipitate is a measure of the quantity of antibody (if present) in the serum. The sensitivity of this RIA is 5 ng of IgG/ml of serum

  2. Experimental determination of alpha particle threshold detection in cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    LR 115, type II, Kodak-Pathe cellulose nitrate pellicles were irradiated perpendicularly with monoenergetic alpha bemas in the energy range 2,5-5,5 Mev. The alpha particle beams were produced by an intense Am 241 source using Argon as energy attenuating. After irradiations, samples were etched with NaOH solutions without agitation at 60 0 C, by different time periods varying from 15 minutes to 3,5 hours. Measurements of density and track diameter were done using optical microscopy. The sample compositions were done by CHN method of combustion gas analysis showing good agreement with the composition of cellulose trinitrate. From detection threshold and from obtained results, the development of latent tracks only occur for alpha particles with stopping power superior to 0,87 +- 0,06 MeV.cm -2 .mg -1 , was verified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer trademark system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer trademark uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft. The measurement methodology under development overcomes the limitations associated with conventional hand-held survey instruments by remotely emplacing an alpha scintillator in direct contact with the interior pipe surface over the entire length to be characterized. This is accomplished by incorporating a suitable scintillator into the otherwise clear membrane material. Alpha particles emitted from the interior pipe surface will intersect the membrane, resulting in the emission of light pulses from the scintillator. A photodetector, towed by the inverting membrane, is used to count these light pulses as a function of distance into the pipe, thereby producing a log of the surface alpha contamination levels. It is anticipated that the resulting system will be able to perform measurements in pipes as small as two inches in diameter, and several hundred feet in length

  4. Low-cost amplifier for alpha detection with photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domienikan, Cláudio; Costa, Priscila; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zahn, Guilherme S., E-mail: clanikan@ipen.br, E-mail: pcosta@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A low-cost amplifier for Hamamatsu S3590-09 PIN photodiode to be used in alpha detection is presented. This amplifier consists basically of two circuits: a pulse preamplifier and a shaper-driver. The PIN photodiode is reverse-biased and connected to a charge preamplifier input. Incident alpha particles generate a small current pulse in the photodiode. The integrating circuit of the low noise preamplifier transforms current pulse into a voltage pulse with amplitude proportional to the charge carried by the current pulse. The shaper-driver consists of a differentiator and an integrator and is responsible for filtering and further amplifying the preamplifier signal, generating a NIM-compatible energy pulse. The performance of the set photodiode-amplifier was successively tested through the use of a {sup 243}Am radioactive source. The low-cost photodiode amplifier was designed and constructed at IPEN - CNEN/SP using national components and expertise. (author)

  5. The calculation of the detection efficiency in the calibration of gross alpha-beta systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian Romeo Calin; Ileana Radulescu; Alexandru Erminiu Druker

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for efficiency calibration of a measuring alpha-beta system PROTEAN ORTEC, MPC-2000-DP, using standard radioactive sources. The system is used to measure gross alpha-beta activity concentrations in environmental samples. The calculated efficiencies of detection were subsequently introduced in the system for two working geometries: measuring geometry-gross alpha-beta ε α g = 31,37 ± 0.25 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β g 44.94 ± 0.69 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk g = 25.59 ± 0.50 (%) and measuring geometry up alpha-beta ε α u 36.23 ± 0.29 (%)-the alpha efficiency and ε β u = 48.53 ± 0.74 (%)-the beta efficiency, where the spillover factor is X talk u 31.08 ± 0.60 (%). (author)

  6. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma

  7. Photoluminescence detection of alpha particle using DAM-ADC nuclear detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Harraz, Farid A., E-mail: fharraz68@yahoo.com [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology Division, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Ali, Atif M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sayari, S.A. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); College of Science and Arts-Sharoura, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajry, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-11

    The photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis spectral analysis of DAM-ADC (diallyl maleate: DAM, polyallyl diglycol carbonate: ADC) nuclear detector are demonstrated for the first time. The DAM-ADC surfaces were exposed to thin {sup 241}Am disk source that emits alpha particles with activity 333 kBq. It is found that the track density of the irradiated samples remarkably influences the PL characteristics of the DAM-ADC detector. The spectral peak heights and the integrated intensities under the peaks exhibit linear correlations with correlation coefficient R{sup 2}=0.9636 and 0.9806, respectively for different alpha particle fluences ranging from 8.16–40.82×10{sup 7} particles/cm{sup 2}. Additionally, a correlation coefficient R{sup 2}=0.9734 was achieved for the UV–vis spectral analysis. The linear fitting functions, along with the corresponding fitting parameters were evaluated in each case. Both the PL and the UV–vis data of the irradiated DAM-ADC samples showed considerable spectral differences, and hence they would be used to offer sensitive approaches for alpha particle detection.

  8. Detection of alpha particles using DNA/Al Schottky junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ta' ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber, E-mail: hassankirkukly@gmail.com, E-mail: vengadeshp@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Al-Muthana, Al-Muthana 66001 (Iraq); Periasamy, Vengadesh, E-mail: hassankirkukly@gmail.com, E-mail: vengadeshp@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Amin, Yusoff Mohd [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-21

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA can be utilized in an organic-metallic rectifying structure to detect radiation, especially alpha particles. This has become much more important in recent years due to crucial environmental detection needs in both peace and war. In this work, we fabricated an aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al structure and generated current–voltage characteristics upon exposure to alpha radiation. Two models were utilized to investigate these current profiles; the standard conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung and Cheung's method. Using these models, the barrier height, Richardson constant, ideality factor and series resistance of the metal-DNA-metal structure were analyzed in real time. The barrier height, Φ value calculated using the conventional method for non-radiated structure was 0.7149 eV, increasing to 0.7367 eV after 4 min of radiation. Barrier height values were observed to increase after 20, 30 and 40 min of radiation, except for 6, 8, and 10 min, which registered a decrease of about 0.67 eV. This was in comparison using Cheung and Cheung's method, which registered 0.6983 eV and 0.7528 eV for the non-radiated and 2 min of radiation, respectively. The barrier height values, meanwhile, were observed to decrease after 4 (0.61 eV) to 40 min (0.6945 eV). The study shows that conventional thermionic emission model could be practically utilized for estimating the diode parameters including the effect of series resistance. These changes in the electronic properties of the Al/DNA/Al junctions could therefore be utilized in the manufacture of sensitive alpha particle sensors.

  9. A brief review of ultra-rare alpha decay detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    2006-01-01

    Three approaches to the measurement of rare alpha decaying products produced in heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions are described. One is based on a chemical extraction and following deposition of the nuclides under investigation onto the surface of the detector, whereas the second one is associated with long-lived products implanted into silicon detectors by using the electromagnetic separation technique. The third approach relates with an application of real-time mode detection of correlated energy-time-position recoil-alpha sequences from 48 Ca-induced nuclear reactions with actinide targets, like 242,244 Pu, 245,248 Cm, 243 Am, and 249 Cf. Namely with this technique it has became possible to provide a radical suppression of backgrounds in the full fusion (3-5n) reactions aimed at the synthesis of superheavy elements with Z = 113-118

  10. The use of silicon devices (diodes, RAMs, etc.) for alpha particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Foglio Para, A.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon electronic devices (diodes, random access memories (RAMs), etc.) can be employed in alpha particle detection and spectroscopy with a good energy resolution. The detection mechanisms are first discussed; the performances of these devices operating in the pulse and in the current mode are then described starting from the pioneering works of the last decade. Some peculiar applications of RAMs are finally reported. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  11. Explorations of the application of cyanine dyes for quantitative alpha-synuclein detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkova, Kateryna D; Kovalska, V B; Segers-Nolten, G M J; Veldhuis, G.; Subramaniam, V; Yarmoluk, S M

    We examined the practical aspects of using fluorescent mono (T-284) and trimethinecyanine (SH-516) dyes for detecting and quantifying fibrillar alpha-synuclein (ASN). We studied the interaction of cyanine dyes with fibrillar proteins using fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The

  12. Distribution of alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v) integrin subunits in mature and immature human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Mart, M; Santaló, J; Bolton, V N

    1998-10-01

    The distribution of three integrin subunits, alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v), in immature and mature human oocytes has been examined using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both alpha5 and alpha(v) are present at the germinal vesicle stage, while alpha3 was only detected in oocytes after germinal vesicle breakdown, in metaphase I and II stage oocytes. The cortical concentration of integrin subunits alpha3 and alpha5 is consistent with their localization in the oolemma. In contrast, the homogeneous distribution of alpha(v) throughout the oocyte suggests the existence of cytoplasmic reservoirs of this protein in the oocyte.

  13. PM1-Alpha ELISA: the assay of choice for the detection of anti-PM/Scl autoantibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2009-03-01

    A characteristic serological feature of patients suffering from the overlap polymyositis and scleroderma (PM/Scl) syndrome are antibodies to the human counterpart of the yeast exosome referred to as the PM/Scl complex. Historically, the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies was laborious and relied largely on indirect immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion techniques. In 1992 the major autoantigen PM/Scl-100 was identified and cloned. Subsequently, the major epitopes were mapped and one of these, termed PM1-Alpha, became the antigen for a novel ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies. Comparative studies with other methods using other PM/Scl autoantigens have shown that the PM1-Alpha ELISA has higher sensitivity and specificity than assays that employed recombinant PM/Scl-75c and PM/Scl-100. Anti-PM1-Alpha antibodies were identified in 55.0% of sera from PM/Scl overlap syndrome patients, but were also seen in 7.9% of SSc and in 7.5% of PM patients. The frequency in other systemic autoimmune diseases and in infectious diseases was significant lower. In summary, the data derived from individual studies suggest that PM1-Alpha may become the "gold standard" for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies.

  14. Suma-alpha software description. Study of its applications to detection problems and environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Perez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Software named suma-espectros has been developed by TECNASA/CIEMAT for adding counts automatically from the alpha spectra, energy to energy, with the purpose of: evaluating real background of alpha spectrometers, studying its temporal variations, increasing the possibilities of isotopes detection -where it has been impossible to detect due elapsed time of the measurement- and implementing other applications. The programme is written in Visual-Basic and it can export data to Excel spreadsheets for later treatment. The software has established by default a channels range for adding the counts energy by energy but it can be adapted to the analysis of different isotopes and backgrounds simply changing a text file that is incorporated to the programme. The description of the programme management is described for whoever can realise its applications immediately. This software has the advantage of emitting an add-spectrum in cnf format that is used by alpha analyst (Genie 2K) for de convoluting spectra or doing calculations. (Author) 3 refs.

  15. Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr

  16. Alpha-in-air monitor for continuous monitoring based on alpha to beta ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayaji, K.S.; Venkataramani, R.; Swaminathan, N.; Pushparaja

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of long-lived alpha activity collected on a filter paper in continuous air monitoring of ambient working environment is difficult due to interference from much larger concentrations of short-lived alpha emitting daughter products of 222 Rn and 220 Rn. However, the ratio between the natural alpha and beta activity is approximately constant and this constancy of the ratio is used to discriminate against short-lived natural radioactivity in continuous air monitoring. Detection system was specially designed for the purpose of simultaneous counting of alpha and beta activity deposited on the filter paper during continuous monitoring. The activity ratios were calculated and plotted against the monitoring duration up to about six hours. Monitoring was carried out in three facilities with different ventilation conditions. Presence of any long-lived alpha contamination on the filter paper results in increase in the alpha to beta ratio. Long-lived 239 Pu contamination of about 16 DAC.h could be detected after about 45 minutes of commencement of the sampling. The experimental results using prototype units have shown that the approach of using alpha to beta activity ratio method to detect long-lived alpha activity in the presence of short-lived natural activity is satisfactory. (author)

  17. Improving the limits of detection of low background alpha emission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Brendan D.; Coleman, Stuart; Harris, Jack T.; Warburton, William K.

    2018-01-01

    Alpha particle emission - even at extremely low levels - is a significant issue in the search for rare events (e.g., double beta decay, dark matter detection). Traditional measurement techniques require long counting times to measure low sample rates in the presence of much larger instrumental backgrounds. To address this, a commercially available instrument developed by XIA uses pulse shape analysis to discriminate alpha emissions produced by the sample from those produced by other surfaces of the instrument itself. Experience with this system has uncovered two residual sources of background: cosmogenics and radon emanation from internal components. An R&D program is underway to enhance the system and extend the pulse shape analysis technique further, so that these residual sources can be identified and rejected as well. In this paper, we review the theory of operation and pulse shape analysis techniques used in XIA's alpha counter, and briefly explore data suggesting the origin of the residual background terms. We will then present our approach to enhance the system's ability to identify and reject these terms. Finally, we will describe a prototype system that incorporates our concepts and demonstrates their feasibility.

  18. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Jang, Eric B., E-mail: grant.mcquate@ars.usda.go, E-mail: eric.jang@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Hilo, HI (United States). Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Bokonon-Ganta, Aime H., E-mail: aimehbg@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii (CTAHR/PEPS/UH), Honolulu, HI (United States). Coll. of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Dept. of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences

    2006-07-01

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  19. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Jang, Eric B.; Bokonon-Ganta, Aime H.

    2006-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  20. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  1. Spin-polarized x-ray emission of 3d transition-metal ions : A comparison via K alpha and K beta detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; deGroot, F.M.F.; Cramer, SP

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that spin-polarized x-ray-excitation spectra can be obtained using K alpha emission as well as K beta lines. A spin-polarized analysis of K alpha x-ray emission and the excitation spectra by K alpha detection on a Ni compound is reported. A systematic analysis of the

  2. Quantitative Alpha Fetoprotein Detection with a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Mass Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jong Yun; Jeon, Sang Min; Cha, Hyung Joon; Moon, Won Kyu [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeol Ho [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Alpha fetoprotein(AFP), which is serological marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, was quantitatively measured by its normal concentration, 10 ng/ml, with a label-free piezoelectric microcantilever mass sensor. The principle of detection is based on changes in the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric microcantilever before and after target molecules are attached to it, and its resonant frequency is measured electrically using a conductance spectrum. The resonant frequency of the developed sensor is approximately 1.34 MHz and the mass sensitivity is approximately 175 Hz/pg. The sensor has high reliability as mass sensor by reducing the effect of surface stress on resonant frequency due to attached proteins. 'Dip and dry' technique was used to react the sensor with reagents for immobilizing AFP antibody on the sensor and detecting AFP antigen. The measured mass of the detected AFP antigen was 6.02 pg at the concentration of 10 ng/ml, and 10.67 pg at 50 ng/ml when the immunoreaction time was 10 min.

  3. Quantitative Alpha Fetoprotein Detection with a Piezoelectric Microcantilever Mass Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jong Yun; Jeon, Sang Min; Cha, Hyung Joon; Moon, Won Kyu; Lee, Yeol Ho

    2011-01-01

    Alpha fetoprotein(AFP), which is serological marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, was quantitatively measured by its normal concentration, 10 ng/ml, with a label-free piezoelectric microcantilever mass sensor. The principle of detection is based on changes in the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric microcantilever before and after target molecules are attached to it, and its resonant frequency is measured electrically using a conductance spectrum. The resonant frequency of the developed sensor is approximately 1.34 MHz and the mass sensitivity is approximately 175 Hz/pg. The sensor has high reliability as mass sensor by reducing the effect of surface stress on resonant frequency due to attached proteins. 'Dip and dry' technique was used to react the sensor with reagents for immobilizing AFP antibody on the sensor and detecting AFP antigen. The measured mass of the detected AFP antigen was 6.02 pg at the concentration of 10 ng/ml, and 10.67 pg at 50 ng/ml when the immunoreaction time was 10 min

  4. DOSEmanPRO - active electronic online personal air sampler for detection of radon progeny long lived alpha nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Using the micro system - technology we developed a online personal air sampler not bigger than a mobile phone, to open a new dimension in personal dosimetry of inhaled radioactive aerosols. The DOSEman PRO containing an internal pump with a continuous air flow of 0.15 I/min sample the radon progeny or other nuclides on a millipore filter with excellent spectroscopic resolution. A 1.5 cm 2 light protected ion-implanted silicon detector analyses the alpha radiation at the filter. This small detector head contains also the pre amplification and pulse processing. The alpha radiation of the radon progeny and the long lived alpha nuclides is analyzed by a 60 channel spectrometer. The energy resolution of the online analyzed filter spectra is in the order of 150 keV. Mechanical and electronic design enables one to distinguish the long lived alpha nuclides from the radon and thoron progeny very easily. Using a special algorithm we correct the influence of the tailing of the radon progeny to the long lived alpha nuclides and take into consideration possible interference in determining the long lived alpha nuclides. Because of the air sampling volume of nearly 10 I/h, the system has a high efficiency. The detection limit by 2 hours sampling time is 0.05 Bq/m 3 alpha nuclide concentration. In a modified device for air sampling especially of long-lived alpha nuclides like uranium, radium or plutonium, the flow rate is increased to 0,3 1/min e.g. during a 10 h sampling period we can detect 0.005 Bq/m 3 in a low radon atmosphere. Assuming increased radon progeny concentration, the statistical error for the long lived alpha nuclides will be higher, but in most of the cases for use in nuclear facilities low radon concentrations are ambient conditions. This concept of an electronic personal air sampler with an alpha spectroscopy offers some outstanding advantages compared to passive dosimeters or off-line alpha air filters: The dose value and the nuclide concentration is

  5. Detection alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with track solid detectors and with surface barrier detectors: efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.R.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The technique of particle detection by solid track detectors, types of developing and analysis of results are presented. Efficiency measurements of alpha particle detection with Makrofol e and surface barrier detector are made. Detection of Cf-252 fission fragments is shown. (L.C.)

  6. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  7. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  8. Detection of alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with solid track detectors and surface barrier detector. Efficiency calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.E.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for particle detection by using track solid detector and also types of revealing and result analysis are presented concerned to Cf-252 fission fragments detection. Measurements of alpha particles detection efficiency using Makrofol E and surface barrier detector are performed. (L.C.J.A.)

  9. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  10. Coincidence study of alpha particle fragmentation at E/sub alpha/ = 140 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the interaction of 140 MeV alpha particles with 90 Zr nuclei resulting in fragmentation of the alpha particle are reported. The experimental observations of the study are analyzed and are found to show that alpha particle breakup reactions leading to at least 4-body final states, composed of two charged alpha particle fragments, contribute significantly to the singles yield of charged fragments observed at a fixed forward angle. The conclusions are based on coincidence measurements where one charged fragment is detected at a small forward angle which remains fixed, while the second charged fragment is detected at a series of coplanar secondary angles. The largest coincidence charged particle yield for the multiparticle final state events results from 90 Zr(α,pp)X reactions, where both of the measured protons have energy distributions similar to the proton singles energy distributions. The second largest observed coincidence yield involving two charged fragments arises from 90 Zr(α,pd)X reactions, where the p and d fragments, as in the 90 Zr(α,pp)X reactions also have energy distribution similar to the singles energy distributions. Analysis of additional measurements, where alpha particle fragments at the fixed angle are detected in coincidence with evaporation and nonequilibrium particles at many coplanar angles, show that the alpha particle fragmentation reactions are also generally associated with large energy transfer to the target nucleus. A multiple scattering model of the fragmentation reaction is employed, in conjunction with the experimental observations, to estimate the cross sections for alpha particle fragmentation into multi-particle final states resulting in n, 2n, p, pp, d, dn, dp, t and 3 He fragments. The estimated total cross section for all fragmentation reactions is 755 mb or approximately 38% of the total reaction cross section for 140 MeV alpha particle interactions with 90 Zr

  11. Energy-dependent etching-related impacts on CR-39 alpha detection efficiency for the Rn-222 and Rn-220 decay chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y.; Yuan, H.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2018-04-01

    CR-39 detectors are widely used to measure environmental levels of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progeny. Prior research reported the CR-39 detection efficiency for alpha particles from Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progeny under a variety of etching conditions. This paper provides an explanation for interesting observations included in that work, namely that the critical incidence angle decreases with the increasing particle energy and the detection efficiency for 8.78 MeV alpha particles is zero. This paper explains these phenomena from a consideration of the interaction of alpha particles with the CR-39 detectors and the physics of etching dynamics. The proposed theory provides a rationale for an approach to optimizing the etching conditions of CR-39 detector for measuring Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progenies.

  12. Functional and genomic analyses of alpha-solenoid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, David; Palidwor, Gareth A; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Szengel, Angelika; Schaefer, Martin H; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others). While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/.

  13. Alpha radiation detection using silicon memory chips - preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, R.; Paix, D.; Haskard, M.

    1993-01-01

    Alpha radiation dosage is an important occupational health factor in the mining of uranium and mineral sands. Alpha radiation induced errors in the data of silicon based memory chips provide the foundation for a new type of sensor, with the potential for affordable and prompt measurement of personal alpha doses. With particular reference to Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAM) this paper introduces the operating principle of a memory based radiation sensor, which is the error mechanism in silicon integrated circuits. 14 refs., 3 figs

  14. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands; Moniteur de contamination alpha beta des mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J

    1958-07-01

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  15. Alpha toxin specific PCR for detection of toxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmarugan Shanmugasamy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Isolation of clostridium perfirngens from necrotic enteritis cases in poultry and confirmation by alpha toxin specific PCR Materials and methods: Robertson cooked meat medium with Brain Heart Infusion broth was used for isolation of C. perfringens from intestinal contents of necrotic enteritis suspected birds. Positive cultures from perfringens agar were further confirmed by biochemical tests and subjected to alpha toxin specific PCR. Results: Twenty Clostridium perfringens isolates were isolated from intestinal contents of thirty five NE suspected birds. Out of the twenty isolates, fourteen were isolated from commercial broilers of 2 to 6 wk of age and six from commercial layers of 9 to 15 wk of age. Frequency of isolation of C. perfringens was more with Robertson cooked meat medium with BHI broth than thioglycollate broth alone. When positive cultures were streaked on to clostridial agar appreciable luxuriant growths were obtained and the selective streaking of these colonies on perfringens agar with supplements revealed rough and black colonies with sulphate reduction. The isolates produced rough and black colonies with sulphate reduction on perfringens agar, double zone haemolysis on sheep blood agar, stormy clot fermentation on milk medium and opalescence on egg yolk medium. The isolates were found negative for oxidase, catalase, liquefied gelatin, fermented glucose, maltose, lactose and sucrose except mannitol. All the fourteen isolates obtained from commercial broilers proved the alpha toxin producing strains of C. perfringens when they were subjected to alpha toxin specific PCR. Conclusion : This study revealed alpha toxin specific PCR is highly useful for detection of toxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens in poultry [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 365-368

  16. Antibody modified gold nano-mushroom arrays for rapid detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbo; Jiang, Xueqin; Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhangkai; Zhou, Jianhua

    2015-06-15

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) combined with immunoassay shows greatly potential in fast detection of tumor markers. In this paper, a highly sensitive LSPR substrate has been fabricated and modified for direct detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The biosensor was prepared by interference lithography, and modified by covalently immobilizing anti-AFP on the surface of gold nano-mushroom arrays (GNMA). The modification process was investigated by Vis-NIR reflectance spectra and cyclic voltammogram measurements. We revealed the optical properties of the modified GNMA by measuring the Vis-NIR reflectance spectra and simulating its electric intensity field distribution under light illumination. The GNMA substrate was highly sensitive, with a refractive index sensitivity of ~465 nm/RIU. The substrate can be applied to label-free detection of AFP, with the linear range and the limit of detection determined to be 20-200 ng/mL and 24 ng/mL (S/N=3), respectively. We also demonstrated its clinical application by directly detecting AFP in human serum samples. It is expected that our biosensor could be integrated on microfluidic chips for high-throughput detection in portable early diagnosis, post-operative and point-of-care (POC) in clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In-situ Long-range Alpha Particles and X-ray Detection for Thin-film Pd Cathodes During Electrolysis in Li_2SO_4/H_2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, A. G.; Roussetski, A. S.; Castano, C. H.; S-O, Kim; Miley, G. H.

    2002-03-01

    Measurements of long-range alpha and soft X-ray emissions have been performed using cyclotron calibrated CR-39 plastic track and LiF/Al_2O_3:C-Thermo-Luminescent (TLD) detectors. Application of CR-39 and TLD detectors to the surface of the thin Pd film-cathodes sputtered on the insulator substrate (glass, Al_2O_3, PMMA) allows detection of both alpha and soft X-ray emissions simultaneously with excess heat measurements during electrolysis using 1 Molar Li_2SO_4/H_20 electrolyte. The alpha particles in the range of 8.0 d> 6.0 μm) were detected upon the electrolysis. Those alpha-tracks are quite unique, never having been observed during CR-39 exposure with trans-uranium alpha -sources (Am^241, Pu^239). The TLD measurement shows generation of the low intensity 5.0-10.0 keV X-ray quanta (Φx < 5.0 s -1*cm-2) accompanying the alpha emission.

  18. Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; He, Qing-hua; Xu, Yang; Fu, Jin-heng; Li, Yan-ping; Tu, Zhui; Wang, Dan; Shu, Mei; Qiu, Yu-lou; Yang, Hong-wei; Liu, Yuan-yuan

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ng mL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.68±0.56ng mL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ng mL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ng mL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time monitoring for alpha emitters in high-airflow environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Whitley, C.R.; Conaway, J.G.; Steadman, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Key problems in detecting alpha contamination for site characterization and decontamination and decommissioning that remain to be solved include measurement of airborne contamination, material holdup within pipes, and leakage of material containers. These problems are very difficult using traditional alpha detectors and systems. The ionization detection method (long-range alpha detection of LRAD) offers a number of specific advantages for these environmental measurements. An LRAD system detects the air molecules ionized by alpha-emitting contamination rather than the alpha particles. Thus, LRAD-based detectors are not limited by the short range of alpha particles and can be used to detect contamination anywhere that air can penetrate. Extending this technology to large enclosures of long pipes requires a system optimized for large airflows. In this paper we will present designs and preliminary results for high-volume flow-through air monitors based on the LRAD technique. In addition, we will discuss the behavior of the monitors and their potential applications

  20. Development of an alpha scattering instrument for heavy element detection in surface materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkevich, A.L.; Economou, T.; Blume, E.; Anderson, W.

    1974-12-01

    The development and characteristics of a portable instrument for detecting and measuring the amounts of lead in painted surfaces are discussed. The instrument is based on the ones used with the alpha scattering experiment on the Surveyor lunar missions. The principles underlying the instrument are described. It is stated that the performance tests of the instrument were satisfactory. (auth)

  1. Liquid scintillation alpha particle spectrometry. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.L.; Hakooz, S.A.; Johnson, L.O.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1979-12-01

    Objective to develop a technique whereby Pu may be put into solution, extracted by solvent extraction into a suitable extractive scintillant and subsequently counted. Presented here are results of attempts to separate beta and alpha activities through pulse shape discrimination. A qualitative discussion is given which yields alpha particle peak widths, resolution and response. The detection efficiency for alpha particles in a liquid scintillant is 100%. Present detection sensitivities of the equipment being used are: 4.5 x 10 -6 μCi (100 s), 1.2 x 10 -6 μCi (1000 s), and 4.0 x 10 -7 μCi (10,000 s) at the 3 sigma level. The detectability of a particular alpha-emitting species is strongly dependent upon the population of other species. The ability to discriminate depends upon the system resolution. 14 figures, 2 tables

  2. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  3. Detection of alpha-fetoprotein in magnetic immunoassay of thin channels using biofunctional nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H. Y.; Gao, B. Z.; Yang, S. F.; Li, C. S.; Fuh, C. Bor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the use of fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticles (10-30 nm) to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a thin-channel magnetic immunoassay. We used an AFP model biomarker and s-shaped deposition zones to test the proposed detection method. The results show that the detection using fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticle has a higher throughput than that of functional microparticle used in previous experiments on affinity reactions. The proposed method takes about 3 min (versus 150 min of previous method) to detect 100 samples. The proposed method is useful for screening biomarkers in clinical applications, and can reduce the run time for sandwich immunoassays to less than 20 min. The detection limits (0.06 pg/ml) and linear ranges (0.068 pg/ml-0.68 ng/ml) of AFP using fluorescent biofunctional nanoparticles are the same as those of using functional microparticles within experimental errors. This detection limit is substantially lower and the linear range is considerably wider than those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and other methods in sandwich immunoassay methods. The differences between this method and an ELISA in AFP measurements of serum samples were less than 12 %. The proposed method provides simple, fast, and sensitive detection with a high throughput for biomarkers.

  4. A new method for alpha-particle detection in a classroom experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Pintye, Z.; Molnar, J.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The World Year of Physics (WYP 2005) was a worldwide celebration of Physics and its importance in our everyday lives. In harmony with its aims, that is to raise the worldwide awareness of Physics and Physical Science, we introduced a novel lab work involving a new imaging and data evaluation method for alpha-particle detection, which can be easily implemented in a classroom environment. The target group of the experiments is mainly secondary school students (age between 16-18 years). Our aim is to motivate students to develop a better understanding of Physics, allowing them to experience for themselves something of its fascination. In order to increase their attractiveness, the experiments include using a CMOS video image sensor with a video output. The covering glass window of the sensor must be carefully removed in order to make it sensitive for alpha rays. The sensor is connected to a computer where the images are recorded as a short video clip. The recorded video is played back by frames. The resulted frames are then merged together into one image. On this image the student can count the number of spots, where each spot corresponds to a hit of an alpha particle. The experiment can also be visible on a TV screen even by a whole class, however the authors suggest implementing the following experiments as a practical work individually or in small groups. As students are familiar with modern information technology, we think that they will be highly motivated to make these experiments on their own. Acknowledgements. The development of the above experimental setup was funded by ATOMKI and it was presented to the interactive science centre 'Magic corner', Debrecen, Hungary at Christmas, 2005. (author)

  5. Amperometric magnetoimmunoassay for the direct detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha biomarker in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eletxigerra, U. [Micro-NanoFabrication Unit, IK4-Tekniker, Eibar (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Martinez-Perdiguero, J. [CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Merino, S. [Micro-NanoFabrication Unit, IK4-Tekniker, Eibar (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Villalonga, R.; Pingarrón, J.M. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Campuzano, S., E-mail: susanacr@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biomarker. • Sensitive and selective detection of TNFα in undiluted serum. • LOD achieved lower than the cut-off value established for relevant illnesses. • Useful and affordable alternative to ELISAs for TNFα determination in serum. - Abstract: An amperometric immunoassay for the determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein biomarker in human serum based on the use of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) has been developed. The specifically modified microbeads were magnetically captured on the working electrode surface and the amperometric responses were measured at −0.20 V (vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the enzyme substrate. After a thorough optimization of the assay, extremely low limits of detection were achieved: 2.0 pg mL{sup −1} (36 fM) and 5.8 pg mL{sup −1} (105 fM) for standard solutions and spiked human serum, respectively. The simplicity, robustness and this clinically interesting LOD proved the developed TNFα immunoassay as a good contender for real clinical application.

  6. Amperometric magnetoimmunoassay for the direct detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha biomarker in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletxigerra, U.; Martinez-Perdiguero, J.; Merino, S.; Villalonga, R.; Pingarrón, J.M.; Campuzano, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) biomarker. • Sensitive and selective detection of TNFα in undiluted serum. • LOD achieved lower than the cut-off value established for relevant illnesses. • Useful and affordable alternative to ELISAs for TNFα determination in serum. - Abstract: An amperometric immunoassay for the determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) protein biomarker in human serum based on the use of magnetic microbeads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) has been developed. The specifically modified microbeads were magnetically captured on the working electrode surface and the amperometric responses were measured at −0.20 V (vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as electron transfer mediator and H 2 O 2 as the enzyme substrate. After a thorough optimization of the assay, extremely low limits of detection were achieved: 2.0 pg mL −1 (36 fM) and 5.8 pg mL −1 (105 fM) for standard solutions and spiked human serum, respectively. The simplicity, robustness and this clinically interesting LOD proved the developed TNFα immunoassay as a good contender for real clinical application

  7. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs

  8. Deep UV emitting scintillators for alpha and beta particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606 (United States); Jia, D.D.; Lewis, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Feofilov, S.P. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Meltzer, R.S., E-mail: rmeltzer@physast.uga.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Several deep UV emitting scintillators, whose emission falls in the solar blind region of the spectrum (200-280 nm), are described and their scintillator properties are characterized. They include LaPO{sub 4}:Pr, YPO{sub 4}:Pr, YAlO{sub 3}:Pr, Pr(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}, YPO{sub 4}:Bi and ScPO{sub 4}. These materials would facilitate the detection of ionizing radiation in open areas, even during the daylight hours, and could be used to support large area surveys that monitor for the presence of ionization radiation due, for example, to system leaks or transfer contamination. These materials can be used in the form of powders, thin films or paints for radiation detection. They are characterized for both beta radiation using electron beams (2-35 keV) and {sup 137}Cs and alpha radiations using {sup 241}Am sources. Their absolute light yields are estimated and are compared to that of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce. Their light yields decrease as a function of electron energy but at 10 keV they approach 8000 ph/MeV.

  9. Performance of an alpha air monitor in a dusty environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Eberline Alpha-6 Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) was evaluated for use in detecting alpha radiation from 238 Pu and 239 Pu in the presence of background aerosols of salt dust and radon progeny. The Alpha-6 method uses an embedded, multichannel analyzer and real-time computer to correct for the presence of alpha-emitting radon progeny and to accurately report plutonium air concentration in dust-free environments. However, accumulation of mg/cm 2 salt dust on the sample collection filter was found to be equivalent to an infinitely thick layer. Dust loading raises the limit of detection in proportion to the concentration of airborne salt. Proper detection of 239 Pu is impaired by airborne concentrations of salt greater than 2 mg/m 3 . Alpha spectral analysis at a central monitoring computer is recommended to avoid detection errors at higher salt concentrations. (author)

  10. Development of methodology for detection of long lived alpha emitters in air based on simultaneous alpha and beta activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Vivek; Rath, D.P.; Vinayagami, Bhakti; Ashokkumar, P.; Umashankar, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Interference of the radon and thoron progeny co-deposited on the filtration media is the long-standing problem related to prompt analyses in continuous air sampling or monitoring of any potential suspect radionuclides. The solutions to this problem have been quite diverse, and included, for example, simple gross-alpha counting, the use of beta-to-alpha ratios, and the use of alpha spectrum analyses. The techniques based on beta to alpha disintegration ratios make use of the naturally occurring alpha to beta disintegration ratios and departures therefrom. This ratio is found empirically to be relatively constant. With the help of the solution of differential equation, which govern the deposition of radionuclide on filter paper, one can easily estimate theoretically the behavior of the radon progeny alpha to beta disintegration (or count) rate ratio

  11. Uranium analysis in Cypriot groundwaters by total alpha-radiometry and alpha-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, Maria; Kiliari, Tasoula; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Two different alpha-radiometric methods (e.g. alpha-spectroscopy and alpha-particle counting) have been applied to the determination of uranium in Cypriot groundwater samples after separation of the radionuclides by cation exchange using Chelex-100 and its electrodeposition on stainless steel planchettes. The data obtained were compared to show the advantages and disadvantages of the two radiometric methods, determine the alpha-radioactivity concentration and the radiation dose associated with the use of the studied groundwaters. Calibration of the methods was performed by means of uranium standard solutions and the corresponding data were used to evaluate linear range, detector efficiency, detection limits, value of the information obtained, and time of analysis of the methods. Comparison of the data obtained from calibration and natural sample measurements has shown that alpha-particle counting with a simple alpha-radiometer (equipped with a semiconductor detector) may offer only an activity value and not detailed information about the isotopic composition but it is the fastest method and the method of choice if only a screening method for the alpha-radioactivity measurement is required. Based on the alpha-radioactivity data, the corresponding radiation dose was estimated for situations where the groundwaters are used for drinking water purposes.

  12. Experimental investigation of the reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne and their impact on stellar nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falahat, Sascha

    2010-06-10

    In the present dissertation, the nuclear reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne are investigated in the astrophysically interesting energy region from E{sub {alpha}}=1000 keV to E{sub {alpha}}=2450 keV. The experiments were performed at the Nuclear Structure Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame (USA) with the Van-de-Graaff accelerator KN. Solid state targets with evaporated magnesium or anodized oxygen were bombarded with {alpha}-particles and the released neutrons detected. For the detection of the released neutrons, computational simulations were used to construct a neutron detector based on {sup 3}He counters. Because of the strong occurrence of background reactions, different methods of data analysis were employed. Finally, the impact of the reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne on stellar nucleosynthesis is investigated by means of network calculations. (orig.)

  13. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions

  14. Alpha-fetoprotein detection by using a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence fiber-optic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Feng; Chen, Ran-Chou; Li, Ying-Chang; Yu, Chih-Jen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Chou, Chien

    2007-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection by using a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence (LSPCF) fiber-optic biosensor is setup and experimentally demonstrated. It is based on gold nanoparticle (GNP) and coupled with localized surface plasmon wave on the surface of GNP. In this experiment, the fluorophores are labeled on anti-AFP which are bound to protein A conjugated GNP. Thus, LSPCF is excited with high efficiency in the near field of localized surface plasmon wave. Therefore, not only the sensitivity of LSPCF biosensor is enhanced but also the specific selectivity of AFP is improved. Experimentally, the ability of real time measurement in the range of AFP concentration from 0.1ng/ml to 100ng/ml was detected. To compare with conventional methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or radioimmunoassay (RIA), the LSPCF fiber-optic biosensor performs higher or comparable detection sensitivity, respectively.

  15. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  16. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  17. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  18. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, P.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure is disclosed. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. 4 figs

  19. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wasilenko, L; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y; Fujiwara, M C

    2008-01-01

    We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation applied to alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccouche, S.; Gharbi, F.; Trabelsi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Alpha particle spectrometry is a widely-used analytical method, in particular when we deal with pure alpha emitting radionuclides. Monte Carlo simulation is an adequate tool to investigate the influence of various phenomena on this analytical method. We performed an investigation of those phenomena using the simulation code GEANT of CERN. The results concerning the geometrical detection efficiency in different measurement geometries agree with analytical calculations. This work confirms that Monte Carlo simulation of solid angle of detection is a very useful tool to determine with very good accuracy the detection efficiency.

  1. Alpha-tocopheryl phosphate: a novel, natural form of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianello, Robert; Libinaki, Roksan; Azzi, Angelo; Gavin, Paul D; Negis, Yesim; Zingg, Jean-Marc; Holt, Phillip; Keah, Hooi-Hong; Griffey, Annike; Smallridge, Andrew; West, Simon M; Ogru, Esra

    2005-10-01

    We have detected alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in biological tissues including liver and adipose tissue, as well as in a variety of foods, suggesting a ubiquitous presence in animal and plant tissue. Alpha-tocopheryl phosphate is a water-soluble molecule that is resistant to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis, making it undetectable using standard assays for vitamin E. A new method was therefore developed to allow the extraction of both alpha-tocopheryl phosphate and alpha-tocopherol from a single specimen. We used ESMS to detect endogenous alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in biological samples that also contained alpha-tocopherol. Due to the significance of these findings, further proof was required to unequivocally demonstrate the presence of endogenous alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in biological samples. Four independent methods of analysis were examined: HPLC, LCMS, LCMS/MS, and GCMS. Alpha-tocopherol phosphate was identified in all instances by comparison between standard alpha-tocopheryl phosphate and extracts of biological tissues. The results show that alpha-tocopheryl phosphate is a natural form of vitamin E. The discovery of endogenous alpha-tocopheryl phosphate has implications for the expanding knowledge of the roles of alpha-tocopherol in biological systems.

  2. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate, quantitative determinations of alpha emitting nuclides by conventional plate counting methods are difficult, because of sample self-absorption problems in counting and because of non-reproducible losses in conventional sample separation methods. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry offers an attractive alternative with no sample self-absorption or geometry problems and with 100% counting efficiency. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillation counting medium. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination, to yield alpha spectra without beta and gamma background interference. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium and colonium assay. Possibilities for a large number of other applications exist. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 1% range. Backgrounds of the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. The paper will present an overview of liquid scintillation alpha counting techniques and some of the results achieved for specific applications. (orig.)

  3. Detection of fission fragments and alpha particles using the solid trace detector CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of detecting charged particles using the solid track detector CR-39 is employed to establish some characteristics of fission fragments and alpha particles emitted from a Cf-252 source. Results are presented and discussed on the following aspects i) distribution of the track diameters; ii) variations on the track diameters to the chemical attack; iii) variations of the chemical attack velocity with respect to concentration and temperature. iv) activation energy of the developping process; v) induction time; vi) critical angle and efficiency on track developping. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  4. Rapid and label-free bioanalytical method of alpha fetoprotein detection using LSPR chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Jinwoon; Kwak, Cheol Hwan; Heo, Nam Su; Oh, Seo Yeong; Lee, Hoomin; Lee, Go-Woon; Vilian, A. T. Ezhil; Han, Young-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Gi-bum; Kwon, Soonjo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2017-07-01

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a cancer marker, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma. Normal levels of AFP are less than 20 ng/mL; however, its levels can reach more than 400 ng/mL in patients with HCC. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been employed for clinical diagnosis of AFP; however, these methods are time consuming and labor intensive. In this study, we developed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based biosensor for simple and rapid detection of AFP. This biosensor consists of a UV-Vis spectrometer, a cuvette cell, and a biosensor chip nanopatterned with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In our LSPR biosensor, binding of AFP to the surface of the sensor chip led to an increasing magnitude of the LSPR signals, which was measured by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. Our LSPR biosensor showed sufficient detectability of AFP at concentrations of 1 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL. Moreover, the overall procedure for detection of AFP was completed within 20 min. This biosensor could also be utilized for a point of care test (POCT) by employing a portable UV-Vis spectrometer. Owing to the simplicity and rapidity of the detection process, our LSPR biosensor is expected to replace traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of diseases.

  5. Alpha-particle emission probabilities of ²³⁶U obtained by alpha spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouli, M; Pommé, S; Jobbágy, V; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Stroh, H; Benedik, L

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry was performed with an ion-implanted silicon detector in vacuum on a homogeneously electrodeposited (236)U source. The source was measured at different solid angles subtended by the detector, varying between 0.8% and 2.4% of 4π sr, to assess the influence of coincidental detection of alpha-particles and conversion electrons on the measured alpha-particle emission probabilities. Additional measurements were performed using a bending magnet to eliminate conversion electrons, the results of which coincide with normal measurements extrapolated to an infinitely small solid angle. The measured alpha emission probabilities for the three main peaks - 74.20 (5)%, 25.68 (5)% and 0.123 (5)%, respectively - are consistent with literature data, but their precision has been improved by at least one order of magnitude in this work. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L. -L.; Nitto, A. Di; Düllmann, Ch E.; Gates, J. M.; Golubev, P.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gross, C. J.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Hessberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Rykaczewski, K.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schädel, M.; Yakushev, A.; Åberg, S.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Carlsson, B. G.; Cox, D.; Derkx, X.; Dobaczewski, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Papadakis, P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Runke, J.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Shi, Y.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Torres, T.; Traut, T.; Trautmann, N.; Türler, A.; Ward, A.; Ward, D. E.; Wiehl, N.

    2016-01-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two

  7. Investigation of the performance of alpha particle counting and alpha-gamma discrimination by pulse shape with micro-pixel avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, G.; Madatov, R.; Sadigov, A.; Sadygov, Z.; Jafarova, E.; Ahmadov, G.; Sadygov, Z.; Olshevski, A.; Zerrouk, F.; Mukhtarov, R.

    2015-01-01

    Being capable measuring small lights gives possibility to use micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes with scintillators. It is shown two prototypes to use micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes with and without scintillators as alpha and gamma counters in this paper. First prototype is to use two micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes. One for detecting alpha particles and closer to it, the second one with a thin plastic scintillator for detecting gamma rays. Second prototype is called two-layers configuration in which it is used only one micro-pixel avalanche photodiode, but two scntillators with different decay times. One can distinquish alpha particle and gamma ray events by using pulse shape discrimination techniques in the two-layer configuration. In this work an alpha particle and gamma ray counting performance of micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes without scintillators and its combination of plastic and BGO+ plastic scintillators was investigated. Obtained results showed the detection performance of the micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes in combination with plastic scintillator was about the same as conventional semiconductor detectors

  8. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  9. Preparation of a thin polysulfone phosphor sheet for the detection of alpha particles using adhesive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B. K.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H.; Chang, U. S.; Oh, W. Z.; Lee, K. W.; Han, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    According to atomic energy law and connection regs, the surface contamination of nuclear facilities should be monitored routinely. Surface contamination is divided into removable and fixed contamination. Fixed contamination is measured by a direct method with a survey meter. And removable contamination is measured by an indirect method using smear paper and a low background proportional counter. Also, in the decommissioning process of a nuclear research facilities, such as Korean Research Reactor 1 and 2 and Uranium Conversion Plant, a significant amount of nuclear wastes is produced. The wastes contaminated must be surveyed for the disposal and reuse in the future. In the previous study the medium, scintillatorembedded polymer membrane for detecting the alpharay, was prepared by impregnating organic scintillators in a membrane structure. The plastic scintillator consists of polysulfone(PSF) as a matrix with PPO as an organic scintillator and POPOP as a wave shifting agent dissolved in the matrix. But, an organic plastic scintillator was inadequate to detect the alpha particle in the alpha-beta mixing field because its light output is smaller than beta ray one. So, a thin phosphor sheet was prepared, which consisted of a very uniform deposit of silver activated zinc sulfide (ZnS(Ag)) phosphor applied to on side of clear polysulfone plastic sheet

  10. Alpha-driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and MHD-induced alpha loss in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Z.; Nazikian, R.; Fu, G.Y.

    1997-02-01

    Alpha-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed as predicted by theory in the post neutral beam phase in high central q (safety factor) deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The mode location, poloidal structure and the importance of q profile for TAE instability are discussed. So far no alpha particle loss due to these modes was detected due to the small mode amplitude. However, alpha loss induced by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) was observed in high confinement D-T discharges. Particle orbit simulation demonstrates that the wave-particle resonant interaction can explain the observed correlation between the increase in alpha loss and appearance of multiple high-n (n ≥ 6, n is the toroidal mode number) modes

  11. Lectin interactions with alpha-galactosylated xenoantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    alpha-Galactosylated xenoantigens (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1 and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc) are often detected with the alpha-Gal specific lectin Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4). However, this lectin exhibits a broad and variable specificity for carboh...

  12. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  13. Technology information profile: Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The idea to develop some sort of radiation detection using this knowledge was passed down and after extensive and ground-breaking development, practical and sensitive devices were invented that are particularly sensitive to alpha radiation. Well over twenty different LRAD detectors have been successfully built and plans exist for many more. No parallel work is known to exist, and the ability to detect alpha radiation at such distances is unequaled

  14. Detection of Alpha-Toxin and Other Virulence Factors in Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on Polystyrene and a Human Epidermal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Reijer, P M; Haisma, E M; Lemmens-den Toom, N A; Willemse, J; Koning, R I; Koning, R A; Demmers, J A A; Dekkers, D H W; Rijkers, E; El Ghalbzouri, A; Nibbering, P H; van Wamel, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to successfully colonize (a)biotic surfaces may be explained by biofilm formation and the actions of virulence factors. The aim of the present study was to establish the presence of 52 proteins, including virulence factors such as alpha-toxin, during biofilm formation of five different (methicillin resistant) S. aureus strains on Leiden human epidermal models (LEMs) and polystyrene surfaces (PS) using a competitive Luminex-based assay. All five S. aureus strains formed biofilms on PS, whereas only three out of five strains formed biofilms on LEMs. Out of the 52 tested proteins, six functionally diverse proteins (ClfB, glucosaminidase, IsdA, IsaA, SACOL0688 and nuclease) were detected in biofilms of all strains on both PS and LEMs. At the same time, four toxins (alpha-toxin, gamma-hemolysin B and leukocidins D and E), two immune modulators (formyl peptide receptor-like inhibitory protein and Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 1), and two other proteins (lipase and LytM) were detectable in biofilms by all five S. aureus strains on LEMs, but not on PS. In contrast, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnbpB) was detectable in biofilms by all S. aureus biofilms on PS, but not on LEMs. These data were largely confirmed by the results from proteomic and transcriptomic analyses and in case of alpha-toxin additionally by GFP-reporter technology. Functionally diverse virulence factors of (methicillin-resistant) S. aureus are present during biofilm formation on LEMs and PS. These results could aid in identifying novel targets for future treatment strategies against biofilm-associated infections.

  15. Innovative measuring sensor for the detection of alpha emitters in aquatic media; Innovativer Messsensor zur Detektion von Alphastrahlern in aquatischen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, Alexander; Hoeppener-Kramar, Ursula; Lude, Sabine; Wilhelm, Christoph [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Sicherheitsmanagement - Analytische Labore

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this research project is the realization of an improved alpha-particle detection system for dissolved actinides, directly working in water without any pre-enrichment. The advantages of the new sensor comprise that a matrix separation is mostly not necessary. The test sensor consists of a boron doped diamond entrance window on top of a silicon-diode, the whole alpha activity can be investigated in a good resolution, the electro-precipitation is quickly reversible and the activity on the sensor surface can be measured in-situ. (orig.)

  16. Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Cesar, C L; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wilding, D; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-01

    ALPHA is an experiment at CERN, whose ultimate goal is to perform a precise test of CPT symmetry with trapped antihydrogen atoms. After reviewing the motivations, we discuss our recent progress toward the initial goal of stable trapping of antihydrogen, with some emphasis on particle detection techniques.

  17. Particularisation of Alpha Contamination using CR-39 Track Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakia, M.F.; El-Shaer, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of the alpha particles. Furthermore, the measurement of alpha activity by most gas ionization detectors suffers from the high background induced by the accompanying gamma radiation. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been used successfully as detecting devices as passive system to detect the alpha contamination different surfaces. This work presents the response of CR-39 (for two types) to alpha particles from two sources, 238 Pu with energy 5 MeV and 241 Am with energy 5.4 MeV. The methods of etching and counting are investigated, along with the achievable linearity, efficiency and reproducibility. The sensitivity to low activity and energy resolution are studied

  18. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammah, Y.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box. 11001, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Ashraf, O., E-mail: osama.ashraf@edu.asu.edu.eg [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt); Ashry, A.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Makrofol-E detectors have been irradiated with alpha particles and fission fragments. • Fast detection of alpha particles in Makrofol-E detectors. • Bulk etching rate was calculated from fission track diameters. - Abstract: Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH{sub 3}OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  19. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs

  20. Alpha adrenergic receptors in dog coronary arteries as detected with autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntz, K.; Calianos, T.; Buja, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors used previously established methods to determine the presence of alpha adrenergic receptors in different sizes of dog coronary arteries using autoradiography of 3 H-prazosin (PRAZ) and 125 I-BE 2254 (HEAT) to label alpha 1 adrenergic receptors and 3 H-rauwolscine (RAUW) to label alpha 2 adrenergic receptors. Frozen sections of the left main coronary artery (LMA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and myocardium were incubated in 3 concentrations of PRAZ (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 nM) (n=5 dogs), 3 concentrations of RAUW (1, 3 and 5 nM) (n=5) and one concentration of HEAT (50 pM) (n=3). All incubations were done in the absence of (total binding) or presence of (nonspecific binding) 10 -5 M phentolamine or yohimbine. The sections were processed for autoradiography and silver grains quantitated using an image analyzer. Analysis of variance determined that there was a significant difference between total and nonspecific binding in the LMA incubated with PRAZ (p 1 receptors decreases as vessel size decreases, while the number of alpha 2 receptors increases as vessel size decreases

  1. NEBULAR ATTENUATION IN H{alpha}-SELECTED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z = 0.8 FROM THE NewH{alpha} SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Lee, Janice C.; Ouchi, Masami [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ly, Chun [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salim, Samir [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Finn, Rose [Physics Department, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Ono, Yoshiaki, E-mail: ivelina.momcheva@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    We present measurements of the dust attenuation of H{alpha}-selected emission-line galaxies at z = 0.8 from the NewH{alpha} narrowband survey. The analysis is based on deep follow-up spectroscopy with Magellan/IMACS, which captures the strong rest-frame optical emission lines from [O II] {lambda}3727 to [O III] {lambda}5007. The spectroscopic sample used in this analysis consists of 341 confirmed H{alpha} emitters. We place constraints on the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction using diagnostics that can be applied at intermediate redshift. We find that at least 5% of the objects in our spectroscopic sample can be classified as AGNs and 2% are composite, i.e., powered by a combination of star formation and AGN activity. We measure the dust attenuation for individual objects from the ratios of the higher order Balmer lines. The H{beta} and H{gamma} pair of lines is detected with S/N > 5 in 55 individual objects and the H{beta} and H{delta} pair is detected in 50 individual objects. We also create stacked spectra to probe the attenuation in objects without individual detections. The median attenuation at H{alpha} based on the objects with individually detected lines is A(H{alpha}) = 0.9 {+-} 1.0 mag, in good agreement with the attenuation found in local samples of star-forming galaxies. We find that the z = 0.8 galaxies occupy a similar locus of attenuation as a function of magnitude, mass, and star formation rate (SFR) as a comparison sample drawn from the SDSS DR4. Both the results from the individual z = 0.8 galaxies and from the stacked spectra show consistency with the mass-attenuation and SFR-attenuation relations found in the local universe, indicating that these relations are also applicable at intermediate redshift.

  2. Detecting Energy Spectrum Of The Products Of Reaction 6Li(n,alpha)3H By The Home-Made Gaseous Detectors In Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong Huu Phuoc; Phung Van Duan; Le Van Mien; Nguyen Tat Thang; Tran Hoai Nam

    2008-01-01

    There are shown some of results of study in designing and making first gaseous detectors of big sizes in Vietnam. The detectors were used for test measurement of detecting energy spectrum of the products of reaction 6 Li(n,alpha) 3 H caused by thermal neutrons. On the spectrum there were observed two energy peaks of tritons and alpha particles separately. In the test measurement there were used two neutron isotopic sources with total output 2x1.1x10 7 n/s. The study was implemented at Hanoi University of Technology. (author)

  3. Effect of prior dust collection on detection, counting efficiency, and energy resolution for alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    For the past several years, we have supported the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project by evaluating the capabilities and performance of the Eberline Alpha 6 continuous air monitor (CAM). This evalution has focused on the ability of the CAM to correctly report plutonium in the presence of salt dust. Tests involving the simultaneous collection of plutonium and salt have shown that burial by salt can degrade the detection of plutonium, but that this interference is negligible when salt concentrations are below about 0.2 mg/m 3 . Throughout the evalution, it has been assumed that salt burial is a concern for slow, chronic release of plutonium, but that any acute release of plutonium would be collected on the top surface of the filter or salt and would be unattenuated. The spectral quality of alpha radiation detection on membrane filters is observed to improve with filter loading. This is attributed to the probability that accumulations of dust tend to fill in surface irregularities of the collection filter at a a faster rate than they create additional surface irregularities. The validity of these assumptions about the improved detection of plutonium on salt-layer surfaces has recently been questioned. Based on electron micrographic examination of salt-laden filters, it has been speculated that collection of salt dust on a membrane filter results in formation of pores, fissures, and dendritic shapes of salt on the filter surface. If plutonium were collected, particles could penetrate into the pores and fissures, resulting in a degraded or lost signal from the plutonium. Because no experimental evidence existed to answer the concern, the purpose of the current study was to quantify any differences between detection of plutonium on clean or salt-laden filters

  4. Real-time MEG neurofeedback training of posterior alpha activity modulates subsequent visual detection performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okazaki, Y.O.; Horschig, J.; Luther, L.M.; Oostenveld, R.; Murakami, I.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alpha activity is lateralized when attention is directed to the left or right visual hemifield. We investigated whether real-time neurofeedback training of the alpha lateralization enhances participants' ability to modulate posterior alpha lateralization and causes

  5. Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng Kwang Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart. Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6% had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4% had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179, and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32. By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187, specificity of 100% (24 of 24, positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146, and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65 in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning, the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone.

  6. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig

  7. Nucleic acid tests for the detection of alpha human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Iftner, Thomas; Dillner, Joakim; Arbyn, Marc

    2012-11-20

    Testing for high-risk types of alpha human papillomaviruses (HPV) is an invaluable part of clinical guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening, management and treatment. In this comprehensive inventory of commercial tests for detection of alpha-HPV, we identified at least 125 distinct HPV tests and at least 84 variants of the original tests. However, only a small subset of HPV tests has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. For more than 75% of HPV tests currently on the market, no single publication in peer-reviewed literature can be identified. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated in the lab, it is essential that the whole procedure of HPV testing is subject to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Manufacturers of HPV tests are urged to put more effort into evaluating their current and future products analytically, using international standards, and for clinical applications, using clinically validated endpoints. To assist with analytical validation, the World Health Organization is developing international standards for HPV types other than HPV16 and HPV18 and is planning development of external quality control panels specifically designed to be used for performance evaluation of current and future HPV tests. There is a need for more competitively priced HPV tests, especially for resource-poor countries, and uniform test validation criteria based on international standards should enable issuing more competitive and fair tender notices for purchasing. Automation systems allowing large-scale testing, as well as further increases in clinical performance, are the main needs in the further improvement of HPV tests. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine

  8. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system

  9. POLARIZED EXTENDED Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM A z = 2.3 RADIO GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, A. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Vernet, J.; Fosbury, R. A. E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Villar-Martin, M. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Di Serego Alighieri, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Cimatti, A., E-mail: andrew.humphrey@astro.up.pt [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    We present spatially resolved spectropolarimetric measurements of the 100 kpc scale gaseous environment of the z = 2.34 radio galaxy TXS 0211-122. The polarization level of the narrow Ly{alpha} emission is low centrally (P < 5%), but rises to P = 16.4% {+-} 4.6% in the eastern part of the nebula, indicating that the nebula is at least partly powered by the scattering of Ly{alpha} photons by H I. Not only is this the first detection of polarized Ly{alpha} around a radio-loud active galaxy, it is also the second detection to date for any kind of Ly{alpha} nebula. We also detect a pair of diametrically opposed UV continuum sources along the slit, at the outer edges of the Ly{alpha} nebula, which we suggest may be the limb of a dusty shell, related to the large-scale H I absorbers often associated with high-z radio galaxies.

  10. Alpha Resonant States in 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Souza, M. A.; Miyake, H.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Ukita, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The 9 Be( 6 Li,d) 13 C reaction was used to investigate alpha resonant states in 13 C up to 15 MeV of excitation. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. An energy resolution of 50 keV was obtained. Several narrow alpha resonant states not previously measured were detected, in particular the one at the (3α+n) threshold populated by an L = 2 transfer, revealing a 9 Be+α component for the 1/2 - cluster state candidate at this threshold. Experimental angular distributions are presented in comparison with DWBA predictions.

  11. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail

  12. A novel label-free voltammetric immunosensor for the detection of {alpha}-fetoprotein using functional titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Wenbin [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai Yaqin; Li Yan; Zhuo Ying [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive label-free voltammetric immunosensor was developed based on the functional titanium dioxide nanoparticles (PV-NTiP), which was prepared by capping 1,1'-bis-(2-phosphonoethyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium dibromide (PV) on the surface of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NTiP) with covalent attachment. The PV-NTiP has prominent biocompatibility, good electron transfer ability, primarily excellent adsorption, large specific surface area and positively charged environment. As a result, the negatively charged gold nanoparticles (NGP) could be adsorbed on the PV-NTiP modified electrode surface by electrostatic adsorption, and then to immobilize {alpha}-1-fetoprotein antibody (anti-AFP) for the assay of {alpha}-1-fetoprotein (AFP). The fabricated procedures and electrochemical behaviors of the immunosensor were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The anti-AFP/NGP/PV-NTiP modified electrode was sensitive to AFP in linear relation between 1.25 and 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.9982, and the detection limit (S/N = 3) is 0.6 ng/mL under the optimal conditions. In addition, the proposed immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, selectivity, stability and long-term maintenance of bioactivity and it may be used to immobilize other biomoleculars to develop biosensor for the detection of other antigens or biocompounds.

  13. Recent developments for field monitoring of alpha-emitting contaminants in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.; Umbarger, C.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has adapted two field methods to assess rapidly locations and concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants in soil. (1) A ZnS scintillator is used for gross-alpha measurements on soil samples. Sample preparation and the calibration and detection limits of the system are discussed, and results of gross-alpha analysis are compared with results of a 239 Pu radiochemistry analysis. (2) A Phoswich detector is used as a field survey instrument because it can detect lower levels of radioactivity than the FIDLER probe. The electronics are carried in a truck and the probe is connected by an umbilical cord. The system electronics are calibrated with an energy window of 12-40 keV which allows detection of Pu, Am, Th (using daughter L X-rays of the alpha-emitters) and 137 Cs (using its daughter 32 keV X-rays). The bremsstrahlung from 90 Sr can also be detected. (author)

  14. Detection of alpha particles by means of zinc sulphide screens. Study of their characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, R.; Manero, F.

    1959-01-01

    A method of SZn(Ag) screens preparation in order to detect alpha particles is described. The behaviour of the luminophore in a scintillometer is primarily studied and followed by experimental methods in the preparation of screens with the specific qualities required. A sedimentation technic of SZn(Ag) deposition has been employed, and followed by pressing in hot. The variation of impulse size with the massif thickness of luminophore has been studied, and found a maximum value for 6,5 mg/cm 2 in unpressed screens and 6 mg/cm 2 in the pressed ones. The plateau curves present flat areas till 450 volts. The background in source absence is below 0.5 impulse/minute. (Author) 19 refs

  15. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...... the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin function...

  16. Intrinsic efficiency of LR-115 in alpha particles detection: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharmim, B.; Sabir, A.; Marah, H.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical simulation is developed to characterize the response of the cellulose nitrate detector ''LR-115 type II'' to alpha particles of different incidence angles and energies. It permits to know whether an alpha particle at a given energy and direction is able to produce a visible etched track or not. For this purpose, a V t -variable track etch rate model is used. We have considered that the track etch rate is a function of the ionization rate and the defect created by delta rays along the alpha particle trajectory. Validation of the model is presented in the form of comparisons between theoretically computed values of the sensitive energy range and the track diameters and experimentally determined ones

  17. Critical review for the determination of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of alpha-emitter radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.

    1996-12-01

    Different criteria for the calculation of the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of an alpha emitter in environmental levels are reviewed in this report. Practical examples of its application to previously analyzed samples are shown. The authors propose a criteria based on prior calculations that applies to the radiochemical activities performed in the laboratory. The calculation procedure has been discussed with scientist from other laboratories in order to establish a general criteria to calculate the MDA

  18. Study on cellular genotoxicities induced by alpha particles irradiation in combination with NNK treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie; Cao Zhenshan; Mi Na; Chen Zhongmin; Liu Gang; Wei Han; Li Huiying; Zhu Maoxiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cellular genotoxicities of aplha particles irradiation in combination with NNK treatment. Methods: Exponentially growing immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were divided into the normal control group (NC), alpha particles irradiation (α), NNK administration group (NNK), NNK administration (100 μg/ml) followed by alpha particles irradiation group (NNK + α), and alpha particles irradiation followed by NNK administration (100 μg/ml) group (μ + NNK). DNA damage were detected by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE); multinuclear cell assay was used to detect the frequency of the HPRT gene mutation; cell micronucleus frequency were detected by cytogenetic methods. Results: In the group exposed to both alpha particles irradiation and NNK, DNA damage, HPRT gene mutation frequency, and cell micronucleus frequency were significantly higher than those in the same dose groups irradiated with alpha particles or NNK administration alone. Subtracted the NNK effect, DNA damage, HPRT gene mutation frequency and cell micronucleus frequency in the group irradiated by alpha particles in combination with NNK administration were significantly higher than those of alpha particles irradiation alone. Conclusion: The genotoxicity of alpha particles irradiation in combination with NNK administration had synergistic effect. (authors)

  19. The ALPHA detector : Module Production and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Butler, E; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Friesen, T; Gutierrez, A; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Jonsell, S; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Pusa, P; Sampson, J; Seddon, D; Seif el Nasr, S; So, C; Thornhill, J; Wells, D; Jorgensen, L V

    2012-01-01

    ALPHA is one of the experiments situated at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD). A Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is placed to surround the ALPHA atom trap. The main purpose of the SVD is to detect and locate antiproton annihilation events by means of the emitted charged pions. The SVD system is presented with special focus given to the design, fabrication and performance of the modules.

  20. Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M.C.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P.D.; Bray, C.C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C.L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D.R.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayden, M.E.; Humphries, A.J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M.J.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lai, W.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D.M.; Storey, J.W.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wasilenko, L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

  1. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate

  2. Shrink-induced graphene sensor for alpha-fetoprotein detection with low-cost self-assembly and label-free assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Shota; Zhang, Bo; Cui, Tianhong

    2017-12-01

    Combination of shrink induced nano-composites technique and layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled graphene challenges controlling surface morphology. Adjusting shrink temperature achieves tunability on graphene surface morphology on shape memory polymers, and it promises to be an alternative in fields of high-surface-area conductors and molecular detection. In this study, self-assembled graphene on a shrink polymer substrate exhibits nanowrinkles after heating. Induced nanowrinkles on graphene with different shrink temperature shows distinct surface roughness and wettability. As a result, it becomes more hydrophilic with higher shrink temperatures. The tunable wettability promises to be utilized in, for example, microfluidic devices. The graphene on shrink polymer also exhibits capability of being used in sensing applications for pH and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection with advantages of label free and low cost, due to self-assembly technique, easy functionalization, and antigen-antibody reaction on graphene surface. The detection limit of AFP detection is down to 1 pg/mL, and therefore the sensor also has a significant potential for biosensing as it relies on low-cost self-assembly and label-free assay.

  3. Resolution of G(s)alpha and G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins in membrane domains by two-dimensional electrophoresis: the effect of long-term agonist stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, P; Novotný, J; Svoboda, P

    2004-01-01

    Low-density membrane-domain fractions were prepared from S49 lymphoma cells and clone e2m11 of HEK293 cells expressing a large number of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R) and G(11)alpha by flotation on sucrose density gradients. The intact cell structure was broken by detergent-extraction, alkaline-treatment or drastic homogenization. Three types of low-density membranes were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed for G(s)alpha (S49) or G(q)alpha/G11) (e2m11) content. Four individual immunoblot signals of Gsalpha protein were identified in S49 lymphoma cells indicating complete resolution of the long G(s)alpha L+/-ser and short G(s)alpha S+/-ser variants of G(s)alpha. All these were diminished by prolonged agonist (isoprenaline) stimulation. In e2m11-HEK cells, five different immunoblot signals were detected indicating post-translational modification of G proteins of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha family. The two major spots corresponding to exogenously (over)expressed G(11)alpha and endogenous G(q)alpha were reduced; the minor spots diminished by hormonal stimulation. Parallel analysis by silver staining of the total protein content indicated that no major changes in protein composition occurred under these conditions. Our data thus indicate that agonist-stimulation of target cells results in down-regulation of all different members of G(s) and G(q)/G(11) families. This agonist-specific effect may be demonstrated in crude membrane as well as domain/raft preparations and it is not accompanied by changes in overall protein composition.

  4. Activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper aims at the survey on the actual situation in activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes. Homogeneous materials such as liquid-, gaseous- and homogeneous solid wastes are amenable to destructive analyses of representative samples. Available destructive analyses methods are sensitive and precise enough to cope with all requirements in alpha-waste monitoring. The more difficult problems are encountered with alpha-contaminated solids, when representative sampling is not practicable. Non-destructive analysis techniques are applied for monitoring this category of solid wastes. The techniques for nondestructive analysis of alpha-bearing wastes are based on the detection of gamma and/or neutron-emission of actinides. Principles and a theory of non-destructive radiometric assay of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams are explained. Guidelines for the calibration of instruments and interpretation of experimental data are given. Current theoretical and experimental development work in this problem area is reviewed. Evaluations concerning capabilities and limitations of monitoring systems for alpha-bearing solid wastes are very complex and out of the scope of this paper

  5. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  6. A CMOS integrated pulse mode alpha-particle counter for application in radon monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Walkey, D.J.; Tarr, N.G.

    1997-01-01

    A custom integrated circuit for detecting alpha particles for application in the monitoring of radon has been designed and tested. The design uses the reverse-biased well to a substrate capacitance of a p-n junction in a conventional CMOS process as a sense capacitor for incident alpha particles. A simple CMOS inverter is used as an analog amplifier to detect the small potential change induced by an alpha-particle strike on the sense capacitor. The design was implemented in a 1.2-microm conventional CMOS process with a sense capacitor area of 110 microm 2 . Tests carried out under vacuum conditions using a calibrated 241 Am alpha-particle source showed an output voltage swing of ≥2.0 V for an alpha event. The detector is also shown to have good immunity to noise and high-quantum efficiency for alpha particles

  7. Results of solid state nuclear track detector technique application in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, for uranium prospecting in Caetite (BA-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1988-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detector technique has been used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks for uranium prospecting on the ground in Caetite city (Bahia-Brazil). The sensitive film to alpha particles used were CA 8015 exposed during 15 days and the results of three anomalies of this region are showed in a form of maps, made with the density of tracks obtained, and were compared with scintillation counter measurements. The technique showed to be simple and an effective auxiliary for the prospection of uranium ore bodies. The initial uranium exploration costs can be reduced by using this technique. (author) [pt

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-independent downregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in mice treated with lead nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2005-10-01

    We previously reported that lead nitrate (LN), an inducer of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), downregulated gene expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Herein, to clarify the role of TNF-alpha in LN-induced downregulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, effects of LN on gene expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) in TNF-alpha-knockout (KO) and TNF-alpha-wild-type (WT) mice were comparatively examined. Gene expression of hepatic Cyp7a1 in both WT and KO mice decreased to less than 5% of the corresponding controls at 6-12 h after treatment with LN (100 mumol/kg body weight, iv). Levels of hepatic TNF-alpha protein in either WT or KO mice were below the detection limit, although expression levels of the TNF-alpha gene markedly increased at 6 h in WT mice by LN treatment, but not in KO mice. In contrast, in both WT and KO mice, levels of hepatic IL-1beta protein, which is known to be a suppressor of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in hamsters, were significantly increased 3-6 h after LN treatment. Furthermore, LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene did not necessarily result from altered gene expression of hepatic transcription factors, including positive regulators (liver X receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, fetoprotein transcription factor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) and a negative regulator small heterodimer partner responsible for expression of the Cyp7a1 gene. The present findings indicated that LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene in mice did not necessarily occur through a TNF-alpha-dependent pathway and might occur mainly through an IL-1beta-dependent pathway.

  9. Fluorescent detection of single tracks of alpha particles using lithium fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Marczewska, B.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium fluoride single crystals were successfully used for fluorescent imaging of single tracks of alpha particles. This was realized with a standard wide-field fluorescent microscope equipped with a 100× objective. Alpha particles create F_2 and F_3"+ color centers in LiF crystals. The subsequent illumination with the blue light (wavelength around 445 nm), excites these centers and produces fluorescence with a broad band peaked at 670 nm. The observed tracks of alpha particles have diameter of about 500 nm. Focusing of the microscope at different depths in a LiF crystal, enables imaging changes of shape and position of tracks, allowing for visualization of their paths. These encouraging results are the first step towards practical application of LiF as fluorescent nuclear track detectors.

  10. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.

    1999-01-01

    -chase experiments were carried out to investigate the alpha-amylase secretion kinetics in A. oryzae. No unglycosylated alpha-amylase was detected neither intracellularly nor extracellularly demonstrating that glycosylation was not the rate controlling step in the secretory pathway. The pulse chase experiments...... indicated that there are two pools of intracellular alpha-amylase: a fast secreted and a slow secreted. The secretion of those two pools were described with a kinetic model, which was fitted to the pulse chase experiments. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 65: 76-82, 1999....

  11. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    , of which 23 were experimentally infected with BRSV and five were given a mock inoculum. The presence of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BAL fluids was detected and quantified by a capture ELISA. TNF-alpha was detected in 21 of the infected animals. The amount of TNF-alpha...... in the BAL fluid of calves killed post inoculation day (PID) 2 and 4 was at the same very low level as in the uninfected control animals. Large amounts of TNF-alpha were detected on PID 6, maximum levels of TNF-alpha were reached on PID 7, and smaller amounts of TNF-alpha were seen on PID 8. The high levels...... of TNF-alpha appeared on the days where severe lung lesions and clinical signs were obvious and the amounts of BRSV-antigen were at their greatest. Although Pasteurellaceae were isolated from some of the BRSV-infected calves, calves treated with antibiotics before and through the whole period...

  12. Alpha spectrometry of environmental and food samples with photon/electron-rejecting alpha liquid-scintillation (P.E.R.A.L.S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehringer, M.; Stockli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In environmental and food monitoring radio-nuclides are normally analysed with gamma spectrometry. Routine analysis of cesium nuclides can be realised fast and without much sample preparation. Also a few nuclides of the uranium- and thorium-series can be detected with gamma spectrometry at the low Bq/kg level. 226 Ra, 224 Ra and 228 Ra can be determined via their decay products when secular equilibrium of the sample is reached (e.g. 226 Ra via its daughters 214 Pb and 214 Bi). Alpha spectrometry is the method of choice for the determination of alpha nuclides in the mBq range. The analytes have to be separated from interfering nuclides and quenching parameters prior to the spectrometry. So, the main ask in alpha spectrometry consists in an efficient sample preparation and an alpha/beta discrimination for the spectrometric measurement. Based on the work of Jack McDowell sensitive methods for the analyses of naturally occurring nuclides such as uranium, thorium, polonium and other alpha-nuclides in water, honey and spices were developed and validated [1]. Such techniques enables the tolerance and limit values for radionuclides in food to be controlled in accordance with of the Swiss Ordinance on contaminants and Ingredients (FIV) [2] he method principle is based on a selective extraction of the alpha nuclides rom water samples rsp. from an aqueous extract of mineralized samples. The extractant has also the function of a cocktail in the alpha liquid spectrometry nd therefore the extract can be analysed directly without further clean -up Photon/Electron-Rejecting Alpha-Liquid-Scintillation, P.E.R.A.L..S. [1]). Normally, one liter of water sample is extracted with 5 ml of cocktail to achieve low detection limits. The cocktail phase is separated from the aqueous phase by use of a phase separator for liquid samples. Methods were developed for the analyses of 234 U and 238 U, the thorium nuclides 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th and other alpha nuclides. The achieved

  13. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ramirez G, J.

    2009-10-01

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  14. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka L. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved.

  15. Alpha cluster states in light nuclei populated through the (6Li,d) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borello-Lewin, Thereza; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F. [Universita di Catania (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Lab. Nazionali del Sud; Ukita, Gilberto Mitsuo [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Psicologia

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster correlation is an important concept in the nuclear physics of light nuclei. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of the alpha clustering phenomenon in (x{alpha}) and(x{alpha}+{nu}) nuclei through the ({sup 6}Li,d) alpha transfer reaction. In fact, there is scarce experimental information on the subject, in particular associated with resonant states predicted near (x{alpha}) and (x{alpha}+{nu}) thresholds. Measurements of the {sup 12},{sup 13}C({sup 6}Li,d) {sup 16},{sup 17}O reactions, at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The work is under way and an experimental energy resolution of 30 keV was obtained. Near the (4{alpha}) breakup threshold in {sup 16}O, three narrow alpha resonances, not previously measured, were detected, revealing important {alpha} + {sup 12}C(G.S.) components. One of these resonances corresponds to the known 0{sup +} state at 15.1 MeV[5] of excitation that has probably, according to Funaki et al., the gas like configuration of the 4{alpha} condensate state, with a very dilute density and a large component of {alpha} + {sup 12}C(Hoyle) configuration. As was already mentioned, our experimental information points to the necessity of including the {alpha} + {sup 12}C(G.S.) component in the wave function. (author)

  16. Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K-Giants: Alpha Boo and Alpha Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin; Carbon, Duane F.; Welch, William J.; Lim, Tanya; Forster, James R.; Goorvitch, David; Thigpen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have imaged two normal, non-coronal, infrared-bright K-giants, alpha Boo and alpha Tau, in the 1.4-millimeter and 2.8-millimeter continuum using BIMA. These stars have been used as important absolute calibrators for several infrared satellites. Our goals are: (1) to probe the structure of their upper photospheres; (2) to establish whether these stars radiate as simple photospheres or possess long-wavelength chromospheres; and (3) to make a connection between millimeter-wave and far-infrared absolute flux calibrations. To accomplish these goals we also present ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) measurements of both these K-giants. The far-infrared and millimeter continuum radiation is produced in the vicinity of the temperature minimum in a Boo and a Tau, offering a direct test of the model photospheres and chromospheres for these two cool giants. We find that current photospheric models predict fluxes in reasonable agreement with those observed for those wavelengths which sample the upper photosphere, namely less than or equal to 170 micrometers in alpha Tau and less than or equal to 125 micrometers in alpha Boo. It is possible that alpha Tau is still radiative as far as 0.9 - 1.4 millimeters. We detect chromospheric radiation from both stars by 2.8 millimeters (by 1.4 millimeters in alpha Boo), and are able to establish useful bounds on the location of the temperature minimum. An attempt to interpret the chromospheric fluxes using the two-component "bifurcation model" proposed by Wiedemann et al. (1994) appears to lead to a significant contradiction.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases myocardial microvascular transport in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P R; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Høyer, S

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a primary mediator in the pathogenesis of tissue injury, and high circulating levels of TNF-alpha are found in a variety of pathological conditions. In open-chest anesthetized dogs, the effects of intracoronary recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-alpha; 100...... in cardiac output and was associated with the appearance of areas with myocardial necrosis in the regional left ventricular wall. The myocardial plasma flow rate and maximum plasma flow rate in response to a 30-s coronary occlusion were not influenced by rTNF-alpha, although a decrease in the myocardial...... ng/kg for 60 min) on myocardial microvascular transport of a small hydrophilic indicator was examined by the single-injection, residue-detection method. Intracoronary infusion of rTNF-alpha increased myocardial microvascular transport after 120 min. This increase was preceded by a sustained decline...

  18. Galex Lyman-alpha Emitters: Physical Properties, Luminosity Bimodality, And Morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Ryan P.

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer spectroscopic survey has uncovered a large statistically significant sample of Lyman-alpha emitters at z sim0.3. ACS imaging of these sources in the COSMOS and AEGIS deep fields reveals that these Lyman-alpha emitters consist of two distinct galaxy morphologies, face on spiral galaxies and compact starburst/merging systems. The morphology bimodality also results in a bimodal distribution of optical luminosity. A comparison between the UV photometry and MIPS 24 micron detections of these sources indicates that they are bluer, and have less dust extinction than similar star forming galaxies that lack Lyman-alpha detection. Our findings show how the global gas and dust distribution of star forming galaxies inhibits Lyman-alpha emission in star forming galaxies. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer, launched in April 2003. We gratefully acknowledge NASA's support for construction, operation, and science analysis for the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the CNES of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology.

  19. Clinical studies on the radioimmunodetection of tumors containing alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, D.M.; Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.; Spremulli, E.; Nelson, M.O.; Gockerman, J.P.; Primus, F.J.; Corgan, R.L.; Alpert, E.

    1980-01-01

    This study reports the use of radiolabeled antibodies to alpha-fetoprotein for the detection and localization of hepatocellular and germ cell carcinomas. Twelve patients with histories of histologically-confirmed neoplasia received a total dose between 1.0 and 4.4 mCi of 131 I-labeled goat IgG prepared against human alpha-fetoprotein. Total-body photoscans were taken with a gamma scintillation camera at various intervals after injection of the radioactive antibody. Computer subtraction of radioactive technetium background images from the antibody 131 I scans permitted the visualization of all tumor sites known to be present in 4 patients with either primary hepatocellular cancer or metastatic germ cell carcinoma of the testis. Among 8 patients with diverse neoplasms not believed to contain alpha-fetoprotein, 5 of 19 tumor sites showed radioactive antibody accretion, although significantly less than in the patients with liver or testicular cancer. This investigation indicates that alpha-fetoprotein-containing tumors can be detected and localized in vivo by the method of radioimmunodetection

  20. Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Tooth Morphogenesis Reveals Functional Pleiotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Scott W.; Gahring, Lorise C.

    2012-01-01

    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP); alpha7GFP) or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre). The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E) day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5–E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A) strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. PMID:22666322

  1. Localization of alpha emitters by damage production in a thin film. Application to the study of alpha emitter diffusion in irradiated samples; Localisation des emetteurs alpha par creation de dommages dans un film mince. Application a l'etude de la diffusion des emetteurs alpha dans des echantillons irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdaille, B; Perrot, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The process of recording {alpha} particles on cellulose nitrate films, called alpha-graphy, is applied to the study of the diffusion of {alpha}-emitting elements in irradiated alloys. The existence of diffusion is shown by attacking the film with concentrated caustic soda after exposition. The insensitivity of the recorder to {beta} {gamma} radiation emitted by the sample after passing in the reactor makes it possible to operate with long exposure times and to detect small diffusions. The concentration-penetration curves are drawn up after carrying out a densitometric analysis of the alpha-graphies. - As the cellulose nitrate is affected only by {alpha} particles of energies of between 0.5 and 4 MeV, it was first necessary to determine the yield of the recorder for {alpha} particles emitted by a thick source, i.e. whose energy varies between 0 and E{sub 0}, E{sub 0} being the energy of the alpha emitter. - The concentration C of the {alpha}-emitter, as a function of the optical density D of the alpha-graphy, and of the exposure time t is given by a simple relationship: C = D/at where a is an experimental constant determined by calibration. It depends on the nature of the cellulose nitrate, of the {alpha}-emitting element and of the alloy studied. (authors) [French] Le procede d'enregistrement des particules alpha sur film de nitrate de cellulose, ou alphagraphie, est applique a l'etude de la diffusion d'elements emetteurs alpha dans des alliages irradies. La diffusion est mise en evidence par une attaque du film de nitrate, apres exposition, dans de la soude concentree. L'insensibilite de l'enregistreur au rayonnement {beta} {gamma}, emis par l'echantillon apres son sejour en pile, permet d'operer sur de longs temps de pose et de detecter des diffusions faibles. Les courbes concentration - penetration sont etablies par exploitation densitometrique des alphagraphies. - Comme le nitrate de cellulose n'est impressionne que par des particules alpha dont l'energie est

  2. Absolute measurements of the alpha-gamma emitters activities by a sum-coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute activity of U-235 contained in a UO 2 sample, using a sum-coincidence circuit which selected only the alpha particles which were simultaneous with the well known 184 Kev gamma radiation from Th-231. The alpha particles were detected by ZnS(Ag) scintillator specially designed to show its maximun efficiency for U-235 alpha particles, whereas the gamma radiation was detected by NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The values obtained for the half-life of U-235 was compared with data from various observers using different experimental techniques. (Author) [pt

  3. Early detection of doxorubicin-induced cariotoxocity and its prevention by alpha-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal, K.; Khan, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    To detect doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury by quantitative estimation of cardiospecific protein, Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) at early stage and to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Tocopherol. Study Design: Labbased randomized controlled in-vivo study in rabbits. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Pathology department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012. Material and Methods: Eighteen healthy male adult rabbits were used. Cardiotoxicity was induced by single intravenous injection of 12 mg /kg of doxorubicin in a group of rabbits, control group was treated with normal saline only and the rabbits of third group were pretreated with Tocopherol 200 mg/kg of body weight for ten days before injection of doxorubicin 12mg/kg. Results: Doxorubicin produced severe cardiotoxicity confirmed by markedly raised serum levels of cTnI, CK-MB, LDH and grade 3 necrosis of the heart issue in rabbits. The pre-treatment with Tocopherol resulted in improved serum levels of cTnI and the histological picture of heart tissue. Conclusions: The quantitative cTnI estimation for detection of cardiotoxicity at subclinical level can lead to significant economic impact in management of cancer patients because the troponin-negative subjects can be excluded from long term cardiac monitoring programs, which require high cost imaging techniques. Furthermore, the outcome of most potent and widely used doxorubicin chemotherapy can be made successful with the concurrent use of alpha-Tocopherol. (author)

  4. Application of a proportional counter to some particular cases of {alpha} measurements; Applications d'un compteur proportionnel a quelques cas particuliers de mesures {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferret, J; Gasc, M T; Le Du, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I - A measurement method based on {alpha} {gamma} coincidences is used for activity measurements on {sup 241}Am in the presence of a strong {alpha} activity due to Pu. The sensitivity of the apparatus makes it possible to detect: less than 10{sup -7} {mu}C {sup 241}Am in the presence of a Pu activities several hundred times greater. II - The same equipment has been used for {alpha} measurements on {alpha}-emitting sources in the presence of very strong {beta} and {gamma} activities. In particular results are given for {alpha}-activity measurements on powder samples. It is even possible in these conditions, to detect or measure {sup 241}Am. III - The equipment makes possible also: - the absolute calibration of a pure {sup 241}Am source - {sup 237}Np measurements - simultaneous measurements of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} activities in solid samples in various forms. IV - The assembly includes a small-size proportional counter operating in conjunction with a {gamma} probe, together with auxiliary electronic equipment (stabilized high voltages, amplifiers, a coincidence unit, a sealer). (authors) [French] I - Une methode de mesures par coincidences {alpha} {gamma} est utilisee pour des mesures d'activite de {sup 241}Am en presence d'activite {alpha} (due au Pu) importante. -La sensibilite de l'appareillage permet de deceler: moins de 10{sup -7} {mu}C {sup 241}Am dans les activites {alpha} Pu plusieurs centaines de fois plus importantes. II - Le meme appareillage a ete utilise pour des mesures {alpha} sur des sources emettrices {alpha} en presence d'activites {beta} et {gamma} tres importantes. En particulier des mesures d'activite {alpha} sur des echantillons de poudre sont exposees. Il est meme possible, dans ces conditions, de deceler ou mesurer {sup 241}Am. III - L'ensemble permet egalement: - l'etalonnage absolu d'une source de {sup 241}Am pur - des mesures de {sup 237}Np - des mesures simultanees d'activites {alpha}, {beta} et {gamma} dans des echantillons solides

  5. Detection of 3-Minute Oscillations in Full-Disk Lyman-alpha Emission During A Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R. O.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.; Hudson, H. S.; Fletcher, L.; Dennis, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report the detection of chromospheric 3-minute oscillations in disk-integrated EUV irradiance observations during a solar flare. A wavelet analysis of detrended Lyman-alpha (from GOES/EUVS) and Lyman continuum (from SDO/EVE) emission from the 2011 February 15 X-class flare revealed a 3-minute period present during the flare's main phase. The formation temperature of this emission locates this radiation to the flare's chromospheric footpoints, and similar behaviour is found in the SDO/AIA 1600A and 1700A channels, which are dominated by chromospheric continuum. The implication is that the chromosphere responds dynamically at its acoustic cutoff frequency to an impulsive injection of energy. Since the 3-minute period was not found at hard X-ray energies (50-100 keV) in RHESSI data we can state that this 3-minute oscillation does not depend on the rate of energization of, or energy deposition by, non-thermal electrons. However, a second period of 120 s found in both hard X-ray and chromospheric emission is consistent with episodic electron energization on 2-minute timescales. Our finding on the 3-minute oscillation suggests that chromospheric mechanical energy should be included in the flare energy budget, and the fluctuations in the Lyman-alpha line may influence the composition and dynamics of planetary atmospheres during periods of high activity.

  6. Intraoperative detection of 18F-FDG-avid tissue sites using the increased probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design and variance-based statistical analysis with the three-sigma criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoski, Stephen P; Chapman, Gregg J; Murrey, Douglas A; Lee, Robert; Martin, Edward W; Hall, Nathan C

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative detection of 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites during 18 F-FDG-directed surgery can be very challenging when utilizing gamma detection probes that rely on a fixed target-to-background (T/B) ratio (ratiometric threshold) for determination of probe positivity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the counting efficiency and the success rate of in situ intraoperative detection of 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites (using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method and the ratiometric threshold criteria method) for three different gamma detection probe systems. Of 58 patients undergoing 18 F-FDG-directed surgery for known or suspected malignancy using gamma detection probes, we identified nine 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites (from amongst seven patients) that were seen on same-day preoperative diagnostic PET/CT imaging, and for which each 18 F-FDG-avid tissue site underwent attempted in situ intraoperative detection concurrently using three gamma detection probe systems (K-alpha probe, and two commercially-available PET-probe systems), and then were subsequently surgical excised. The mean relative probe counting efficiency ratio was 6.9 (± 4.4, range 2.2–15.4) for the K-alpha probe, as compared to 1.5 (± 0.3, range 1.0–2.1) and 1.0 (± 0, range 1.0–1.0), respectively, for two commercially-available PET-probe systems (P < 0.001). Successful in situ intraoperative detection of 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites was more frequently accomplished with each of the three gamma detection probes tested by using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method than by using the ratiometric threshold criteria method, specifically with the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method being significantly better than the ratiometric threshold criteria method for determining probe positivity for the K-alpha probe (P = 0.05). Our results suggest that the improved probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design used in conjunction with the three

  7. Secondary reduction of alpha7B integrin in laminin alpha2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy supports an additional transmembrane link in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, R D; Mayer, U; Saher, G; Herrmann, R; van der Flier, A; Sonnenberg, A; Sorokin, L; Voit, T

    1999-03-01

    The integrins are a large family of heterodimeric transmembrane cellular receptors which mediate the association between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cytoskeletal proteins. The alpha7beta1 integrin is a major laminin binding integrin in skeletal and cardiac muscle and is thought to be involved in myogenic differentiation and migration processes. The main binding partners of the alpha7 integrin are laminin-1 (alpha1-beta1-gamma1), laminin-2 (alpha2-beta1-gamma1) and laminin-4 (alpha2-beta2-gamma1). Targeted deletion of the gene for the alpha7 integrin subunit (ITGA7) in mice leads to a novel form of muscular dystrophy. In the present study we have investigated the expression of two alternative splice variants, the alpha7B and beta1D integrin subunits, in normal human skeletal muscle, as well as in various forms of muscular dystrophy. In normal human skeletal muscle the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit appeared to be developmentally regulated: it was first detected at 2 years of age. In contrast, the beta1D integrin could be detected in immature and mature muscle in the sarcolemma of normal fetal skeletal muscle at 18 weeks gestation. The expression of alpha7B integrin was significantly reduced at the sarcolemma in six patients with laminin alpha2 chain deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) (age >2 years). However, this reduction was not correlated with the amount of laminin alpha2 chain expressed. In contrast, the expression of the laminin alpha2 chain was not altered in the skeletal muscle of the alpha7 knock-out mice. These data argue in favor that there is not a tight correlation between the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit and that of the laminin alpha2 chain in either human or murine dystrophic muscle. Interestingly, in dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy; DMD/BMD) expression of alpha7B was upregulated irrespective of the level of dystrophin expression as shown by a strong sarcolemmal staining pattern even

  8. Nicotinic cholinergic receptor in brain detected by binding of. cap alpha. -(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eterovic, V A; Bennett, E L

    1974-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin was prepared by catalytic reduction of iodinated ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin with tritium gas. Crude mitochondrial fraction from rat cerebral cortex bound 40 x 10/sup -15/ to 60 x 10/sup -15/ moles of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin per mg of protein. This binding was reduced by 50% in the presence of approx. 10/sup -6/ M d-tubocurarine or nicotine, 10/sup -5/ M acetylcholine, 10/sup -4/ M carbamylcholine or decamethonium or 10/sup -3/ M atropine. Hexamethonium and eserine were the least effective of the drugs tested. Crude mitochondrial fraction was separated into myelin, nerve endings, and mitochondria. The highest binding of toxin per mg of protein was found in nerve endings, as well as the greatest inhibition of toxin binding by d-tubocurarine. Binding of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin to membranes obtained by osmotic shock of the crude mitochondrial fraction indicates that the receptor for the toxin is membrane bound. /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, prepared with Na/sup 125/I and chloramine T, was highly specific for the acetylcholine receptor in diaphragm, however, it was less specific and less reliable than ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin in brain. It is concluded that a nicotinic cholinergic receptor exists in brain, and that ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin is a suitable probe for this receptor.

  9. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in

  10. Association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serapinas Danielius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a well established inherited risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; however, alpha-1 antitrypsin level may result in different lung function reduction. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible associations of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in COPD patients with different alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotypes. Methods. Serum alpha-1 antitrypsin concentration from patients (n = 1,167 with COPD, defined according to the GOLD criteria, were analyzed by nephelometry, and alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype was determined by means of isoelectric-focusing. Results. In COPD patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (MM, a significant negative association of lung function (FEV1 with serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (r = -0.511; p < 0.05 and C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations (r = -0.583; p < 0.05 was detected; moreover, the level of alpha-1 antitrypsin positively correlated with CRP concentration (r = 0.667; p < 0.05. Conclusions. In patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, detected negative association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level with FEV1 and positive association with the CRP level defined the importance of alpha-1 antitrypsin for lung function in COPD patients.

  11. Alpha liquid scintillation counting: past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Beta liquid scintillation counting has been used for about 30 years, and its effectiveness for alpha particles has been known for almost that long; however, the technique has not been widely applied to alpha particle detection because of poor energy resolution, high background, and variable interference from beta and gamma radiation. Beginning with the work of Horrocks in the early 1960s, improvements in energy resolution and background rejection have been made. Further developments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory over the past 10 to 12 years have resulted in improved methods of sample preparation (using liquid-liquid extraction methods to isolate the sample and introduce it into the scintillator) and better instrumentation, including electronic rejection of beta and gamma pulses. Energy resolutions of 200- to 300-keV FWHM and background counts of 0.01 cpm are now routine. Alpha liquid scintillation spectrometry is now suitable for a wide range of applications, from the accurate quantitative determination of relatively large amounts of known nuclides in laboratory-generated samples to the detection and identification of very small, subpicocurie amounts of alpha emitters in environmental-type samples. Suitable nuclide separation procedures, sample preparation methods, and instrument configurations are outlined for a variety of analyses

  12. Silencing alpha-fetoprotein inhibits VEGF and MMP-2/9 production in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenbo; Li, Xun; Bai, Zhongtian; Li, Yan; Yuan, Jinqiu; Liu, Tao; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Wence; Zhu, Kexiang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yumin

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein not only serves as a diagnostic marker for liver cancer, but also posses a variety of biological functions. However, the role of Alpha-fetoprotein on tumor angiogenesis and cell invasion remains incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if Alpha-fetoprotein can regulate the major angiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteinases in human liver cancer cells. Alpha-fetoprotein silencing was achieved by Stealth RNAi. Expression of Alpha-fetoprotein was examined by a full-automatic electrochemistry luminescence immunity analyzer. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2, MMP-9, and MMP-2 was examined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Angiogenesis was detected by in vitro angiogenesis assay kit. Silencing of Alpha-fetoprotein led to an increased apoptosis, which was associated with a decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinases-2/9. These results suggest that Alpha-fetoprotein may play a regulatory role on angiogenesis and cell invasion during liver cancer development.

  13. Review of measurement techniques for stack monitoring of long-lived alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of the promulgation of new guidelines by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 190) for releases of long-lived, alpha-emitting substances, the stack-monitoring requirements for measuring long-lived alpha particles may change in terms of both monitored isotopes and the detection levels. This paper briefly reviews stack-monitoring requirements for long-lived alpha-emitting particles. It also examines the currently deployed alpha-particulate, stack-monitoring systems and discusses prototype systems that may be applicable to stack monitoring

  14. A Method Validation for Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta in Water Sample Using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Method validation (MV) for the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity in water (drinking, mineral and environmental) samples using Low Background Gross Alpha/ Beta Counting System was performed to characterize precision, accuracy and reliable results. The main objective of this assignment is to ensure that both the instrument and method always good performed and resulting accuracy and reliable results. Generally, almost the results of estimated RSD, z-score and U_s_c_o_r_e were reliable which are recorded as ≤30 %, less than 2 and less than 1.5, respectively. Minimum Detected Activity (MDA) was estimated based on the counting time of 100 minutes and present background counting value of gross alpha (0.01 - 0.35 cpm) and gross beta (0.50 - 2.18 cpm). Estimated Detection Limit (DL) was 0.1 Bq/ L for gross alpha and 0.2 Bq/ L for gross beta and expended uncertainty was relatively small of 9.77 % for gross alpha and 10.57 % for gross beta. Align with that, background counting for gross alpha and gross beta was ranged of 0.01 - 0.35 cpm and 0.50 - 2.18 cpm, respectively. While, sample volume was set at minimum of 500 mL and maximum of 2000 mL. These proven the accuracy and precision result that are generated from developed method/ technique is satisfactory and method is recommended to be used. Therefore, it can be concluded that the MV found no doubtful on the ability of the developed method. The test result showed the method is suitable for all types of water samples which are contained several radionuclides and elements as well as any impurities that interfere the measurement analysis of gross alpha and gross beta. (author)

  15. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM [3H]testosterone [( 3 H]T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. [ 3 H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone [( 3 H]DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, [ 3 H]DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT

  16. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  17. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center (Japan)

    2016-05-21

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of {sup 241}Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  18. Intraoperative detection of ¹⁸F-FDG-avid tissue sites using the increased probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design and variance-based statistical analysis with the three-sigma criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povoski, Stephen P; Chapman, Gregg J; Murrey, Douglas A; Lee, Robert; Martin, Edward W; Hall, Nathan C

    2013-03-04

    Intraoperative detection of (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during 18F-FDG-directed surgery can be very challenging when utilizing gamma detection probes that rely on a fixed target-to-background (T/B) ratio (ratiometric threshold) for determination of probe positivity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the counting efficiency and the success rate of in situ intraoperative detection of (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites (using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method and the ratiometric threshold criteria method) for three different gamma detection probe systems. Of 58 patients undergoing (18)F-FDG-directed surgery for known or suspected malignancy using gamma detection probes, we identified nine (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites (from amongst seven patients) that were seen on same-day preoperative diagnostic PET/CT imaging, and for which each (18)F-FDG-avid tissue site underwent attempted in situ intraoperative detection concurrently using three gamma detection probe systems (K-alpha probe, and two commercially-available PET-probe systems), and then were subsequently surgical excised. The mean relative probe counting efficiency ratio was 6.9 (± 4.4, range 2.2-15.4) for the K-alpha probe, as compared to 1.5 (± 0.3, range 1.0-2.1) and 1.0 (± 0, range 1.0-1.0), respectively, for two commercially-available PET-probe systems (P < 0.001). Successful in situ intraoperative detection of 18F-FDG-avid tissue sites was more frequently accomplished with each of the three gamma detection probes tested by using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method than by using the ratiometric threshold criteria method, specifically with the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method being significantly better than the ratiometric threshold criteria method for determining probe positivity for the K-alpha probe (P = 0.05). Our results suggest that the improved probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design used in conjunction with the three-sigma statistical

  19. Alpha particle response for a prototype radiation survey meter based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) with un-doping fluorescent guest molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Philip; Nakamura, Hidehito; Sato, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Maki, Daisuke; Kanayama, Masaya; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no radiation survey meter that can discriminate among alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma-rays with one material. Previously, undoped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been shown to be an effective material for beta particle and gamma-ray detection. Here, we demonstrate a prototype survey meter for alpha particles based on undoped PET. A 140 × 72 × 1-mm PET substrate was fabricated with mirrored surfaces. It was incorporated in a unique detection section of the survey meter that directly detects alpha particles. The prototype exhibited an unambiguous response to alpha particles from a 241 Am radioactive source. These results demonstrate that undoped PET can perform well in survey meters for alpha particle detection. Overall, the PET-based survey meter has the potential to detect multiple types of radiation, and will spawn an unprecedented type of radiation survey meter based on undoped aromatic ring polymers. (author)

  20. Development of a low-level, in-line alpha counter (LLILAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzo, R.E.; Farnham, J.E.; Fowler, M.M.; Wouters, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With the increasing awareness of water contamination issues and the rising consequences of any form of contamination, real-time continuous monitoring is rapidly becoming a necessity. In particular, monitoring for the presence of any radioactive material is paramount. The most difficult of such monitoring tasks is that of detecting alpha-emitting radionuclides in water. Our development of the Low Level In-Line Alpha Counter (LLILAC) addresses the need for on-line, near real-time monitoring of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aqueous streams in a wide variety of applications. Although primarily designed as an on-line instrument for real-time applications, the detector can also be used for long-term in situ/post-closure monitoring. This detection system operates by allowing the stream to be monitored to come in contact with a large number of small rods or tubes made of scintillation material. By maximizing the surface to volume ratio of the scintillator, the response to alpha particles is favored over other types of radiation. Several configurations of scintillator and light collection schemes have been investigated to optimize the detection efficiency. We have also written several Monte Carlo codes to help to predict and understand the detector performance

  1. Biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Endo, Yasuo; Muramoto, Koji; Sugawara, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, functions as a cofactor of carboxylases that catalyze an indispensable cellular metabolism. Although significant decreases in serum biotin levels have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, the biological roles of biotin in inflammatory responses are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin deficiency on TNF-alpha production. Mice were fed a basal diet or a biotin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. Serum biotin levels were significantly lower in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. After i.v. administration of LPS, serum TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. A murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1, was cultured in a biotin-sufficient or -deficient medium for 4 weeks. Cell proliferation and biotinylation of intracellular proteins were decreased significantly in biotin-deficient cells compared with biotin-sufficient cells. Significantly higher production and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha were detected in biotin-deficient J774.1 cells than biotin-sufficient cells in response to LPS and even without LPS stimulation. Intracellular TNF-alpha expression was inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating that biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production at the transcriptional level. However, the expression levels of TNF receptors, CD14, and TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 complex were similar between biotin-sufficient and -deficient cells. No differences were detected in the activities of the NF-kappaB family or AP-1. The TNF-alpha induction by biotin deficiency was down-regulated by biotin supplementation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that biotin deficiency may up-regulate TNF-alpha production or that biotin excess down-regulates TNF-alpha production, suggesting that biotin status may influence inflammatory diseases.

  2. Study on molecular epidemiology of the alpha-thalassemias in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Liu, Jingzhong; Wang, Lirong; Liang, Xin; Xiao, Bai; Su, Liu; Zhou, Yan; Pan, Lizhen

    2004-01-01

    Guangxi is one of the provinces of Southern China with the highest incidence of alpha-thalassemia (thal). Liuzhou is the second biggest city in Guangxi. To find out the incidence of the various alpha-thal genotypes, and their distribution in the Liuzhou area, an F820 Blood Cell Analysis System was used to measure the parameters of red blood cells. A SPIFE Rapid Auto-Electrophoresis System was used to analyze the normal and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the alpha-globin genotypes. Thirty-two (2.05%) out of 7805 young couples undergoing pre-marriage counseling, were diagnosed as having an Hb H (beta4) disease. The study of 1228 cord blood samples revealed 138 newborn children carrying an alpha-thal determinant with nine different genotypes, thus making the total incidence of alpha-thal 11.24%. Among 185 cases of Hb H, 119 (64.1%) were confirmed as being deletional, and 66 cases (35.7%) nondeletional types. The severity of the Hb H diseases could be classified in the following order: alphaCSalpha/--SEA (alphaConstant (Spring)alpha/--Southeast Asia); alpha(-4.2)/--SEA; alpha(-3.7)/--SEA. Ten cases of alpha-thal determinants were found in combination with beta-thal. The mPCR technique can detect all kinds of combinations of the three common large deletions (--SEA, alpha(-4.2) and alpha(-3.7)) accurately and conveniently.

  3. The EEG Split Alpha Peak: Phenomenological Origins and Methodological Aspects of Detection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Bogucki, Piotr; Sobieszek, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns were analyzed in a group of ambulatory patients who ranged in age and sex using spectral analysis as well as Directed Transfer Function, a method used to evaluate functional brain connectivity. We tested the impact of window size and choice of reference electrode on the identification of two or more peaks with close frequencies in the spectral power distribution, so called "split alpha." Together with the connectivity analysis, examination of spatiotemporal maps showing the distribution of amplitudes of EEG patterns allowed for better explanation of the mechanisms underlying the generation of split alpha peaks. It was demonstrated that the split alpha spectrum can be generated by two or more independent and interconnected alpha wave generators located in different regions of the cerebral cortex, but not necessarily in the occipital cortex. We also demonstrated the importance of appropriate reference electrode choice during signal recording. In addition, results obtained using the original data were compared with results obtained using re-referenced data, using average reference electrode and reference electrode standardization techniques.

  4. Autoradiography Imaging in Targeted Alpha Therapy with Timepix Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya AL Darwish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data related to activity uptake and particle track distribution in targeted alpha therapy. These data are required to estimate the absorbed dose on a cellular level as alpha particles have a limited range and traverse only a few cells. Tracking of individual alpha particles is possible using the Timepix semiconductor radiation detector. We investigated the feasibility of imaging alpha particle emissions in tumour sections from mice treated with Thorium-227 (using APOMAB, with and without prior chemotherapy and Timepix detector. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Timepix detector to monitor variations in tumour uptake based on the necrotic tissue volume was also studied. Compartmental analysis model was used, based on the obtained imaging data, to assess the Th-227 uptake. Results show that alpha particle, photon, electron, and muon tracks were detected and resolved by Timepix detector. The current study demonstrated that individual alpha particle emissions, resulting from targeted alpha therapy, can be visualised and quantified using Timepix detector. Furthermore, the variations in the uptake based on the tumour necrotic volume have been observed with four times higher uptake for tumours pretreated with chemotherapy than for those without chemotherapy.

  5. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM (3H)testosterone (({sup 3}H)T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. ({sup 3}H)5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (({sup 3}H)DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, ({sup 3}H)DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT.

  6. Conception of dismantling cell for glove box with alpha contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, D.

    1987-01-01

    The new dismantling cell of Valduc treats particularly alpha glove boxes. This cell is conceived to reduce the intervention inside for man with ventilated clothes and to reduce the volume of alpha wastes by utilization of manipulators and appropriate tools. The respect of low level norms (0.1 Ci/ton) for storage of alpha wastes conductes us to make a first decontamination, to ameliorate the detection in quantity of plutonium in the wastes and for wastes with a level upper the norm to make studies on decontamination by Freon 113 [fr

  7. Development of alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Naito, Susumu; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Fukumoto, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Alpha radioactivity Measurement using ionized Air Transportation technology (AMAT) is developed to measure alpha contaminated wastes with large and complex surfaces. An outline of this project was described in this text. A major problem of AMAT technology is that the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and observed ion current is unclear because of the complicated behavior of ionized air molecules. An ion current prediction model covering from ionization of air molecules to ion detection was developed based on atmospheric electrodynamics. This model was described in this text, too. (author)

  8. T-cell receptor V sub. alpha. and C sub. alpha. alleles associated with multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksenberg, J.R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Steinman, L. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA)); Sherritt, M.; Bernard, C.C. (LaTrobe Univ., Victoria (Australia)); Begovich, A.B.; Erlich, H.A. (Cetus Corporation, Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Polymorphic markers in genes encoding the {alpha} chain of the human T-cell receptor (TcR) have been detected by Southern blot analysis in Pss I digests. Polymorphic bands were observed at 6.3 and 2.0 kilobases (kb) with frequencies of 0.30 and 0.44, respectively, in the general population. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the authors amplified selected sequences derived from the full-length TcR {alpha} cDNA probe. These PcR products were used as specific probes to demonstrate that the 6.3-kb polymorphic fragment hybridizes to the variable (V)-region probe and the 2.0-kb fragment hybridizes to the constant (C)-region probe. Segregation of the polymorphic bands was analyzed in family studies. To look for associations between these markers and autoimmune diseases, the authors have studied the restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution of the Pss I markers in patients with multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and Graves disease. Significant differences in the frequency of the polymorphic V{sub {alpha}} and C{sub {alpha}} markers were identified between patients and healthy individuals.

  9. New advanced in alpha spectrometry by liquid scintillation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Although the ability to count alpha particles by liquid scintillation methods has been long recognized, limited use has been made of the method because of problems of high background and alpha energy identification. In recent years some new developments in methods of introducing the alpha-emitting nuclide to the scintillator, in detector construction, and in electronics for processing the energy analog and time analog signals from the detector have allowed significant alleviation of the problems of alpha spectrometry by liquid scintillation. Energy resolutions of 200 to 300 keV full peak width at half maximum and background counts of 99% of all beta plus gamma interference is now possible. Alpha liquid scintillation spectrometry is now suitable for a wide range of applications, from the accurate quantitative determination of relatively large amounts of known nuclides in laboratory-generated samples to the detection and identification of very small, subpicocurie amounts of alpha emitters in environmental-type samples. Suitable nuclide separation procedures, sample preparation methods, and instrument configurations are available for a variety of analyses

  10. In vitro bioactivity of 17alpha-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2004-12-01

    A miniaturised short-term in vitro assay based on the activation of the human estrogen receptor alpha and genetically modified yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells was performed to explore the capacity of this system to monitor the bioactivity of estrogenic compounds, particularly 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol. Together with the human estrogen receptor (hER)-alpha plasmid, the reporter plasmid containing a yeast-optimised version of the green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) linked to three repeats of the cis-acting estrogen hormone-responsive element (ERE) were expressed in a strain being deleted in the pleiotropic drug resistance transporters Pdr5, Snq2 and Yor1, known to facilitate efflux of organic compounds including steroids and chemotherapeutics. Agonists that bind to hER in vitro trigger estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the GFP reporter gene monitored by fluorescence emission at 535 nm. The sensitivity of the assay was tested with various 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol concentrations, yielding a detection limit of 5 pg/ml (0.018 nM) for the agonist 17beta-E2 in solvent and in human charcoal-stripped serum using a S. cerevisiae pdr5, snq2 and yor1 mutant strain. For 17alpha-estradiol only, at approximately 1500 pg/ml a similar fluorescence response compared to 100 pg/ml 17beta-E2 was observed implicating a much weaker potency of this stereoisomer. The specificity of the system was tested by expression of a truncated hER lacking the ligand-binding domain E and by administration of the androgen, 4-androsten 3,17 dione. Both controls did not yield an increase in fluorescence emission. This fluorescence emission assay enables detection of estrogenic biological activity induced by direct agonists, such as 17beta-E2 at concentrations similar to those found in human sera or by estrogen-like chemicals.

  11. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring pipe interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.; Vaccarella, J.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a prototype instrument capable of assessing alpha-emitting contamination on interior surfaces of ducts, pipes, tanks, and other enclosed volumes without inserting a probe. Air is drawn through the potentially contaminated volume and then through a detection grid, where ions created in the air by alpha particles are collected and the resulting charge measured with a sensitive electrometer. A filter at the intake end of the contaminated volume excludes externally created ions, so only ions generated inside the volume are detected. We have studied the response of this prototype in initial experiments using calibrated alpha sources with various pipe diameters and configurations, air flows, and source locations in the pipes. The results of these experiments indicate that this method can be an effective approach to assessing internal contamination

  12. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  13. TCAD simulation for alpha-particle spectroscopy using SIC Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Achintya; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing requirement of alpha spectroscopy in the fields context of environmental radioactive contamination, nuclear waste management, site decommissioning and decontamination. Although silicon-based alpha-particle detection technology is mature, high leakage current, low displacement threshold and radiation hardness limits the operation of the detector in harsh environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered to be excellent material for radiation detection application due to its high band gap, high displacement threshold and high thermal conductivity. In this report, an alpha-particle-induced electron-hole pair generation model for a reverse-biased n-type SiC Schottky diode has been proposed and verified using technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations. First, the forward-biased I-V characteristics were studied to determine the diode ideality factor and compared with published experimental data. The ideality factor was found to be in the range of 1.4-1.7 for a corresponding temperature range of 300-500 K. Next, the energy-dependent, alpha-particle-induced EHP generation model parameters were optimised using transport of ions in matter (TRIM) simulation. Finally, the transient pulses generated due to alpha-particle bombardment were analysed for (1) different diode temperatures (300-500 K), (2) different incident alpha-particle energies (1-5 MeV), (3) different reverse bias voltages of the 4H-SiC-based Schottky diode (-50 to -250 V) and (4) different angles of incidence of the alpha particle (0°-70°).The above model can be extended to other (wide band-gap semiconductor) device technologies useful for radiation-sensing application. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Test plan for FY-91 alpha CAM evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the test plan for evaluating the Merlin Gerin, Inc., Edgar alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) and associated analysis system to be conducted by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy. INEL has evaluated other commercial alpha CAM systems to detect transuranic contaminants during waste handling and retrieval operations. This test plan outlines experimental methods, sampling methods, sampling and analysis techniques, and equipment needed and safety and quality requirements to test the commercial CAM. 8 refs., 3 figs

  15. AlphaSpace: Fragment-Centric Topographical Mapping To Target Protein–Protein Interaction Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy despite the difficulty in targeting such interfaces with drug-like small molecules. PPIs generally feature large and flat binding surfaces as compared to typical drug targets. These features pose a challenge for structural characterization of the surface using geometry-based pocket-detection methods. An attractive mapping strategy—that builds on the principles of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD)—is to detect the fragment-centric modularity at the protein surface and then characterize the large PPI interface as a set of localized, fragment-targetable interaction regions. Here, we introduce AlphaSpace, a computational analysis tool designed for fragment-centric topographical mapping (FCTM) of PPI interfaces. Our approach uses the alpha sphere construct, a geometric feature of a protein’s Voronoi diagram, to map out concave interaction space at the protein surface. We introduce two new features—alpha-atom and alpha-space—and the concept of the alpha-atom/alpha-space pair to rank pockets for fragment-targetability and to facilitate the evaluation of pocket/fragment complementarity. The resulting high-resolution interfacial map of targetable pocket space can be used to guide the rational design and optimization of small molecule or biomimetic PPI inhibitors. PMID:26225450

  16. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV /=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta-thal subjects, 16 (accounting for 18%) were

  17. Portable Neutron Generator with 9-Section Silicon $\\alpha $-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bystritsky, V M; Kadyshevskij, V G; Khasaev, T O; Kobzev, A P; Presnyakov, Yu K; Rogov,Yu N; Ryzhkov, V I; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sissakian, A N; Slepnev, V M; Zamyatin, N I

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the portable neutron generator with a built-in $\\alpha $-detector are presented. Based on the "tagged" neutron method (TNM) the generator ~is being used for identification of ~the hidden chemical compounds. One of the special features of such generators compared to generators traditionally used and produced in industry is that the generator is a source of monoenergetic "tagged" 14.1 MeV neutrons produced in the binary nuclear reaction $d+t \\to \\alpha $ (3.5 MeV) $+n$ (14.1~MeV). Unambiguous information about the time and direction of the neutron emitted from the target can be obtained by recording an $\\alpha $ particle by the multi-pixel $\\alpha $-detector placed inside the neutron tube. The study of the "tagged" neutron method (TNM) shows that the use of the ($\\alpha $--$\\gamma $) coincidence reduces the gamma background induced by scattered neutrons by a factor of more than 200, which allows the detection and identification of small quantities of explosives, drugs, and toxic agents. T...

  18. Continuous monitoring for airborne alpha emitters in a dusty environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Newton, G.J.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes in underground facilities requires continuous monitoring for airborne radioactive materials, both on the surface and underground. In addition to a natural background of nonradioactive and radioactive aerosols, there may be a sizeable dust contribution from ongoing work such as mining and vehicular traffic. In the monitoring of alpha-emitting radionuclides, these aerosols may lead to self-absorption in the source and a deterioration of the energy spectrum of the detected alpha particles. In this paper, the influence of a realistic background aerosol on the performance of an alpha monitoring system is evaluated theoretically. It is shown that depositing alpha emitters and background aerosol on a surface for counting leads rapidly to a considerable loss of counts, a deterioration of the alpha spectra, an eventual saturation of the count rates, and interference from the natural background of Rn daughters

  19. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Palanivel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015. Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity. From the results of the study it is understood that Stoechospermum marginatum contain a high amount of carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber and phytonutrients like tannin, flavonoid, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoids, steroid and total phenolic content. The physicochemical properties namely Water absorption and Swelling power were very promising. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity was recorded to be high in both aqueous and ethanol extracts of eight hour extraction than in extracts taken from six hours extraction. Antioxidant activity was detected using DPPH, FRAP, beta carotene scavenging and H2O2 assay and found to have a high radical scavenging activity. Stoechospermum marginatum possess a valuable amount of total phenolic content and other phytonutrients and physicochemical properties, it may the reason for the potential inhibition of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and antioxidant activity. It is concluded from the study that the brown algae may be incorporated into foods to enhance their nutritional and therapeutic value.

  20. Blood and tissue tocopherol levels in rats following intraperitoneally administered alpha-tocopheryl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, C D; Greenwood, C E; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1990-01-01

    The correction or maintenance of blood and tissue alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) levels by intraperitoneally administered all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-Tac) was compared with RRR- alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) in vitamin E-depleted and control rats. Rats received 1.3 TE vitamin E daily for 7 days. alpha-Tac was detected in plasma of one-third of alpha-Tac-treated rats 24 hr after the first treatment, although not in subsequent samplings. Both alpha-Tac and alpha-Toc increased tocopherol levels in plasma and liver of E-deprived rats, while little or no change was observed in adipose tissue and brain. Similarly, control rats treated with alpha-Tac or alpha-Toc had significantly greater (p less than 0.05) plasma and liver alpha-Toc levels at day 3 and day 7 than did saline-treated rats. There was no significant difference in adipose alpha-Toc levels among treatment groups of control rats. The results of this study suggest that alpha-Tac is rapidly hydrolyzed to its biologically active alcohol form and results in similar effects to that of intraperitoneally administered alpha-Toc.

  1. Small and asymptomatic hepatocellular carcinoma detected by alpha-fetoprotein screening in black hepatitus B carriers. A report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusheiko, G M; Bowyer, S M; Epstein, B; Levien, L J; Beale, P; Kew, M C; Conradie, J C; Simjee, A

    1986-01-01

    Two patients in whom asymptomatic and small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were detected by ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) screening are reported. Both patients were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive. In the first patient, the tumour grew slowly and was resected more than 2 years after a significant elevation in serum AFP levels had been first detected and 13 months after hepatic angiography confirmed the presence of a vascular tumour. In the second patient, a small encapsulated HCC was diagnosed by AFP screening and hepatic imaging. Phosphorus 32 was used. The clinical course in these 2 patients illustrates that small, asymptomatic and encapsulated HCCs do occur in Southern African black hepatitis B carriers. Regular screening of patients at risk may be justified.

  2. Laser scattering off of alpha particle cyclotron harmonic resonances: Annual performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The active probing of burning plasmas to quantitatively determine high energy alpha particle characteristics is the main purpose of the laser and gyroton scattering program. Progress to date includes a systematic evaluation of homogeneous results, analytical study of alpha particle harmonic resonances, and investigations of finite size detection systems

  3. Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin loci in normals and alpha-thalassemics.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1981-01-01

    The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expressi...

  4. Techniques for measuring the alpha-particle distribution in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Hulse, R.A.; Stewart, L.D.; Weisheit, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    Methods are proposed for measuring the alpha-particle distribution in magnetically confined fusion plasmas using neutral-atom doping beams, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and neutral particle detectors. In the first method single charge exchange reactions, A 0 + He ++ - > A + (He + )*, are used to populate the n=2 and n=3 levels of He + . The ultraviolet photons from the decaying excited states are Doppler shifted by 5 to 10 Angstroms from those produced by the thermalized alpha-particle ash. In the second method double charge exchange reactions, A 0 + He ++ - > A ++ + He 0 , enable fast neutralized alpha-particles to escape from the plasma and be detected by neutral particle analysers. Detector configurations are analyzed, count rates are estimated and their detectability is discussed. A preliminary analysis of the feasibility of the required neutral beams is presented, and exploratory experiments on existing devices are suggested

  5. Gold nanoparticle labeling with tyramide signal amplification for highly sensitive detection of alpha fetoprotein in human serum by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoting; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Xiao, Guangyang; Hu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we developed an immunoassay based on tyramide signal amplification (TSA) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) labeling for highly sensitive detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). AFP was captured by anti-AFP1 coating on the 96-well plate and labeled by anti-AFP2-horseradish peroxidase (HRP), in which the HRP can catalyze the deposition of biotinylated tyramine on the nearby protein. Then the streptavidin (SA)-Au NPs was labeled on the deposited biotinylated tyramine as the intensive signal probe for ICP-MS measurement. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the developed method for AFP was 1.85pg/mL and the linear range was 0.005-2ng/mL. The relative standard deviation for seven replicate detections of 0.01ng/mL AFP was 5.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of AFP in human serum with good recoveries. This strategy is highly sensitive and easy to operate, and can be extended to the sensitive detection of other biomolecules in human serum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for Alpha Receptors in the Human Ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeb, Ralph; Knopf, Joy; Golijanin, Dragan; Bourne, Patricia; Erturk, Erdal

    2007-04-01

    An immunohistochemical and western blot expression analysis of human ureters was performed in order to characterize the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor distribution along the length of the human ureteral wall. Mapping the distribution will assist in understanding the potential role alpha -1-adrenergic receptors and their subtype density might have in the pathophysiology of ureteral colic and stone passage. Patients diagnosed with renal cancer or bladder cancer undergoing nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, or cystectomy had ureteral specimens taken from the proximal, mid, distal and tunneled ureter. Tissues were processed for fresh frozen examination and fixed in formalin. None of the ureteral specimens were involved with cancer. Serial histologic sections and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies specific for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1a, alpha 1b, alpha 1d). The sections were examined under a light microscope and scored as positive or negative. In order to validate and quantify the alpha receptor subtypes along the human ureter. Western blotting techniques were applied. Human ureter stained positively for alpha -1-adrenergic receptors. Immunostaining appeared red, with intense reaction in the smooth muscle of the ureter and endothelium of the neighboring blood vessels. There was differential expression between all the receptors with the highest staining for alpha-1D subtype. The highest protein expression for all three subtypes was in the renal pelvis and decreased with advancement along the ureter to the distal ureter. At the distal ureter, there was marked increase in expression as one progressed towards the ureteral orifice. The same pattern of protein expression was exhibited for all three alpha -1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. We provide preliminary evidence for the ability to detect and quantify the alpha-1-receptor subtypes along the human ureter which to the best of our knowledge has never been done with

  7. Utilization of a Si-surface-barrier-detector for alpha-spectrometry and its application in radiation protection for the detection of law alpha-activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Urbanich, E.; Lovranich, E.; Hefner, A.

    1974-12-01

    Due to the construction of the ''Safeguard Analytical Laboratory''(IAEA), the institute for radiation protection at the Research Center Seibersdorf is interested in a method for the alpha-spectroscopic determination of Pu-239 for personnel and environmental monitoring. Therefore an alpha-spectrometer has been built which will mainly be used for the excretion analysis. The design of the apparatus is described, results of measurements are given and other fields of its application are discussed. (C.R.)

  8. CACA-TOCSY with alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling: a {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} direct detection experiment for mainchain resonance assignment, dihedral angle information, and amino acid type identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Biomedicinal Information Research Center (BIRC) (Japan); Frueh, Dominique P.; Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Hiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard_wagner@hms.harvard.ed [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We present a {sup 13}C direct detection CACA-TOCSY experiment for samples with alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling. It provides inter-residue correlations between {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} resonances of residue i and adjacent C{sup {alpha}s} at positions i - 1 and i + 1. Furthermore, longer mixing times yield correlations to C{sup {alpha}} nuclei separated by more than one residue. The experiment also provides C{sup {alpha}}-to-side chain correlations, some amino acid type identifications and estimates for {psi} dihedral angles. The power of the experiment derives from the alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling with [1,3-{sup 13}C] glycerol or [2-{sup 13}C] glycerol, which allows utilizing the small scalar {sup 3}J{sub CC} couplings that are masked by strong {sup 1}J{sub CC} couplings in uniformly {sup 13}C labeled samples.

  9. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  10. Characterization of damage created by alpha disintegrations in radionuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Mueller, P.

    1990-01-01

    Study of thermostimulated luminescence of an alpha irradiated glass used as radionuclear waste glass has revealed the formation of a structural defect induced by alpha irradiation. To detect this structural modification the thermostimulated signal of an alpha irradiated sample is recorded under certain conditions. The nature of generated defects has been established using synthetic glasses of more simple composition such as silica or boro-silicate glasses. Results obtained with these simple glasses are transposed to alpha irradiated radionuclear waste glass. The problem is to see how autoirradiated glass could evolve in time. For this purpose actinide-doped glasses are now being fabricated and specific thermostimulated luminescence equipment has been developed for this purpose

  11. Particularization of alpha contamination using CR-39 track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    detecting devices and as a passive system to detect alpha contamination on different sur- faces. This work presents ... these plastic detectors can be cut into sizes and shapes according to the specific area that has to be ... of nuclear track materials observed under a microscope, after chemical etching for the same time and ...

  12. A comparison of the ruggedized ZnS(Ag)/EPOXY and mylar-based alpha detectors for wastewater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhaney, S.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.; Moore, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    A low-level alpha radiation sensor has been designed and developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for monitoring process wastewater streams at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (SRS). This new Ruggedized Contamination Detector (RCD) is intended to replace the fragile, mylar-based scintillators and has improved sensitivity and reliability for detecting alpha contamination. The unique entrance window invented for this sensor has considerably less mass per unit area than conventional Mylar windows currently used in wastewater streams. The thin layer deposited between the radiation detection medium and potentially contaminated wastewater makes it much easier to detect short-range alpha particles. Compared to the conventional Mylar-based detectors, the new design allows for eight times the number of 238 U alphas to penetrate the entrance window and reach the scintillation material and eliminates the need for routine replacement of the Mylar entrance window

  13. ALPHA/AMPU, Radionuclide Radioactivity from Alpha Spectrometer Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The two computer programs, ALPHA and AMPU, take raw data obtained from alpha spectrometry and from these calculate activities and uncertainties of the radionuclides present in the sample. ALPHA determines activities of any alpha emitter in a sample that has been directly precipitated with NdF 3 . AMPU determines the Pu-239, Pu-238,and Am-241 activities using Pu-236 and Am-243 tracers. 2 - Method of solution: These programs propagate all random and systematic uncertainties, found anywhere in the experimental process, to the final result. The result is rounded and is in decimal agreement with the uncertainty. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: In ALPHA, a chemical yield of 98% is assumed

  14. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  15. A method of alpha-radiating nuclide activity measuring in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Galkina, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation method of determination of alpha-radiating nuclide activity in aerosol filters was suggested. The method involves dissolution of the filter in organic solvent, introduction of luminophore into solution prepared, drying of the preparation and measurement of radionuclide activity. Dependences of alpha-radiation detection efficiency on the content of luminophore, filter material, colourless and coloured substances in preparations analyzed were considered

  16. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  17. Microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin in soil by compound-specific stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zemin [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shen, Xiaoli [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000 (China); Zhang, Xi-Chang [Laboratory for Teaching in Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Liu, Weiping [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig 04318 (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Alpha-cypermethrin (α-CP) can be degraded by microorganisms in soil. • Biodegradation of α-CP resulted in carbon isotope fractionation. • A relationship was found between carbon isotope ratios and concentrations of α-CP. • An enrichment factor ϵ of α-CP was determined as −1.87‰. • CSIA is applicable to assess biodegradation of α-CP. - Abstract: To assess microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin in soil, attenuation of alpha-cypermethrin was investigated by compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The variations of the residual concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios of alpha-cypermethrin were detected in unsterilized and sterilized soils spiked with alpha-cypermethrin. After an 80 days’ incubation, the concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin decreased to 0.47 and 3.41 mg/kg in the unsterilized soils spiked with 2 and 10 mg/kg, while those decreased to 1.43 and 6.61 mg/kg in the sterilized soils. Meanwhile, the carbon isotope ratios shifted to −29.14 ± 0.22‰ and −29.86 ± 0.33‰ in the unsterilized soils spiked with 2 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The results revealed that microbial degradation contributed to the attenuation of alpha-cypermethrin and induced the carbon isotope fractionation. In order to quantitatively assess microbial degradation, a relationship between carbon isotope ratios and residual concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin was established according to Rayleigh equation. An enrichment factor, ϵ = −1.87‰ was obtained, which can be employed to assess microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin. The significant carbon isotope fractionation during microbial degradation suggests that CSIA is a proper approach to qualitatively detect and quantitatively assess the biodegradation during attenuation process of alpha-cypermethrin in the field.

  18. alpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szelag

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is caused by mushroom species belonging to the genera Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota with the majority of lethal mushroom exposures attributable to Amanita phalloides. High mortality rate in intoxications with these mushrooms is principally a result of the acute liver failure following significant hepatocyte damage due to hepatocellular uptake of amatoxins. A wide variety of amatoxins have been isolated; however, alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA appears to be the primary toxin. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggest that alpha-AMA does not only cause hepatocyte necrosis, but also may lead to apoptotic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complex hepatocyte apoptosis in alpha-AMA cytotoxicity. All experiments were performed on primary cultured canine hepatocytes. The cells were incubated for 12 h with alpha-AMA at a final concentration of 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM. Viability test (MTT assay, apoptosis evaluation (TUNEL reaction, detection of DNA laddering and electron microscopy were performed at 6 and 12 h of exposure to alpha-AMA. There was a clear correlation between hepatocyte viability, concentration of alpha-AMA and time of exposure to this toxin. The decline in cultured dog hepatocyte viability during the exposure to alpha-AMA is most likely preceded by enhanced cellular apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that apoptosis might contribute to pathogenesis of the severe liver injury in the course of amanitin intoxication, particularly during the early phase of poisoning.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the CK......-2 alpha subunit in immunoblots from tissue extracts. An ELISA detection test was also established which also allows the identification of the CK-2 alpha subunit....

  20. Determination of branched chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and alpha-keto acids in plasma and dried blood samples using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kand'ár, Roman; Záková, Pavla; Jirosová, Jana; Sladká, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    The determination of branched chain amino acids [BCAA; valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile)], alpha-keto acids derived from BCAA [BCKA; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV), alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), alpha-ketomethylvaleric acid (KMV)], methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) is currently the most reliable approach for the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), hypermethioninemia, phenylketonuria (PKU) and tyrosinemia. The aim of this study was to develop rapid and simple HPLC methods for measurement of BCAA, Met, Phe, Tyr and BCKA in plasma and dried blood samples. Samples of peripheral venous blood with EDTA as anticoagulant were obtained from a group of healthy blood donors (n=70, 35 females, 27-41 years of age and 35 males, 28-43 years of age). Blood-spot samples from a group of newborns (n=80, 40 girls and 40 boys 3-5 days of age) were collected onto #903 Specimen Collection Paper and allowed to dry for at least 24 h before analysis. Prior to separation, the amino acids (AA) were derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and BCKA with o-phenylenediamine (OPD). Reverse phase column chromatography (LiChroCart 125-4 Purospher RP-18e, 5 microm) was used for separation and fluorescence detection used to monitoring of effluent. For AA analysis, 25 mmol/L sodium hydrogenphosphate-methanol (90:10, v/v), pH 6.5+/-0.1 was used as mobile phase A and 100% methanol was used as mobile phase B. Measurement of BCKA used a mixture of methanol and deionized water (55:45, v/v) as mobile phase A and mobile phase B consisted of 100% methanol. Analytical performance of these methods was satisfactory for the determination of all AA and BCKA. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10% and recovery ranged from 90%-110%. We have developed simple, rapid and selective HPLC methods with fluorescence detection for the determination of BCAA, Met, Phe, Tyr and BCKA in plasma and dried blood samples.

  1. Molecular basis for nondeletion alpha-thalassemia in American blacks. Alpha 2(116GAG----UAG).

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Coleman, M B; Adams, J G; Cash, F E; Steinberg, M H

    1987-01-01

    An American black woman was found to have the phenotype of moderately severe alpha-thalassemia normally associated with the loss of two to three alpha-globin genes despite an alpha-globin gene map that demonstrated the loss of only a single alpha-globin gene (-alpha/alpha alpha). Several individuals in her kindred with normal alpha-globin gene mapping studies (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) had mild alpha-thalassemia hematologic values consistent with the loss of one to two alpha-globin genes. Thes...

  2. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  3. Determination of alpha activity produced by Indian tea samples using solid state nuclear track detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Ameer; Naqvi, A.H.; Srivastava, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    India has first place in the world in the production, consumption and export of tea. The average production of tea in India is about 780 million kg annually. Indian population uses tea as a favourite beverage specially with the breakfast. Tea leaves are perennial plants and they have extension root system spread over deeper layers in the soil. Soil contains uranium as trace element. Hence, uranium is transferred to the leaves as a result of uptake from the soil over the years. Since many of the decay products of uranium are alpha emitters hence tea is a source of alpha radioactivity and can cause damaging effects. Therefore, data on alpha activity of tea samples will be useful in estimating these harmful effects at least qualitatively. In the present study the alpha activity produced by thirteen samples of tea available in the local market was measured

  4. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected...... previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases......., the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus...

  5. Electronic Properties of DNA-Based Schottky Barrier Diodes in Response to Alpha Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-05-21

    Detection of nuclear radiation such as alpha particles has become an important field of research in recent history due to nuclear threats and accidents. In this context; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) acting as an organic semiconducting material could be utilized in a metal/semiconductor Schottky junction for detecting alpha particles. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the effect of alpha irradiation on an Al/DNA/p-Si/Al Schottky diode by investigating its current-voltage characteristics. The diodes were exposed for different periods (0-20 min) of irradiation. Various diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance, Richardson constant and saturation current were then determined using conventional, Cheung and Cheung's and Norde methods. Generally, ideality factor or n values were observed to be greater than unity, which indicates the influence of some other current transport mechanism besides thermionic processes. Results indicated ideality factor variation between 9.97 and 9.57 for irradiation times between the ranges 0 to 20 min. Increase in the series resistance with increase in irradiation time was also observed when calculated using conventional and Cheung and Cheung's methods. These responses demonstrate that changes in the electrical characteristics of the metal-semiconductor-metal diode could be further utilized as sensing elements to detect alpha particles.

  6. Determination of radium-226 in fresh water, using alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrakdar, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    Four radium isotopes are present in nature, i.e. Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228. The first three are alpha emitters while the last is a beta emitter. Because of the importance of the determination of Alpha isotope emitters in pure water (drinking water), this work focuses on the determination of radium-226 as it has the longest half-life (1600 years, in comparison to 11.4 day, 3.66 days for Ra-223 and Ra-224, respectively) using Alpha spectroscopy. This method has the capability to be applied in sampling fields and low detection limit which in turn makes the analysis of low-level radioactive environmental water samples, with hardness does not exceed 40 French Degree, satisfying for health and environment control programmes. However, counting the samples using Alpha spectroscopy has to be immediate (or within 48 hours). (author)

  7. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  8. Performance comparison of scintillators for alpha particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Yuki [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Muramatsu 4-33, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Izaki, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Muramatsu 4-33, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Kaneko, Junichi H.; Toui, Kohei; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2014-11-11

    Scintillation detectors for alpha particles are often used in nuclear fuel facilities. Alpha particle detectors have also become important in the research field of radionuclide therapy using alpha emitters. ZnS(Ag) is the most often used scintillator for alpha particle detectors because its light output is high. However, the energy resolution of ZnS(Ag)-based scintillation detectors is poor because they are not transparent. A new ceramic sample, namely the cerium doped Gd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (GPS) scintillator, has been tested as alpha particle detector and its performances have been compared to that one of three different scintillating materials: ZnS(Ag), GAGG and a standard plastic scintillator. The different scintillating materials have been coupled to two different photodetectors, namely a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a Silicon Photo-multiplier (Si-PM): the performances of each detection system have been compared. Promising results as far as the energy resolution performances (10% with PMT and 14% with Si-PM) have been obtained in the case of GPS and GAGG samples. Considering the quantum efficiencies of the photodetectors under test and their relation to the emission wavelength of the different scintillators, the best results were achieved coupling the GPS with the PMT and the GAGG with the Si-PM.

  9. Contribution to the study of alpha-alpha interaction; Contribution a l'etude de l'interaction alpha - alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darriulai, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    Two sets of measurements of the {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering differential cross section are presented. The first set - angular distributions from 50 up to 120 MeV - shows two new resonances, 6{sup +} and 8{sup +}, at 25 and 57 MeV. Complex phase shifts are extracted from the data and a phenomenological potential is given. A description of the 3 {alpha}-particle 0{sup +} states in C{sup 12} is made with this interaction potential. The second set - excitation curves between 20 and 50 MeV - allows investigation of the Be{sup 8} level structure within this energy range - It identifies the 16.6 and 16.9 MeV states as 2{sup +}, but the rise of inelastic processes at higher energies makes further identification of spins and parities more and more difficult. (author) [French] Deux series de mesures de la section efficace differentielle de diffusion {alpha}-{alpha} sont presentees. La premiere - distributions angulaires entre 50 et 120 MeV - fait apparaitre deux nouvelles resonances, 6{sup +} et 8{sup +}, a 25 et 57 MeV d'excitation. Des dephasages complexes en sont extraits et un potentiel phenomenologique est presente. Une etude des etats 0{sup +} a parentage (3{alpha}) de {sup 12}C est faite a partir de ce potentiel. La seconde - courbes d'excitation s'etendant de 20 a 50 MeV - met en evidence la structure de {sup 8}Be dans cette region. Elle montre que les niveaux a 16,6 et 16,9 MeV sont des 2{sup +} mais l'importance des processus inelastiques rend difficile l'identification des niveaux d'excitation plus elevee. (auteur)

  10. /sup 56/Fe (. gamma. ,. cap alpha. /sub 0/) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamae, T; Sugawara, M [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science; Tsubota, H

    1974-12-01

    The reaction cross section of /sup 56/Fe (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) was measured from the electron energy of 15 to 25 MeV. The measured data were compared with the calculated ones based on statistic theory. Both agreed with each other. Therefore, the affirmative result was obtained for the presumption that the reaction of (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) of the nuclei around these energy levels can be explained by the statistical theory. The angular distribution of /sup 56/Fe (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) with 17 MeV electron energy was also measured, and the E2/E1 ratio was obtained. In the measurement of the /sup 56/Fe ( Gamma , ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction cross section, a natural target of 2.69 mg/cm/sup 2/ was irradiated with an electron beam with energy from 15 MeV to 25 MeV at intervals of 0.5 MeV, and the emitted ..cap alpha.. particles were detected by a broad band magnetic distribution meter. The measured cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction agreed with the calculated one based on statistical theory. If this fact is recognized in many nuclei, the cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction on those nuclei has the following characteristics. When the increasing rate of the product of a complex nucleus formation cross section and ..cap alpha../sub 0/ penetration factor is larger than that of the sum of all penetration factors of possible channels, the cross section of the (..gamma.., ..cap alpha../sub 0/) reaction increases, and takes a peak value when the above two increasing rates agree with each other.

  11. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons Richard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s.

  12. Search for alpha particles emitted at rest in the break-up of the 12C-α-12C molecule-like configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheurer, J.N.; Bertault, D.; Caussanel, M.; Quebert, J.L.; Fouan, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A yield of alpha particles emitted at rest is clearly observed in 16 O+ 12 C at several incident energies. These alpha particles are detected by two methods: i) the alpha particle is considered as a missing mass in the detection of two 12 C nuclei in coincidence; ii) the alpha particle is detected at zero degree with a velocity due to centre of mass motion. Such a yield is assigned to a linear chain formation of the type 12 C-α- 12 C and an excitation function between 40 and 65 MeV is given. The emission due to Coulomb effects is emphasized in the discussion to give the chief explanation of the coincidence results

  13. Suma-alpha software description. Study of its applications to detection problems and environmental radioactivity measurements; Descripcion del Programa Suma-Alfas. Estudio de sus Aplicaciones a Problemas de Deteccion y Medida de la Radiactividad Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Perez, C.

    2010-05-01

    Software named suma-espectros has been developed by TECNASA/CIEMAT for adding counts automatically from the alpha spectra, energy to energy, with the purpose of: evaluating real background of alpha spectrometers, studying its temporal variations, increasing the possibilities of isotopes detection -where it has been impossible to detect due elapsed time of the measurement- and implementing other applications. The programme is written in Visual-Basic and it can export data to Excel spreadsheets for later treatment. The software has established by default a channels range for adding the counts energy by energy but it can be adapted to the analysis of different isotopes and backgrounds simply changing a text file that is incorporated to the programme. The description of the programme management is described for whoever can realise its applications immediately. This software has the advantage of emitting an add-spectrum in cnf format that is used by alpha analyst (Genie 2K) for de convoluting spectra or doing calculations. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. Formation of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds in beer during storage of Pilsner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adriana; Herrera, Julio C; Scherer, Erika; Ju-Nam, Yon; Rübsam, Heinrich; Madrid, Jorge; Zufall, Carsten; Rangel-Aldao, Rafael

    2008-06-11

    With the aim of determining the formation of alpha-dicarbonyl intermediates during beer aging on the shelf, alpha-dicarbonyls were identified and quantified after derivatization with 1,2-diaminobenze to generate quinoxalines. The sensory effects of alpha-dicarbonyls were evaluated by the quantification of key Strecker aldehydes and by GC-olfactometry (GCO)analysis of beer headspace using solid phase microextraction. Four alpha-dicarbonyls, reported here for the first time, were detected in fresh and aged beers, three were derived from the 2,3-enolization pathway of mono- and disaccharides, and the fourth was derived from the epimerization of 3-deoxy-2-hexosulose. Ten alpha-dicarbonyls were quantified during beer processing and during different periods of beer aging at 28 degrees C. The aging periods were from 15 to 105 days. During beer aging, 1-deoxydiuloses were produced and degraded, while 1,4-dideoxydiuloses were produced at the highest rates. The GCO analysis indicated that forced beer aging increased the amounts of furaneol, trans-2-nonenal, and phenylacetaldehyde. The blockage of alpha-dicarbonyls inhibited the accumulation of sensory-active aldehydes in the beer headspace.

  15. Plasma concentrations of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are elevated in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, L; Garofalo, L; Cutuli, M G; Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Badalamenti, S; Graziani, G; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    2000-08-01

    Clinical and/or laboratory signs of systemic inflammation occur frequently in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. It is likely, therefore, that a compensatory release of endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules occurs to limit host reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine if the potent anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin derivative, is increased in plasma of haemodialysis patients. Because endotoxin and cytokines induce alpha-MSH in vivo and in vitro, we also measured plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the two circulating products of activated monocytes, nitric oxide (NO) and neopterin. Thirty-five chronic haemodialysis patients, 20 patients with chronic renal failure not yet on dialysis, and 35 normal controls were included in the study. In the haemodialysis group, blood samples were obtained before and at the end of a dialysis session. Plasma alpha-MSH was measured using a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neopterin using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma nitrites were determined by a colorimetric method, and endotoxin with the quantitative chromogenic LAL (limulus amoebocyte lysate) method. Mean plasma alpha-MSH was higher in haemodialysis patients than in control subjects, with the peptide concentrations being particularly elevated in dialysed patients with detectable endotoxin. High alpha-MSH concentrations were observed in the pre-dialysis samples, with no substantial change at the end of the dialysis session. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO were generally elevated in chronic haemodialysis patients and there was a negative correlation between circulating alpha-MSH and IL-6. In patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, mean plasma alpha-MSH was similar to that of normal subjects. alpha-MSH is increased in the circulation of

  16. Alpha Power Modulates Perception Independently of Endogenous Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasskia Brüers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain. Alpha oscillations in particular have been proposed to play an important role in sensory perception. Past studies have shown that the power of ongoing EEG oscillations in the alpha band is negatively correlated with visual outcome. Moreover, it also co-varies with other endogenous factors such as attention, vigilance, or alertness. In turn, these endogenous factors influence visual perception. Therefore, it remains unclear how much of the relation between alpha and perception is indirectly mediated by such endogenous factors, and how much reflects a direct causal influence of alpha rhythms on sensory neural processing. We propose to disentangle the direct from the indirect causal routes by introducing modulations of alpha power, independently of any fluctuations in endogenous factors. To this end, we use white-noise sequences to constrain the brain activity of 20 participants. The cross-correlation between the white-noise sequences and the concurrently recorded EEG reveals the impulse response function (IRF, a model of the systematic relationship between stimulation and brain response. These IRFs are then used to reconstruct rather than record the brain activity linked with new random sequences (by convolution. Interestingly, this reconstructed EEG only contains information about oscillations directly linked to the white-noise stimulation; fluctuations in attention and other endogenous factors may still modulate brain alpha rhythms during the task, but our reconstructed EEG is immune to these factors. We found that the detection of near-perceptual threshold targets embedded within these new white-noise sequences depended on the power of the ~10 Hz reconstructed EEG over parieto-occipital channels. Around the time of presentation, higher power led to poorer performance. Thus, fluctuations in alpha power, induced here by random luminance sequences, can directly influence perception: the relation between

  17. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) coincidence experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the

  18. Development and application of a fluorescence protein microarray for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiying; Yin, Chengzeng; Wang, Zhenshun; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Yuanshun; Li, Ang; Sun, Huanqin; Lin, Dongdong; Li, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Objective To develop a simple, effective, time-saving and low-cost fluorescence protein microarray method for detecting serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method Non-contact piezoelectric print techniques were applied to fluorescence protein microarray to reduce the cost of prey antibody. Serum samples from patients with HCC and healthy control subjects were collected and evaluated for the presence of AFP using a novel fluorescence protein microarray. To validate the fluorescence protein microarray, serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results A total of 110 serum samples from patients with HCC ( n = 65) and healthy control subjects ( n = 45) were analysed. When the AFP cut-off value was set at 20 ng/ml, the fluorescence protein microarray had a sensitivity of 91.67% and a specificity of 93.24% for detecting serum AFP. Serum AFP quantified via fluorescence protein microarray had a similar diagnostic performance compared with ELISA in distinguishing patients with HCC from healthy control subjects (area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.906 for fluorescence protein microarray; 0.880 for ELISA). Conclusion A fluorescence protein microarray method was developed for detecting serum AFP in patients with HCC.

  19. Nonproliferation and safeguarding via ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; Johnson, J.P.; Steadman, P.

    1995-01-01

    A significant signature of the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) is ionizing radiation. SNM naturally decays with the emission of alpha particles, gamma rays, and neutrons. Detecting and monitoring these emissions is an important capability for international safeguards. A new detection method collects the ions produced by such radiation in ambient air. Alpha particles in particular are specific to heavy nuclei but have very short range. The ions produced by an alpha, however, can be transported tens of meters to an ion detector. These new monitors are rugged, very sensitive, respond in real time, and in most cases are quite portable

  20. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  1. Applications of alpha particles detectors made of nitrocellulose film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Salinas, B.; Pineda, H.

    1978-01-01

    We describe the experiments realized in order to probe the response of the alpha particles detectors manufactured in our laboratory and their suitability to some important applications. The detection system is a nitrocellulose film which register the transit of the charged particles. The traces left by the particles during their transit are manifested through a controlled chemical attack and counted after that with a microscope. This monitor system was utilized in the following applications: 1) uranium prospection 2) alpha autoradiography 4) determination of air pollution by alpha emitters. The results which were obtained are satisfactory and in spite that in these first applications only qualitative measurements were made the method could be used for quantitative determinations when we will have a better knowledge of the effect of factors which are not under our control. (author)

  2. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schaerer, Daniel [CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  3. Use of passive alpha detectors to screen for uranium contamination in a field at Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, C.S.; Meyer, K.E.; Gammage, R.B.; Wheeler, R.V.; Salasky, M.; Kotrappa, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a field test of newly developed techniques for inexpensive, in situ screening of soil for alpha contamination. Passive alpha detectors that are commercially available for the detection indoor airborne alpha activity (i.e., 222 Rn) have been modified so they can be applied to the detection of alpha contamination on surfaces or in soils. Results reported here are from an intercomparison involving several different techniques with all measurements being made at the same sites in a field near the formerly used uranium processing facility at Fernald, Ohio, during the summer of 1994. The results for two types of passive alpha detector show that the quality of calibration is improved if soils samples are milled to increase homogeneity within the soil matrices. The correlation between laboratory based radiochemical analyses and quick, field-based screening measurements is acceptable and can be improved if the passive devices are left for longer exposure times in the field. The total cost per measurement for either type of passive alpha detector is probably less than $25 and should provide a cost-effective means for site managers to develop the information needed to find areas with remaining alpha contamination so resources can be allocated efficiently

  4. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoli, A.; Quirino, L.L.; Hernandez, V.M.; Lopez del R, H.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3-alkyl/aryl-2-[((alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl)hydrazono]-5-methyl-4-thiazolidinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeldemirci, Nuray Ulusoy; Ilhan, Eser; Küçükbasmaci, Omer; Satana, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    New 4-thiazolidinone derivatives of benzilic acid (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxyacetic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The reaction of 1- (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl-4-alkyl/arylthiosemicarbazides with ethyl 2-bromopropionate gave 3-alkyl/aryl-2-[((alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl)hydrazono]-5-methyl-4-thiazolidinone derivatives. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922, C. albicans ATCC 10231, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei NCPF 375, M. gypseum NCPF 580 and T. tonsurans NCPF 245. 3e, 3f, 3g and 3h showed the highest antibacterial activity. Particularly 3a and 3e showed the highest antifungal activities against C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, T. tonsurans NCPF 245 and M. gypseum NCPF 580.

  6. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  7. Electronic Properties of DNA-Based Schottky Barrier Diodes in Response to Alpha Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maktuff Jaber Al-Ta'ii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of nuclear radiation such as alpha particles has become an important field of research in recent history due to nuclear threats and accidents. In this context; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA acting as an organic semiconducting material could be utilized in a metal/semiconductor Schottky junction for detecting alpha particles. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the effect of alpha irradiation on an Al/DNA/p-Si/Al Schottky diode by investigating its current-voltage characteristics. The diodes were exposed for different periods (0–20 min of irradiation. Various diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance, Richardson constant and saturation current were then determined using conventional, Cheung and Cheung’s and Norde methods. Generally, ideality factor or n values were observed to be greater than unity, which indicates the influence of some other current transport mechanism besides thermionic processes. Results indicated ideality factor variation between 9.97 and 9.57 for irradiation times between the ranges 0 to 20 min. Increase in the series resistance with increase in irradiation time was also observed when calculated using conventional and Cheung and Cheung’s methods. These responses demonstrate that changes in the electrical characteristics of the metal-semiconductor-metal diode could be further utilized as sensing elements to detect alpha particles.

  8. Murine alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. I. Radioligand binding studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, M.; Reese, J.; Cotecchia, S.; Michel, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptors were identified in murine tissues by [3H]prazosin saturation binding studies, with a rank order of cerebral cortex > cerebellum > liver > lung > kidney > heart > spleen, with the spleen not exhibiting detectable expression. Competition binding studies were performed with

  9. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  10. Development of graphite carbon nitride based fluorescent immune sensor for detection of alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yike; Dong, Lingyu; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Hailing; Xie, Mengxia

    2018-05-01

    A novel fluorescent immunosensor for determination of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in serum samples has been developed based on the nano graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as fluorophore and immunomagnetic beads (MBs) as separation material. The bulk g-C3N4 was obtained by thermal polymerization of melamine, and then carboxylated and exfoliated to acquire the carboxylated nano g-C3N4 (c-n-g-C3N4), which has been characterized and the results showed that it had excellent fluorescent properties. The antibodies of AFP (Ab1, Ab2) were conjugated to the MBs and the c-n-g-C3N4, respectively. In assay of AFP detection, the magnetic part of the immunosensor, MBs-Ab1, would form the sandwich type complex with the signal part of the sensor, c-n-g-C3N4-Ab2. The developed immunosensor could simplify the process of separation due to the MBs. The results illustrated that proposed approach held a good linearity between the fluorescence intensity of the sensor and the AFP concentration ranging from 5-600 ng/mL with the limit of detection as low as 0.43 ng/mL, and its spiking recoveries ranged from 98.2% to 105.9% with RSD from 2.1% to 3.5%. The fabricated fluorescent immunosensor possesses the merits of good sensitivity, excellent selectivity, high biocompatibility and low cost, and the results provide a novel clue to develop immunosensor for determination of the biomarkers in complex matrices.

  11. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  12. Contingency of alpha decay in 287-306120 isotopes of SHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmel Vigila Bai, G.M.; Umai Parvathiy, J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the synthesis and identification of super heavy nuclei has a particular attention in the field of nuclear physics. Many theoretical calculations have been done to study the properties of even-Z Super heavy elements (SHE). Durate et al. applied the effective liquid drop model to predict the alpha decay, cluster emission and cold fission half-life values of nuclei on the region of super heavy elements, defined by 155 ≤ N ≤ 220 and 110 ≤ Z ≤ 135. In the case of super heavy elements spontaneous fission and alpha decay are the main decay modes. Super heavy nuclei which have relatively small alpha decay half times compared to spontaneous fission half lives will survive fission and thus can be detected in the laboratory through α-decay. The present paper aims to predict possibility of alpha decay in the element Z = 120 isotopes using CYE model and the spontaneous fission half lives are computed using the phenomenological formula

  13. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  14. The tree-alpha Faddeev calculation on 12C bound states with a Pauli correct alpha-alpha potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroyuki; Oryu, Shinsho

    1986-01-01

    The three-alpha model of 12 C is investigated by the Faddeev formalism with the UIM alpha-alpha potential, in which the Pauli effect between two-alpha system was taken into account adequately. The potential can reproduce the on- and off-shell effects of the alpha-alpha interaction by the rank-4 separable type for the S-wave, the rank-3 one for the D-wave, and the rank-2 one for the G-wave, in which two of the ranks in the S-wave, and one in the D-wave are prepared to eliminate the Pauli forbidden states. We obtained three even states J π = 0 + , 2 + , 4 + , and two odd states 1 - , 3 - , below the alpha- 8 Be(0 + g.s) threshold energy. The even parity states gain larger binding energies than those which have been obtained by former Faddeev calculation with the rank-1 Kukulin and Neudatchin (KN) potential. On the other hand, for the odd parity states, we obtained smaller binding energies than the former one. It is found that our Faddeev calculation with the UIM potential does not miss any important low-lying levels of 12 C, in which any spurious states do not appear. (author)

  15. Alpha Elements' Effects on Planet Formation and the Hunt for Extragalactic Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Beatty, Thomas; Zhou, George

    2018-01-01

    A star's likelihood of hosting a giant planet is well known to be strongly dependent on metallicity. However, little is known about what elements cause this correlation (e.g. bulk metals, iron, or alpha elements such as silicon and oxygen). This is likely because most planet searches target stars in the Galactic disk, and due to Galactic chemical evolution, alpha element abundances are themselves correlated with metallicity within a population. We investigate the feasibility of simultaneous transiting planet search towards the alpha-poor Sagittarius dwarf galaxy and alpha-rich Galactic bulge in a single field of view of DECam, that would enable a comparative study of planet frequency over an [alpha/Fe] baseline of ~0.4 dex. We show that a modestly sized survey could detect planet candidates in both populations, but that false positive rejection in Sgr Dwarf may be prohibitively expensive. Conversely, two-filter survey observations alone would be sufficient to rule out a large fraction of bulge false positives, enabling statistical validation of candidates with a modest follow-up investment. Although over a shorter [alpha/Fe] baseline, this survey would provide a test of whether it is alpha or iron that causes the planet metallicity correlation.

  16. Design of a preamplifier for an alpha particles spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo O, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-09-01

    To detect radiation diverse detector types are used, when these are alpha particles proportional type detectors are used, semiconductor, of scintillation or traces. In this work the design results, the construction and the first tests of a spectrometer (preamplifier) are presented for alpha particles that was designed starting from a Pin type photodiode. The system was designed and simulated with a program for electronic circuits. With the results of the simulation phase was constructed the electronics that is coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The total of the system is evaluated analyzing its performance before a triple source of alphas and that they are produced by two smoke detectors of domestic use. Of the tests phase we find that the system allows to obtain in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  17. Response of CVD diamond detectors to alpha radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souw, E.-K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Meilunas, R.J. [Northrop-Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 (United States)

    1997-11-21

    This article describes some results from an experiment with CVD diamond films used as {alpha} particle detectors. It demonstrates that bulk polarization can be effectively stopped within a reasonable time interval. This will enable detector calibration and quantitative measurement. A possible mechanism for the observed polarization quenching is discussed. It involves two types of carrier traps and a tentative band-gap model derived from the results of photoconductive current measurements. The experiment was set up mainly to investigate {alpha} detection properties of polycrystalline diamond films grown by the technique of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. For comparison, two commercially purchased diamond wafers were also investigated, i.e., one grown by the DC arc jet method, and the other, a type-IIa natural diamond wafer (not preselected). The best response to {alpha} particles was obtained using diamond thin-films grown by the microwave PECVD method, followed by the type-IIa natural diamond, and finally, the CVD diamond grown by the DC arc jet technique. (orig.). 43 refs.

  18. Establishment of sandwich ELISA for soluble alpha-Klotho measurement: Age-dependent change of soluble alpha-Klotho levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Imura, Akihiro; Urakawa, Itaru; Shimada, Takashi; Murakami, Junko; Aono, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Yamashita, Takeyoshi; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Namba, Noriyuki; Kitaoka, Taichi; Ozono, Keiichi; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Hataya, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Shoji; Imel, Erik A; Econs, Michael J; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi

    2010-07-30

    Alpha-Klotho (alphaKl) regulates mineral metabolism such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in circulation. Defects in mice result in clinical features resembling disorders found in human aging. Although the importance of transmembrane-type alphaKl has been demonstrated, less is known regarding the physiological importance of soluble-type alphaKl (salphaKl) in circulation. The aims of this study were: (1) to establish a sandwich ELISA system enabling detection of circulating serum salphaKl, and (2) to determine reference values for salphaKl serum levels and relationship to indices of renal function, mineral metabolism, age and sex in healthy subjects. We successively developed an ELISA to measure serum salphaKl in healthy volunteers (n=142, males 66) of ages (61.1+/-18.5year). The levels (mean+/-SD) in these healthy control adults were as follows: total calcium (Ca; 9.46+/-0.41mg/dL), Pi (3.63+/-0.51mg/dL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 15.7+/-4.3mg/dL), creatinine (Cre; 0.69+/-0.14mg/dL), 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D; 54.8+/-17.7pg/mL), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH; 49.2+/-20.6pg/mL), calcitonin (26.0+/-12.3pg/mL) and intact fibroblast growth factor (FGF23; 43.8+/-17.6pg/mL). Serum levels of salphaKl ranged from 239 to 1266pg/mL (mean+/-SD; 562+/-146pg/mL) in normal adults. Although salphaKl levels were not modified by gender or indices of mineral metabolism, salphaKl levels were inversely related to Cre and age. However, salphaKl levels in normal children (n=39, males 23, mean+/-SD; 7.1+/-4.8years) were significantly higher (mean+/-SD; 952+/-282pg/mL) than those in adults (mean+/-SD; 562+/-146, Plevel was notably lower than those of age-matched controls. We established a detection system to measure human serum salphaKl for the first time. Age, Ca and Pi seem to influence serum salphaKl levels in a normal population. This detection system should be an excellent tool for investigating salphaKl functions in mineral metabolism. Copyright

  19. State of the art of D ampersand D Instrumentation Technology: Alpha counting in the presence of high background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Discrimination of alpha activity in the presence of a high radiation background has been identified as an area of concern to be studied for D ampersand D applications. Upon evaluating the range of alpha detection needs for D ampersand D operations, we have expanded this study to address the operational concern of greatly expediting alpha counting of rough surfaces and rubble. Note that the term, ''rough surfaces'' includes a wide range of practical cases, including contaminated equipment and work surfaces. We have developed provisional applications requirements for instrumentation of this type; and we also have generated the scope of a program of instrument evaluation and testing, with emphasis on practical implementation. In order to obtain the full operational benefit of alpha discrimination in the presence of strong beta-gamma radiation background, the detection system must be capable of some form of remote or semi-remote operation in order to reduce operator exposure. We have identified a highly promising technique, the long-range alpha detector (LRAD), for alpha discrimination in the presence of high radiation background. This technique operates upon the principle of transporting alphaionized air to an ionization detector. A transport time within a few seconds is adequate. Neither the provisional requirements nor the evaluation and testing scope were expressly tailored to force the selection of a LRAD technology, and they could be used as a basis for studies of other promising technologies. However, a technology that remotely detects alpha-ionized air (e. g., LRAD) is a natural fit to the key requirements of rejection of high background at the survey location and operator protection. Also, LRAD appears to be valuable for D ampersand D applications as a means of greatly expediting surface alpha-activity surveys that otherwise would require performing time-consuming scans over surfaces of interest with alpha detector probes, and even more labor-intensive surface

  20. Lens proteome map and alpha-crystallin profile of the catfish Rita rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Bhattacharjee, Soma; Das, Manas Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Crystallins are a diverse group of proteins that constitute nearly 90% of the total soluble proteins of the vertebrate eye lens and these tightly packed crystallins are responsible for transparency of the lens. These proteins have been studied in different model and non-model species for understanding the modifications they undergo with ageing that lead to cataract, a disease of protein aggregation. In the present investigation, we studied the lens crystallin profile of the tropical freshwater catfish Rita rita. Profiles of lens crystallins were analyzed and crystallin proteome maps of Rita rita were generated for the first time. alphaA-crystallins, member of the alpha-crystallin family, which are molecular chaperons and play crucial role in maintaining lens transparency were identified by 1- and 2-D immunoblot analysis with anti-alphaA-crystallin antibody. Two protein bands of 19-20 kDa were identified as alphaA-crystallins on 1-D immunoblots and these bands separated into 10 discrete spots on 2-D immunoblot. However, anti-alphaB-crystallin and antiphospho-alphaB-crystallin antibodies were not able to detect any immunoreactive bands on 1- and 2-D immunoblots, indicating alphaB-crystallin was either absent or present in extremely low concentration in Rita rita lens. Thus, Rita rita alpha-crystallins are more like that of the catfish Clarias batrachus and the mammal kangaroo in its alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin content (contain low amount from 5-9% of alphaB-crystallin) and unlike the dogfish, zebrafish, human, bovine and mouse alpha-crystallins (contain higher amount of alphaB-crystallin from 25% in mouse and bovine to 85% in dogfish). Results of the present study can be the baseline information for stimulating further investigation on Rita rita lens crystallins for comparative lens proteomics. Comparing and contrasting the alpha-crystallins of the dogfish and Rita rita may provide valuable information on the functional attributes of alphaA- and alphaB-isoforms, as

  1. Alpha oscillations correlate with the successful inhibition of unattended stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Barbara F; Haarmeier, Thomas; Jensen, Ole

    2011-09-01

    Because the human visual system is continually being bombarded with inputs, it is necessary to have effective mechanisms for filtering out irrelevant information. This is partly achieved by the allocation of attention, allowing the visual system to process relevant input while blocking out irrelevant input. What is the physiological substrate of attentional allocation? It has been proposed that alpha activity reflects functional inhibition. Here we asked if inhibition by alpha oscillations has behavioral consequences for suppressing the perception of unattended input. To this end, we investigated the influence of alpha activity on motion processing in two attentional conditions using magneto-encephalography. The visual stimuli used consisted of two random-dot kinematograms presented simultaneously to the left and right visual hemifields. Subjects were cued to covertly attend the left or right kinematogram. After 1.5 sec, a second cue tested whether subjects could report the direction of coherent motion in the attended (80%) or unattended hemifield (20%). Occipital alpha power was higher contralateral to the unattended side than to the attended side, thus suggesting inhibition of the unattended hemifield. Our key finding is that this alpha lateralization in the 20% invalidly cued trials did correlate with the perception of motion direction: Subjects with pronounced alpha lateralization were worse at detecting motion direction in the unattended hemifield. In contrast, lateralization did not correlate with visual discrimination in the attended visual hemifield. Our findings emphasize the suppressive nature of alpha oscillations and suggest that processing of inputs outside the field of attention is weakened by means of increased alpha activity.

  2. Screening for mutations in human alpha-globin genes by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Point mutations and small insertions or deletions in the human alpha-globin genes may produce alpha-chain structural variants and alpha-thalassemia. Mutations can be detected either by direct DNA sequencing or by screening methods, which select the mutated exon for sequencing. Although small (about 1 kb, 3 exons and 2 introns, the alpha-globin genes are duplicate (alpha2 and alpha1 and highy G-C rich, which makes them difficult to denature, reducing sequencing efficiency and causing frequent artifacts. We modified some conditions for PCR and electrophoresis in order to detect mutations in these genes employing nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. Primers previously described by other authors for radioactive SSCP and phast-SSCP plus denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were here combined and the resultant fragments (6 new besides 6 original per alpha-gene submitted to silver staining SSCP. Nine structural and one thalassemic mutations were tested, under different conditions including two electrophoretic apparatus (PhastSystem(TM and GenePhor(TM, Amersham Biosciences, different polyacrylamide gel concentrations, run temperatures and denaturing agents, and entire and restriction enzyme cut fragments. One hundred percent of sensitivity was achieved with four of the new fragments formed, using the PhastSystem(TM and 20% gels at 15ºC, without the need of restriction enzymes. This nonradioactive PCR-SSCP approach showed to be simple, rapid and sensitive, reducing the costs involved in frequent sequencing repetitions and increasing the reliability of the results. It can be especially useful for laboratories which do not have an automated sequencer.

  3. Synthesis of tritiated 1-alpha-methadol and 1-alpha-acetylmethadol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, D.C.; Nam, N.H.; Pontikis, R. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Fernand Widal, 75 - Paris (France)); Pichat, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service des Molecules Marquees)

    1982-04-01

    dl-Methadone was resolved by crystallization of its ammonium d- ..cap alpha.. -bromocamphor-..pi..-sulfonate salt to give d-methadone. The latter in ethyl acetate solution was reduced with tritium gas to 1-..cap alpha..-methadol /sup 3/H in presence of Adams platinum oxide at normal temperature and pressure. Acetylation of 1-..cap alpha..-carbinol hydrochloride by means of acetyl chloride afforded 1-..cap alpha..-acetylmethadol /sup 3/H, specific activity: 20 Ci/mMole. The positions and extent of tritium labelling were determined by /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha has a key role in hypoxic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taie, Satoshi; Ono, Junichiro; Iwanaga, Yasuyuki; Tomita, Shuhei; Asaga, Takehiko; Chujo, Kosuke; Ueki, Masaaki

    2009-08-01

    Sublethal hypoxia induces tolerance to subsequent hypoxic insults in a process known as hypoxic preconditioning (HP). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is a key transcription protein involved in the mechanism of HP. In this study, we investigated the effects of HP on tissue oxygenation and expression of HIF-1 alpha gene targets in the brain using neural cell-specific HIF-1 alpha-deficient mice. The animals were exposed to 8% oxygen for 3 hours. Twenty-four hours later, the oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) of brain tissue and gene expression were measured during hypoxia. HP improved the pO(2) of brain tissue during subsequent hypoxia with upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase in wild-type mice, whereas HP had no detectable effect in the mutant mice. Our results indicate that the protective effects of HP may be partially mediated by improving tissue oxygenation via HIF-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  5. Alpha-thalassemia genetic testing: an important anemia diagnostic tool in patients of African heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanu, Constantin A

    2010-01-01

    Inherited alpha-thalassemia genotypes have been shown to have a rather high prevalence in some patient populations of African heritage. These genotypes lead to mild anemia with microcytic indices and a normal hemoglobin electrophoresis. In our outpatient department, we analyzed 54 consecutive patients of African descent with longstanding microcytic anemia, but no evidence of iron deficiency. We detected alpha-thalassemia gene deletions in 94 percent of these patients. Alpha-thalassemia genetic testing appears cost-effective in an otherwise unexplained, longstanding microcytic anemia in patients of African origin.

  6. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Osipova

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs reflects a window of excitability.

  7. Alphas and surface backgrounds in liquid argon dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Christopher J.

    Current observations from astrophysics indicate the presence of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that makes up a large part of the mass of the universe. One of the leading theories for dark matter is that it is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). One of the ways we try to discover WIMPs is by directly detecting their interaction with regular matter. This can be done using a scintillator such as liquid argon, which gives off light when a particle interacts with it. Liquid argon (LAr) is a favorable means of detecting WIMPs because it has an inherent property that enables a technique called pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). PSD can distinguish a WIMP signal from the constant background of electromagnetic signals from other sources, like gamma rays. However, there are other background signals that PSD is not as capable of rejecting, such as those caused by alpha decays on the interior surfaces of the detector. Radioactive elements that undergo alpha decay are introduced to detector surfaces during construction by radon gas that is naturally present in the air, as well as other means. When these surface isotopes undergo alpha decay, they can produce WIMP-like signals in the detector. We present here two LAr experiments. The first (RaDOSE) discovered a property of an organic compound that led to a technique for rejecting surface alpha decays in LAr detectors with high efficiency. The second (DarkSide-50) is a dark matter experiment operated at LNGS in Italy and is the work of an international collaboration. A detailed look is given into alpha decays and surface backgrounds present in the detector, and projections are made of alpha-related backgrounds for 500 live days of data. The technique developed with RaDOSE is applied to DarkSide-50 to determine its effectiveness in practice. It is projected to suppress the surface background in DarkSide-50 by more than a factor of 1000.

  8. Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure's shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occurred after adaptation to alpha motion; (c) occurrence of alpha motion became difficult when the temporal frequency increased, and this characteristic of alpha motion was similar to the characteristic of a motion detector that motion detection became difficult when the temporal frequency increased from the optimal frequency. These findings indicated that alpha motion occurs on the basis of a motion detector but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion, and that the mechanism of alpha motion is the same as that of general motion perception.

  9. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode or/and with gas amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G; Benaben, P; Breuil, P; Peskov, V

    2008-01-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are attractive due to their simplicity and low cost and are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and so on. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification which potentially offers the highest possible sensitivity in applications like alpha particle detection or high energy X-ray photon or electron detection. To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of one (pulse ionization chamber). This detector was readout by a custom made wide -band charge sensitive amplifier able to deal with slow induced signals generated by slow motion of negative and positive ions. The multiwire detector was able to detect alpha particles with an efficiency close to 22%. The second type of an alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 10 4 ). This detector can also operate in a cascaded mode or being combined with other detectors, for example with MICROMEGAS. This detector was readout by a conventional charge -sensitive amplifier and was able to detect alpha particles with 100% efficiency. This detector could also detect X-ray photons or fast electrons. A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as a comparison with commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible applications of these new detectors is alpha particle background monitors which, due to their low cost can find wide application not only in houses, but

  10. Factors affecting the energy resolution in alpha particle spectrometry with silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabio de.

    2005-01-01

    In this work are presented the studies about the response of a multi-structure guard rings silicon diode for detection and spectrometry of alpha particles. This ion-implanted diode (Al/p + /n/n + /Al) was processed out of 300 μm thick, n type substrate with a resistivity of 3 kΩ·cm and an active area of 4 mm 2 . In order to use this diode as a detector, the bias voltage was applied on the n + side, the first guard ring was grounded and the electrical signals were readout from the p + side. These signals were directly sent to a tailor made preamplifier, based on the hybrid circuit A250 (Amptek), followed by a conventional nuclear electronic. The results obtained with this system for the direct detection of alpha particles from 241 Am showed an excellent response stability with a high detection efficiency (≅ 100 %). The performance of this diode for alpha particle spectrometry was studied and it was prioritized the influence of the polarization voltage, the electronic noise, the temperature and the source-diode distance on the energy resolution. The results showed that the major contribution for the deterioration of this parameter is due to the diode dead layer thickness (1 μm). However, even at room temperature, the energy resolution (FWHM = 18.8 keV) measured for the 5485.6 MeV alpha particles ( 241 Am) is comparable to those obtained with ordinary silicon barrier detectors frequently used for these particles spectrometry. (author)

  11. X-ray emission on hybird stars: ROSAT observations of alpha Trianguli Australis and iota Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, V.; Rosner, R.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on deep ROSAT observations of two Hybrid atmosphere stars, alpha TrA and iota Aur, and our analysis of these observations. We detect high-energy transient phenomena on alpha TrA and consider the implications of this discovery to the atmospheres of Hybrid stars. We detect iota Aur in the high-energy passband of ROSAT, implying the existence of multimillion degree plasma on the star. Our major results include the following: discovery of two large flare events, detected during pointed observations of alpha TrA; the demonstration that the flare emission most likely comes from the giant itself, rather than from a previously unseen low-mass companion star; the demonstration that the plasma characteristics associated with the flares and with the 'quiescent' component are essentially indistinguishable; and that the geometric dimensions of the emitting plasma are considerably smaller than the critical dimension characterizing stable 'hot' coronal loop structures. Our results suggest that alpha TrA does not have any steady X-ray emission consistent with theoretical expectations, and support the argument that Hybrid stars constitute a transitional type of object in which large-scale magnetic dynamo activity ceases, and the dominant spatial scales characterizing coronal structure rapidly decline as such stars evolve across the X-ray 'Dividing Line' in the H-R diagram.

  12. Contribution to the study of the reaction p + {sup 11}B = 3 {alpha} by the coincidence method; Contribution a l'etude de la reaction p + {sup 11}B = 3 {alpha} par la methode des coincidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, J Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    We have studied the production mode of the 3 {alpha} system in the reaction p + {sup 11}B = {sup 12}C{sup *} = {alpha} + {sup 8}Be{sup *}; {sup 8}Be{sup *} = {alpha} + {alpha}. We have got some information for three different effects: the influence of the {sup 8}Be residual nucleus states = sequential decay; the influence of the {sup 12}C compound nucleus states = spin effect; an interference effect. We give a theoretical expression of the different spectra which take into account the observed phenomena. We have taken, as a parameter, the phase shift, between the waves associated with the detected particles, which produce the interference effect. The main characteristics of the experimental devices are : self supporting boron targets; cooled semiconductor detectors; multi-parametric system: for each nuclear event three parameters are recorded: the energies of the detected particles and the time of the detection; Recording system: the information are recorded on a magnetic tape and at the same time treated with an on line CAE 510 computer. The CAE 510 computer is used in delayed time to analyse the experimental data. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie le mecanisme de production du systeme 3 {alpha} dans la reaction: p + {sup 11}B = {sup 12}C{sup *} = {alpha} + {sup 8}Be{sup *}; {sup 8}Be{sup *} = {alpha} + {alpha}. Cette etude nous a permis de mettre en evidence trois effets de nature differente: l'effet des niveaux du noyau intermediaire {sup 8}Be reaction sequentielle; l'effet des niveaux du noyau compose {sup 12}C = effet de spin; -un effet d'interferences. Nous avons pu donner une expression theorique du spectre, rendant compte d'une facon satisfaisante des phenomenes observes. Pour cela nous avons considere le dephasage, entre les ondes associees aux particules detectees, qui produit les interferences, comme un parametre arbitraire. Du point de vue experimental les caracteristiques principales du materiel utilise sont les suivantes: utilisation de cibles de

  13. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  14. Characterization Of The Alpha/Beta Counting System Type MPC 9400 And Its Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhsum; Sutarman; Fikri, Hanif; Handoko, Djati

    2000-01-01

    Have been carried out the experiment to determine the operation voltage, instrument stability, counting efficiency, figure of merit, and minimum detectable activity. This instrument used to count gross alpha and gross beta. This instrument belongs good stability at the confidence level of 95 % and the background count that was 0,144 cpm for alpha and 22,65 cpm for beta. The counting efficiency was 27,41 % (electrodeposition of Am-241), 6,57 % (deposition of Am-241), 51,82 % (deposition of Sr-90). The limit of detectable activity was 1,04 x 10 exp.-2 Bq (electrodeposition of Am-241), 4,35 x 10 exp.-2 Bq (% deposition of Sr 90)

  15. Voltammetric detection of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng, E-mail: achen@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 100 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  16. Distribution of the alphaGal- and the non-alphaGal T-antigens in the pig kidney: potential targets for rejection in pig-to-man xenotransplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Mikkelsen, Hanne B

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigens, present on pig vascular endothelial cells, seem to be the prime agents responsible for graft rejection, and although genetically modified animals that express less amounts of carbohydrate antigen are available, it is still useful to decide the localization of the reactive...... xenoantigens in organs contemplated for xenotransplantation. Here we compare the distribution in pig kidney of antigens important in xenograft destruction, namely the Galalpha1-3Gal (alphaGal) glycans, with the localization of the T-antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAc). The alpha-galactose-specific lectin Griffonia...... simplicifolia isolectin 1B4 was used to detect the Galalpha1-3Gal glycans, whereas Arachis hypogaea (PNA) lectin and a monoclonal antibody (3C9) detected T-antigen. In addition, two vascular markers (anti-caveolin-1 and anti-von Willebrand factor) served to identify vascular structures of the kidney. Both...

  17. Diagnostic performance of alpha-fetoprotein, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein, des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, and glypican-3 for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) followed by curative resection or liver transplantation offers the best chance for long-term patient survival. Clinically, ultrasonography has suboptimal sensitivity for detecting early-stage HCC. Several serological tests including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), the ratio of lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein to total AFP (AFP-L3/AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and glypican-3 (GPC-3) have been widely investigated as diagnostic biomarkers for early-stage HCC in at-risk populations. However, these tests are not recommended for routine HCC screening. Our objective is to determine the diagnostic performance of AFP, AFP-L3/AFP, DCP, and GPC-3 for the detection of HCC, particularly early-stage tumors meeting the Milan criteria. Methods/design We will include cross-sectional studies that consecutively or randomly recruit target populations. We will search the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. We will also search the MEDION and ARIF databases to identify diagnostic systematic reviews that include primary studies. Reference lists of relevant reviews will be searched for additional trials. Language restrictions will not be applied. Two reviewers will independently screen study eligibility and extract data. Methodological quality will be assessed according to the revised tool for the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). Two authors will apply the QUADAS-2 assessment to all the included studies, and any discrepancies will be resolved by the third author. The following test characteristics will be extracted into 2 × 2 tables for all included studies: true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives. Study-specific estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals will be displayed in forest plots. When possible, we will use the bivariate random

  18. Field study of alpha characterization of a D ampersand D site using long-range alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Sprouse, L.L.; Stout, D.; Vaccarella, J.A.; Vu, T.Q.

    1994-01-01

    A successful and cost-effective D ampersand D effort relies upon an accurate, real-time, in situ, and non-destructive method of characterization of contamination both before and after the decontamination process. Detector systems based on long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology meet these criteria. Currently, LANL is in the process of investigating, designing, or building various surface monitors, various pipe monitors, and glove-box monitors. This paper describes the field studies conducted using detectors based on LRAD technology

  19. Research on the reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) and {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}); Contribution a l'etude experimentale des reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) et {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouvenin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1967-06-15

    For studying these reactions, the detection of the final particles emitted in coincidence in the directions {theta}{sub 1} and {theta}{sub 2}, together with the bi-parametric analysis of the corresponding pulses are used. This method enables us to obtain the orthogonal Dalitz diagrams (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). An examination of the spectra obtained shows that the sequential mechanism appears to predominate. The contribution of the purely statistical process is less than 15 per cent of the total spectrum. In the case of {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), for E{sub d} = 1.5 MeV, 2,66 MeV and 3 MeV, the width of the peak of the first particles emitted, with respect to {sup 8}Be excitations close to 11 MeV, is found to be equal to 2.6 {+-} 0.6 MeV, much less than the width of the 2. excited state observed by {alpha} - {alpha} scattering. The coincidence spectra and the free spectra give an excitation energy of E{sub x} = 2.68 {+-} 0.07 MeV for the first excited state of {sup 8}Be. Some remarks are made concerning the anomalies observed for E{sub d} = 5 MeV and 9 MeV. The excited levels of {sup 8}Be at 13.91 MeV and 7.56 MeV which have been described in the past are not observed. (author) [French] La detection de deux des particules finales emises en cofncidence dans les directions {theta}{sub 1} et {theta}{sub 2}, et l'analyse biparametrique des impulsions correspondantes sont utilisees pour etudier ces reactions. Cette methode nous permet d'obtenir des diagrammes de Dalitz orthogonaux (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). L'examen des spectres obtenus montre que le mecanisme sequentiel semble predominant. La contribution du processus purement statistique est inferieure a 15 pour cent du spectre total. Dans le cas de {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), pour E{sub d} = 1,5 MeV, 2,66 MeV et 3 MeV, la largeur du pic des premieres particules emises relatives a des excitations de {sup 8}Be voisines de 11 MeV, est trouvee egale a 2,6 {+-} 0,6 MeV, tres inferieure a la largeur du 2. etat excite observee a l

  20. The heavy quarkonium spectrum at order $m\\alpha_{s}^{5}\\ln\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Nora; Soto, Joan; Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We compute the complete leading-log terms of the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections to potential NRQCD. As a by-product we obtain the leading logs at $O(m\\alpha_s^5)$ in the heavy quarkonium spectrum. These leading logs, when $\\Lambda_{QCD} \\ll m\\alpha_s^2$, give the complete $O(m\\alpha_s^5 \\ln \\alpha_s)$ corrections to the heavy quarkonium spectrum.

  1. Self-absorption and self-scattering in emitter source of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results on spectrometric analysis and activity measurements of alpha-emitting sources prepared by evaporation on mylar. The measurements were made with a Si surface barrier detector. By the analysis of the angular distribuition of the alpha particles emitted, it was possible to observe that the width of the spectrum low energy tail increases with the emission angle θ, due to the energy degradation in the source material, which affects the measured particles energy. The source activity was also measured from detection solid angles of approx. 10 -1 and aprox. 10 -3 Sr, as a function of θ. The absolute activity of the alpha source was determined and a discussion is present on the ideal conditions necessary for such measurements. (author) [pt

  2. Evaluation of pGL1-TNF-alpha therapy in combination with radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Andres, M. L.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term control of high-grade brain tumors is rarely achieved with current therapeutic regimens. In this study a new plasmid-based human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression vector was synthesized (pGL1-TNF-alpha) and evaluated together with radiation in the aggressive, rapidly growing C6 rat glioma model. pGL1-TNF-alpha was successfully transfected into C6 cells in vitro using a cationic polyamine method. Expression was detected up to 7 days and averaged 0.4 ng of TNF-alpha in the culture medium from 1x10(5) cells. The expressed protein was biologically functional, as evidenced by growth inhibition of L929, a TNF-alpha-susceptible cell line. Using fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies and laser scanning cytometry, we confirmed that both the P55 and P75 receptors for TNF-alpha were present on the C6 cell membrane. However, the receptors were present at low density and P55 was expressed more than the P75 receptor. These findings were in contrast to results obtained with TNF-alpha-susceptible L929 cells. Tests in athymic mice showed that pGL1-TNF-alpha administered intratumorally 16-18 h before radiation (each modality given three times) significantly inhibited C6 tumor progression (Palpha alone did not slow tumor growth and radiation alone had little effect on tumor growth. These results indicate that pGL1-TNF-alpha has potential to augment the antitumor effects of radiation against a tumor type that is virtually incurable.

  3. Alpha spectrum analysis of 241Am in the urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yongmei; Yang Yong

    2006-10-01

    With 241 Am as indicator, americium in the urine was concentrated by the method of codeposition, then it was purified by the method of anion exchange, at last, the americium was electroplated. 241 Am in the urine was analysed by six channel low level alpha measuring instrument and Alpha Spectrometer. The results show that the recovering ratio is beyond 60% under the condition that the indicator added to the urine is at the level of mBq. So, 241 Am in the urine can be quantitatively analysed by this method, uncertainty of the result is under 40%, detection limit of the instrument is under 10 -4 Bq. (authors)

  4. The phase of prestimulus alpha oscillations affects tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lei; Ro, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural oscillations in the 8- to 12-Hz range influence sensory perception. In the current study, we examined whether both the power and phase of these mu/alpha oscillations predict successful conscious tactile perception. Near-threshold tactile stimuli were applied to the left hand while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded over the contralateral right somatosensory cortex. We found a significant inverted U-shaped relationship between prestimulus mu/alpha power and detection rate, suggesting that there is an intermediate level of alpha power that is optimal for tactile perception. We also found a significant difference in phase angle concentration at stimulus onset that predicted whether the upcoming tactile stimulus was perceived or missed. As has been shown in the visual system, these findings suggest that these mu/alpha oscillations measured over somatosensory areas exert a strong inhibitory control on tactile perception and that pulsed inhibition by these oscillations shapes the state of brain activity necessary for conscious perception. They further suggest that these common phasic processing mechanisms across different sensory modalities and brain regions may reflect a common underlying encoding principle in perceptual processing that leads to momentary windows of perceptual awareness.

  5. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  6. Alpha decay studies on Po isotopes using different versions of nuclear potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Sukumaran, Indu [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur, Kerala (India)

    2017-12-15

    The alpha decays from {sup 186-224}Po isotopes have been studied using 25 different versions of nuclear potentials so as to select a suitable nuclear potential for alpha decay studies. The computed standard deviation of the calculated half-lives in comparison with the experimental data suggested that proximity 2003-I is the apt form of nuclear potential for alpha decay studies as it possesses the least standard deviation, σ = 0.620. Among the different proximity potentials, proximity 1966 (σ = 0.630) and proximity 1977 (σ = 0.636), are also found to work well in alpha decay studies with low deviation. Among other versions of nuclear potentials (other than proximity potentials), Bass 1980 is suggested to be a significant form of nuclear potential because of its good predictive power. However, while the other forms of potentials are able to reproduce the experimental data to some extent, these potentials cannot be considered as apposite potentials for alpha decay studies in their present form. Since the experimental correlation of the models is noticed to be satisfying, the alpha decay half-lives of certain Po isotopes that are not detected experimentally yet have been predicted. (orig.)

  7. Crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose: A calorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: susanapinto@ist.utl.pt; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: hdiogo@ist.utl.pt; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mouraramos@ist.utl.pt

    2006-09-15

    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}, polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13}) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at the temperature T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(16434.05+/-4.50)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(14816.05+/-3.52)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of these compounds were derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion, respectively, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11},cr)=-(2240.9+/-3.9)kJ.mol{sup -1}, and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13},cr)=-(2832.6+/-3.6)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The values of the standard enthalpies of formation obtained in this work, together with data on enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution ({delta}{sub sol}H{sup {approx}}) for crystalline dihydrate and amorphous anhydrous trehalose, allow a better insight on the thermodynamic description of the trehalose system which can provide, together with the future research on the subject, a contribution for understanding the metabolism in several organisms, as well as the phase transition between the different polymorphs.

  8. Development of a label-free gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric aptasensor for detection of human estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Rajesh; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for easily available and low-cost diagnostics has fuelled the development of aptasensors as platforms for rapid, sensitive, and point-of-care testing of target analytes. Recently, gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based aptasensors have attracted wide recognition owing to their color transition properties which allow real-time rapid sensing of targets. In this study, we utilized the color transition property of aptamer-functionalized AuNPs to detect and quantify estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), a key biomarker protein in breast cancer. We found that the coating of AuNPs with unmodified ERα-RNA aptamer (GGGGUCAAGGUGACCCC) makes them resistant to salt-induced aggregation. However, addition of ERα to the aptamer-protected AuNPs results in their spontaneous aggregation as evident from a color transition from wine red to deep blue. On the basis of this, we developed an ERα aptasensor, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.64 and 2.16 ng/mL, respectively; the aptasensor can efficiently detect and quantify ERα in a working range of 10 ng/mL-5μg/mL protein. Validation of the aptasensor on cellular extracts of ERα-positive MCF-7 and ERα-deficient MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells showed a target-selective response in ERα-positive samples but not in cellular extracts of ERα-deficient breast cancer cells. Further, the small size and simple fabrication chemistry of aptamers provide an additional benefit to make the ERα aptasensor a potentially useful and cost-effective tool in point-of-care analyses of ERα.

  9. Alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination in plastic scintillation using commercial scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagan, H.; Tarancon, A.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Activity determination in different types of samples is a current need in many different fields. Simultaneously analysing alpha and beta emitters is now a routine option when using liquid scintillation (LS) and pulse shape discrimination. However, LS has an important drawback, the generation of mixed waste. Recently, several studies have shown the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) as an alternative to LS, but no research has been carried out to determine its capability for alpha/beta discrimination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The results obtained show that PS pulses had lower energy than LS pulses. As a consequence, a lower detection efficiency, a shift to lower energies and a better discrimination of beta and a worst discrimination of alpha disintegrations was observed for PS. Colour quenching also produced a decrease in the energy of the particles, as well as the effects described above. It is clear that in PS, the discrimination capability was correlated with the energy of the particles detected. Taking into account the discrimination capabilities of PS, a protocol for the measurement and the calculation of alpha and beta activities in mixtures using PS and commercial scintillation detectors has been proposed. The new protocol was applied to the quantification of spiked river water samples containing a pair of radionuclides ( 3 H- 241 Am or 90 Sr/ 90 Y- 241 Am) in different activity proportions. The relative errors in all determinations were lower than 7%. These results demonstrate the capability of PS to discriminate alpha/beta emitters on the basis of pulse shape and to quantify mixtures without generating mixed waste.

  10. Energy dependence of event shapes and of $\\alpha_s$ at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined using the data taken at ve di erent centre of mass energies above $M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP. From the event shapes, the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$ is extracted in $O(\\alpha^2_s)$, NLLA and a combined scheme using hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as using an analytical power ansatz. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at MZ, the energy dependence (running) of $\\alpha_s$ is accessible. The logarithmic energy slope of the inverse strong coupling is measured to be $d\\alpha_{s}^{-1}/d log(E_{cm}) = 1.39 \\pm 0.34(stat) \\pm 0.17(syst)$, in good agreement with the QCD expectation of 1.27.

  11. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly, but their effects last only a few hours. Long-acting medications take longer to work, but their effects last longer. Which alpha blocker is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated. Alpha blockers are ...

  12. Development of an alpha-fetoprotein and Golgi protein 73 multiplex detection assay using xMAP technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Ma, Jie; Wang, Yipeng; Zhang, Yonghong; Hou, Yongjin; Zhang, Chunming; Sun, Huanqin; Sun, Jianping; Wang, Zikang; Li, Ning

    2018-04-06

    Development of a new method to simultaneously detect Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and Golgi protein 73 (GP73) from peripheral blood. Anti human AFP and GP73 monoclonal antibodies was used to develop a sandwich immunity reaction using xMAP technology for the simultaneous detection of plasma AFP and GP73. The assay evaluated the sensitivity, cross reactivity, range of detection, precision, recovery and linearity dilution effect. The assay utilized plasma samples and compared its performance with commercially available Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. The assay was successful in detecting AFP and GP73 simultaneously. Validation experiments demonstrated the limit of detection was AFP 0.006 μg/l and GP73 0.482 μg/l. The functional sensitivity was AFP 0.010 μg/l and GP73 0.640 μg/l. The range of detection was AFP 0.01-50 μg/l and GP73 0.64-100 μg/l. No cross reactivity was observed. The intra- and inter-assay variation for AFP was 0.19-3.46% and 3.1-5.8% and for GP73 was 1.5-3.2% and 1.1-7.6% respectively. The recovery for AFP was 96-106% and GP73 was 89-110%. 80 clinical plasma samples from healthy controls, and patients with liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) were evaluated. For healthy controls (n = 25), the AFP was 2.40 (1.55, 3.30) μg/l and GP73 was 42.60 (39.10, 57.40) μg/l. For patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 19), the AFP was 2.60 (1.70, 4.20) μg/l and GP73 was 136.10 (92.10, 261.70) μg/l, and for HCC patients (n = 36), the AFP was 13.65 (3.35, 158.88) μg/l and GP73 was 186.25 (96.73, 262.03) μg/l. The new assay demonstrated a good correlation with commercially available ELISA kits (correlation coefficients (r) were 0.997 (AFP, p < 0.001) and 0.959 (GP73, p < 0.001). The method demonstrated a sensitive, effective and accurate method for the simultaneous detection of AFP and GP73, and could be used clinically for routine detection and monitoring of patients with chronic hepatitis B

  13. Experiences with large-area frisch grid chambers in low-level alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1984-06-15

    The properties of parallel-plate gridded ionization chambers with areas of 300 cm/sup 2/, developed by us for alpha spectrometry of samples with low specific alpha activity are reported. Several practical hints for optimum operating conditions are presented. The chambers can be operated routinely at atmospheric pressure for several days, without the need for purification of the gas filling (P10). The minimum detectable activity at 5 MeV is 0.01 pCi, based on 4.65 standard deviations of background and 1000 min counting time. At the GSF Research Center ionization chambers of this type are used for the analysis of natural alpha emitters, as well as of transuranium nuclides in environmental samples by: a) direct alpha spectrometry without any previous treatment of the sample, b) semi-direct spectrometry after removal of organic matter by low-temperature ashing and c) spectrometry after chemical separation. Some typical example of application are given. Furthermore the range of application of the chambers in comparison to semiconductor detectors in the field of low-level alpha spectrometry is discussed.

  14. Experiences with large-area frisch grid chambers in low-level alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of parallel-plate gridded ionization chambers with areas of 300 cm 2 , developed by us for alpha spectrometry of samples with low specific alpha activity are reported. Several practical hints for optimum operating conditions are presented. The chambers can be operated routinely at atmospheric pressure for several days, without the need for purification of the gas filling (P10). The minimum detectable activity at 5 MeV is 0.01 pCi, based on 4.65 standard deviations of background and 1000 min counting time. At the GSF Research Center ionization chambers of this type are used for the analysis of natural alpha emitters, as well as of transuranium nuclides in environmental samples by: a) direct alpha spectrometry without any previous treatment of the sample, b) semi-direct spectrometry after removal of organic matter by low-temperature ashing and c) spectrometry after chemical separation. Some typical example of application are given. Furthermore the range of application of the chambers in comparison to semiconductor detectors in the field of low-level alpha spectrometry is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  16. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-dimensional transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability

  17. The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) A new rapid separation and alpha-detection system for on-line chemical studies of highly volatile osmium and hassium (Z=108) tetroxides

    CERN Document Server

    Kirbach, U W; Gregorich, K E; Lee, D M; Ninov, V; Omtvedt, J P; Patin, J B; Seward, N K; Strellis, D A; Sudowe, R; Türler, A; Wilk, P A; Zielinski, P M; Hoffman, D C; Nitsche, H

    2002-01-01

    The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) was designed and constructed for rapid, continuous on-line separation and simultaneous detection of highly volatile compounds of short-lived alpha-decaying isotopes of osmium and hassium (Hs, Z=108). A flowing carrier gas containing the volatile species is passed through a channel formed by two facing rows of 32 alpha-particle detectors, cooled to form a temperature gradient extending from 247 K at the channel entrance down to 176 K at the exit. The volatile species adsorb onto the SiO sub 2 -coated detector surfaces at a characteristic deposition temperature and are identified by their observed alpha-decay energies. The CTS was tested on-line with OsO sub 4 prepared from sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 3 Os isotopes produced in sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 sup , sup 1 sup 2 sup 0 Sn( sup 5 sup 6 Fe, 3,4,5n) reactions. An adsorption enthalpy for OsO sub 4 of -40.2+-1.5 kJ/mol on SiO sub 2 was deduced by comparing the measured deposition distribution with Monte Carlo...

  18. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to p...

  19. Research on the reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) and {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}); Contribution a l'etude experimentale des reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) et {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouvenin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1967-06-15

    For studying these reactions, the detection of the final particles emitted in coincidence in the directions {theta}{sub 1} and {theta}{sub 2}, together with the bi-parametric analysis of the corresponding pulses are used. This method enables us to obtain the orthogonal Dalitz diagrams (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). An examination of the spectra obtained shows that the sequential mechanism appears to predominate. The contribution of the purely statistical process is less than 15 per cent of the total spectrum. In the case of {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), for E{sub d} = 1.5 MeV, 2,66 MeV and 3 MeV, the width of the peak of the first particles emitted, with respect to {sup 8}Be excitations close to 11 MeV, is found to be equal to 2.6 {+-} 0.6 MeV, much less than the width of the 2. excited state observed by {alpha} - {alpha} scattering. The coincidence spectra and the free spectra give an excitation energy of E{sub x} = 2.68 {+-} 0.07 MeV for the first excited state of {sup 8}Be. Some remarks are made concerning the anomalies observed for E{sub d} = 5 MeV and 9 MeV. The excited levels of {sup 8}Be at 13.91 MeV and 7.56 MeV which have been described in the past are not observed. (author) [French] La detection de deux des particules finales emises en cofncidence dans les directions {theta}{sub 1} et {theta}{sub 2}, et l'analyse biparametrique des impulsions correspondantes sont utilisees pour etudier ces reactions. Cette methode nous permet d'obtenir des diagrammes de Dalitz orthogonaux (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). L'examen des spectres obtenus montre que le mecanisme sequentiel semble predominant. La contribution du processus purement statistique est inferieure a 15 pour cent du spectre total. Dans le cas de {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), pour E{sub d} = 1,5 MeV, 2,66 MeV et 3 MeV, la largeur du pic des premieres particules emises relatives a des excitations de {sup 8}Be voisines de 11 MeV, est trouvee egale a 2,6 {+-} 0,6 MeV, tres inferieure a la largeur du 2. etat excite

  20. Radiolabeled n-substituted-6-iodo-3, 14-dihydroxy-4, 5alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Costa, B.R.; Iadarola, M.J.; Rothman, R.B.; Berman, K.F.; Rice, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to radiolabeled N-substituted-6-iodo-3,14-dihydroxy-4,5 alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors, wherein Iodo is selected from the group consisting of (123)I and (125)I; and where the N substitution is alkyl, cycloalkylloweralkyl or allyl.

  1. Nitrated alpha-synuclein immunity accelerates degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Benner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD includes loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-alpha-Syn enriched intraneuronal inclusions or Lewy bodies and neuroinflammation. While the contribution of innate microglial inflammatory activities to disease are known, evidence for how adaptive immune mechanisms may affect the course of PD remains obscure. We reasoned that PD-associated oxidative protein modifications create novel antigenic epitopes capable of peripheral adaptive T cell responses that could affect nigrostriatal degeneration.Nitrotyrosine (NT-modified alpha-Syn was detected readily in cervical lymph nodes (CLN from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP intoxicated mice. Antigen-presenting cells within the CLN showed increased surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, initiating the molecular machinery necessary for efficient antigen presentation. MPTP-treated mice produced antibodies to native and nitrated alpha-Syn. Mice immunized with the NT-modified C-terminal tail fragment of alpha-Syn, but not native protein, generated robust T cell proliferative and pro-inflammatory secretory responses specific only for the modified antigen. T cells generated against the nitrated epitope do not respond to the unmodified protein. Mice deficient in T and B lymphocytes were resistant to MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. Transfer of T cells from mice immunized with N-alpha-Syn led to a robust neuroinflammatory response with accelerated dopaminergic cell loss.These data show that NT modifications within alpha-Syn, can bypass or break immunological tolerance and activate peripheral leukocytes in draining lymphoid tissue. A novel mechanism for disease is made in that NT modifications in alpha-Syn induce adaptive immune responses that exacerbate PD pathobiology. These results have implications for both the pathogenesis and treatment of this disabling neurodegenerative disease.

  2. [Age-related change in the alpha-tocopherolquinone/alpha-tocopherol ratio in the rat erythrocyte membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, K; Takeda, H; Matsumiya, T; Takasaki, M

    1999-05-01

    alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-Toc), a lipophilic phenolic antioxidant that is localized mainly in the biomembrane, protects cells against oxidation-associated cytotoxicity by prevention of membrane lipid peroxidation, maintenance of the redox balance intracellular thiols and stabilization of the membrane structure. We investigated the age-related changes in redox dynamics of alpha-Toc in plasma and erythrocyte membrane of an elderly (66 weeks old) and young group (10 weeks old). Total, alpha-, beta + gamma-, delta-Toc and alpha-tocopherolquinone (alpha-TocQ) in plasma and erythrocyte membrane were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a series of multiple coulometric working electrodes (CWE). Rat venous blood sample was divided into plasma and erythrocyte layers by centrifugation, and then erythrocyte membrane sample was prepared according to the method of Dodge et al. under a stream of nitrogen. In plasma, total and alpha-Toc concentrations were increased, and beta + gamma-, delta-Toc and alpha-TocQ concentrations were decreased age-dependently. In the erythrocyte membrane, total, alpha-TocQ concentrations and three fractions of tocopherols decreased age-dependently. Also, a decrease in the alpha-TocQ/alpha-Toc ratio in erythrocyte membrane was observed in the elderly group. These findings suggest that the alpha-Toc uptake in erythrocyte membrane and utilization rate of alpha-Toc in erythrocyte membrane decline age-dependently. This decline may promote membrane lipid peroxidation. alpha-Toc redox dynamics in erythrocyte membrane were useful to investigate the pathophysiology of aging mechanisms related to oxidative stress.

  3. Characterizations of Anti-Alpha-Fetoprotein-Conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles Associated with Alpha-Fetoprotein for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Huang, Han-Sheng; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Su, Yu-Kai; Tong, Yuan-Fu; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2017-09-03

    In this work, we report characterizations of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) for biomedical applications. The example BMNP in this study is anti-alpha-fetoprotein (anti-AFP) conjugated onto dextran-coated Fe₃O₄ labeled as Fe₃O₄-anti-AFP, and the target is AFP. We characterize magnetic properties, such as increments of magnetization ΔM H and effective relaxation time Δτ eff in the reaction process. It is found that both ΔM H and Δτ eff are enhanced when the concentration of AFP, Ф AFP , increases. The enhancements are due to magnetic interactions among BMNPs in magnetic clusters, which contribute extra M H after the association with M H and in turn enhance τ eff . The screening of patients carrying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is verified via ΔM H /M H . The proposed method can be applied to detect a wide variety of analytes. The scaling characteristics of ΔM H /M H show the potential to develop a vibrating sample magnetometer system with low field strength for clinic applications.

  4. Whole body personnel monitoring via ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; Bounds, K.A.; Kerr, P.L.; Steadman, P.A.; Whitley, C.R.

    1998-02-01

    A project between Fernald EMP and LANL is to field a monitor for the detection of alpha-emitting contamination on a human body. Traditional personnel monitoring for alpha emitters involves either frisking with a probe or pressing against large detectors in order to overcome the short range of alpha particles. These methods have a low alpha collection efficiency, and can miss contamination on less accessible surfaces. The authors have investigated the sensitivity and practicality of measuring the entire subject simultaneously using the technique of ionization monitoring. The goal is to create a booth that personnel step into quickly during egress from radiological facilities. The detection technique relies on a breeze of air passing over the subject. Alpha emission produces copious ions in the ambient air which are transported by the air current to an ion collector, resulting in a small electrical current proportional to the amount of contamination. Results indicate a conservative sensitivity of 3,000 disintegrations per minute localized to one of five areas of the body in a measurement lasting less than 2 minutes

  5. Alpha-bungarotoxin binding to target cell in a developing visual system by carboxylated nanodiamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K-K; Chen, P-Y; Lee, Tony J F; Chao, J-I [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Chen, M-F [Neuro-Medical Scientific Center, Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C-L [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chang, C-C [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Ho, Y-P [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chaoji@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2008-05-21

    Biological molecules conjugating with nanoparticles are valuable for applications including bio-imaging, bio-detection, and bio-sensing. Nanometer-sized diamond particles have excellent electronic and chemical properties for bio-conjugation. In this study, we manipulated the carboxyl group produced on the surface of nanodiamond (carboxylated nanodiamond, cND) for conjugating with alpha-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX), a neurotoxin derived from Bungarus multicinctus with specific blockade of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7-nAChR). The electrostatic binding of cND-{alpha}-BTX was mediated by the negative charge of the cND and the positive charge of the {alpha}-BTX in physiological pH conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) spectra displayed that {alpha}-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles via non-covalent bindings. The green fluorescence of the cND particles combining with the red fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled {alpha}-BTX presented a yellow color at the same location, which indicated that {alpha}-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles. Xenopus laevis's oocytes expressed the human {alpha}7-nAChR proteins by microinjection with {alpha}7-nAChR mRNA. The cND-{alpha}-BTX complexes were bound to {alpha}7-nAChR locating on the cell membrane of oocytes and human lung A549 cancer cells analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The choline-evoked {alpha}7-nAChR-mediated inward currents of the oocytes were blocked by cND-{alpha}-BTX complexes in a concentration-dependent manner using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of cND-{alpha}-BTX binding on A549 cells could be quantified by flow cytometry. These results indicate that cND-conjugated {alpha}-BTX still preserves its biological activity in blocking the function of {alpha}7-nAChR, and provide a visual

  6. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid.

  7. Study on Characteristic of CdZnTe Semiconductor Detectors for Alpha Particle Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Mook; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Yong Kyun; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Han Soo; Chung, Chong Eun

    2005-01-01

    The last 2-3 years have seen continued effort in the development of a wide band gap room-temperature compound semiconductor devices aimed principally at photon imaging covering hard X-rays, synchrotrons, and low to medium energy gamma rays. Especially, among the semiconductor materials of a wide band gap, CdZnTe(CZT) has commonly used X-ray and gammaray detection applications because of the opportunity to achieve and excellent spectral and spatial resolution. It has recently been demonstrated that CZT can be used as an ancillary detector with the ability to detect both alpha particles and X-ray at room temperature. CZT detectors are relatively inexpensive compared with some silicon detectors, and are priced about the same as amorphous silicon and photodiodes which are routinely used for charged particle detection. In this paper, we investigated the use of the CZT semiconductor material as an alpha particles detector

  8. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  9. Energy response of detectors to alpha/beta particles and compatibility of the equivalent factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bingxing; Li Guangxian; Lin Lixiong

    2011-01-01

    By measuring detect efficiency and equivalent factors of alpha/beta radiation with different energies on three types of detectors, this paper compares compatibility of their equivalent factors and discusses applicability of detectors to measuring total alpha/beta radiation. The result shows the relationship between efficiency of alpha/beta radiation and their energies on 3 types of detectors, such as scintillation and proportional and semiconductor counters, are overall identical. Alpha count efficiency display exponential relation with alpha-particle energy. While beta count efficiency display logarithm relation with beta-particle energy, but the curves appears deflection at low energy. Comparison test of energy response also shows that alpha and beta equivalent factors of scintillation and proportional counters have a good compatibility, and alpha equivalent factors of the semiconductor counters are in good agreement with those of the above two types of counters, but beta equivalent factors have obvious difference, or equivalent factors of low energy beta-particle are lower than those of other detectors. So, the semiconductor counter can not be used for measuring total radioactivity or for the measurements for the purpose of food safety. (authors)

  10. Sterol synthesis. A novel reductive rearrangement of an alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal epoxide; a new chemical synthesis of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta, 15alpha-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, E J; Schroepfer, G J

    1977-04-01

    Reduction of 3beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with either lithium triethylboro-hydride or lithium aluminum hydride (4 molar excess) gave 5-alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol in high yield. Reduction of the epoxy ester with lithium triethylborodeuteride or lithium aluminum deuteride (4 molar excess) gave [7alpha-2-H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol. Reduction of 2beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum hydride gave, in addition to the expected 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol, a significant yield (33%) of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1. Reduction of the epoxy ester with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum deuteride gave [7alpha-2H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol and 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1 which contained two atoms of stably bound deuterium.

  11. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  12. Drugs interacting with alpha adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Alpha adrenoceptors should be divided into various subtypes, comprising pre/postsynaptic and alpha 1/alpha 2-subpopulations, respectively. This classification implicates important functional differences between the various alpha-receptor subtypes, including certain differences in signal transduction

  13. A new method of alpha ray measurement using a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new method of alpha (α)-ray measurement that detects helium atoms with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). A demonstration is undertaken with a plastic-covered 241 Am α-emitting source to detect α-rays stopped in the capsule. We successfully detect helium atoms that diffuse out of the capsule by accumulating them for 1-20h in a closed chamber. The detected amount is found to be proportional to the accumulation time. Our method is applicable to probe α-emitting radioactivity in bulk material

  14. Chemical reactivity of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid in heterogeneous alkaline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M. A.; Loon, L. R. Van

    2009-05-15

    Cellulose degradation under alkaline conditions is of relevance for the mobility of many radionuclides in the near-field of a cementitious repository for radioactive waste, because metal-binding degradation products may be formed. Among these, {alpha}- isosaccharinic acid ({alpha}-ISA) is the strongest complexant. The prediction of the equilibrium concentration of {alpha}-ISA in cement pore water is therefore an important step in the assessment of the influence of cellulose degradation products on the speciation of radionuclides in such environments. The present report focuses on possible chemical transformation reactions of {alpha}-ISA in heterogeneous alkaline model systems containing either Ca(OH){sub 2} or crushed hardened cement paste. The transformation reactions were monitored by measuring the concentration of {alpha}-ISA by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of reaction products by high performance ion exclusion chromatography. The overall loss of organic species from solution was monitored by measuring the concentration of non-purgeable organic carbon. The reactions were examined in diluted and compacted suspensions, at either 25 {sup o}C or 90 {sup o}C, and under anaerobic atmospheres obtained by various methods. It was found that {alpha}-ISA was transformed under all conditions tested to some extent. Reaction products, such as glycolate, formate, lactate and acetate, all compounds with less complexing strength than {alpha}-ISA, were detected. The amount of reaction products identified by the chromatographic technique applied was {approx} 50 % of the amount of {alpha}-ISA reacted. Sorption of {alpha}-ISA to Ca(OH){sub 2} contributed only to a minor extent to the loss of {alpha}-ISA from the solution phase. As the most important conclusion of the present work it was demonstrated that the presence of oxidising agents had a distinctive influence on the turnover of {alpha}-ISA. Under aerobic conditions {alpha}-ISA was

  15. New evidence from the Lyman-alpha forest concerning the formation of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A M

    1986-12-17

    A new type of survey for galaxies with z > 2 is described. The idea is to search for the spectroscopic imprint that the H1 disc of a foreground galaxy leaves on radiation emitted by a background QSO; namely, a Lyman-..cap alpha.. absorption line broadened by radiation damping. A continuing survey has revealed the presence of 15 damped L..cap alpha.. lines with redshifts between 1.8 and 2.8 in the spectra of 68 QSOs. In comparison, no more than three discs with the properties of nearby galaxies should have been detected. Furthermore, the mean column density of the 15 absorbers, = 1.4 x 10/sup 21/cm/sup -2/, is much larger than expected for the outskirts of H1 discs. The statistical and physical evidence accumulated suggests that the damped L..cap alpha.. systems are a distinct population of absorbers with properties reminiscent of H1 discs. It is concluded that the progenitors of the baryon content of nearby galaxies have been detected. The implications for theories of galaxy formations of the discovery of this damped population of absorbers are explained.

  16. Evaluation of maternal serum alpha-foetoprotein assay using dry blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C; Guerrero, J M; Elorza, F L; Molinero, P; Goberna, R

    1988-02-01

    The quantification of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots from pregnant women was evaluated, using a conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a monospecific antibody. The stability of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots on filter paper was evaluated with respect to mailing, distances travelled, and the existence of high summer temperatures in our region. The results obtained show that the blood alpha-foetoprotein is stable on dry filter spots sent by mail and is stable for up to four weeks at 4, 25 and 37 degrees C. The analytical method used has a minimal detectable concentration of 10 +/- 1.9 international kilo-units/l. Both inter- and intra-assay variabilities are smaller than 10% and this method can provide results comparable with those of conventional serum assays. Results from dry blood spots and serum samples (the latter analysed by both RIA and two-site enzyme immunoassay) exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). The design of the assay and the nature of the samples make this method suitable for a screening programmes for the antenatal detection of open neural tube defects.

  17. Validation of Plutonium Radioisotopes Analysis Using Alpha Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Fadzilah Yusof; Jalal Sharib; Mohd Tarmizi Ishak; Zulkifli Daud; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the validation of an established method used to detect plutonium (Pu) radioisotopes in marine environment samples. The separation method consists of sample digestion, anion exchange, purification, electroplating and counting by an alpha spectrometry. Applying the method on standard reference materials from marine environment, the results are validated using seven parameters, namely specificity, linearity, bias or accuracy, detection limit, precision/ repeatability, reproducibility/ ruggedness and robustness in accordance with International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines. The findings were that the results obtained were in a good agreement and satisfactory compared to the provided readings from certificate of reference materials. (author)

  18. A manual low background alpha beta counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levison, S; German, U; Peled, O; Turgeman, S; Vangrovitz, U; Tirosh, D; Piestum, S; Assido, H [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    An Alpha and Beta counting system consisting of a micro controller-based electronic unit and detectors assembly was developed. The radiation detection unit consists of two proportional detectors (a main detector and a cosmic-ray guard detector) which can be easily disassembled for decontamination or repair. The detectors are mounted in a manual operating sample changer shielded by 5 cm of lead. Simplicity of maintenance and functional operation were taken into consideration in the design. The electronic unit supplies the high voltage and enables the operational functions including controls anti alarms. Calculations of net cpm of Alpha and Beta counting are displayed and can be printed. RS-232 communication option enables connection to a computer and operation of more sophisticated programs for calculations and data storage in the future (authors).

  19. A manual low background alpha beta counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levison, S.; German, U.; Peled, O.; Turgeman, S.; Vangrovitz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Piestum, S.; Assido, H.

    1996-01-01

    An Alpha and Beta counting system consisting of a micro controller-based electronic unit and detectors assembly was developed. The radiation detection unit consists of two proportional detectors (a main detector and a cosmic-ray guard detector) which can be easily disassembled for decontamination or repair. The detectors are mounted in a manual operating sample changer shielded by 5 cm of lead. Simplicity of maintenance and functional operation were taken into consideration in the design. The electronic unit supplies the high voltage and enables the operational functions including controls anti alarms. Calculations of net cpm of Alpha and Beta counting are displayed and can be printed. RS-232 communication option enables connection to a computer and operation of more sophisticated programs for calculations and data storage in the future (authors)

  20. Detection of stable isotopes with a (n,. cap alpha. ) nuclear reaction: application to the measurement of unidirectional fluxes of borate in a plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, Y; Thellier, M; Heurteaux, C; Wissocq, J C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. ' ' Echanges cellulaires' '

    1980-01-01

    The unidirectional influx of borate has been studied in Lemna minor plants with the aid of purified boron isotopes, /sup 10/B and /sup 11/B. Isotope /sup 10/B was detected specifically by nuclear reaction /sup 10/B(n, ..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li in the presence of ''homogeneous'' detectors. Despite technical difficulties in performing the /sup 10/B-estimations in the plant samples themselves, the results obtained here were consistent with those of efflux experiments, published previously, where the /sup 10/B-measurements were performed in the external solution. Kinetic parameters of borate transports in Lemna minor have been calculated.

  1. Laboratory investigations of the alpha-pinene/ozone gas-phase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide more insight into terpene photooxidation or ozonolysis reaction mechanisms, a radiotracer technique was developed. This technique was applied to an investigation of the 14 C-alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. In the first phase of the research, the carbon distribution at the conclusion of the ozonolysis reaction was determined by separating carbon-14-labelled gaseous products from labelled aerosols, and counting each phase by liquid scintillation methods. The resulting carbon balance was 38% to 60% filtered aerosols, 6% to 20% gas phase compounds, and 11% to 29% products absorbed on the reaction chamber walls. Recoveries of the alpha-pinene carbon-14 ranging from 79% to 97% were achieved using this method. The alpha-pinene concentrations in these experiments were close to ambient (1 part per billion), yet the carbon balance was similar to that observed at much higher concentrations (>1 part per million). In the second phase of the alpha-pinene study, both gas and aerosol products of the ozonolysis reaction were collected on cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, then analyzed by HPLC. In the final experiments, alpha-pinene aerosol was reacted with a silylating agent to improve the detection of organic acids and alcohols. The gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of the silylated aerosol products showed evidence of dimer/polymer formation occurring in the ozonolysis reaction

  2. Gross alpha and gross beta determination in surface and groundwater water by liquid scintillation counting (LSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study has used 40 samples of groundwater and surface water collected at four different sites along the period of one year in Brumadinho and Nova Lima, two municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as part of a more extensive study aiming at determination of the natural radioactivity in the water used for domestic use. These two sites are inside an Environmental Protection Area is located in a region of very intensive iron ore exploration. In addition of mineral resources, the region has a geological characteristic that includes quartzitic conglomerates associated with uranium. Radioactivity levels were determined via liquid scintillation counting (LSC), a fast and high counting efficiency method that can be advantageously employed to determine gross alpha and gross beta activity in liquid samples. Previously to gross alpha and gross beta counting the samples were acidified with concentrated HNO 3 in the field. The technique involved a pre-concentration of the sample to obtain a low detection limit. Specific details of the employed methodology are commented. The results showed that concentrations of gross alpha natural activity and gross beta values ranged from less than the detection limit of the equipment (0.03 Bq.L -1 ) to 0.275 ± 0.05 Bq.L -1 for gross alpha. As regards gross beta, all samples were below the limit of detection. (author)

  3. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Radon compensation for alpha air monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.M.; Rising, F.L.; Zuerner, L.V.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous alpha air monitors, employing solid state detectors and single channel analyzers, for the detection of alpha particles of a specific energy have been available commercially for several years. The single channel pulse height analyzers provide good sensitivity to the isotope of interest and reject much of the unwanted activity from other isotopes such as naturally occurring radon and daughters. A small percentage of the radon daughters are degraded in energy by the air between the collecting filter and the diode to the extent that they coincide with energy of the isotope being measured and are counted as unwanted background. When 239 Pu is the isotope being measured the activity in the Pu channel resulting from radon is typically 2 percent of the total radon background. The majority of this unwanted background results from the degradation of the 6.0 MeV 218 Po (RaA) peak. This background is sufficient to cause instrument alarms during periods of radon activity. In attempts to reduce the frequency of false alarms, background subtraction circuits have been added as standard equipment to most of the alpha air monitors available on the market for the past several years. A method for calibrating these background subtraction circuits using a radon generator is described. (U.S.)

  5. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  6. Absence of integrin alpha 7 causes a novel form of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, U; Saher, G; Fässler, R; Bornemann, A; Echtermeyer, F; von der Mark, H; Miosge, N; Pöschl, E; von der Mark, K

    1997-11-01

    Integrin alpha 7 beta 1 is a specific cellular receptor for the basement membrane protein laminin-1 (refs 1,2), as well as for the laminin isoforms -2 and -4 (ref. 3). The alpha 7 subunit is expressed mainly in skeletal and cardiac muscle and has been suggested to be involved in differentiation and migration processes during myogenesis. Three cytoplasmic and two extracellular splice variants that have been described are developmentally regulated and expressed in different sites in the muscle. In adult muscle, the alpha 7A and alpha 7B subunits are concentrated in myotendinous junctions but can also be detected in neuromuscular junctions and along the sarcolemmal membrane. To study the potential involvement of alpha 7 integrin, during myogenesis and its role in muscle integrity and function, we generated a null allele of the alpha 7 gene (Itga7) in the germline of mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Surprisingly, mice homozygous for the mutation are viable and fertile, indicating that the alpha 7 beta 1 integrin is not essential for myogenesis. However, histological analysis of skeletal muscle revealed typical symptoms of a progressive muscular dystrophy starting soon after birth, but with a distinct variability in different muscle types. The observed histopathological changes strongly indicate an impairment of function of the myotendinous junctions. These findings demonstrate that alpha 7 beta 1 integrin represents an indispensable linkage between the muscle fibre and the extracellular matrix that is independent of the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex-mediated interaction of the cytoskeleton with the muscle basement membrane.

  7. Design and device construction for plane tables preparation for counter alpha/beta total

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia C, F. J.; Monroy G, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work presents the design and assembly of a device for plane tables preparation for quantification alpha/beta total of radioactive waste samples. The determination of the activity index alpha/beta total is used to detect a wide variety of matrices quickly and the concentration of alpha and/or beta emitters of the contained radionuclides in different samples. In particular, the determination of the activity index alpha and beta total of radioactive wastes involves the digestion of samples in aggressive means that will be evaporated to dryness for its quantification. With the purpose of controlling the emission of corrosive gases during the preparation of the plane tables for the quantification of the index alpha and beta total, was designed and built the device in the Radioactive Waste Laboratory that allows to prepare plane tables for proportional counters in a sure and efficient way. The device is constituted by heating equipment, evaporation cylinder and a gases cleaning system. The self-absorption curve got ready starting from the device. (Author)

  8. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  9. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  10. A novel electrochemical immunosensor using β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase as labels for ultrasensitive detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Hongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Yan, Tao; Li, Na; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin

    2015-09-17

    In this work, a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest interaction was fabricated for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Due to the large specific surface area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the unique supramolecular recognition ability of β-cyclodextrins, ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc) was incorporated into this sensor platform by host-guest interaction to generate an electrochemical signal. And β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase (GOD-CD-Ag), was used as a label to improve the analytical performance of the immunosensor by the dual amplification strategy. The obtained GOD-CD-Ag conjugates could convert glucose into gluconic acid with the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). And then silver nanoparticles could in situ catalyze the reduction of the generated H2O2, dramatically improving the oxidation reaction of Fc. The developed immunosensor shows a wide linear calibration range from 0.001 to 5.0 ng/mL with a low detection limit (0.2 pg/mL) for the detection of AFP. The method, with ideal reproducibility and selectivity, has a wide application prospect in clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA locus HLA-DQ alpha polymorphism in human population of the north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, W; Skawrońska, M; Janica, J

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on DNA polymorphism locus HLA-DQ alpha were carried out on a sample of 117 adult unrelated inhabitants from the north-eastern Poland. The polymerase chain reaction and the reverse dot-blot hybridisation were employed to detect 6 different HLA-DQ alpha alleles. Population data on 20 different genotypes served as a basis for statistic evaluation. The results of genotype analysis were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Other population data were compared.

  12. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  13. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  14. Technical Basis for the Use of Alpha Absorption Corrections on RCF Gross Alpha Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the supporting data and rationale for making absorption corrections to gross alpha data to correct alpha data for loss due to absorption in the sample matrix. For some time there has been concern that the gross alpha data produced by the Environmental Restoration Contractor Radiological Counting Facility, particularly gross alpha analysis on soils, has been biased toward low results, as no correction for self-absorption was applied to the counting data. The process was investigated, and a new methodology for alpha self-absorption has been developed

  15. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, Ulrike; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Geller, Beate; Nystrand, Mats; Härlin, Annika; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Keller, Walter; Niggemann, Bodo; Quirce, Santiago; Ebner, Christoph; Mari, Adriano; Pauli, Gabrielle; Herz, Udo; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2009-06-01

    Milk is one of the first components introduced into human diet. It also represents one of the first allergen sources, which induces IgE-mediated allergies in childhood ranging from gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory manifestations to severe life-threatening manifestations, such as anaphylaxis. Here we isolated a cDNA coding for a major cow's milk allergen, alphaS1-casein, from a bovine mammary gland cDNA library with allergic patients' IgE Abs. Recombinant alphaS1-casein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by circular dichroism as a folded protein. IgE epitopes of alphaS1-casein were determined with recombinant fragments and synthetic peptides spanning the alphaS1-casein sequence using microarrayed components and sera from 66 cow's milk-sensitized patients. The allergenic activity of ralphaS1-casein and the alphaS1-casein-derived peptides was determined using rat basophil leukemia cells transfected with human FcepsilonRI, which had been loaded with the patients' serum IgE. Our results demonstrate that ralphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides exhibit IgE reactivity, but mainly the intact ralphaS1-casein induced strong basophil degranulation. These results suggest that primarily intact alphaS1-casein or larger IgE-reactive portions thereof are responsible for IgE-mediated symptoms of food allergy. Recombinant alphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides may be used in clinical studies to further explore pathomechanisms of food allergy as well as for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for milk allergy.

  16. The application of alpha-card measurement to search underground water resources in bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Fulin; Liang Jinhua

    1986-01-01

    The alpha-card measurement is a new kind of nuclear technique to evaluate the concentration of the radium and thorium emanations with a short-time accumulation. It has shown the wonderful characteristics of higher sensitivity, greater detective depth, less interference and shorter work period when applied to search underground water resources in bedrock. The satisfactory result of its application in Pingyin limestone area is described. The principle of the alpha-card measurement and the foundation of its application are briefly discussed

  17. Some methods for the detection of fissionable matter; Quelques methodes de detection des corps fissiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guery, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    A number of equipments or processes allowing to detect uranium or plutonium in industrial plants, and in particular to measure solution concentrations, are studied here. Each method has its own field of applications and has its own performances, which we have tried to define by calculations and by experiments. The following topics have been treated: {gamma} absorptiometer with an Am source, detection test by neutron multiplication, apparatus for the measurement of the {alpha} activity of a solution, fissionable matter detection by {gamma} emission, fissionable matter detection by neutron emission. (author) [French] On examine ici plusieurs appareils ou procedes qui permettent de detecter l'uranium ou le plutonium dans les installations industrielles, et en particulier de mesurer les concentrations de solutions. Chacune des methodes a son domaine d'application et ses performances, qu'on a tente de definir par le calcul et par des experiences. Les sujets traites sont les suivants: absorptiometre {gamma} a source d'americium, essais de detection par multiplication neutronique, appareil de mesure de l'activite {alpha} d'une solution, detection des matieres fissiles par leur emission {gamma}, detection des matieres fissiles par leur emission neutronique. (auteur)

  18. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  19. Changes in Alpha Frequency and Power of the Electroencephalogram during Volatile-Based General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hight

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG at the alpha frequency (8–12 Hz are thought to be ubiquitous during surgical anesthesia, but the details of how this oscillation responds to ongoing changes in volatile anesthetic concentration have not been well characterized. It is not known how often alpha oscillations are absent in the clinical context, how sensitively alpha frequency and power respond to changes in anesthetic concentration, and what effect increased age has on alpha frequency. Bipolar EEG was recorded frontally from 305 patients undergoing surgery with sevoflurane or desflurane providing general anesthesia. A new method of detecting the presence of alpha oscillations based on the stability of the rate of change of the peak frequency in the alpha range was developed. Linear concentration-response curves were fitted to assess the sensitivity of alpha power and frequency measures to changing levels of anesthesia. Alpha oscillations were seen to be inexplicably absent in around 4% of patients. Maximal alpha power increased with increasing volatile anesthetic concentrations in half of the patients, and decreased in the remaining patients. Alpha frequency decreased with increasing anesthetic concentrations in near to 90% of patients. Increasing age was associated with decreased sensitivity to volatile anesthesia concentrations, and with decreased alpha frequency, which sometimes transitioned into the theta range (5–7 Hz. While peak alpha frequency shows a consistent slowing to increasing volatile concentrations, the peak power of the oscillation does not, suggesting that frequency might be more informative of depth of anesthesia than traditional power based measures during volatile-based anesthesia. The alpha oscillation becomes slower with increasing age, even when the decreased anesthetic needs of older patients were taken into account.

  20. The determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.E.D.

    1963-07-01

    Methods have been developed for the determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials. The chemical stages involved give practically complete separation of all extraneous material from the plutonium, which is electrodeposited on to a 0.5 inch stainless steel disc to produce a thin high resolution source. The limit of detection is 0.025 μμc/sample (sixteen-hour count) when the sources are counted in a small scintillator counter, but is lowest when counted in a counter which counts particles of energy 5.05-5.25 MeV only, and which therefore discriminates against small quantities of α-active materials introduced with the reagents in the final electrodeposition stage of the process. (Any such alpha activity may readily be identified by alpha pulse height analysis). (author)

  1. Alpha Momentum and Price Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lea Hühn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a novel alpha momentum strategy that invests in stocks based on three-factor alphas which we estimate using daily returns. The empirical analysis for the U.S. and for Europe shows that (i past alpha has power in predicting the cross-section of stock returns; (ii alpha momentum exhibits less dynamic factor exposures than price momentum and (iii alpha momentum dominates price momentum only in the U.S. Connecting both strategies to behavioral explanations, alpha momentum is more related to an underreaction to firm-specific news while price momentum is primarily driven by price overshooting due to momentum trading.

  2. /sup 58,60,62/Ni (. cap alpha. ,p) three--nucleon transfer reactions and. cap alpha. optical potential ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanda, Wang; Xiuming, Bao; Zhiqiang, Mao; Rongfang, Yuan; Keling, Wen; Binyin, Huang; Zhifu, Wang; Shuming, Li; Jianan, Wang; Zuxun, Sun; others, and

    1985-11-01

    The differential cross sections are measured using 26.0 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) /sup 58,62/Ni and /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha..,p) /sup 61,65/Cu reactions as well as 25.4 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..)/sup 69/Ni and /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., p)/sup 63/Cu reactions. Consistent calculations with optical model and ZR DWBA are made for (..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) and (..cap alpha.., p) reactions by using of single, two, three and four nucleon optical potential parameters. For elastic scattering due to the ..cap alpha.. optical potential ambiguities, all the above optical potential can reproduce the experimental angular distributions. However, the single, two and three nucleon potential, including the Baird's mass systematics and the Chang's energy systematics of ..cap alpha.. potentials, obviously can not provide a reasonable fitting with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. Only the results from the four nucleon potential is in good agreement with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. This reveals that in the ..cap alpha..-particle induced transfer reactions, the real depth of the ..cap alpha..-nucleus optical potential should be rather deep.

  3. Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A.; Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of the interest. At the present time the authors have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and they have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Wind tunnel tests show that ≥ 50% of 10 μm aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) particles penetrate the flow system from the ambient air to the collection filter when the flow rate is 57 L/min (2 cfm) and the wind speed is 1 m/s. The coefficient of variation of deposits of 10 μm AED aerosol particles on the collection filter is 7%. An inlet fractionator for removing high mobility background aerosol particles has been designed and successfully tested. The results show that it is possible to strip 95% of freshly formed radon daughters and 33% of partially aged radon daughters from the aerosol sample. This approach offers the opportunity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the alpha energy spectrum region of interest thereby enhancing the performance of background compensation algorithms

  4. Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Van Binh; Pham, Xuan ThanhTung; Phan, Thanh Nhat Khoa; Le, Thi Thanh Tuyen; Dang, Mau Chien

    2015-01-01

    We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL"−"1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis. (paper)

  5. Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Pham, Van; ThanhTung Pham, Xuan; Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-12-01

    We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL-1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis.

  6. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  7. Phase I Final Report: Ultra-Low Background Alpha Activity Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.

    2005-01-01

    In certain important physics experiments that search for rare-events, such as neutrino or double beta decay detections, it is critical to minimize the number of background events that arise from alpha particle emitted by the natural radioactivity in the materials used to construct the experiment. Similarly, the natural radioactivity in materials used to connect and package silicon microcircuits must also be minimized in order to eliminate ''soft errors'' caused by alpha particles depositing charges within the microcircuits and thereby changing their logic states. For these, and related reasons in the areas of environmental cleanup and nuclear materials tracking, there is a need that is important from commercial, scientific, and national security perspectives to develop an ultra-low background alpha counter that would be capable of measuring materials' alpha particle emissivity at rates well below 0.00001 alpha/cm 2 /hour. This rate, which corresponds to 24 alpha particles per square meter per day, is essentially impossible to achieve with existing commercial instruments because the natural radioactivity of the materials used to construct even the best of these counters produces background rates at the 0.005 alpha/cm 2 /hr level. Our company (XIA) had previously developed an instrument that uses electronic background suppression to operate at the 0.0005 0.005 alpha/cm 2 /hr level. This patented technology sets up an electric field between a large planar sample and a large planar anode, and fills the gap with pure Nitrogen. An alpha particle entering the chamber ionizes the Nitrogen, producing a ''track'' of electrons, which drift to the anode in the electric field. Tracks close to the anode take less than 10 microseconds (us) to be collected, giving a preamplifier signal with a 10 us risetime. Tracks from the sample have to drift across the full anode-sample gap and produce a 35 us risetime signal. By analyzing the preamplifier signals with a digital signal

  8. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  9. Measurement of gross alpha and beta in air filter samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Gaikwad, R.H.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha and gross beta in particulate air filter samples was carried out by alpha, beta discrimination method using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer by setting the PSA value at 55 for 5 ml 0.1 HCl plus 15 ml of Ultima Gold AB cocktail by using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y sources. The standardized method was compared with the gross alpha and gross beta activity determined by conventional method of direct counting with end window G.M. counter and ZnS (Ag). The minimum detectable activity of LSA method was found to be 9.3 mBq and 17.7 mBq for gross alpha and gross beta respectively for 6000 sec compared to the conventional method of 9.8 mBq and 189 mBq respectively at the same counting time. The result of analysis by both method indicate that the alpha, beta discrimination set up of LSA method is highly effective in the determination of low level alpha, beta activity in air filter samples. (author)

  10. Alpha-emitting nuclides in commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of Windscale, United Kingdom, and their radiological significance to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Lovett, M.B.; Harvey, B.R.; Ibbett, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of a number of alpha-emitting nuclides have been determined in the tissues of several commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale. All tissues analysed were found to contain 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am, but 242 Cm and 244 Cm could only be reliably detected in the liver samples of some fish. Fish of the same species, but taken from the North Sea, have also been analysed for some naturally occurring alpha-emitting nuclides. Whereas uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) could be detected in bone samples of fish, neither could be reliably detected in samples of muscle: in contrast, 210 Po was readily detected in samples of liver, muscle and bone. Commercial fish fillets from the Irish Sea, including the Windscale area, are also routinely monitored for alpha-emitting nuclides, and their radiological significance to man is briefly discussed. Comments are also made on the significance of the naturally occurring nuclides. (author)

  11. Selection of filter media in alpha air monitors for emergency environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, N.; Oishi, T.; Noguchi, H.; Kato, S.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed an alpha air monitor which is possible to measure rapidly and sensitively the concentrations of airborne alpha-emitting particles, such as plutonium, for the environmental monitoring at an accident of nuclear reprocessing plant. The monitor is designed to collect airborne alpha-emitting particles by drawing the ambient air through a filter and to detect the activity by alpha spectroscopy. In order to achieve high-sensitive measurements, selection of a suitable filter used in the monitor is considerably important. The most important requirement for the filter is that it has a high surface collection efficiency to obtain the sharpness of the alpha energy spectrum. This makes it easy to distinguish the alpha-ray peak of plutonium from the alpha spectrum of naturally occurring radon decay products in the environment. And the filter is also desired to have low resistance of the air flow so that particles can be collected at a high flowrate. We have made a comparison of the surface collection efficiency and pressure drop for the various filters. Types of the test filters, most of which are commercially available in Japan, were glass fiber, cellulose-glass fiber, membrane and so on. The surface collection efficiency has been evaluated by the following two indices. One was the sharpness of alpha-ray energy peaks of thoron decay products generated in a laboratory and collected in the fibers. The other was the background counts of radon decay products in a plutonium region by measuring alpha-ray energy spectrum of radon decay products collected in the filters by sampling of dust in the atmosphere. It was found that the PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane filter with backing had a high surface collection efficiency and low pressure drop. The results of the test are described in detail in this paper. (author)

  12. Compensatory increase in alpha 1-globin gene expression in individuals heterozygous for the alpha-thalassemia-2 deletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Cash, F E; Main, D M

    1985-01-01

    alpha-Globin is encoded by the two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Although it is clearly established that both alpha-globin genes are expressed, their relative contributions to alpha-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein synthesis are not fully defined. Furthermore, changes that may occur in alpha-globin gene activity secondarily to the loss of function of one or more of these genes (alpha-thalassemia [Thal]) have not been directly investigated. This study further defines the expressi...

  13. Nanogram per milliliter-level immunologic detection of alpha-fetoprotein with integrated rotating-resonance microcantilevers for early-stage diagnosis of heptocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjing; Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zuo, Guomin; Cheng, Zhenxing; Yu, Haitao

    2009-02-01

    Nanogram per milliliter-level ultra-low concentration detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is an important marker for heptocellular carcinoma, is in favor of early-stage prognosis and disease diagnosis. On-the-spot rapid detection of such antigens as AFP highly requires innovative micro/nano techniques. To meet this requirement, an advanced resonant microcantilever is developed and used for screening the tumor marker at nanogram per milliliter level. The sensing principle of the resonant microcantilever is measuring frequency-shift versus specific-adsorbed mass. With both electromagnetic resonance-exciting and piezoresistive readout elements on-chip integrated, the microcantilever sensor is operated in a rotating resonance mode to improve sensitivity and resolution to specific mass adsorption. Prior to detection of AFP with previously immobilized anti-AFP antibody, the antigen-antibody specific-binding is confirmed with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay experiment. By implementing the specific reaction in liquid and reading out the sensor signal in lab air environment, the micromechanical sensor has achieved the sensitive scale between 2 and 20 ng/ml. To effectively depress cross-talk signal and improve resolution, the insensitive regions of the cantilever surface are pre-modified with 2-[methoxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] trimethoxysilane for nonspecific bio-adsorption minimization. Finally, a better AFP detecting limit than 2 ng/mL is experimentally achieved. The label-free resonant microcantilever sensor is promising in low-cost or even disposable early-stage prognosis and diagnosis of tumors.

  14. Expression of the neuronal adaptor protein X11alpha protects against memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2010-01-01

    X11alpha is a neuronal-specific adaptor protein that binds to the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Overexpression of X11alpha reduces Abeta production but whether X11alpha also protects against Abeta-related memory dysfunction is not known. To test this possibility, we crossed X11alpha transgenic mice with AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice. AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice produce high levels of brain Abeta and develop age-related defects in memory function that correlate with increasing Abeta load. Overexpression of X11alpha alone had no detectable adverse effect upon behavior. However, X11alpha reduced brain Abeta levels and corrected spatial reference memory defects in aged X11alpha\\/AbetaPP double transgenics. Thus, X11alpha may be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  15. Particle detection with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jany, P.

    1990-08-01

    At the Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics of the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe we started to produce superconducting tunnel junctions and to investigate them for their suitability as particle detectors. The required facilities for the production of tunnel junctions and the experimental equipments to carry out experiments with them were erected. Experiments are presented in which radiations of different kinds of particles could successfully be measured with the tunnel junctions produced. At first we succeeded in detectioning light pulses of a laser. In experiments with alpha-particles of an energy of 4,6 MeV the alpha-particles were detected with an energy resolution of 1,1%, and it was shown in specific experiments that the phonons originating from the deposition of energy by an alpha-particle in the substrate can be detected with superconducting tunnel junctions at the surface. On that occasion it turned out that the signals could be separated with respect to their point of origin (tunnel junction, contact leads, substrate). Finally X-rays with an energy of 6 keV were detected with an energy resolution of 8% in a test arrangement that makes use of the so-called trapping effect to read out a larger absorber volume. (orig.) [de

  16. Characterization of saturation of CR-39 detector at high alpha-particle fluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Ghazaly

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of saturation in the CR-39 detector reduces and limits its detection dynamic range; nevertheless, this range could be extended using spectroscopic techniques and by measuring the net bulk rate of the saturated CR-39 detector surface. CR-39 detectors were irradiated by 1.5 MeV high alpha-particle fluence varying from 0.06 × 108 to 7.36 × 108 alphas/cm2 from Am-241 source; thereafter, they were etched in a 6.25N NaOH solution at a temperature of 70°C for different durations. Net bulk etch rate measurement of the 1.5 MeV alpha-irradiated CR-39 detector surface revealed that rate increases with increasing etching time and reaches its maximum value at the end of the alpha-particle range. It is also correlated with the alpha-particle fluence. The measurements of UV–Visible (UV–Vis absorbance at 500 and 600 nm reveal that the absorbance is linearly correlated with the fluence of alpha particles at the etching times of 2 and 4 hour. For extended etching times of 6, 10, and 14.5 hour, the absorbance is saturated for fluence values of 4.05 × 108, 5.30 × 108, and 7.36 × 108 alphas/cm2. These new methods pave the way to extend the dynamic range of polymer-based solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs in measurement of high fluence of heavy ions as well as in radiation dosimetry. Keywords: Alpha Particle, Bulk Etch Rate, CR-39 Detector, Saturated Regime, UV–Vis Spectroscopy

  17. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  18. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN; Espectrometro de particulas alfa con fotodiodo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09869 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: achruiz@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  19. Brain Computer Interface-Controlling Devices Utilizing The Alpha Brain Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Hundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the development and testing of an interface system whereby one can control external devices by voluntarily controlling alpha waves that is through eye movement. Such a system may be used for the control of prosthetics robotic arms and external devices like wheelchairs using the alpha brain waves and the Mu rhythm. The response generated through the movement of the eye detecting and controlling the amplitude of the alpha brain waves is interfaced and processed to control Robotic systems and smart home control. In order to measure the response of alpha waves over different lobes of the brain initially I measured these signals over 32 regions using silver chloride plated electrodes. By the opening and the closure of the eyes and the movement in the up-down left-right directions and processing these movements measuring them over the occipital region I was able to differentiate the amplitude of the alpha waves generated due to these several movements. In the First session testing period subjects were asked to close and open their eyes and they were able to control limited movements of a Robot and a prosthetic arm. In the Second 2session the movement of the eyes was also considered left-right up-down along with the opening and closure during this time span they were able to control more dimensions of the robot several devices at the same time using different eye movements.

  20. Human keratinocytes are a source for tumor necrosis factor alpha: Evidence for synthesis and release upon stimulation with endotoxin or ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeck, A.S.; Schwarz, T.; Kirnbauer, R.; Urbanski, A.; Perry, P.; Ansel, J.C.; Luger, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), in addition to being cytotoxic for certain tumor cells, has turned out as a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immunity and inflammation. Since human keratinocytes have been demonstrated to be a potent source of various cytokines, it was investigated whether epidermal cells synthesize and release TNF-alpha. Supernatants derived from normal human keratinocytes (HNK) and human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines (KB, A431) were tested both in a TNF-alpha-specific ELISA and a bioassay. In supernatants of untreated epidermal cells, no or minimal TNF-alpha activity was found, while after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ultraviolet (UV) light, significant amounts were detected. Western blot analysis using an antibody directed against human TNF-alpha revealed a molecular mass of 17 kD for keratinocyte-derived TNF-alpha. These biological and biochemical data were also confirmed by Northern blot analysis revealing mRNA specific for TNF-alpha in LPS- or ultraviolet B (UVB)-treated HNK and KB cells. In addition, increased TNF-alpha levels were detected in the serum obtained from human volunteers 12 and 24 h after a single total body UVB exposure, which caused a severe sunburn reaction. These findings indicate that keratinocytes upon stimulation are able to synthesize and release TNF-alpha, which may gain access to the circulation. Thus, TNF-alpha in concert with other epidermal cell-derived cytokines may mediate local and systemic inflammatory reactions during host defense against injurious events caused by microbial agents or UV irradiation

  1. Ly-alpha polarimeter design for CLASP rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Watanabe, H.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Ichimoto, K.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Song, D.

    2011-12-01

    A sounding-rocket program called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is proposed to be launched in the Summer of 2014. CLASP will observe the upper solar chromosphere in Ly-alpha (121.567 nm), aiming to detect the linear polarization signal produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect for the first time. The CLASP needs a rotating half-waveplate and a polarization analyzer working at the Ly-alpha wavelength to measure the linear polarization signal. We select Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) as a material of the optical components because of its birefringent property and high transparency at UV wavelength. We have confirmed that the reflection at the Brewster's Angle of MgF2 plate is a good polarization analyzer for the Ly-alpha line by deriving its ordinary refractive index and extinction coefficient along the ordinary and extraordinary axes. These optical parameters are calculated with a least-square fitting in such a way that the reflectance and transmittance satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation. The reflectance and transmittance against oblique incident angles for the s-polarized and the p-polarized light are measured using the synchrotron beamline at the Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility (UVSOR). We have also measured a retardation of a zeroth-order waveplate made of MgF2. The thickness difference of the waveplate is 14.57 um.This waveplate works as a half-waveplate at 121.74 nm. From this measurement, we estimate that a waveplate with the thickness difference of 15.71 um will work as a half-waveplate at the Ly-alpha wavelength. We have developed a rotating waveplate - polarization analyzer system called a prototype of CLASP polarimeter, and input the perfect Stokes Q and U signals. The modulation patterns that are consistent with the theoretical prediction are successfully obtained in both cases.

  2. Innovative procedure for the determination of gross-alpha/gross-beta activities in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisser, S.; Frenzel, E.; Dittmer, M.

    2006-01-01

    An alternative sample preparation method for the determination of gross-alpha/beta activity concentrations in drinking water is introduced in this paper. After the freeze-drying of tap water samples, determination by liquid scintillation counting can be applied utilizing alpha/beta separation. It has been shown that there is no adsorption or loss of solid radionuclides during the freeze-drying procedure. However, the samples have to be measured quickly after the preparation since the ingrowth of daughter isotopes negatively effects the measurement. The limits of detection for gross-alpha and gross-beta activity are in the range 25-210 mBq/l, respectively, for a measurement time of only 8-9 h

  3. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  4. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...

  5. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Enterria, David [CERN; Skands, Peter Z. [Monash U.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  6. Interferometer immunosensor based on porous silicon for determining alpha-fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Jing; Lv, Guodong; Mo, Jiaqing; Jia, Zhenhong

    2016-10-01

    An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP) in the blood may be a sign of liver cancer. Porous silicon based optical microcavities structure is prepared as a label-free immunosensor platform for detecting AFP. After the antigen-antibody reaction, it is monitored that the red shift of the reflection spectrum of the immunosensor increases

  7. Subtle Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Persisting Role for Alpha-Fetoprotein Monitoring in High-Risk Patients with Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Schlansky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common, aggressive malignancy that usually develops in a background of liver cirrhosis. Practice guidelines recommend screening of cirrhotic patients with ultrasound and more detailed imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging if abnormalities are detected. The utility of alpha-fetoprotein levels in HCC surveillance is controversial. Although HCC risk differs by etiology of cirrhosis, screening and surveillance guidelines are uniform after cirrhosis is established. We report a case of rapidly progressive HCC occurring in a cirrhotic patient with multiple unique risk factors for neoplasia, detected by a rising alpha-fetoprotein level without imaging features of liver cancer.

  8. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  9. The study by means of a photomultiplier of the scintillations produced by {alpha} particles striking a zinc sulphide screen; Etude, au photomultiplicateur, des scintillations produites par les particules {alpha} dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Application a la numeration precise des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The object of the study is the accurate counting of {alpha} particles by p-m. detection of their scintillations upon impact with a zinc sulphide screen. The main advantage of the method is the extreme simplicity of the electronics used: the possibility of obtaining a utilizable pulse from the p-m. (EMI5311) without any amplification, and in linear response, is demonstrated. The scintillation produced by an impact on Zn-S has also been studied experimentally. The decrease of light intensity in relation to time may be interpreted by the exponential relation: I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) whereby {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. The relation between scintillation intensity and remaining trajectory after travel through a given air-space has also been determined. Possible suitable applications of this method of {alpha} counting are those where good stability and low background are necessary. Results stated bear on air contamination studies, isotopic composition variation measurement of uranium, bismuth content measurement in alloys by irradiation of specimens in a thermal neutron flux and {alpha} count on the Po formed. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude de la numeration precise des particules {alpha} par detection au photomultiplicateur des scintillations produites par ces particules dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Le principal avantage de cette methode reside dans l'extreme simplicite de l'appareillage electronique; il est en effet montre qu'il est possible, tout en convoyant une reponse lineaire, d'obtenir du photomultiplicateur (EMI5311) un signal electrique utilisable sans aucune amplification. La scintillation produite par l'impact des particules {alpha} sur un ecran de Zn-S est etudiee experimentalement. La decroissance de l'intensite lumineuse en fonction du temps est interpretable par la relation exponentielle I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) avec {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. La relation entre l'intensite de la scintillation et le

  10. Gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water from Goias State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Regina A.; Costa, Heliana F. da, E-mail: raquel.mingote@cdtn.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil). Parque Estadual Telma Ortegal

    2017-07-01

    Detection of gross alpha and beta radioactivity is important for a quick surveying of both natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in water. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in Brazilian legislation on quality of drinking water. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha and gross beta in samples of the public water supplies in the state of Goias, Brazil, during 2010-2015. Sample preparation involved evaporation to concentrate the sample ten-fold. The results indicate that the water meets the radioactivity standards required by the regulations MS 2914/2011 of the Brazilian Department of Health. Concerning the high level of censored observations, a statistical treatment of data was conducted by using analysis methods of censored data to provide a reference value of the gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water from the state of Goias. The estimated typical activities are very low, 0.030 Bq•L{sup -1} and 0.058 Bq•L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  11. [Alpha interferon induced hyperthyroidism: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, I; Valdes-Socin, H; Thiry, A; Delwaide, J; Sidibe, A T; Beckers, A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with alpha interferon in hepatitis C triggers a thyroid autoimmunity in a variable percentage of cases (2-8%). This complication raises some questions about its screening, the possibility to continue anti-viral therapy and thyroid treatment. Alpha interferon has an immunomodulatory effect on the thyroid, but also an inhibitory effect on thyroid hormone synthesis. This explains the occurrence of cases of thyroid dysfunction, which often remain undetected because of their latency. Factors predicting thyroid dysfunction with interferon use are: female sex, history of thyroid disease and previous autoimmunity. Several clinical aspects are encountered including hypothyroidism (the most frequent depending on the series) and hyperthyroidism related to Graves' disease. For their detection, a cooperation between general practionners, gastroenterologists and endocrinologists is mandatory thyroid function tests are requested before, during and after treatment,with alpha interferon. Therapeutic aspects of thyroid disorders range from simple monitoring to symptomatic treatment, such as thyroxine prescription in the presence of hypothyroidism. Antithyroid drugs radioactive iodine or thyroid surgery are used in cases of severe or persistent Graves' disease induced by alpha interferon.

  12. Identification and subcellular localization of a 21-kilodalton molecule using affinity-purified antibodies against. cap alpha. -transforming growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, P.; Pardue, R.L.; Earls, R.; Dedman, J.R.

    1987-04-07

    Monospecific antibodies were generated against each of six different peptide sequences derived from rat and human ..cap alpha..-transforming growth factor (..cap alpha..-TGF). The affinity-purified antibody to the 17 amino acid carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule proved most useful in detecting ..cap alpha..-TGF. When used in a peptide-based radioimmunoassay, it was possible to measure nanogram quantities of native ..cap alpha..-TGF in conditioned cell culture media. When used to analyze cell lysate, these antibodies specifically recognized a 21-kilodalton protein species. Indirect immunofluorescence localization procedures revealed a high concentration of ..cap alpha..-TCF in a perinuclear ring with a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. These results suggest that a precursor form of ..cap alpha..-TGF has a cellular role beyond that of an autocrine growth factor.

  13. Alpha cluster states in light nuclei populated through the (6Li,d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borello-Lewin, Thereza; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Ukita, Gilberto Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster correlation is an important concept in the nuclear physics of light nuclei. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of the alpha clustering phenomenon in (xα) and(xα+ν) nuclei through the ( 6 Li,d) alpha transfer reaction. In fact, there is scarce experimental information on the subject, in particular associated with resonant states predicted near (xα) and (xα+ν) thresholds. Measurements of the 12 , 13 C( 6 Li,d) 16 , 17 O reactions, at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The work is under way and an experimental energy resolution of 30 keV was obtained. Near the (4α) breakup threshold in 16 O, three narrow alpha resonances, not previously measured, were detected, revealing important α + 12 C(G.S.) components. One of these resonances corresponds to the known 0 + state at 15.1 MeV[5] of excitation that has probably, according to Funaki et al., the gas like configuration of the 4α condensate state, with a very dilute density and a large component of α + 12 C(Hoyle) configuration. As was already mentioned, our experimental information points to the necessity of including the α + 12 C(G.S.) component in the wave function. (author)

  14. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  15. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  16. Sensitive electrochemical detection of native and aggregated alpha-synuclein protein involved in Parkinson's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masařík, Michal; Stobiecka, A.; Kizek, René; Jelen, František; Pechan, Zdeněk; Hoyer, W.; Jovin, T.; Subramaniam, V.; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, 13-14 (2004), s. 1172-1181 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemistry of proteins * alpha-synuclein aggregation * adsorptive transfer stripping Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2004

  17. Novel P2 promoter-derived HNF4{alpha} isoforms with different N-terminus generated by alternate exon insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianmin, E-mail: jmhuang@partners.org [Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114-2696 (United States); Levitsky, Lynne L. [Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114-2696 (United States); Rhoads, David B., E-mail: rhoads@helix.mgh.harvard.edu [Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114-2696 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) is a critical transcription factor for pancreas and liver development and functions in islet {beta} cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Mutations in the human HNF4A gene lead to maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY1) and polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Expression of six HNF4{alpha} variants, three each from two developmentally regulated promoters, has been firmly established. We have now detected a new set of HNF4{alpha} variants designated HNF4{alpha}10-12 expressed from distal promoter P2. These variants, generated by inclusion of previously undetected exon 1E (human = 222 nt, rodent = 136 nt) following exon 1D have an altered N-terminus but identical remaining reading frame. HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 are expressed in pancreatic islets (and liver) and exhibit transactivation potentials similar to the corresponding {alpha}7-{alpha}9 isoforms. DNA-binding analyses implied much higher protein levels of HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 in liver than expected from the RT-PCR data. Our results provide evidence for a more complex expression pattern of HNF4{alpha} than previously appreciated. We recommend inclusion of exon 1E and nearby DNA sequences in screening for HNF4{alpha} mutations and polymorphisms in genetic analyses of MODY1 and T2DM.

  18. The WUW ML bundle detector A flow through detector for alpha-emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, U; Lochny, M

    1999-01-01

    Using conventional laboratory ware, we designed and manufactured a flow through cell for monitoring alpha-bearing solutions. The cell consists of a bundle of thermoplastic, transparent tubes coated with a thin layer of the meltable scintillator MELTILEX sup T sup M at the inner surface. With appropriate energy windows set, the detector can suppress beta-particles to a great extent due to its geometrical dimensions. For pure alpha-solutions, the detection limits are 5 Bq/ml, for composite nuclide mixtures, the detector is capable to monitor the decontamination of medium active waste (<=10 sup 7 Bq/ml) down to 100 Bq alpha/g solution. At a throughput of 1 ml/s, the pressure build-up amounts to approx 2 bar. We have developed a quality control program to ensure the regularity of the individual bundle loops.

  19. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuebas-Irizarry, Mara F; Irizarry-Caro, Ricardo A; López-Morales, Carol; Badillo-Rivera, Keyla M; Rodríguez-Minguela, Carlos M; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2017-11-21

    We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi . A 2349 bp region ( Hqrw_2071 ) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3-4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3-4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41%) to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum . Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  20. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara F. Cuebas-Irizarry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20 from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi. A 2349 bp region (Hqrw_2071 from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+, expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3–4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3–4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41% to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum. Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  1. Heuristic derivation of the Rossi-alpha formula for a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2004-01-01

    Expressions for the Rossi-alpha distribution for a pulsed neutron source were derived using a heuristic derivation based on the method of joint detection probability. This heuristic technique was chosen over the more rigorous master equation method due to its simplicity and the complementary of both techniques. The derived equations also take into account the presence of delayed neutrons and intrinsic neutron sources which often cannot be neglected in source-driven subcritical cores. The obtained expressions showed that the ratio of the correlated to the uncorrelated signal in the Rossi-Alpha distribution for a Pulsed Source (RAPS) was strongly increased compared to the case for a standard Rossi-alpha distribution for a continuous source. It was also demonstrated that by using this RAPS technique four independent measurement quantities, instead of three with the standard Rossi-alpha technique, can be determined. Hence, it is no longer necessary to combine the Rossi-alpha technique with another method to measure the reactivity expressed in dollars. Both properties, the increased signal-to-noise ratio of the correlated signal and the measurement of a fourth measurement quantity, make that the RAPS technique is an excellent candidate for the measurement of kinetic parameters in source-driven subcritical assemblies

  2. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  4. Coaching the alpha male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  5. Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients.

  6. Two Strategies for Microbial Production of an Industrial Enzyme-Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Garriott, Owen; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.

    2003-01-01

    Extremophiles are microorganisms that thrive in, from an anthropocentric view, extreme environments including hot springs, soda lakes and arctic water. This ability of survival at extreme conditions has rendered extremophiles to be of interest in astrobiology, evolutionary biology as well as in industrial applications. Of particular interest to the biotechnology industry are the biological catalysts of the extremophiles, the extremozymes, whose unique stabilities at extreme conditions make them potential sources of novel enzymes in industrial applications. There are two major approaches to microbial enzyme production. This entails enzyme isolation directly from the natural host or creating a recombinant expression system whereby the targeted enzyme can be overexpressed in a mesophilic host. We are employing both methods in the effort to produce alpha-amylases from a hyperthermophilic archaeon (Thermococcus) isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as from alkaliphilic bacteria (Bacillus) isolated from a soda lake in Tanzania. Alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of internal alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch to produce smaller sugars. Thermostable alpha-amylases are used in the liquefaction of starch for production of fructose and glucose syrups, whereas alpha-amylases stable at high pH have potential as detergent additives. The alpha-amylase encoding gene from Thermococcus was PCR amplified using carefully designed primers and analyzed using bioinformatics tools such as BLAST and Multiple Sequence Alignment for cloning and expression in E.coli. Four strains of Bacillus were grown in alkaline starch-enriched medium of which the culture supernatant was used as enzyme source. Amylolytic activity was detected using the starch-iodine method.

  7. Spreadsheet design and validation for characteristic limits determination in gross alpha and beta measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Rodrigo G.P. do; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2013-01-01

    The identification and detection of ionizing radiation are essential requisites of radiation protection. Gross alpha and beta measurements are widely applied as a screening method in radiological characterization, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. As in any other analytical technique, test performance depends on the quality of instrumental measurements and reliability of calculations. Characteristic limits refer to three specific statistics, namely, decision threshold, detection limit and confidence interval, which are fundamental to ensuring the quality of determinations. This work describes a way to calculate characteristic limits for measurements of gross alpha and beta activity applying spreadsheets. The approach used for determination of decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval, the mathematical expressions of measurands and uncertainty followed standards guidelines. A succinct overview of this approach and examples are presented and spreadsheets were validated using specific software. Furthermore, these spreadsheets could be used as tool to instruct beginner users of methods for ionizing radiation measurements. (author)

  8. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Hong, Seung-Heon; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-01-16

    Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2. Our results show that TO decreased the cell viability by 26%, and significantly increased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1alpha production compared with media control (about 1.6-fold for TNF-alpha, and 2.4-fold for IL-1alpha, P < 0.05). Also, TO strongly induced apoptosis of Hep G2 cells as determined by flow cytometry. Increased amounts of TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha contributed to TO-induced apoptosis. Anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies almost abolished it. These results suggest that TO induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

  9. An application of 222Rn alpha particle's tracks to uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium exploration method is based on the register of 222 Rn alpha particles; 222 Rn gas is generated in the chain 238 U desintegration. The detection of alpha particles was performed with cellulose nitrate films (NTC), located in a grid at the region in study. The alpha particles produce latent tracks in the NTC films; these tracks may be enlarged by chemical etching and are observed with an ordinary optic microscope, ninety seven NTC films were used, these were distributed in an area of approximately seventeen square kilometers, located in the municipalities of Granados and Huasabas in Sonora Mexico, the detectors remain in the ground for a thirty days mean period. The results obtained show an area with high 222 Rn concentration, this can be related with an underground uranium ore deposit. The more important conclusion is that the results obtained in this work can be used as preliminary results for other prospection methods in this particular area. (author)

  10. Immunodetection of Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Alpha1/Alpha2) in the Rat Uterus and Oviduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öner, Jale; Öner, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization and the existence of thyroid hormone receptors (THR) (alpha1/alpha2) in rat uterus and oviduct. For this purpose 6 female Wistar albino rats found in estrous period were used. Tissue samples fixed in 10% neutral formalin were examined immunohistochemically. Sections were incubated with primary mouse-monoclonal THR (alpha1/alpha2) antibody. In uterus, THR (alpha1/alpha2) immunoreacted strongly with uterine luminal epithelium, endometrial gland epithelium and endometrial stromal cells and, moderately with myometrial smooth muscle. In oviduct, they were observed moderately in the epithelium of the tube and the smooth muscle cells of the muscular layer. In conclusion, the presence of THR in uterus and oviduct suggests that these organs are an active site of thyroid hormones

  11. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  12. An Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer for Mars-96 and Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, R.; Wanke, H.; Economou, T.

    1996-09-01

    Mars Pathfinder and the Russian Mars-96 will carry an Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) for the determination of the chemical composition of Martian rocks and soil. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and many minor elements, including C,N and O, at levels above typically 1%. The method employed consist of bombarding a sample of 50 mm diameter with alpha particles from a radioactive source (50 mCi of Cm-244) and measuring: (i) backscattered alpha particles (alpha mode) (ii) protons from (a,p) reactions with some light elements (proton mode) (iii) characteristic X-rays emitted from the sample (X-ray mode). The APXS has a long standing space heritage, going back to Surveyor V,VI and VII (1967/68) and the Soviet Phobos (1988) missions. The present design is the result of an endeavour to reduce mass and power consumption to 600g/ 300mW. It consist of a sensor head containing the alpha sources, a telescope of a silicon detectors for the detection of the alpha particles and protons and a separate X-ray detector with its preamplifier, and an electronics box (80x70x60 mm) containing a microcontroller based multichannel spectrometer. The paper will describe the APXS flight hardware and present results obtained with the flight instrument that will show the instrument capabili- ties and the expected results to be obtained during surface operations on Mars.

  13. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  14. Radon monitoring using long-range alpha detector-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology is being studied for monitoring radon gas concentrations. LRAD-based instruments collect and measure the ionization produced in air by alpha decays. These ions can be moved to a collection grid via electrostatic ion-transport design collected approximately 95% of the radon produced ions, while instruments using an airflow transport design collected from 44% to 77% of these ions, depending on detector geometry. The current produced by collecting this ionization is linear with respect to 222 Rn concentration over the available test range of 0.07 to 820 pCi/L. In the absence of statistical limitations due to low radon concentrations, the speed of response of LRAD-based instruments is determined by the air exchange rate, and therefore changes in radon concentration can be detected in just a few seconds. Recent tests show that at radon concentrations below 20 pCi/L current pulses produced by individual alpha decays can be counted, thus improving detector sensitivity and stability even further. Because these detectors are simple, rugged, and do not consume much power, they are natural candidates for portable, battery operation

  15. Alpha-particle and electron capture decay of 209Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schima, F.J.; Colle, R.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma-ray and Kα X-ray emissions have been measured from a very pure 209 Po source containing less than 0.13% 208 Po activity and no detectable 210 Po (≤2 x 10 -4 %). The alpha-particle emission rate for this source has previously been determined. Data are presented that confirm alpha decay to the 205 Pb excited level at 262.8 keV, with an alpha-particle emission probability (±standard uncertainty) of 0.00559±0.00008. The ratio of K-shell electron capture to total electron capture for the second forbidden unique electron capture decay to the 896.6 keV level in 209 Bi was determined to be 0.594±0.018. The electron capture decay fraction was found to be 0.00454±0.00007, while the probabilities per decay for the 896.6, 262.8, and 260.5 keV gamma rays and the Bi Kα and Pb Kα X-rays were measured as 0.00445±0.00007, 0.00085±0.00002, 0.00254±0.00003, 0.00202±0.00005, and 0.00136±0.00005, respectively. (orig.)

  16. EEG UPPER/LOW ALPHA FREQUENCY POWER RATIO RELATES TO TEMPORO-PARIETAL BRAIN ATROPHY AND MEMORY PERFORMANCES IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vito Moretti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated to mild cognitive impairment (MCI due to Alzheimer disease (AD. The increase of EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with AD-converter MCI subjects. We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 ratio with patterns of cortical thickness in MCI.Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG recording and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were detected according to increasing tertile values of upper/low alpha power ratio . Difference of cortical thikness among the groups was estimated. Pearson’s r was used to assess the topography of the correlation between cortical thinning and memory impairment.Results: High upper/low alpha power ratio group had total cortical grey matter (CGM volume reduction of 471 mm2 than low upper/low alpha power ratio group (p

  17. Serum and Urinary Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Ciftci, Hayriye; Demir, Erol; Savran Karadeniz, Meltem; Tefik, Tzevat; Yazici, Halil; Nane, Ismet; Savran Oguz, Fatma; Aydin, Filiz; Turkmen, Aydin

    2017-12-18

    Allograft rejection is an important cause of early and long-term graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes T-cell activation, the key reaction leading to allograft rejection. Here, we investigated whether serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels can predict allograft rejection. This study included 65 living related-donor renal transplant recipients with mean follow-up of 26 ± 9 months. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were measured at pretransplant and at posttransplant time points (days 1 and 7 and months 3 and 6); serum creatinine levels were also monitored during posttransplant follow-up. Standard enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to detect tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Clinical variables were monitored. Nine of 65 patients (13.8%) had biopsy-proven rejection during follow-up. Preoperative serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were not significantly different when we compared patients with and without rejection. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were significantly higher in the allograft rejection versus nonrejection group at day 7 (11.5 ± 4.7 vs 15.4 ± 5.8; P = .029) and month 1 (11.1 ± 4.8 vs 17.8 ± 10.9; P =.003). Urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were also elevated in the allograft rejection versus the nonrejection group at days 1 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 14.1 ± 6.8; P = .002) and 7 (9.8 ± 2.2 vs 14.5 ± 2.7; P tumor necrosis factor-alpha has a role in diagnosing renal transplant rejection. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels may be a possible predictor for allograft rejection.

  18. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  19. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  20. Development of the MICROMEGAS Detector for Measuring the Energy Spectrum of Alpha Particles by using a 241-Am Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Do Yoon; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting {\\alpha} particles emitted from an 241-Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of {\\alpha} particles from the 241-Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the {\\alpha} particle from the 241 Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the {\\alpha} particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for {\\alpha} particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that {\\alpha} particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGA...

  1. Systems and methods for neutron detection using scintillator nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2016-03-08

    In one embodiment, a neutron detector includes a three dimensional matrix, having nanocomposite materials and a substantially transparent film material for suspending the nanocomposite materials, a detector coupled to the three dimensional matrix adapted for detecting a change in the nanocomposite materials, and an analyzer coupled to the detector adapted for analyzing the change detected by the detector. In another embodiment, a method for detecting neutrons includes receiving radiation from a source, converting neutrons in the radiation into alpha particles using converter material, converting the alpha particles into photons using quantum dot emitters, detecting the photons, and analyzing the photons to determine neutrons in the radiation.

  2. 99MTC Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Novel, Specific Agent for the Detection of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Line, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that technetium-99m radiolabeled human alpha-fetoprotein (99mTc AFP) localizes in human breast cancer cells in-vivo, most likely concentrating in breast cancer cells due to a specific receptor not found in normal adult breast tissue...

  3. 99MTC Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Novel, Specific Agent for the Detection of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Line, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that technetium-99m radiolabeled human alpha-fetoprotein (99mTc AFP) localizes in human breast cancer cells in-vivo, most likely concentrating in breast cancer cells due to a specific receptor not found in normal adult breast tissue...

  4. Alpha-gamma pulse shape discrimination in CsI:Tl, CsI:Na and BaF sub 2 scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Dinca, L E; Haas, J; Bom, V R; Eijk, C W E

    2002-01-01

    Some scintillating materials offer the possibility of measuring well separated alpha and gamma scintillation response using a single crystal. Eventually aiming at thermal neutron detection using sup 6 Li or sup 1 sup 0 B admixture, pulse shape discrimination measurements were made on three scintillators: CsI:Tl, CsI:Na and pure BaF sub 2 crystals. A very good alpha/gamma discrimination was obtained using sup 2 sup 2 Na, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am (gamma) and sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Cm (alpha) radioactive sources.

  5. Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2006-01-01

    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032

  6. Some rules to improve the energy resolution in alpha liquid scintillation with beta rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Aupiais, J; Dacheux, N

    2003-01-01

    Two common scintillating mixtures dedicated to alpha measurements by means of alpha liquid scintillation with pulse shape discrimination were tested: the di-isopropylnaphthalene - based and the toluene-based solvents containing the commercial cocktails Ultima Gold AB trademark and Alphaex trademark. We show the possibility to enhance the resolution up to 200% by using no-water miscible cocktails and by reducing the optical path. Under these conditions, the resolution of about 200 keV can be obtained either by the Tri Carb sup T sup M or by the Perals sup T sup M spectrometers. The time responses, e.g., the time required for a complete energy transfer between the initial interaction alpha particle-solvent and the final fluorescence of the organic scintillator, have been compared. Both cocktails present similar behavior. According to the Foerster theory, about 6-10 ns are required to complete the energy transfer. For both apparatus, the detection limits were determined for alpha emitters. The sensitivity of the...

  7. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  8. PGC-1alpha Deficiency Causes Multi-System Energy Metabolic Derangements: Muscle Dysfunction, Abnormal Weight Control and Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Teresa C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  9. PGC-1alpha deficiency causes multi-system energy metabolic derangements: muscle dysfunction, abnormal weight control and hepatic steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa C Leone

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha(-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  10. Incidence of premature estrus in lactating dairy cows and conception rates to standing estrus or fixed-time inseminations after synchronization using GnRH and PGF(2alpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, J M; Salverson, R R; Marshall, C E

    2001-07-03

    Fixed-time AI (TAI) after GnRH-PGF(2alpha)-GnRH treatment is a method to achieve pregnancies in dairy herds without estrous detection. However, cows that fail to respond to the initial GnRH may have compromised TAI conception rates due to asynchronous ovarian response. This study documented the percentage of GnRH-treated Holstein cows (n=345) in two herds that displayed estrus at an inopportune time for optimum TAI conception rate (conception rates of two TAI protocols in cows that did not display PE. At biweekly herd health exams, cows diagnosed as not pregnant to a previous AI and cows >80 days postpartum with no AI were treated with 100 microg GnRH (day -7) and 25mg PGF(2alpha) (day 0). Cows detected in PE by twice-daily visual observation from day -7 to day 2 were bred by AI 8-12h later. Cows not detected in PE were randomly assigned by parity, body condition score, and postpartum interval to receive either: (1) 100microg GnRH at 48h after PGF(2alpha) and TAI 16 to 18h later (Ovsynch); or (2) TAI at 72h post-PGF(2alpha) and a concurrent 100 microg GnRH injection to those cows not detected in estrus between 48 and 72h post-PGF(2alpha) (modified Ovsynch (MOV)). All hormone injections were im. Twenty percent (68/345) of the cows were detected in estrus before 48 after PGF(2alpha), of which 5% (17/345) were detected in estrus before PGF(2alpha) (Conception rates were not affected by treatment (PE versus Ovsynch versus MOV; 32% (21/65) versus 30% (37/125) versus 32% (47/145); P>0.10). However, within MOV-treated cows, conception rates were greater (Prates are to be achieved. Although additional estrous detection is required compared to Ovsynch, reduced cow handling and hormone usage, efficient use of expensive semen through greater conception rates in cows detected in estrus, and comparable TAI conception rates, suggests the MOV protocol may be a cost effective alternative to Ovsynch in many dairy herd reproductive management programs.

  11. Dust Attenuation and H(alpha) Star Formation Rates of Z Approx. 0.5 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne

    2012-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z approximately 0.40 and 249 z approximately 0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7(uparrow){+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeling. The SED-predicted H-alpha luminosity agrees with H-alpha narrow-band measurements over 3 dex (rms of 0.25 dex). We then use the SED SFRs to test different statistically-based dust corrections for H-alpha and find that adopting one magnitude of extinction is inappropriate: galaxies with lower luminosities are less reddened. We find that the luminosity-dependent dust correction of Hopkins et al. yields consistent results over 3 dex (rms of 0.3 dex). Our comparisons are only possible by assuming that stellar reddening is roughly half of nebular reddening. The strong correspondence argue that with SED modeling, we can derive reliable intrinsic SFRs even in the absence of H-alpha measurements at z approximately 0.5.

  12. Test of the Flavour Independence of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Next-to-Leading Order Calculations for Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    We present a test of the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant for charm and bottom quarks with respect to light (uds) quarks, based on a hadronic event sample obtained with the OPAL detector at LEP. Five observables related to global event shapes were used to measure alpha_s in three flavour tagged samples (uds, c and b). The event shape distributions were fitted by Order(alpha_s**2) calculations of jet production taking into account mass effects for the c and b quarks. We find: = 0.997 +- 0.038(stat.) +- 0.030(syst.) +- 0.012(theory) and = 0.993 +- 0.008(stat.) +- 0.006(syst.) +- 0.011(theory) for the ratios alpha_s(charm)/alpha_s(uds) and alpha_s(b)/alpha_s(uds) respectively.

  13. Molecular characteristic of alpha thalassaemia among patients diagnosed in UKM Medical Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azma, Raja Zahratul; Ainoon, Othman; Hafiza, Alauddin; Azlin, Ithnin; Noor Farisah, Abudul Razak; Nor Hidayati, Sardi; Noor Hamidah, Hussin

    2014-04-01

    Alpha (Α) thalassaemia is the most common inherited disorder in Malaysia. The clinical severity is dependant on the number of Α genes involved. Full blood count (FBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) analysis using either gel electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) are unable to detect definitively alpha thalassaemia carriers. Definitive diagnosis of Α-thalassaemias requires molecular analysis and methods of detecting both common deletional and non-deletional molecular abnormailities are easily performed in any laboratory involved in molecular diagnostics. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 1623 cases referred to our laboratory in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) for the diagnosis of Α-thalassaemia during the period October 2001 to December 2012. We examined the frequency of different types of alpha gene abnormalities and their haematologic features. Molecular diagnosis was made using a combination of multiplex polymerase reaction (PCR) and real time PCR to detect deletional and non-deletional alpha genes relevant to southeast Asian population. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of Α-thalassaemias in 736 cases. Majority of the cases were Chinese (53.1%) followed by Malays (44.2%), and Indians (2.7%). The most common gene abnormality was ΑΑ/--(SEA) (64.0%) followed by ΑΑ/-Α(3.7) (19.8%), -Α(3.7) /--(SEA) (6.9%), ΑΑ/ΑΑCS (3.0%), --(SEA)/--(SEA) (1.2%), -Α(3.7)/-Α(3.7) (1.1%), ΑΑ/-Α(4.2) (0.7%), -Α(4.2)/--(SEA (0.7%), -Α(3.7)/-Α(4.2) (0.5%), ΑΑ(CS)/-- SEA) (0.4%), ΑΑ(CS)/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.4%), ΑΑ(CS)/ΑΑ(CS) (0.4%), -Α(3.7)/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.3%), ΑΑ/ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.1%), ΑΑ(Cd59)/ ΑΑ(IVS I-1) (0.1%), -Α(3.7)/ΑΑ(CS) (0.1%) and --(SEA) /ΑΑ(Cd59) (0.1%). This data indicates that the molecular abnormalities of Α-thalassaemia in the Malaysian population is heterogenous. Although Α-gene deletion is the most common cause, non-deletional Α-gene abnormalities

  14. Anticipatory alpha phase influences visual working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Chadick, James Z; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-15

    Alpha band (8-12 Hz) phase dynamics in the visual cortex are thought to reflect fluctuations in cortical excitability that influences perceptual processing. As such, visual stimuli are better detected when their onset is concurrent with specific phases of the alpha cycle. However, it is unclear whether alpha phase differentially influences cognitive performance at specific times relative to stimulus onset (i.e., is the influence of phase maximal before, at, or after stimulus onset?). To address this, participants performed a delayed-recognition, working memory (WM) task for visual motion direction during two separate visits. The first visit utilized functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging to identify neural regions associated with task performance. Replicating previous studies, fMRI data showed engagement of visual cortical area V5, as well as a prefrontal cortical region, the inferior frontal junction (IFJ). During the second visit, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied separately to both the right IFJ and right V5 (with the vertex as a control region) while electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded. During each trial, a single pulse of TMS (spTMS) was applied at one of six time points (-200, -100, -50, 0, 80, 160 ms) relative to the encoded stimulus onset. Results demonstrated a relationship between the phase of the posterior alpha signal prior to stimulus encoding and subsequent response times to the memory probe two seconds later. Specifically, spTMS to V5, and not the IFJ or vertex, yielded faster response times, indicating improved WM performance, when delivered during the peak, compared to the trough, of the alpha cycle, but only when spTMS was applied 100 ms prior to stimulus onset. These faster responses to the probe correlated with decreased early event related potential (ERP) amplitudes (i.e., P1) to the probe stimuli. Moreover, participants that were least affected by spTMS exhibited greater functional connectivity

  15. Magnetic relaxation switch and colorimetric detection of thrombin using aptamer-functionalized gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Guohai; Cai Shaoyu; Zhang Peng [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Peng Youyuan [Department of Chemistry, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Chen Hui; Zhang Song [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Kong Jilie, E-mail: jlkong@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-03-18

    We describe a sensitive biosensing system combining magnetic relaxation switch diagnosis and colorimetric detection of human {alpha}-thrombin, based on the aptamer-protein interaction induced aggregation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle was synthesized by iterative reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} onto the dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The resulting core-shell structure had a flowerlike shape with pretty narrow size distribution (referred to as 'nanorose'). The two aptamers corresponding to human {alpha}-thrombin were conjugated separately to two distinct nanorose populations. Once a solution containing human {alpha}-thrombin was introduced, the nanoroses switched from a well dispersed state to an aggregated one, leading to a change in the spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) as well as the UV-Vis absorption spectra of the solution. Thus the qualitative and quantitative detection method for human {alpha}-thrombin was established. The dual-mode detection is clearly advantageous in obtaining a more reliable result; the detection range is widened as well. By using the dual-mode detection method, a detectable T{sub 2} change is observed with 1.0 nM human {alpha}-thrombin, and the detection range is from 1.6 nM to 30.4 nM.

  16. DETECTION OF FETOMATERNAL HEMORRHAGE ASSOCIATED WITH CORDOCENTESIS USING SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AND THE KLEIHAUER TECHNIQUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSELM, M; KANHAI, HHH; VANLOON, AJ

    Fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) was studied after 46 cordocenteses. alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) concentration and Kleihauer staining of maternal blood, taken both before and after the procedure, revealed increases in AFP values of more than 40 per cent in 30 per cent of the patients examined; fetal

  17. [125Iodo]BE 2254, a new radioligand for alpha 1-adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, G.; Hoyer, D.

    1982-01-01

    [ 125 cIodo]2-[beta-(14-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-aminomethyl]-tetralone([ 125 Iodo]BE 2254 or IBE 2254), a new iodinated radioligand of high specific radioactivity (2175 Ci/mmol), was synthesized and used to characterize alpha 1-adrenoceptors in rat lung and cerebral cortex membranes. The binding constants of IBE 2254, using rat lung and cortex membranes, were Kd . 53 +/- 10 pM, Bmax . 53 +/- 8 fmol/mg; and Kd . 78 +/- 14 pM, Bmas . 210 +/- 26 fmol/mg, respectively (Kd . dissociation constant of IBE 2254 determined in saturation experiments). In equilibrium binding experiments with IBE 2254, at concentrations of the free ligand up to 1.2 nM, only one class of binding sites could be detected. In kinetic experiments, the association and dissociation rate constants were 2.3 X 10(9) M-1 min-1 and 0.10 min-1, respectively. In rat cerebral cortex membranes, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists competed for IBE 2254 binding in the following order: prazosin greater than BE 2254 greater than WB 4101 greater than phentolamine greater than corynanthine greater than yohimbine greater than rauwolscine, indicating strongly that IBE 2254 binds to alpha 1-adrenoceptors. The calculated affinities of different alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agents from inhibition of IBE 2254 binding were nearly identical in rat lung and cerebral cortex. The low dissociation constant of the ligand together with its high specific radioactivity allows binding studies to be carried out with tissue samples where only small densities of alpha 1-adrenoceptors are present

  18. Method validation to determine total alpha beta emitters in water samples using LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Al-akel, B.; Saaid, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work a method was validated to determine gross alpha and beta emitters in water samples using liquid scintillation counter. 200 ml of water from each sample were evaporated to 20 ml and 8 ml of them were mixed with 12 ml of the suitable cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counter Wallac Winspectral 1414. The lower detection limit by this method (LDL) was 0.33 DPM for total alpha emitters and 1.3 DPM for total beta emitters. and the reproducibility limit was (± 2.32 DPM) and (±1.41 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively, and the repeatability limit was (±2.19 DPM) and (±1.11 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively. The method is easy and fast because of the simple preparation steps and the large number of samples that can be measured at the same time. In addition, many real samples and standard samples were analyzed by the method and showed accurate results so it was concluded that the method can be used with various water samples. (author)

  19. Dynamical chaos in a linear 3. alpha. system. Dinamicheskij khaos v linejnoj 3. alpha. -sisteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, Yu L; Gonchar, V Yu; Chekanov, N A [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.; Vinitskij, S I [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1989-01-01

    Classical dynamics of the motion of a molecular model of the carbon nucleus, which is a linear 3{alpha} system with realistic {alpha}{alpha} interaction is studied. Transition from a regular to a chaos motion in the nuclear molecule is shown to occur with growing energy more rapidly than in model problems with polynomial potentials. It is found that in a small region of the phase space the motion remains regular at energies higher than the 3{alpha}-system dissociation threshold. This is probably related to the C{sub 3v}-symmetry violation. Formulas for the quasiclassical spectrum of the 3{alpha} system are obtained with the use of the Birkhoff normal form.

  20. Role of myristoylation in membrane attachment and function of G alpha i-3 on Golgi membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, S H; Holtzman, E J; Scher, D A; Ausiello, D A; Stow, J L

    1996-05-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunits localized on the cytoplasmic face of Golgi membranes are involved in regulating vesicle trafficking and protein secretion. We investigated the role of myristoylation in attachment of the G alpha i-3 subunit to Golgi membranes. G alpha i-3 was epitope-tagged by insertion of a FLAG sequence at an NH2-terminal site predicted to interfere with myristoylation, and the resulting NT-alpha i-3 construct was stably transfected and expressed in polarized epithelial LLC-PK1 cells. Metabolic labeling confirmed that the translation product of NT-alpha i-3 was not myristoylated. In contrast to endogenous G alpha 1-3, which is tightly bound to Golgi membranes, the unmyristoylated FLAG-tagged NT-alpha i-3 did not attach to membranes; it was localized by immunofluorescence in the cytoplasm of LLC-PK1 cells and was detected only in the cytosol fraction of cell homogenates. Pertussis toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation was used to test the ability of NT-alpha i-3 to interact with membrane-bound beta gamma-subunits. In both in vitro and in vivo assays, cytosolic NT-alpha i-3 alone was not ADP-ribosylated, although in the presence of membranes it could interact with G beta gamma-subunits to form heterotrimers. The expression of NT-alpha i-3 in LLC-PK1 cells altered the rate of basolateral secretion of sulfated proteoglycans, consistent with the demonstrated function of endogenous G alpha i-3. These data are consistent with a model in which G alpha i-3 utilizes NH2-terminal myristoylation to bind to Golgi membranes and to maximize its interaction with G beta gamma-subunits. Furthermore, our results show that stable attachment of G alpha i-3 to Golgi membranes is not required for it to participate as a regulatory element in vesicle trafficking in the secretory pathway.

  1. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Gómez, H; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  2. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: Characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurat, J.H.; Schifferli, J.; Steiger, G.; Dayer, J.M.; Didierjean, L.

    1991-01-01

    Since autoantibodies (Abs) to cytokines may modify their biologic activities, high-affinity binding factors for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha BF) were characterized in human sera. IL-1 alpha BF was identified as IgG (1) by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunodiffusion autoradiography, (2) by ligand-blotting method, (3) by ligand binding to affinity-immobilized serum IgG, and (4) by IgG affinity purification followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. IL-1 alpha binding activity resided in the F(ab)2 fragment. The apparent equilibrium constant was in the range of IgG found after immunization with conventional antigens (i.e., 10(-9) to 10(-10) mol/L). Anti-IL-1 alpha IgG auto-Abs represented only an extremely small fraction of total IgG (less than 1/10(-5)). Some sera with IL-1 alpha BF and purified IgG thereof were able to inhibit by 96% to 98% the binding of human recombinant IL-1 alpha to its receptor on murine thymoma EL4-6.1 cells, whereas other sera did not. When 125I-labeled anti-IL-1 alpha IgG complexes were injected into rats, they prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha several fold and altered its tissue distribution. The predominant class was IgG (12/19), mainly IgG4 (9/19), but in five of the sera, anti-IL-1 alpha IgA was also detected. In a screening of 271 sera, IL-1 alpha BF was detected in 17/98 normal subjects and was not more frequent in several control groups of patients, except in patients with Schnitzler's syndrome (fever, chronic urticaria, bone pain, and monoclonal IgM paraprotein) (6/9; p less than 0.005). The pathologic significance of these auto-Abs remains to be determined

  3. Determination of total alpha index in samples of see water by coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, L.; Pozuelo, M.; Pablo, A. de

    1998-01-01

    An environmental radiological monitoring network in the Spanish sea waters was set up by CEDEX in 1993. Water radioactivity is determined quarterly in eleven sampling points along the Spanish coast. The gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to be determined. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Nevertheless, the gross alpha activity determination in saline waters, such as sea waters, is troublesome, because mass attenuation is high and a very small of water is needed (0.2 ml). The coprecipitation method allows to analyze 500 ml water samples, so the detection limit is reduced and sensitivity is improved. In this work, the coprecipitation method was used to determine the gross alpha activity in the radiological network of the Spanish coast sea waters during 1996 and 1997. Gross alpha activity was very homogenous. It averaged 0.0844±0.0086 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.062 to 0.102 Bq.1''1. In collaboration with CIEMAT a set of samples was analyzed, they averaged 0.0689±0.0074 Bq.1''1 and ranged from 0.056 to 0.082 Bq.1''1. (Author) 5 refs

  4. Autoradiographic measurement of low concentrations of alpha-active nuclides using CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, K.; Dietze, K.; Weisse, S.; Kummer, G.

    1991-01-01

    An autoradiographic method for the determination of alpha emission rates from plastic packaging materials for VLSI silicon memory devices based on long-time exposure of the samples on CR-39 detectors has been tested. The lower limit of detection will be strongly influenced by the background of the detector material and amounts at times to 0.002 alpha particles cm -2 h -1 after 200 days exposure. A mathematical method for the interpretation of very low track densities is discussed. The first results of its application are presented. (author)

  5. Study of ({alpha}, {sup 3}He) and ({alpha}, t) reactions on {sup 28}Si at 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darshan, V.P.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Ramaswamy, C.R.; Raja Rao, M.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Banerjee, S.R.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Dept. of Phys., Bangalore Univ. (India)

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 28}Si({alpha}, {sup 3}He){sup 29}Si, {sup 28}Si({alpha}, t){sup 29}P and Si({alpha}, {alpha})Si reactions were studied at E{sub {alpha}} = 45 MeV. Exact finite-range (EFR) DWBA analysis was carried out for the transitions to the ground state and to five excited states in {sup 29}Si and {sup 29}P. Spectroscopic strengths G were extracted for all the states and were compared with the predictions from shell-model and quasi-particle core-coupling calculations. Similar EFR-DWBA analyses were carried out from available (unpublished) data for the {sup 28}Si({alpha}, {sup 3}He){sup 29}Si reaction at E{sub {alpha}} = 64.9 and 120 MeV, and for the {sup 28}Si({alpha}, t){sup 29}P reaction at E{sub {alpha}} = 50 and 64.9 MeV. The comparison of experimental and theoretical values of G are provided. (author)

  6. Dependence of alpha radionuclide diffusion and deposition on relative air humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, A.; Ciubotariu, M.; Oncescu, M.; Mocsy, I.; Tomulescu, V.

    2000-01-01

    The diffusion and deposition of the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides/aerosols depend strongly on the relative air humidity. This dependence gets a great significance in the case of radon and their genetically related alpha radionuclides monitoring in the dwelling and working places for radioprotection purposes, particularly in establishing the equilibrium factor. For the gaseous and solid alpha radionuclides genetically related, Rn-222 and its solid alpha descendants including their aerosols obtained by radionuclide attachments to different particles present in air, the vertical gradient of volume concentrations was experimentally determined. The experiments were performed in: an airtight tubular laboratory chamber, a house cellar (Cluj-Napoca) and the entrance gallery of an abandoned mine (Avram Iancu, Bihor), in which the relative humidity was ranging from 65% up to 96%. For the laboratory chamber, these radionuclides were generated by a calibrated Ra-226 source, prepared at the Radionuclide Production Centre, IPNE-HH, Bucharest. The source was included into an air tight device with a well known volume and it was used only after 40 days, when the Ra-226 and its alpha descendants were under radioactive equilibrium. For the diffusion/deposition studies, this source was coupled with the airtight laboratory chamber. In the mine gallery and house cellar, the radon and its descendants were naturally and continuously generated by radium sources in soil and building materials. The alpha volume concentration determinations required the use of a very accurate and sensitive alpha measurement method. These requirements were met by the alpha track method. This method was used by us in the following conditions: the CR-39 plastic track detector (Page, England) for the detection of the alpha particles and the optical microscopy for the study of alpha tracks (Wild stereomicroscope M7S and a Karl Zeiss Jena binocular microscope). The volume concentrations of radon and the

  7. alpha AD alpha hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence of same-sex mating in nature and hybrid fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, alpha and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT alpha over a in C. neoformans populations limits alpha-a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between alpha isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural alpha AD alpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1 alpha was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed alpha AD alpha strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population.

  8. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect...... cells, all others in Escherichia coli. IC(50) studies involving the established CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBBt, TBBz, apigenin and emodin were carried out and the K(i) values calculated. Although the differences in the K(i) values found were modest, there was a general tendency showing that the CK2...... holoenzymes were more sensitive towards the inhibitors than the free catalytic subunits. Thermal inactivation experiments involving the individual catalytic subunits showed an almost complete loss of activity after only 2 min at 45 degrees C. In the case of the two holoenzymes, the CK2alpha...

  9. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  10. CONSTRAINING DUST AND MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES IN Ly{alpha} BLOBS AT z {approx} 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yujin; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, Helmut; Le Floc' h, Emeric [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Chapman, Scott C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Neri, Roberto [IRAM-Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Borys, Colin [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tapken, Christian [Leibnitz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-01-10

    In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Ly{alpha} nebulae, the so-called Ly{alpha} blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z {approx} 3: an Ly{alpha} blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 {mu}m detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L{sub FIR} = (4.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }, comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 {mu}m measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S{sub 850{mu}m} = 16.8 mJy) at the >4{sigma} level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with {approx}2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to Almost-Equal-To 0.45 mJy beam{sup -1} (3{sigma}). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S{sub {nu}}{Delta}V {approx}< 0.25-1.0 Jy km s{sup -1}, indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H{sub 2}) < (1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12{sigma}), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.

  11. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators.We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO.Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation plays a key role in regulating the response of Müller glia to hypoxia.

  12. Alpha-eleostearic acid (9Z11E13E-18:3) is quickly converted to conjugated linoleic acid (9Z11E-18:2) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Tokuyama, Yoshiko; Igarashi, Miki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Komai, Michio; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-10-01

    We previously showed that alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9Z11E13E-18:3) is converted to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 9,11-18:2) in the liver and plasma of rats that were given diets including 1% alpha-ESA for 4 wk. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon in detail. First, the chemical structure of CLA produced by alpha-ESA administration was determined. After alpha-ESA was orally administered to rats, CLA in rat liver was isolated by HPLC. The positional and geometric isomerism was determined using GC-EI/MS and (13)C-NMR, respectively, and the CLA generated in rats after alpha-ESA feeding was confirmed to be 9Z11E-CLA. Next, the concentrations of alpha-ESA and CLA were determined 0, 3, 6, and 24 h after oral administration of alpha-ESA to rats. Moreover, we also investigated whether enteric bacteria are involved in the conversion of alpha-ESA to CLA using germ-free rats. alpha-ESA was orally administered to germ-free and normal rats and alpha-ESA and CLA were detected in the organs of both groups. In addition, to confirm that this reaction was enzyme-mediated, alpha-ESA was reacted with tissue homogenates (liver, kidney, and small intestine mucous) and coenzymes (NADH, NAD(+), NADPH, and NADP(+)), and the enzyme activities were estimated from the amount of CLA produced. CLA was detected when alpha-ESA was reacted with liver, kidney, and small intestine mucous homogenates and a coenzyme (NADPH). These results indicated that alpha-ESA is converted to 9Z11E-CLA in rats by a Delta13-saturation reaction carried out by an NADPH-dependent enzyme.

  13. Application of four anti-human interferon-alpha monoclonal antibodies for immunoassay and comparative analysis of natural interferon-alpha mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, G.; Lundgren, E.; Ekre, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Four different mouse monoclonal antibodies to human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) were evaluated for application in quantitative and comparative analysis of natural IFN-alpha mixtures. Binding to IFN-alpha subtypes in solution revealed individual reactivity patterns. These patterns changed if the IFN-alpha molecules were immobilized either passively to a surface or bound by another antibody. Also, substitution of a single amino acid in IFN-alpha 2 affected the binding, apparently by altering the conformation. Isoelectric focusing of three natural IFN-alpha preparations from different sources, followed by immunoblotting, resulted in individual patterns with each of the four mAbs and also demonstrated variation in the composition of the IFN-alpha preparations. None of the mAbs was subtype specific, but by combining the different mAbs, and also applying polyclonal anti-human IFN-alpha antibodies, it was possible to design sensitive sandwich ELISAs with broad or more limited IFN-alpha subtype specificity

  14. Trial-by-trial variations in subjective attentional state are reflected in ongoing prestimulus EEG alpha oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stuart Peter Macdonald

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parieto-occipital EEG alpha power and subjective reports of attentional state are both associated with visual attention and awareness, but little is currently known about the relationship between these two measures. Here, we bring together these two literatures to explore the relationship between alpha activity and participants’ introspective judgements of attentional state as each varied from trial to trial during performance of a visual detection task. We collected participants’ subjective ratings of perceptual decision confidence and attentional state on continuous scales on each trial of a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP detection task while recording EEG. We found that confidence and attentional state ratings were largely uncorrelated with each other, but both were strongly associated with task performance and post-stimulus decision-related EEG activity. Crucially, attentional state ratings were also negatively associated with prestimulus EEG alpha power. Attesting to the robustness of this association, we were able to classify attentional state ratings via prestimulus alpha power on a single-trial basis. Moreover, when we repeated these analyses after smoothing the time series of attentional state ratings and alpha power with increasingly large sliding windows, both the correlations and classification performance improved considerably, with the peaks occurring at a sliding window size of approximately seven minutes worth of trials. Our results therefore suggest that slow fluctuations in attentional state in the order of minutes are reflected in spontaneous alpha power. Since these subjective attentional state ratings were associated with objective measures of both behaviour and neural activity, we suggest that they provide a simple and effective estimate of task engagement that could prove useful in operational settings that require human operators to maintain a sustained focus of visual attention.

  15. Conformational analysis of a Chlamydia-specific disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution and bound to a monoclonal antibody: Observation of intermolecular transfer NOEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Tobias; Haselhorst, Thomas; Scheffler, Karoline [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Weisemann, Ruediger [Bruker Analytik GmbH, Silberstreifen (Germany); Kosma, Paul [Institut fuer Chemie der Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria); Brade, Helmut; Brade, Lore [Forschungszentrum Borstel, Zentrum fuer Medizin und Biowissenschaften Parkallee 22 (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany)

    1998-07-15

    The disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo (Kdo: 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) represents a genus-specific epitope of the lipopolysaccharide of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia. The conformation of the synthetically derived disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl was studied in aqueous solution, and complexed to a monoclonal antibody S25-2. Various NMR experiments based on the detection of NOEs (or transfer NOEs) and ROEs (or transfer ROEs) were performed. A major problem was the extensive overlap of almost all {sup 1}H NMR signals of {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. To overcome this difficulty, HMQC-NOESY and HMQC-trNOESY experiments were employed. Spin diffusion effects were identified using trROESY experiments, QUIET-trNOESY experiments and MINSY experiments. It was found that protein protons contribute to the observed spin diffusion effects. At 800 MHz, intermolecular trNOEs were observed between ligand protons and aromatic protons in the antibody binding site. From NMR experiments and Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution exists as a complex conformational mixture. Upon binding to the monoclonal antibody S25-2, only a limited range of conformations is available to {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. These possible bound conformations were derived from a distance geometry analysis using transfer NOEs as experimental constraints. It is clear that a conformation is selected which lies within a part of the conformational space that is highly populated in solution. This conformational space also includes the conformation found in the crystal structure. Our results provide a basis for modeling studies of the antibody-disaccharide complex.

  16. Human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA) deficiency: no association with neuroaxonal dystrophy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H. D.; de Sonnaville, M. L.; Vreken, P.; Abeling, N. G.; Groener, J. E.; Keulemans, J. L.; van Diggelen, O. P.

    2001-01-01

    Two new individuals with alpha-NAGA deficiency are presented. The index patient, 3 years old, has congenital cataract, slight motor retardation and secondary demyelinisation. Screening of his sibs revealed an alpha-NAGA deficiency in his 7-year-old healthy brother who had no clinical or neurological

  17. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  18. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of fungal alpha-amylase at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koets, M.; Sander, I.; Bogdanovic, J.; Doekes, G.; Amerongen, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal alpha-amylase is a flour supplement which is added to improve the quality of bakery products. Various studies have shown that exposure to this enzyme is an important risk factor for the development of bakers allergy and this allergy is reported to be one of the most frequent causes of

  19. Galaxy interactions and star formation: Results of a survey of global H-alpha emission in spiral galaxies in 8 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C.

    1990-01-01

    Kennicutt and Kent (1983) have shown that the global H alpha emission from a spiral galaxy is an indicator of the formation rate of massive stars. Moss, Whittle and Irwin (1988) have surveyed two clusters (Abell 347 and 1367) for galaxies with H alpha emission using a high dispersion objective prism technique. The purpose of the survey is to investigate environmental effects on star formation in spiral galaxies, and in particular to ascertain whether star formation is enhanced in cluster spirals. Approximately 20 percent of CGCG galaxies were detected in emission. Two plates of excellent quality were obtained for each of the two clusters, and galaxies were only identified to have emission if this was detected on both plates of a plate pair. In this way, plate flaws and other spurious identifications of emission could be rejected, and weak emission confirmed. The results of this survey have been discussed by Moss (1987). The detected galaxies are of types SO-a and later. The frequency with which galaxies are detected in emission increases towards later morphological type as expected (cf. Kennicutt and Kent 1983). There is no evidence of any dependence of the frequency of detected emission on the absolute magnitude of the galaxy (cf. Moss and Whittle 1990), but there is a strong correlation between a disturbed morphological appearance of the galaxy and the detection of emission. Furthermore it is found that the emission is more centrally concentrated in those galaxies which show a disturbed morphology. It may be noted that the objective prism plate gives a spectrum of a 400 A region around rest wavelength H alpha, but superposed on this is the H alpha emission from the galaxy which, because the light is essentially monochromatic, results in a true two-dimensional image of the H alpha distribution. The visual appearance of the emission on the prism plates was classified according to its diffuseness on a 5 point scale (very diffuse, diffuse, intermediate, compact, and

  20. DT results of TFTR's alpha collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.W.; Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Timberlake, J.R.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase to complement the results of the lost alpha scintillator detectors which have been operating on TFTR since 1988. Measurements of the energy distribution of escaping alphas have been made by measuring the range of alphas implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Exposed samples have been analyzed for 4 DT plasma discharges at plasma currents of 1.0 and 1.8 MA. The results at 1.0 MA are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss at 3.5 MeV. The 1.8 MA results, however, indicate a large anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas at an energy ∼30% below the birth energy and at a total fluence nearly an order of magnitude above expected first orbit loss. This anomalous loss is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. Several potential explanations for this loss process are examined. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations

  1. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Alpha Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  2. Combinations of ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors ablate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) mRNA induction. Evidence for selective destabilization of TNF-alpha transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutault, K; Hazzalin, C A; Mahadevan, L C

    2001-03-02

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine whose synthesis and secretion are implicated in diverse pathologies. Hence, inhibition of TNF-alpha transcription or translation and neutralization of its protein product represent major pharmaceutical strategies to control inflammation. We have studied the role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in controlling TNF-alpha mRNA levels in differentiated THP-1 cells and in freshly purified human monocytes. We show here that it is possible to produce virtually complete inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation by using a combination of ERK and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, substantial inhibition is achievable using combinations of 1 microm of each inhibitor, whereas inhibitors used individually are incapable of producing complete inhibition even at high concentrations. Finally, addressing mechanisms involved, we show that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase selectively destabilizes TNF-alpha transcripts but does not affect degradation of c-jun transcripts. These results impinge on the controversy in the literature surrounding the mode of action of MAP kinase inhibitors on TNF-alpha mRNA and suggest the use of combinations of MAP kinase inhibitors as an effective anti-inflammatory strategy.

  3. Development of thermal conditioning technology for Alpha-containment wastes: Alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Seon; Jeong, Myeong Soo

    1999-03-01

    As the first step of a 3-year project named 'development of alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology', the basic information and data were reviewed, while focusing on establishment of R and D direction to develop the final goal, self-supporting treatment of {alpha}- wastes that would be generated from domestic nuclear industries. The status on {alpha} waste incineration technology of advanced states was reviewed. A conceptual design for {alpha} waste incineration process was suggested. Besides, removal characteristics of volatile metals and radionuclides in a low-temperature dry off-gas system were investigated. Radiation dose assessments and some modification for the Demonstration-scale Incineration Plant (DSIP) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were also done.

  4. Diffusion of alpha-like MeV ions in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.L.; Zweben, S.J.; Chang, C.S.; Hammett, G.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Single particle confinement of alpha particles is of crucial importance in reactor-grade tokamaks like BPX and ITER. Besides the well-known process of first-orbit losses, mechanisms that could lead to significant loss of alpha particles are turbulence-induced diffusion and toroidal field ripple stochastic diffusion. These two mechanisms have been separately studied in TFTR using two different detectors (one at the bottom of the machine and the other near the outer midplane) which can detect escaping charged fusion products, namely the 1 MeV triton and the 3 MeV proton in D-D plasmas (and also the 3.5 MeV alpha in D-T). The main difficulty in this type of experiment lies in the necessity of distinguishing the diffusion process from the always-present first-orbit loss-process. In this paper, we show how these two processes can be distinguished using the pitch-angle discrimination of the detectors. The pitch-angle is defined here as the angle of the particle trajectory with respect to the toroidal direction and so is a measure of the ion magnetic moment, μ. Results obtained at the midplane would be the first reported evidence of TF ripple diffusion in a tokamak. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  5. Radon Daughters Background Reduction in Alpha Particles Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadon, S. S.; Pelled, O.; Orion, I.

    2014-01-01

    The ABPC method is using a serially occurring events of the beta decay of the 214Bi fallow by alpha decay of the 214Po that take place almost simultaneously to detect the Pseudo Coincidence Event (PCE) from the RDP, and to subtract them from the gross alpha counts. 267 This work showed that it is possible to improve the efficiency of RDP background reduction, including subtracting the 218Po contribution by using the ABPC method based on a single solid state silicon PIPS detector. False counts percentage obtained at the output of the PCE circuit were smaller than 0.1%. The results show that the PCE circuit was not influenced by non RDP alpha emitters. The PCE system did not reduce the non PCE of the 218Po. After 20 minutes the 218Po was strongly decayed, and its contribution became negligible. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a mathematical matching calculations for the 214Po and the 218Po decay equations were employed, and a constant ratio of the APo214(0) / APo218(0) was obtained. This ratio can be used to estimate the count rate of the 218Po at the first 20 minutes, and to subtract it from the total count rate in order to obtain correct RDP reduction

  6. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of human alpha crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, M S; Abraham, E C

    1991-03-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was used to separate crystallin subunits from human alpha crystallin. Three distinct peaks were separated; by electrophoretic and immunological analyses the first and second peaks were identified as alpha B and alpha A respectively. On the other hand, peak 3 appeared to be a modified form of alpha crystallin. The ratio of alpha A and alpha B proteins was 3:1 in 1 day old lenses which gradually changed to 2:1 in 17 year old lenses and to 1:1 in the 50 and 82 year old whole lenses and 82 year old lens cortex, with a concomitant increase in the modified alpha, suggesting that alpha A subunits are relatively more involved in aggregation. Analysis of the 82 year old lens nucleus also supported this conclusion. The RP-HPLC analysis of the HMW aggregate fraction showed substantial enrichment of the modified alpha. The alpha A and alpha B subunits independently reassociated to form polymeric alpha crystallin whereas the modified alpha reassociated to form HMW aggregates as shown by molecular sieve HPLC. Hence it appears that the HMW aggregate peak was constituted by modified alpha crystallin. Only in the peak 3 material the 280 nm absorbance was about 2-fold higher than what was expected from the actual protein content. The data suggest that the changes induced by post-translational modifications may have some role in the formation of modified alpha. The present RP-HPLC method is useful in separating these modified alpha from the unmodified alpha A and alpha B subunits.

  7. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    -amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha...

  8. Stage IV in electrical resistivity return to alpha-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poltavtseva, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In compliance with the model of two interstitial atoms, in returning the electrical resistivity increment, the stage IV, related to migration of mono vacancies, should exist. Unfortunately, for alpha-iron there is no any reliable proof of existence of the stage IV (450-630 K) up to now. As a rule, the annealing stages revealed within this temperature range are considered as related to impurity effects. This paper is aimed at detection of the stage IV in returning the electrical resistivity increment in alpha-iron by means of irradiation of the materials differing in purity degree (99.99 and 99.8 %) by 30 MeV protons capable to create large amount of point defects and small clusters in BCC metals. By author opinion, it will make it possible to reach the radiation defect/vacancy concentrations comparable with contents of impurities (C and N) and, thus, to obtain an information about their migration. As a result of irradiation by protons at 270 K up to the fluence comprising 2.3·10 21 m -2 (0.001 dpa), the following has been found: - an increase in the electrical resistivity at 330 K is 0.84 and 0.61 nΩ·m for the alpha-iron purity degree 99.99 and 99.8 % respectively; - in the 99.99 % purity degree alpha-iron the process of electrical resistivity restoration comes to an end completely at 563 K, whereas in alpha-iron with larger content of impurity - at nearly 600 K; - in the 99.99% purity degree alpha iron electrical resistivity return spectrum a single wide peak centered at 445 K and two smeared peaks below 400 and higher than 490 K are revealed. As the impurity content increases, the 464 K peak changes the 445 K peak, which is about twice lower. Besides, a peak at 377 K occurs, and the peak at a temperature higher than 500 K, in contrast to the 99.99 % purity degree alpha-iron, has a point of inflection at 590 K. On a base of the data obtained, one may conclude that the stage centered around 445 K is of intrinsic nature, and the 99.99 % purity degree

  9. Assessment of hypoxia and TNF-alpha response by a vector with HRE and NF-kappaB response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhilin; Eadie, Ashley L; Hall, Sean R; Ballantyne, Laurel; Ademidun, David; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Melo, Luis G; Ward, Christopher A; Brunt, Keith R

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and inflammatory cytokine activation (H&I) are common processes in many acute and chronic diseases. Thus, a single vector that responds to both hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, is useful for assesing the severity of such diseases. Adaptation to hypoxia is regulated primarily by hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF alpha) nuclear proteins that engage genes containing a hypoxia response element (HRE). Inflammation activates a multitude of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, that invariably modulate activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) transcription factor. We constructed a vector that encompassed both a hypoxia response element (HRE), and a NF-kappaB responsive element. We show that this vector was functionally responsive to both hypoxia and TNF-alpha, in vitro and in vivo . Thus, this vector might be suitable for the detection and assessment of hypoxia or TNF-alpha.

  10. Alpha 1A and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors enhance inositol phosphate generation in rat renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Büscher, R.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the role of alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors in noradrenaline- and methoxamine-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in rat renal cortical slices. [3H]Prazosin binding studies with and without inactivation of alpha 1B-adrenoceptors by chloroethylclonidine treatment suggested

  11. Management of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    : 1) As regards the definition what is an alpha-bearing waste, it seemed that a number of participants were supporting the idea that such a value might be based on the concept of the MPC (maximum permissible concentration) - for drinkable water - and that the radioactivity of these wastes might be expressed in such a way in view of the conditioning and the disposal requirements. 2) It was the consensus that it is necessary to prevent production of large amounts of alpha-bearing wastes by improving the engineering and operational procedures of the reprocessing units and of the fuel fabrication plants, and to recover the major part of alpha emitters (plutonium) from the wastes by recycling. 3) As far as the treatment of such wastes is concerned, methods for reducing the volume have been improved. Techniques for sectioning large items and decontamination processes are now available Incineration at low temperature has proved its efficiency for the volume reduction Slagging incineration and acid digestion are also ready for an industrial development. 4) With regard to the conditioning it appeared that, in addition to the borosilicate glasses which are developed to industrial scale in France, several other matrices are under consideration and the first results are very promising. These matrices include vitreous and crystalline ceramics and synthetic rock materials. A substantial effort has been done in this field to ensure the quality of the final waste form for disposal. 5) For the monitoring of alpha emitters in the waste, several techniques are applicable at industrial level; they include gamma spectrography and passive neutron counting. Active neutron assay is under improvement and the results are very promising. A new technique is also under consideration using linear accelerator technology to detect trace amounts of transuranics in waste barrels. 6) As regards the actinide partitioning from high-level waste, great progress was made at laboratory scale using different

  12. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T

    1995-01-01

    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... and improvement in objective parameters for bladder outflow obstruction. Approximately 30 to 50% of patients will respond to treatment with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. The definitive role of pharmacological treatment in symptomatic BPH remains to be established, although it seems that patients unfit...

  13. Interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Hernando; LaRocco, Michael; Golde, William T; Baxt, Barry

    2004-09-01

    At least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphaVbeta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta6, and alphaVbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro. Our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (H. Duque and B. Baxt, J. Virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). To further examine these differences, we generated soluble alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins. cDNA plasmids encoding the individual complete integrin alphaV, beta3, and beta6 subunits were used to amplify sequences encoding the subunits' signal peptide and ectodomain, resulting in subunits lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. COS-1 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the soluble alphaV subunit and either the soluble beta3 or beta6 subunit and labeled with [35S]methionine-cysteine. Complete subunit heterodimeric integrins were secreted into the medium, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. For the examination of the integrins' biological activities, stable cell lines producing the soluble integrins were generated in HEK 293A cells. In the presence of divalent cations, soluble alphaVbeta6 bound to representatives of type A or O viruses, immobilized on plastic dishes, and significantly inhibited viral replication, as determined by plaque reduction assays. In contrast, soluble alphaVbeta3 was unable to bind to immobilized virus of either serotype; however, virus bound to the immobilized integrin, suggesting that FMDV binding to alphaVbeta3 is a low-affinity interaction. In addition, soluble alphaVbeta3 did not neutralize virus infectivity. Incubation of soluble alphaVbeta6 with labeled type A12 or O1 resulted in a significant inhibition of virus adsorption to BHK cells, while soluble alphaVbeta3 caused a low (20 to 30%), but consistent, inhibition of virus

  14. Serum concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal sepsis and meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Fadelallah, Mohamed F.; Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether serum levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and meningitis and differentiate them. Blood samples were collected from 35 full term neonates with suspected infection who admitted to the Neonatology Unit, Pediatric Department, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during January 2002 - June 2003. On the basis of laboratory and bacteriological results, newborns were classified into: sepsis (n=28), meningitis (n=7), and healthy controls (n=16). Sepsis groups were further subdivided according to culture results into: group 1 = proven sepsis (n=6), group 2 = clinical sepsis (n=14), and group 3 = possible-infected (n=8). Serum levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay while CRP by nephelometer: In sepsis and meningitis patients, serum levels of CRP (p<0.01, p<0.05,) and IL-1alpha (p<0.001, p<0.05) were elevated than controls. C-reactive protein levels elevated in proven sepsis (p<0.001) and IL-1alpha elevated in all subgroups of sepsis (groups 1, 2, 3) compared with (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.01) controls. Interleukin-6, TNF-alpha showed no significant differences between studied groups. In sepsis and meningitis, IL-1alpha had a highest sensitivity (89%, 86%), and negative predictive values (89% and 93%). Interleukin-1alpha and CRP increased in neonatal sepsis and meningitis, but cannot differentiate between them. Interleukin-1alpha had a highest sensitivity in prediction of neonatal infection and its assessment may improve accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  15. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...

  16. 15 beta-hydroxysteroids (Part IV). Steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one and its A/B-ring configurational isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A Y; Joannou, G E

    1995-12-01

    In recent years several 15 beta-hydroxysteroids have emerged pathognomonic of adrenal disorders in human neonates of which 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (2) was the first to be identified in the urine of newborn infants affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this investigation we report the synthesis of the three remaining 3 xi,5 xi-isomers, namely 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3), 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (7) and 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (8) for their definitive identification in pathological conditions in human neonates. 3 beta,15 beta-Diacetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (11), a product of chemical synthesis was converted to the isomeric 3 and 7, while conversion of 15 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (4), a product of microbiological transformation, resulted in the preparation of 8. In brief, selective acetate hydrolysis of 11 gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (12) which on catalytic hydrogenation gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (13) a common intermediate for the synthesis of the 3 beta(and alpha),5 alpha-isomers. Hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 7, whereas oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave 15 beta-acetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (14) which on reduction with L-Selectride and hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 3. Finally, hydrogenation of 4 gave 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3,20-dione (10) which on reduction with L-Selectride gave 8.

  17. Automation of Classical QEEG Trending Methods for Early Detection of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia: More Work to Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickering, Ellis; Gaspard, Nicolas; Zafar, Sahar; Moura, Valdery J; Biswal, Siddharth; Bechek, Sophia; OʼConnor, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Eric S; Westover, M Brandon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate automated implementations of continuous EEG monitoring-based detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on methods used in classical retrospective studies. We studied 95 patients with either Fisher 3 or Hunt Hess 4 to 5 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were admitted to the Neurosciences ICU and underwent continuous EEG monitoring. We implemented several variations of two classical algorithms for automated detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on decreases in alpha-delta ratio and relative alpha variability. Of 95 patients, 43 (45%) developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Our automated implementation of the classical alpha-delta ratio-based trending method resulted in a sensitivity and specificity (Se,Sp) of (80,27)%, compared with the values of (100,76)% reported in the classic study using similar methods in a nonautomated fashion. Our automated implementation of the classical relative alpha variability-based trending method yielded (Se,Sp) values of (65,43)%, compared with (100,46)% reported in the classic study using nonautomated analysis. Our findings suggest that improved methods to detect decreases in alpha-delta ratio and relative alpha variability are needed before an automated EEG-based early delayed cerebral ischemia detection system is ready for clinical use.

  18. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Is Acutely Sensitive to Freezing and Lyophilization: Implications for Structural and Functional Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R Wyatt

    Full Text Available Alpha-2-macroglobulin is an abundant secreted protein that is of particular interest because of its diverse ligand binding profile and multifunctional nature, which includes roles as a protease inhibitor and as a molecular chaperone. The activities of alpha-2-macroglobulin are typically dependent on whether its conformation is native or transformed (i.e. adopts a more compact conformation after interactions with proteases or small nucleophiles, and are also influenced by dissociation of the native alpha-2-macroglobulin tetramer into stable dimers. Alpha-2-macroglobulin is predominately present as the native tetramer in vivo; once purified from human blood plasma, however, alpha-2-macroglobulin can undergo a number of conformational changes during storage, including transformation, aggregation or dissociation. We demonstrate that, particularly in the presence of sodium chloride or amine containing compounds, freezing and/or lyophilization of alpha-2-macroglobulin induces conformational changes with functional consequences. These conformational changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin are not always detected by standard native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but can be measured using bisANS fluorescence assays. Increased surface hydrophobicity of alpha-2-macroglobulin, as assessed by bisANS fluorescence measurements, is accompanied by (i reduced trypsin binding activity, (ii increased chaperone activity, and (iii increased binding to the surfaces of SH-SY5Y neurons, in part, via lipoprotein receptors. We show that sucrose (but not glycine effectively protects native alpha-2-macroglobulin from denaturation during freezing and/or lyophilization, thereby providing a reproducible method for the handling and long-term storage of this protein.

  19. New developments in JET neutron, alpha particle and fuel mixture diagnostics with potential relevance to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Bertalot, L.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Kaellne, J.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Adams, J.M.; Stork, D.; Afanasyiev, V.; Mironov, M.; Bonheure, G.

    2005-01-01

    Some recent JET campaigns, with the introduction of trace amount (n T /n D 4 He, provided unique opportunities to test new diagnostic approaches and technologies for the detection of neutrons, alpha particles and fuel mixture. With regard to neutron detection, the recent activity covered all the most essential aspects: calibration and cross validation of the diagnostics, measurement of the spatial distribution of the neutrons, particle transport and finally neutron spectrometry. The first tests of some new neutron detection technologies were also undertaken successfully during the TTE campaign. To improve JET diagnostic capability in the field of alpha particles, a strong development program was devoted to the measurement of their slowing down and imaging with gamma ray spectroscopy. A new approach for the fusion community to measure the fast ion losses, based on the activation technique, was also successfully attempted for the first time on JET. A careful assessment of the NPA potential to determine the fuel mixture and the particle transport coefficients is under way. (author)

  20. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly...

  1. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of the lyophilized powder alpha-erythropoietin and the liquid form alpha-erythropoietin for hemoglobin maintenance in patients with hemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Supasyndh, Ouppatham; Choovichian, Panbubpa

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient production oferythropoietin (EPO) is the primary cause ofanemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The EPO treatment is an established treatment for renal anemia. The study investigated the therapeutic outcome between lyophilized powder and liquid form of EPO alpha by intravenous (IV) administration in hemoglobin maintenance of anemic treatment for CKD patients receiving hemodialysis. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either lyophilized powder of EPO alpha (treatment, n = 21) or liquidform of EPO alpha (control, n = 19) for 12 weeks by lVadministration. The hemoglobin was maintained within the target range of 10. 0 to 12.0 g/dL by adjusting the dosage of EPO. The clinical and biochemical profiles including transferrin saturation andferritin were measured. Adverse events were documented. The mean hemoglobin ofboth groups at baseline was 11.2±0.6 g/dL. Mean hemoglobin and mean hematocrit levels at baseline, and follow-up data of both groups were not statistically different. The mean weekly dosage of EPO in the treatment and control groups had no statistical significance within the same group and between groups as well. Stable hemoglobin levels were maintained without EPO dosage adjustment in the majority ofpatients in both groups (treatment group, 90.5%, control group, 94.7%). During the 12-week study period, no serious side effect was detected The present study demonstrated that the lyophilizedpowder ofEPO alpha was effective and safe as the standard liquid form of EPO alpha when it was administered by IV route in hemoglobin maintenance of anemia treatment.

  2. IFN-alpha antibodies in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with recombinant human IFN-alpha2a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Christian; Engler, Claus Bødker; Sander, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    We tested for development of binding and neutralizing antibodies to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) during IFN-alpha2a therapy of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the eyes. Antibodies were investigated retrospectively in sera of 34 patients treated with 3 x 10(6) IU IFN-alpha2...

  3. IFN-alpha antibodies in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with recombinant human IFN-alpha2a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Christian; Engler, Claus Bødker; Sander, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    We tested for development of binding and neutralizing antibodies to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) during IFN-alpha2a therapy of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the eyes. Antibodies were investigated retrospectively in sera of 34 patients treated with 3 x 10(6) IU IFN-alpha2a...

  4. Modifications of alpha processing software to improve calculation of limits for qualitative detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The work described in this report was done for the Bioassay Counting Laboratory (BCL) of the Center of Excellence for Bioassay of the Analytical Services Organization at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. BCL takes urine and fecal samples and tests for alpha radiation. An automated system, supplied by Canberra Industries, counts the activities in the samples and processes the results. The Canberra system includes hardware and software. The managers of BCL want to improve the accuracy of the results they report to their final customers. The desired improvements are of particular interest to the managers of BCL because the levels of alpha-emitting radionuclides in samples measured at BCL are usually so low that a significant fraction of the measured signal is due to background and to the reagent material used to extract the radioactive nuclides from the samples. Also, the background and reagent signals show a significant level of random variation. The customers at BCL requested four major modifications of the software. The requested software changes have been made and tested. The present report is in two parts. The first part describes what the modifications were supposed to accomplish. The second part describes the changes on a line-by-line basis. The second part includes listings of the changed software and discusses possible steps to correct a particular error condition. Last, the second part describes the effect of truncation errors on the standard deviations calculated from samples whose signals are very nearly the same.

  5. Modifications of alpha processing software to improve calculation of limits for qualitative detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The work described in this report was done for the Bioassay Counting Laboratory (BCL) of the Center of Excellence for Bioassay of the Analytical Services Organization at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. BCL takes urine and fecal samples and tests for alpha radiation. An automated system, supplied by Canberra Industries, counts the activities in the samples and processes the results. The Canberra system includes hardware and software. The managers of BCL want to improve the accuracy of the results they report to their final customers. The desired improvements are of particular interest to the managers of BCL because the levels of alpha-emitting radionuclides in samples measured at BCL are usually so low that a significant fraction of the measured signal is due to background and to the reagent material used to extract the radioactive nuclides from the samples. Also, the background and reagent signals show a significant level of random variation. The customers at BCL requested four major modifications of the software. The requested software changes have been made and tested. The present report is in two parts. The first part describes what the modifications were supposed to accomplish. The second part describes the changes on a line-by-line basis. The second part includes listings of the changed software and discusses possible steps to correct a particular error condition. Last, the second part describes the effect of truncation errors on the standard deviations calculated from samples whose signals are very nearly the same

  6. Alpha-particle diagnostics for the D-T phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, S.W.; Bergsaker, H.; Coad, J.P.; Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); McCracken, G.M.; Pitts, R.A. (AEA Fusion, Culham (United Kingdom)); Zhu, J. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostics to examine the lost [alpha] particle flux at JET during the D-T phase are under development. A passive [sup 3]He collector probe has been tested during [sup 3]He NBI and RF heated discharges. [sup 3]He ions with energies of at least 100 keV have been detected; their source is probably due to the metastable component of the [sup 3]He NBI. A code has been developed to model the charged particle fluxes at the wall. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Shuang; Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Xia; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Bin; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Ba, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha plays a crucial role in regulating the biosynthesis of mitochondria, which is closely linked to the energy metabolism in various tumors. This study investigated the regulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the changes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha messenger RNA levels between normal human liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissue were examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by RNA interference in the human liver cell line L02, while overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha complementary DNA in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Cellular morphological changes were observed via optical and electron microscopy. Cellular apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining. In addition, the expression levels of 21,400 genes in tissues and cells were detected by microarray. It was shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression was significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with normal liver tissues. After knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression in L02 cells, cells reverted to immature and dedifferentiated morphology exhibiting cancerous tendency. Apoptosis occurred in the HepG2 cells after transfection by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha. Microarray analysis showed consistent results. The results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor

  8. Alpha-amino acid derivatives and alpha-fluoro ketones by enantioselective decarboxylation

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Markus A.

    2003-01-01

    Die Methode der enantioselektiven Decarboxylierung wurde angewendet, um Enantiomeren-angereicherte alpha-Aminosäurederivate und alpha-Fluorketone zu erhalten. Als Substrate wurden 2-N-Acetylamino-2-alkylmalonsäuremonoethylester beziehungsweise beta-Keto-benzylester verwendet. China-Alkaloide und Derivate davon wurden als Katalysatoren eingesetzt. Die besten erhaltenen Ergebnisse waren N-Acetyl-L-phenylalaninethylester mit 70% Enantiomerenüberschuß unter Verwendung der katalytisch aktiven Base...

  9. Complete primary structure of rainbow trout type I collagen consisting of alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) heterotrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Takenouchi, Y; Kunisaki, N; Kimura, S

    2001-05-01

    The subunit compositions of skin and muscle type I collagens from rainbow trout were found to be alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) and [alpha1(I)](2)alpha2(I), respectively. The occurrence of alpha3(I) has been observed only for bonyfish. The skin collagen exhibited more susceptibility to both heat denaturation and MMP-13 digestion than the muscle counterpart; the former had a lower denaturation temperature by about 0.5 degrees C than the latter. The lower stability of skin collagen, however, is not due to the low levels of imino acids because the contents of Pro and Hyp were almost constant in both collagens. On the other hand, some cDNAs coding for the N-terminal and/or a part of triple-helical domains of proalpha(I) chains were cloned from the cDNA library of rainbow trout fibroblasts. These cDNAs together with the previously cloned collagen cDNAs gave information about the complete primary structure of type I procollagen. The main triple-helical domain of each proalpha(I) chain had 338 uninterrupted Gly-X-Y triplets consisting of 1014 amino acids and was unique in its high content of Gly-Gly doublets. In particular, the bonyfish-specific alpha(I) chain, proalpha3(I) was characterized by the small number of Gly-Pro-Pro triplets, 19, and the large number of Gly-Gly doublets, 38, in the triple-helical domain, compared to 23 and 22, respectively, for proalpha1(I). The small number of Gly-Pro-Pro and the large number of Gly-Gly in proalpha3(I) was assumed to partially loosen the triple-helical structure of skin collagen, leading to the lower stability of skin collagen mentioned above. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that proalpha3(I) had diverged from proalpha1(I). This study is the first report of the complete primary structure of fish type I procollagen.

  10. Improved sample preparation method for environmental plutonium analysis by ICP-SFMS and alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Z.; Stefanka, Z.; Suranyi, G.; Vajda, N.

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for plutonium determination in environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and alpha-spectrometry is described. The developed procedure involves a selective CaF 2 co-precipitation for preconcentration followed by extraction chromatographic separation. The proposed method effectively eliminates the possible interferences in mass spectrometric analysis and also removes interfering radionuclides that may disturb alpha-spectrometric measurement. For 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu limits of detection of 9.0 fg x g -1 (0.021 mBq), 1.7 fg x g -1 (0.014 mBq) and 3.1 fg x g -1 (11.9 mBq) were achieved by ICP-SFMS, respectively, and 0.02 mBq by alpha-spectrometry. Results of certified reference materials agreed well with the recommended values. (author)

  11. TFTR alpha extraction and measurement: Development and testing of advanced alpha detectors: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehring, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced alpha-particle detectors made of heavy elements were investigated as alternatives to silicon surface-barrier detectors for the ''foil-neutralization technique'' of alpha-particle diagnostics in fusion reactors with high neutron backgrounds. From an extensive literature review, it was decided that HgI 2 would make a more suitable detector for alpha-particle diagnostics than other heavy element detectors such as CdTe. Thus, HgI 2 detectors were designed and fabricated. Experimental tests were performed to determine detector characteristics and detector responses to alpha particles. Radiation noise measurements were also performed using the North Carolina State University PULSTAR nuclear reactor for both the HgI 2 detectors and commercial Si(Au) surface barrier detectors. 15 refs., 1 fig

  12. Alpha efficiency under TL and OSL - A subtraction technique using OSL and TL to detect artificial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, A.J.C.; Dabis, S.; Porto, E.; Castaing, J.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to determine the authenticity of old ceramics, forgers use artificial irradiation by gamma ray to age modern productions. Besides fraudulent action, objects can be exposed to various sources of X-rays (e.g. radiography, security control at airports). For all these reasons, the determination of artificial irradiation is an important topic for dating art objects. The main technique to identify artificial irradiations is the subtraction technique. It is based on the fact that alpha efficiency varies according to the luminescence technique (fine grain, coarse grains, predose, OSL). Having observed a rather significant difference of alpha efficiency for TL and OSL, we propose a new subtraction technique using OSL and TL of fine grains.

  13. CANDIDATES OF H{alpha} EMITTING REGIONS IN THE MAGELLANIC STREAM IV CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi, E-mail: YAGI.Masafumi@nao.ac.jp [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2012-04-10

    From H{alpha} narrowband observations, we identified three H{alpha} emitting regions in the direction of Magellanic Stream IV (MS IV). They consist of three parallel filaments of 2 arcmin width and 6-30 arcmin length at 12 arcmin intervals. Their mean surface brightness (SB) is {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2}. Because of their low SB, the regions were not detected in previous H{alpha} surveys. In the H I map, the position of the filaments overlap MS, suggesting that they are parts of the MS, but there also exists a local H I structure. If the filaments are associated with the MS, the sizes are 30 pc Multiplication-Sign 100-500 pc. The filaments lie at the leading edge of a downstream cloud, which supports shock heating and its propagation (shock cascade) model for the ionizing source. If they are local objects, on the other hand, Fossil Stroemgren Trails of more than two stars is a possible interpretation, and the sizes would be 0.1 pc Multiplication-Sign 0.3-1.5 pc at 180 pc distance. The positional information of the H{alpha} filaments presented in this Letter enables future spectroscopic observations to clarify their nature.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of phytotoxic activity of {alpha}-Santonin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade fitotoxica de derivados da {alpha}-Santonina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Elson S.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Saliba, William A.; Arantes, Francisco F.P.; Demuner, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: elson@ufv.br; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2009-07-01

    Mixtures of {alpha}-Santonin and various solvents were irradiated by either high or low pressure mercury lamps. The photochemical reactions afforded lumisantonin (11) (76% in acetonitrile), (3 S,3a S,9{beta}S)-3,6,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydronafto[1,2-b]furan-2,7({eta}6,9{beta}{eta}) dione (12) (100% in acetonitrile), 10{alpha}-acetoxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}H{eta},6,11{alpha}a{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-oli= de (8) (26% in acetic acid), 10{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}a{eta},6,11{alpha}{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (10) (32%) and (E)-3-((3 S,3a S,7{alpha}S)-3-methyl-2-oxo-6-(propan-2-ylidene)hexahydrobenzofuran- 7 - (7{alpha}{eta})-ylidene)propanoic acid (9) (44%) (in water/ acetic acid 1:1, v/v). Lactone 12 was also prepared by irradiation of lumisantonin in diethyl ether. Lactones 8 and 10 were converted, respectively, into the 10 {alpha}-acetoxy-3{alpha}-hydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (13) (87%) and 3a,10a-dihydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olide (14) (75%) by sodium borohydride reduction. The effects of the compounds on the development of radicle of Sorghum bicolor and Cucumis sativus were evaluated. (author)

  15. A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmad, A.A.Z.; Ferdous, N.

    1984-10-01

    A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction is made. The experimental work on angular distributions of differential scattering cross-sections and polarizations in proton-alpha and neutron-alpha scattering is described. The phenomenological approach which includes the study of both local and non-local potentials reproducing the experimental alpha-nucleon scattering data, is discussed. Basic studies of the alpha-nucleon interaction attempting to build an interaction between an alpha particle and a nucleon from first principles are then described. A critical discussion of the results with some concluding remarks suggesting the direction for further investigation is made. (author)

  16. Remarks on tilde g_{alpha}-irresolute maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Rebecca Paul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few of the class of generalized closed sets form a topology. The class of tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets is one among them. The aim of this paper is to introduce the different notions of irresolute function using tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets and study some of their basic properties.We also study the relation between strongly tilde g_{alpha}- continuous and perfectly eg-continuous functions. We also introduce tilde g_{alpha}-compact and ilde g_{alpha}-connectedspaces and study their properties using tilde g_{alpha}-continuous and eg-irresolute functions.

  17. Long-range alpha detector (LRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 7 figs

  18. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  19. Nonpalpable testicular pure seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting with retroperitoneal metastasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Shoichiro; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Ando, Ryosuke; Nagai, Takashi; Okada, Atsushi; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-05-05

    Patients with a primary pure seminoma in the testis who have elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein are rare and should be treated as patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. However, nonpalpable testicular tumors in this condition have never been reported. We describe a case of nonpalpable pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. A 29-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital with right flank pain. Computed tomography showed a mass located between his aorta and inferior vena cava, but a testicular tumor was not detected. His serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein, and DUPAN-2 were high. Although no tumor or nodule was palpable in his testis, ultrasonography revealed multiple low echoic lesions in his right testicular parenchyma. He was diagnosed with right testicular cancer with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and underwent right high orchiectomy. A pathological examination revealed pure seminoma and no nonseminomatous components were found in the specimen. Three courses of induction systemic chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) normalized his serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 levels. Three additional courses of chemotherapy (etoposide and bleomycin) were performed, and treatment was completed with laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Pathology of the dissected specimen showed fibrous and necrotic tissue with no viable cells. He is alive without recurrence 54 months after orchiectomy. We report a case of pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. We recommend an ultrasound examination of bilateral testes when large retroperitoneal tumors are detected in young men, even if a mass is not palpable in the scrotum.

  20. Alpha emitters activity measurement using the defined solid angle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchis, P.

    1983-01-01

    The defined solid angle counting method can reach a very high accuracy, specially for heavy ions as alpha particles emitted by a radioactive source. The activity measurement of such sources with a relative uncertainty of the order of 0.01% is investigated. Such an accuracy is available only under suitable conditions: the radiation emitted by the source must be isotropic and all the particles emitted in the effective solid angle must be detected. The efficiency detection value must be equal to unity and phenomena such as absorption or scattering must be null. It is shown that corrections often become necessary. All parameters which can influence the measurements are studied [fr

  1. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  2. Alpha particles induce expression of immunogenic markers on tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, J.B.; Gouard, S.; Cherel, M.; Davodeau, F.; Gaschet, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.

    2013-01-01

    The full text of the publication follows. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an approach aiming at targeting the radioelements to tumours, usually through the use of antibodies specific for tumour antigens. The radiations emitted by the radioelements then induce direct killing of the targeted cells as well as indirect killing through bystander effect. Interestingly, it has been shown that ionizing radiations, in some settings of external radiotherapy, can foster an immune response directed against tumour cells. Our research team is dedicated to the development of alpha RIT, i.e RIT using alpha particle emitters, we therefore decided to study the effects of such particles on tumour cells in regards to their immunogenicity. First, we studied the effects of bismuth 213, an alpha emitter, on cellular death and autophagy in six different tumour cell lines. Then, we measured the expression of 'danger' signals and MHC molecules at the cell surface to determine whether irradiation with 213 Bi could cause the tumour cells to be recognized by the immune system. Finally a co-culture of dendritic cells with irradiated tumour cells was performed to test whether it would induce dendritic cells to mature. No apoptosis was detected within 48 hours after irradiation in any cell line, however half of them exhibited signs of autophagy. No increase in membrane expression of 'danger' signals was observed after treatment with 213 Bi, but we showed an increase in expression of MHC class I and II for some cell lines. Moreover, the co-culture experiment indicated that the immunogenicity of a human adenocarcinoma cell line (LS 174T) was enhanced in vitro after irradiation with alpha rays. These preliminary data suggest that alpha particles could be of interest in raising an immune response associated to RIT. (authors)

  3. Alpha-Driven MHD and MHD-Induced Alpha Loss in TFTR DT Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zuoyang

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation indicate that there can be interesting interactions between alpha particles and MHD activity which can adversely affect the performance of a tokamak reactor (e.g., ITER). These interactions include alpha-driven MHD, like the toroidicity-induced-Alfven-eigenmode (TAE) and MHD induced alpha particle losses or redistribution. Both phenomena have been observed in recent TFTR DT experiments. Weak alpha-driven TAE activity was observed in a NBI-heated DT experiment characterized by high q0 ( >= 2) and low core magnetic shear. The TAE mode appears at ~30-100 ms after the neutral beam turning off approximately as predicted by theory. The mode has an amplitude measured by magnetic coils at the edge tildeB_p ~1 mG, frequency ~150-190 kHz and toroidal mode number ~2-3. It lasts only ~ 30-70 ms and has been seen only in DT discharges with fusion power level about 1.5-2.0 MW. Numerical calculation using NOVA-K code shows that this type of plasma has a big TAE gap. The calculated TAE frequency and mode number are close to the observation. (2) KBM-induced alpha particle loss^1. In some high-β, high fusion power DT experiments, enhanced alpha particle losses were observed to be correlated to the high frequency MHD modes with f ~100-200 kHz (the TAE frequency would be two-times higher) and n ~5-10. These modes are localized around the peak plasma pressure gradient and have ballooning characteristics. Alpha loss increases by 30-100% during the modes. Particle orbit simulations show the added loss results from wave-particle resonance. Linear instability analysis indicates that the plasma is unstable to the kinetic MHD ballooning modes (KBM) driven primarily by strong local pressure gradients. ----------------- ^1Z. Chang, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 1071. In collaberation with R. Nazikian, G.-Y. Fu, S. Batha, R. Budny, L. Chen, D. Darrow, E. Fredrickson, R. Majeski, D. Mansfield, K. McGuire, G. Rewoldt, G. Taylor, R. White, K

  4. Analysis of alpha spectrum instrumental errors accounting for the low energy part of semiconductor detector response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for processing of instrumental spectrum of charged particles permitting to take account of a low-energy part of spectrometer line shape, to improve accuracy and to estimate detection efficiency is stated on the example of 226 Ra alpha spectrum. The results obtained show that relative intensities of alpha lines within the limits of statistical errors coincide with the known values, line ''tails'' constituting to 3% of total area of the line. Taking account of ''the line tail'' results in shift of centers of peak gravity by 10-20 keV. So low-energy part of the alpha spectrometer line, which is usually not taken account during spectra processing, markedly affect the results [ru

  5. Fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate-concanavalin agglutinin phosphorescent sensor for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein and forecast of human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-ming; Lin, Li-ping; Jiang, Shu-Lian; Cui, Ma Lin; Jiao, Li; Zhang, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Li-hong; Zheng, Zhi Yong; Lin, Xuan; Lin, Shao-qin

    2013-11-01

    Based on the reaction of the active -OH group in fullerol (F) with the dissociated -COOH group in fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to form an F-FITC and the enhanced effect of N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) on phosphorescence signal of F-FITC, a new phosphorescent labeling reagent (DMA-F-FITC) was developed. What's more, a phosphorescent sensor for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein variant (AFP-V) has been designed via the coupling technique of the high sensitivity for affinity adsorption-solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) with the strong specificity reaction between DMA-F-FITC-Con A and AFP-V. The DMA-F-FITC increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target which improved the sensitivity of phosphorescent sensor. The proposed sensor was responsive, simple, selective and sensitive, and it has been applied to the determination of trace AFP-V in human serum and the forecast of human diseases using phosphorescence emission wavelength of F or FITC, with the results agreed well with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Meanwhile, the mechanisms for the labeling reaction and the sensing detection of AFP-V were discussed.

  6. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis; Deteccion de particulas cargadas mediante un fotodiodo: diseno y analisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angoli, A.; Quirino, L.L.; Hernandez, V.M.; Lopez del R, H.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L. [UAEN, UAZ, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: toono4@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  7. Alpha decay and various problems related to it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    On the proton-excessive nucleus side of lanthanide and actinide, alpha decay is the main decay mode. In lanthanide region, alpha decay has been measured to the drip line for most even-even nuclei. In the measurement of alpha decay, emitted energy and life are measured, but the measurement of converted alpha width remains in the limited range. In order to obtain the converted alpha width of high accuracy, the nucleus formation in larger quantity on the drip line and the simultaneous measurement with a multiple detector system including gamma ray and beta ray are required. In this paper, three topics related to alpha cluster and alpha decay and the problems that confront at present are discussed. The continuation to exist of alpha cluster structure to heavy nuclei, the analysis of lanthanide nucleus region by the alpha giant resonance model, and the new data on the alpha ray decaying from the mass of 175, 176 and 177 are reported. In lanthanide nucleus region, remarkable interference was not observed between beta-2 and beta-3 modes in the converted alpha width measured between the ground states. The present problems in alpha decay are enumerated. (K.I.)

  8. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Zarafshan, Hadi; Fazio, Rachel L; Majidi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT) receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA), a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA. Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls. Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75) = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75) = 5.67, P = 0.025]. Conclusion : A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations.

  9. Alpha 1 B- but not alpha 1 A-adrenoceptors mediate inositol phosphate generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Hanft, G.; Gross, G.

    1990-01-01

    We used novel highly subtype-selective antagonists to study whether alpha 1A- and/or alpha 1B-adrenoceptors mediate the stimulation of inositol phosphate generation by noradrenaline in rat cerebral cortex. Phentolamine (10 microM) and prazosin (100 nM) completely abolished the stimulated inositol

  10. Weighing the Low-Redshift Lyman-alpha Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 2003-2004, our FUSE research group prepared several major surveys of the amount of baryonic matter in the intergalactic medium (IGM), using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. These surveys include measurements of the Lyman-alpha absorption line of neutral hydrogen (H I), the far-ultraviolet (1032,1038 Angstrom) doublet of highly ionized oxygen ( O VI), the higher Lyman-series lines (Ly-beta, Ly-gamma, etc) of H I, and the 977 Angstrom line of c III. As an overview, our FUSE spectroscopic studies, taken together with data from the Hubble Space Telescope, show that approximately 30% of the normal matter is contained in intergalactic hydrogen gas clouds (the Lyman-alpha forest). Another 5-10% resides in hotter gas at temperatures of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) K, visible in 0 VI and C III absorption. Along with the matter attributed to galaxies, we have now accounted for approximately HALF of all the baryonic matter in the universe. Where is the other half? That matter my exist in even hotter gas, invisible through the ultraviolet absorption lines, but perhaps detectable through X-ray absorption lines of more highly ionized oxygen and neon.

  11. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We