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Sample records for alpacas lama pacos

  1. Successful treatment of atlantooccipital luxation in an alpaca (Lama pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Aiken, Sean W; Calle, Paul P

    2006-03-01

    A 7-mo-old male alpaca (Lama pacos) presented with an abnormal lowered posture of the head and neck and reluctance to walk. Cervical radiographs demonstrated atlantooccipital luxation. Successful manual closed reduction was achieved while the animal was anesthetized, resulting in complete return to normal gait and posture. PMID:17312819

  2. Tuberculosis in Alpacas (Lama pacos) Caused by Mycobacterium bovis▿

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes.

  3. Farmacocinética de la ampicilina en Alpacas (Lama pacos ) Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in Alpacas (Lama pacos)

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    V Kreil; C LUDERS; R HALLU; M. Rebuelto; Betancourt, L.

    2001-01-01

    La ampicilina es un antibiótico betalactámico de uso frecuente en medicina veterinaria. Dada la escasa o nula información existente en alpacas, en el presente estudio se plantea como objetivo describir el comportamiento farmacocinético en esta especie. Para ello se utilizaron 6 alpacas a las cuales se les administraron por las vías endovenosa e intramuscular, 15 mg/kg de ampicilina. Las concentraciones en suero fueron obtenidas por el método microbiológico, usando Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 ...

  4. Farmacocinética de la ampicilina en Alpacas (Lama pacos Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in Alpacas (Lama pacos

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    V KREIL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La ampicilina es un antibiótico betalactámico de uso frecuente en medicina veterinaria. Dada la escasa o nula información existente en alpacas, en el presente estudio se plantea como objetivo describir el comportamiento farmacocinético en esta especie. Para ello se utilizaron 6 alpacas a las cuales se les administraron por las vías endovenosa e intramuscular, 15 mg/kg de ampicilina. Las concentraciones en suero fueron obtenidas por el método microbiológico, usando Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 como microorganismo patrón. Las concentraciones decayeron en forma biexponencial. Los parámetros obtenidos en suero para la vía endovenosa e intramuscular fueron respectivamente (media ± desviación estandar: t ½alfa = 0,14 ± 0,08 y 0,35 ± 0,12 horas; t½beta = 0,60 ± 0,20 y 0,79 ± 0,52 horas; Vd ss = 0,63 ± 0,05 y 0,80 ± 0,25 l/kg; Cl total = 15,96 ± 3,00 y 15,79 ± 2,89 ml/min/kg; ABC = 16,43 ± 3,44 y 17,22 ± 2,20 my g/ml*h. Cuando se administró por la vía i.m., el valor de t½a fue de 0,05 ± 0,01 horas; Cmax = 18,38 ± 3,8 ug/ml y t max = 0,16 ± 0,04 horas. La biodisponibilidad fue de 107 ± 20 %. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los parámetros obtenidos por las distintas vías de administración. La ampicilina demostró alcanzar concentraciones efectivas en suero que superan la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM para la mayoría de los patógenos gram positivos de interés veterinario hasta 3,5 horas después de la administración, teniendo una rápida y completa absorción desde sitio de aplicación y una corta vida media biológica.Ampicillin is a betalactamic antibiotic of frequent use in human and veterinary medicine. Ampicillin pharmacokinetics was determined in 6 alpacas after intravenous and intramuscular injection of 15 mg/kg body weight. Serum concentrations were obtained by the microbiologic method, using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as the test microorganism. Results best fitted

  5. Aislamiento e identificación de pestivirus obtenidos de alpacas (Lama pacos) y llamas (Lama glama) de la Región Metropolitana, Chile Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) introduced to the Región Metropolitana, Chile

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    M O Celedón; Osorio, J.; Pizarro, J.

    2006-01-01

    El ambiente natural para más del 90% de las alpacas (Lama pacos) y llamas (Lama glama), camélidos sudamericanos (CSA) domésticos de Chile, se ubica entre los 11° y 21° latitud sur a 3.800 y 5.000 m de altitud. En el último tiempo las alpacas y las llamas han sido introducidas en otros lugares geográficos del país, donde toman contacto con rumiantes domésticos, facilitándose la infección con el virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB) que está presente en bovinos, ovinos y caprinos de Chile. El VDVB ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning. PMID:25888581

  7. Presencia y distribución de las papilas linguales en la alpaca (Lama pacos Linnaeus, 1758 Presence and distribution of lingual papillae in alpaca (Lamapacos Linnaeus, 1758

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    E. Butendieck

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En 12 lenguas de alpacas se estudió la presencia y distribuciónde las papilas linguales. Las papilas circunvaladas se encuentran en laparte posterior del dorso del cuerpo lingual y se disponen formando unafila, que puede estar conformada por una a cinco papilas. Las papilas fungiformesse distribuyen mayoritariamente en el dorso y superficie ventral del ápexlingual. Se comprobó la no existencia de papilas foliadas. Las papilasfiliformes son aguzadas, están orientadas aboralmente y forman unacapa muy densa en la superficie dorsal por delante de la fosa lingual.Las papilas cónicas son muy variadas y una derivación deellas es particularmente notoria por su forma, disposición y desarrollopor lo que deberían recibir el nombre de papilas bunoformes. Seanalizan las características morfológicas de las diferentespapilas, se las compara con las de otros rumiantes y se discute su posiblesignificancia, lo que permite clasificar a la alpaca como de tipo intermedioentre herbívoros y ramoneadoresIn order to study the presence, location and distribution of thelingual papillae in alpacas (Lama pacos, 12 tongues were studied. The vallatae papillae were observed in the posterior part of the tonguebody and arranged on both sides as a line of 1 to 5 papillae. The fungiformpapillae were distributed mainly in the dorsal and ventral surface of thetip of the tongue. No foliate papillae were observed. The filiform papillaewere fine thread-like cornified processes with caudal direction mainlyclosely packed rostral to the lingual fossa. The conical papillae presenteddiverse morphological features, but a derivation of conical papillae thatwas identificated by shape, disposition and development was clearly observed,proposing their name as bunoformes papillae. The morphological features of each type of papillae were compared withthe papillae of other ruminants and their possible significance discussed

  8. Tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation

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    Connolly DJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice, the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

  9. Aislamiento e identificación de pestivirus obtenidos de alpacas (Lama pacos y llamas (Lama glama de la Región Metropolitana, Chile Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos and llamas (Lama glama introduced to the Región Metropolitana, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M O Celedón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El ambiente natural para más del 90% de las alpacas (Lama pacos y llamas (Lama glama, camélidos sudamericanos (CSA domésticos de Chile, se ubica entre los 11° y 21° latitud sur a 3.800 y 5.000 m de altitud. En el último tiempo las alpacas y las llamas han sido introducidas en otros lugares geográficos del país, donde toman contacto con rumiantes domésticos, facilitándose la infección con el virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB que está presente en bovinos, ovinos y caprinos de Chile. El VDVB incluye a dos especies, VDVB genotipo I y VDVB genotipo II, que junto con el virus de la enfermedad de la frontera (VEF y el virus de la peste porcina clásica (PPC conforman el género Pestivirus de la familia Flaviviridae. Este estudio evalúa la hipótesis que los CSA introducidos en la Región Metropolitana (R.M. de Chile están infectados con pestivirus. Para hacer el aislamiento viral se tomaron muestras de 80 CSA de la RM, 42 alpacas y 35 llamas vivas, 2 llamas muertas y un feto abortado provenientes de 4 rebaños sospechosos de estar infectados con pestivirus. Las muestras fueron inoculadas en cultivos celulares primarios de pulmón fetal bovino (libre de VDVB, subcultivando por 5 veces cada muestra. Para detectar antígenos de pestivirus, las células con las muestras fueron analizadas por prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa y de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta. Para la caracterización molecular, una fracción del fragmento no traducido del genoma viral (5’UTR de los aislados fue amplificado por RT-PCR y posteriormente, para identificar las especies virales, fue tratado con las enzimas de restricción Bgl I, Pst I y Xho I. Los resultados muestran que 18 CSA, 10 de alpacas y 8 de llamas de los 4 rebaños estudiados estaban infectadas con pestivirus. Todos los aislados fueron no citopáticos. En 6 alpacas se aisló VDVB I y en 4 alpacas y 8 llamas se aisló VDVB II. El virus fue obtenido desde 8 alpacas sanas, 2 alpacas con aborto, 5 llamas

  10. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn.) Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn.) en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

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    G Castellaro; F Squella N; F León C; A Raggi S

    2008-01-01

    The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas) in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn.) in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season). The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of spars...

  11. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, David R; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2007-07-31

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the smaller, more tractable and widely available alpaca is an excellent source of VHH coding DNA. Alpaca sera IgG consists of about 50% HCAbs, mostly of the short-hinge variety. Sequencing of DNA encoding more than 50 random VHH and hinge domains permitted the design of PCR primers that will amplify virtually all alpaca VHH coding DNAs for phage display library construction. Alpacas were immunized with ovine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and a VHH phage display library was prepared from a lymph node that drains the sites of immunizations and successfully employed in the isolation of VHHs that bind and neutralize ovine TNFalpha. PMID:17568607

  12. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

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    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259

  13. Contribuição ao estudo de parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos de alpacas (Lama pacos) e guanacos (Lama guanicoe) da fauna de camelídeos sulamericanos

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    Cartelli, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    O principal objetivo do presente trabalho é o de estudar algumas características dos eritrócitos, particularmente o fluxo glicolítico, de camelídeos sulamericanos, a alpaca, Lama pacos, e o guanaco, Lama guanicoe. Uma revisão de literatura revelou que a informação científica sobre esse assunto é muito escarça. Estudos foram levados a efeito, sobre o hemograma, o conteúdo de enzimas séricas, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase do lactato, e de uréía sérica e glicose plasmática no sangue...

  14. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru. PMID:26932444

  15. Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

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    De Souza, Eliana; Sánchez, Manuel Lisardo; Aguilar, Luís Ángel; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Ángel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem. PMID:25754727

  16. Composición botánica de la dieta de alpacas (Lama pacos L.) y llamas (Lama glama L.) en dos estaciones del año, en praderas altiplánicas de un sector de la Provincia de Parinacota, Chile Botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos L.) and llama (Lama glama L.) diets in two seasons of the year on highland ranges of Parinacota province, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Castellaro G; Tamara Ullrich R.; Birgit Wackwitz; Alberto Raggi S.

    2004-01-01

    Se determinó la composición de las dietas de alpacas (Lama pacos L.) y llamas (Lama glama L.) que pastorearon praderas altiplánicas de Parinacota, Chile (18°12' lat. Sur; 69°16' long. Oeste; 4390 m.s.n.m.) utilizando microhistología fecal. Las evaluaciones se realizaron en la época seca-invernal y la lluviosa-estival. Se midió la disponibilidad de materia seca (MS) y composición botánica (CB) de la principal pradera, el "bofedal". La disponibilidad de MS varió entre 1860 y 2940 kg ha-1, y la ...

  17. Estudio epidemiológico de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales en praderas pastoreadas por alpacas (Lama pacos) en Valdivia, Chile Epidemiological studies on infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture grazed by alpacas (Lama pacos) in Valdivia, Southern Chile

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    G. VALENZUELA; M.P. Leiva; I. QUINTANA

    1998-01-01

    Con el objeto de conocer la epidemiología de nemátodos Trichostrongilidos en alpacas (Lama pacos) en el Sur de Chile, se realizó un estudio en el predio Teja Norte ubicado en la comuna de Valdivia (39° 48’ S, 73° 14’ W) mediante exámenes de material fecal (técnicas de Mc Master y Sedimentación-Flotación) y de pasto (técnica de Parffit); la frecuencia de muestreo fue mensual, durante 15 meses a partir de enero de 1995. Se utilizaron 47 animales, en número de: 4 alpacas (Grupo A, < de 1 año), 1...

  18. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos), llamas (Lama glama) guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) from Chile

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    M Celedón; Sandoval, A.; J. Droguett; R. Calfio; L. Ascencio; Pizarro, J.; Navarro, C.

    2001-01-01

    Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN) para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina) y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1), en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos ), 43 llamas (Lama glama ), 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe ) y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna ), procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,...

  19. Detección de anticuerpos séricos contra Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle y Manceaux, 1909 en llamas (Lama glama Linneaus, 1758 y alpacas (Lama pacos Linneaus, 1758 de Chile Sera antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lamas and alpacas of Chile

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    A N Patitucci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron 113 sueros de llamas y 127 de alpacas de criaderos ubicados en la IX y V Regiones del país respectivamente para determinar la presencia de infección de T. gondii. Para el análisis de los sueros se utilizó el "test" modificado de aglutinación (MAT a diluciones 1:25; 1:50, 1:500; 1:5000. Del total de 113 sueros de llamas estudiados 49 (43,3% de ellas presentaron anticuerpos contra T. gondii, mientras que en las alpacas 15 de las 127 (11,8% fueron positivas. El número de animales positivos en las diluciones 1/25; 1/50; 1/500; 1/5000 fue de 20 (17,6%; 9 (7,9%; 16 (10,6%; 4 (3,5% en las llamas, respectivamente. En las alpacas los valores fueron de 0 (0%; 3 (2,3%; 1 (0,7%; 11 (8,6%, respectivamente. Aunque no existen antecedentes clínicos de la infección en los establecimientos estudiados, su potencial implicancia en este tipo de patología debería ser considerada a base de los resultados del presente trabajo que demuestra que llamas y alpacas del centro-sur de Chile son reaccionantes a la infección por T. gondii.Sera samples from 113 llamas (Lama glama and 127 alpacas (Lama pacos from the IX and V Regions, respectively, of Chile were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT was used in both species and titers 1:25 were considered diagnostically significant based in previously published data. Sera from 49 lamas (43.3% and 15 alpacas (11.8% were positive to T. gondii. Percentaje seropositivity in serum dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, 1:500 and 1:5000 was 17.6%; 7.9%; 14.1% and 3.5% in lamas and 0%; 2.3%; 0.7% and 8.6% in alpacas, respectively. The rather low prevalence in alpacas may be associated with geographical conditions, management practices or contacts with cats rather than different species susceptibility. As expected, older animals showed higher reactivity of T. gondii than young animals.

  20. Estudio epidemiológico de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales en praderas pastoreadas por alpacas (Lama pacos en Valdivia, Chile Epidemiological studies on infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture grazed by alpacas (Lama pacos in Valdivia, Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valenzuela

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de conocer la epidemiología de nemátodos Trichostrongilidos en alpacas (Lama pacos en el Sur de Chile, se realizó un estudio en el predio Teja Norte ubicado en la comuna de Valdivia (39° 48’ S, 73° 14’ W mediante exámenes de material fecal (técnicas de Mc Master y Sedimentación-Flotación y de pasto (técnica de Parffit; la frecuencia de muestreo fue mensual, durante 15 meses a partir de enero de 1995. Se utilizaron 47 animales, en número de: 4 alpacas (Grupo A, In order to study the epidemiology of Trichostrongylid parasites in alpacas (Lama pacos, a study was undertaken in Valdivia, Chile, Xth Region (39° 48’ S, 73° 14’ W based on faecal and grass examinations, during a period of fifteen months, starting in January 1995. Animal were grouped according to the age as follows: Group A, 4 animals up to one year old; group B, 11 animals between 1 to 2 years old and 32 animals more than 2 years old. The most frequent genus or species of infective larvae identified were: Nematodirus spathiger, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus filicollis and Cooperia. During the 1995 summer, a low number of infective larvae were observed as a consequence of the low contamination of the grass during the previous year, and to the dry period in the summer months. In autumn, larvae increased reaching a peak in April with 447 larvae per Kg dry matter. The greatest contribution was given by N. spathiger. The other species were less frequently identified. Strongylid type eggs, Nematodirus, Trichuris sp. and Capillaria sp. were observed, few eggs were seen during the observation period. Related with Strongylid type eggs, more eggs were seen in group A. Related with Nematodirus eggs, few eggs were seen in group B and C. More eggs were seen in group A. Trichuris sp. and Capillaria sp. eggs were less frequently observed. It can be concluded that: weather conditions influence the number of infective larvae on the grass. Strongylid egg

  1. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  2. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos) and pigs (Sus scrofa) from an endemic region in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Sánchez; Omar Cáceres; César Náquira; Eduardo Miranda; Franklyn Samudio; Octavio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE) is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4) in Puno and pigs (8) in Ayacucho in Peru, ...

  3. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  4. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

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    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  5. Composición botánica de la dieta de alpacas (Lama pacos L. y llamas (Lama glama L. en dos estaciones del año, en praderas altiplánicas de un sector de la Provincia de Parinacota, Chile Botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos L. and llama (Lama glama L. diets in two seasons of the year on highland ranges of Parinacota province, Chile.

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    Giorgio Castellaro G.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la composición de las dietas de alpacas (Lama pacos L. y llamas (Lama glama L. que pastorearon praderas altiplánicas de Parinacota, Chile (18°12' lat. Sur; 69°16' long. Oeste; 4390 m.s.n.m. utilizando microhistología fecal. Las evaluaciones se realizaron en la época seca-invernal y la lluviosa-estival. Se midió la disponibilidad de materia seca (MS y composición botánica (CB de la principal pradera, el "bofedal". La disponibilidad de MS varió entre 1860 y 2940 kg ha-1, y la CB fue dominada por Oxychloe andina (Cyperaceae y Festuca nardifolia (Poaceae. En las dietas dominaron especies del bofedal, especialmente gramíneas (F. nardifolia, Deschampsia caespitosa y Agrostis tolucensis y graminoides (O. andina, destacando también, especies del "pajonal" y el "tolar", Festuca orthophylla y Parastrephia lucida, respectivamente, especialmente en invierno y en las dietas de llamas. Las dietas difirieron en composición y diversidad, existiendo una interacción entre el tipo de herbívoro y la época del año, con una significativa superposición de 61,4% en verano y de 73,6%, en invierno, lo que sugiere un manejo del pastoreo diferenciado de estos camélidos para evitar una eventual competencia. El índice de selectividad de Ivlev, destaca a las gramíneas A. tolucensis y D. caespitosa y la ranunculácea Ranunculus uniflorus, las que obtuvieron valore positivos y cercanos a uno, indicando una alta preferencia por parte de los herbívoros. Contrariamente, la especie dominante del bofedal, O. andina, obtuvo un valor negativo (rechazo y, en consecuencia, tenderá a dominar en la CB de la pradera, teniendo un efecto negativo en la tendencia de la condición de la misma.The botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos L. and llama (Lama glama L. diets was determined, grazing on a highland range of Parinacota, Chile (18°12' S lat; 69°16' W long; 4390 m.o.s.l., using microhistological analysis of feces. The evaluations were carried out

  6. Presencia y distribución de las papilas linguales en la alpaca (Lama pacos Linnaeus, 1758) Presence and distribution of lingual papillae in alpaca (Lamapacos Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Butendieck; L. Vargas

    1998-01-01

    En 12 lenguas de alpacas se estudió la presencia y distribuciónde las papilas linguales. Las papilas circunvaladas se encuentran en laparte posterior del dorso del cuerpo lingual y se disponen formando unafila, que puede estar conformada por una a cinco papilas. Las papilas fungiformesse distribuyen mayoritariamente en el dorso y superficie ventral del ápexlingual. Se comprobó la no existencia de papilas foliadas. Las papilasfiliformes son aguzadas, están orientadas aboralmente y forman unaca...

  7. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  8. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyuga, Ayako; Matsumoto, Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  9. Miljöberikning för domesticerade lamadjur i en djurpark : En studie om lama (Lama glama) och alpacka (Vicugna pacos) och deras beteenden

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enrich the environment for llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in a zoo. The zoo is located in northern Sweden (Umeå, Mickelträsk). The llama herd consists of three individuals of breed qara, two males and one female and the alpaca herd consists of six individuals of breed huacaya, one male, four females and one foal. The species lived in separate enclosures, they lived outside all year round and they had a shelter for wind and rain protection. They ...

  10. Detección de anticuerpos séricos contra Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle y Manceaux, 1909) en llamas (Lama glama Linneaus, 1758) y alpacas (Lama pacos Linneaus, 1758 ) de Chile Sera antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lamas and alpacas of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Patitucci; M.J. Pérez; Barril, G. (Guillermina); C.M. Cárcamo; Muñoz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Se obtuvieron 113 sueros de llamas y 127 de alpacas de criaderos ubicados en la IX y V Regiones del país respectivamente para determinar la presencia de infección de T. gondii. Para el análisis de los sueros se utilizó el "test" modificado de aglutinación (MAT) a diluciones 1:25; 1:50, 1:500; 1:5000. Del total de 113 sueros de llamas estudiados 49 (43,3%) de ellas presentaron anticuerpos contra T. gondii, mientras que en las alpacas 15 de las 127 (11,8%) fueron positivas. El número de animale...

  11. 羊驼毛纤维中黑色素含量的相关性研究%The Correlationship Between Different Kinds of Melanins in the Fleece of Alpaca (Lama Pacos)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 白俊明; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    To supply the evidence of identification of alpaca hair color, the difference and correlation between different melanins in alpaca hair was studied. According to the visual inspection, 22 different hair color genotypes with 3 alpacas each were selected. Alpaca fleece was taken from the back and then dissolved with different solution to get melanins. The Amount of Total Melanins (ASM), Eumelanin (EM) and Pheomelanin (PM) in alpaca fleece with different hair color were measured with spectrophotometric assay, sepia as a standard for the spectrophotometric assay. Then the difference and correlation between the amount of melanins were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and linear regression curve method, respectively. The results showed that there were difference in ASM (P0.05) between alpaca fleece with different hair color, and that two models were deduced from the linear regression curve analysis:model 1: Sp.ASM=-0.313+3.168×Sp.EM+E (R2:0.902, t=-3.732, P=0.000); model 2: Sp.EM=0.285+0.143× Sp.ASM+E(R2:0.902,t=6.769,P=0.000). It was suggested that ASM and EM could be used as the parameters to differentiate hair color of alpaca because of significant correlation to hair color, moreover, both of them have the relation of linear regression curve.%  为研究羊驼毛纤维中黑色素含量的相关性,以为建立鉴定羊驼毛色的参数标准提供理论依据。选择肉眼观察认为表型不同的22种自然毛色的羊驼,每个表型选取3只羊驼,从背部采集羊驼毛,用不同的方法溶解,以乌贼黑为标准品,用紫外分光光度计法测定羊驼毛纤维中碱性可溶总黑色素(ASM)、真黑素(EM)和褐黑素(PM)的含量,通过单因素方差和线性回归曲线分别分析不同毛色羊驼毛纤维中黑色素的差异性和相关性。结果表明:ASM和EM在不同毛色的毛纤维中呈差异显著(分别为P<0.01和P<0.05),而 PM 呈差异不显著(P>0.05)。线性回归曲线

  12. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  13. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    HYUGA, Ayako; Matsumoto, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts o...

  14. The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackling, Felicity C.; Warren E. Johnson; Appleton, Belinda R

    2012-01-01

    White-spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the gene KIT, whose protein is necessary for the normal migration and survival of melanocytes from the neural crest. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) blue-eyed white (BEW) phenotype is characterized by 2 blue eyes and a solid white coat over the whole body. Breeders hypothesize that the BEW phenotype in alpacas is caused by the combination of the gene causing gray fleece and a white-spotting gene. We performed an association study usi...

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America.

  16. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  17. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Liguori; Salvatore Paino; Caterina Squillacioti; Adriana De Luca; Sabrina Alì; Emilia Langella; Nicola Mirabella

    2013-01-01

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochem...

  18. Double ovulation and occurrence of twinning in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A J; Pearson, L K; Spencer, T E; Tibary, A

    2015-08-01

    Twin births are rare in alpacas despite the high incidence of double ovulation and are undesirable because they contribute to early and late pregnancy loss, abortion, and birth of nonviable neonates. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and outcome of twin pregnancy in double-ovulating alpacas by retrospective and prospective analysis. Data from double-ovulating females (N = 41) presented for pregnancy diagnosis were analyzed to determine pregnancy status at three stages after mating (14-16, 25-30, and 45-53 days). In a prospective study, adult reproductively sound alpacas (n = 21) were examined by ultrasonography to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. A subset of those alpacas (n = 10) were euthanized either at 9 days (n = 5) or 14 days (n = 5) after a single mating and administration of GnRH to determine presence and number of embryos. A total of 31 cycles were included in the study to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. In the retrospective study, twin pregnancies were identified between 25 and 30 days in 47.1% of double-ovulating females. There were more twins from bilateral ovulations (62.5%) than from unilateral ovulations (37.5%). Twin pregnancies were either reduced to a singleton (62.5%) or lost completely (37.5%). One set of twins remained viable until Day 52. In the prospective study, double ovulation occurred in 18.8% of the cycles. Two embryos were collected from two of the four double-ovulating females. In conclusion, twin conception is not rare in alpacas. A high rate of spontaneous reduction of twin pregnancies occurs before Day 45. However, a significant proportion of twin pregnancy may result in loss of both embryos. Determination of the number of ovulations (CL) at the time of early pregnancy diagnosis (14-16 days) should be an integral part of any pregnancy evaluation. PMID:25963129

  19. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures. PMID:26751874

  20. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  1. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Liguori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpacas (Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, neuropeptide Y (NPY, tyrosine hydroxilase (TH, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochemical methods. Specimens of the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis with primary antibodies against PGP 9.5, NPY, TH, CGRP and SP. Immunopositivity to PGP 9.5 and TH and NPY was observed in nerve fibre bundles and in single nerve fibres contained into the peritubular connective tissue. Many TH and NPY immunopositive cells were found to innervate blood vessels. Rare CGRP and SP immunopositive nerves were observed. Several PGP 9,5 and NPY immunopositive epithelial cells were observed in the caput epididymis. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis.

  2. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. PMID:26243695

  3. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN C MARÍN; BEATRIZ ZAPATA; González, Benito A.; CRISTIAN BONACIC; JANE C WHEELER; CIARA CASEY; Bruford, Michael W.; R. EDUARDO PALMA; ELIE POULIN; M. ANGÉLICA ALLIENDE; Spotorno,Ángel E.

    2007-01-01

    Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe) y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos) y llama (Lama glama), cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares...

  4. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Haidong Wang; Yanjun Dong; Wenhua Chen; Junping Hei; Changsheng Dong

    2011-01-01

    During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF) may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn) alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (...

  5. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  6. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  7. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  8. The Effects of Endothelin-3 on the Melanocyte Characteristic and Expression of Hair Color Genes in Melanocytes from Alpaca (Lama Pacos) in vitro%内皮素-3对羊驼黑色素细胞特征及细胞内毛色基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 白俊明; 范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 庞亚妙; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of endothelin-3 (EDN3) on the expression of hair color genes of alpaca.The activity of melanocyte,the production of melanin in melanocytes and the expressions of related genes and proteins including Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB),KIT,Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) in alpaca melanocytes in cultures with addition of different dose of EDN3(0,10-9,10-8,10-7mol · L-1),were examined by MTT,ultraviolet spectrophotometry,qRT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.The results showed that the amount of melanocytes was increased with the increasing double-or tri-dendrites; At the addition dose of 10-8 mol · L-1 for 72 h after adding EDN3,compared to control group,the proliferation of melanocytes was obvious and the expressions of EDNRB,KIT,MITF and TYR significantly up-regulated at the level of both transcription and translation in melanocytes(P<0.05).Moreover,the production of melanin in melanocytes significantly increased(P<0.05).These findings indicate that EDN3 play an important role in regulating melanins production in melanocytes in alpaca.%为了研究内皮素-3(Endothelin-3,EDN3)对羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞内毛色形成相关基因的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol· L-1)的EDN3,通过MTT法、紫外分光光度法、qRT-PCR和Western blotting技术分别检测黑色素细胞活力、黑色素产量、相关基因和蛋白(包括内皮素受体B(Endothelin receptor B,EDNRB)、KIT、小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR))的表达情况.结果表明,在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞添加EDN3 72 h 后,黑色素细胞呈双树突或三树突状,且细胞数量明显增加;在添加适当浓度10-8mol·L-1时,细胞具有明显的增殖,细胞内EDNRB、KIT、MITF和TRY在转录水平和蛋白水平的表达量被上调,

  9. Outbreak of sarcoptic mange in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and control with repeated subcutaneous ivermectin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, D F; Birch, E S; Schock, A

    2009-02-01

    An outbreak of sarcoptic mange was investigated in an alpaca herd. Clinical disease occurred 2 months after the introduction of four alpacas with dry seborrhoeic skin lesions, the cause of which was not investigated. Initially a group of females was affected, despite repeated topical treatment with ivermectin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg bodyweight. One female died and post-mortem examination indicated sarcoptic mange as the cause of death. Infection with Sarcoptes scabiei was also demonstrated on microscopic examination of skin scrapes taken from clinically affected cohorts. Later in the outbreak, a separate group of male alpacas was also affected. Treatment using subcutaneous ivermectin injections at a dose of 0.2mg/kg, administered at 14-day intervals, was evaluated. During this course of treatment, another female died. A successful response in the other alpacas was eventually reached following 12 treatments of the female group and 8 treatments of the male group. PMID:19019545

  10. Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuju; He, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; He, Junping; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; Geng, Jianjun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation. PMID:26099836

  11. Molecular analysis of methanogenic archaea in the forestomach of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Pierre Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanogens that populate the gastrointestinal tract of livestock ruminants contribute significantly to methane emissions from the agriculture industry. There is a great need to analyze archaeal microbiomes from a broad range of host species in order to establish causal relationships between the structure of methanogen communities and their potential for methane emission. In this report, we present an investigation of methanogenic archaeal populations in the foregut of alpacas. Results We constructed individual 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from five sampled animals and recovered a total of 947 sequences which were assigned to 51 species-level OTUs. Individuals were found to each have between 21 and 27 OTUs, of which two to six OTUs were unique. As reported in other host species, Methanobrevibacter was the dominant genus in the alpaca, representing 88.3% of clones. However, the alpaca archaeal microbiome was different from other reported host species, as clones showing species-level identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were the most abundant. Conclusion From our analysis, we propose a model to describe the population structure of Methanobrevibacter-related methanogens in the alpaca and in previously reported host species, which may contribute in unraveling the complexity of symbiotic archaeal communities in herbivores.

  12. Effects of vasectomy on seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in male alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L K; Campbell, A J; Sandoval, S; Tibary, A

    2013-12-01

    Azoospermia is a common finding in male alpacas which present for infertility. The challenge is to differentiate azoospermia of testicular origin from non-testicular origin. In several species, alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in seminal plasma have been used as a diagnostic marker of contributions of the testis and epididymis to the ejaculate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP assay could differentiate testicular from non-testicular azoospermia in male alpacas. An experimental model of bilateral outflow obstruction (pre-scrotal vasectomy) was used in 22 male alpacas, aged 2-9 years. No reproductive history was available. Animals were submitted for electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia and vasectomy performed. Five weeks later, animals were submitted for EE. Vasectomy was not successful in one animal, which was removed from analysis. AP levels were compared in seminal plasma in the pre- and post-vasectomy samples. The mean ± SEM concentration of AP in pre-vasectomy seminal plasma was 504.29 ± 166.45 U/l (range 10-2910); the post-vasectomy levels were 252.48 ± 81.77 U/l (range 0-1640; p = 0.06). In 71.4% of animals, AP levels decreased, varying from 18% to 100% reduction. Results of this study suggest that AP is not produced exclusively by the testis and epididymis in alpacas and that AP assay is not a valid diagnostic test for determination of origin of azoospermia; the gold standard for diagnosis of origin of azoospermia remains testicular biopsy. PMID:23790090

  13. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended. PMID:26331964

  14. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  15. Genetic diversity in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) populations using 10 microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpacas from Puno, Junin and Huancavelica were analysed by a panel of 10 microsatellite markers in order to determine the level of genetic diversity among these populations. A sample of two hundred and sixty five non-related alpacas showed allelic polymorphism identifying a total of 144 microsatellite alleles. Alleles number ranged from 6 (YWLL40) to 28 (YWLL08), with a mean number of alleles per locus (MNA) of 14.40. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.635 (YWLL40) to 0.942 (YWLL08) with a mean of 0.7975, while expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.692 (YWLL40) to 0946 (YWLL08) with a mean of 0.8207. All loci except LCA37 (heterozygote deficit, P IS = 0.015) with the highest value of 0.046 for Sector Carniceria B - Huancavelica. No significant (P > 0.01) inbreeding effect (FIS) was detected in alpaca populations. FIT value was 0.037 (RhoIT = 0.0318) for all population and FST value for all populations was 0.024 (RhoST = 0.0171). A FST value of 0.024 (P ST value (0.753) and RhoST (0.736) with a frequency of private alleles of 0.0207 and number of migrants of 7.8359 in all alpaca populations. A Neighbor-joining tree was constructed based in Nei's genetic distance DA and standard genetic distance DS using DISPAN software. Four cluster were identified: Junin (Cochas and Pachacayo), Puno (Munani and Lacchoc), Huancavelica 1 (Sector Carniceria A) and Huancavelica 2 (Sector Pallccapampa). Individual assignment test and Bayesian clustering analysis were used to evaluate population structure using Structure v2.2 software. Structure analysis showed three clusters: (i) Sector Carniceria A - Huancavelica, (ii) Sector Pallccapampa - Huancavelica (include Sector Carniceria B) and (iii) Junin - Puno (include Cochas, Pachacayo from Junin, Munani from Puno and Lacchoc from Huancavelica). Substancial genetic differentiation between Huancavelica with Junin and Puno were found. The preliminary results showed that alpaca populations in Peru maintained high genetic

  16. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Changsheng Dong; Junping Hei; Wenhua Chen; Yanjun Dong; Haidong Wang

    2011-01-01

    During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF) may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn) alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differenc...

  17. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, David R.; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the...

  18. Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Fan, R; Shi, Z; Ji, K; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Herrid, M; Zhang, Q; Yao, J; Smith, G W; Dong, C

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway. PMID:26020184

  19. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production. PMID:25917946

  20. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca.

  1. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  2. Biochemical composition and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) oviductal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Miceli, D C; Stelletta, C

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge and assessment of the constituents of the oviductal fluid (OF) in camelids is necessary for a correct formulation of specific culture media for the development of reproductive biotechnology. This study is the first describing the biochemical composition and SDS-PAGE protein profile of alpaca oviductal fluid in non-pregnant animals and animals that have completed the first month and second month of gestation. Samples were also classified into oviducts that were ipsilateral or contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. No differences were found between both oviducts, whereas pregnant and non-pregnant females displayed significant differences in the biochemical composition and protein profile of the oviductal fluid. Relative albumin content was higher in non-pregnant females. Relative creatinine content in OF from females that have completed the second month of gestation was lower than non-pregnant females and females that have completed the first month of gestation. Ion Na(+) concentration was higher in OF from non-pregnant females when compared with pregnant ones. The protein profile of non-pregnant females showed five protein bands of 70, 42, 25, 24 and 19kDa that were significantly more intense compared with pregnant animals. Bands were identified as moesin, actin cytoplasmic 2, hydroxypyruvate isomerase, ferritin light chain and peroxiredoxin-6 with MALDI/MS. Our results encourage more thorough future studies, in order to unravel the complex reproductive processes of the South American camelid oviduct. PMID:25592861

  3. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue. PMID:25981447

  4. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive s...

  5. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  6. Parentage testing and molecular sexing in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) using microsatellite markers and ZFY/ZFX genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess and apply a microsatellite multiplex system for parentage determination and sex identification test by analysis of the ZFX and ZFY genes in alpacas. A panel of 10 microsatellites were evaluated for parentage testing in a population of 329 unrelated alpacas and 121 related alpacas from a pedigree book (Mallkini Breeding Center - Puno). All microsatellite markers, which amplified in two multiplex reactions, were highly polymorphic with a mean of 14.5 alleles per locus (six to 28 alleles per locus) and an average expected heterozygosity (HE) of 0.8185 (range of 0.698 to 0.946). The total parentage exclusion probability was 0.999456 for excluding a candidate parent from parentage of an arbitrary offspring, given only the genotype of the offspring, and 0.999991 for excluding a candidate parent from parentage of an arbitrary offspring, given the genotype of the offspring and the other parent. In a case test of parentage assignment, the microsatellite panel assigned 53 (from 53 cases) offspring parentage to 15 sires with LOD scores ranging from 2.19 · 10+13 to 1.34 · 10+15 and D values ranging from 2.80 · 10+12 to 1.34 · 10+15 with an estimated pedigree error rate of 13.2%. The performance of this multiplex panel of markers suggests that it will be useful in parentage testing of alpacas. Primers from ungulates conserved ZFY and ZFX loci were used to amplify 450 bp of the ZFX/ZFY loci by PCR from female and male alpaca DNA. Both strands of the PCR products (417 bases) were sequenced on a ABI3130 Genetic Analyzer (ABI). Eleven gender-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed and used to design sex-specific primers. Three specific primers were designed for the differential PCR amplification of the ZFY and ZFX sequence in alpacas. Primers were tested with thirty unrelated alpacas (15 female and 15 males); female alpaca DNA produced a 238 bp single fragment and male alpacas showed two fragments (238 and 127bp) by PCR. Both

  7. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  8. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ) and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos) after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    OpenAIRE

    Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary ...

  9. Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, P D; Mackie, I; Perry, J; Caraguel, C; Townsend, K; Reichel, M P

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. PMID:27021895

  10. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  11. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  12. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae” Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Joanne B Messick

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation.

  13. Distribución de neuropéptidos en el tronco del encéfalo de la alpaca (lama pacos): estudio inmunocitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Eliana de Souza

    2010-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis doctoral trata de la distribución de los neuropéptidos en el Sistema Nervioso Central de mamíferos después de la aplicación de técnicas inmunocitoquímica. Hasta hoy hemos descrito en el Sistema Nervioso Central de los mamíferos la distribución de fibras y/o somas con neuropéptidos pertenecientes a numerosas familias. Ya hemos publicados trabajos con CGRP y Leucina-encefalina y este estudio es continuación de la línea que se viene desarrollando sobre la distribuci...

  14. Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de poblaciones de alpaca (Vicugna pacos) de las comunidades altoandinas y aplicación al programa de mejora de la calidad de la fibra

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Peralta, Marcia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo, busca contribuir a los programas de mejora genética que se están emprendiendo en el sector de los Camélidos Sudamericanos para la mejora de la capacidad productiva de la alpaca, incidiendo sobre todo en la calidad de la fibra. Las poblaciones de Alpacas peruanas del presente trabajo proceden de ganaderías localizadas en las comunidades más representativas de la Reserva Nacional de Salinas y Aguada Blanca (RNSAB) que son referentes de producción en la reg...

  15. Testicular length as an indicator of the onset of sperm production in alpacas under Swedish conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina; Puhakka, Johanna; Ruete, Alejandro; Al-Essawe, Essraa M; Verdier, de kerstin SVA; Morrell, Jane; Båge, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Background: The popularity of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) is increasing in Sweden as well as in other countries; however, knowledge about optimal management practices under Swedish conditions is still limited. The wide age range reported when the onset of puberty can occur, between 1 and 3years of age, makes management decisions difficult and may be influenced by the conditions under which the alpacas are kept. The aim of this study was to find out when Swedish alpacas can be expected to start pr...

  16. Alpacas and Ecosystems Management

    OpenAIRE

    Charry, Al A.; Kemp, David R.; Lawrie, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Alpacas are a species that present physiological, anatomical, morphological and behavioural distinctive characteristics compared to other species used in animal production. Empirical observation of a herd, grazing under time management controlled conditions, allowed to approximate some initial observations about the effect of alpacas in the management of ecosystems. Larger green matter availability in the paddocks grazed by alpacas, evident natural weed control, better plants distribution and...

  17. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia. PMID:19926224

  18. ESTS from skin and PBMC cDNA subtractive library of alpaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As an effort to map and identify genes and genetic markers that influence the fibre quality in alpacas, cDNA subtractive libraries of Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) were constructed in order to find differentially expressed genes in skin. Skin and blood samples were removed from six adult Alpaca (1.5 year old). Total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen) and mRNA was purified using the Gene Elute mRNA purification kit (Sigma). Suppression PCR was used to construct the library using mRNA from skin as a tester and the mRNA from PBMC as a driver. The subtracted PCR products were inserted into the TA cloning vector and the ligation reaction was transformed into TOP10 E. coli cells. Randomly selected clones were sequenced and a total of 2280 high quality 5' end sequences were generated. Clustering analysis using StackPACK version 2.2.0 resulted in 1075 unique transcripts, consisting of 347 consensi and 728 singletons. BLAST analysis of the generated sequences revealed skin associated transcripts such as hair keratin 6A, keratin 10, keratin KA27, keratin 34, wool keratin microfibril type I, and collagen. A total of 27 microsatellite loci were also uncovered. Further work is in progress to generate more sequences in order to build an EST database of differentially expressed genes from Alpaca skin and PBMC, and for the generation of genetic molecular markers such as microsatellites and SNP for Alpaca. (author)

  19. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; de Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G.; Morgan, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted.

  20. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnost...

  1. Dalai Lama at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 30 August CERN turned aside from its usual day-to-day preoccupations when Director-General Herwig Schopper played host to the Dalai Lama of Tibet and his entourage during the holy man's 1983 visit to Europe. In welcoming his visitor, Professor Schopper stressed the role of particle physics in helping to understand man's place in the cosmos, and how the Dalai Lama's interest would further the interrelation of science, philosophy and religion. The Dalai Lama visited the UA 1 experiment (rolled back into its 'garage' during the present fixed target operations at CERN) and the large installations for the neutrino experiments in the West Area of the SPS machine. There was an intriguing exchange of views with CERN theorists, who described how science has continually modified our view of the world around us

  2. LAMA2-related myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Muscular dystrophy caused by LAMA2-gene mutations is an autosomal recessive disease typically presenting as a severe, early-onset congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). However, milder cases with a limb-girdle type muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been described. METHODS: In this study......, we assessed the frequency and phenotypic spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy in CMD (n = 18) and LGMD2 (n = 128) cohorts identified in the last 15 years in eastern Denmark. The medical history, brain-MRI, muscle pathology, muscle laminin-α2 expression, and genetic analyses were assessed...... dystrophy and its prevalence in an LGMD2 cohort, which indicates that LAMA2 muscular dystrophy should be included in the LGMD2 nomenclature....

  3. Haemonchus contortus Infections in Alpacas and Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    The blood feeding nematode Haemonchus contortus infects the abomasum of small ruminants and compartment three (C-3) of camelids. Heavy infections may cause severe anemia and death. Alpacas were first introduced into the U.S. in the 1980s. Although not true ruminants, alpacas may become infected with H. contortus and develop the same clinical signs as sheep and goats. Even though alpacas may become infected with the parasite, prior research by Hill et al. (1993) and Green et al. (1996) indicat...

  4. Uji Lama Perebusan dan Lama Pengadukan Terhadap Kualitas Kedelai (Glicine Max (L) Merril)

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanthi, T. Lili

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara dengan tujuan untuk menguji lama perebusan dan lama pengadukan pada alat pengupas kulit ari kacang kedelai. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) faktorial, yang terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu lama perebusan dan lama pengadukan. Faktor lama perebusan (L) terdiri atas tiga taraf yaitu L1 = 1 Jam, L2 =1,5 jam, dan L3 = 2 jam. Faktor lama pengadukan (M) terdiri a...

  5. Reproductive physiology of the alpaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpaca and llama are considered to be seasonally reproductive (from December to March) and given good feeding conditions are reproductively active throughout the year. The males reach puberty at the age of about 2 years when they are free from peno-preputial adhesions. Puberty in the females is affected by body weight and may be reached at the age of 12 months. The females do not have sexual cycles but follicular waves, therefore oestrus varies from 2 to 36 days. Copulation takes place in a seated position and lasts from 5 to 50 minutes; ovulation is induced by coitus, hCG, GnRH and the semen of the alpaca and the bull. 'Spontaneous' ovulation has been observed at the height of the reproductive season and is caused by mechanisms which are not well defined. Multiple ovulation occurs in 10% of females but the number of multiple births is very low. The corpus luteum (CL) forms after mating, attaining maximum size and having the greatest secretory activity on day 9(14.0 nmol/L); it lasts for the 11 months of gestation. If there is no pregnancy, shrinkage of the corpus luteum begins between days 10 and 13 and the progesterone levels fall rapidly. The incidence of embryonic mortality during the first two months of gestation is high. Gestation lasts approximately 342 days, and 93.5% of births occur during the daytime when the environmental conditions are favourable for the newborn animal. The placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial. Uterine involution is completed within 20 days after birth. Intra- and inter-specific artificial insemination tests have been carried out with intra-uterinal implantation of semen. Embryonic transplant tests have also been conducted. (author)

  6. Genetics Home Reference: LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description LAMA2 -related muscular dystrophy is a disorder that causes weakness and wasting ( ...

  7. Construction of phage display VHH antibody library against avian H5N1 virus from alpaca%抗H5N1禽流感病毒VHH抗体库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严安; 熊慧; 王颖; 孙冰玉; 夏立亮; 吴标; 包文静; 车小燕; 孙志伟; 金维荣; 赵国屏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To construct phage display variable domain of heavy chain antibody library (VHH antibody library) from alpaca immunized with inactivated H5N1 vaccine for the future screening of VHH antibodies against avian H5N1 influenza virus. Methods: The camelid species (alpaca, Lama pacos ) was selected for immunization with inactivated H5N1 vaccine. Hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay of serum from immunized alpaca was performed against H5N1 avian influenza virus one week after the fourth inntmization. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated for the amplification of VHH fragments by RT-PCR. PCR products were then purified and inserted into phagemid vector pCANTAB5E. The VHH antibody gene library was obtained by electroporating recombinant pCANTAB5E-VHH vectors into E. coli TG1 cells.The library capacity and diversity of VHH antibody gene library was determined by sequencing analysis. The HI assay was performed with the culture supernatant of primary phage display VHH antibody library. Results:After four rounds of immunization with inactivated H5N1 vaccine,HI antibody titer of the alpaca serum reached to 1: 2 560, which was higher than those fiom immunized mice. A first set of antibody gene library totalling 3 × l08 members were created after cloning VHH genes into a phagemid vector pCANTAB5E. The sequence of 14 members of the unselected library indicated that the camelid VHH antibody library we constructed possessed high diversity and good capacity. The supematant from the primary phage display library displayed effieient HI effect against avian H5N1 influenza virus. And the titration of our phage display VHH library reached 2.17 × l011. Conclusion: Taken together, phage display VHH antibody library from immunized alpaca is successfully constructed,which provides a platform for VHH antibody preparation against H5N1 virus. This will give light to future study on treatment and diagnosis of avian H5N1 influenza virus.%目的:构建抗H5N1禽流感病毒的小羊驼免

  8. Congenital nasolacrimal atresia in 4 alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Breaux, Carrie B.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2011-01-01

    Four alpacas, 2 wk to 1 y of age, were diagnosed with congenital atresia of the nasal puncta of the nasolacrimal duct. Dacryocystorhinography confirmed and localized the atresia. All animals were treated successfully by surgical creation of nasal puncta and patency was ensured by placement of a surgical stent for several weeks.

  9. Reproductive biotechnologies in Swedish male alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina

    2016-01-01

    Alpacas have become more popular during the last decades. The herds have been built up by importing live animals since reproductive biotechnologies, for example artificial insemination and semen preservation, are not well-developed in this species. A major problem is the viscosity of the seminal plasma which hinders processing or evaluation of the semen. Enzymes have been used to deal with the viscous seminal plasma but they may damage spermatozoa or render them incapable of fertilization. Th...

  10. The Dalai Lama: A Separatist In Disguise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In his five decades of exile, the Dalai Lama has never stopped plotting to seek "Tibet independence" through allying with foreign forces to internationalize the so-called "Tibet issue" and press the Chinese Government.

  11. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  12. Limitations of Spoligotyping and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing for Molecular Tracing of Mycobacterium bovis in a High-Diversity Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucía; Sáez-Llorente, José Luis; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Jiménez, Antonio; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the attempt to trace the first Mycobacterium bovis outbreak in alpacas (Lama pacos) in Spain by spoligotyping and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis. Due to high genotype diversity, no matching source was identified, but local expansion of a clonal group was found and its significance for molecular tracing is discussed.

  13. Molecular analysis of methanogenic archaea in the forestomach of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    St-Pierre Benoit; Wright André-Denis G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Methanogens that populate the gastrointestinal tract of livestock ruminants contribute significantly to methane emissions from the agriculture industry. There is a great need to analyze archaeal microbiomes from a broad range of host species in order to establish causal relationships between the structure of methanogen communities and their potential for methane emission. In this report, we present an investigation of methanogenic archaeal populations in the foregut of alp...

  14. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  15. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Angus JD; Charles, Jennifer A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpac...

  16. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Gary; Durr, Peter A; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  17. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  18. Prospección serológica del virus parainfluenza 3 en camélidos sudamericanos en Chile A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CP Cepeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En un total de 370 sueros obtenidos de 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Llama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 106 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus parainfluenza 3 (VPI-3. La prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación mostró que 91 (24,6% de los camélidos sudamericanos (CSA distribuidos en 18 (20,7% alpacas, 36 (40,9% llamas, 27 (18,9% vicuñas y 10 (11,2% guanacos tenían anticuerpos. El rango de los títulos de las muestras positivas estuvo entre 8 y 256 con una media geométrica de 31. Los resultados establecen que los CSA en Chile están infectados con VPI-3.A total of 370 sera collected from 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Lama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 106 vicunas (Vicugna vicugna were investigated for the presence of antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV-3. Hemagglutination inhibition test indicated that a total of 91 (24.6% South American camelids (SAC had PIV-3 antibodies, including 18 (20.7% alpacas, 36 (40.9% llamas, 27 (18.9% vicunas and 10 (11.2% guanacos. Titers of the positive samples ranged from 8 to 256 with a geometric mean of 31. These results establish that SAC in Chile are infected with PIV-3.

  19. ▼Umeclidinium: another LAMA for COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects around 64 million people worldwide and is the fourth leading cause of death.(1) It is thought that 3 million people have COPD in the UK, with about 900,000 having been diagnosed and an estimated 2.1 million with disease that remains undiagnosed.(2) In addition, premature mortality from COPD in the UK is almost double the European average and as a result there has been considerable focus on improving outcomes for patients.(3)One of the options for maintenance pharmacological treatment of COPD is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA).(4) DTB has previously reviewed three inhaled LAMAs licensed in the UK for use by people with COPD: tiotropium and ▼glycopyrronium (both administered once daily), and ▼aclidinium bromide (administered twice daily).(5-8) ▼Umeclidinium bromide (Incruse) is another once daily LAMA, delivered using the Ellipta inhaler device, and is indicated as maintenance bronchodilator treatment to relieve symptoms in adult patients with COPD.(9) Here we review the evidence for its use in the management of COPD. PMID:26159701

  20. Transgenic Expression of Human LAMA5 Suppresses Murine Lama5 mRNA and Laminin α5 Protein Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhard, Brooke M.; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Stroganova, Larysa; Isom, Kathryn; St. John, Patricia L.; Andrews, Glen K.; Peterson, Kenneth R.; Abrahamson, Dale R.

    2011-01-01

    Laminin α5 is required for kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM) assembly, and mice with targeted deletions of the Lama5 gene fail to form glomeruli. As a tool to begin to understand factors regulating the expression of the LAMA5 gene, we generated transgenic mice carrying the human LAMA5 locus in a bacterial artificial chromosome. These mice deposited human laminin α5 protein into basement membranes in heart, liver, spleen and kidney. Here, we characterized two lines of transgenics; Line...

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in an alpaca cria

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Genova, Suzanne G.

    2011-01-01

    A 7-hour-old alpaca was presented for lethargy and depression. The cria responded favorably to initial treatment but developed acute-onset dyspnea 48 hours later. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed by thoracic imaging and blood gas analysis. The cria was successfully treated with corticosteroids and discharged from the hospital.

  2. Behind the Dalai Lama's Holy Cloak(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Editor's Note:Dalai Lama has been changed so popular these years that it seems he becomes a logo to some extent.But who is the Dalai Lama?Most of people are puzzled.Not long before I read a couple of papers and enjoyed them very much.Maybe our read-ers are willing to share them and interested them.

  3. The expression of KRT2 and its effect on melanogenesis in alpaca skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yucong; Song, Yajun; Geng, Qingling; Ding, Zengfeng; Qin, Yilong; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng; Geng, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the keratin 2 (KRT2) on alpaca melanocyte in vivo and vitro, the immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and alpaca melanocytes transfection methods were used. The results showed that mRNA and protein expression of KRT2 was highly expressed in brown skin in comparison with that in white skin. Moreover, we found that KRT2 was expressed in alpaca melanocytes in vitro by immunocytochemistry. After transfection with KRT2 in alpaca melanocytes, the relative mRNA and protein expression of KRT2, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) in alpaca skin melanocytes was increased with significant differences; a further result was the increase of melanin production. The results suggested that KRT2 functions in alpaca hair color formation, which offered an essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of melanogenesis. PMID:27265811

  4. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Jaswant; Huanca Wilfredo; Ratto Marcelo H; Adams Gregg P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Camelids are induced (reflex) ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per gro...

  5. Detection of an Antigenic Group 2 Coronavirus in an Adult Alpaca with Enteritis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Genova, Suzanne G.; Streeter, Robert N.; Simpson, Katharine M.; Kapil, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic group 2 coronavirus was detected in a fecal sample of an adult alpaca by reverse transcription-PCR. The presence of alpaca coronavirus (ApCoV) in the small intestine was demonstrated by immune histochemistry with an antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibody that reacts with group 2 coronaviruses. Other common causes of diarrhea in adult camelids were not detected. We conclude that nutritional stress may have predisposed the alpaca to severe ApCoV infection.

  6. PACTEL OECD project planning (PACO). PACTEL OECD project planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD launched the SETH project to investigate issues relevant for accident prevention and management and to ensure the existence of integral thermal hydraulic test facilities. The facilities included in the SETH project are PKL from Germany and PANDA from Switzerland. At the early stages of the SETH project an idea was raised to exploit the PACTEL facility in a similar OECD project. Without any external funding the analytical work in the required extent would not be possible within Lappeenranta University of Technology, the party responsible of operating PACTEL. This fact directed the PACO project proposal to be conducted for the SAFIR programme. The aim of the PACO project is to prepare a project proposal to OECD of a PACTEL related project. To attain this objective some preliminary analyses have to be performed to ensure the relevancy of the proposed topic. The low power situation, i.e. midloop state was chosen to be the topic in the PACO studies and project planning basis. The plan is to use PACTEL to examine vertical steam generator behaviour during the midloop operation and the following loss of residual heat removal system transient. Such a possibility is acknowledged with special alterations to PACTEL. The APROS code version 5.04.07 was selected as a tool for the preanalyses. The virtual simulation of the chosen experimental situation would give a preconception on the phenomena to be expected and the progression of the transient. Originally the PACO project was planned to continue only for a few months, ending up with the project proposal to OECD during the summer time 2004. During the pre-calculation process it became obvious that the time expected was not enough to establish good pre-calculation results. The reasons for this relates to time used to learn and adapt the use of the chosen code, improvements and corrections in modelling as well as the code ability to manage the special conditions defined for the project topic. Another aspect on completing a

  7. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (Pviscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands were not present in all samples of alpaca seminal plasma. There were no significant changes in the concentration of any protein fractions during the four periods. Moreover, the protein fraction of the 60-kDa (total protein

  8. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Shelley; Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown her...

  9. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  10. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    Full Text Available Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  11. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan dan Media Simpan Terhadap Viabilitas Benih Rambutan

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmayanti, Vivi

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Lama Penyimpanan dan Media Simpan Terhadap Viabilitas Benih Rambutan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Teknologi Benih Fakultas Pertanian USU Medan dari bulan Desember 1999 sampai bulan Februari 2000.

  12. DISTRIBUCIJSKA LOGISTIKA V PODJETJU LAMA DEKANI, D.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Segulin, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Distribucijska logistika v podjetju Lama Dekani, d.d., v svojem teoretičnem delu zajema opredelitev samega pojma in pomena logistike ter elementov logističnega sistema. V nadaljevanju so opredeljeni logistični podsistemi v proizvodnem podjetju, kamor spadajo nabavna, notranja, distribucijska ter poprodajna logistika. V aplikativnem delu diplomskega dela je predstavljeno podjetje Lama Dekani, d.d. ter opis panoge, v kateri podjetje deluje. Podrobneje je opisana d...

  13. International politics of the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama

    OpenAIRE

    Otgonbayar Sarlagtay, Mashbat

    2007-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Mongolia's strategic options in the event of a Mongol-Chinese confrontation over a clash of interests arising from the potential succession the next Dalai Lama, understood in Mongolia religiously through a process reincarnation. Mongolia would welcome the Dalai Lama's reincarnation in the country since Tibetan Buddhism enjoys the allegiance of many of Mongolia's people and is a part of Mongolia's national identity. Mongolia's democratic government in Ulaanbaatar must ...

  14. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (Pviscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (Pviscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

  15. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jaswant

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelids are induced (reflex ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group, 3 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group, 5 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group. The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P Conclusion We conclude that 1 OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2 disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3 ovulation in alpacas is not associated with a physical stimulation of the genital tract, and 4 the alpaca represents an excellent biological model to evaluate the bioactivity of OIF.

  16. Magnetosome Expression of Functional Camelid Antibody Fragments (Nanobodies) in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Pollithy, Anna; Romer, Tina; Lang, Claus; Müller, Frank D.; Helma, Jonas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Schüler, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Numerous applications of conventional and biogenic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as in diagnostics, immunomagnetic separations, and magnetic cell labeling, require the immobilization of antibodies. This is usually accomplished by chemical conjugation, which, however, has several disadvantages, such as poor efficiency and the need for coupling chemistry. Here, we describe a novel strategy to display a functional camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) from an alpaca (Lama pacos) on the surf...

  17. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:26135031

  18. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  19. Benefits of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Nutrient Cycling and Forage Growth in Alpaca Pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaudin, Mary Elin

    2012-01-01

    Alpacas have been gaining prominence in the U.S. since the early 1980s. In pastures, dung beetle activity has been shown to enhance the degradation and incorporation of dung into the soil. The benefits of this activity have been quantified for cattle, but not for alpacas. The objectives of this study were to document the dung beetle species present in alpaca pastures, and to evaluate the impact of dung beetle activity on the growth of a common summer annual grass. In 2010 and 2011, dun...

  20. Automatic Feature Interaction Analysis in PacoSuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanderperren

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build upon previous work that aims at recuperating aspect oriented ideas into component based software development. In that research, a composition adapter was proposed in order to capture crosscutting concerns in the PacoSuite component based methodology. A composition adapter is visually applied onto a given component composition and the changes it describes are automatically applied. Stacking multiple composition adapters onto the same component composition can however lead to unpredictable and undesired side-effects. In this paper, we propose a solution for this issue, widely known as the feature interaction problem. We present a classification of different interaction levels among composition adapters and the algorithms required to verify them. The proposed algorithms are however of exponential nature and depend on both the composition adapters and the component composition as a whole. In order to enhance the performance of our feature interaction analysis, we present a set of theorems that define the interaction levels solely in terms of the properties of the composition adapters themselves.

  1. BEHIND THE DALAI LAMA'S HOLY CLOAK(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Editor's Note:Note:Dalai Lama has been changed so popular these years that it seems he becomes a logo to some extent.But who is the Dalai Lama?Most of people are puzzled.Not long before I read a couple of papers and enjoyed them very much.Maybe our readers are willing to share them and interested them.Here are excerpts from them. The one is from Michael Backman,who is an internationally renowned writer,columnist and speaker.He specializes in writing and speaking about Asia:its economies,politics,business...

  2. Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical

  3. Effects of a Commercial Canine Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Vaccination on Intact Male Llamas and Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) using a commercial canine GnRH vaccine on testosterone concentration, testicular volume, testicular histology, and intermale behavior in intact male llamas and alpacas. Llamas (n=28) and alpacas (n=20) were either immunized (received 3 mL of vaccine given intramuscularly) or treated as controls (received 3 mL of sterile diluent given intramuscularly) at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. Blood samples and testicular...

  4. Analysis of Heavy-Chain Antibody Responses and Resistance to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in Experimentally Infected Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, S. R.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Lefman, S.; Hamel, P. J. S.; Ku, S.; Mainini, T.; Hoyt, G.; Justus, K.; Daley-Bauer, L. P.; Duffy, M. S.; Appleton, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is an important cause of neurologic disease of camelids in central and eastern North America. The aim of this study was to determine whether alpacas develop resistance to disease caused by P. tenuis in response to a previous infection or a combination of controlled infection and immunization. Alpacas were immunized with a homogenate of third-stage larvae (L3) and simultaneously implanted subcutaneously with diffusion chambers containing 20 liv...

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  6. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and subcutaneous cefovecin in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S; Sommardahl, C; Seddighi, R; Videla, R; Hayes, J; Pistole, N; Hamill, M; Doherty, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and cats. The properties of cefovecin may be advantageous for medical treatment of camelids due to its broad spectrum, route of administration, and long duration of activity. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of antimicrobial drugs in camelids is essential for the proper treatment and prevention of bacterial disease, and to minimize development of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains due to inadequate antibiotic concentrations. Cefovecin mean half-life, volume of distribution at steady-state, and clearance after intravenous administration were 10.3 h, 86 mL/kg, and 7.07 mL·h/kg. The bioavailability was 143%, while half-life, C(max), and T(max) were 16.9 h, 108 μg/mL, and 2.8 h following subcutaneous administration. In the absence of additional microbial susceptibility data for alpaca pathogens, the current cefovecin dosage regimen prescribed for dogs (8 mg/kg SC every 14 days) may need to be optimized for the treatment of infections in this species. PMID:25407784

  7. A cytogenetic and comparative map of camelid chromosome 36 and the minute in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Merriwether, David A; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Rubes, Jiři; Kutzler, Michelle A; Chowdhary, Renuka; Janečka, Jan; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in camelid genomics have provided draft sequence assemblies and the first comparative and gene maps for the dromedary (CDR) and the alpaca (LPA). However, no map information is currently available for the smallest camelid autosome-chr36. The chromosome is also of clinical interest because of its involvement in the minute chromosome syndrome (MCS) in infertile alpacas. Here, we developed molecular markers for camelid chr36 by direct sequencing CDR36 and LPA minute and by bioinformatics analysis of alpaca unplaced sequence scaffolds. We constructed a cytogenetic map for chr36 in the alpaca, llama, and dromedary and showed its homology to human chromosome 7 (HSA7) at 49.8-55.5 Mb. The chr36 map comprised seven markers, including two genes-ZPBP and WVC2. Comparative status of HSA7 was further refined by cytogenetic mapping of 16 HSA7 orthologs in camelid chromosomes 7 and 18 and by the analysis of HSA7-conserved synteny blocks across 11 vertebrate species. Finally, mapping chr36 markers in infertile alpacas confirmed that the minute chromosome was a derivative of chr36, but the small size was not a result of a large deletion or a translocation. Instead, cytogenetic mapping of 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA genes (nucleolus organizer region (NOR)) revealed that the size difference between chr36 homologs in infertile alpacas was due to a heterozygous presence of NOR, whereas chr36 in fertile alpacas had no NOR. We theorized that the heterozygous NOR might affect chr36 pairing, recombination, and segregation in meiosis and, thus fertility. PMID:25634498

  8. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M; Pott, F; Madsen, P L; van Lieshout, J J

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...

  9. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia

    OpenAIRE

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Mathews, Lindsey A.; Firshman, Anna M.; Quandt, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult.

  10. Hubungan Lama Aktivitas Membaca dengan Derajat Miopia pada Mahasiswa Pendidikan Dokter FK Unand Angkatan 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Mutia Maulud Fauziah; Hidayat, M; Julizar .

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakMiopia adalah salah satu kelainan refraksi pada mata dengan prevalensi yang tinggi di dunia. Berbagai faktor yang berhubungan dengan miopia seperti faktor keturunan dan lingkungan. Faktor lingkungan yang berperan kuat adalah kerja dekat seperti membaca. Lama membaca dapat meningkatkan risiko dan progresivitas miopia. Mahasiswa kedokteran berisiko mengalami miopia karena banyak melakukan aktivitas membaca yang lama dan intensif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama ak...

  11. The New Physics and Cosmology - Dialogues with the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Arthur; Houshmand, Zara

    2004-03-01

    What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with leading physicists and a historian? This book is the carefully edited record of the fascinating discussions at a Mind and Life conference in which five leading physicists and a historian (David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Arthur Zajonc, Anton Zeilinger, and Tu Weiming) discussed with the Dalai Lama current thought in theoretical quantum physics, in the context of Buddhist philosophy. A contribution to the science-religion interface, and a useful explanation of our basic understanding of quantum reality, couched at a level that intelligent readers without a deep involvement in science can grasp. In the tradition of other popular books on resonances between modern quantum physics and Zen or Buddhist mystical traditions--notably The Dancing Wu Li Masters and The Tao of Physics , this book gives a clear and useful update of the genuine correspondences between these two rather disparate approaches to understanding the nature of reality.

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Jesper; Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly;

    (prevalences in brackets): In C3 (third stomach compartment): Camelostrongylus mentulatus (33 %), Haemonchus contortus (15 %), Graphinema aucheniae (12 %), Marshallagia occidentalis (6 %), Ostertagia ostertagi (12 %); in the small intestine: Lamanema chavezi (64 %), Nematodirus spathiger (55 %), Nematodirus...... lamae (12 %), Nematodirus abnormalis (15 %), Cooperia onchophora (9 %), Cooperia surnabada (3 %), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (6 %), Trichostrongylus vitrinus (3 %), Trichostrongylus probolurus (6 %), Moniezia spp. (3 %); in the large intestine: Trichuris spp. (42 %), Skrjabinema spp. (3...

  13. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  14. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  15. Quality characteristics of Huacaya alpaca fibre produced in the Peruvian Andean Plateau region of Huancavelica

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, M.; Quicaño, I.; Quispe, R; Quispe, E.; Alfonso Ruiz, Leopoldo

    2008-01-01

    Se describe la calidad de la fibra de alpacas Huacaya producida en la región de Huancavelica (Perú), utilizando una muestra de 203 alpacas pertenecientes a ocho comunidades de alpaqueros ubicadas entre 4.100 y 4.750 m de altitud. El diámetro medio de la fibra, 22,7 μm (SE 0,2), fue inferior a los valores referidos para la raza Huacaya en otras zonas, variando con el sexo, la edad y la comunidad de origen (P < 0,01). Los machos mostraron tener una fibra más fina que las hembras, en contraste c...

  16. Resident lymphocytes in the epidermis and adnexal epithelia of normal dorsolateral thorax of alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Mitzi D.; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Scott, Danny W.

    2013-01-01

    A small population of resident T-lymphocytes is present in the normal epidermis of skin from humans, mice, sheep, and cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells (T-lymphocytes) and CD79a+ cells (B-lymphocytes and plasma cells), in the epidermis and adnexal epithelia of alpacas. Skin-biopsy specimens from the normal skin of the dorsolateral thorax of 31 alpacas were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for the presence of CD3+ ce...

  17. Prospección serológica del virus parainfluenza 3 en camélidos sudamericanos en Chile A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    CP Cepeda; Navarro, C.; MO Celedón

    2011-01-01

    En un total de 370 sueros obtenidos de 87 alpacas (Lama pacos), 88 llamas (Llama glama), 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe) y 106 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus parainfluenza 3 (VPI-3). La prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación mostró que 91 (24,6%) de los camélidos sudamericanos (CSA) distribuidos en 18 (20,7%) alpacas, 36 (40,9%) llamas, 27 (18,9%) vicuñas y 10 (11,2%) guanacos tenían anticuerpos. El rango de los títulos de las muestras positi...

  18. Clinical and molecular characterization of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy due to LAMA2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavassini, Bruno F; Carboni, Nicola; Nielsen, Jørgen E;

    2011-01-01

    In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations.......In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations....

  19. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Natrium Benzoat dan Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Mutu Juice Sirsak (Annona muricata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, John Eddy C. P

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi Natrium Benzoat dan lama penyimpanan terhadap multi juice sirsak (Annona Muricata L.). Digunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial, dcngan 2 fak lor, yaitu, Konsentrasi Natrium Benzoat (N), terdiri dari 5 taraf dan Lama Penyimpanan (L) yang terdiri dari 4 taraf.

  20. Effect of genotype and sex on fiber growth rate of alpacas for their first year of fleece production

    OpenAIRE

    EC Quispe-Peña; AG Poma-Gutiérrez; BA McGregor; J Bartolomé-Filella

    2014-01-01

    The sale of alpaca fiber is the main income for thousands of families in the Central Andes of Peru. Little information exists on the fiber length growth rate of alpaca (FLG), especially throughout their first year of life when the fiber is most valuable. We aimed to determine the monthly FLG of 22 alpaca offspring of two genotypes (9 Suri, 13 Huacaya) and considering sex differences (10 females, 12 males) in the High Andes of Peru. FLG growth was determined using dye-bands. An additive lineal...

  1. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary)

    OpenAIRE

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m), Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m) y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m), cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal pr...

  2. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m), Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m) y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m), cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal pr...

  3. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M;

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...... Vmean and the end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension (PETCO2) decrease, suggesting that PaCO2 contributes to the reduction in MCA Vmean. In a fixed body position, PETCO2 tracks changes in the PaCO2 but when assuming the upright position, cardiac output (Q) decreases and its distribution over the lung changes...

  4. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Cullen, Cheryl L.; Lamont, Leigh A.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts.

  5. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting. PMID:25595611

  6. Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shen; Yu, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Hai-Dong, Wang; Jian-Shan, Xie; Shu-Yuan, Gao; Jia-Qi, Cheng; Xiu-Ju, Yu; Ting, Wang; Chang-Sheng, Dong; Xiao-Yan, He

    2016-02-10

    The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression. PMID:26611528

  7. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in Alpacas on Two Maryland Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one fecal samples were collected from adult alpacas and crias (ages 10 wk to 10 yr) on two farms in central Maryland. The farms raised both suri (silky-haired) and huacaya (crimpy-haired) breeds. Females and crias were housed together on pasture, whereas older/breeding males were maintained o...

  8. Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Jennifer H; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Bayne, Jenna E

    2015-07-01

    A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. PMID:26130840

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  11. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the communit

  12. Mange in alpacas, llamas and goats in the UK: incidence and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusat, J; Morgan, E R; Wall, R

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective postal questionnaire was used to obtain information about the prevalence of mange and its association with husbandry-related risk factors, in alpaca, llama and goat herds in the UK. In total 1797 questionnaires were sent out to members of the British Alpaca Society, the British Llama Society and the British Goat Society, giving response rates of 40.4%, 29.3% and 22.8% from the three groups, respectively. Between January and December 2007, mange was reported in 52.2% (151 of 292), 14% (9 of 66) and 21% (41 of 194) alpaca, llama and goat herds, respectively. However, these figures must be treated with some caution as only 37-51% of the farmers had their diagnosis of mange confirmed by a veterinarian or animal health laboratory. In herds where the causal agent was confirmed: psoroptic, sarcoptic, chorioptic and mixed infections were all reported, with chorioptic mange reported most frequently. Risk analysis showed that the prevalence of reported cases mange in alpacas was significantly associated with herd size and the country from which the animals were imported. Alpaca farmers who had larger herds were more likely to report mange and farmers who imported their animals from Peru were 1.5 times more likely to report mange than farmers who imported animals from elsewhere or who did not import. There was no significant confounding between these two risk factors. The results show that mange continues to be a major problem for camelids and goats in the UK, and suggests that inadequate control on farms and lack of control when in quarantine are two factors that contribute to ongoing problems with mange. However, given the relatively low contribution of imported animals to the national herd each year, it is likely that poor on-farm control may be of greatest importance. PMID:19446959

  13. Serological and genetic characterisation of putative new serotypes of bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus isolated from an Alpaca / Isabella Maria Wright

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Isabella Maria

    2014-01-01

    Alpacas were first introduced into South Africa during the year 2000. They are valuable because of the fine quality wool they produce which has much better insulation properties than that of merino wool fibres. Alpacas are also used to act as guards of sheep herds against predators. During 2008, blood samples from an alpaca that died acutely with severe lung oedema, respiratory distress and froth exuding from the nose were received at Elsenburg Veterinary Laboratory. The alp...

  14. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Stacy H; Mathews, Lindsey A; Firshman, Anna M; Quandt, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  15. Is Meeting the Dalai Lama a Bargaining Chip?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Days before the 11th China-EU Summit sched-uled for early December in France,French President Nicolas Sarkozy,who currently holds the rotating presidency of the EU,said that he would meet with the Dalai Lama after the summit.In response,China announced it would postpone the China-EU Summit,a harsh stance that caused an international media frenzy.Why did China throw itself into this unusual rage?Is it because the French Government has infringed upon the bottom line of its national in-terests?Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei spoke to Yan Xuetong,Director of the Institute of International Studies at Tsinghua University,about these questions.

  16. LAMA3基因与癌症关系研究进展%Progress of the relationship between LAMA3 gene and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓东

    2016-01-01

    层黏连蛋白是由a、β、γ亚基通过卷曲螺旋域组装而成的异三聚体分子,是构成基底膜的主要成分,能维护基底膜功能,并在调节细胞迁移和机械信号转导、肿瘤侵袭和转移中发挥作用.LAMA3基因编码层黏连蛋白a亚基与癌症的发生关系密切.本文对LAMA3基因和癌症的关系、LAMA3甲基化在癌症发病机制中作用的研究进展作一综述.

  17. Claves para una lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Cortés, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    A modo de homenaje, nuestro texto propone la lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía a partir del análisis de cinco claves: la técnica de guitarra, el ritmo, la armonía, la melodía y los préstamos de otras músicas en torno a dos ejes, el grupo flamenco y el cajón. Acotaciones sobre el concepto de “toque flamenco”, sobre el Niño Ricardo y sobre Sabicas completan esta lectura de la obra del recién fallecido Maestro de Algeciras

  18. A new homozygous nonsense mutation in LAMA3A underlying laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, M; Mozafari, N; Kariminejad, A; Asadikani, Z; Ozoemena, L; McGrath, J A

    2013-12-01

    Laryngo-onycho-cutaneous (LOC) syndrome is a subtype of autosomal recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in which there is prominent skin and mucosal granulation tissue that can lead to delayed wound healing, laryngeal obstruction and blindness. Thus far, all cases are of Punjabi ancestry and have been shown to result from a founder mutation in the LAMA3 gene, notably involving a single nucleotide insertion mutation in exon 39, which is specific to the LAMA3A (designated exon 1 of LAMA3A) and not the LAMA3B1 or LAMA3B2 isoforms. Here, we describe a new pedigree with LOC syndrome. Affected individuals (from Iran) have the characteristic clinicopathological and molecular features of LOC syndrome: prominent granulation tissue (especially affecting the eyes), normal intensity laminin-332 immunostaining at the dermal-epidermal junction, and autosomal recessive mutations in the LAMA3A-specific exon. The pathogenic mutation is a homozygous nonsense mutation, designated p.Gln57X, which just affects the laminin-α3a transcript. These findings therefore expand the molecular basis of LOC syndrome. PMID:23869449

  19. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jeanne M.; Valentine, Beth A.; Cebra, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbu...

  20. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  1. Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Malini; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hastert, Florian D.; Schmidthals, Katrin; Rapp, Alexander; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • An alpaca-derived γ-H2AX nanobody was generated. • γ-H2AX chromobody was able to bind and precipitate phosphorylated H2AX peptide. • γ-H2AX chromobody could be produced in bacterial as well as mammalian cells. • Alternative epitope recognition by γ-H2AX chromobody was induced by ectopic XRCC1. • Accessibility of γ-H2AX chromobody was hindered by MDC1 masking in vivo.

  2. Genetic parameters and relationships between fibre and type traits in two breeds of Peruvian alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes, Isabel; Pérez-Cabal, M.A. (M.); Morante, R.; Burgos, A.; SALGADO, Carlos; Nieto, B; Goyache, Félix; Gutiérrez, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Four fibre traits (fibre diameter, FD; coefficient of variation of FD, comfort factor; and standard deviation of FD) were jointly analysed with six subjectively scored type traits (fleece density, crimp, lock structure, head, coverage, and balance) in two breeds of Peruvian Altiplano alpaca (Suri, SU; and Huacayo, HU) to ascertain their genetic relationship. A total of 2405 fibre records and 2194 type scores were available for the HU breed whereas these figures were 709 for fibre records and ...

  3. Diagnosis and surgical removal of brain abscesses in a juvenile alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Catherine E; Mueller, Karin; Granger, Nicolas; Jeffery, Nick D.

    2007-01-01

    Case Description—A 1-month-old female alpaca was examined because of progressive clinical signs consistent with an intracranial lesion. Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included signs of depression, lethargy, tetraparesis, and neck weakness. Two large isointense intracranial masses could be seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. On T2-weighted images, the masses contained concentric rings of hypointense and hyperintense material. Treatment and Outcome—2 abscesses were removed via a cr...

  4. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J; da Cunha, Anderson F; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery. PMID:27127341

  5. Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Wittek, Thomas; Joachim, Anja; Hinney, Barbara; Dadak, Agnes M

    2015-06-01

    There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge. PMID:25933827

  6. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  7. Kecernaan in vitro bahan kering dan bahan organik jerami jagung yang diinokulasi dengan Trichoderma sp pada lama inkubasi yang berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    GANI K., RASUL

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kecernaan in vitro bahan kering dan bahan organik jerami jagung yang diinokulasi dengan Trichoderma sp. pada lama inkubasi yang berbeda. Penelitian ini disusun berdasarkan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan yaitu: P0= jerami jagung tanpa inokulasi (kontrol), P1= Jerami jagung + 5% Trichoderma sp. dengan lama waktu inkubasi 1 minggu, P2= Jerami jagung + 5% Trichoderma sp. dengan lama waktu inkubasi 2 minggu, ...

  8. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project: the bright sample

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonavera, Laura; López-Caniego, Marcos; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Ekers, Ronald D

    2011-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) have provided flux density measurements at frequencies below and overlapping with Planck frequency bands of suitably chosen samples of AT20G radio sources, almost simultaneously with Planck observations. On the whole, we have observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) 482 sources in the frequency range between 4.5 and 40 GHz in the period between July 2009 and August 2010. Several sources were observed more than once. In this paper we present the aims of the project, the selection criteria, and the observation and data reduction procedures. We also present the data in total intensity for a complete sample of 189 sources with S(20 GHz)>500 mJy, Galactic latitude |b|>5{\\deg}, and declination <-30{\\deg}, and some statistical analysis of the spectral behaviour and variability of this sample, referred to as the "bright PACO sample". These data are important to investigate confusion effects affecting Planck data on radio sources. On the other hand, comp...

  9. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% (18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. This study was carried out in the Histology and Embriology laboratory at the Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny of the Altiplano National University, with alpacas coming from the EPS Rural Alliance (4140 m.a.s.l., Quimsachata Research Center (4050 m.a.s.l. and the Raya Research Center (4130 m.a.s.l. whose objective was the study the process of the uterine involution after parturition from day 0 to 30. For such purpose 34 multiparous alpacas from 4 to 6 year old were selectec. The results were: Macroscopically the uterusweight lost 71,07% (385,25g, 25,54% (138,55g and 3,42% (18,6g at first

  10. A Discussion of the 13th Dalai Lama during the Period from 1910 to 1912

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhongcui

    2014-01-01

    Following the decline of the Qing dynasty and its weak foreign policy , the Tibetan people became gradually dissatisfied with: ( i ) the Qing local administration ’ s lack of progress;( ii) their succumbing to the force of Britain; and ( iii ) their wantonly selling their local benefits . Especially during the time of the 13th Dalai Lama, this kind of mood of dissatisfaction further deep-ened.In order to maintain the benefits of Tibet, the 13th Dalai Lama tried to submit reports directly to the Qing court , and was eager to get the support from the central government of the Qing dynasty . However , this effort did not reach the central gov-ernment due to the barriers created by the royally appointed minister in Tibet . The British army launched a second invasion of Tibet in 1903, and soon occupied Lhasa.To the 13th Dalai Lama’ s disappointment , Youtai, the royal minister in Ti-bet, did not consider the Tibetan ’ s strong anger about the British invasion , but tried to appease the enemy in order to safeguard “peaceful relations”. And, at the same time he framed the 13th Dalai Lama saying“his abandonment of the land became an excuse for the foreign enemy ’ s invasion”. The Qing court then , without making a detailed investigation , announced a decree that abolished Thubten Gyatso ’ s title of Dalai Lama. Since then , misunderstanding between the 13 th Dalai La-ma and the Qing court deepened further , and some upper-class Tibetans even considered leav-ing the Qing . Taking advantage of the Qing ’ s improper attitude towards the 13th Dalai Lama, Britain began officially to carry out a strategy of winning over the heart of the 13th Dalai Lama. In February, 1910, the 13th Dalai Lama leftLhasa and went into exile in India.Britain wasvery happy about the Dalai ’ s arrival in India.The British man with whom the 13th Dalai Lamahad the most contact during his stay in British Indi -a was Charles Alfred Bell, a political officer ofSikkim.Bell noted the

  11. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    OpenAIRE

    Crossley, Beate M.; Mock, Richard E.; Scott A. Callison; Hietala, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike ...

  12. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    OpenAIRE

    Hietala, Sharon K.; Mock, Richard E.; Scott A. Callison; Crossley, Beate M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of s...

  13. MicroRNA-202 inhibits tumor progression by targeting LAMA1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangrui; Chen, Xiaoqi; Lu, Peng; Ma, Wang; Yue, Dongli; Song, Lijie; Fan, Qingxia

    2016-05-13

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract. Emerging studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are strongly implicated in the development and progression of ESCC. Here, we focused on the function and the underlying molecular mechanism of miR-202 in ESCC. The results showed that miR-202 was significantly down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-202 in ECa-109 and KYSE-510 cells markedly suppressed cell proliferation and cell migration, and induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, laminin α1 (LAMA1) expression was frequently positive in ESCC tissues and inversely correlated with miR-202 expression. Then we demonstrated that miR-202 targeted 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of LAMA1 and inhibited its protein expression. Additionally, LAMA1 overexpression rescued the proliferation inhibition and cell apoptosis elevation induced by miR-202. MiR-202 also inhibited the protein expression of p-FAK and p-Akt, which were all reversed by LAMA1 overexpression. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-202 may function as a novel tumor suppressor in ESCC by repressing cell proliferation and migration, and its biological effects may attribute the inhibition of LAMA1-mediated FAK-PI3K-Akt signaling. PMID:27045085

  14. Abnormal development of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells in mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrass, C K; Berfield, A K; Ryan, M C; Carter, W G; Hansen, K M

    2006-09-01

    Mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 chain of laminin-5 (alpha3beta3gamma2, 332), develop a blistering skin disease similar to junctional epidermolysis bullosa in humans. These animals also develop abnormalities in glomerulogenesis. In both wild-type and mutant animals (lama3(-/-)), podocytes secrete glomerular basement membrane and develop foot processes. Endothelial cells migrate into this scaffolding and secrete a layer of basement membrane that fuses with the one formed by the podocyte. In lama3(-/-) animals, glomerular maturation arrests at this stage. Endothelial cells do not attenuate, develop fenestrae, or form typical lumens, and mesangial cells (MCs) were not identified. LN alpha3 subunit (LAMA3) protein was identified in the basement membrane adjacent to glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) in normal rats and mice. In developing rat glomeruli, the LAMA3 subunit was first detectable in the early capillary loop stage, which corresponds to the stage at which maturation arrest was observed in the mutant mice. Lama3 mRNA and protein were identified in isolated rat and mouse glomeruli and cultured rat GEnCs, but not MC. These data document expression of LAMA3 in glomeruli and support a critical role for it in GEnC differentiation. Furthermore, LAMA3 chain expression and/or another product of endothelial cells are required for MC migration into the developing glomerulus. PMID:16850021

  15. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. PMID:26072370

  16. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV—from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO2. Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO2/air mixture (5% CO2, 30% O2 and 65% N2) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO2 (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO2 occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation

  17. Florfenicol Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Adult Alpacas after Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, K; Bedenice, D.; Papich, M G

    2011-01-01

    A single dose of florfenicol (Nuflor®) was administered to eight healthy adult alpacas, at 20mg/kg IM (intramuscular) and 40mg/kg SC (subcutaneous) using a randomized, cross-over design and 28-day washout period. Subsequently, 40mg/kg florfenicol was injected SC every other day for 10 doses to evaluate long-term effects. Maximum plasma florfenicol concentrations (Cmax, measured via high-performance-liquid-chromatography) were achieved rapidly, leading to a higher Cmax of 4.31+/−3.03 μg/ml fol...

  18. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Xue; Jiang Junbing; Fan Ruiwen; Wang Haidong; Meng Xiaolin; He Xiaoyan; He Junping; Li Hongquan; Geng Jianjun; Yu Xiuju; Song Yunfei; Zhang Danli; Yao Jianbo; Smith George W; Dong Changsheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white ver...

  19. Utilidad de marcadores SNP en la mejora genética de poblaciones altoandinas de alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Paucar Chanca, Rufino

    2011-01-01

    La correcta asignación de las relaciones de parentesco de los animales es una parte fundamental de cualquier programa de mejora genética ya que permite mejorar la precisión de la evaluación genética y por tanto el progreso genético. En poblaciones donde predominan los sistemas extensivos la identificación de parentesco vía control genealógico de los apareamientos es difícil de implementar. Es el caso de las poblaciones de alpacas en sistemas de crianza alto-andinos. En estos casos la utilizac...

  20. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xue; JIANG, Junbing; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; MENG Xiaolin; He, Xiaoyan; He, Junping; Li, Hongquan; Geng, Jianjun; Yu, Xiuju; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Yao, Jianbo; Smith, George W; Dong, Changsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown...

  1. Effect of genotype and sex on fiber growth rate of alpacas for their first year of fleece production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC Quispe-Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sale of alpaca fiber is the main income for thousands of families in the Central Andes of Peru. Little information exists on the fiber length growth rate of alpaca (FLG, especially throughout their first year of life when the fiber is most valuable. We aimed to determine the monthly FLG of 22 alpaca offspring of two genotypes (9 Suri, 13 Huacaya and considering sex differences (10 females, 12 males in the High Andes of Peru. FLG growth was determined using dye-bands. An additive lineal model with three factors (genotype, sex, month was used for statistic analysis. To evaluate the effect of genotype and sex on the profile of the FLG throughout the year a two factor repeated-measures model was used. The results showed that FLG was affected by genotype and month but not sex. The Suri genotype had 20% higher FLG than Huacaya genotype alpacas (1.34 vs 1.10 cm/month, P < 0.001. FLG increased over each of the first three months (P < 0.05 and then maintained a near constant rate for the remainder of the first year. The resulting staple length indicates that shearing at ages from 8 to 12 months of age will provide fleeces of sufficient length for textile processing.

  2. Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama

    OpenAIRE

    Suhana Johar; Hafsah Yahiya; Adi Irfan Che-Ani; Norngainy Mohd Tawil; Abdul Gaffer Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and highlights the importance parts of a conservation programs, particularly for timber building. Masjid Lama Mulong is one of a remaining cultural heritage experiencing conservation works as to restore the uniqueness of the building and its history that once existed. Made from cengal, one of the famous local hardwoods, however, it is not spared to the threat of decay and deterioration from its agent. In conservation, one of the important stages is to insp...

  3. Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Werle, Nicholas; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to define disposition and systemic availability of florfenicol in alpacas. Administration of 20 mg/kg doses to 8 male alpacas by i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was performed by randomized, 3-way crossover design. Clearance and steady state volumes (Vdss) after i.v. injection were 5 ml/min/kg and 775 ml/kg respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) and terminal phase half-life (T1/2λz) were 2.8 h and 2 h respectively. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) after i.m. were higher than s.c. administration (p = 0.034). After s.c. dosing, T1/2λz and MRT were greater than after i.m. injection (p  0.05). Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 µg/ml for 20 h after i.m. dosing. Differences in rate and extent of florfenicol absorption after extravascular dosing could influence therapeutic outcomes. PMID:25744433

  4. Pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas following administration of an oral or subcutaneous formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquyt, Christine M; Van Amstel, Sarel; Cox, Sherry; Rohrbach, Barton; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas after single subcutaneous injection of a non-aqueous formulation or oral administration of an aqueous drench at 0.2mg∗kg(-1). Plasma moxidectin concentrations were measured with reverse phase HPLC, and data analyzed using non-compartmental methods. Half-life was longer (p=0.02) after subcutaneous administration than oral (292+/-170 vs 33+/-39h). The area under the concentration-time curve was greater (p=0.04) following subcutaneous administration (1484.8+/-1049.5h∗ng∗ml(-1)) than oral (157.6+/-85.9h∗ng∗ml(-1)). The peak concentration (Cmax) was higher and the after subcutaneous administration, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The relative bioavailability of the oral moxidectin to the subcutaneous moxidectin was 11%. The data suggest a higher relative bioavailability following subcutaneous compared to oral administration. Further studies are needed to determine the therapeutic concentrations of moxidectin in alpacas. PMID:27033926

  5. Evaluation of Lama5 as a candidate for the mouse ragged (Ra) mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Albrechtsen, R; Chambers, D M;

    1998-01-01

    The laminin alpha5 chain is a component of the basement membranes of many developing and adult tissues. The mouse laminin alpha5 chain gene (Lama5) has been mapped close to the locus of the semidominant ragged (Ra) mutation on distal chromosome 2. The cause of the Ra mutation, which is usually...

  6. Prediction of alpaca fibre quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaza-Cayo, A W; Alomar, D; Quispe, E

    2013-07-01

    Rapid and efficient methods to evaluate variables associated with fibre quality are essential in animal breeding programs and fibre trade. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated to predict textile quality attributes of alpaca fibre. Raw samples of fibres taken from male and female Huacaya alpacas (n = 291) of different ages and colours were scanned and their visible-near-infrared (NIR; 400 to 2500 nm) reflectance spectra were collected and analysed. Reference analysis of the samples included mean fibre diameter (MFD), standard deviation of fibre diameter (SDFD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD), mean fibre curvature (MFC), standard deviation of fibre curvature (SDFC), comfort factor (CF), spinning fineness (SF) and staple length (SL). Patterns of spectral variation (loadings) were explored by principal component analysis (PCA), where the first four PC's explained 99.97% and the first PC alone 95.58% of spectral variability. Calibration models were developed by modified partial least squares regression, testing different mathematical treatments (derivative order, subtraction gap, smoothing segment) of the spectra, with or without applying spectral correction algorithms (standard normal variate and detrend). Equations were selected through one-out cross-validation according to the proportion of explained variance (R 2CV), root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD), which relates the standard deviation of the reference data to RMSECV. The best calibration models were accomplished when using the NIR region (1100 to 2500 nm) for the prediction of MFD and SF, with R 2CV = 0.90 and 0.87; RMSECV = 1.01 and 1.08 μm and RPD = 3.13 and 2.73, respectively. Models for SDFD, CVFD, MFC, SDFC, CF and SL had lower predictive quality with R 2CV validation performed for MFD and SF on 91 samples was slightly poorer than cross-validation, with R 2 of 0.86 and

  7. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. PMID:25683297

  8. Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Malini; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hastert, Florian D.; Schmidthals, Katrin; Rapp, Alexander; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are difficult to visualize in living cells and are conveniently analyzed using antibodies. Single-chain antibody fragments derived from alpacas and called nanobodies can be expressed and bind to the target antigenic sites in living cells. As a proof of concept, we generated and characterized nanobodies against the commonly used biomarker for DNA double strand breaks γ-H2AX. In vitro and in vivo characterization showed the specificity of the γ-H2AX nanobody. Mammalian cells were transfected with fluorescent fusions called chromobodies and DNA breaks induced by laser microirradiation. We found that alternative epitope recognition and masking of the epitope in living cells compromised the chromobody function. These pitfalls should be considered in the future development and screening of intracellular antibody biomarkers. PMID:26500838

  9. Progesterone levels in the ovarian, uterine, and systemic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryo mortality was studied in a group of 20 pregnant alpacas. The reproductive organs of the females were monitored by ultrasound examination to determine signs of sustained pregnancy or embryo mortality. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein twice weekly from mating to determine progesterone levels through gestation or until the occurrence of embryo mortality. Ovarian hysterectomy was conducted in four animals at day nine post-mating, in three animals at the time of embryo mortality detection and in two others at day 73 of gestation. Blood samples from the ovarian and uterine veins were collected during the surgery and prior to hysterectomy for progesterone determination. The remnant of embryo membranes and the uterus and ovarian structures were macroscopically examined after surgery. The three cases of embryo mortality occurred at days 19, 40 and 69 of gestation. Progesterone levels were high during the process of embryo mortality. (author)

  10. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% 18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. Histológicamente: durante los primeros días la superficie uterina es irregular y presenta proyecciones endometriales de aspecto fungiforme y esta cubierto por células pavimentosas, estroma con la presencia de linfocitos, macrófagos y fibroblastos, glándulas reducidas en su diámetro. A partir del sexto día, muestra cambio en el regenerativo, el epitelio de hace predominantemente cúbico, Del sexto al doceavo día el epitelio continua irregular con pequeñas áreas con células epiteliales pavimentosas y cúbicas, lo cual coincide con el cambio en el peso del útero en forma significativa

  11. Analysis of the existence of major genes affecting alpaca fiber traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cabal, M A; Cervantes, I; Morante, R; Burgos, A; Goyache, F; Gutiérrez, J P

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of major genes for fiber diameter (FD), SD of FD (SDFD), CV of FD, and comfort factor (CF) in Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) Peruvian alpaca breeds. Bayesian segregation analyses with relaxed transmission probabilities were performed using 1,906 and 6,592 available records for SU and HU breeds. Evidence for the presence of major genes was statistically supported when the 95% posterior density did not include zero. Significant major genes were found associated with decreased FD, SDFD, CV values, and increased CF values. Additive effects of the major genes were 4.18 and 4.23 μm for FD, 1.67 and 1.61 μm for SDFD, 3.32 and 3.76% for CV, and 15.03 and 14.90% for CF in HU and SU breeds, respectively. Dominance effects were -1.98 and -2.03 μm for FD, -0.88 and -1.11 μm for SDFD, -1.37 and -2.17% for CV, and 13.0 and 11.8% for CF in HU and SU breeds, respectively. Major gene variance was larger than the polygenic variance for all traits. Major gene allelic frequencies for FD, SDFD, and CV ranged from 0.81 to 0.86 for HU breed and from 0.70 to 0.77 for the SU breed and were 0.24 and 0.36, respectively, for CF. It can be concluded that a major gene affecting these traits could be segregating. Then, molecular identification and monitoring of animals carrying favorable genes throughout the worldwide alpaca population would allow for a quick genetic improvement. PMID:20656969

  12. Progesterone levels in the ovarian uterine and systematic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South American camelids is one the limited options that Peruvian Highland people, has to get economic incomes. It is possible to get fibre, meat, and animals as product from this animal production system; however, reproductive efficiency is not good because birth rate and embryo mortality are around 45-55% and 50%, respectively (Fernandez Baca, 1970). There is not so much information about between age, pathogen agents, and genital tract alterations in relation to embryo mortality. This means that improving genetic programmes or breeding systems cannot fulfil the goals of an efficient production system. New Zealand reports 24% embryo mortality between 21-30 days of gestation (Ridland et al., 1993). According to Boland (2000), there is no relation between peripheral serum levels and ovaryuterus circulation levels of progesterone; so embryo survival would be relational to progesterone levels in the ovarian and uterine veins. In this study we have considered serum progesterone levels, in uterus-ovarian circulation in luteal phase animals compared with early pregnancy and embryo mortality process. Twenty open female alpacas with recorded previous parturitions were used. They were breed with a male when they showed sexual receptivity and was found an 8 mm follicle in any of the ovaries (Bravo, 1999). Ovario-hysterectomy was performed in four animals nine days after breeding to use their serum samples as diestrus references, and the rest (16 animals), ovario-hysterectomy was performed after positive pregnancy diagnosis, that was monitored every other day by ultrasound during gestation or until embryo mortality occurred. There was an ultrasound evaluation of ovaries and uterus from day 15 post breeding until day 90 or when embryo mortality evidences was found. This was considered to have occurred when embryo cardiac beat decreased, embryo motility lost, or suspended particles in foetal fluids apparition. (Adams, 1989; Parraguez,1997). Blood samples were taken from jugular

  13. A novel LAMA3 mutation in a newborn with junctional epidermolysis bullosa herlitz type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Garofoli, Francesca; Decembrino, Lidia; Castiglia, Daniele; Tadini, Gianluca; Bellingeri, Andrea; Borghesi, Alessandro; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Manzoni, Paolo; Stronati, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The case of a male neonate of 41 weeks' gestation who developed blistering of the skin immediately after birth is described. His parents were consanguineous Tunisians. Electron microscopy of a cutaneous biopsy showed skin cleavage within the lamina lucida and immunoepitope mapping revealed a complete absence of laminin 332 expression. These findings referred to the diagnosis of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) Herlitz type. The neonate died at 3 months of age due to sepsis. Molecular analysis of laminin 332 chain genes LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 disclosed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in LAMA3 (p.Y955X). Clinical and laboratory analyses are essential for the diagnosis of JEB subtypes, and molecular analysis screening is crucial to manage a new pregnancy in families with suspected cases of JEB. PMID:20881434

  14. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Hietala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960’s to early 1980’s. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960’s, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans.

  15. STUDI KANDUNGAN KITOSAN CANGKANG KAPAH (Meretrix sp.) DI PANTAI AMAL LAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Prayogo;  Dori Rachmawani

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide that obtained by deacetylation of chitin. In this present day, chitosan been widely applicated and exploited in many sector of human life. Oriental hard clam was which one of fisheries commodity of Tarakan city, however it shells not yet been optimally exploited. The purpose of this research was to know the content of chitosan in oriental hard clam shell at Amal Lama beach. Sample determined by purposive sampling method. Meanwhile the isolation chitosan are using ...

  16. Identification of GABRA1 and LAMA2 as new DNA methylation markers in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunwoo; Oh, Taejeong; Chung, Hyuncheol; Rha, Sunyoung; Kim, Changjin; Moon, Youngho; Hoehn, Benjamin D; Jeong, Dongjun; Lee, Seunghoon; Kim, Namkyu; Park, Chanhee; Yoo, Miae; An, Sungwhan

    2012-03-01

    Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of genes is a common epigenetic phenomenon found in early cancers. Therefore conducting genome-scale methylation studies will enhance our understanding of the epigenetic etiology behind carcinogenesis by providing reliable biomarkers for early detection of cancer. To discover novel hypermethylated genes in colorectal cancer by genome-wide search, we first defined a subset of genes epigenetically reactivated in colon cancer cells after treatment with a demethylating agent. Next, we identified another subset of genes with relatively down-regulated expression patterns in colorectal primary tumors when compared with normal appearing-adjacent regions. Among 29 genes obtained by cross-comparison of the two gene-sets, we subsequently selected, through stepwise subtraction processes, two novel genes, GABRA1 and LAMA2, as methylation targets in colorectal cancer. For clinical validation pyrosequencing was used to assess methylation in 134 matched tissue samples from CRC patients. Aberrant methylation at target CpG sites in GABRA1 and LAMA2 was observed with high frequency in tumor tissues (92.5% and 80.6%, respectively), while less frequently in matched tumor-adjacent normal tissues (33.6% for GABRA1 and 13.4% for LAMA2). Methylation levels in primary tumors were not significantly correlated with clinico-pathological features including age, sex, survival and TNM stage. Additionally, we found that ectopic overexpression of GABRA1 in colon cancer cell lines resulted in strong inhibition of cell growth. These results suggest that two novel hypermethylated genes in colorectal cancer, GABRA1 and LAMA2, may have roles in colorectal tumorigenesis and could be potential biomarkers for the screening and the detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice. PMID:22038115

  17. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Zubillaga; Oscar Skewes; Nicolás Soto; Jorge E Rabinovich

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matri...

  18. Binding of USF to a non-canonical E-box following stress results in a cell-specific derepression of the lama3 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Virolle, Thierry; Coraux, Christelle; Ferrigno, Olivier; Cailleteau, Laurence; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Pognonec, Philippe; Aberdam, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the lama3 gene, encoding the laminin α3A chain, is restricted to specialized epithelia. We previously showed that lama3 gene expression is controlled by an epithelial enhancer through the cooperative effect of AP-1 binding sites. In fibroblasts, there is no lama3 expression because of the recruitment of a repressor complex absent or inactive in epithelial cells. In this paper, we show evidence that this repression of the lama3 gene is relieved by exogenous and UV-induced USF-1 t...

  19. Dual therapy strategies for COPD: the scientific rationale for LAMA + LABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua S; Miles, Matthew C; Donohue, James F; Ohar, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle with inhaled bronchodilators is the cornerstone of treatment for stable COPD, with inhaled corticosteroids reserved for those with a history of exacerbations. Tiotropium has occupied center stage in COPD treatment for over 10 years and improves lung function, quality of life, exercise endurance, and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) improve lung function, reduce dynamic hyperinflation, increase exercise tolerance, health-related quality of life, and reduce acute exacerbation of COPD. The combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and LABAs is thought to leverage different pathways to induce bronchodilation using submaximal drug doses, increasing the benefits and minimizing receptor-specific side effects. Umeclidinium/vilanterol is the first combination of LAMA/LABA to be approved for use in stable COPD in USA and Europe. Additionally, indacaterol/glycopyrronium and aclidinium/formoterol have been approved in Europe and in numerous locations outside USA. Several other agents are in the late stages of development, most of which offer once-daily dosing. The benefits of new LAMA/LABA combinations include improved pulmonary function, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life, and in some cases, reduced exacerbations. These evolving treatments will provide new opportunities and challenges in the management of COPD. PMID:27143870

  20. Genotype-phenotype correlation in a large population of muscular dystrophy patients with LAMA2 mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh

    2010-04-01

    Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy 1A (MDC1A) results from mutations in the LAMA2 gene. We report 51 patients with MDC1A and examine the relationship between degree of merosin expression, genotype and clinical features. Thirty-three patients had absence of merosin and 13 showed some residual merosin. Compared to the residual merosin group, patients with absent merosin had an earlier presentation (<7days) (P=0.0073), were more likely to lack independent ambulation (P=0.0215), or require enteral feeding (P=0.0099) and ventilatory support (P=0.0354). We identified 33 novel LAMA2 mutations; these were distributed throughout the gene in patients with absent merosin, with minor clusters in exon 27, 14, 25 and 26 (55% of mutations). Patients with residual merosin often carried at least one splice site mutation and less frequently frameshift mutations. This large study identified novel LAMA2 mutations and highlights the role of immunohistochemical studies for merosin status in predicting clinical severity of MDC1A.

  1. PETCO2 measured by a new lightweight mainstream capnometer with very low dead space volume offers accurate and reliable noninvasive estimation of PaCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daijiro Takahashi, Takehiko Hiroma, Tomohiko NakamuraDivision of Neonatology, Nagano Children’s Hospital, Nagano, JapanObjective: Although capnometers are widely used in adult and pediatric intensive care units, they are not widely used in neonatal intensive care units due to issues such as the weight of sensors, dead space, and leakage from tracheal intubation tubes. These authors developed a light and low dead space airway adaptor of end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2 and evaluated the correlations between PETCO2 and partial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 in rabbits while changing tidal volume and leakage volume.Methods: Firstly, Japanese rabbits weighing 2 kg were divided into three tidal volumes (6 mL/kg, 10 mL/kg, or 15 mL/kg, and PETCO2 and PaCO2 were measured. Secondly, the respiratory apparatus was set to a tidal volume/body weight ratio of 10 mL/kg, leakage rates were divided into seven groups, and PETCO2  and PaCO2 were measured.Results: PETCO2 and PaCO2 were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.9099, P < 0.0001 when there was no leakage in the tracheal intubation tubes. No significant differences were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (Pa-ETCO2 in the three tidal volume/body weight groups or for groups in which leakage rate was <60%, but significant deviations in Pa-ETCO2 were noted in groups with leakage rate 60%.Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 when tidal volume/body weight ratio was 6–15 mL/kg with leakage rate <60%. Lightweight mainstream capnometer with a low amount of dead space airway adaptor might be useful in very low birth weight infants with small tidal volume.Keywords: capnography, mainstream, neonate

  2. Hubungan Lama Aktivitas Membaca dengan Derajat Miopia pada Mahasiswa Pendidikan Dokter FK Unand Angkatan 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Maulud Fauziah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMiopia adalah salah satu kelainan refraksi pada mata dengan prevalensi yang tinggi di dunia. Berbagai faktor yang berhubungan dengan miopia seperti faktor keturunan dan lingkungan. Faktor lingkungan yang berperan kuat adalah kerja dekat seperti membaca. Lama membaca dapat meningkatkan risiko dan progresivitas miopia. Mahasiswa kedokteran berisiko mengalami miopia karena banyak melakukan aktivitas membaca yang lama dan intensif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat miopia. Metode studi menggunakan desain cross sectional analitik dengan 121 sampel. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan kuesioner tentang riwayat miopia dan lama membaca. Data dianalisis dengan uji chi-square (x² dengan kemaknaan (p<0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa kejadian miopia lebih banyak terjadi pada mahasiswa perempuan (78.5%. Miopia pertama kali paling banyak terjadi pada usia 13 tahun (19%. Pertambahan ukuran refraksi per tahun pada mahasiswa miopia rata-rata adalah 0.30 D. Sebagian mahasiswa miopia menghabiskan waktu untuk membaca lebih dari 10.7 jam/hari (52.9%, sebagian lagi kurang dari 10.7 jam/hari (47.1%. Mahasiswa miopia sebagian besar menderita miopia ringan. Analisis statistik hubungan lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat miopia didapatkan nilai p=0,15. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat myopia.Kata kunci: lama membaca, derajat miopiaAbstractMyopia is a refractive error of the eye with a high prevalence in the world. Various factors association with myopia such as heredity and environmental factor. The strongest role an environmental is near work such as reading. Reading time can increase risk and progression of myopia. Medical students have the risk of myopia because of long and intensive reading. This study aimed to determine relationship the duration of reading activities with the degree of myopia. This study used a

  3. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbedanu, Prince N; Anderson, Kristi L; Brewer, Matthew T; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-09-15

    Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies

  4. Development and Utilization of Camelid VHH Antibodies from Alpaca for 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bever, Candace R. S.; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRN...

  5. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  6. Dual therapy strategies for COPD: the scientific rationale for LAMA + LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Joshua S Cohen,1 Matthew C Miles,2 James F Donohue,3 Jill A Ohar2 1United Lung and Sleep Clinic, Saint Paul, MN, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle with inhaled bronchodilators is the cornerstone of treatment for stable COPD, with inhaled corticosteroids reserved for those with a history of exacerbations. Tiotropium has occupied center stage in COPD treatment for over 10 years and improves lung function, quality of life, exercise endurance, and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs improve lung function, reduce dynamic hyperinflation, increase exercise tolerance, health-related quality of life, and reduce acute exacerbation of COPD. The combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs and LABAs is thought to leverage different pathways to induce bronchodilation using submaximal drug doses, increasing the benefits and minimizing receptor-specific side effects. Umeclidinium/vilanterol is the first combination of LAMA/LABA to be approved for use in stable COPD in USA and Europe. Additionally, indacaterol/glycopyrronium and aclidinium/formoterol have been approved in Europe and in numerous locations outside USA. Several other agents are in the late stages of development, most of which offer once-daily dosing. The benefits of new LAMA/LABA combinations include improved pulmonary function, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life, and in some cases, reduced exacerbations. These evolving treatments will provide new opportunities and challenges in the management of COPD. Keywords: bronchodilator, fixed-dose combination, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD treatment

  7. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), HCO3-, pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO3- and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO2, end-tidal CO2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2, but correlated with arterial HCO3- and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO3- and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

  8. Aproveitamento econômico das lamas de ferro Economical recovery of iron slimes

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Rocha; Antônio Eduardo Clark Peres

    2009-01-01

    A mineração iniciou suas atividades lavrando depósitos de alto teor, sem preocupação em maximizar seu aproveitamento. Ainda hoje, milhões de toneladas de minerais úteis são descartados anualmente para as barragens de rejeitos. Nesse trabalho, foram realizados testes de deslamagem e flotação com lamas de minério de ferro, primeiramente em escala de bancada. Várias dosagens de coletor e depressor foram utilizadas. Os resultados promissores dos testes em escala de bancada levaram a testes em esc...

  9. Valorização de lamas galvânicas por via hidrometalúrgica

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Eudes da

    2006-01-01

    As empresas portuguesas do sector metalúrgico e metalomecânico abrangem uma vasta gama de actividades industriais e processos produtivos, sendo normalmente de pequena e média dimensão. Entre os processos, inclui-se o sub-sector dos tratamentos de superfície, que tem sido identificado como um daqueles com maior potencial de impacto em termos de poluição. Isto, devido não tanto ao montante de resíduos produzido, mas principalmente ao carácter de perigosidade da lama, resíduo industrial semi-sól...

  10. Isotropic and anisotropic components of neutron emissions at the FN-II and PACO dense plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average angular distribution of neutron emissions has been measured in the Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II) dense plasma focus device (5 kJ) by means of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. When pure deuterium is used as the filling gas, the data can be adjusted to a Gaussian function, related to anisotropic emission, superposed on a constant pedestal, related to isotropic emission. When deuterium-argon admixtures are used, the anisotropic contribution is best represented by a parabola. The same analysis is applied to previously reported results, for fewer shots, in pure deuterium from the PACO device, which is similar in size to the FN-II. In both devices the anisotropic component is smaller than the isotropic one, but with different features. In PACO the anisotropic component is concentrated on a large narrow beam around the axis, but its contribution to the total neutron yield is significantly smaller than in the FN-II, where the anisotropic component spreads over a wider range. The neutron flux per shot is monitored in both devices with calibrated silver activation detectors, at 20 deg. and at 90 deg. from the axis. The average values of the neutron flux at these two angles are used, along with the angular distributions obtained form the track detectors, in order to estimate the absolute neutron yield of both the isotropic and the anisotropic contributions. From examining different groups of shots, it is found that the shape of the angular distribution is important in the estimation of anisotropy, and that the value usually reported, as the ratio of neutron counts head-on and side-on, as measured by activation counters, may be misleading

  11. Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: the influence of PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of 133Xe clearance and effluent cerebral venous blood sampling were used in 38 patients to determine the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, and of maintaining temperature corrected or noncorrected PaCO2 at 40 mm Hg on regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and flow/metabolism coupling. After induction of anesthesia with diazepam and fentanyl, mean CBF was 25 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 and cerebral oxygen consumption, 1.67 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1. Cerebral oxygen consumption during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass at 26 degrees C was reduced to 0.42 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in both groups. CBF was reduced to 14-15 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in the non-temperature-corrected group (n = 21), was independent of cerebral perfusion pressure over the range of 20-100 mm Hg, but correlated with cerebral oxygen consumption. In the temperature-corrected group (n = 17), CBF varied from 22 to 32 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1, and flow/metabolism coupling was not maintained (i.e., CBF and cerebral oxygen consumption varied independently). However, variation in CBF correlated significantly with cerebral perfusion pressure over the pressure range of 15-95 mm Hg. This study demonstrates a profound reduction in cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermic nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. When a non-temperature-corrected PaCO2 of approximately 40 mm Hg was maintained, CBF was lower, and analysis of pooled data suggested that CBF regulation was better preserved, i.e., CBF was independent of pressure changes and dependent upon cerebral oxygen consumption

  12. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  13. PENGARUH LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP EFISIENSI SEL SURYA TERSENSITISASI DYE DARI TINTA SOTONG DAN EKSTRAK TEH HITAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Choirul Umam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya merupakan energy alternatif yang sangat berpotensi untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu jenis sel surya adalah sel surya organic yang menggunakan elektrolit sebagai medium transport muatan dan dye sebagai penyerap sinar matahari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi lama perendaman dalam dye hasil ekstraksi teh hitam dan tinta sotong terhadap efisiensi sel surya dan mengetahui efisiensi sel surya tersensitisasi dye dengan menggunakan kaca TCO. Pembuatan Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC diawali dengan menyiapkan elektroda yang dibuat dari nanokristal TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada substrat kaca konduktif, yang kemudian direndam dalam dye. Sedangkan elektroda lawan dibuat dengan cara melapiskan grafit pensil pada kaca konduktif. Sel surya dibentuk dengan struktur sandwich dimana dua substrat kaca konduktif mengapit komponen- komponen dari DSSC. Lama perendaman sel surya dalam dye mempengaruhi voltase dan arus keluaran. Daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye teh hitam sebesar    8,85 x 10-8  W dan 8,5 x 10-3  %. Sedangkan daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye tinta sotong sebesar 23,4 x 10-8 W dan 23,19 x 10-3 %.

  14. Detection of novel LAMA3 mutation in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in a Jordanian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Eman F; Battah, Hamdi A; Akl, Kamal F; Khalil, Raida W; Al Amori, Iyad

    2013-08-01

    The Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) subtype usually presents as a severe lethal inherited variant of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) caused by a homozygous mutation in the genes LAMA3, LMAB3, or LAMAC3. Each gene encodes one of the three chains of heterotrimer laminin-332 proteins (including the alpha-3 chain, beta-3 chain and gamma-2-chain) responsible for the adherence of the epidermis to the underlying dermis. The aim of this report is to add to the existing knowledge about EB by describing a novel mutation in a gene responsible for genodermatosis. A case of a Jordanian male neonate, born to healthy, first cousin consanguineous parents, who developed nonhealing blistering skin and mucous membrane lesions, crusted erosions with significant granulation tissue and dystrophic nails immediately after birth is described. The patient was diagnosed as having a novel LAMA3 mutation causing (H-JEB) by immunofluorescence mapping and molecular analysis. Both parents and this baby's sibling were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. Pre-implantation diagnosis using molecular analysis for subsequent pregnancies in this family is crucial for managing any new pregnancy. PMID:22963541

  15. PENGARUH LAMA DAN CARA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN KANDUNGAN AFLATOKSIN PADA GAPLEK DI RUMAH TANGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukati Saidin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoksin yang mencemari makanan dapat menyebabkan timbulnya kanker hati. Gaplek merupakan salah satu komoditi yang dapat tercemar aflatoksin. Ada beberapa daerah di Indonesia yang menggunakan gaplek sebagai makanan pokok. Karena gaplek pada umumnya disimpan sampai panen berikutnya maka ada peluang untuk tercemar aflatoksin. Karena itu perlu diteliti sampai berapa jauh pencemaran aflatoksin pada gaplek. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama dan cara penyimpanan terhadap cemaran aflatoksin pada gaplek.Gaplek yang sudah dikeringkan dengan cara yang lazim dilakukan di daerah dengan makanan pokok gaplek dibagi menjadi 3 bagian. Bagian pertama disimpan di lantai semen terbuka, bagian kedua disimpan dalam bakul terbuka dan bagian ketiga di simpan dalam karung goni yangdiikat. Analisa kandungan aflatoksin dan kadar air gaplek dilakukan pada permulaan dan 4, 8, 12, 16 dan 20 minggu dalam penyimpanan.Perkembangan cemaran aflatoksin gaplek dalam penyimpanan ini mengungkapkan makin lama gaplek disimpan makin tinggi kadar aflatoksinnya. Rata-rata kadar air gaplek selama penyimpanan berkisar antara 13,1% sampai 14,0%. Gaplek yang disimpan di lantai menunjukkan kandungan aflatoksin tertinggi, diikuti oleh gaplek yang disimpan dalam bakul dan dalam karung.Hasil penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa sampai waktu panen berikutnya sekitar 10 bulan, kandungan aflatoksin gaplek yang disimpan di dalam karung diikat belum mencapai taraf yang menbahayakan kesehatan.

  16. 半巢式PCR法构建天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库%Construction of Alpaca-derived Naive Single-domain Antibody Phage Display Library by Semi-nested PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂追; 许杨; 何庆华; 陶勇

    2010-01-01

    目的:构建天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库,淘选可应用于食品安全检测的单域重链抗体.方法:以未经免疫的健康羊驼(Lama pacos)外周血为起始材料,提取RNA反转录为cDNA,根据重链抗体保守序列设计引物,通过半巢式PCR法扩增获得全套重链抗体可变区编码基因,将其克隆至噬菌粒pHEN1,电转化大肠杆菌TG1得到初级抗体库,辅助噬菌体KM13感染后得到噬菌体展示库.采用固相淘选法分别对3种人工抗原进行淘选.结果:单域重链抗体编码基因得到有效扩增,经10次电转化获得初级文库,命名为SNAL,实际库容量达到1.6×107个独立克隆,菌落PCR鉴定结果表明,克隆效率约为87%,辅助噬菌体救援后得到的展示文库命名为SNA-PDL,滴度达1013CFU/mL.对3种不同人工抗原DON-MBSA、NOR-BSA和AFB1-OVA的淘选均有富集现象.结论:构建了天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库,文库的多样性较好,可以用于后续淘选.

  17. Pengaruh Upright Position Terhadap Lama Kala I Fase Aktif pada Primigravida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaflindawati ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak  Angka Kematian Ibu (AKI di Indonesia 5,2 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Malaysia dan 2,4 kali lebih tinggi dibanding dengan Thailand.  Survey Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI mencatat bahwa partus lama merupakan penyebab kesakitan dan kematian maternal dan perinatal utama disusul oleh perdarahan, panas tinggi dan eklampsia.Sebagai bentuk penerapan asuhan sayang ibu disarankan melakukan mobilisasi saat persalinan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuktikan pengaruh uprigh position terhadap lama persalinan kala I fase aktif pada ibu primigravida (hamil pertama. Telah dilakukan penelitian observasional dengan desain cross sectional terhadap 38orang  yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu 19 orang dengan kelompok upright dan 19 orang dengan kelompok berbaring, dengan pengambilan sampel secara consecutive sampling kemudian diamati dan dihitung rerata lama persalinan kala I fase aktif. Data dianalisis dengan uji statistik menggunakan uji t independent dan hasilnya terdapatperbedaan yang signifikan dengan nilai p< 0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata lama persalinan kala I fase aktif dengan upright position adalah 161,05 ± 40,26 menit dan untuk posisi berbaring adalah  263,68 ± 39,47  menit. Hasil uji statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan dengan  nilai  p< 0,05. Kesimpulan studi ini ialah upright position dapat mempercepat proses persalinan kala I fase aktif pada primigravida.Kata kunci: posisi berdiri, posisi berbaring, fase aktif, lama persalinan, primigravidaAbstract Maternal mortality rate (MMR in Indonesia is 5.2 times higher than that of Malaysia, and 2.4 times higher than Thailand. Indonesian Health Demographic Survey (IHDS recorded that neglected labor is the main cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, followed by bleeding, high fever and eclampsia. As a form of implementing maternal loving care, prospective mothers were encouraged to perform activities such as walking, standing, moving

  18. Weighting fibre and morphological traits in a genetic index for an alpaca breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Burgos, A; Morante, R

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, the fibre diameter (FD) is considered the main selection objective in alpaca populations all over the world. International Committee for Animal Recording recommendations define the FD and its CV as the first two traits to be considered in breeding programmes for this specie. In addition to these main criteria, other selection criteria of economic value used are comfort factor (CF) or standard deviation (s.d.); also other less important traits being used as selection objectives are these morphological traits: density (DE), crimp (CR) or lock structure (LS) for, respectively, Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) ecotypes, head (HE), coverage (CO) and balance (BA). The goal of this study was to establish how to implement a combined selection index starting from genetic parameters and to study the expected correlation between genetic trends by considering different alternative procedures of weighting all the involved traits, and the consequences of a wrongly proceeding way. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from the data set belonging to the PACOMARCA experimental farm for SU and HU. Two approaches were used to check the consequences of a set of subjective weights essayed. The coefficients of selection indexes were obtained for two sets of reference weights. In addition, equivalent weights were drawn if applied those reference values as coefficients of hypothetical selection indexes directly on phenotypes; relative expected genetic responses were computed in different cases. Results showed that almost in all cases for both ecotypes, the weight applied to CF should be surprisingly negative. Concerning genetic responses, only CO was compromised in some cases for the HU ecotype. The essayed methodology allowed explaining the differences between ecotypes in the genetic trends. The proposed methodology was shown to be effective to study the relative importance of the traits granted by the manager of a breeding scheme. PMID:24423382

  19. Novel sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes modulating cis-acting regulatory elements and RNA secondary structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Siala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we detected new sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes in 5 ethnic populations, and analysed their effect on enhancer composition and mRNA structure. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were performed and followed by bioinformatics analyses using ESEfinder as well as MFOLD software. We found 3 novel sequence variations in the LAMA2 (c.3174+22_23insAT and c.6085 +12delA and SGCG (c.*102A/C genes. These variations were present in 210 tested healthy controls from Tunisian, Moroccan, Algerian, Lebanese and French populations suggesting that they represent novel polymorphisms within LAMA2 and SGCG genes sequences. ESEfinder showed that the c.*102A/C substitution created a new exon splicing enhancer in the 3'UTR of SGCG genes, whereas the c.6085 +12delA deletion was situated in the base pairing region between LAMA2 mRNA and the U1snRNA spliceosomal components. The RNA structure analyses showed that both variations modulated RNA secondary structure. Our results are suggestive of correlations between mRNA folding and the recruitment of spliceosomal components mediating splicing, including SR proteins. The contribution of common sequence variations to mRNA structural and functional diversity will contribute to a better study of gene expression.

  20. Beyond lung function in COPD management : effectiveness of LABA/LAMA combination therapy on patient-centred outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Thys; Cazzola, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Bronchodilators are central to the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical studies combining different classes of bronchodilators, in particular a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and a long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA), have demonstrated greater improvements in

  1. Development and utilization of camelid VHH antibodies from alpaca for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Candace R S; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies. PMID:25005746

  2. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of α-MSH to stimulate α-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to α-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm2 of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 μM L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of α-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the α-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance α-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete α-MSH to enhance the α-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  3. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China); Dong, Changsheng, E-mail: cs_dong@sxau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China)

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  4. Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Johar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and highlights the importance parts of a conservation programs, particularly for timber building. Masjid Lama Mulong is one of a remaining cultural heritage experiencing conservation works as to restore the uniqueness of the building and its history that once existed. Made from cengal, one of the famous local hardwoods, however, it is not spared to the threat of decay and deterioration from its agent. In conservation, one of the important stages is to inspect and investigate defects, as to assure the implementations of appropriate improvements are made accordance with the conditions and the state of deteriorations. In this part, some of the important features of the investigators should take into account before any investigation is made. From the overall investigation, defects are mostly caused by mechanical and biological category. Decay due to termite attacks and soft rot are among the highest rank which is mostly found contributed for the seriousness deterioration due to the presence of dampness.

  5. Functional respiratory imaging to assess the interaction between systemic roflumilast and inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos W

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wim Vos,1 Bita Hajian,2 Jan De Backer,1 Cedric Van Holsbeke,1 Samir Vinchurkar,1 Rita Claes,2 Annemie Hufkens,2 Paul M Parizel,3 Lieven Bedert,4 Wilfried De Backer2 1FLUIDDA nv, Groeningenlei, Kontich, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat, Edegem, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, ZNA Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium Background: Patients with COPD show a significant reduction of the lobar hyperinflation at the functional residual capacity level in the patients who improved >120 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after 6 months of treatment with roflumilast in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs/long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs.Methods: Functional respiratory imaging was used to quantify lobar hyperinflation, blood vessel density, ventilation, aerosol deposition, and bronchodilation. To investigate the exact mode of action of roflumilast, correlations between lobar and global measures have been tested using a mixed-model approach with nested random factors and Pearson correlation, respectively.Results: The reduction in lobar hyperinflation appears to be associated with a larger blood vessel density in the respective lobes (t=−2.154, P=0.040; lobes with a higher percentage of blood vessels reduce more in hyperinflation in the responder group. Subsequently, it can be observed that lobes that reduce in hyperinflation after treatment are better ventilated (t=−5.368, P<0.001. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI-based aerosol deposition showed that enhanced ventilation leads to more peripheral particle deposition of ICS/LABA/LAMA in the better-ventilated areas (t=2.407, P=0.024. Finally, the study showed that areas receiving more particles have increased FRI-based bronchodilation (t=2.564, P=0.017, leading to an increase in FEV1 (R=0.348, P=0.029.Conclusion: The study demonstrated that orally administered

  6. El primer cuento marxista para niños en el Perú: El caso de “Paco Yunque” de César Vallejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Garcés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar que “Paco Yunque”, de César Vallejo, es el primer cuento plenamente marxista para niños de nuestra tradición narrativa. Sustentamos esta tesis a partir del análisis del sistema ideológico presente en la historia, la funcionalización de los personajes y sus respectivos programas narrativos. Nuestro marco teórico comprende categorías propias del marxismo clásico. Finalmente, nos interesa problematizar el tipo de cuento que constituye “Paco Yunque” para sostener que, en su caso, estamos ante un relato que revoluciona el cuento infantil tradicional.

  7. Movimientos anti-mineros: el caso de Pascua-Lama en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Urkidi Azkarraga, Leire

    2008-01-01

    En los últimos años, el aumento de proyectos de minería aurífera en América Latina ha dado lugar a toda una serie de protestas comunitarias englobadas en la consigna del “NO a la minería de oro”. El conflicto de Pascua-Lama, en el chileno Valle del Huasco, fue estudiado durante cuatro meses de trabajo de campo dentro de la metodología de Investigación-Acción. A partir de aquí, se analizaron los intereses y valores defendidos por los actores involucrados en el conflicto así como sus respectiva...

  8. Pengaruh Variasi Lama Waktu Hidrogenasi terhadap Pembentukan Metal Hidrida pada Paduan MgAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arif Pradana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paduan berbasis magnesium (Mg merupakan salah satu paduan yang dapat digunakan sebagai Hydrogen Storage Material. Pemaduan Magnesium dengan aluminium bertujuan untuk menurunkan energi aktivasi proses reaksi hidrogen dengan paduan Mg-Al. Paduan Mg-Al dengan komposisi Mg-42 at.% Al disintesa melalui proses milling dengan waktu 40 jam yang menghasilkan solid solution MgAl. Serbuk hasil milling disintering dengan temperatur 600oC dengan holding time selama 2 jam dalam lingkungan argon sehingga terbentuk fase Mg17Al12. Serbuk Mg17Al12 kemudian dihidrogenasi pada tekanan 1MPa, temperatur 4000C dengan variasi lama waktu hidrogenasi 1, 2 , dan 3 jam. Analisis difraksi sinar-X mengidentifikasi adanya faseMgH2 dengan perkiraan % wt sebesar  1.242%, 3.082% dan 4.2% setelah dilakukan proses hidrogenasi selama 1 , 2 dan 3 jam.

  9. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  10. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  11. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I125LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 μ3g L-1. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 μg L-1, declined to 15% at 4 μg L-1 and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 μg L-1. The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 μg L-1), 16% (7.1 μg L-1) and 9.8% (19 μg L-1). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 μL to 100 μL (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 μg L-1. The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs

  12. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aba, M.A.; Forsberg, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I{sup 125}LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 {mu}3g L{sup -1}. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, declined to 15% at 4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}), 16% (7.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 9.8% (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 {mu}L to 100 {mu}L (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs.

  13. Temel Bağlama Öğretiminde Kullanılmakta Olan ve Önerilen Tezene Tekniğinin Öğrencilerin Bağlama Çalma Becerilerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar, Servet

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırma, bağlama öğretiminin temel aşamasına ilişkin olarak hazırlanan ‘Temel Bağlama Öğretiminde Kullanılmakta Olan ve Önerilen Tezene Tekniği’ şeklinde ifade edilen iki tezene öğretim tekniğinin karşılaştırmalı sonuçlarını içermektedir. Araştırma kapsamında öncelikle literatür taramasına gidilmiş ve bu doğrultuda hazırlıklar yapılmıştır. Üniversitelerin müzik birimlerinde bağlama dersi veren uzman öğreticilere uygulanan anket sonuçları doğrultusunda ‘Kullanılmakta Olan Tezene Tekniğ...

  14. Partial deletion of the LAMA3 gene is responsible for hereditary junctional epidermolysis bullosa in the American Saddlebred Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, K T; Henney, P J; Ennis, R B

    2009-02-01

    Laminin 5 is a heterotrimeric basement membrane protein integral to the structure and function of the dermal-epidermal junction. It consists of three glycoprotein subunits: the alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains, which are encoded by the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes respectively. A mutation in any of these genes results in the condition known as hereditary junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). A 6589-bp deletion spanning exons 24-27 was found in the LAMA3 gene in American Saddlebred foals born with the skin-blistering condition epitheliogenesis imperfecta. The deletion confirms that this autosomal recessive condition in the American Saddlebred Horse can indeed be classified as JEB and corresponds to Herlitz JEB in humans. A diagnostic test was developed and nine of 175 randomly selected American Saddlebred foals from the 2007 foal crop were found to be carriers of the mutation (frequency of 0.026). PMID:19016681

  15. Targeted Disruption of the LAMA3 Gene in Mice Reveals Abnormalities in Survival and Late Stage Differentiation of Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Maureen C.; Lee, Keesook; Miyashita, Yuko; Carter, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins α6β4 and α3β1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the α3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all α3-laminin isoforms from epithelial B...

  16. PENGARUH KETEBALAN IRISAN DAN LAMA PEREBUSAN (BLANCHING TERHADAP GAMBARAN MAKROSKOPIS DAN KADAR MINYAK ATSIRI SIMPLISIA DRINGO (Acorus calamus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa simplisia perlu mengalami proses seperti perajangan dan blanching. Perajangan dilakukan untuk mempermudah proses pengeringan, pengepakan dan penggilingan. Semakin tipis bahan yang dikeringkan, semakin cepat penguapan air yang dikandung, sehingga mempercepat waktu pengeringan. Namun irisan yang terlalu tipis menyebabkan zat yang mudah menguap seperti minyak atsiri akan berkurang kadarnya, sehingga mempengaruhi komposisi, bau dan rasa terutama pada simplisia seperti temu lawak, temu giring, jahe, kencur dan bahan sejenis lainnya. Perebusan (blanching adalah suatu proses pemanasan yang diberikan kepada bahan mentah selama beberapa menit  pada  suhu  air  mendidih yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas produk yang diolah. Rimpang tanaman ini secara empiris digunakan sebagai insektisida, demam nifas, karminatif. disentri dan limpa bengkak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh ketebalan irisan dan lama perebusan (blanching terhadap gambaran makroskopis dan kadar minyak atsiri simplisia dringo (Acorus calamus L. Sebagai model digunakan Acorus calamus L. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap menggunakan 2 faktor perlakuan, yaitu faktor pertama ketebalan irisan (K. yaitu K1 =2 mm, K2 =4 mm. K3 = 6 mm dan lama blanching (B yaitu BO = tanpa blanching, B 1 = 5 menit dan B2 = 10 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kualitas (warna, bentuk permukaan dan tekstur simplisia dan kadar minyak atsiri rimpang dringo. Simplisia dengan ketebalan irisan 2 mm tanpa perlakuan blanching menghasilkan minyak atsiri lebih tinggi (4,5% dengan kualitas simplisia yang lebih baik (warna putih kekuningan, permukaan rata dan tekstur liat, mudah dipatahkan sedangkan yang hasil terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan ketebalan irisan 2 mm dengan perlakuan lama blanching 10 menit yaitu  warna simplisia coklat, keadaan fisik irisan bergelombang, permukaan keras, sukar dipatahkan dengan kadar minyak atsiri (2%. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa tebal

  17. Gambaran Status Yodium Pada Ibu Hamil Di Desa Lama, Desa Baru Dan Desa Hulu Kecamatan Pancur Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Mhd. Syahputra

    2008-01-01

    Gangguan akibat kekurangan yodium merupakan kumpulan gejala yang dapat ditimbulkan oleh karena tubuh menderita kekurangan yodium dalam waktu yang lama. Akibat dan kekurangan yodium ini dapat terjadi mulai dan ibu hamil yang melahirkan bayi kretinism sampai gangguan psikoneurologis yang lebih rendah. Indonesia adalah suatu negara dengan prevalensi tinggi dan gangguan defesiensi yodium. Oleh sebab itu pada tahun 1993 Indonesia telah menetapkan program yodisasi garam tingkat nasional akan tetapi...

  18. KETIKA KEBIJAKAN ORDE LAMA MEMASUKI DOMAIN PENDIDIKAN: PENYIAPAN DAN KINERJA GURU SEKOLAH DASAR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasih Umasih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals how the educational policy in Indonesia during The Old Order. The domination of government (Soekarno as expressed in the domination theory by Antonio Gramsci which a politic is a commander and it can dominate whole Indonesia society life including an educational aspect. Furthermore, Soekarno as an individual manivesto has given a space for PKI because of their closeness. When the Minister, Prijono, issued a decision concerning about Pancawardhana Educational System, The Institution of National Education which is affiliated by PKI giving a formulation of Pancacinta. An education in the political manifesto obliges teachers enter into a practical politics life, teachers have to be revolutionary . It means that the learning practice is given toward students through indoctrination.  No less than 2000 teachers in the East java and the Cental Java finally became PKI members, then about  580 teachers of elementary school from the West Java. Even PKI has succeeded to divide the organization of teacher’s membership into The Cental Vak PGRI and  non Vak Central PGRI. Keywords : The Old Order, The Pacawardhana Educational System, the performance of elementary teachers.  Artikel ini mengungkapkan bagaimana kebijakan pendidikan Indonesia pada masa Orde Lama. Dominasi pemerintah (Soekarno seperti diungkapkan dalam teori  dominasi oleh ntonio Gramsci di mana politik adalah panglima dan dapat mendominasi segala kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia termasuk dalam bidang pendidikan. Tidak hanya itu, Presiden Soekarno sebagai manivesto perseorangan  juga  telah  memberi ruang gerak pada PKI karena kedekatan hubungannya dengan Presiden Soekarno.  Ketika Menteri Prijono mengeluarkan keputusan tentang Sistem Pendidikan Pancawardhana, Lembaga Pendidikan Nasional yang berafiliasi dengan PKI memberi rumusan tentang Pancacinta. Pendidikan dalam alam manipol mengharuskan guru terjun dalam kehidupan politik praktis, guru harus revolusioner yang

  19. Non satellite veins in the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, G H; Ríos, C M; Rodríguez Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C L

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the major differences in the venous system of the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama) and that of other mammals, including humans. Eight adult llamas, preserved by means of 6% formalin solution at 0 degrees C, were dissected. The venous system was perfused with a solution of 17% coloured industrial gelatin. Two venous systems are recognised, superficial and deep. The veins of the deep system follow the same course as the arteries, except for two important veins located in the femoral, popliteal and crural regions. A more voluminous vein than the femoral originates in a venous tripod in the proximal part of the femoral canal and forms an anastomosis with the femoral vein distally. The popliteal vein gives off an expansion located along the popliteal region. In the leg, it continues with a vein that accompanies the tibial nerve and forms an anastomosis distally with the medial saphenous vein. The described venous distribution represents an interesting complement to the medial saphenous, popliteal and femoral veins, being more important than the last one for its volume. In the thigh it would correspond to the deep femoral vein as in humans and dogs; the homology in the popliteal and leg regions is too difficult because it probably corresponds to the caudal tibial vein of the human, the caudal branch of the medial saphenous vein, and the satellite vein of the tibial nerve in the horse. PMID:10456991

  20. Binding of USF to a non-canonical E-box following stress results in a cell-specific derepression of the lama3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolle, Thierry; Coraux, Christelle; Ferrigno, Olivier; Cailleteau, Laurence; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Pognonec, Philippe; Aberdam, Daniel

    2002-04-15

    Expression of the lama3 gene, encoding the laminin alpha3A chain, is restricted to specialized epithelia. We previously showed that lama3 gene expression is controlled by an epithelial enhancer through the cooperative effect of AP-1 binding sites. In fibroblasts, there is no lama3 expression because of the recruitment of a repressor complex absent or inactive in epithelial cells. In this paper, we show evidence that this repression of the lama3 gene is relieved by exogenous and UV-induced USF-1 through its interaction with a non-canonical E-box site. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we find that UV stress induces USF to bind to the lama3 promoter in vivo. We further demonstrate that this loss of cell specificity is directly related to the accessibility of the E-box, resulting in a strong induction in fibroblasts, while expression remains constitutively high in keratinocytes. This accessibility appears to be dependent upon the recruitment of a fibroblastic repressor complex. Therefore, we speculate that anchorage of this repressor complex in fibroblasts modifies the enhancer geometry, allowing USF to interact under stress-inducing conditions with its heptameric binding site. PMID:11937633

  1. Síntese e caracterização de hidróxidos duplos a partir da lama vermelha Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides from red mud

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. P. O. Cunha; J. A. M Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    O resíduo do refino da bauxita, comumente conhecido como lama vermelha, tem mostrado ser capaz de ligar metais traços tais como o cobre, cádmio, zinco, cromo, níquel e chumbo sob condições apropriadas. A neutralização da lama vermelha é necessária porque essa lama é tipicamente cáustica, com pH em torno de 13. Muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas envolvendo a utilização da lama vermelha, porque contem uma série de elementos valiosos. Assim a utilização da lama vermelha como material de con...

  2. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa: prenatal exclusion in a fetus at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J A; Kivirikko, S; Ciatti, S; Moss, C; Dunnill, G S; Eady, R A; Rodeck, C H; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J

    1995-09-01

    Mutations in the three genes (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2) that encode the three chains (alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, respectively) of laminin 5, a protein involved in epidermal-dermal adhesion, have been established as the genetic basis for the inherited blistering skin disorder, Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a child with H-JEB and identified a nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene (LAMA3) consisting of a homozygous C-to-T transition resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA-->TGA) on both alleles. The parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. Direct mutation analysis was used to perform DNA-based prenatal diagnosis from a chorionic villus biopsy at 10 weeks' gestation in a subsequent pregnancy. The fetus was predicted to be genotypically normal with respect to the LAMA3 mutation. PMID:8530087

  3. Pengaruh Lama Penyinaran Gelombang Mikro Terhadap Pembentukan Struktur dan Sifat Thermal Karbon Hitam dari Bambu Ori (Bambusa arundinacea dan Bambu Petung (Dendrocalamus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Rei Sakura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bambu merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang memiliki bentuk batang tinggi, berongga, berbentuk bulat dan memiliki kekuatan yang baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh proses penyinaran gelombang mikro terhadap pembentukan struktur dan sifat thermal karbon hitam dari bambu ori (Bambusa arundinacea dan bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper. Metode sintesis karbon hitam yaitu dengan melakukan penyinaran gelombang mikro dengan variasi lama penyinaran selama 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 menit, serta variasi daya 400, 600, dan 800 watt. Pengujian nilai kalor terhadap karbon hitam untuk mengetahui potensi bahan bakar. Perubahan gugus fungsi diuji dengan Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectrometer. Untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa atau fasa, dilakukan pengujian X-Ray Difraction. Struktur mikro akan dipelajari menggunakan uji Scanning Electron Microscope. Hasil dari pengujian tersebut yaitu semakin lama pemanasan gelombang mikro, maka berat sisa yang dihasilkan semakin sedikit. Semakin tinggi daya, maka karbon yang dihasilkan semakin homogen. Waktu pemanasan yang semakin lama, mengakibatkan karbon yang terbentuk semakin baik dan homogen.

  4. The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2013-05-01

    In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (Pviscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (Pviscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation. PMID:23537479

  5. Pärnu mudaravila restaureerimine ja juurdeehitus = Restoration and extension of the Pärnu mud baths / Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teedumäe, Tarmo, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Restaureeritud ja uue juurdeehitusega Pärnu mudaravila Ranna puiestee 1, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Inga Raukas, Arhitektuuriagentuur, Allianss Arhitektid. Sisearhitektid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari (Vaikla Stuudio). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  6. Aproveitamento econômico das lamas de ferro Economical recovery of iron slimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mineração iniciou suas atividades lavrando depósitos de alto teor, sem preocupação em maximizar seu aproveitamento. Ainda hoje, milhões de toneladas de minerais úteis são descartados anualmente para as barragens de rejeitos. Nesse trabalho, foram realizados testes de deslamagem e flotação com lamas de minério de ferro, primeiramente em escala de bancada. Várias dosagens de coletor e depressor foram utilizadas. Os resultados promissores dos testes em escala de bancada levaram a testes em escala-piloto. Foi constatado que, com o processo de flotação catiônica reversa em colunas, utilizando-se dosagem mais elevada de depressor, consegue-se recuperação mássica da ordem de 60% e 80% de recuperação metálica, 9 a 12 % de Fe no rejeito, 0,55 % a 0,90 % de SiO2 no concentrado (SiO2+Al2O3 High grade deposits were mined in the early stages of the activity. No attention was paid to maximizing the use of the deposits. Even nowadays, millions of tons of useful minerals are discarded every year into tailings ponds. This study investigated the possibility of economically retrieving ultrafine tailings (slimes from an iron ore concentrator via reverse cationic flotation. The promising results of the bench scale tests led to carrying out pilot-scale tests. It was observed that a reverse cationic column flotation process, using high depressant dosage was selective, yielding high levels of iron recovery, approximately 60% mass recovery and 80 % metallic recovery in the flotation stage, from 9 to 12 % of Fe in the tailing and from 0,55 % to 0,90 % of SiO2 in the concentrate (SiO2+Al2O3 < 2,00 %. The ultrafines flotation is an economic alternative for increasing the recovery in mineral processing operations. The flotation of ultrafines may also be evaluated for decreasing or treating effluents disposed to the environment.

  7. Análisis de diversidad genética en tres poblaciones de llamas (Lama glama del noroeste argentino Analisis of genetic diversity in three llama (Lama glama populations from north-western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA V BUSTAMANTE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe la variabilidad genética actual de tres poblaciones de llamas (Lama glama del noroeste argentino (NOA, afectadas a la producción de fibra. Originariamente, las tropas fueron una única población la cual fue subdividida hace 10 años. Se estudiaron muestras de ADN de 77 animales mediante amplificación por PCR de 12 loci microsatélite con cebadores específicos de llama. La alta variabilidad genética comprobada se sustenta en el hallazgo total de 140 alelos diferentes, 9 a 16 alelos por locus y rangos de heterocigosidad observada y esperada por locus de 1 a 0 y 0,9 a 0,47, respectivamente. Diecinueve de treinta y seis pruebas de equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg mostraron desvíos significativos (P The current genetic variability of three llama (Lama glama management units from the northwestern Argentine (NOA was analyzed. The troops, originally comprised a unique population that 10 years ago was divided into the current three. The DNA of 77 animals was studied by PCR amplification of 12 loci using microsatellite primers specific of Lama glama. A high level of genetic variability is sustained by the finding of one hundred and forty total alleles, a range of 9 to 16 allele number per locus and observed and expected hetrozygosities per locus varying from 1 to 0 and 0.9 to 0.47, respectively. Distributed within the three troops 44 private alleles were detected and proposed for uses such as to exchange new allelic variants. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium test for each locus within each population showed significant deviation (P < 0.05 due to heterozygotes deficiency which may obey to the natural polygynic behaviour of the species. A moderated genetic differentiation between populations (Fst = 0.076; P = 0.000 may be explained by the introduction of foreing males parents at the moment of the original population subdivision. Transference to breeders of the data here obtained may be important in future management programmes

  8. Anti-idiotypic nanobody as citrinin mimotope from a naive alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Xiong, Liang; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Compared with peptide-based mimotope, anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) are considered as promising biosynthetic surrogate antigen because these antibodies display stable protein conformation. Nevertheless, conventional AIds are generated by immunizing animals with heterologous idiotypic antibody in vivo; isolated AIds commonly exhibit a higher affinity to primary antibodies than target analytes because AIds undergo an affinity-matured process during immune responses, resulting in low sensitivity in competitive immunoassay. In the present study, an anti-citrinin monoclonal antibody (anti-CIT McAb) was designed as primary antibody; one β-type AI alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody (β-AI VHH) was selected as a citrinin (CIT) surrogate from a naive phage-displayed VHH library. The affinity constant (K D) of obtained β-AI VHH to anti-CIT McAb (160 nM) is 2.35 times lower than that of CIT and ovalbumin conjugates (CIT-OVA) to anti-CIT McAb (68 nM). The developed VHH-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (V-ELISA) can be used to perform dynamic linear detection of CIT in 10% (v/v) methanol/PBS from 5.0 to 300.0 ng/mL, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 44.6 ng/mL (n = 3); this result was twice as good as that of indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA, IC50 = 96.2 ng/mL) with CIT-OVA as a coating antigen. Moreover, the precision of V-ELISA was evaluated by analyzing average recoveries and coefficient of variations of CIT-spiked cereal sample; the reliability of V-ELISA was also validated with a conventional ic-ELISA. In summary, the proposed strategy has a great potential for panning other β-AI VHH toward small organic molecules from a naive VHH library. PMID:25910884

  9. Review of Research Progress on the Related Genes with the Coat Color of Alpaca%羊驼毛色相关基因研究进展的综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸文达; 杨川

    2012-01-01

    羊驼毛纤维颜色丰富,具有22种天然色,与其他哺乳动物一样,主要由遗传基因决定。掌握控制羊驼毛色基因的改变,可以有效地控制羊驼毛色的转变。哺乳动物的毛色表型与动物体内黑色素的种类、数量、合成及分布有关。在羊驼皮肤组织中,Agouti基因、MC1R基因、酪氨酸酶基因家族、KIT基因、AIF基因、β-catenin基因、Wnt3α基因、Mitf-M基因、EDNRA基因、EDNRB基因、CDK5基因、PRS5基因、P基因及花斑突变都参与羊驼毛色的形成与调控。综述了羊驼毛色相关基因的研究进展。%The hair fiber color of alpaca,with 22 natural colors, is mainly determined by heredity gene like other mammals . To master and control the changes the hair color genes of alpaca could effectively regulate the changes of hair colors of alpaca. The hair phenotypes of mammals are related to the types, amount,composition and distribution of melanin in animals. In the skin tissue of alpaca, Agouti gene ,MC1R gene, tyrosine gene family, KIT gene ,A1F gene ,~-catenin gene, Wnt3et gene ,Mitf-M gene ,EDNRA gene ,EDNRB gene, CDK5 gene, PRS5 gene, P gene and piebaldness mutation all participated in the formation and regulation of alpaca hair color.

  10. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Levet, Carla S; Betts, Guy N J; Harris, Adrian L; Homer, Jarrod J; West, Catharine M L; Miller, Crispin J

    2009-11-01

    The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the splicing index and a new metric based on the variation of reliability weighted fold changes to detect changes in the splicing patterns. The approach was validated on a cancer/normal sample dataset in which alternative splicing events had been confirmed using RT-PCR. We then analysed ten head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using exon arrays and identified differentially expressed splice variants in five samples with high versus five with low levels of hypoxia-associated genes. The analysis identified a splice variant of LAMA3 (Laminin alpha 3), LAMA3-A, known to be involved in tumour cell invasion and progression. The full-length transcript of the gene (LAMA3-B) did not appear to be hypoxia-associated. The results were confirmed using qualitative RT-PCR. In a series of 59 prospectively collected head and neck tumours, expression of LAMA3-A had prognostic significance whereas LAMA3-B did not. This work illustrates the potential for alternatively spliced transcripts to act as biomarkers of disease prognosis with improved specificity for particular tissues or conditions over assays which do not discriminate between splice variants. PMID:19936049

  11. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S Moller-Levet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the splicing index and a new metric based on the variation of reliability weighted fold changes to detect changes in the splicing patterns. The approach was validated on a cancer/normal sample dataset in which alternative splicing events had been confirmed using RT-PCR. We then analysed ten head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using exon arrays and identified differentially expressed splice variants in five samples with high versus five with low levels of hypoxia-associated genes. The analysis identified a splice variant of LAMA3 (Laminin alpha 3, LAMA3-A, known to be involved in tumour cell invasion and progression. The full-length transcript of the gene (LAMA3-B did not appear to be hypoxia-associated. The results were confirmed using qualitative RT-PCR. In a series of 59 prospectively collected head and neck tumours, expression of LAMA3-A had prognostic significance whereas LAMA3-B did not. This work illustrates the potential for alternatively spliced transcripts to act as biomarkers of disease prognosis with improved specificity for particular tissues or conditions over assays which do not discriminate between splice variants.

  12. cDNA sequence of the horse (Equus caballus) LAMA3 gene and characterization of two intronic SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Dragan; Mata, Xavier; Chadi, Sead; Guérin, Gérard

    2005-12-01

    Laminins are large heterotrimeric basement membrane glycoproteins composed of alpha, beta and gamma chains. The Laminin 5 isoform has an alpha3beta3gamma2 composition and is essential for the adhesion of basal keratinocytes to the underlying epithelial basement membrane where it is mainly located. Mutations in the genes coding for the 3 chains have been associated with a severe skin blistering disease, Herlitz's junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), observed in different species as man, dog, cat and horse. In this study, we report the sequence of the 5.2 kb horse laminin alpha 3 cDNA (LAMA3) as well as the detection of two intronic SNPs. These data will be useful to further identify causal mutations for the disease in this gene. PMID:16287627

  13. Questioning western assessment of trauma among Tibetan torture survivors. A quantitative assessment study with comments from Buddhist Lamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    did not have an influence on the level of distress. After the assessment study, eight Tibetan lamas were interviewed about their views on our methods and results. They questioned the validity of our western rating scales and explained that our results might be influenced by the Tibetan culture, which...... Symptom Checklist 25 (HSCL-25). Even though significant correlations between the amount of the measures of organized violence and neuropsychological and psychological distress were found in our data, the division of the material into different subgroups according to e.g. religious and non-religious groups...... among other things can be characterized as having a view and articulation of suffering much more complex than the units of our study's rating scales....

  14. Caracterização de lamas contendo urânio como subsídio para ações futuras de mitigação Characterization of sludge containing uranium as support for mitigation actions

    OpenAIRE

    Abda Florência da Silva Gomes; Ana Cláudia Queiroz Ladeira

    2011-01-01

    A drenagem ácida na mina de urânio de Caldas (MG) ocorre há mais de 20 anos, apresenta pH próximo de 3,0 e contém elementos metálicos e não-metálicos. Para o tratamento do descarte desse efluente, utiliza-se de cal para elevação do pH e precipitação dos contaminantes, gerando uma lama que é disposta na cava da mina, inundada de água ácida. O presente estudo consiste na caracterização de três amostras (Lama Antiga, Lama da Cava e Lama Fresca), utilizando análise térmica TGA/DTA, microssonda el...

  15. Expression microarray analysis reveals alternative splicing of LAMA3 and DST genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Li

    Full Text Available Prior studies have demonstrated tumor-specific alternative splicing events in various solid tumor types. The role of alternative splicing in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is unclear. Our study queried exon-level expression to implicate splice variants in HNSCC tumors.We performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP tissue samples at an exon expression level. In our comparison we ranked genes based upon a novel score-the Maximum-Minimum Exon Score (MMES--designed to predict the likelihood of an alternative splicing event occurring. We validated predicted alternative splicing events using quantitative RT-PCR on an independent cohort.After MMES scoring of 17,422 genes, the top 900 genes with the highest scores underwent additional manual inspection of expression patterns in a graphical analysis. The genes LAMA3, DST, VEGFC, SDHA, RASIP1, and TP63 were selected for further validation studies because of a high frequency of alternative splicing suggested in our graphical analysis, and literature review showing their biological relevance and known splicing patterns. We confirmed TP63 as having dominant expression of the short DeltaNp63 isoform in HNSCC tumor samples, consistent with prior reports. Two of the six genes (LAMA3 and DST validated by quantitative RT-PCR for tumor-specific alternative splicing events (Student's t test, P<0.001.Alternative splicing events of oncologically relevant proteins occur in HNSCC. The number of genes expressing tumor-specific splice variants needs further elucidation, as does the functional significance of selective isoform expression.

  16. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department)

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani Paredes, Javier; Condemayta Condemayta, Zacarias; Calle Charaja, Leoncio

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de ...

  17. Molecular analysis of the human laminin alpha3a chain gene (LAMA3a): a strategy for mutation identification and DNA-based prenatal diagnosis in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, L; Cserhalmi-Friedman, P B; Tang, M; Ryan, M C; Uitto, J; Christiano, A M

    1998-09-01

    Mutations in the genes (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2) encoding the subunit polypeptides of the cutaneous basement membrane zone protein laminin 5 have been reported in different forms of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), an inherited blistering skin disease. In this study, we present the complete exon-intron organization of the "a" transcript of the laminin alpha3 chain gene, LAMA3a, which is expressed primarily in the skin. We have performed fine-resolution mapping of this gene on chromosome 18q11.2 using a human-hamster radiation hybrid panel. We have also developed a mutation-detection strategy based on the exon-intron structure of LAMA3a. This strategy, based on PCR amplification of genomic sequences, followed by heteroduplex scanning and automated nucleotide sequencing, was used for successful mutation screening in a family with the lethal (Herlitz) type of JEB, and two novel LAMA3 mutations were identified in the proband. The mutations consisted of a single-base pair deletion in LAMA3a exon A11 on the paternal allele, designated 1239delC, and a two-base pair deletion in LAMA3a exon A23 on the maternal allele, designated 2959delGG. This information was also used for DNA-based prenatal testing in a subsequent pregnancy in this family. Collectively, these results attest to our expanding capability to elucidate the genetic basis of various forms of epidermolysis bullosa using molecular techniques. PMID:9759651

  18. Pregnancy diagnosis from urine in even-toed ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis reviewed possible non-invasive pregnancy diagnostic methods in ungulates with special attention to diagnosis from urine. The practical part was focused on pregnancy diagnosis from urine in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The aims of the thesis were to examine the possibility of catching fresh urine directly from female alpacas and to evaluate three pregnancy diagnostic tests from urine in alpacas – the seed germination test, the barium chloride test, and the Cuboni reaction. The r...

  19. Fornecimento de cálcio para plantas de eucalyptus saligna por meio de aplicação de resíduo industrial lama de cal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Aparecida Simonete

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo industrial lama de cal, originado da produção de papel kraft branqueada de eucalipto, apresenta em sua composição quantidade considerável de cálcio (Ca, o que pode contribuir para reduzir o consumo de fertilizantes em plantios florestais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da lama de cal como fonte de Ca e seus efeitos sobre a disponibilidade de nutrientes e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea de plantas de eucalipto, foram conduzidos dois ensaios em vasos, em casa de vegetação, na área de pesquisa da Klabin Florestal do Paraná. Os solos utilizados foram um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico (RQo e um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NV. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas fontes de Ca, calcário dolomítico e lama de cal, e de uma testemunha, sendo identificados como: RQo testemunha, RQo calcário e RQo lama de cal; e NV testemunha, NV calcário e NV lama de cal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Para tanto, plantas de Eucalyptus saligna foram mantidas por 126 dias em vasos. Quantificou-se a produção de matéria seca e realizaram-se as análises de folhas e dos solos, por ocasião da coleta das plantas. Os dados revelaram que tanto a adição de calcário dolomítico quanto a lama de cal promoveram o fornecimento de Ca para as plantas de eucalipto, proporcionando aumentos na produção de matéria seca. Os teores de Ca e Na nas folhas de eucalipto foram acrescidos com a adição do resíduo ao solo, em comparação com o tratamento com calcário dolomítico, enquanto os teores de N, P, K e S foram semelhantes. As plantas cultivadas nos tratamentos RQo testemunha e RQo lama de cal apresentaram teores foliares de Mg abaixo da faixa considerada adequada. A adição de lama no solo elevou o pH e as concentrações de Ca e de Na, reduziu o Al trocável e não influenciou na disponibilidade de Mg, fato que pode proporcionar deficiência de Mg às plantas, em

  20. A recurrent homozygous nonsense mutation within the LAMA3 gene as a cause of Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in patients of Pakistani ancestry: evidence for a founder effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J A; Kivirikko, S; Ciatti, S; Moss, C; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J

    1996-04-01

    The anchoring filament protein laminin 5 is abnormally expressed in the skin of patients with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a H-JEB child of first-cousin Pakistani parents, and identified a homozygous C-to-T transition in the LAMA3 gene of laminin 5 resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA-TGA) on both alleles. This mutation, R650X, has been previously reported in two other seemingly unrelated H-JEB individuals of Pakistani ancestry. Although this mutation may represent a mutational hotspot within the LAMA3 gene, haplotype analysis based on a silent intragenic polymorphism (GCC/GCG, alanine 429; GenBank no. L34155), and on three flanking microsatellite polymorphism (D18S45, D18S478, and D18S480), suggests that a common ancestral allele may be present in all three cases. PMID:8618022

  1. Analysis and Evaluation of the Components and Flavouring Substances in Alpaca Meat%羊驼肉成分分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋华; 李鹏飞; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    为分析羊驼肉营养成分、矿物质元素及维生素,采集9头羊驼肉,用常规方法测定常量营养素,等离子体发射光谱法分析矿物元素,氨基酸分析法测定氨基酸,高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定维生素.结果显示,羊驼肉蛋白质含量高,占原样基础的25.6%;矿物质含量为1.9%、尤以钾、磷和钠含量最多,钙、镁、锌含量也较高;维生素含量丰富,其中VC含量最高,脂溶性VE含量也较高;羊驼肉中舍有17种氨基酸,其中7种人体必需氨基酸(赖氨酸、苯丙氨酸、蛋氨酸、苏氨酸、异亮氨酸、亮氨酸、缬氨酸)占肌肉(干样)总量的31.64%,4种鲜味氨基酸(谷氨酸、丙氨酸、甘氨酸和天冬氨酸)占肌肉(干样)总量的31.61%,谷氨酸含量高达13.12%,赖氨酸含量较高(7.47%),缺乏色氨酸,是一种优质的肉类资源.%In order to analyze the nutritional components,mineral elements and the vitamine content of the Alpaca Meat.The raw meat was collected from the nine white Alpaca; Macronutrients was detected by routine methods ; Mineral elements were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mission spectrometry; Amino acid was detected by amino acid analyzer;the Vitamine was analysed by HPLC.The result displayed,Alpaca meat protein content was high,accounting for 25.6%(original sample) ; Mineral content was 1.9%,most especially in potassium,phosphorus and sodium,calcium,magnesium,zinc content were also higher; Vitamin content was rich,the highest content of VC,fat-soluble VE content were also higher; Alpaca meat contains 17 kinds of amino acids,of which 7 kinds of essential amino acid (lysine,phenylalanine,methionine,threonine,isoleucine,leucine,valine) accounted for 31.64% (dry sample),four kinds of umami amino acid (glutamic acid,alanine,glycine and aspartic acid) accounted for 31.61% (dry sample) ; Especially the glutamate content as high as 13.12%,lysine content was higher (7.47%),lacking of tryptophan.So that it

  2. Association of variation in the LAMA3 gene, encoding the alpha-chain of laminin 5, with atopic dermatitis in a German case-control cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Stemmler, Susanne; Parwez, Qumar; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Epplen, Jörg T; Hoffjan, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder caused by complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Besides mutations in the filaggrin gene, leading to impaired skin barrier function, variation in genes encoding additional skin proteins has been suggested to contribute to disease risk. Laminin 5, playing an important role in skin integrity, is composed of three subunits encoded by the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes in which biallelic mutations cause epi...

  3. Pengaruh Lama Penyinaran Gelombang Mikro Terhadap Pembentukan Struktur dan Sifat Thermal Karbon Hitam dari Bambu Ori (Bambusa arundinacea) dan Bambu Petung (Dendrocalamus asper)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma Rei Sakura; Hosta Ardhyananta

    2013-01-01

    Bambu merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang memiliki bentuk batang tinggi, berongga, berbentuk bulat dan memiliki kekuatan yang baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh proses penyinaran gelombang mikro terhadap pembentukan struktur dan sifat thermal karbon hitam dari bambu ori (Bambusa arundinacea) dan bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper). Metode sintesis karbon hitam yaitu dengan melakukan penyinaran gelombang mikro dengan variasi lama penyinaran selama 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 menit, serta ...

  4. Cloning of the laminin {alpha}3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, F.; Ortonne, J.P. [INSERM, Nice (France)]|[Hospital Pasteur, Nice (France); Galliano, M.F. [INSERM, Nice (France)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Laminin 5 and laminin 6 are basement membrane proteins synthesized by the basal cells of stratifying squamous epithelia. Altered expression of laminin 5 has been associated with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB), a severe epidermal blistering disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and searched for mutations in the LAMA3 gene in H-JEB patients. In one H-JEB family, an affected individual exhibited drastically reduced immunoreactivity to antibodies directed against the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and an impaired expression of the corresponding mRNA transcripts. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the proband`s keratinocytes identified a homozygous single basepair deletion in the transcripts encoding the laminin {alpha}3A and {alpha}3B isoforms. The mutation causes a frameshift and premature termination codon in both alleles of the LAMA3 gene. Inheritance of the clinical H-JEB phenotype was consistent with the segregation of the mutated allele in the family. We also report the identity of the {alpha} chains of laminin 5 and epiligrin and provide evidence that LAMA3 transcripts are distinct from the laminin 6 {alpha} chain mRNA. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in lethal (Herlitz) junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivirikko, S; McGrath, J A; Baudoin, C; Aberdam, D; Ciatti, S; Dunnill, M G; McMillan, J R; Eady, R A; Ortonne, J P; Meneguzzi, G

    1995-05-01

    The inherited mechanobullous disorder, junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), is characterized by extensive blistering and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. The diagnostic hallmarks of JEB include ultrastructural abnormalities in the hemidesmosomes of the cutaneous basement membrane zone, as well as an absence of staining with antibodies against the anchoring filament protein, laminin 5. Therefore, the three genes encoding alpha 3, beta 3 and gamma 2 chains of laminin 5, known as LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2, are candidate genes for JEB. We have previously demonstrated mutations in the LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes in several families with JEB. We initiated mutation analysis from an affected child by PCR amplification of individual LAMA3 exons, followed by heteroduplex analysis. Nucleotide sequencing of heteroduplexes identified a homozygous nonsense mutation within domain I/II of the alpha 3 chain. These findings provide the first evidence that nonsense mutations within the LAMA3 gene are also involved in the pathogenesis of JEB, and indicate that mutations of all three genes of laminin 5 can result in the JEB phenotype. PMID:7633458

  6. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the {alpha}3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa: Prenatal exclusion in a fetus at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, J.A. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Ciatti, S.; Christiano, A.M. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Mutations in the three genes (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2) that encode the three chains ({alpha}3, {Beta}3, and {gamma}2, respectively) of laminin 5, a protein involved in epidermal-dermal adhesion, have been established as the genetic basis for the inherited blistering skin disorder, Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a child with H-JEB and identified a nonsense mutation in the {alpha}3 chain gene (LAMA3) consisting of a homozygous C-to-T transition resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA {r_arrow} TGA) on both alleles. The parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. Direct mutation analysis was used to perform DNA-based prenatal diagnosis from a chorionic villus biopsy at 10 weeks` gestation in a subsequent pregnancy. The fetus was predicted to be genotypically normal with respect to the LAMA3 mutation. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Cloning of the laminin alpha 3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, F; Baudoin, C; Miquel, C; Galliano, M F; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J; Ortonne, J P; Meneguzzi, G

    1995-11-20

    Laminin 5 and laminin 6 are basement membrane proteins synthesized by the basal cells of stratifying squamous epithelia. Altered expression of laminin 5 has been associated with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB), a severe epidermal blistering disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the alpha 3 chain of laminin 5 and searched for mutations in the LAMA3 gene in H-JEB patients. In one H-JEB family, an affected individual exhibited drastically reduced immunoreactivity to antibodies directed against the alpha 3 chain of laminin 5 and an impaired expression of the corresponding mRNA transcripts. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the proband's keratinocytes identified a homozygous single basepair deletion in the transcripts encoding the laminin alpha 3A and alpha 3B isoforms. The mutation causes a frameshift and premature termination codon in both alleles of the LAMA3 gene. Inheritance of the clinical H-JEB phenotype was consistent with the segregation of the mutated allele in the family. We also report the identity of the alpha chains of laminin 5 and epiligrin and provide evidence that LAMA3 transcripts are distinct from the laminin 6 alpha chain mRNA. PMID:8586427

  8. Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M C; Tizard, R; VanDevanter, D R; Carter, W G

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the entire 170-kDa chain of epiligrin (alpha 3Ep) and a genomic clone encoding the alpha 3Ep gene (LamA3). Analysis of multiple cDNA clones revealed two distinct transcripts (alpha 3EpA and alpha 3EpB). Sequencing of the alpha 3EpA transcript indicated sequence and structural homology to laminin alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains that extend from domain IIIa through the carboxyl-terminal G domain. The alpha 3EpB transcript encodes a larger amino-terminal domain and contains additional epidermal growth factor repeats and sequences corresponding to domain IV of alpha 1 laminin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the LamA3 gene is located on chromosome 18q11.2, a locus distinct from the LamA1 gene (18p11.3). The G domain of the epiligrin alpha 3 chain contains five subdomains that are individually related to the G subdomains reported for Drosophila and vertebrate laminin alpha chains. Sequence divergence within the G domain of alpha 3 epiligrin suggests that it is functionally distinct from laminin, consistent with our previous report showing that epiligrin interacts with different integrin adhesion receptors. Analysis of RNA from human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified multiple epiligrin transcripts that were down-regulated by viral transformation and differentiation. In contrast, epiligrin expression was up-regulated in wound sites of human skin. PMID:8077230

  9. Targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene in mice reveals abnormalities in survival and late stage differentiation of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M C; Lee, K; Miyashita, Y; Carter, W G

    1999-06-14

    Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all alpha3-laminin isoforms from epithelial BMs. Alterations in three different cellular functions were identified. First, using a novel tissue adhesion assay, we found that the mutant BM could not induce stable adhesion by integrin alpha6beta4, consistent with the presence of junctional blisters and abnormal hemidesmosomes. In the absence of laminin 5 function, we were able to detect a new ligand for integrin alpha3beta1 in the epidermal BM, suggesting that basal keratinocytes can utilize integrin alpha3beta1 to interact with an alternative ligand. Second, we identified a survival defect in mutant epithelial cells that could be rescued by exogenous laminin 5, collagen, or an antibody against integrin alpha6beta4, suggesting that signaling through beta1 or beta4 integrins is sufficient for survival. Third, we detected abnormalities in ameloblast differentiation in developing mutant incisors indicating that events downstream of adhesion are affected in mutant animals. These results indicate that laminin 5 has an important role in regulating tissue organization, gene expression, and survival of epithelium. PMID:10366601

  10. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani Paredes, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de producción de 1998 – 2000. Determinándose que las principales causas de mortalidad dealpacas son: Agentes infecciosos 51.70%, anormalidades orgánicas24.08%, causas accidentales 13.36%, causas nutricionales 7.83% yenfermedades parasitarias 3.03%. Las causas infecciosas de mayorfrecuencia fueron: Las neumonías 31.12%, entero toxemia 20.90%,estomatitis 17.46% y otras en menor frecuencia. La mortalidad por causas orgánicas son la Caquexia de los animales 58.88%, aunque en puna seca la torsión intestinal y atonía ruminal son de mayor frecuencia. Se encontró como causas accidentales de muerte a: Traumatismos 50.30%, depredadores 28.63%, falsa deglución 7.35%, asfixia 7.16% y otros con menor frecuencia. Las principales causas nutricionales de mortalidad son:Desnutrición 27.12%, inanición 23.73%, falta de leche 19.32% y otras en menor proporción. Las causas parasitarias de mortalidad se determino: Sarna 33.33%, sarcosistiosis 28.95%, coccidiosis 25.44%, gastroenteritis verminosa 10.52%, dictiocaulosis e hidatidosis 0.88% respectivamente.SummaryThe present study took place in three main centers of alpaquera production of the department of Puno: Rural Alliance EPS, CIP “the Ray” - a Fist located in the zone ecological land of humid Fist and Quimsachata Annex of INIA - Fist located in the ecological zone land of dry Fist; with the aim of determining the main causes of mortality of alpacas. By means of an analytical observacional study

  11. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with 1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies. PMID:26708647

  12. Caracterização ambiental de lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais Environmental characterization of processing sludge of ornamental stones

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    Florindo dos Santos Braga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais (LBRO são resíduos que apresentam composição química variada em função da composição das rochas, do processo de beneficiamento, dos processos de reaproveitamento de águas e lamas, das propriedades dos insumos, entre outros fatores. A caracterização e classificação das LBRO são de grande importância, principalmente para o Estado do Espírito Santo, por possuir um expressivo número de empresas do setor. Neste trabalho, são apresentados os resultados de caracterização e classificação de lamas de desdobramento e polimento de mármores e granitos, segundo a NBR 10004/2004. Todas as amostras de lamas de tear convencional e de politriz analisadas foram classificadas como Classe IIA. Percebeu-se que a identificação dos resíduos por fonte geradora permite a proposição de tecnologias limpas, como o uso de teares a fio diamantado que utilizam o mínimo de insumos e de pastilhas diamantadas metálicas isentas de elementos tóxicos, contribuindo para a melhoria das características químicas das LBRO.The sludges produced in the cutting and polishing of ornamental stones are residues with diverse chemical composition that depend on the composition of the stones, the cutting and polishing process, the processes involved in the recycling of water and sludges, among others. The characterization and classification of these resulting sludges have great importance, especially for the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which is an important producer of ornamental stones. In this work, the results of characterization and classification of developmental and polishing sludges were presented, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004. All the sludge samples from the cutting and polishing equipment were classified as Class IIA. We observed that the identification of the residues according to the generation source allows the proposition of clean technologies usage, such as cutting

  13. Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Wang, H D; Shen, Y; Liu, N; Cao, J; Yu, X J; Dong, C S; He, X Y

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production. PMID:26535691

  14. Propuesta de un matadero de alpacas y planta de elaboración de charqui mediante el uso de las tecnologías apropiadas para el distrito de Cotaruse (departamento de Apurimac, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Boronat Gil, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    El deterioro de los recursos naturales y la falta de seguridad alimentaria revelan una compleja problemática en el medio rural, en el que la sociedad campesina juega un papel determinante. En las zonas más elevadas de los Andes la crianza de alpacas constituye la principal actividad agraria. Los campesinos son mayoritariamente indígenas y viven con deficiencias en los servicios básicos y una grave carencia económica. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es contribuir al desarrollo sosteni...

  15. Hubungan Kadar Glukosa Darah Saat Masuk Rumah Sakit Dengan Lama Hari Rawat Pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA Di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

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    Rosi Oktarina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHiperglikemia masih menjadi topik penelitian yang sering dihubungkan dengan kejadian sindrom koroner akut (SKA di dunia, terutama hiperglikemia saat masuk rumah sakit. Hal ini didasari oleh beberapa pengaruh kadar glukosa darah yang tinggi terhadap sistem kardiovaskuler seperti gangguan fungsi ventrikel kiri, stroke volume yang menurun, regurgitasi katup mitral berulang, gangguan pada waktu pengisian diastolik hingga risiko tinggi untuk arritmia, serta hubungannya dengan peningkatan risiko trombosis. Sehingga semakin memperjelas pengaruh hiperglikemia yang tidak hanya dapat meningkatkan risiko terjadinya SKA, melainkan juga dapat memperburuk kondisi pasien SKA sendiri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi hubungan kadar glukosa darah sewaktu dengan lama hari rawat pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian analitik dengan menggunakan desain penelitian Cross Sectional Study. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diambil di Instalasi Rekam Medik (Medical Record, yakni data rekam medik pasien yang didiagnosis sebagai Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA yang dirawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat DR. M. Djamil Padang Periode Januari–Desember 2011. Ditemukan sebagian besar pasien SKA masuk rumah sakit dengan kadar Glukosa Darah Sewaktu (GDS sebesar ≥ 200 mg/dl (40% dan lama hari rawat sebesar ≥ 7 hari (52%. Dari hasil analisa bivariat dengan menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman ditemukan adanya hubungan searah antara kadar glukosa darah saat masuk rumah sakit dengan lama hari rawat pasien SKA dengan kekuatan hubungan yang sedang, r = +0,492, p = 0, 000 (p<0,05. Pemantauan terhadap kadar GDS yang diperiksa saat pasien masuk rumah sakit perlu dilakukan dan untuk penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan dapat diteliti lebih lanjut faktor-faktor lain yang mempengaruhi lama hari rawat pasien SKA.Kata kunci: Kadar glukosa darah saat masuk RS, lama hari rawatAbstractHyperglicemia is still become a research

  16. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  17. SPECIAL MISSION OF THE HERO OF THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA VASILY KHOMUTNIKOV IN TIBET TO DALAI-LAMA XIII

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    Vladimir Badakhaevich UBUSHAEV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the diplomatic activities of the prominent military and statesman of Kalmykia Vasily Alekseevich Khomutnikov, who fulfilled an important task of the Soviet government. The consideration of this problem is reasoned by the attempts to revise and not to forget the role of people who made a significant contribution to the strengthening of our state at the turning points of its development. At the present stage of understanding this story, there is a growing interest to its "human" content, as history is created by people. One of them was Colonel V. A. Khomutnikov who performed a special task of the Soviet government to develop close cooperation of Soviet Russia with Buddhist Tibet, Mongolia and India. On 13 September, 1921 the expedition of travelers on 12 camels departed from the city of Urga (now Ulan Bator. Disguised as pilgrims, the members of the mission joined the caravan of "a hundred people" en route to Tibet. The half of the 100 people in the caravan were Tibetans and others were Mongols Halaszi, Torghuts and Buryats. The caravan was headed by a Buddhist priest GaghanLama. In the 1920s, the Eastern direction of the foreign policy of the Soviet state was based on the principle of active involvement of India, China, Mongolia and other Asian countries in the revolutionary process in order to ensure the victory of socialism in the East. The leaders of the Soviet state V. I. Lenin, L. D. Trotsky, I. V. Stalin also believed that after the defeat of the revolution in the Western countries it was necessary to turn the route of the world revolution to the East, as there were potential revolutionary forces. According to L. Trotsky, it was necessary to form a wellarmed corps in the Urals and send it to India and Afghanistan. The same idea was actively developed by prominent political and public figures of Kalmykia and Buryatia. Based on the results of the conducted research, the author notes that the main result of the

  18. Differential cytokine modulation of the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, encoding the constitutive polypeptides, alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, of human laminin 5 in epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang, K; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J; Mauviel, A

    1995-07-24

    Laminin 5, an anchoring filament protein previously known as nicein/kalinin/epiligrin, consists of three polypeptide chains, alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, encoded by the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. The expression of laminin 5 was detected by Northern hybridization with specific cDNA probes in various epidermal keratinocyte cultures, whereas no expression of any of the three genes could be detected in foreskin fibroblast cultures. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) enhanced LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2 gene expression in human epidermal keratinocytes, as well as in HaCaT and Balb/K cells in culture, although the extent of enhancement was greater for LAMA3 and LAMC2 genes than for LAMB3. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-alpha) alone did not alter the expression of LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes in human epidermal keratinocytes, whereas it inhibited the expression of LAMA3. These results suggest that the expression of the three genes encoding the laminin 5 subunits is not coordinately regulated by the cytokines tested. PMID:7635220

  19. Changes in blood hemoglobin and blood gases PaO2 and PaCO2 in severe COPD overa three-year telemonitored program of long-term oxygen treatment

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    Dal Negro Roberto W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the effects of long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT on blood hemoglobin (Hb in severe COPD are limited. The aim was to assess blood Hb values in severe COPD, and investigate the time-course of both Hb and blood gas changes during a 3-year telemetric LTOT. Methods A cohort of 132 severe COPD patients (94 males; 71.4 years ± 8.8 sd, newly admitted to the tele-LTOT program, was investigated. Subjects were divided according to their original blood Hb: group A: 2 and PaCO2 (mmHg, SaO2 (%, and BMI were measured at LTOT admission (t0, and at least quarterly over three years (t1-t3. Wilcoxon test was used to compare t0 vs. t1 values; linear regression to assess a possible Hb-BMI relationship; ANOVA to compare changes in Hb time-courses over the 3 years. Results LTOT induced a systematic increase of PaO2, and changes were significant since the first year (from 52.1 mmHg ± 6.6sd to 65.1 mmHg ± 8.7 sd, p 2 were quite similar. Comparable and equally significant trends were seen in all subgroups (p 2 dropped within the first year of LTOT (from 49.4 mmHg ± 9.1sd to 45.9 mmHg ±7.5 sd, p 0-t1 comparison proved significant (p 2 decline over the remaining two years (p  15 g/dl (ANOVA p 2, PaCO2 and SaO2 dramatically improved. In anemic subjects effects were smaller and slower, oxygenation being equally ameliorated by LTOT. Conclusions LTOT effects on Hb and PaCO2 are regulated by an Hb-dependent gradient which seems independent of the original impairment of blood gases and of effects on oxygenation.

  20. lama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability: learning from Hawai`i's displaced place and culture-based science standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2011-03-01

    This response to Mitchell and Mueller's "A philosophical analysis of David Orr's theory of ecological literacy" comments on their critique of Orr's use of the phrase "ecological crisis" and what I perceive as their conflicting views of "crisis." I present my views on ecological crisis informed by standpoint theory and the definition of crisis as turning point. I connect the concept of turning point to tipping point as used in ecology to describe potentially irreversible changes in coupled social-ecological systems. I suggest that sustainable societies may provide models of adaptive learning in which monitoring of ecological phenomena is coupled to human behavior to mitigate threats to sustainability before a crisis/tipping point is reached. Finally, I discuss the Hawai`i State Department of Education's removal of its Indigenous science content standard Mālama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability and its continued use in community-based projects.

  1. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

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    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  2. Environmental behavior of soils and mixtures of soil-whitewash mud Comportamento ambiental de solos e misturas solo lama-de-cal

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    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to observe the behavior of soils in natural state and in mixtures, in different ratios, with the industrial solid residue called whitewash mud. The work was conducted with samples of typical soils from the region of Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brazil. Wet chemical analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used in order to obtain the classification of the industrial solid residue. Solubilization and leaching tests were performed and X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques were carried out. The results showed that the whitewash mud was classified as non-inert, but with great capacity of heavy metal retention largely owed to the kaolinite and goethite presence in the clay fraction of the soils, making it difficult to have heavy metals readily available for exchange.O presente estudo buscou observar o comportamento de solos em seu estado natural e em misturas, em diferentes teores, com o resíduo sólido industrial denominado lama-de-cal. A pesquisa foi conduzida com amostras de solos típicas da região de Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brasil. A análise química por via úmida e espectrofotometria de absorção atômica foram usadas para obter a classificação do resíduo sólido industrial. Testes de solubilização, lixiviação, analise de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram executados. Os resultados indicaram que a lama-de-cal não é inerte, mas com grande capacidade de retenção de metais pesados, em grande parte devido à presença de caulinita e goethita na fração argila dos solos.

  3. Changes in forest cover in the Foresta della Lama (Casentino Forests National Park from Karl Siemon’s and Anton Seeland’s 1837 forest management plan

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    Vazzano E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest estates with a long history of forest management plans are quite rare in Italy. In such cases, the analysis of historical documents combined with the use of GIS technology, can provide useful information on the evolution of forest cover and silvicultural and management techniques. Based on two unpublished documents by Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland dating back to 1837 and 1850, an archive of historical maps for the Lama Forest (Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park was created using GIS techniques. This archive outlines the evolution of the Lama Forest over the last 170 years. Particular attention was given to silver fir plantations, which have strongly characterized silviculture and local economics in the Foreste Casentinesi area. The results of our analysis show that changes in different historical periods have been caused both by silvicultural interventions prescribed by the management plans and by external causes such as changes in forest property or war periods, which have markedly influenced forest area and stand characteristics. Furthermore, our analysis confirms that the work of Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland, carried out between 1835 and 1837, is the oldest forest management plan for an Italian forest. It is interesting to note that the aim of the plan, i.e., a regulated (or “normal” even-aged forest, and the way the plan was laid out, typical of classic forest management originated in Germany at the end of the XVIIIth century, served as model for the forest management plans drawn out by the Florence Forestry School almost until the end of the XXth century.

  4. Influência da adição de carbonato de sódio na reactividade térmica de lamas residuais de minas de tungsténio

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2009-01-01

    No presente trabalho analisou-se a influência do tempo e da temperatura de calcinação, de lamas residuais de minas de tungsténio aditivadas com carbonato de sódio. A reactividade das lamas foi avaliada através de ensaios de resistência á compressão em argamassas activadas alcalinamente. Os resultados apontam para o facto da adição do carbonato de sódio não permitir a obtenção níveis de reactividade tão elevados como os obtidos sem a utilização deste aditivo.

  5. Aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário na cultura da soja Surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone on soybean crop

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de lodos de esgoto, lama cal, escória de aciaria e calcário sobre o estado nutricional e a produtividade da soja, em sistema plantio direto. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 4x4+1, constituído por quatro tratamentos - resíduos de lodo de esgoto centrifugado (LC) e de biodigestor (LB), escória de aciaria (E) e lama cal (Lcal) - nas doses 0, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1, mais o controle com 2 Mg ha-1 de calcá...

  6. Avaliação ecotoxicológica de lixiviados de lamas provenientes de estações de tratamento de águas. Capacidade de germinação de sementes de alface (lactuca sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Carla Alexandra Moreira

    2009-01-01

    A água superficial para posterior consumo humano, tem de passar por diversas etapas de tratamento, de forma a dar cumprimento aos requisitos da legislação vigente, decreto-Lei n.º 306/2007 de 27 de Agosto. Como resultado do referido tratamento produzem-se resíduos, nomeadamente, as lamas de clarificação de água. De acordo com a estratégia da União Europeia, a deposição em aterro destas lamas apenas deverá ser efectuada em situações excepcionais ou temporárias. A procura de uma ...

  7. Caracterização de lamas contendo urânio como subsídio para ações futuras de mitigação Characterization of sludge containing uranium as support for mitigation actions

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    Abda Florência da Silva Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A drenagem ácida na mina de urânio de Caldas (MG ocorre há mais de 20 anos, apresenta pH próximo de 3,0 e contém elementos metálicos e não-metálicos. Para o tratamento do descarte desse efluente, utiliza-se de cal para elevação do pH e precipitação dos contaminantes, gerando uma lama que é disposta na cava da mina, inundada de água ácida. O presente estudo consiste na caracterização de três amostras (Lama Antiga, Lama da Cava e Lama Fresca, utilizando análise térmica TGA/DTA, microssonda eletrônica e classificação de acordo com as normas NBR 10005 e NBR 10006. A caracterização enfocou a determinação das fases morfológicas e a composição elementar, para correlacioná-las com a capacidade de migração dos contaminantes. A etringita, a calcita e o gipso foram as fases identificadas como majoritárias. As lamas foram classificadas como não perigosas, mas não inertes. Estudos sobre a biodisponibilidade do urânio mostrou que este é facilmente solubilizado, pois a maior parte desse metal se encontra na fração lábil. A caracterização radiológica mostrou que todas as amostras apresentam valores abaixo do limite de isenção, de acordo com a Posição Regulatória PR-3.01/001 da Norma CNEN-NN-3.01.Acid mine drainage in the uranium mine at the Caldas Municipality (MG has been occuring for over 20 years. This drainage has a pH of around 3.0 and contains metals and non-metals. The current acid water treatment uses lime to increase the pH and precipitates the contaminants before discharging the water into the environment. This procedure generates a sludge that is currently disposed into the mine pit which is flooded with acidic water. The present study aims at the characterization of 3 different samples, identified as Lama Antiga (old sludge, Lama da Cava (pit sludge and Lama Fresca (fresh sludge, by using the TGA/DTA, electron microprobe, standard classification procedures NBR 10005 and NBR 10006. The characterization

  8. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae) [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3h1

    OpenAIRE

    María Zubillaga; Oscar Skewes; Nicolás Soto; Jorge E Rabinovich

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix...

  9. Incorporação de lama de mármore e granito em massas argilosas Incorporation of marble and granite sludge in clay materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de resíduos industriais como aditivos na fabricação de produtos cerâmicos vem despertando um crescente interesse dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos e está se tornando prática comum. Este trabalho descreve a variação do comportamento de uma argila utilizada numa indústria de cerâmica vermelha, resultante de adições de uma lama de mármore e granito, tal como é produzida em uma indústria de beneficiamento de pedras ornamentais do estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Misturas de argila e rejeito (10 - 50% em peso foram compactadas uniaxialmente e sinterizadas a temperaturas entre 950 e 1150 °C. Os resultados obtidos por análise química e mineralógica (DRX e FRX, análises térmicas (DTA, TG e dilatometria, medidas de distribuição granulométrica, porosidade, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão, revelam que a lama de mármore e granito pode ser incorporada na massa de argila sem perda ou comprometimento das propriedades dos corpos sinterizados de cerâmica vermelha.The use of industrial waste materials as additives in the manufacture of ceramic products has been attracting a growing interest from researchers in recent years and is becoming common practice. This work describes the changes in the behavior of the clay material used in a red-ceramic industry due to additions of a granite and marble sludge, produced in an ornamental stone processing industry in Rio Grande do Norte. Mixtures of clay and waste material (10 - 50 wt.% were uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1150 °C. Results from chemical and mineralogical analysis (XRD and XRF, thermal analysis (DTA, TG and dilatometry, particle size distribution, porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, show that the granite and marble sludge can be added to the clay material with no detrimental effect on the properties of the sintered red-clay products.

  10. An Unknown Tradition of Han Chinese Conversions to Tibetan Buddhism:Han Chinese Incarnate Lamas and Parishioners of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Amdo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gray Tuttle

    2013-01-01

    AbstrActThis article examines Han Chinese who has historically practiced Tibetan Buddhism in the Qinghai-Gansu border region. The main primary sources were published in the 1990s, based on surveys by Chinese social scientists who were sent around in the 1950s to collect data on Tibetan Buddhist institutions as well as additional independent surveys from the 1980s and my own site visits in 2006. On the basis of these sources, I argue that there are at least 100,000 and probably as many as 200,000 Han Chinese on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu (part of the Amdo cultural region for Tibetans) practicing Tibetan Buddhism, following traditions that seem to have been in place for centuries. I also discuss the sixteen historic cases of Han Chinese reincarnate lamas and the over one hundred monasteries in this region affiliated with Han Chinese. Finally, I note the sectarian affiliations (jiaopai: Nyingma, Geluk, etc.) and religious practices of these Chinese communities practicing Tibetan Buddhism.

  11. A study on the soil characteristic and properties of riverbank soil samples from Sungai Perak, Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlan, M. N.; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Ghazali, M. F.; Selamat, M. R.; Othman, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) technology is new in Malaysia and only a few efforts have been made to understand the RBF mechanisms and processes. Soil characteristics and properties play important roles in determining the suitability of the site for the RBF application. A research has been carried out in Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia to identify the characteristics of the riverbank soil for different layers of the pumping well (PW) and three adjacent monitoring wells namely MW2, MW3, and MW5. Particle size distributions and hydraulic conductivities of the soils were obtained from sieve analyses and constant head permeability tests. The subsurface soils of the study site consisted of medium sand, fine sand, coarse sand and gravel but them medium sand was highest in percentage over the other types of soil. The aquifer extended down to 8 m. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the PW was 0.91 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 6 m deep. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the monitoring wells was 5.03 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 2.20 to 3.20 m of MW5. The overall well production capacity determined from the pumping test was 112.10 m3/hr.

  12. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Serrão; H. Domingues; Fernandes, M.; MARTINS, J.; F. Pires; I. Saraiva; Fareleira, P.; Matos, N.; Ferreira, E.; A. M. Campos; C. Horta; A. Dordio

    2009-01-01

    A aplicação de lamas residuais urbanas (LRU) aos solos destinados a pastagens, ainda escassamente utilizada no País, contribui, com frequência, para melhorar os níveis de matéria orgânica (M.O.) e de alguns nutrientes das plantas e para diminuir o risco de erosão, pelo aumento da cobertura vegetal. Todavia, a presença eventual de níveis elevados de metais pesados, compostos orgânicos poluentes e organismos patogénicos nas LRU condiciona a dose a aplicar e torna imprescindível o controlo desse...

  13. Comparaison de l'évolution d'un couvert végétal de garrigue exploité par des lamas ou des chèvres pendant 3 ans

    OpenAIRE

    De Rouville, S.; Gaubert, J.L.; GOUSSOPOULOS, J.

    1995-01-01

    La garrigue est une des végétations les plus importantes du pourtour méditerranéen, elle représente 300.000 ha. dans la région Languedoc-Roussillon. Son exploitation par les ovins, dont les effectifs diminuent, n’assure plus un impact suffisant pour limiter l’embroussaillement, une des causes d’incendies. L’utilisation d’espèces complémentaires aux ovins (chèvres, lamas) peut être une solution.

  14. La figura histórica de Lama Zhang : una aproximación desde el estudio comparativo de los votos Mahāyāna y Vajrayāna en la tradición budista tibetana

    OpenAIRE

    Robaina Rodríguez, Marlevis

    2015-01-01

    Lama Zhang, importante maestro budista, militar y político ha sido reconocido en la historia como una controvertida figura dentro de la sociedad tibetana del siglo XII. Pese a trascender como un exponente innovador de la práctica Vajrayāna fue severamente criticado por sus actividades militares en los disturbios de Lhasa. Este trabajo se desarrolla en el contexto del resurgimiento e institucionalización del budismo como religión oficial tras la caída del imperio tibetano. En él se presenta un...

  15. Reciclagem da poeira e lama geradas na fabricação de aço inoxidável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Nolasco Sobrinho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado, em escala de laboratório, um estudo da recuperação dos metais cromo e níquel, contidos em resíduos gerados no processo de fabricação de aço inoxidável, utilizando-se altas temperaturas (1570, 1600 e 1635ºC. A maioria desses tipos de resíduos, principalmente a lama, ainda é disposta em aterros ou estocada. Nesse trabalho foram utilizados dois tipos de resíduo com alto teor de cromo, uma poeira (RESA e o uma lama (RESB. A primeira etapa do estudo, fundamental para o estudo visando à reciclagem dos resíduos, foi a caracterização utilizando as seguintes técnicas: análise química, distribuição granulométrica (MALVERN, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e análise de micro-regiões (EDS. A segunda etapa envolveu a aglomeração dos resíduos caracterizados e outros reagentes, antes de serem introduzidos no aço líquido, utilizando-se uma briquetadora manual. Foram fabricados três briquetes com cada um dos resíduos. A terceira etapa da pesquisa foi a adição dos briquetes de resíduos no aço líquido e retirada periódica de amostras do banho para avaliação da incorporação do cromo contido nos resíduos no aço. O tipo de aço utilizado foi o aço carbono ASTM 1020. Os experimentos foram realizados em um equipamento em escala laboratorial, composto de um forno vertical que pode atingir até 1700ºC e seu controlador. O forno possui uma região de temperatura uniforme de cerca de 13 cm e, nessa região, o cadinho de alumina contendo aço é colocado. Esse equipamento foi construído para o estudo das reações envolvidas quando se adicionam resíduos em aço líquido. A atmosfera interna do aparato pode ser controlada. Após a introdução do briquete no aço líquido e sua fusão foram retiradas, periodicamente, amostras do banho em intervalos de tempo de três em três minutos para análise dos teores de vários elementos, principalmente o cromo, o níquel e o sil

  16. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John R B; Voight, Benjamin F; Yengo, Loïc; Amin, Najaf; Dupuis, Josée; Ganser, Martha; Grallert, Harald; Navarro, Pau; Li, Man; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Scott, Robert A; Almgren, Peter; Arking, Dan E; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori; Burtt, Noël P; Campbell, Harry; Charpentier, Guillaume; Collins, Francis S; Gieger, Christian; Green, Todd; Hadjadj, Samy; Hattersley, Andrew T; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Johnson, Andrew D; Kottgen, Anna; Kraft, Peter; Labrune, Yann; Langenberg, Claudia; Manning, Alisa K; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew P; Oostra, Ben; Pankow, James; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pramstaller, Peter P; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, William; Roden, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Scott, Laura J; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sladek, Rob; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Vivequin, Sidonie; Weedon, Michael N; Wright, Alan F; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Kao, Linda; Meigs, James B; Wilson, James F; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia; Altschuler, David; Morris, Andrew D; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Froguel, Philippe; Palmer, Colin N A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Groop, Leif; Frayling, Timothy M; Cauchi, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMIlean type 2 diabetes cases (BMIlean cases or 8,702 obese cases, and 18,957 un-stratified controls. To assess the effects of known signals, we tested the individual and combined effects of SNPs representing 36 type 2 diabetes loci. After combining data from discovery and replication datasets, we identified two signals not previously reported in Europeans. A variant (rs8090011) in the LAMA1 gene was associated with type 2 diabetes in lean cases (P = 8.4×10⁻⁹, OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.09-1.18]), and this association was stronger than that in obese cases (P = 0.04, OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]). A variant in HMG20A--previously identified in South Asians but not Europeans--was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese cases (P = 1.3×10⁻⁸, OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.07-1.15]), although this association was not significantly stronger than that in lean cases (P = 0.02, OR = 1.09 [95% CI 1.02-1.17]). For 36 known type 2 diabetes loci, 29 had a larger odds ratio in the lean compared to obese (binomial P = 0.0002). In the lean analysis, we observed a weighted per-risk allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.10-1.17], P = 3.2×10⁻¹⁴. This was larger than the same model fitted in the obese analysis where the OR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.08], P = 2.2×10⁻¹⁶. This study provides evidence that stratification of type 2 diabetes cases by BMI may help identify additional risk variants and that lean cases may have a stronger genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes. PMID:22693455

  17. Síntese e caracterização de hidróxidos duplos a partir da lama vermelha Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides from red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. P. O. Cunha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo do refino da bauxita, comumente conhecido como lama vermelha, tem mostrado ser capaz de ligar metais traços tais como o cobre, cádmio, zinco, cromo, níquel e chumbo sob condições apropriadas. A neutralização da lama vermelha é necessária porque essa lama é tipicamente cáustica, com pH em torno de 13. Muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas envolvendo a utilização da lama vermelha, porque contem uma série de elementos valiosos. Assim a utilização da lama vermelha como material de construção e como adsorvente é atrativa porque ela é utilizada em grande quantidade. Nada pode ser feito sem descartar componentes valiosos como titânio, zircônio e principalmente ferro. A síntese de hidrotalcita conectada com a reciclagem de soluções alcalinas representa uma maneira efetiva de uso dessa solução considerando a forte demanda por proteção ambiental no mundo. Os compostos tipo hidrotalcita, precipitados durante a neutralização da lama, também removem oxi-ânions de metais de transição através da combinação de intercalações e adsorção de espécies aniônicas na sua superfície externa. Os hidróxidos duplos lamelares (HDL vêm sendo investigados à muitos anos como materiais hospedeiros para uma variedade de reações de intercalação de anions. A estrutura lamelar dos HDLs pode ser usada para controlar a adição ou remoção de uma variedade de espécies químicas, tanto orgânicas quanto inorgânicas. Isto é alcançado através de sua habilidade de adaptar a separação das lamelas de hidróxidos, e da reatividade da região interlamelar. O material resultante adsorve anions quando colocado em soluções e reverte a estrutura da hidrotalcita. Avanços significativos têm sido alcançados recentemente na caracterização desses materiais, incluindo estudos estruturais sobre o mecanismo de intercalação. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a síntese e caracterização de HDLs a partir da lama vermelha, e

  18. Apuntes sobre la geografía eclesiástica de Ourense: Tourém, Lama de Arcos, «Couto Mixto» y «Pueblos Promiscuos»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Figueiredo, José Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meet the ecclesiastical geography of a diocese is to be a key task to understand their historical memory. The previously unknown files of the Vatican offer valuable information for knowing the lights and shadows of the Diocesan Church in the contemporary period. Presented in this article document processes of the dismemberment of the parish church of St. Peter of Tourém and St. Mary of Lama de Arcos, and the solution to the question of the “Couto Mixto” and “Pueblos Promiscuos”, and the last under the decree of the Congregation Consistorial of 1954.Conocer la geografía eclesiástica de una diócesis resulta ser una tarea fundamental para comprender su memoria histórica. Los inéditos fondos vaticanos ofrecen una valiosa información para conocer las luces y las sombras de la Iglesia diocesana en el periodo contemporáneo. En este artículo se presentan los procesos documentales del desmembramiento de las parroquias de San Pedro de Tourém y Santa María de Lama de Arcos, así como la solución a la cuestión del “Couto Mixto” y los “Pueblos Promisicuos”, y el último arreglo del decreto de la Congregación Consistorial de 1954. [gl] Coñecer a xeografía eclesiástica dunha diocese resulta ser unha tarefa fundamental para comprender a súa memoria histórica. Os inéditos fondos vaticanos ofrecen unha valiosa información para coñecer as luces e as sombras da Igrexa diocesana no periodo contemporáneo. Neste artigo preséntanse os procesos documentais do desmembramento das parroquias de San Pedro de Tourém e Santa María de Lama de Arcos, así como a solución á cuestión do “Couto Mixto” e os “Pobos Promisicuos”, e o último arranxo do decreto da Congregación Consistorial de 1954.

  19. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacosalpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  20. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R B Perry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m² compared to obese cases (BMI≥30 Kg/m². We performed two case-control genome-wide studies using two accepted cut-offs for defining individuals as overweight or obese. We used 2,112 lean type 2 diabetes cases (BMI<25 kg/m² or 4,123 obese cases (BMI≥30 kg/m², and 54,412 un-stratified controls. Replication was performed in 2,881 lean cases or 8,702 obese cases, and 18,957 un-stratified controls. To assess the effects of known signals, we tested the individual and combined effects of SNPs representing 36 type 2 diabetes loci. After combining data from discovery and replication datasets, we identified two signals not previously reported in Europeans. A variant (rs8090011 in the LAMA1 gene was associated with type 2 diabetes in lean cases (P = 8.4×10⁻⁹, OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.09-1.18], and this association was stronger than that in obese cases (P = 0.04, OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]. A variant in HMG20A--previously identified in South Asians but not Europeans--was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese cases (P = 1.3×10⁻⁸, OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.07-1.15], although this association was not significantly stronger than that in lean cases (P = 0.02, OR = 1.09 [95% CI 1.02-1.17]. For 36 known type 2 diabetes loci, 29 had a larger odds ratio in the lean compared to obese (binomial P = 0.0002. In the lean analysis, we observed a weighted per-risk allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.10-1.17], P = 3.2×10⁻¹⁴. This was larger than the same model fitted in the obese analysis where the OR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.08], P = 2.2×10⁻¹⁶. This study provides evidence that stratification of type 2 diabetes cases by BMI may help

  1. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos (Lama guanicoe (Artiodactyla, Camelidae [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3h1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Zubillaga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe, a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012 of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant.

  2. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos (Lama guanicoe (Artiodactyla, Camelidae [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4c3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Zubillaga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe, a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012 of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant.

  3. TEMPORAL CHANGE OF LAND COVER ON THE İSKENDERUN DRAINAGE BASIN (HATAY İSKENDERUN AKAÇLAMA HAVZASINDA (HATAY ARAZİ ÖRTÜSÜNÜN ZAMANSAL DEĞİŞİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ÖZŞAHİN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iskenderun this study temporal variation of land cover in the drainage basin (1985-2007 Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems and examined the causes and consequences of changes were evaluated with a geographical perspective. Residential areas in the basin area occupied by the expansion of agricultural areas, agricultural fields or forest areas have been invaded in the last 20-30 years, the land cover change. This negative change of land cover in the study area, should be evaluated promptly and handled under a plan and a more sustainable land use model should be developed. Bu çalışmada İskenderun Akaçlama Havzasındaki arazi örtüsünün zamansal değişimi (1985-2007 Uzaktan Algılama ve Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri ile incelenmiş, değişimin nedenleri ve sonuçları coğrafi bir bakış açısıyla değerlendirilmiştir. Havza alanında yerleşim alanlarının tarım alanlarını işgal ederek genişlemesi, tarım alanlarının da orman alanlarını istila etmesi son 20-30 yılda yaşanmış olan arazi örtüsü değişimidir. İnceleme alanındaki arazi örtüsünün bu olumsuz değişimi, derhal bir plan kapsamda ele alınıp değerlendirilmeli ve daha sürdürülebilir bir arazi kullanım modeli geliştirilmelidir.

  4. Estudo das reações alcalis-sílica associadas ao uso da lama vermelha em argamassas colantes e de revestimento Study of alkali-silica reactions associated with the use of red mud in plastering mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação de resíduos industriais em matrizes cimentícias, com o objetivo de inertização, é uma alternativa de reutilização que tem sido bastante estudada nos últimos anos. No presente trabalho, estudou-se a lama vermelha, resíduo sólido gerado no processo de beneficiamento da bauxita e que, devido a seu elevado pH, é considerado "perigoso". Apesar do uso deste resíduo ter sido reportada em trabalhos anteriores, algumas patologias podem estar associadas à sua utilização, devido à elevada concentração de íons alcalinos (principalmente o sódio, favorecendo as reações álcalis-sílica (RAS e às dificuldades de moldagem (reologia devido à elevada finura deste resíduo. Apesar destes prováveis problemas provenientes do uso indiscriminado da lama vermelha como adição às argamassas e concretos, ainda são poucas as pesquisas que os contemplam, sendo este o foco do presente trabalho. Foram verificadas as propriedades reológicas das argamassas, utilizando um reômetro e a avaliação da RAS, de acordo com as normas ASTM C 1260-07 e NBR 11582. Os resultados obtidos foram bastante satisfatórios quanto ao comportamento das argamassas frente à RAS, apesar da elevada concentração de álcalis na lama vermelha, com grande influência reológica.The incorporation of industrial wastes in cementitious matrices, with the goal of inertization, is an alternative of reuse that has been extensively studied in recent years. In this paper, the red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production by the Bayer process from bauxite ore and considered "hazardous" due to the high pH, was studied. Despite the use of this waste have been reported in previous studies, some pathologies may be associated with its use, due to high concentration of alkali ions (mainly sodium, favoring the alkali-silica reactions (ASR and the difficulties of molding (rheology because of high fineness of this waste. Despite these potential

  5. Aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário na cultura da soja Surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone on soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de lodos de esgoto, lama cal, escória de aciaria e calcário sobre o estado nutricional e a produtividade da soja, em sistema plantio direto. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 4x4+1, constituído por quatro tratamentos - resíduos de lodo de esgoto centrifugado (LC e de biodigestor (LB, escória de aciaria (E e lama cal (Lcal - nas doses 0, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1, mais o controle com 2 Mg ha-1 de calcário. As plantas de soja apresentaram maior concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio, em 2003, 2004 e 2005, e de potássio, em 2003 e 2004, em razão dos tratamentos LC, LB, E, Lcal e calagem. A produtividade da soja foi favorecida pela aplicação dos tratamentos no sistema plantio direto, em 2003, 2004 e 2005. O fósforo, e o cálcio contribuíram para o aumento da produtividade da soja em 2003 e 2004.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the surface application of sewage sludge, aqueous lime, flue dust and limestone on soybean nutrition and yield in notill system. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, in factorial scheme of 4x4+1, and consisted of four residues: centrifuged sewage sludge (CSS, biodigestor sewage sludge (BSS, flue dust (FD and aqueous lime (AL, at 0, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1, and one additional control treatment with dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The soybean plants showed greater contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in 2003, 2004 and 2005, and potassium contents in 2003 and 2004, due to the treatments CSS, BSS, FD, AL and limestone. Soybean grain yield was also enhanced due to surface applications of the treatments in notill system in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The phosphorus and calcium contributed to increase soybean yield in 2003 and 2004.

  6. Perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik heat cured akibat kelembaban dan lama penyimpanan (Changes in glass transition temperature and heat cured acrylic resin mass due to moisture and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2014-09-01

    massa pada resin akrilik. Metode: Metode penelitian adalah eksperimen laboratoris. spesimen resin akrilik disimpan dalam kondisi kelembaban 90%, 70%, 40% dan 30% selama 24 jam, satu minggu, satu bulan dan dua bulan. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga metode curing, yaitu konvensional JIs, 24 jam curing pada suhu 70 °C dan menggunakan microwave. Hasil: Kelembaban rendah menyebabkan perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik. Penyimpanan lebih lama dari resin akrilik dalam kelembaban rendah, dapat mempengaruhi perubahan yang lebih besar dari suhu transisi kaca dan massa dari resin akrilik. Simpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kelembaban dan penyimpanan yang lebih lama dari resin akrilik dapat mempengaruhi suhu transisi kaca dan perubahan massa.

  7. Sosyal Bilgiler Dersinde Animasyon ve Dijital Harita Kullanımının Öğrencilerin Mekânı Algılama Becerilerine Yönelik Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Aktürk, Volkan

    2012-01-01

    Bu araştırmanın amacı, ilköğretim 6.sınıf Sosyal Bilgiler dersi ‘Yeryüzünde Yaşam’ ünitesinde öğrencilere verilmesi gereken temel becerilerden mekânı algılama becerisinin animasyon ve dijital harita ( sayısal harita ) kullanılarak geliştirilmesidir. Araştırmada 24 sorudan oluşan çoktan seçmeli başarı testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın hipotezleri SPSS 15 programı kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Geliştirilen ölçme aracı Afyonkarahisar il merkezinde bulunan Atatürk ilköğretim Okulu 6. sınıf öğ...

  8. Study on the Integration Mode of Beijing Lama Temple and the Surrounding Environment%北京雍和宫与周边环境融合模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晓晖; 付雨竺; 房淑媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper taking the fusion model of Lama Tem-ple and the surrounding environment as the research object, based on a lot of investigation, data col ection, data sorting, aiming at the problems of residential environment, road traffic, public facilities, tourism scenic spots overloading, and pol-ution and so on, put forward the concrete methods and strate-gies of protection, utilization and development.%本文以雍和宫与周边环境融合模式为研究对象,在大量调研、资料收集、数据整理的基础上,针对雍和宫周边人居环境、道路交通、公共设施、景区超载、旅游污染等诸多问题,提出了保护、开发和利用的具体方法和策略。

  9. Disponibilidade de metais pesados em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Heavy metal exchangeable in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Wanderley da Silva Paganini; Iraê Amaral Guerrini

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns atributos químicos do solo e a disponibilidade de cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), níquel (Ni), mercúrio (Hg), chumbo (Pb) e arsênio (As), por meio da extração pelo DTPA, em conseqüência da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugados e de biodigestores, nas doses 0 (testemunha), 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose 2 Mg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineament...

  10. Effect of ET-1 on Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Skin Melanocytes in vitro%内皮素-1(ET-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖和黑素生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 张杰; 穆晓丽; 白瑞; 董彦君; 白俊明; 董常生

    2011-01-01

    旨在研究内皮素-1 (Endothelin-1,ET-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞(Melanocyte,MC)增殖和黑素合成的影响.本研究中,体外培养正常羊驼皮肤黑素细胞,观察不同浓度ET-1(0、0.1、1、10、100 nmol·L-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、黑素含量、内皮素受体B(Endothelin recepter B,EDNRB)基因、酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)基因、酪氨酸相关蛋白-1(Tyrosinase related protein 1,TRP-1)基因和表皮黑皮素1受体(Melanocortin 1 receptor,MC1R)基因表达量的影响.结果表明,ET-1处理羊驼皮肤黑素细胞3d后,羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增多,黑素含量、EDNRB、TRP-1和TYR基因表达量都明显增加(P<0.05),以10 nmol·L-1组最为显著.ET-1能诱导羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、树突增长,诱导EDNRB、TYR和TRP-1基因表达量增高,使黑素合成增加;同时诱导MC1R基因表达量增高,从而通过α-MSH信号通路对羊驼黑色素的生成产生影响.%To study the effects of Endothelin-l(ET-l) on the proliferation and melanin synthesis of cultured alpaca skin melanocytes, the cultured alpaca skin melanocytes were treated with various concentrations of ET-KO, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nmol · L-1) in vitro. The effects of ET-1 on mel-anocyte proliferation, melanin contents, EDNRB, TYR, TRP-1 and MC1R gene expeession in cultured melanocytes were observed. Three days after treatment with ET-1, the number of melanocytes increased and melanin contents, EDNRB, TYR and TRP-1 gene expression levels also remarkably increased in treated cells compared to those in untreated cells(P<0. 05), especially when the concentration was 10 nmol · L-11. The result indicate that ET-1 can induce the dendrites elongated, proliferation and the expression of EDNRB, TYR and TRP-1, and induce the melanin synthesis; Also, ET-1 induce the expression of MC1R gene, and affect the melanin synthesis of alpaca by the pathway of a-MSH.

  11. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustanir Mustanir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidrida logam berbasis MgH2 dengan sisipan 1 wt% katalis Fe telah berhasil disintesis dengan teknik ball milling. Hasil proses miling selama 80 jam menunjukkan bahwa ukuran butir material telah membentuk struktur nanokristal. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh profil difraksi sinar-X dimana terjadi pelebaran puncakpuncak difraksinya dengan meningkatnya waktu miling. Hasil uji absorpsi secara gravimetrik diketahui bahwa MgH2 berkatalis 1 wt% Fe mampu menyerap hydrogen sebesar 5,5 wt% dalam waktu ~20 menit pada temperatur 300 oC. Hasil ini sekaligus memperlihatkan bahwa sejumlah kecil katalis Fe bekerja secara baik dalam memperbaiki sifat absorpsi material penyimpan hydrogen berbasis Mg.(Metal hydrides are of great interest as hydrogen storage media especially for automotive application. Hydrides of magnesium and magnesium alloys are particularly attractive as they combine potentially high hydrogen storage capacities, 7.6 wt%. But, unfortunately, the sorption properties are poor. For example, conventional hydrogenation of magnesium requires prolonged treatment at temperatures of 300 oC and above. Here, we report the absorption properties of MgH2 catalyzed with a small amount of Fe element (1wt% under argon atmosphere prepared by ball milling in 80 hours. As the results, it showed the influence of milling time on the absortion kinetics of material which could absorp hydrogen in amount 5.5 within 20 minutes at 300 oC. It is obvious that longer milling time and small amount of catalyst could improve the sorption properties of Mg-based hydrides. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 13rd November 2009, Revised: 25th December 2009, Accepted: 31st December 2009][How to Cite: M. Mustanir, Z. Jalil. (2009. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 69

  12. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustanir Mustanir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidrida logam berbasis MgH2 dengan sisipan 1 wt% katalis Fe telah berhasil disintesis dengan teknik ball milling. Hasil proses miling selama 80 jam menunjukkan bahwa ukuran butir material telah membentuk struktur nanokristal. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh profil difraksi sinar-X dimana terjadi pelebaran puncakpuncak difraksinya dengan meningkatnya waktu miling. Hasil uji absorpsi secara gravimetrik diketahui bahwa MgH2 berkatalis 1 wt% Fe mampu menyerap hydrogen sebesar 5,5 wt% dalam waktu ~20 menit pada temperatur 300 oC. Hasil ini sekaligus memperlihatkan bahwa sejumlah kecil katalis Fe bekerja secara baik dalam memperbaiki sifat absorpsi material penyimpan hydrogen berbasis Mg.(Metal hydrides are of great interest as hydrogen storage media especially for automotive application. Hydrides of magnesium and magnesium alloys are particularly attractive as they combine potentially high hydrogen storage capacities, 7.6 wt%. But, unfortunately, the sorption properties are poor. For example, conventional hydrogenation of magnesium requires prolonged treatment at temperatures of 300 oC and above. Here, we report the absorption properties of MgH2 catalyzed with a small amount of Fe element (1wt% under argon atmosphere prepared by ball milling in 80 hours. As the results, it showed the influence of milling time on the absortion kinetics of material which could absorp hydrogen in amount 5.5 within 20 minutes at 300 oC. It is obvious that longer milling time and small amount of catalyst could improve the sorption properties of Mg-based hydrides. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 13rd November 2009, Revised: 25th December 2009, Accepted: 31st December 2009][How to Cite: M. Mustanir, Z. Jalil. (2009. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 69

  13. Novel approaches in andrology examination and follicular fluid biochemical characterization in the optimization of reproductive technologies in farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vencato, Juri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reported in this Thesis was to increase our understanding of two aspects of the reproductive system in farm animals: the andrological evaluation and the follicular fluid composition. The final aim was to give some tools that can be helpful in optimizing the application of assisted reproductive technologies. Studies were conducted in bulls, rams, alpacas, lamas and dairy buffalo cows. The first study was designed to investigate the efficacy of scrotal thermograp...

  14. Alteração de atributos físicos em latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Oxisol physical attributes affected by surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludges and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos industriais e urbanos podem atuar como condicionadores do solo, pois possuem a capacidade de alterar suas propriedades físicas. Contudo, não há referência para os atributos físicos do solo quando esses resíduos são aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema plantio direto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário nos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob sistema plantio direto. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro resíduos: lodos de esgoto centrifugado - LC e de biodigestor - LB, escória de aciaria - E, e lama cal - Lcal, interagindo com quatro doses (0, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1, aplicadas na forma seca mais uma testemunha (controle, constituída da aplicação de 2 t ha-1 de calcário. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, com quatro repetições. A presença de Ca na composição de lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado, escória de aciaria e calcário permite o aumento da agregação das partículas, diâmetro médio ponderado, índice de estabilidade de agregados, porosidade e retenção de água, sendo essas alterações distintas para cada fonte, dose e profundidade de reação no solo. A aplicação superficial da lama cal na dose de 8 t ha-1, após 27 meses de reação, proporcionou a maior agregação das partículas no solo, desde a superfície até 40 cm de profundidade.The residues flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge (centrifuge and biodigestor may affect soil physical attributes. The use of industrial and urban residues in soil, with emphasis to sewage sludge, was done in tilled soil, and there are no repports on soil physical attributes affected by these residues on soil surface in no-till system The goal of this study was to evaluate the physical attributes of a an Oxisol in no-till system by surface dispoasal of sewage sludge, flue

  15. Correção da acidez e mobilidade de íons em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Liming and ion mobility in an Oxisol under surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Rafael Marcelino; Munir Mauad

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez, saturação por bases e a mobilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio no perfil de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi conduzido experimento em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, de 2002 a 2005. A possível interferência dos ácidos orgânicos, provenientes da aveia-preta, decorrentes da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, foram igualmente avaliadas nas doses de 0 ...

  16. Alteração de atributos físicos em latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Oxisol physical attributes affected by surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludges and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Bull; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Maria Helena Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Os resíduos industriais e urbanos podem atuar como condicionadores do solo, pois possuem a capacidade de alterar suas propriedades físicas. Contudo, não há referência para os atributos físicos do solo quando esses resíduos são aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema plantio direto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário nos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob sistema plan...

  17. Análise técnica e avaliação de trechos experimentais de misturas solo-lama de cal com vistas a aplicações em estradas florestais Technical analysis and evaluation of experimental field road sites of soil-whitewash mud mixtures for forest ROAD applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Cardoso Machado; Reginaldo Sérgio Pereira; Tiago Pinto da Trindade; Dario Cardoso de Lima; Carlos Alexandre Braz de Carvalho; Sérgio Luis Martins Santos

    2007-01-01

    Trechos rodoviários experimentais são ferramentas úteis para a avaliação da eficiência de material de construção de estradas. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma avaliação do desempenho de trechos experimentais construídos com camadas de solos estabilizados com o resíduo sólido industrial denominado lama de cal, que é um subproduto gerado em indústrias de celulose. Com base nos resultados de ensaios de resistência mecânica de um extenso programa de laboratório, em que se realizaram ensaios de cara...

  18. Impacto da aplicação de lama residual urbana e de fertilizan­tes minerais em solos sob pastagem no Alentejo Impact of sewage sludge and mineral fertilizers application in soils un­der pasture from the Alentejo region

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Serrão; Martins, J.C.; Fareleira, P.; M.A. Castelo Branco; Varela, A.; H. Domingues; Fernandes, M.; F. Pires; Guerreiro, A.; J. Ramos; A. M. Campos

    2010-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as alterações nos indicado­res do solo pH em água, MO e N totais, catiões de troca, P, K, Cu e Zn “assimilá­veis”, metais pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) e bactérias de origem fecal, entre 2004 e 2007, em dois campos experimentais com pastagens, por efeito da aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU) e da fertilização mineral. As modalidades incluíram as com­binações de dois tipos de pastagem (natural e semeada) com três tratamentos (0, LRU e Adubação), na Herdade do Revez (Luvis...

  19. Avaliação qualitativa do efeito de agentes de limpeza na camada de lama dentinária: estudo ultra-estrutural em microscopia eletrônica de varredura Smear layer removal: a qualitative scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Junho de ARAÚJO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando qualquer instrumento abrasiona ou corta a dentina, produz na superfície uma camada de lama dentinária ou "smear layer". Dependendo do agente de união indicado em Odontologia adesiva, há a necessidade ou não da remoção da camada de lama da superfície dentinária. Com a finalidade de verificar a ação de diferentes substâncias para a limpeza dentinária, utilizamos 20 dentes pré-molares superiores íntegros, mantidos em soro fisiológico, nos quais as coroas foram seccionadas ao meio no sentido mésio-distal. Com instrumento diamantado, removeu-se o esmalte da porção vestibular e da porção lingual da coroa e, com uma broca carbide cilíndrica lisa nº 56, cortou-se aproximadamente 1 mm de dentina com alta rotação sob abundante refrigeração ar/água, para produzir a camada de lama dentinária. Em seguida, essa superfície foi tratada com diferentes substâncias e lavada por 30 segundos com "spray" ar/água. No controle, foi simplesmente utilizado o "spray" ar/água. Os espécimes foram montados em suportes metálicos, preparados e visualizados no MEV-DSM 950 da Zeiss, em aumentos que variaram de 100 a 5.000 vezes. Os materiais que mais removeram a camada de lama foram, em ordem crescente: 1. "spray" ar/água; 2. fluoreto de sódio 2%; 3. associação alternada de Dakin/Tergensol; 4. água oxigenada 3%; 5. jateamento com óxido de alumínio 50 mm; 6. flúor acidulado 1,27%; 7. ácido poliacrílico 25%; 8. ácido fosfórico 10%.A smear layer is produced on the dentin surface after abrasion or cutting by instruments. Its removal is indicated or not according to the kind of bonding agent used in adhesive dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of some substances on the smear layer. Twenty upper non-carious premolars, stored in isotonic saline solution, were mesiodistally hemi-sectioned and the buccal and lingual enamel was removed with high speed diamond bur. One millimeter of the dentinal

  20. Análise técnica e avaliação de trechos experimentais de misturas solo-lama de cal com vistas a aplicações em estradas florestais Technical analysis and evaluation of experimental field road sites of soil-whitewash mud mixtures for forest ROAD applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trechos rodoviários experimentais são ferramentas úteis para a avaliação da eficiência de material de construção de estradas. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma avaliação do desempenho de trechos experimentais construídos com camadas de solos estabilizados com o resíduo sólido industrial denominado lama de cal, que é um subproduto gerado em indústrias de celulose. Com base nos resultados de ensaios de resistência mecânica de um extenso programa de laboratório, em que se realizaram ensaios de caracterização dos solos e estudos de dosagem das misturas, foram construídos três trechos experimentais na região de Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brasil. Em uma avaliação qualitativa desses trechos experimentais, o melhor desempenho de campo foi associado àquele construído com a mistura contendo 70% de solo cascalho de primeira e 30% do resíduo lama de cal.Experimental field road test sites are useful technical tools for evaluating the efficiency of road engineering materials. This paper is directed to the evaluation of performance of experimental field road test sites built using mixtures of in-place soils and industrial waste from the cellulose industry named whitewash mud. Analysis of data from an extensive laboratory testing program including soils geotechnical characterization and mixtures mechanical strength tests led to the construction of three experimental field road test sites in the municipality of Alagoinhas, Bahia State, Brazil. Data from a qualitative evaluation of these sites under field traffic conditions support that best performance can be associated to the road pilot test site built using mixture contents of 70 % of first class gravel and 30 % of whitewash mud.

  1. PACo: A Novel Procrustes Application to Cophylogenetic Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balbuena, J. A.; Míguez-Lozano, R.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), e61048. E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 252124 - PARAPOPGENE Grant ostatní: National Scientific Research of Spain(ES) CGL2008-02701; Generalitat Valenciana(ES) Prometeo Grant 2011-040 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : host-parasite cospeciation * phylogenetic trees * statistical tests * mitochondrial-DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  2. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de lamas residuais urbanas (LRU aos solos destinados a pastagens, ainda escassamente utilizada no País, contribui, com frequência, para melhorar os níveis de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de alguns nutrientes das plantas e para diminuir o risco de erosão, pelo aumento da cobertura vegetal. Todavia, a presença eventual de níveis elevados de metais pesados, compostos orgânicos poluentes e organismos patogénicos nas LRU condiciona a dose a aplicar e torna imprescindível o controlo desses factores nos solos aos quais foram incorporadas. Também o teor elevado de azoto que por vezes contêm pode inibir a actividade simbiótica do rizóbio, prejudicando a sobrevivência das leguminosas na pastagem. Neste trabalho, examinaram-se a produção de matéria seca, a composição florística e o teor de cobre (Cu na biomassa vegetal, em dois anos consecutivos de um ensaio com uma mistura pratense semeada para cortes sucessivos, instalado, no Outono de 2001, num Luvissolo Háplico de baixa fertilidade, em Mértola, ao qual foi aplicado LRU secundária proveniente da ETAR de Évora, com um elevado teor de Cu. No mesmo período, apreciou-se a evolução, na camada superficial do solo, dos teores de M.O., de alguns macronutrientes e do Cu extraível por água régia. Avaliouse, ainda, a grandeza da população rizobiana que nodula o trevo (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii e procedeu-se à prospecção de indicadores de contaminação fecal (bactérias coliformes e enterococos. No ano seguinte à aplicação da LRU, examinou-se a evolução, no solo, de 11 compostos bifenilospoliclorados (PCBs, 13 pesticidas organoclorados e 16 hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (PAHs. O ensaio, de blocos casualizados, teve como modalidades três níveis de LRU (L 0 = 0, L1 = 12 e L2 = 24 t/ha e duas repetições. A mistura semeada incluiu azevém anual, panasco, cinco espécies de trevo, bisserula e serradela. Além de muito maiores produ

  3. Correção da acidez e mobilidade de íons em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Liming and ion mobility in an Oxisol under surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez, saturação por bases e a mobilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio no perfil de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi conduzido experimento em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, de 2002 a 2005. A possível interferência dos ácidos orgânicos, provenientes da aveia-preta, decorrentes da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, foram igualmente avaliadas nas doses de 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose de 2 t ha-1. A aplicação superficial de doses crescentes de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado permitiu verificar aumento do valor de pH no solo. Esses resíduos e o lodo de esgoto de biodigestor elevaram a saturação por bases e a disponibilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio até a profundidade de 40 cm no solo, com apenas três meses de reação. A pequena quantidade de ácidos orgânicos na parte aérea da aveia-preta não justificou o rápido deslocamento dos nutrientes e da neutralização do solo em subsuperfície. Os resíduos escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado podem ser utilizados como corretivos da acidez e aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema de plantio direto.The experiment was carried out under field conditions in a no-tillage system from 2002 to 2005, aiming to evaluate liming, base saturation and nitrate, calcium and magnesium mobility in a dystrophic Clay Rhodic Hapludox soil. The possible interference of organic acid catering of black oat through surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge from a centrifuge and a biodigestor were also evaluated at rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 as well as an additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at the rate of 2 t ha-1. Due to the increasing surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and

  4. Disponibilidade de metais pesados em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Heavy metal exchangeable in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns atributos químicos do solo e a disponibilidade de cádmio (Cd, cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni, mercúrio (Hg, chumbo (Pb e arsênio (As, por meio da extração pelo DTPA, em conseqüência da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugados e de biodigestores, nas doses 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose 2 Mg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, durante 2003 e 2004. A aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, até a dose 8 Mg ha-1, assim como o calcário na dose 2 Mg ha-1, não trazem problemas de disponibilidade ao ambiente, com relação aos metais pesados Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni e As, quando aplicados sobre a superfície em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, no sistema plantio direto. A fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados às culturas da soja e aveia-preta foi nula, quando foram aplicadas doses de até 8 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto, escória e lama cal sobre a superfície do solo, no sistema plantio direto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil chemical attributes and exchange of cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and arsenic (As by DTPA extractor in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge in rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1 and one additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design under field conditions, in a no-tillage system in 2003 and 2004. The surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge centrifuge and biodigestor at 8 Mg ha-1, as well as the application of limestone at 2 Mg ha-1, cause no problems of exchange to the environment, related to the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni

  5. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas. PMID:26965230

  6. miR-663通过靶向 TGF-β1调控羊驼黑色素细胞的黑色素生成%Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Melanocytes Regulated by miR-663 Through Targeting TGF-β1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小云; 金雷皓; 苗潋涓; 丁娜; 范瑞文; 董常生

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the present study is to identify the target genes of miR-663 and investigate the role of miR-663 in melanin synthesis in alpaca melanocytes.[Method]The potential targets and binding sites of TGF-β1 were predicted and analyzed by Targetscan, RNAhybrid and RNA22. The similarity of 3′UTR of TGF-β1 sequences from various species was analyzed by DNAMAN. The dual-luciferase construct of pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was created by inserting partial TGF-β1 3′UTR into the pmirGLO vector by SacⅠ and XbaⅠ restriction sites. The regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 was validated by co-transfecting pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR construct with miR-663 mimic into 293T cells. The over-expression of miR-663 was achieved by transfecting melanocytes with miR-663 mimic. The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7 and β-catenin in melanocytes transfected with miR-663 mimic were analyzed by qRT-PCR or Western blotting, respectively. The effects of miR-663 on melanin synthesis were evaluated by measuring the melanin content of the cells.[Result]There are 68 potential targets for miR-663 predicted by bioinformatics, including 74 conserved binding sites and 44 less conserved binding sites. DNAMAN analysis showed that all 3′UTR sequences of TGF-β1 from analyzed species are highly conserved and enriched potential target sites. One of the potential targets of miR-663 is TGF-β1, which is involved in the development of hair follicle as well as melanin pigmentation. The alpaca 3′UTR sequence of TGF-β1 contains three miR-663 potential binding sites. To confirm the regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 through its 3′UTR, a dual-luciferase reporter vector pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was successfully constructed and co-transfected into 293T cells with miR-663 mimic. The luciferase assay experiments showed that the luciferase activity was 31.01%lower in cells co-transfected with pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR and miR-663 mimic than that in control cells, suggesting

  7. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil "Atrapado en el fango": ecoidioma del sufrimiento con enfermedades respiratorias infantiles en un manglar urbano del Nordeste de Brasil "Atolado na lama": ecoidioma de sofrimento com doenças respiratórias infantis em um manguezal urbano do Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Nations

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama. Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity.Situado en el neo-democrático globalizado Nordeste brasileño, este estudio antropológico analiza el papel del contexto ecológico en el encuadramiento para experimentar y expresar la miseria humana. Entrevistas etnográficas, narrativas y un "análisis semántico contextualizado" revelan la experiencia vivida a causa de enfermedades respiratorias infantiles en 22 residentes de manglares urbanos. Los informantes hablan en un "eco-lenguaje de incomodidad respiratoria", basado en una "eco-lógica" popular, reflejando la dura realidad de "vivir en la humedad, en el manglar." Residentes de áreas elevadas legitiman sus sentimientos de superioridad, estigmatizando los residentes en la "Baixada" como un tabú, como enfermos (cisticercosis porcina, gripe porcina, etc., como "cerdos inmundos, atrapados en el fango". Animalizando las identidades de sus habitantes, despreciándolos a la categoría de no-personas. Además de infecciones, los niños sufren barreras sociales derivadas

  8. Gemilerde Uygun Olmayan Yakıt ve Yetersiz Silindir Yağlama Yağının Ağır Devirli Gemi Dizel Motorlarına Etkileri Üzerine Bir Çalışma

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    Murat Yapıcı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Çalışmanın amacı; gemilerde kullanılan yakıtların uygunluğu açısından önemli noktaları irdelemek, ayrıca ana makine olarak kullanılan iki zamanlı ağır devirli gemi dizel motorlarında silindir yağlama yağına olan etkileri incelemektir. Yöntem: Çalışmada 2007-2015 yılları arasındaki gemi kayıtları incelenmiş ve tablo 3’de bulunan veriler elde edilmiştir. Geminin 39000 saatlik ana makine piston ve silindir bakım saatleri tablosu oluşturulmuştur. Bulgular: Uygun yakıt ve silindir yağlama yağı ile ilgili bakım sonrası uygun yağ miktarının tespiti yapılmıştır. Değişken kükürt oranlarına göre ayarlanabilen silindir yağlayıcıları (cylinder oil lubricator için kükürt oranı ve yüke göre veriler girilerek Excel tabanlı yağ miktarı hesaplama uygulaması modellenmiştir. Sonuç: Yapılan çalışma sayesinde başka tonaj ve tipteki makinelere aynı model uygulanarak makine bakım geçmişi çıkarılarak eksiklikler saptanabilir veya hazırlıklar yapılabilir. Örneğin 15000-19999 çalışma saati aralığında 16 kez piston bakımı yapıldığına göre layner değişiminden sonraki ikinci 20000 saatlik dilimde 35000-40000 saatlik dilimde piston ve layner değişimlerinin olacağı önceden tespit edilerek gerekli yedek malzeme erken tedarik edilerek zamandan kazanılmış olur. Bu sayede daha büyük arızaların önü kesilmiş olur. Şirket ve gemi arasında planlı bakım sistemi daha verimli hale getirilmiş olur. Bu kapsamda yapılan çalışma ile literatüre gerçek bir uygulamadan yola çıkılarak ilerideki çalışmalar için başlangıç olması hedeflenmiştir.

  9. Meta Analiz Yaklaşımı ile Laktasyon Sırası ve Buzağılama Mevsiminin 305 Günlük Laktasyon Süt Verimi Üzerindeki Etki Büyüklüğünün Tahmini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Küçükönder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Siyah Alaca ırkı ineklerde süt verimini etkileyen faktörlerden laktasyon sırası ve buzağılama mevsimin etkisi meta analiz yöntemi ile incelenmiştir. Meta analiz aynı amaca yönelik olarak başka araştırıcılar tarafından yapılmış olan çalışmaların bir araya getirilerek yeniden değerlendirilmesini sağlayan istatistiksel bir tekniktir. Bu yöntem, çeşitli alanlarda yapılmış olan çalışmaların sonuçlarını birleştirir, özetler ve araştırıcılar arasında ortak bir yargının oluşturulmasında katkı sağlar. Bu sebeplerden ötürü, bu çalışmada 7 farklı araştırıcının çalışmaları meta analiz ile birleştirilmiş ve incelenen parametreler hakkında ortak bir bakış açısının yaratılması hedeflenmiştir. Ayrıca araştırmada etki büyüklüklerinin heterojenlik durumu Ki kare ve I2 test istatistikleri ile araştırılmış ve bu değerler sırasıyla ×^2=50,205 ve I2=%88 olarak bulunmuştur. Bundan dolayı çalışmaların birleştirilmesi için sabit etki modeli kullanılmamıştır. Araştırmada, söz konusu konuya ilişkin olarak araştırıcıların bulmuş oldukları çalışma sonuçları meta analitik tarama yöntemi ile taranmış meta analizde etki büyüklüğü ölçütü olan odds oranının (OR kullanılması ile birleştirilmiştir. Meta analiz sonucunda Odds oranı değeri 0,759 bulunmuş olup, bulunan etki düzeyi orta olarak tespit edilmiştir. Yapılan bu çalışmayla Siyah Alaca sığırlarda 305 günlük laktasyon süt verimi üzerinde, laktasyon sırasının yüksek süt verimi elde edilmesinde Yapmış olduğu katkı payının buzağılama mevsimine nazaran 0,759 kat daha fazla olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  10. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-01-01

    Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hy...

  11. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hydrolyze 24-hour dentue plaque is 15.66 TU/mg enzyme activity for 10 minutes soaking. Soaking the denture in papain for 10 minutes makes all of the detected plaque protein bands remobe. In conclusion, efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque is papain activity of 15.66 TU/mg by soaking duration of 10 minutes. Further research is suggested to examine papain residue on the denture that may influence the denture wearer biocompatibility.

  12. Nyeri Punggung pada Operator Komputer Akibat Posisi dan Lama Duduk

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    Dyah Wulan Sumekar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the pain that often occurs in human is low back pain, usually occurs in adults aged 33-55 years. According to data at regional hospital Lampung Tengah in 2006, there were 32 patients with low back pain, and increased in the next two years. Majority of patients were computer operator. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sitting position and duration on low back pain. This study was cross sectional study of 120 computer operators in Bandar Jaya Disctrict of Lampung. The results showed that 27/65 (41.5% on good sitting position group experienced low back pain, while in the bad sitting position was11/12 (91.7%, with p = 0.011 and risk value 15.481 times. In> the >4 hours sitting duration group, 37/63 (58.7% experienced low back pain, whereas in <4 hours group was 1 / 13 (7.1%, with p = 0.006 and risk value 18.497 times. Combination of -sitting position and duration has a significant effect on low back pain (p = 0.017 and 0.010 and gave 21.400 and 24 607 times risk. In conclusion, each sitting position and duration has influence on low back pain, and is a risk factor. Combination of sitting position and duration increase its impact and risk.

  13. Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, S; Carretero, M; Gambarotta, M; Neild, D; Trasorras, V; Pinto, M; Miragaya, M

    2010-03-01

    Llama semen is characterized by great structural viscosity and minimal sperm progressive motility. These characteristics, inherent to South American Camelid ejaculates, have slowed down the development of assisted reproductive techniques in these species. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of dilutions and incubation time with H-TALP-BSA medium, with and without adding 0.1% collagenase, on the qualitative and quantitative semen characteristics, for its use in assisted fertility techniques. Ejaculates (n=8; r=3) were obtained using electroejaculation. Each ejaculate was evaluated and then split into four aliquots. Two of these were diluted 4:1 and 8:1 in 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA (treatments 1 and 3) and the other two 4:1 and 8:1 in H-TALP-BSA without collagenase (treatments 2 and 4). Treatments 1 and 2 were incubated 4 min at 37 degrees C while treatments 3 and 4 were incubated 8 min. All aliquots were centrifuged at 800 x g for 4 min immediately after incubation. Supernatants were pipetted to observe thread formation and pellets were re-diluted in H-TALP-BSA. Supernatants from samples treated with collagenase did not form a thread when pipetted, while the ones from samples that were not treated with the enzyme did. Only semen samples treated with collagenase showed progressive sperm motility, with averages over 40%. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) for the percentage of live spermatozoa and for the percentage of detached heads between raw and treated semen samples. Percentages of spermatozoa with functional membranes were significantly higher (Psemen and in samples incubated without collagenase. These results show that treating semen with 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA improves semen rheological properties while facilitates the separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma in llama; it also promotes sperm progressive motility, while maintaining sperm membrane functionality and integrity. Consequently, this protocol could be used for in vitro llama embryo production with ejaculated spermatozoa. PMID:19616391

  14. Odnokursniki. Dalai-lama i finski monah / Ilja Sundelevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sundelevitsh, Ilja

    2003-01-01

    Ilmar Kruusamäe, Peeter Alliku, Imat Suumani ja Albert Gulki töödest Kursi koolkonna näitusel Tallinna Kunstihoones ja selle galeriis. Matti Kurki ja Nagashila tööde näitus "Virgumine" ning Leonhard Lapini fotod Dalai laamast on Deco galeriis

  15. Fertilidade e contaminação por metais pesados e microrganismos fecais de um solo sob pastagem pela aplicação de lama residual urbana Soil fertility and contamination by heavy metals and faecal microorganisms as affected by biosolids application in pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em vastas áreas do Alentejo, os solos sob pastagem natural apresentam baixa fertilidade. A aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU veicula matéria orgânica (M.O. e nutrientes para o solo, mas também pode introduzir metais pesados e bactérias de origem fecal, pelo que é conveniente monitorizar o solo após a adição destes resíduos. Comparam-se as fertilizações orgânica com LRU e a mineral, nos efeitos em alguns índices de fertilidade e contaminação metálica e fecal de um solo derivado de xistos e grauvaques, no Alentejo, no 1º ano de um campo experimental com pastagens. O campo, com um esquema experimentalem “split-plot”, foi constituído por seis talhões de 0,5 ha, correspondentes a três tratamentos de fertilização (nula, mineral e orgânica, com LRU, em dois tipos de pastagem, natural e semeada. Aplicaram-se cerca de 13 t/ha de uma mistura de LRU das ETARs de tratamento secundário de Alvito e de Vila Nova de Baronia, com teores apreciáveis de M.O., N e Ca. A adubação incluiu N, P, K, Zn e Mo. Determinaram-se os valores de pH (H2O e os teores de M.O. total, N total, P e K “assimiláveis”, catiões de troca e de Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn extraíveis por água régia, em amostras de terra (fracção In wide areas of Alentejo, soils under natural pasture have low fertility. Urban biosolids (UB application introduce organic matter (O.M. and nutrients in the soil, but it can also add heavy metals and bacteria of faecal origin. Thus, soil monitoring after the application of these residues is required. Organic with UB and mineral fertilisations were compared regarding their effects on some fertility and metallic and faecal pollution indicators of a soil derived from schists and grauwacks, in the 1st year of a field experiment with pastures. The experimental layout was a split-plot design, with six plots of 0.5 ha, referring to three fertilisation treatments (“nil”, mineral, and organic, with UB, in natural and sown

  16. Impacto da aplicação de lama residual urbana e de fertilizan­tes minerais em solos sob pastagem no Alentejo Impact of sewage sludge and mineral fertilizers application in soils un­der pasture from the Alentejo region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Serrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações nos indicado­res do solo pH em água, MO e N totais, catiões de troca, P, K, Cu e Zn “assimilá­veis”, metais pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn e bactérias de origem fecal, entre 2004 e 2007, em dois campos experimentais com pastagens, por efeito da aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU e da fertilização mineral. As modalidades incluíram as com­binações de dois tipos de pastagem (natural e semeada com três tratamentos (0, LRU e Adubação, na Herdade do Revez (Luvisso­los e Leptossolos Háplicos e com quatro tratamentos (0, LRU, LRU+Calagem e Adubação+Calagem, na Herdade da Cri­méia (Luvissolos Férricos. Foram os teores médios de MO total e P “assimilável” as características químicas, comuns aos solos dos dois campos, em que o efeito benéfico das LRU na camada super­ficial foi significativo (P ≤ 5%. A aplicação de LRU também induziu os maiores acrés­cimos significativos de N total e de Mg de troca no solo da Herdade do Revez. A cala­gem elevou o pH e o teor de Mg de troca do solo, na Herdade da Criméia. As LRU não contaminaram os solos com metais pesados. Os níveis populacionais de coliformes e de enterococos fecais aumentaram, logo após a aplicação das LRU, para decrescerem pro­gressivamente ao longo do tempo, igualan­do-se aos das testemunhas.We evaluated the changes in the soil indi­cators pH in water, total OM and N, ex­changeable cations, available P, K, Cu, and Zn, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and faecal origin bacteria, between 2004 and 2007, as affected by sewage sludge (SS application and mineral fertili­sation in two field experiments with pas­tures. The treatments were the combinations of two types of pasture (natural and sown with three fertilisation treatments (0, SS, in­organic fertilisers in the experiment of Herdade do Revez (Haplic Luvisols and Haplic Leptosols, and four fertilisation treatments (0, SS, Liming+SS, and Lim

  17. The materno-fetal interface in llama (Lama guanicoe glama A interface materno-fetal em lhamas (Lama guanicoe glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iturrizaga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 9 llamas (28 through 36 weeks of gestation were collected and fixed in 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (light microscopy and in 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde (transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The material was processed in paraplast and slides (5mm were stained with HE, PAS, Masson-Trichrome, acid phosphatase and Perl's. The uteroferrin was immunolocalized. The results show that llama placenta is chorioallantoic, diffuse, folded and epitheliochorial, and the fetus is covered with an epidermal membrane. The trophoblast cells have variable morphology: cubic, rounded and triangular cells, with cytoplasm containing PAS-positive granules. Binucleated cells with large cytoplasm and rounded nuclei, as well as giant trophoblastic cells with multiple nuclei were also observed. Numerous blood vessels were observed beneath the cells of the uterine epithelium and around the chorionic subdivided branches. Glandular activity was shown by PAS, Perl's, and acid phosphatase positive reactions in the cytoplasm and glandular lumen, and by immunolocalization of the uteroferrin in the glandular epithelium. The uterine glands open in spaces formed by the areoles, which are filled by PAS-positive material. The llama fetus was covered by the epidermal membrane, composed of stratified epithelium, with up to seven layers of mono-, bi- or trinucleated cells. The high level of maternal and fetal vascularization surfaces indicates an intense exchange of substances across both surfaces. The metabolic activity shown in the uterine glands suggests an adaptation of the gestation to the high altitudes of the natural habitat of this species.Fragmentos da placenta de 9 animais (28-36 semanas de gestação, provenientes do Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura (IVITA, Cusco-Peru, e da Universidad del Altiplano (UNA, Puno-Peru, foram colhidos e fixados em paraformoldeído 4% em PBS para microscopia de luz e em glutaraldeido em 2,5% PBS para microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e de varredura. O material incluido em paraplast cortado com 5 mm foi processado para HE, PAS, Tricrômio de Masson, fosfatase ácida e Perl's e para imuno-histoquimica da uteroferrina. Os resultados mostraram que a placenta da lhama é corialantóide, difusa, pregueada e epiteliocorial e o feto está recoberto pela membrana epidermal. O trofoblasto possui morfologia variada: células cúbicas, arredondadas ou triangulares, com citoplasma contendo grânulos PAS+. Células binucleadas com citoplasma aumentado e núcleo arredondado e células trofoblásticas aumentados com múltiplos núcleos, também foram observadas. Grande quantidade de vasos sanguíneos foi observada entre as células do epitélio uterino e ao redor das projeções coriônicas, as quais estavam subdivididas. A atividade glandular foi demonstrada pelas reações de PAS, Perl's e fosfatase ácida positivas e pela imunolocalização da uteroferrina na luz e epitélio glandular. As glândulas uterinas abrem-se nos espaços formados pelas aréolas, as quais estavam preenchidas por material PAS+. Os fetos das lhamas estavam recobertos pela membrana epidermal, constituída por um epitélio estratificado composto por mais de 7 camadas de células mono, bi ou trinucleadas. A alta vascularização das superfícies materna e fetais indica intensa capacidade de trocas de substâncias entre as duas superfícies, e a atividade metabólica mostrada pelas glândulas uterinas sugere adaptação da gestação às altitudes elevadas do habitat natural desta espécie.

  18. 驼源天然单域重链抗体库的构建与鉴定%Construction and Biopanning of Camelid Naive Single-domain Antibody Phage Display Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂追; 许杨; 刘夏; 何庆华; 陶勇

    2011-01-01

    从未经主动免疫的健康羊驼(Lamapacos)外周血淋巴细胞中提取总RNA,反转录后作为第一轮PCR的模板.根据重链抗体保守区域设计引物,经巢式PCR法扩增获得了全套重链抗体可变区基因,将其克隆至噬菌粒 pHENl,电转化大肠杆菌TG1得到初级抗体库NAL,含有2×10个独立克隆,菌落PCR和Hinf Ⅰ酶切分析结果显示,克隆效率大于97%,文库的多样性良好.辅助噬菌体救援后,得到噬菌体展示文库命名为NA-PDL,滴度达10CFU/ml.以真菌毒素人工抗原DON-MBSA为目标抗原,对NA-PDL进行了淘选,第二轮洗脱物中,阳性克隆率达36.4%,提示针对目标抗原的噬菌体颗粒得到了有效富集,文库NA-PDL多样性较好,为后续淘选针对特定抗原的单域重链抗体奠定了基础.%The objective is to construct a camelid na(i)ve single-domain heavy chain antibody phage display library. Total RNA was purified from 30ml blood of two healthy non-immune alpacas ( Lama pacos) and directly used for complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis. Three sets of primers were designed based on the conserved region of heavy-chain antibody. The repertoire of VHH coding sequence was amplified by nested PCR, and the PCR products were cloned into a phagemid vector pHEN1. By electroporation of E. coli TG1 , the primary library (designate NAL) was obtained containing more than 107 independence clones. After helper phage rescue, the phage display library ( designate SNA-PDL) was generated with a titre up to 1013 CFU/ml. The library exhibited high diversity as judged by the Hinf Ⅰ restriction pattern. Solid phage biopanning against artificial antigen DONMBSA showed significant enrichment of binding phage particles. The positive rate of panning round two was 36.4% . The data indicated that a na(i)ve single-domain antibody phage display library was constructed. which has good diversity and would be useful for generating VHHs with specific binding affinity.

  19. Farklı Uzaktan Algılama Teknikleri Kullanılarak Arazi Örtüsü/Kullanımında Meydana Gelen Değişimlerin İncelenmesi: Manisa Merkez İlçesi Örneği (1986-2010 Examination Of Land Use/Cover Changes By Using Different Remote Sensing Technics: The Case Of The Central District Of Manisa (1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ekber GÜLERSOY

    2013-09-01

    -use, and works for land use planning should be directed by interdisciplinary units which will be established. Günümüzde doğal kaynaklar, sonsuz insan ihtiyaçları ve artan nüfus karşısında yetersiz kalmaktadır. Kıt kaynakların başında gelen arazilerin doğal ortam potansiyeline uygun olarak kullanılması ve planlanması gerekmektedir. Bu çerçevede yerel boyutta, detaylı çalışmalar büyük önem arz etmektedir. Bu tür çalışmalarda uzaktan algılama teknikleri kullanılarak kısa sürede doğru sonuçlara ulaşmak mümkündür. Farklı uzaktan algılama teknikleriyle elde edilen veriler, arazi örtüsü/kullanımının zamansal değişimini belirlemede yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, verimli tarım sahaları ve sanayisi ile hızla nüfuslanan Manisa merkez ilçesinin arazi kullanımında meydana gelen değişim izlenmiştir. Aynı zamanda, farklı uzaktan algılama teknikleri ve farklı yıllara ait uydu görüntüleri kullanılarak arazi kullanımında meydana gelen değişim, zamansal olarak analiz edilmiştir. Mevcut arazi kullanım durumunu ve zamansal değişimi ortaya koymak amacı ile farklı uzaktan algılama teknikleri uygulanmıştır. Bunlar, NDVI görüntülerin oluşturulması, uydu görüntülerinin manuel olarak sayısallaştırılması ve kontrollü sınıflandırma metodudur. Bu tekniklerle elde edilen sonuçların doğruluğu, hem kappa gibi istatistik metotlar ile hem de farklı metotların sonuçlarının birbiri ile kıyaslanmasıyla sınanmıştır. Yapılan incelemeler sonucunda, 1986-2010 yılları arasını kapsayan 24 yıllık süreçte, arazi kullanımı ve arazi örtüsündeki en büyük değişimin % 109’luk artışla yerleşim alanlarında ve % -31,5’luk azalmayla mera alanlarında görüldüğü belirlenmiştir. Aynı dönemde (1986-2010 Manisa şehri alansal olarak % 211 (3310 ha oranında genişlemiştir. Manisa merkez ilçesinde arazi kullanımı ile arazi yetenek sınıfları aras

  20. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term "Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia". These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or si...

  1. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term “Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia”. These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or sim...

  2. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. PMID:25680921

  3. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, Andrea S.; Byers, Stacey R.; Robert J. Callan; McArt, Jessica A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and...

  4. Mantous and alpacas as weapons of the weak: Chinese spoof video and self-expression online

    OpenAIRE

    Lugg, Alexander Neish

    2013-01-01

    Chinese Web users are using video spoofs in an attempt to reclaim expressive space in Chinese-language cyberspace. In a manner reminiscent of shunkouliu (humorous sayings), that circulated particularly widely during the late 20th century, video spoofs are being used to express discontent with a range of political and social issues and policies while using a veil of humour to obfuscate the target of the satire. These spread of these videos and the ideas they express have caused changes to Chin...

  5. Long-bone fractures in llamas and alpacas: 28 cases (1998–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Knafo, S. Emmanuelle; Getman, Liberty M.; Richardson, Dean W.; Fecteau, Marie-Eve

    2012-01-01

    Treatment and outcome of camelids with long-bone fractures are described. Medical records (1998–2008) of camelids (n = 28) with long-bone fractures were reviewed for signalment, time to presentation, fracture type, method of repair, duration of hospitalization, and post-operative complications. Follow-up information was obtained via telephone interviews with owners. Mean age and weight at presentation were 3.4 years and 56.3 kg, respectively. Twenty-six fractures were treated with internal fi...

  6. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. February 2003 actualization, no.9; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de fevrier 2003, no.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on february 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components), the hydrogen production (low temperature methane reforming, hydrogen and methane production from biomass, PEM hydrogen cells, hydrogen production for hybrid fuel cell vehicle) and hydrogen storage (catalytic de-hydrogeno-aromatization of the decalin for the hydrogen storage, calcium and lithium hydrides utilization, the Ti-Mg-Ni alloy capacity for the hydrogen storage, metallic hydrides, iron oxido-reduction for the PEMFC). For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 18, 2004 update no. 24; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 18 mai 2004, no. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)comparison of the costs between the electric-powered vehicles and the fuel cell vehicles 2)fuel savings of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles 3)direct formic acid fuel cells producing high current density 4)use of biogas in a SOFC 5)test unit for the determination of the seasonal performance of fuel cell residential systems 6)new management technique of fuel cells for optimizing the output power and the fuel use yield 7)SOFC/micro-turbines systems: current progress achieved and future development 8)advances in the field of the PEMFC 9)advances in the field of new materials for PEMFC 10)hybridization of fuel cell vehicles: an accessible solution for efficient traction systems 11)exergy life cycle analysis of systems of production and storage of hydrogen for mobile application 12)hydrogen and electric power production from coal with CO{sub 2} sequestration 13)H{sub 2}S low temperature removal with ZnO in gas mixtures containing vapor for applications in fuel cells 1-ZnO particles and extruded compounds 14)catalytic nano-composite membranes for CO abatement in fuel cell applications 15)activity and stability of Cu-CeO catalysts in the water-gas conversion for fuel cell applications 16)hydrogen production for fuel cell by ethanol partial oxidation on a nickel based catalyst 17)micro-reactor for hydrogen production in micro-fuel cell applications 18)hydrogen storage capacity and electrochemical properties of the electrode material La{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 3.825}Co{sub 0.675}Mn{sub x}(A) 19)hydrogen storage and desorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  8. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). September 19, 2001 update, no. 1; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 19 septembre 2001, no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: dynamical behaviour of a PEM fuel cell for stationary applications; characterization of the Ballard's MK5-E PEMFC; modeling and analysis of a PEM system for transportation system applications; increase of the performances of a PEMFC by the optimization of the membrane and of the conditions of humidification; SOFC: exo-thermal reaction and heat source; average temperature SOFCs; performance and structure of a new CoO/Ni-based cathode for MCFC; choice of materials for fuel cell technology; recent trends of fuel cell-powered vehicles; hydrogen production in supercritical liquids for fuel cell use; on-board fuel conversion for fuel cells: comparison of the different fuels by numerical simulation; hydrogen production systems for fuel cells; reactor for the preferential catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (PROX) for PEMFC systems devoted to automotive vehicles; study of a gasoline reformer for fuel cell-powered vehicle applications; experimental research about hydrogen production from n-octane partial oxidation and vapo-reforming; simulation study of hydrogen storage in mono-sheet carbon nano-tubes; hydrogen adsorption in carbonized nano-structures; specific properties of the hydrogen engine; biomass power plants: a spectacular expansion in Germany. (J.S.)

  9. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). March 13, 2002 update, no. 6; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 13 mars 2002, no. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells and hydrogen production: 'giant jumps' in PEMFC technology from 1960 to the present day; SOFC systems: from 100 kW atmospheric systems to 300 kW pressurized systems; fields of application of PEM fuel cells on the energy market; numerical analysis of the production characteristics of a tubular SOFC with internal reforming; comparative study of the performances obtained with sulfonated poly(butadiene-styrene) membranes; non-planar architecture for PEM fuel cells; mass and heat transfer simulation inside a fuel cell for various channel sections; less expensive and more efficient fuel cells: the abatement of manufacturing costs can lead to products commercialization; comparison between fuel cell powered vehicles and future conventional vehicles; hydrogen produced from ethanol by indirect internal reforming in a MCFC system. (J.S.)

  10. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. February 26, 2004 update no. 21; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 26 fevrier 2004, no. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage, environment. Their different titles are given below: 1)a 10 kW pressurized SOFC unit 2)design of a SOFC system for unstable network 3)demonstration for the general public of high and low temperature fuel cells 4)development of an APU for mobile application based on the SOFC technology 5)fuel cells as continuous supply source 6)PEM fuel cells with carbon nano-tubes electrodes 7)a temperature control system of a reformer fed by a fuel cell 8)the hybridization, a solution for fuel cell vehicles 9)hydrogen production by ethanol auto-thermal reforming on a Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst 10)partial oxidation reforming catalyst for fuel cells vehicles 11)hydrogen production increased by a reactive mixture of alkaline aqueous solutions of an alkaline metal borohydride for fuel cells 12)development of an hydrogen generator (of about 10 kW) using chemical hydrides 13)device for pure gases production, in particular hydrogen and oxygen, from gaseous or liquid mixtures, for stationary and mobile applications 14)hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by pyrolysis with a nickel-lanthanum catalyst 15)estimation of the new energetic and transport systems; the case of fuel cells, part 2: environmental performances. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  11. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). May 13, 2003 update no. 12; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 13 mai 2003, no. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)the running of a fuel cell enriched in oxygen 2)the electricity production from solid oxide fuel cells running with a fuel whose composition is the same as a synthesis gas produced by coal gasification 3)a fuel cell/gas turbine system for electricity and heat production from biomass 4)the SOFC systems with CO{sub 2} isolation 5)the hybrid systems for the decentralized production of electricity based on the pressure getting up and the heat recovery of a MCFC unit of 100 kW 6)the technical assessment of a fuel cell fed with gas produced from municipal organic wastes of the Groton dump (Connecticut) 7)the energetic and exergetic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol 8)choice of fuel for fuel cell vehicle: analysis 9)stainless steel as material for bipolar plates of PEMFC 10)catalysts for low temperature fuel cells, 3. part: the challenges concerning the DMFC 11)additives addition in fuels for fuel cells 12)natural gas and LPG desulfurization unit for reformers 13)a control system of the fuel cell temperature 14)the natural gas reforming in SOFC systems 15)a gas oil partial oxidation for SOFC used for stationary and mobile applications. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  12. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. Actualization of the 04 march 2003, no.10; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de 04 mars 2003, no.10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on march 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low and medium power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components), the hydrogen production (catalytic burner for carrier hydrogen production, catalysts, fuel reforming for fuel cell vehicles). For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  14. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network (PACO). January 28, 2004 update no. 20; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 janvier 2004, no. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the characteristics of PEMFC running at negative exterior temperatures 2)the effects of CO poisoning on PEMFC at temperatures until 200 C 3)the mechanical properties of tubular SOFC 4)fuel cells fed with coal 5)analysis of cogeneration system: planar SOFC/gas turbine 6)modelling of fuel cells for transport, according to the neuronal networks method 7)design of hybrid fuel cell systems 8)a comparative study of direct methanol fuel cells for vehicles 9)desulfurization by adsorption and catalytic steam reforming of gas oil for applications in fuel cells 10)feasibility study of hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles by naphtha on-board steam reforming 11)reforming catalyst of kerosene for fuel cell, kinetics and modelling of steam reforming 12)reforming by partial oxidation of low lubricant power gas oil, of dimethyl ether and methane for SOFC 13)conversion of solar heat in fuels by solar thermochemistry 14)hydrogen purification for fuel cells: selective oxidation of CO on Pt-Fe / zeolite catalysts 15)hydrogen photo-production from cellulose derived compound, with a system: chlorophyll / platinum nano-particles 16)hydrogen storage in commercial activated carbon. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  15. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 28, 2005 update no. 32; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 28 juin 2005, no. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)advantages of the use of hydrogen compared with kerosene 2)comparative study of three types of microbial fuel cells 3)carbon nano-tubes for electric applications 4)separation of the CO{sub 2} during the hydrocarbons gasification 5)hydrogen production from hydrocarbons assisted by plasma 6)plasma pyrolysis of biomass for synthesis gas and carbonaceous adsorbent production 7)fast starting reformer for automobile applications 8)development of a unit of hydrogen production from LPG for PEM systems: assessment at the laboratory scale of the sub-units of auto-thermal reforming and of selective oxidation 9)hydrogen and electric power production, with CO{sub 2} sequestration, by redox species chemical cycle reforming (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as support) 10)exergy and economic analysis of a PEM electrolyser running at different temperatures and pressures 11)nano-structured materials for hydrogen storage 12)composite materials based on light elements for hydrogen storage. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  16. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 22, 2004 update no. 22; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 mars 2004, no. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and renewable energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)recent developments in the field of polymer electrolyte fuel cells membranes running above 100 C 2)a new study method of a two-phase flow in a direct methanol fuel cell 3)fuel cell system 4)direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells running with dimethyl ether for portable applications 5)new fuel cells developments for aerospace equipment 6)anode materials for SOFC 7)application of the fuel cell technology to the rail transport 8)hydrogen production by hydrocarbons steam reforming on Ni or Fe based catalysts which are modified by an alkaline earth metal 9)thermochemical hydrogen production from Pacinum virgatum plant 10)development of a catalyst for biomass gasification, in a double-bed gasifier 11)the role of hydrogen in the development of wind power electric systems: the case of Ireland 12)feasibility study of a hydrogen distribution basic equipment for fuel cells vehicles, based on the use of electric power produced in off-peak hours in Japan 13)'bio-hydrogen' production: future developments and limits to a practical application 14)improvement of the hydrogen production from a biomass gasification process, indirectly heated. Removal of carbon dioxide releases with a new biological reformer 15)storage of hydrogen cooled with liquid nitrogen 16)ten years of running of a renewable energy production system based on hydrogen. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  17. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 16, 2004 update no. 23; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 16 avril 2004, no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the importance of the fuel choice in the efficiency of the SOFC 2)assessment model of a centralized electric power system: SOFC/gas turbine 3)a direct borohydride fuel cell 4)thermodynamic optimization of the internal structure of a fuel cell 5)a SOFC/gas turbine cogeneration system 6)micro-fuel cells for portable applications 7)comparison of performances of direct alcohol fuel cells using different anode catalysts 8)materials and designs for SOFC used in stationary and mobile applications 9)development of measurement techniques for two-phase hydrogen weight flow 10)semi-conductors potentiometric probe for the hydrogen detection in air 11)integration of a fuel cell in an electric system, using a regulator based on the theory of regulation by disturbances accommodation 12)'greening London's black cabs': a study of the use potential of fuel cells cabs in London 13)gasification of leather residues - part 1 - experimental study in a pilot gasifier with a descending current 14)use of composite conducting membranes to produce hydrogen by water dissociation 15)molybdenum carbide based catalyst for the water gas reaction used in fuel cells vehicles applications 16)hydrogen production process from methane hydrates with carbon dioxide hydrates sequestration 17)comparative study between the hydrogen adsorption on super activated carbon and on carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  18. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 14, 2005 update no. 29; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 mars 2005, no. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol and running in internal reforming mode 2)effect of the methanol and ethanol permeation on the efficiencies of a direct alcohol fuel cell with a PtRu/C anode 3)analysis of an hybrid SOFC micro-turbine micro-generation system 4)dynamic modelling and simulation of a small hybrid wind-fuel cell system 5)simulation of a system combining SOFC and PEMFC 6)assessment of the impacts and of the economical aspects of the fuel cell APU part 1: modelling of the cost and the efficiencies of the system part 2)impacts on the health and on the environment, analysis of the life cycle and optimization 7)efficiencies of vehicles equipped with direct hydrogen or reformed methanol PEMFC 8)methods for supplying fuel cell devices 9)auxiliary fuel cell system 10)analysis of life cycle of maritime applications of fuel cells 11)critical analysis of different hydrogen production and uses ways 12)comparison of the hydrogen and natural gas production processes in a thermodynamical and environmental point of view 13)research and development on the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  19. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 14, 2004 update no. 25; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 juin 2004, no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the American plan of de-regulated electric power production with fuel cells 2)application of single wall carbon nano-tubes in fuel cells 3)scenarios of SOFC introduction on the Japanese market 4)advanced SOFC technology and developments at the Siemens Westinghouse firm 5)manufacture and optimal size of a PEMFC cogeneration system for multi-residential application: application to the decomposition strategy 6)analysis of the life cycle of fuel cells using disposal gas 7)technical and economical analysis of a three-generation SOFC system 8)use of APU-FC for an average class tactical lorry, during a use in partial electric power supply or in condition of a silent stand by 9)modelling of the current supply of a lorry at stop: comparison between a idling engine and a APU 10)production of hydrogen and carbon nano-tubes by methane decomposition in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor 11)hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of gas-oil 12)simulations of cold starting of a gasoline reformer for mobile applications of fuel cells 13)ethanol production by steam reforming on a Pd/{gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trading catalyst 14)control of the CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and of the deactivation of the catalyst for the gasoline steam reforming 15)comparison of three integrated processes of partial oxidation producing hydrogen for fuel cells applications 16)search of new methods of the mixture: natural gas/hydrogen production for use in natural gas systems in The Netherlands 17)outline of the energy/hydrogen storage: progress achieved with the different techniques and future prospect of nano-materials 18) hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by solar way 19)forecast and measurement of the limits of the flammability domain of fuel cells. The references of these articles rae detailed. (O.M.)

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01683-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available *ihqiillipiahlvvivllqlqhqiq mhl*qiln--- ---ktkfn*n*i*titikfs*ckekddtfanktlqaksdeeecrknytsitdeflkkmve nektfkleirkqirdyvamqvef...abase: 8361 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Gapped Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: blastn matrix:1 -3 Gap Penalti...0.64 1 ( AC231245 ) Choloepus hoffmanni clone CH281-167B20, WORKING D... 48 0.64 1 ( DH387578 ) Oryzias latipes Fosmid clon...lciparum 3D7 chromosome 2 section 36... 32 5.6 2 ( BB663337 ) Mus musculus 15 days embryo head cDNA, RIKEN f...odelphis domestica clone VMRC18-711P21, WORKIN... 44 10.0 1 ( AC229614 ) Lama pacos clon

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10881-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R-369N15 of ... 46 3.3 1 ( AC232177 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-334B22, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46 3.3 1 ( ET240037 ) S0051A14...genome. 46 3.3 1 ( EJ036317 ) 1095454069872 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-26-01-01-1... 42 4.1 2 ( AC214588 ) Bos taurus clone CH240...none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 38 0.91 AB091487_1( AB091487 |pid:none) Apis dorsata mitochondrial CO2... gen... 37 1.6 AB091488_1( AB091488 |pid:none) Apis dorsata mitochondrial CO2...Contig-U10881-1 gap included 1294 1 4142412 4140936 MINUS 5 7 U10881 0 3 1 0 1 0 0

  2. Morphometrische Untersuchung des Wachstums beim Alpaka (Vicugna pacos) von der Geburt bis zu einem Alter von 36 Monaten

    OpenAIRE

    Grund, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Außerhalb ihrer ursprünglichen Heimat in Südamerika steigt die Anzahl der Alpakas stetig an. Die Tiere erfreuen sich auch in Deutschland einer großen Beliebtheit. Aktuellen Schätzungen zufolge leben in Deutschland circa 10.000 Alpakas. Siewerden zur Wollgewinnung, sowie als Begleit- und Therapietiere in kleinen Hobbyhaltungen oder in Beständen mit einer Herdengröße von bis zu 150 Tieren gehalten. Damit verbunden werden auch zunehmende Ansprüche an die Qualität der tierärztlichen Betreuung die...

  3. Macroscopic and histological investigation of guanaco footpads (Lama guanicoe, Müller 1776).

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Horst Erich; Skewes, Oscar; Helmreich, Magda; Böck, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The surface of guanaco footpads is characterized by hairless skin with up to 4-mm-thick stratum corneum that protects from abrasion. The horny layer is pliable and elastic, and ensures firm contact with irregular ground. It is padded with a particular structure of the subcutaneous layer, the digital cushion. The flat cushions of each of the two digits are of elongated ovate shape, each about 45-mm long, up to 20-mm wide, and 8-mm thick. The cushions are lined by a 1-2-mm-thick capsule that resembles a tunica albuginea. The capsule consists of coarse collagen fibers, with elastic fibers absent. The cushion capsule and dermis approach each other, and fuse along a line that runs parallel to the longitudinal axes of cushion and digit. Loose connective tissue rich in elastic fibers and acidic glycosaminoglycans separates dermis and cushion capsule lateral to the narrow interconnecting zone. The cushion capsule encloses cloudy yellowish, gelatinous material. Microscopy shows bundles of elastic fibers in abundant mucinous matrix. Tightly gathered elastic bundles adjoin the inner surface of the capsule. Rough cords of elastic fibers branch out from there and traverse to the opposite side. The cushion is pressed flat, and elastic fibers are stretched when bearing weight. With relief of load, elastic fibers contract and reset the cushion's shape. Contractile cells are absent. A resistant capsule and easily malleable mucinous contents establish the functioning as a gel pad. Mucinous connective tissue between elastic fiber bundles contains abundant basophilic matrix. Hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate are main matrix constituents. Spindle-shaped or stellate fibroblasts contain vimentin, S100 protein, and neuron specific enolase. Moprhology, staining characteristics and synthesis activities of these cells meet the criteria to be classified as myxoid cells. The connective tissue in guanaco digital cushions represents myxoid tissue. PMID:25403495

  4. Pengaruh Lama Ekstraksi Terhadap Mutu Pektin Dari Kulit Durian (Durio zibethinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Lenty Artha

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed to know the effect of extraction time on the quality of durian peel pectin and to know how to extract pectin and to add economic value of durian peel waste. This research was conducted using a completely randomized design with one factor, namely the extraction time, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours and 5 hours. The parameters analyzed were yield, moisture content, ash content, equivalent weigh, methoxyl content, galacturonic level, and colour. Extraction time had ...

  5. Pengaruh Lama Pengeringan dan Penyimpanan Terhadap Viabilitas dan Pertumbuhan Benih Asam Gelugur (Garcinia atroviridis Grifft.)

    OpenAIRE

    Batubara, Iqbal Rizlansyah

    2011-01-01

    Effect of combination of drying time and storage time on the viability of the seeds of asan gelugur has not been widely researched in this area. For that a study has been conducted in the Greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture USU ( + 25 m asl) March – Sept 2010 using a completely randomized design factorial two factors are drying time with three levels (K0 = 0 day, K1 = 1 day and K2 = 2), periode of storage with three levels (S0 = 0 week, S1 = 1 weeks, ...

  6. Pengaruh Lama Pengeringan Dan Penyimpanan Terhadap Viabilitas Benih Bengkuang (Pachyrhizus erosus L.Urban)

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ika Nirma

    2010-01-01

    IKA NIRMA SARI. Effect of Drying and Storage on Seed viability Of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L.Urban) supervised by T. CHAIRUN NISA and HAPSOH. Effect of combination of drying time and storage time on the viability of the seeds of yam bean has not been widely researched in this area. For that a study has been conducted in the Laboratory of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture USU ( + 25 m asl) March – May 2010 using a completely randomized design factorial two factors are drying time with fou...

  7. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ragi Dan Lama Fermentasi Terhadap Mutu Minuman Beralkohol Dari Nenas (Ananas sativus)

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Andri S.

    2010-01-01

    The research was performed to find the effect of yeast percentage and fermentation time on the quality of alcoholic drink from pineaple. The research have been performed using factorial completely randomized design with two factors i.e percentage of yeast (K) : (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) and fermentation time (L) : (4 , 8 , and 12 days). Parameters analysed were total soluble solid, total acid, pH, total alcohol, organoleptic values of wine from pineaple. The results showed that both yeast percen...

  8. Kemampuan Ekstrak Daun Zodia (Evodia suaveolens) Sebagai Repellent Nyamuk Aedes aegypti Berdasarkan Lama Penggunaannya

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Melati Agnes Anggreini

    2011-01-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) disease is a contagious disease that caused by dengue virus and infected by Ae. aegypti. Since reported in 1968, this disease has become endemic and reported every year in Indonesia. One of the way to avoid it by using anti mosquitoes lotion which generally made by synthetic chemistry. Therefore, it necessary to find natural substance to avoid mosquitoes, one of the natural substances that can use is from zodia leaves (Evodia suaveolens) as repellent. The a...

  9. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentration and then stored at temperature of 10 0C. The results show that the fruitfly of oriental fruitfly (Bactrocera dorsalis was completely killed by treating in deep water testing at temperature of 46 0C for 10 minutes or at 43 0C for 30 minutes. The VHT of papaya at fruit core temperature of 45.5-46.0 0C for 15-30 minutes following waxing using beeswax of 6% in concentration was found to be effective to control pest and diseases until 21 days of storage without any visible signs of heat injury and without adversely affecting the quality of the fruit.

  10. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    Rokhani Hasbullah; Elpodesy Marlisa; Edy Hartulistiyoso; Dadang

    2008-01-01

    Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT) method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentrat...

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Immediate and Sustained Release Cephalexin Administered by Different Routes to Llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreil, Verónica; Ambros, Luis; Prados, Ana Paula; Tarragona, Lisa; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Bramuglia, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pharmacokinetics of two different cephalexin formulations administered to llamas by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) routes, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cephalexin against some Escherichia coli and staphylococci isolated from llamas, and we apply the PK/PD modelling approach, so that effective dosage recommendations for this species could be made. Six llamas received immediate (10 mg/kg, IV, IM, and SC) and sustained (8 mg/kg IM, SC) release cephalexin. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental approach. Immediate release SC administration produced a significantly longer elimination half-life as compared with the IV and IM administration (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 h, resp.) and higher mean absorption time as compared with the IM administration (1.7 ± 0.5 versus 0.6 ± 0.4 h). Absolute bioavailability was in the range of 72–89% for both formulations and routes of administration. Cephalexin MIC90 values against staphylococci and E. coli were 1.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Our results show that the immediate release formulation (10 mg/kg) would be effective for treating staphylococcal infections administered every 8 h (IM) or 12 h (SC), whereas the sustained release formulation (8 mg/kg) would require the IM or SC administration every 12 or 24 h, respectively. PMID:27051418

  12. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  13. Pengaruh Letak Daun dan Lama Fermentasi terhadap Mutu Teh Daun Gaharu

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmadini, Fathia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of leaf position and fermentation time on the quality of agarwood tea leaf and to study the potential of agarwood leaf as brewed tea. The research was using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e leaf position (L): (shoot leaf, the second leaf, and the third leaf) and fermentation time (T) : (70 minutes, 80 minutes, 90 minutes and 100 minutes). Parameters analyzed were yield, moisture content, ash content, tannin content, antioxidant...

  14. Lens-Aided Multi-Angle Spectroscopy (LAMAS) Reveals Small-Scale Outflow Structure in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Green, P J

    2006-01-01

    Spectral differences between lensed quasar image components are common. Since lensing is intrinsically achromatic, these differences are typically explained as the effect of either microlensing, or as light path time delays sampling intrinsic quasar spectral variability. Here we advance a novel third hypothesis: some spectral differences are due to small line-of-sight differences through quasar disk wind outflows. In particular, we propose that variable spectral differences seen only in component A of the widest separation lens SDSSJ1004+4112 are due to differential absorption along the sightlines. The absorber properties required by this hypothesis are akin to known broad absorption line (BAL) outflows but must have a broader, smoother velocity profile. We interpret the observed CIV emission line variability as further evidence for spatial fine structure transverse to the line of sight. Since outflows are likely to be rotating, such absorber fine structure can consistently explain some of the UV and X-ray va...

  15. Pertumbuhan Bud Chips Tebu (Saccharum Officinarum L.) Pada Berbagai Lama Penyimpanan Dan Konsentrasi Natrium Nitrofenol

    OpenAIRE

    Aldhita R, Dwi

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain the viability of seeds during bud chips are not yet ready to be planted, or in the delivery process,it is necessary to add natrium nitrophenol concentration before the storage period is expected to increase the percentage of germination and growth of sugarcane. Research conducted in the land area of PTPN II TanjungJati, District of Binjai Barat, Binjai on June to August 2014, using a randomized factorial design with two factors, a variety of storage time (24, 48, 72 h...

  16. Korelasi Antara Lama Kebuntingan, Bobot Lahir dan Jenis Kelamin Pedet Hasil Inseminasi Buatan pada Sapi Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Prasojo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research was to study the correlation between the gestation period with sex and birthweight of new born calves as the result of artificial insemination (AI in bali cattle. Data were collecteddirectly from AI technicians in some districts in the province of bali from 1997 to 2003. A total, of 10759inseminated cows and 799 of which were with completed data of, date of birth, birth weight and sex ofcalves. The data were collected from 3 districts, involving Gianyar (205 samples, Badung (221 samplesand Bangli (373 samples. Result showed that the gestation period of bali cows were 284.4±5.7 days andbirth weight of 18.4±1.6 kg. Sex ratios (male : female of bali calves resulted from AI in 1997 to 2003 were1.2:1. There were positive correlation between gestation period and birth weight (P>0.01 as well asbetween gestation period and sex of calves with a high correlation coefficient (0.075 which proved thatmale calves had longer gestation period than females.

  17. Pengolahan Semula Teks Lama: Perbandingan Strategi Penulis Wanita Melayu Dan Wanita Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzy Suliza Hashim

    2007-01-01

    As a discipline, comparative literature invites comparative studies based on the aspects of influence, theme, interdiscipline, and translation which highlight the points of convergence and divergence of one national literature with another. In this article, I appropriate the approach used by Susan Bassnett (1993) in her analysis of gender in English literature. By comparing Malay women writers, Zaihasra and Siti Zainon Ismail, with Western women writers, Angela Carter and Anne Sexton, all of ...

  18. Detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas (Lama glama by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Cerón Cucchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high fibrolytic activity and large biomass of strictly-anaerobic bacteria that inhabit the rumen makes them primarily responsible for the degradation of the forage consumed by ruminants. Llamas feed mainly on low quality fibrous roughages that are digested by an active and diverse microflora. The products of this fermentation are volatile fatty acids and microbial biomass, which will be used by the animals. The aim of this study was to detect the three major fiber-digesting anaerobic bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas by PCR. In this study, we detected Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes in the forestomach contents of eight native llamas from Argentina.

  19. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Emulsi Lilin Dan Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Mutu Buah Jeruk Manis

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Feronica Paulina M.; Meliala, Imannuel S.

    2010-01-01

    The researches to know effects of the concentration of waxy emulsion and the storage time to concentration of vitamin C and organoleptic value (color, odor and flavor) of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, Linn.) have been conducted. This research applied completely randomized design method with two factors. The first factor was the concentration of waxy emulsion (K1=0%, K2=3%, K3= 6%, K4=9%) and the second factor was the storage time (L1=0 day, L2=5 days, L3=10 days, L4=15 days, L5=20 days). ...

  20. Pengaruh Komposisi Dan Lama Perendaman Serat Palem Saray Terhadap Sifat Komposit Dengan Matriks Poliester

    OpenAIRE

    Tamba, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Research of the effect of composition and soaking time of fishtail palm on properties of composite with polyester resin had been done. The research aims to determine the effect of variations in the composition of fishtail palm and duration of immersion of the fiber with 5% NaOH to the characterization of the composite. Comparison of the composition of the fishtail palm used in the manufacture of this composite is 0%; 1%; and 2%. And variations of the duration of immersion of th...

  1. PENERAPAN REGRESI COX PROPORTIONAL HAZARD UNTUK MENDUGA FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMENGARUHI LAMA MENCARI KERJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE ARI SUDANA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is a statistical method that accommodates the collection of censored data. One of popular method in survival analysis is the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression. The Cox Proportional Hazard Regression can be used to see old looking for work where data may contain censored data. This article aims investigate the characteristics of job seekers and the variables that affect old looking for work. To establish the best model using Stepwise Selection method. Prior to that the assumption of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression is tested using log minus log curve. The results obtained from Cox Proportional Hazards Regression model is as follows  

  2. Murine muscular dystrophy caused by a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 (Lama2) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Wu, X R; Wewer, U M;

    1994-01-01

    The classic murine muscular dystrophy strain, dy, was first described almost 40 years ago. We have identified the molecular basis of an allele of dy, called dy2J, by detecting a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 chain gene--the first identified mutation in laminin-2. The G to A mutation in a splice...

  3. Evaluation of Lama glama semen viscosity with a cone-plate rotational viscometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, C; Martínez Sarrasague, M; Giuliano, S; Rubin de Celis, E; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M

    2012-05-01

    Llama semen is highly viscous. This characteristic is usually evaluated subjectively by measuring the thread formed when carefully pippeting a sample of semen. The aims of this study were (i) to objectively determine and analyse llama semen viscosity, (ii) to compare semen viscosity between ejaculates of the same male as well as between different males, (iii) to study the correlation between viscosity and other semen characteristics and (iv) to evaluate the effect of collagenase on semen viscosity. Semen viscosity was evaluated using a cone-plate Brookfield rotational viscometer. A non Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour was observed in the 45 semen samples evaluated. Rheological parameters were determined obtaining the following results (mean ± SD): apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1): 46.71 ± 26.8 cpoise and at 115 s(-1): 12.61 ± 4.1 cpoise; structural viscosity (K) (dyne s cm(-2)): 2.18 ± 1.4 and coefficient of consistency (n): 0.45 ± 0.1. Statistical differences were found between different ejaculates of the same male for structural viscosity and apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1) (P viscosity at 115 s(-1) were found between samples incubated with and without collagenase (P < 0.05). PMID:21729143

  4. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan Urea Di Bulk Storage Terhadap Kadar Ammoniak Bebas Pada PT. Pupuk Iskandar Muda

    OpenAIRE

    Agustia, Delvi

    2011-01-01

    Free ammonia is the ammonia that is not perfect react with carbon dioxide during the process of manufacture of urea in the synthesis unit. Free ammonia is not bonded directly to urea but attached to the grain. Free ammonia would be toxic to plants at certain concentrations. Therefore the content of free ammonia in the urea granules have a reference quality Indonesian National Standard (SNI-2801-1992) and Organitation International Standards (ISO), ie, 150 ppm. From the results of my research ...

  5. Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapi, W V; Eden, K B; Edwards, J F; Snowden, K F

    2015-05-01

    The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects several mammalian species in the southeastern United States, including horses, but infections have not been reported in camelids. This is a report of H. americana infection in a 6-year-old llama with extensive cardiac pathology and congestive heart failure. Parasite-induced granulomas were widely disseminated and included overwhelming involvement of the lungs and liver. Microscopic lesions in the heart included myofiber degeneration and necrosis, with extensive replacement fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence of H. americana in the lungs. PMID:24964922

  6. Pengaruh Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa dengan Sirup Glukosa dan Lama Pemasakan Terhadap Mutu Kembang Gula Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Syaiful Bakhri

    2010-01-01

    This research aim to know the influence of ratio sucrose concentration with glucose syrup and time of cooking for coconut sugar cane quality produced. This research used random comprehensive of program (RAL) with two factors are sucrose concentration ratio with glucose syrup (G): 70%:30%, 80%:20%, 90%:10%, and 100%:0% and time 0f cooking (L): 8 minute, 10 minute, 12 minute, and 14 minute. The parameter who analysed are water content, reduction sugar, the value of colour organoleptic, taste...

  7. Pengaruh Kecepatan dan Lama Sentrifugasi Terhadap Rendemen dan Beberapa Parameter Kualitas Minyak Kelapa Murni.

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Inggrid

    2012-01-01

    Production virgin coconut oil can be produced in various ways, among others with low temperature, the way of fishing and centrifugation means. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variations in the centrifugation speed and duration of centrifugation on the quality of virgin coconut oil. Old brown coconuts obtained directly from the coconut trees from Desa Wonosari Pasar I Dusun XVI Tanjung Morawa. Coconut meat grated, pressed, drawn coconut milk and then ...

  8. Uso de lamas e cinzas da indústria da celulose em clínquer

    OpenAIRE

    Buruberri, Leire Hernando

    2014-01-01

    O destino final dos resíduos gerados no fabrico da pasta de papel em Portugal é uma das preocupações crescentes deste setor, já que as normativas europeias são cada vez mais restritas no que respeita à sua deposição em aterro. Impulsionados por este facto o grupo Portucel/Soporcel (gPS) procura soluções mais sustentáveis, como a valorização dos resíduos gerados no seu processo de fabrico em outros setores industriais. O fabrico da pasta de papel pelo método Kraft utilizado pelo gPS, origin...

  9. PEMBERIAN KOLKHISIN DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN BERBEDA PADA INDUKSI POLIPLOIDI TANAMAN PACAR AIR (IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sastriyani Wiendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to induce polyploidy on Impatiens balsamina L. Seedlings of I. balsamina was immersed in 0,01% colchicines solution for 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Chromosome of I. balsamina was visualized using squash method stained with aceto-orcein. Morphological observations were conducted on plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and width, number of branches flowering time and size of flower. The result revealed that 0,01% solution of colchicine was able to induce polyploidy on I. balsamina. Obsevation on morphological characteristic showed that colchicine treatment increased plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and number of branches. Colchicine treatment induced earlier flowering time, but flower size was unaffected. Twelve chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12 were observed in the diploid seedlings while 25 chromosomes were observed in the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 24 seedlings.

  10. Paul G. Hackett, Theos Bernard, The White Lama. Tibet, Yoga and American Religious Life

    OpenAIRE

    Padoux, André

    2015-01-01

    Theos Bernard (1908-1947) fut un des pionniers de la présence puis de la diffusion du tantrisme aux États-Unis – mais d’un tantrisme à l’américaine qui est une trahison complète de la réalité tantrique indienne. Hugh Urban à qui l’on doit l’étude la meilleure et la plus pénétrante sur les formes modernes et contemporaines du tantrisme, Tantra, Sex, Secrecy, Politics and Power in the Study of Religion (Berkeley, 2005), n’intitule pas pour rien le chapitre qu’il y consacre au tantrisme américai...

  11. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Rendemen Dan Kualitas Minyak Atsiri Kulit Jeruk Manis (Citrus sinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Natalia Br

    2011-01-01

    Determination the influence of storage time on Sweet orange peel essential oil quality is conceived. The variation of storage time was 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. Essential oil obtained by distillation for 6 hours, oil and water separated by the addition of anhydrous Na2SO4 then weighed and calculated rendement. Oil from peel stored at 1, 2 and 3 days blended into one (short storage) as well as in the oil stored at 4, 5 and 6 days (long storage). Then determined the quality of essential oils ...

  12. Dual therapy strategies for COPD: the scientific rationale for LAMA + LABA

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen J; Miles MC; Donohue JF; Ohar JA

    2016-01-01

    Joshua S Cohen,1 Matthew C Miles,2 James F Donohue,3 Jill A Ohar2 1United Lung and Sleep Clinic, Saint Paul, MN, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle with inhaled bronchodilators is the cornerstone of...

  13. Neivelt : Soome lama oli tunduvalt hullem / Indrek Neivelt ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neivelt, Indrek, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Hansapanga endise juhiga, kes vastab küsimustele Eesti majanduse hetkeseisust, pannes praegusele olukorrale hindeks kolm pluss. Vt. samas: Mis hinde panete tänasele majandusseisule ja miks? Vastavad: Juhan Parts, Andres Lipstok, Aivar Sõerd, Andrus Säälik, Urmas, Klaas ja Ester Tuiksoo

  14. Pengaruh Lama Penuyimpanan Terhadap Kadar Vitamin C Dari Buah Sirsak (Annona Murricata L)

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Ira Veronika

    2013-01-01

    The influence of storage duration dutch contain of vitamin C of soursop (Annona Murricata L) using titration method 2,6 Diklorofenol Indofenol with variation time storage , which is 0; 3; 6; 9; 12 hours has been studied. The result of research show that if storage become longer than the contain of vitamin C is more descend.

  15. Uji Lama Pengeringan dan Tebal Tumpukan Pada Pengeringan Kentang Dengan Alat Pengering Surya Tipe Rak

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, Hendra Samuel

    2015-01-01

    HENDRA SAMUEL MARPAUNG: The Effect of Drying Time and Heap Thickness on Drying of Sweet Potatoes Using Tray Type Solar Dryer, supervised by AINUN ROHANAH and RISWANTI SIGALINGGING. Drying of sweet potatoes in tray tipe solar dryer to make sweet potato flour can be a solution of food problem in Indonesia as the productivity of sweet potatoes is very high and can be made into various of type carbohydrate source of food to substitute rice and grist, and also can reduce fuel consumption. The r...

  16. 76 FR 20011 - Mark De La Lama, P.A.; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... wrote, it probably was over a month or two ago and was some cough syrup with codeine as I wrote very..., 74 FR 36751, 36756-57 (2009) (rejecting consideration of socioeconomic status of practitioner's... registration should be denied. Robert A. Leslie, 68 FR 15227, 15230 (2003). Moreover, I am ``not required...

  17. Hubungan Lama Obstruksi Usus, Warna dan Kejernihan Cairan Peritoneum dengan Kontaminasi Bakteri pada Hernia Inkarserata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unedo M. H. Sidabutar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Incarcerated hernia is an acute abdominal case caused by bowel obstruction due to incarceration of hernia ring. An experimental study on animals proved that there was mucosal barrier damage after 4 hours of total bowel obstruction and total damage after 12 hours causing bacterial translocation. In order to determine contamination due to bacterial translocation in the hernia sac, culture was taken from the peritoneal fluid. A cross-sectional study in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung was done during October 2009 to July 2010 to analyze the relationship between duration of obstruction, color and clarity of peritoneal fluid, and bacterial culture. There were 40 patients, 36 males and 4 females involved in this study. Mean incarceration time was 7 hours. There were 11 positive culture cases, mostly Staphylococcus species (27%. Statistical analysis with chi-square and multiple logistic regression test showed that there was correlation between duration of obstruction and color and clarity of peritoneal fluid with bacterial contamination (p=0.015, p=0.001 with prevalence ratio of >7 hours length obstruction was 3.63, but not with clarity (p=0.078. In this study we could not obtain exact cut-off time of bowel obstruction’s period with bacterial translocation because it did not follow the pathologic event. In conclusions, there is correlation between duration of obstruction, color and clarity of peritoneal fluid with bacterial contamination, but bacterial translocation can not be proven because only commensal bacteria of the skin was obtained from the culture.

  18. Pengaruh Edible Coating dari Pati Jagung dan Lama Pencelupan terhadap Mutu Buah Nenas Terolah Minimal

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Nia Nazrah

    2016-01-01

    NIA NAZRAH HASIBUAN : The Effect of Corn Starch Edible Coating and Immersion Time on Quality of Minimally Processed Pineapple, supervised by ISMED SUHAIDI and RIDWANSYAH. The objective of this research was to find out the effect of corn starch edible coating and immersion time on quality of minimally processed pineapple. Method used in this research was completely randomized design (CRD) with 2 factors, i.e; the concentration of corn starch (P) : (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and immersion time (L) : ...

  19. Analisis Kadar Bioetanol Dari Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisis Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera) Dengan Variasi Lama Fermentasi

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Ahmad Ridhoan

    2016-01-01

    Have been done by research concerning Analysis Bioethanol content of Hidrolylisis Cellulose result fiber coconut with time Fermentation Variation. coconut fiber equal to 14,23 of 75 gram coconut fiber and with same actions produced 8,24 gram celullusa of 35 gram Coconut Fiber %. Isolated Celluose of fiber coconut which then is hydrolysis with HCl 1% glucose which was later then analysed with method Of Luff Schroll and discount sugar rate which was equal to 8,38 % with 3 days time Fermentation...

  20. Profil Mikrobiologis Pollard yang Difermentasi dengan Ekstrak Limbah Pasar Sayur pada Lama Peram yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Setya Utama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile microbiological of pollard fermented with extract of waste vegetable market in different long ripened  ABSTRACT. The purpose of fermentation is to produce a product (material feed that have nutritional content, texture and better biological availability, while it also can reduce the anti-nutritional. Microorganisms are often used as probiotics in feed is kind of Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microorganisms are able to produce secondary metabolites such as β -glucan, mannan oligosaccharides and anti-cancer. Very familier as probiotic Lactobacillus among humans or livestock , while saccharomyces cerevisiae have specific characteristics in animal feed because of its ability to produce glutamic acid which can increase feed palatability. Grant Saccharomyces cerevisie can enhance digest protein and fiber, such as cellulose and hemicellulose , with Sacaromyces cerevisiea supplementation can increase the rate of short-chain fatty acids in cecum and suppresses the growth of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae species. Observing the above, needed an activity to find additional engineering efforts antibiotics as a source of natural probiotic , prebiotic and synbiotic on the particular poultry and livestock in general, to take advantage of the waste as a probiotic supplement that naturally produced feed additives to support healthy organic livestock production and economically.

  1. Profil Mikrobiologis Pollard yang Difermentasi dengan Ekstrak Limbah Pasar Sayur pada Lama Peram yang Berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    Cahya Setya Utama; Bambang Sulistiyanto; Bhakti Etza Setiani

    2013-01-01

    Profile microbiological of pollard fermented with extract of waste vegetable market in different long ripened  ABSTRACT. The purpose of fermentation is to produce a product (material feed) that have nutritional content, texture and better biological availability, while it also can reduce the anti-nutritional. Microorganisms are often used as probiotics in feed is kind of Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microorganisms are able to produce secondary metabolites such as β -gluc...

  2. Pengaruh Perbandingan Sari Mengkudu dengan Sari Nenas dan Lama Pemanasan terhadap Mutu Permen Mengkudu Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Melina Farida

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted to determine the effect of comparison of noni with pineapple juices and time of heating on the quality of mix noni candy. This research was performed in January 2013 – April 2013 at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e. : the comparison of noni with pineapple juices (S) (70% : 30%; 60% : 40%; 50% : 50%; 60% : 40%) and time of heating (L) (20 minutes, 2...

  3. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Xanthan Gum Dan Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Mutu Sirup Asam Jawa (Tamarindus indica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Palti

    2012-01-01

    The vary of concentration of xanthan gum and the prolonged storage time had been applied to the asam jawa syrup. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the xanthan gum concentration and storage time on the quality of asam jawa syrup. The research had been performed using Factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors, i.e. Xanthan Gum Concentration (K) : 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% and Storage Time (W) : 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Parameters analysed were...

  4. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Semevolos, Stacy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in suc...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ma_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Lama+glama&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  6. Fistulación y canulación permanente del compartimento 1 (Rumen en Llamas (Lama glama Permanent fistulation and cannulation of compartment 1 (Rumen of the Llama (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar estudios de evaluación nutricional de recursos alimentarios potencialmente utilizables por la Llama y relacionarlos con características ruminales de estos animales, hemos practicado fistulaciones permanentes del compartimento 1 (rumen. Cuatro llamas hembras de un peso promedio de 65 kg, fueron fistuladas usando la técnica quirúrgica descrita por Cabrera y col. (1980, 1997. Los animales se mantuvieron sin alimento por 72 h, se atropinizaron, y anestesiaron con Ketamina (Ketostop® i.m. 10 mg/k de peso y se infiltraron localmente con lidocaína al 2%. Se removió un trozo circular de piel de diez cm de diámetro de la fosa lumbar izquierda y los planos musculares subyacentes se separaron usando disección obtusa. El peritoneo fue abierto y la pared ruminal fijada al borde de la piel usando puntos en "U", cuidando de mantener siempre el peritoneo entre las dos capas. Finalmente, el circulo de pared ruminal comprendido entre las suturas, fue removido y la zona fue tratada con Qemispray®. La fístula, fue inmediatamente cerrada con una cánula de goma tipo 10 C (Bar Diamond,Inc., Parma, Idaho, U.S.A. Durante cinco días los animales fueron tratados con antibióticos (I.M. y las suturas fueron removidas al séptimo día. Los animales soportaron muy bien el procedimiento quirúrgico y se adaptaron adecuadamente a la cánula. Actualmente los animales han completado 24 meses de operados sin que hubieran presentado ningún problema derivado de ello, excepto por pequeñas fugas de contenido ruminal en algunas de las cánulas, de escasa trascendenciaTo carry out nutritional evaluation of potentially useful feedstuffs and related ruminal metabolic studies in Llama, we have performed permanent fistulations of compartment 1 (rumen in this specie. Four adult female llamas with a mean weight of 100 kg were fistulated using the surgical technique described by Cabrera et al. (1980, 1997. They were kept without food for 72 hr., atropinized and anaesthetized with Ketamine (Ketostop® i.m. 10 mg/k of body weight. Lidocaine (2% was used for local blockage. A piece of skin 10 cm in diameter of the left upper lumbar fossa was removed and the subjacent muscular layers were separated by blunt dissection. The peritoneum was opened and the ruminal wall was sutured to the edge of the skin using "U" stitches, maintaining the peritoneum between the two layers. Finally, the part of ruminal wall limited by de suture was cut away and all the surgical zone area was disinfected with Quemispray®. The resulting opening was closed immediately with a natural rubber cannula (Bar Diamond, Inc., Parma, Idaho, U.S.A.. Antibiotics (i.m. were used for five days and sutures were removed at the 7th day after surgery. All of the animals, except one, withstood quite well the surgical procedure and adapted well to the cannula. At present, the animals have completed 24 months after surgery without mayor problems. Some of the cannulas showed a minor leak, which is frequent in these procedures

  7. Fistulación y canulación permanente del compartimento 1 (Rumen) en Llamas (Lama glama) Permanent fistulation and cannulation of compartment 1 (Rumen) of the Llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, R.; LÓPEZ, A; Morales, S.; Salazar, H.; Fuentes, A.M. (Ángela M.)

    2000-01-01

    Para realizar estudios de evaluación nutricional de recursos alimentarios potencialmente utilizables por la Llama y relacionarlos con características ruminales de estos animales, hemos practicado fistulaciones permanentes del compartimento 1 (rumen). Cuatro llamas hembras de un peso promedio de 65 kg, fueron fistuladas usando la técnica quirúrgica descrita por Cabrera y col. (1980, 1997). Los animales se mantuvieron sin alimento por 72 h, se atropinizaron, y anestesiaron con Ketamina (Ketosto...

  8. Noninvasive monitoring of PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation and minimal access surgery in adults: End-tidal versus transcutaneous techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Paul; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) may be inaccurate during one-lung ventilation (OLV). This study was performed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive monitoring of PCO2 using transcutaneous CO2 (TC-CO2) with ET-CO2 in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) during OLV. Materials and Methods: In adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgical procedures, PCO2 was simultaneously measured with TC-CO2 and ET-CO2 devices and compa...

  9. Apuntes para una valoración del retrato fotográfico del arquitecto: Paco Gómez y Juan Daniel Fullaondo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Moreno, Lucía Carmen; Bergera Serrano, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    La epistemología contemporánea de la fotografía aborda aspectos clave para valorar y entender el alcance del retrato, género fotográfico que ha sustituido al retrato pictórico como instrumento visual para representar la identidad física y caracterológica de los individuos. El arquitecto es retratado en sociedad, para poder asociar su imagen personal a su obra o viceversa. Durante los años sesenta, el protagonismo que la revista Nueva Forma otorga al retrato de los arquitectos en sus portad...

  10. Kohn, Michael, Lama of the Gobi. The Life and Time of Danzan Rabjaa, Mongolia’s Greatest Mystical Poet

    OpenAIRE

    Charleux, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Michael Kohn, journaliste américain, auteur du Lonely Planet sur la Mongolie et éditeur au Mongol Messenger, nous livre ici un ouvrage portant sur le célèbre Danzan Rabjaa (cyr. Danzan Ravžaa, 1803/4-1856), personnage haut en couleur de l’histoire religieuse, littéraire et artistique de la Mongolie. Connu comme étant le poète mongol le plus fécond du xixe siècle, c’était également une importante personnalité religieuse, qui passa la plus grande partie de sa vie à enseigner et à fonder des mon...

  11. Pengaruh Lama Hidrolisis Dan Konsentrasi Larutan Pati Pada Pembuatan Sirup Glukosa Dari Biji Jagung Muda Secara Hidrolisis Asam.

    OpenAIRE

    Sihaloho, Rona Monika

    2011-01-01

    This research is performed to determine the influence of hydrolysis time and concentration of young corn starch in the manufacture of glucose syrup from corn kernels. This research using completely randomized design method, 4 x 4 factorial consisting of 2 factors and 2 replications. Factor I long hydrolysis (H) consists of 4 levels namely: H1 (1 hour), H2 (1.5 hours), H3 (2 hour), H4 (2,5 hour). Factor II concentration of young corn starch consists of 4 levels are: K1 (5%), K2 ...

  12. Hubungan Usia Menarche, Lama Menstruasi, dan Riwayat Keluarga dengan Kejadian Dismenore pada Siswi SMK Negeri 8 Medan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Fadhilah Ulima

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a pain felt during menstruation, usually with cramp and concentrated in the lower abdomen. It was reported as the most common gynecological disorder found in woman of productive age, especially in adolescent. In Indonesia, dysmenorrhea prevalence insidence reach 65%, therefore there is a need to look at the factors associated with the incidence of dysmenorrhoea. This study aims to determine the Relationship between Menarche Age, Menstrual Period, and Family History with Dys...

  13. Hubungan Lama Menstruasi dengan Tingkat Keparahan Dismenore Primer pada Mahasiswi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara Angkatan 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Hizkia Rheinhard

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of menstrual disorders that often occur in women. The primary dysmenorrhead is the pain sensation of lower abdomen during menstruation. Primary dysmenorrhea is influenced by increase in the production of prostaglandins, in addition leukotrienes, and vasopressin is known to also play a role in the primary dysmenorrhea. How much release of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and vasopressin also affects the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dys...

  14. PENGARUH NAUNGAN DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN STEK PADA PERTUMBUHAN JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L. DAN JARAK MERAH (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Husein Wawo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two species of Jatropha in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, i.e. physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. and red jatropha or cotton leaved physic nut (1. gossypilfolia L. Both species possess potency as traditional medicine. Propagating jatropha by seeds could not be conducted throughout the year because the seeds were produced on certain time only. On dry season in 2005, a research had conducted in Teun Village, Belu Regency, NTT for studying the effect of shading and cutting storage on the growth of the two jatropha species. This research had 12 treatments with two replications and employed Factorial Experimental Design. The data were processed by SAS (Statistic Analysis System program. The result of this research showed that the growth of physic nut better than that of red jatropha. Light shading stimulated the growth of buds, leaves and roots of cutting of jatropha on 60 days after planting. No significant was found in the growth of buds, leaves and roots of cutting of jatropha that were directly planted and stored for four days. Cutting of both species that stored for four days and placed under light shading (with 70% of light intensity produced higher bud growth and root length than those placed under dense shading (with 30% of light intensity.

  15. Pengaruh Dosis, Lama Pengendapan Dan Ukuran Partikel Koagulan Serbuk Biji Kelor Sebagai Alternatif Pengolahan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Rudi Anas

    2015-01-01

    Soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of many complex organic compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats and oils. Based on the results of Balai Perindustrian Medan research on soyabean industrial wastewater characteristics in Medan, it found that soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of BOD (4583 mg/l), COD (7050 mg/l), TSS (4743 mg/l ) and oil or fat (26 mg/l ) at pH 6.1. Therefore wastewater treatment is needed to reduce the contaminants contained in ...

  16. Hubungan Lama Rawatan Dengan Status Gizi Pada Balita Penderita Diare Di RSIA Badrul Aini Medan Tahun 2009-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabalok, Hotmauli

    2012-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is one of major health problems of Indonesian society that is more common in toddlers. In the city of Medan, proportion of infants with diarrhea outpatient by 5,8% (45.141) of the 780.706 under-five patients with other diseases. The proportion of infants with diarrhea in the hospital the mother and child Badrul Aini Medan in 2008 was 19,8% (90 people), and increased 3,3% from a year earlier. Toddler diarrhea patients experiencing changes in nutritional status is good with an...

  17. Pengaruh Lama Reaksi Terhadap Perubahan Karakteristik Biodiesel Turunan Minyak Kemiri Dengan Menggunakan Katalis CaO Dan Kosolvent Eter

    OpenAIRE

    Jannu, Henri

    2010-01-01

    It has been done the manufacturing of biodiesel candlenut oil through transesterification process. This process was conducted in the autoclave with candlenut oil mixture : methanol 1:12 mol. CaO catalyst was 8% of oil weight and it used cosolvent ether 200 ml. This reaction lasted at the temperature 650°C with variation of time for 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. The transesterifiction produced two levels, namely top level containing metal ester (FAME) and down level ...

  18. Perspektif Budaya Jawa dalam Melakukan Perawatan Ibu Nifas di Desa Rawang Lama Kecamatan Rawang Panca Arga Kabupaten Asahan Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Jahriani, Nani

    2015-01-01

    The period of confinement (puerperium) is the period when the placenta begins to come out and ends when the womb restores. Taking care of confinement mothers in the Javanese culture from generation to generation has positive and negative effects on the health of mothers and their children. Therefore, this research was very important to be known by health care providers to make them easier in providing health care. The research used qualitative phenomenological method which was aimed to ide...

  19. Hubungan antara Lama Puasa Preanestesi dan Kadar Gula Darah Saat Induksi pada Pasien Pediatrik yang Menjalani Operasi Elektif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsy Felisita Dausawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative fasting is to reduce the volume and acidity of gastric and further reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. Preoperative fasting period often longer than the recommended time for various reasons in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preanesthetic fasting duration and blood sugar level induction in pediatric patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. An analytical observational cross-sectional study was conducted on pediatric patients during period of January–Februari 2015 at the Central Surgical Installation of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The minimum, maximum, and mean (SD fasting from food duration were 4, 15, and 8.7500 (3.48597 hours. The minimum, maximum, and mean (SD fasting from drinks durations were 2, 15 and 12.56 (3.26 hours. The incidence of hypoglycemia was not found in this study. Based on the result of Spearman correlation test showed a statistically significant relationship between preanesthetic fasting duration and with blood glucose level during induction (p<0.05. In conclusion, preanesthetic fasting duration in pediatric patients who are undergoing an alective surgerybin this hospital is longer than the duration recommended by ASA. There is a correlation between the preanesthetic fasting period and blood sugar level during induction.

  20. Hubungan antara Lama Puasa Preanestesi dan Kadar Gula Darah Saat Induksi pada Pasien Pediatrik yang Menjalani Operasi Elektif

    OpenAIRE

    Arsy Felisita Dausawati; Doddy Tavianto; Rudi K. Kadarsah

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is to reduce the volume and acidity of gastric and further reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. Preoperative fasting period often longer than the recommended time for various reasons in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preanesthetic fasting duration and blood sugar level induction in pediatric patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. An analytical observational cross-sectional...

  1. First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals. PMID:24933287

  2. The Wild Irish Girl and the "dalai lama of little Thibet": the long encounter between Ireland and Asian Buddhism

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Laurence; Griffin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Ireland lies on the margins of the Buddhist world, far from its homeland in northern India and Nepal and the traditionally Buddhist parts of Asia. It is also in various ways "peripheral" to core capitalist societies, and Irish encounters with Buddhism are structured by both facts. Buddhism, for its part, has been a central feature of major Eurasian societies for over two millennia. During this period, Irish people and Asian Buddhists have repeatedly encountered or heard about each other, in w...

  3. Questioning western assessment of trauma among Tibetan torture survivors. A quantitative assessment study with comments from Buddhist Lamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian; Phuntsok, Kalsang

    2009-01-01

    to overcome their difficult situation. In addition we wanted to question the use of our western methods in an Asian context. 102 tortured refugees attended a formalised needs assessment including neuropsychological and psychological measures of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the Hopkins...

  4. Lama Pengerjaan, Volume Anestetik Lokal, dan Angka Keberhasilan Blokade Aksilar dengan Panduan Pencitraan Ultrasonografi pada Prosedur Arterio-Venous Shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Guntara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The key requirement for successful axillary block is to ensure optimal distribution of local anesthetic around the nerve structure. This goal is most effectively achieved under sonographic visualization. This study aimed to assess block procedure time, minimum volume of local anesthetic required, and success rate of axillary brachial plexus block under ultrasound guidance. This study was conducted between March and April 2014 in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung. This was an observational prospective study involving 40 patients (21‒60 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status II who underwent arterio-venous shunt under axillary brachial plexus block. Sensory and motor functions were assessed every five minutes for 15 minutes. A successful block was defined as complete sensoric and motoric loss in median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneus nerve distributions by 15 minutes. Results showed average block procedure time of 548 seconds (9.1 min, total volume of local anesthetic of 10 mL, and block success rate of 97.5%. This study concludes that ultrasound guidance can reduce block procedure time and required local anesthetic volume as well as improving the success rate of axillary brachial plexus block.

  5. Efeito hiperbárico na hidrólise enzimática das lamas primárias

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Sónia Ribeiro Veiga de

    2012-01-01

    During the active search for the profitability of solid waste from the production stages of pulp and paper, there is the prospect for energy recovery from the cellulosic fraction of primary sludge, in order to produce second generation biofuels. Indeed, this work intended to study the performance of the enzymatic hydrolysis in the primary sludge and, applying a high pressure pre-treatment, ascertain its real influence through the assessment of determined parameters. It was u...

  6. Konsorsiyumlarda elektronik kitap sağlama modelleri ve Türkiye örneği: eBrary

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Asuman; Akyuz, Asuman; Akbaytürk Çanak, Tuba; Akbayturk Canak, Tuba

    2009-01-01

    Bu bildiride e-kitap dünyasında uygulanan konsorsiyum modelleri ve bir uygulama örneği olarak 2003 yılından itibaren devam eden "ANKOS-Ebrary Konsorsiyumu" ve bu konsorsiyum sonucunda, e-kitap kullanım alışkanlıklarının Türkiye'deki durumu irdelenmektedir.

  7. Kualitas Fisik dan Mikroba Daging Sapi yang Ditambah Jahe (Zingiber officinale Roscoe pada Konsentrasi dan Lama Penyimpanan yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komariah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ginger addition in pasta form with different concentration and time of storages on meat tenderness, total microbe, and pH value. The semimembranosus of 2 to 3 years old Brahman Cross muscle from Bogor slaughter house was used for this research. This research was executed at Laboratory of Large Ruminant, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. This research used a completely randomized design with factorial pattern 3 x 4 with 3 replications. First factor was concentration of ginger addition consist of 0, 6, and 8% of meat weight and the second factor was time of storage, consisted 0, 3, 6, and 9 days. The result showed that there was no significant difference of ginger concentration on pH value, in contrast there was a significant difference (P < 0.01 of storage time and interaction between factors. The decreasing pH value influenced tenderness and total microbes. Time of storage and interaction between factors showed a significant effect (P < 0.05 on meat tenderness. Interaction occurred on 6 days of meat storage with shear value 4.43 kg/cm3. The highest tenderness value was obtained on 9 days of meat storage for ginger concentration of, 6% and 8%, i.e. 4.02 kg/cm3 and 3.76 kg/ cm3 respectively. Both factors and their interaction showed a significant difference (P < 0.01 on total microbes. The decrease of total microbes occurred on treated samples but in control total microbe increased until 9 days of meat storage. Six percent ginger addition decreased total microbes until 9 days of meat storage that was 1.5 x 106 cfu/g. In 9 days of meat storage the result showed that 6% and 8% ginger addition had total microbes 3.3 x 107 cfu/g and 2.1 x 107 cfu/g respectively. Antimicrobial activity increased as ginger concentration addition increased.

  8. Sequential extraction applied to Peruibe black mud, SP, Brazil; Extracao sequencial aplicada a lama negra de Peruibe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson Koyaishi

    2014-07-01

    The Peruibe Black mud is used in therapeutic treatments such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne and seborrhoea, as well as in the treatment of myalgia, arthritis, rheumatism and non-articular processes. Likewise other medicinal clays, it may not be free from possible adverse health effects due to possible hazardous minerals leading to respiratory system occurrences and other effects, caused by the presence of toxic elements. Once used for therapeutic purposes, any given material should be fully characterized and thus samples of Peruibe black mud were analyzed to determine physical and chemical properties: moisture content, organic matter and loss on ignition; pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity and swelling index. The elemental composition was determined by Neutron Activation Analysis, Atomic Absorption Graphite Furnace and X-ray fluorescence; the mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Another tool widely used to evaluate the behavior of trace elements, in various environmental matrices, is the sequential extraction. Thus, a sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate the mud in specific geochemical forms and verify how and how much of the elements may be contained in it. Considering the several sequential extraction procedures, BCR-701 method (Community Bureau of Reference) was used since it is considered the most reproducible among them. A simple extraction with an artificial sweat was, also, applied in order to verify which components are potentially available for absorption by the patient skin during the topical treatment. The results indicated that the mud is basically composed by a silty-clay material, rich in organic matter and with good cation exchange capacity. There were no significant variations in mineralogy and elemental composition of both, in natura and mature mud forms. The analysis by sequential extraction and by simple extraction indicated that the elements possibly available in larger quantities to be absorbed by the skin during treatment are Ca, Mg, Mn and Na. (author)

  9. Kualitas Fisik dan Mikroba Daging Sapi yang Ditambah Jahe (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) pada Konsentrasi dan Lama Penyimpanan yang Berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    Komariah; I.I. Arief; Y. Wiguna

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ginger addition in pasta form with different concentration and time of storages on meat tenderness, total microbe, and pH value. The semimembranosus of 2 to 3 years old Brahman Cross muscle from Bogor slaughter house was used for this research. This research was executed at Laboratory of Large Ruminant, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. This research used a completely randomized design with factorial pattern...

  10. Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Dan Konsentrasi Ragi Roti Terhadap Kadar Bioetanol Dari Fermentasi Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisis Selulosa Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Afriani, Mutia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of fermentation time and yeast concentration on levels of glucose fermentation bioethanol from cellulose hydrolysis results of oil palm empty fruit bunches. Samples in the form of cellulose derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches obtained from PPKS Medan. This glucose fermentation using various concentrations of yeast bread that is (2.0;, 2.5; 3.0; and 3.5%) and variations of fermentation time was 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. Cellulose is hydrolyzed with H2SO4 3%...

  11. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, elk, emus, equine, llamas, sheep... bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers, pullets; (9) Chickens, chicks;...

  12. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  13. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. PMID:25921796

  14. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  15. Expression of the Structure Gene (Pro)collagen of Alpaca Skin%羊驼皮肤结构基因(原)胶原的表达特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞文; 杜红阳; 刘一飞; 董常生

    2009-01-01

    为了揭示羊驼皮肤胶原蛋白(Collagen)在皮肤结构发生中的分子机制,本研究通过构建羊驼皮肤cD-NA文库并进行大规模测序分析,结果表明:在羊驼皮肤内发现只有纤维类胶原表达,即type Ⅰ,type Ⅲ,type Ⅴ collagen,其中type Ⅰ表达最高,type Ⅲ和type Ⅴ表达低;然而,在羊驼皮肤内未发现各类collagen相对应的原胶原(proeollagen),其成员procollagen type Ⅰ,typeⅢ,type Ⅳ,type Ⅵ,typeⅦ,typeⅤⅧ在表达,且type Ⅰ远远高于其他家族成员的表达,由此推断collagen和procollagen type Ⅰ在羊驼皮肤结构发生中起主要作用,羊驼皮肤内的蛋白水解机制可能使procollagen产生不同类型的collagen.

  16. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals. PMID:21141278

  17. Structural Analysis of Connecting Rod Using FEA / Sonlu Elemanlar Analizi ile Rod Bağlama Yapısal Analizi

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Puran; Pramanik, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    In this research connecting rod is one of the most important part in engine assembly which transfers energy from piston to crankshaft and convert the linear, reciprocating motion of a piston into the rotary motion of a crankshaft. The connecting rod primarily undergoes tensile and compressive loading under engine cyclic process. The forces acting on connecting rod are:- forces due to maximum combustion pressure and force due to inertia of connecting rod and reciprocating mass. From the viewpo...

  18. Treatment of water contaminated with gasoline using red mud as adsorbents; Tratamento de aguas contaminadas com gasolina utilizando lama vermelha como adsorvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Ernesto B. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Engenharia Ambiental e da Qualidade; Silva, Paula T.S. e [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Campos, Ronaldo J.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Cromatografia Instrumental; Schuler, Alexandre R.P.; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio A. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The underground or superficial water contamination for oil derivatives, mainly gasoline, has attracted the attention, of the civil society and scientific community in function of the great risks that represent for the environment and the health human. On the other hand, the metallurgical industry has special interest in researches that look for applications commonly for the residue of the improvement of known aluminum as 'red mud'. Such element represents an environmental liability, generating considerable costs for treatment and final disposition adapted. The red mud has characteristics adsorbents thankfully. This work seeks to evaluate the potential of application of the red mud as adsorbent for the separation process between water and oil. In this sense the percentile oil removal was evaluated in a polluted water with gasoline, as well as the effects of the following variables: time of contact (t), amount of used red mud (M), concentration of present oil in the water (Ci) and amount of used polluted water (V) through a planning complete factorial type 24. The results presented here are not conclusive. However one argues which the reasons so that the objectives completely were not reached and if it considers solutions. (author)

  19. Mevsimsel mizaç bozukluğunda tek uçlu ve iki uçlu farkı: Deksametazon baskılama testi

    OpenAIRE

    Kesebir, Sermin; Yacı, Hale; Gençer, Ali Görkem; Bilici, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is any difference in Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) between unipolar and bipolar cases with seasonal course. Methods: Cases with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (exhibiting seasonal course during SCID-I diagnostic interview, which is a longitudinal course determinant according to DSM-IV) that filled the informed consent form during their recovery period were taken into this study consecutively, during their cli...

  20. Electron microscopy study of red mud after seawater neutralisation; Estudo por microscopia eletronica de transmissao de lama vermelha tratada com agua do mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, S.P.; Kiyohara, P.K. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/LME/USP), SP (Brazil); Antunes, M.L.P., E-mail: malu@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Frost, Ray [Queensland University of Technology (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Red Mud, residue of Bayer process for extracting alumina from bauxite, is produced in large quantity. This residue is very alkaline and can cause damage to health and the environment. One way to minimize the environmental impact of this residue is neutralization by sea water. The Brazilian Red Mud was treated with sea water. It appears that the initial pH of the samples is reduced to 8. The analysis by x-ray diffraction allows to identify the formation of hydrotalcite and aragonite. The transmission electron microscopy images show that this consists of particles with dimensions between 0.02 to 2 μm. It was possible to identify by EDS/MET particles of magnesium, confirming the formation of hydrotalcite. (author)

  1. Combining somatic mutations present in different in vivo affinity-matured antibodies isolated from immunized Lama glama yields ultra-potent antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, Alex; Blanchetot, Christophe; Schragel, Georg; Sadi, Ava S; Ongenae, Nico; Hemrika, Wieger; Wijdenes, John; Spinelli, Silvia; Desmyter, Aline; Cambillau, Christian; Hultberg, Anna; Kretz-Rommel, Anke; Dreier, Torsten; De Haard, Hans J W; Roovers, Rob C

    2016-04-01

    Highly potent human antibodies are required to therapeutically neutralize cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is involved in many inflammatory diseases and malignancies. Although a number of mutagenesis approaches exist to perform antibody affinity maturation, these may cause antibody instability and production issues. Thus, a robust and easy antibody affinity maturation strategy to increase antibody potency remains highly desirable. By immunizing llama, cloning the 'immune' antibody repertoire and using phage display, we selected a diverse set of IL-6 antagonistic Fabs. Heavy chain shuffling was performed on the Fab with lowest off-rate, resulting in a panel of variants with even lower off-rate. Structural analysis of the Fab:IL-6 complex suggests that the increased affinity was partly due to a serine to tyrosine switch in HCDR2. This translated into neutralizing capacity in an in vivo model of IL-6 induced SAA production. Finally, a novel Fab library was designed, encoding all variations found in the natural repertoire of VH genes identified after heavy chain shuffling. High stringency selections resulted in identification of a Fab with 250-fold increased potency when re-formatted into IgG1. Compared with a heavily engineered anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody currently in clinical development, this IgG was at least equally potent, showing the engineering process to have had led to a highly potent anti-IL-6 antibody. PMID:26945588

  2. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R.B. Perry (John); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); L. Yengo (Loic); N. Amin (Najaf); J. Dupuis (Josée); M. Ganser (Martha); H. Grallert (Harald); P. Navarro (Pau); M. Li (Man); L. Qi (Lu); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.A. Scott (Robert); P. Almgren (Peter); D.E. Arking (Dan); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B. Balkau (Beverley); R. Benediktsson (Rafn); R.N. Bergman (Richard); E. Boerwinkle (Eric); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); N.P. Burtt (Noël); H. Campbell (Harry); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); F.S. Collins (Francis); C. Gieger (Christian); T. Green (Todd); S. Hadjadj (Samy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); C. Herder (Christian); A. Hofman (Albert); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A. Köttgen (Anna); P. Kraft (Peter); Y. Labrune (Yann); C. Langenberg (Claudia); A.K. Manning (Alisa); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); A.P. Morris (Andrew); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.S. Pankow (James); A.K. Petersen; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I. Prokopenko (Inga); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); M. Roden (Michael); I. Rudan (Igor); D. Rybin (Denis); L.J. Scott (Laura); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); R. Sladek (Rob); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Vivequin (Sidonie); M.N. Weedon (Michael); A.F. Wright (Alan); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J.B. Meigs (James); J.F. Wilson (James); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D. Altshuler (David); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); P. Froguel (Philippe); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L. Groop (Leif); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); S. Cauchi (Stephane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCommon diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m2) compared

  3. Stratifying Type 2 Diabetes Cases by BMI Identifies Genetic Risk Variants in LAMA1 and Enrichment for Risk Variants in Lean Compared to Obese Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, John R. B.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Yengo, Loic; Amin, Najaf; Dupuis, Josee; Ganser, Martha; Grallert, Harald; Navarro, Pau; Li, Man; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Scott, Robert A.; Almgren, Peter; Arking, Dan E.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori; Burtt, Noel P.; Campbell, Harry; Charpentier, Guillaume; Collins, Francis S.; Gieger, Christian; Green, Todd; Hadjadj, Samy; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Johnson, Andrew D.; Kottgen, Anna; Kraft, Peter; Labrune, Yann; Langenberg, Claudia; Manning, Alisa K.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Oostra, Ben; Pankow, James; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, William; Roden, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Scott, Laura J.; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sladek, Rob; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vivequin, Sidonie; Weedon, Michael N.; Wright, Alan F.; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Kao, Linda; Meigs, James B.; Wilson, James F.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia; Altschuler, David; Morris, Andrew D.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Groop, Leif; Frayling, Timothy M.; Cauchi, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI= 30 Kg/m(2)). We performed two

  4. HUBUNGAN LAMA KERJA DAN POSISI KERJA DENGAN KELUHAN OTOT RANGKA LEHER DAN EKTREMITAS ATAS PADA PEKERJA GARMEN PEREMPUAN DI JAKARTA UTARA

    OpenAIRE

    Lusianawaty Tana; Delima Delima; Sulistyowati Tuminah

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints are the common symptoms in occupational diseases that can cause workers disability and absenteeism. Objectives: to evaluate the percentage of neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and its relation with occupational and individual factors (socioeconomic, smoking habit, blood sugar level, and body mass index). Methods: a cross sectional study among 778female garment workers in North Jakarta in 2005. Samples wer...

  5. HUBUNGAN LAMA KERJA DAN POSISI KERJA DENGAN KELUHAN OTOT RANGKA LEHER DAN EKTREMITAS ATAS PADA PEKERJA GARMEN PEREMPUAN DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints are the common symptoms in occupational diseases that can cause workers disability and absenteeism. Objectives: to evaluate the percentage of neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and its relation with occupational and individual factors (socioeconomic, smoking habit, blood sugar level, and body mass index. Methods: a cross sectional study among 778female garment workers in North Jakarta in 2005. Samples were selected purposively with inclusion criteria (age 18—55 years old, minimal 1 year working period. Results: The percentage of neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptom was 75.7 % (in detail 59.9 % on hands, 32 % on neck, 11.8% on shoulders, 11.1 % on back, and 9.6 % on elbow. The symptoms were weariness 81.2 %, hyperesthesia 50.6 %, pain 16.1 %, parasthesia 12.4 %, and weakness 11 %. The factors significantly related to neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were working period and work position. The musculoskeletal symptoms in persons who had 1—10 years working period was higher than 11—25 years working period (OR 1.78 95 %CI 1.15-2.76 p=0.01, and working in sitting position was higher than standing position (OR 1.44 95 %CI 1.02-2.05p=0.038. Intervention through workplace modification such as the table or the chair height can protect workers from neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms.   Keyword : neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms, female workers, garment

  6. El constructivismo en la política exterior argentina: el caso Pascua Lama en relación al caso Pasteras

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, María del Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Uno de los principales condicionantes de la política ambiental en la Argentina, es que tanto la política exterior como la política doméstica han estado desvinculadas desde la misma incorporación de la temática a la agenda pública. El análisis de los cada vez más recientes conflictos por los recursos naturales en el país, abona a la hipótesis de que la obstinación de la elite política para abrir los procesos decisorios ambientales, ha redundado en acciones cada vez más extremas donde la esc...

  7. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moller-Levet, Carla S.; Guy N J Betts; Harris, Adrian L; Homer, Jarrod J.; West, Catharine M. L.; Miller, Crispin J.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the spl...

  8. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Jarak Pagar (Jatropha Curcas ) Menggunakan Katalis Koh 4 % Dengan Variasi Lama Reaksi 2 ; 4 Dan 6 Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Parlindungan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum fuel is one of especial source energy used a lot of state world in this time. Human need for energy sources in the form of fuel increasing, along with its use in industrial area and transportation, so that push needing of new alternative source energy. Plant oil represent the potential substance as new source energy to yield the ester methyl (biodiesel) as substitution of diesel oil. This research use the jatropha curcas oil as raw material. Transesterification is one of the appropr...

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Klonidin 75 mcg pada 12,5 mg Levobupivakain 0,5% Secara Intratekal terhadap Lama Kerja Blokade Sensorik dan Motorik untuk Bedah Ortopedi Ekstremitas Bawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadlyansyah Ramli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinal anesthesia has some limitations that limits its use, such as limited duration of action in motoric and sensoric. This research aimed to provide an overview on the effect of adding clonidine 75 mcg to 12.5 mg 0.5% levobupivacaine on the motoric and sensoric blockade action duration in lower extremity orthopedic surgery spinal anesthesia. This experimental prospective research used double blind randomized controlled trial approach on 36 patients with ASA I-II physical status who underwent lower extremity orthopedic surgery using spinal anesthesia in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during the period of June to August 2014. LC group, clonidine 75 mcg was added to 12.5 mg 0.5% levobupivacaine. On LS group, 12.5 mg 0.5% mg levobupivacaine mixed with 0.5 mL 0.9% NaCl. The data were then statistically tested using t-test, Mann-Whitney, and chi-square. The result showed that the duration of action of sensoric blockade in LK group was significantly longer, i.e. 224.44 (37.84 minutes compared to LS group, i.e. 107.89 (17.63 minutes (p=0.000. Duration of action of motoric blockade in LK group was significantly longer, i.e. 278,72 (41,75 minutes, compared to LS group, i.e. 128.39 (18.26 minutes (p=0.000. It is concluded that the additiona of clonidine 75 mcg to 12,5 mg 0,5% levobupivacaine significantly prolongs the duration of action of the motoric and sensoric blockade if given intrathecally.

  10. Pengaruh Penambahan Klonidin 75 mcg pada 12,5 mg Levobupivakain 0,5% Secara Intratekal terhadap Lama Kerja Blokade Sensorik dan Motorik untuk Bedah Ortopedi Ekstremitas Bawah

    OpenAIRE

    Fadlyansyah Ramli; Doddy Tavianto; Tinni T. Maskoen

    2015-01-01

    Spinal anesthesia has some limitations that limits its use, such as limited duration of action in motoric and sensoric. This research aimed to provide an overview on the effect of adding clonidine 75 mcg to 12.5 mg 0.5% levobupivacaine on the motoric and sensoric blockade action duration in lower extremity orthopedic surgery spinal anesthesia. This experimental prospective research used double blind randomized controlled trial approach on 36 patients with ASA I-II physical status who under...

  11. Contribuição para o estudo da presença de disruptores endócrinos em lamas de ETAR

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Tiago Jorge Martins

    2012-01-01

    Os compostos disruptores endócrinos são considerados poluentes ambientais na medida em que perturbam o normal funcionamento do sistema endócrino do Homem e de outros organismos, ou seja, são compostos exógenos que interferem com a homeostasia, reprodução, desenvolvimento e comportamento dos organismos. Estes compostos são constituintes de plásticos, pesticidas, herbicidas, fungicidas, detergentes, fármacos, surgindo por isso nos resíduos industriais e domésticos e em águas residuais. Ge...

  12. Pengaruh Audit Fee, Non-Audit Service, Profil Kap, Dan Hubungan Audit Yang Lama Antara Kap Dan Klien Terhadap Independensi Auditor Dalam Kantor Akuntan Publik Di Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Singarimbun, Adryan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to test empirically the factors that influence the independence of public accountant both partially and simultaneously. The factors cover Audit Fee, Non-Audit Services, the KAP profile, and Audit Tenure. The population in this study was the auditors who worked in the 19 public accountant firms in Medan on 2013. The samples used by purposive sampling of 59 samples. Questionnaire distributed to respondents were 59 and the number of questionnaires that can be a...

  13. Çok fonksiyonlu bir elektronik pülverizatörde ilaçlama işleminin optimal ve bulanık

    OpenAIRE

    GUNES, Mahit; Arslan, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmada elektronik kontrollü bir pülverizatörün karışım tankının seviye kontroü ve ilaç karışım işleminin kontrolleri Lineer Quadratik Regülatör (LQR) metodları ve bulanık mantık kontrol teknikleri kullanılarak simülasyonu yapılmıştır. Karışım tankına temiz su ve kimyasal ilaç sıvıları alınacağı için bu oranların reçeteye göre belirlenerek karışım modeli türetilmiştir. Türetilen model üzerinde LQR metodu uygulanmış ve elde edilen sonuçlarla bulanık kontrol sonuçları karşılaştırılmıştır...

  14. Uus töölpeinguseadus : nagu Soomes lama ajal? Ei, veel karmim / Maret Maripuu, Tarmo Kriis, Peep Peterson ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Vestlusringis on sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu, Eesti tööandjate keskliidu juhataja Tarmo Kriis ja transpordi ametiühingu juhatuse esimees Peep Peterson. Lisatud: mida eelnõu muudab? ; ametiühingute keskliidu juhi Harri Taliga kommentaar: dzhungliseaduste tagasitulek? ; Helmes ASi nõukogu esimehe Jaan Pillesaare kommentaar: praegune seadus on tobe

  15. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Natrium Klorida (NaCl) dan Lama Perendaman Buffer Fosfat Terhadap Perolehan Crude Papain Dari Daun Papain (Carica Papaya, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Pinta Rizki Mala

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the fruits of commodities internationally, either in the form of fresh fruit or as processed products. The leaves are green still not fully utilized. In papaya enzyme papain which allegedly contained can be used as a meat tenderizer. Papain is a protease enzyme contained in papaya latex, whether in fruit, stems and leaves, as an enzyme capable of solving the protein molecules, current papain into products that are beneficial to human life, either at home or...

  16. Do cortisol and corticosterone play the same role in coping with stressors? Measuring glucocorticoid serum in free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Ramiro; Novillo, Agustina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Mosca-Torres, Maria E; Cuello, Pablo; Gregório, Pablo; Jahn, Graciela; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Habitat can constrain and shape successful ecological and physiological strategies, thus providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits. However, unpredictable challenges, such as storms, natural disasters, and human activities can also have great effects on stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones that play an important role in how vertebrates cope with these predictable and unpredictable environmental challenges. Although assessing GCs levels can have many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals, with or without capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific complete validation (analytical and biological) before its use. In this work, our aim was to: (a) validate a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring GCs levels in L. guanicoe serum; (b) assess cortisol and corticosterone levels (if present) in serum of wild L. guanicoe individuals; and (c) compare the response to acute stressors (handling, shearing, and release). Our results successfully: (a) validated RIA for asses GCs levels in wild ungulates; (b) confirmed the presence for cortisol and corticosterone and showed that both GCs are differently affected by environmental stimuli in L. guanicoe; and (c) showed that GCs exhibit different patterns in the field and in response to acute stressors, making these camelids an interesting endocrinological model when seeking the adaptive functions of a given variation and further emphasizing the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals. PMID:24115389

  17. Difteri-Tetanoz-Tam Hücreli Boğmaca ve Poliyo Aşılamasından Sonra Miyokardit: Vaka Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurt, Cemşit; KOÇAK, Gülendam; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Elkıran, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Myocarditis is a process characterized by inflammatory infiltrate of the myocardium with necrosis and degeneration of myocytes. Although most cases of myocarditis are related to viral infections such as coxsakievirus B and echoviruses, immunization (vaccination) may induce myocarditis. Cardiac complications after routine vaccination such as myocarditis, pericarditis are rarely seen. Myocarditis associated with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis and polio vaccination is extremely rare...

  18. Caraterização de argamassas auto-compactáveis com adição de lamas provenientes de uma ETA

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Sónia Santos

    2011-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas a indústria da construção em geral tem procurado soluções sustentáveis para a reutilização de resíduos. Uma das áreas que oferece algum potencial de utilização de resíduos é a indústria do betão, em especial o betão auto-compactável (BAC) que exige a incorporação de uma grande quantidade de materiais finos para atingir a adequada viscosidade plástica. São já bem conhecidas algumas adições provenientes de resíduos, correntemente utilizadas na produção de betões, como sejam,...

  19. Environmental behavior of soils and mixtures of soil-whitewash mud Comportamento ambiental de solos e misturas solo lama-de-cal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Cardoso Machado; José Maurício Machado Pires; Maurício Paulo F. Fontes; Reginaldo Sérgio Pereira; Carla Ribeiro Machado e Portugal

    2004-01-01

    The present study sought to observe the behavior of soils in natural state and in mixtures, in different ratios, with the industrial solid residue called whitewash mud. The work was conducted with samples of typical soils from the region of Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brazil. Wet chemical analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used in order to obtain the classification of the industrial solid residue. Solubilization and leaching tests were performed and X-ray diffraction and electron mic...

  20. Pengaruh Penggunaan Enzim Bromelin dari Ekstrak Nanas dan Lama Perendaman terhadap Kualitas Fisik dan Cita Rasa Daging Itik Lokal (Anas Plathyrynchos)

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Erna Juliana

    2011-01-01

    ERNA JULIANA SIMANJUNTAK : The effect of utilization bromelin enzyme on juice of pineapple and long dipped on quality of texture, taste dan smell and shrinkaged cooking of duck meat. Supervised by RISTIKA HANDARINI and SOEHADY ARIS. The processing of meat is the one factor can influence quality of texture and taste of duck meat. The aim of the study is to find out the effect of utilization bromelin enzyme on juice of pineapple and long dipped on quality of texture, taste dan smell and s...

  1. Tingkat Insidensi Malaria di Wilayah Pemanasan Kelambu Berinsektisida Tahan Lama dan Wilayah Kontrol (MALARIA INCIDENCE RATE OF HEAT ASSISTED REGENERATION LONG LASTING INSECTICIDAL NETS AREA AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etih Sudarnika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN is one effective way to prevent malaria. Permethrin treatedLLIN is one type of LLIN which is recommended by WHO. Several studies have shown that these types ofLLIN requiring heat assisted regeneration after washing to enhance the biological activity of insecticidethat contained in the LLIN fibers. This study aimed to compare the incidence rates of malaria in childrenunder five years old who live in the intervention area (where the heat assisted regeneration on LLIN afterwashing was applied and control area (where the heat assisted regeneration on LLIN after washing wasnot applied. Data of malaria cases was collected from laboratory log book at all health centers in BangkaDistrict, in the period of June June 2007 until July 2008. Data were analyzed with Poisson regressionmodels. The results showed that the incidence rate of malaria in children under five years old was notsignificantly different between the treatment and control areas.

  2. Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Dan Berat Ragi Roti Terhadap Kadar Bioetanol Dari Fermentasi Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisis Selulosa Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jack) Dengan HCl 30%

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Annisa

    2013-01-01

    The research about the effect of fermentation time and weight of yeast bread on bioethanol concentration from fermentation the glucose from hydrolysis of cellulose oil palmempty fruit bunches (Elaeis guineensis Jack ) with HCl 30% has done. From the research, it found that oil palm empty fruit bunches containing cellulose of 24.1298 %. The cellulose was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunches. It was hidrolized by HCl 30% to yield glucose and was analized by Nelson-Somogyi Method and the ...

  3. Montagem e caracterização elétrica de pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS Assembly and electrical characterization of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosane Aparecida Tarôco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a review of the design features and the electrochemistry characterization of anode-supported planar SOFC. Studies and results of metallic alloy interconnectors and recovery for protection against corrosion and for contact layer are showed. Moreover a discussion of examples of measurements of impedance spectrometry, according to the literature and our experimental results are made. For the anode supported fuel cells the power density varies from 0.1 to 0.5 Wcm², according to results in the literature (showed in this paper. For electrolyte supported fuel cell the power density can be 10 Wcm-2 for high temperatures. An English-Portuguese glossary of most used terms in SOFC stack is given for greater clarity and to introduce new terms to the reader.

  4. Analýza užitkových vlastností alpak na vybrané farmě v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Veselá, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Analysis of performance traits of alpaca in chosen farm in USA The aim of this work was to evaluate the selected farm engaged in breeding alpaca breeding and production indicators and compare the findings with data in the literature. I chose the Fir Cove Alpacas farm in Rochester and Alpacas at Windy Oaks located in Tenino located in Washington, and both these farms I visited in August of 2011. At work I have indicated the characteristics of these two farms - the owner, addr...

  5. Methane emission by camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  6. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness...... preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification....

  7. Turbocharger Lubrication - Lubricant Behavior and Factors That Cause Turbocharger Failure / Turboşarj Yağlama - Yağlama Davranışı ve Turboşarj Arızasına Neden Olan Faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Dellis, Polychronis; Retzios, Evaggelos; Geralis, Alcibiades; Gasparakis, Elias; Pesiridis, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of the turbocharger lubrication system and at the same time an attempt to point out and analyze the factors responsible for turbocharger wear, damage and failures. In particular, the conditions under which the lubricant works are presented, from its entrance up to its exit from the turbocharger bearing housing. Additionally, the consequences of failure to comply with the instructions for appropriate turbocharger operation, are provided by the various manufacturers....

  8. Çeşitli Islatma ve Haşlama İşlemlerinin Kuru Baklagillerin Çinko, Demir ve Kalsiyum Değerlerine Etkisi-II: Haşlama İşlemleri Sırasında Oluşan Mineral Kayıpları

    OpenAIRE

    Akgün, Bengül; Yücecan, Sevinç; Kayakırılmaz, Kadriye

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the amount of zinc, iron and calcium that leaches to the boiling water for severally dry legumes. The zinc, iron and calcium loss of dry legumes are observed during the process of boiling. These losses of minerals are caused by the leaching of minerals to the boiling water. According to the results of research, mineral losses to the boiling water through leaching for zinc are between 5.75-16.33%, for iron are between 4.02-11.56%, for calcium are be...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LOC syndrome is caused by mutations in the LAMA3 gene, which provides instructions for making one part ( ... three subunits, called alpha, beta, and gamma. The LAMA3 gene carries instructions for the alpha subunit; the ...

  10. Contemporary Tibetan's View of Tulkus(sprul-sku)%当代藏族人的活佛观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嘎·达哇才仁

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction This article relies on a combination of questionnaires and interviews in an attempt to understand contemporary Tibetans' basic opinions of and attitudes towards incarnate lamas.The incarnate lama is the highest religious practitioner in Tibetan Buddhism.

  11. AcEST: BP920043 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L21 ... 34 0.33 sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMAN Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN....PPKEFLERLKSLIQKMIHQHL 145 >sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMAN Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LAMA3 PE=2 SV=2

  12. AcEST: DK945480 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =3 SV=1 40 0.005 sp|Q8C3L1|CC032_MOUSE Uncharacterized protein C3orf32 homolog OS... 37 0.030 sp|Q61789|LAMA3...----KAKQPRRCHLCSGSGRRRCSTCS 231 >sp|Q61789|LAMA3_MOUSE Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Mus musculus GN=Lama3 PE=1

  13. Comparison of resource use by COPD patients on inhaled therapies with long-acting bronchodilators: a database study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Chris M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this analysis was to compare health care costs and utilization among COPD patients who had long-acting beta-2 agonist (LABA OR long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA; LABA AND LAMA; or LABA, LAMA, AND inhaled corticosteroid (ICS prescription claims. Methods This was a 12 month pre-post, retrospective analysis using COPD patients in a national administrative insurance database. Propensity score and exact matching were used to match patients 1:1:1 between the LABA or LAMA (formoterol, salmeterol, or tiotropium, LABA and LAMA (tiotropium/formoterol or tiotropium/salmeterol, and LABA, LAMA and ICS (bronchodilators plus steroid groups. Post-period comparisons were evaluated with analysis of covariance. Costs were evaluated from a commercial payer perspective. Results A total of 523 patients were matched using 29 pre-period variables (e.g., demographics, medication exposure. Post-match assessments indicated balance among the cohorts. COPD-related costs differed among groups (LABA or LAMA $2,051 SE = 91; LABA and LAMA $2,823 SE = 62; LABA, LAMA and ICS $3,546 SE = 89; all p Conclusions Significant cost differences driven mainly by pharmaceuticals were observed among LABA or LAMA, LABA and LAMA and LABA, LAMA and ICS therapies. A COPD-related cost offset was observed from single bronchodilator to two bronchodilators. Addition of an ICS with two bronchodilators resulted in higher treatment costs without reduction in other COPD-related costs compared with two bronchodilators.

  14. Determinación de la calidad de fibra de alpaca en Huancavelica (Perú): validación de los métodos de muestreo y valoración

    OpenAIRE

    Manso Martínez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue verificar el método de muestreo MidSide (toma de muestra de la zona del “MidSide”, localizada horizontalmente a nivel de la tercera costilla y perpendicularmente a nivel de la parte media entre las líneas superior dorsal e inferior ventral) para los parámetros que determinan la calidad de la fibra: diámetro de fibra, coeficiente de variación del diámetro de fibra, longitud de mecha, índice de curvatura y spinning fineness. Para ello se tomaron muestras de 20 vello...

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of cerebral oxygen during assisted ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Erin A.; Dukatz, Christopher; Sood, Beena G.; Wider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Changes in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) has a direct though transient effect on the cerebral vasculature and cerebral circulation. Decreased PaCO2 levels lead to vasoconstriction and can result in dangerously low levels of cerebral perfusion that resolve in 4–6 h. It is currently believed that perfusion abnormalities contribute to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in the neonate. PaCO2-induced vasoconstriction may contribute t...

  16. Analýza srsti alpak na vybrané farmě

    OpenAIRE

    Švingr, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected alpaca hair farm and then comparing the measured results with the available literature. For my analysis I chose the Sezemic Veská farm, which is located near Pardubice and with the permission and assistance of her owner, hair samples were collected from a total of 7 alpacas of all ages and gender. Subsequent analysis of the samples was carried out in the laboratories at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. From each of the alpacas we...

  17. Pengaruh Suhu dan Lama Penyimpanan Madu-Sari Mengkudu terhadap aktivitas Antimikroba (The Effect of Temperature and Storage Duration of The Honey-Essence of Mengkudu to The Antimicrobial Activities)

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyah; Putranto, Beta; Mufidah1

    2008-01-01

    Madu-sari mengkudu (MSM) adalah madu yang dihasilkan oleh lebah madu (Apis mellifera L.) yang diberi pakan tambahan berupa campuran madu, air dan jus buah mengkudu dengan konsentrasi jus mengkudu yang divariasikan, yaitu 0% (MSM-A), 12,5% (MSM-B), 25% (MSM-C) dan 37,5% (MSM-D). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas antimikroba dari MSM setelah penyimpanan pada suhu kamar (-+ 28 oC) dan suhu dingin (5 oC) selama 12 bulan terhadap Stahylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli dan jam...

  18. Estudo sobre a utilização da lama vermelha para a remoção de corantes em efluentes têxteis Study on the use of red mud for removal of dyes from textile effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Batista da Silva Filho; Maria Cristina Moreira Alves; Maurício da Motta; Eveline Haiana da Costa Oliveira; Walter Brander Junior

    2008-01-01

    Red mud is the principal residue of the alumina (Al2O3) industry. Generated during the Bayer process, it is characterized by strong alkalinity and ion exchange. Iron oxides are the principal component (30 to 60%). Annually millions of tons of red mud are generated in the world. Red mud disposal is responsible for a large part of the cost of alumina production. On the other hand, textile industry wastewaters containing dyes have a great impact on the environment and on human health. In this pa...

  19. Estudo sobre a utilização da lama vermelha para a remoção de corantes em efluentes têxteis Study on the use of red mud for removal of dyes from textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Batista da Silva Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud is the principal residue of the alumina (Al2O3 industry. Generated during the Bayer process, it is characterized by strong alkalinity and ion exchange. Iron oxides are the principal component (30 to 60%. Annually millions of tons of red mud are generated in the world. Red mud disposal is responsible for a large part of the cost of alumina production. On the other hand, textile industry wastewaters containing dyes have a great impact on the environment and on human health. In this paper the possibility of applying red mud for the removal of dyes was investigated by two processes: adsorption and degradation by the Fenton reagent.

  20. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars; Avaliacao da lama vermelha como material pozolanico em substituicao ao cimento para producao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C., E-mail: elizmanfroi@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: malik@valores.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  1. Reklamcılık Sektöründe Reklam Etiği Algılamasının Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Yaman, Fikret

    2009-01-01

    Reklam, meydana getirilmesinden tüketiciye ulaştırılmasına kadar birçok aşamadan geçer. Bu aşamaların her birinde belirli paydaşlar vardır. Bu paydaşlar reklam verenler, reklam ajansları, medya ve tüketicilerdir. Paydaşların her biri reklamda ya etkileyen ya da etkilenen konumdadırlar. Araştırmada da paydaşların reklamdan nasıl etkilendikleri ve reklamı nasıl etkiledikleri ortaya konulmuştur. Her sektörde olduğu gibi reklam sektöründe de etik kavramı önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Araştırmad...

  2. Perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik heat cured akibat kelembaban dan lama penyimpanan (Changes in glass transition temperature and heat cured acrylic resin mass due to moisture and storage time)

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acrylic resins, especially poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was introduced in 1937. Acrylic resin has favorable properties, among others, aesthetic, color and texture similar to that of the gingival aesthetic in the mouth, relatively low water absorption and dimensional changes. However, some studies suggest that the duration of storage of acrylic resin will affect the changes in the glass transition temperature and the mass of acrylic resin. Purpose: The objective of this research...

  3. The Eighth Dalai Lama and to Put down the Kuoerka to Harass Tibet%八世达赖剌嘛与平定廓尔喀侵扰西藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    星全成

    2005-01-01

    18世纪末,廓尔喀先后两次入侵西藏,损害了包括西藏人民在内的整个中华民族的尊严.清王朝及时发兵西藏,在达赖喇嘛和西藏人民的协持下,迅速驱逐廓尔喀,从而保卫了西藏,巩固了边防,解除了西藏人民的灾难,增强西藏地方政府和全体民众的向心力.

  4. On "Sarkozy Meeting with Dalai Lama"——Based on "Theoretical Model of Face and Favor"%"萨达会"事件析论——以"人情-面子"理论模型为分析依据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛长振; 朱中博; 张芸

    2009-01-01

    用黄光国的"人情-面子"理论来看"萨达会".①[1]事件,可认为中法友谊是一种朋友问的"混合性关系".在这种关系中,相互间应按"人情法则"办事,讲"人情"和"面子",照顾对方面的核心利益.而法方反反复复在中国最关注的西藏问题上撒盐插刀,使中方大失"面子".因此,中方做出了强烈反应是合情合理的.

  5. Production and characterization of red mud based on glasses for the immobilization of nuclear wastes; Obtencao e caracterizacao de vidros a base de lama vermelha visando a imobilizacao de rejeitos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Heveline

    2015-07-01

    Glasses based on red mud, a residual material from bauxite processing, were developed and characterized in this work. In order to promote its use, a minimum 60 wt% of red mud was used in the production of the glasses. According to XRD results, materials containing considerable amorphous phases were produced when using red mud as raw material. These amorphous phases were observed even though crystalline phases associated to Fe coming from the red mud itself were present. The material denominated 60L40S, which has a nominal composition of 60 wt% red mud showed the best properties comparing with the others compositions studied. However, these materials presented a high melting temperature. Changes in the composition of this material were made with the objective of lowering this temperature. Results indicated that the changes made to the material were successful in the reduction of the melting temperature. However, a reduction in the chemical properties of the resulting material was observed. Elements usually found in the chemical composition of nuclear wastes were added to the glasses produced. It was done with the objective of determining the effect of these elements on the chemical and physical properties of the red mud based glasses obtained. It was found that it was possible to add up to 15 wt% of these elements to the materials produced. The addition of these simulant materials promoted a reduction in the melting temperature of the resulting material. Above 15 wt%, the added elements precipitate in the structure of the resulting material. Even though the reduction in the chemical durability of the 60L40S material when simulant elements were added, it was observed that this material contained the simulant elements confined in its structure when in contact with water. This is a promising result, since it indicates that the 60L40S has the potential to immobilize elements from nuclear wastes . (author)

  6. Produção de biogás a partir da co-digestão anaeróbica de lamas de suinicultura com farinhas animais

    OpenAIRE

    Pratas, Ricardo Silva, 1986-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 A digestão anaeróbia apresenta-se como uma tecnologia promissora, com a capacidade de integrar a gestão ambiental de resíduos com a produção de energia renovável e a redução da emissão de gases com efeito estufa. Apesar da produção de energia a partir do biogás serem baseadas em tecnologias de combustão convencionais, existe uma conversão de CH4 em CO2, o qu...

  7. Estudio farmacológico de la acción de un antimuscarínico de larga duración (LAMA) en la activación de fibroblastos pulmonares humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Gimeno, Adela

    2013-01-01

    El remodelado de las vías aéreas es un proceso patológico observado en enfermedades de carácter obstructivo e inflamatorio como la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC); En condiciones inflamatorias, los fibroblastos pulmonares residentes se activan y transforman en miofibroblastos, células con fenotipo contráctil, proliferativo y con actividad secretora de matriz extracelular, la acumulación de miofibroblastos contribuye a la progresión del remodelado pulmonar, y a la limitación ...

  8. TEMPORAL CHANGE OF LAND COVER ON THE İSKENDERUN DRAINAGE BASIN (HATAY)
    İSKENDERUN AKAÇLAMA HAVZASINDA (HATAY) ARAZİ ÖRTÜSÜNÜN ZAMANSAL DEĞİŞİMİ

    OpenAIRE

    Emre ÖZŞAHİN

    2010-01-01

    Iskenderun this study temporal variation of land cover in the drainage basin (1985-2007) Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems and examined the causes and consequences of changes were evaluated with a geographical perspective. Residential areas in the basin area occupied by the expansion of agricultural areas, agricultural fields or forest areas have been invaded in the last 20-30 years, the land cover change. This negative change of land cover in the study area, should be evalu...

  9. Çok damarlı MgB2 süperiletken üretimi, nano-boyutta katkılama yöntemi ile özelliklerinin iyileştirilmesi ve fiziksel karakterizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01