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Sample records for alpacas lama pacos

  1. Mapping of CGRP in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

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    de Souza, Eliana; Coveñas, Rafael; Yi, Pedro; Aguilar, Luís Angel; Lerma, Luís; Andrade, Roy; Mangas, Arturo; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Angel

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the presence of immunoreactive structures containing calcitonin gene-related peptide in the alpaca brainstem. This is the first time that a detailed mapping of the cell bodies and fibers containing this neuropeptide in the alpaca brainstem has been carried out using an immunocytochemical technique. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were widely distributed throughout the alpaca brainstem. A high density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive perikarya was found in the superior colliculus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the trochlear nucleus, the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the motor trigeminal nucleus, the facial nucleus, the pons reticular formation, the retrofacial nucleus, the rostral hypoglossal nucleus, and in the motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, whereas a high density of fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide was observed in the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the parvocellular division of the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, and in the area postrema. This widespread distribution indicates that the neuropeptide studied might be involved in multiple functions in the alpaca brainstem.

  2. Effects on the quality of frozen-thawed alpaca (Lama pacos)semen using two different cryoprotectants and extenders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexei Santiani; Wilfredo Huanca; Rómulo Sapana; Teodosio Huanca; Néstor Sepúlveda; Raúl Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate two extenders and two cryoprotectant agents (CPA) for alpaca semen cryopreservation. Methods:Semen samples were obtained from four adult alpacas (Lama pacos) and frozen using extender Ⅰ (TRIS, citrate, egg yolk and glucose) or extender Ⅱ (skim milk, egg yolk and fructose), each containing either glycerol (G) or ethylene glycol (EG) as CPA. Consequently, four groups were formed: 1) extender Ⅰ-G; 2) extender Ⅰ-EG; 3) extender Ⅱ-G;and 4) extender Ⅱ-EG. Semen was diluted in a two-step process: for cooling to 5 ℃ (extenders without CPA), and for freezing (extenders with CPA). Viability and acrosome integrity were assessed using trypan blue and Giemsa stains. Results: When compared, the motility after thawing was higher (P < 0.05) in groups Ⅱ-EG (20.0 % ± 6.7 %)and Ⅱ-G (15.3 % ± 4.1%) than that in groups Ⅰ-G (4.0 % ± 1.1%) and Ⅰ-EG (1.0 % ± 1.4 %). Viable spermatozoa with intact acrosomes in groups Ⅱ-EG (18.7 % ± 2.9 %) and Ⅱ-G (12.7 % ± 5.9 %) were higher than that in groups Ⅰ-G (5.7 % ± 1.5 %) and Ⅰ-EG (4.0 % ± 1.0 %). Conclusion: The skim milk- and egg yolk-based extenders containing ethylene glycol or glycerol to freeze alpaca semen seems to promote the survival of more sperm cells with intact acrosomes than the other extenders.

  3. Tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation

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    Connolly DJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice, the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

  4. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

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    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  5. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

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    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  6. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

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    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

  7. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

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    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  8. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

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    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  9. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

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    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  10. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

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    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  11. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

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    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  12. Distribución de neuropéptidos en el diencéfalo de la alpaca (Lama pacos): estudio inmunocitoquímico

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    Medina Medina, Luis Enrique

    2009-01-01

    [ES]En esta tesis se estudia en el diencéfalo de la alpaca la distribución del CGRP y de la leucinaencefalina, tras aplicar una técnica inmunocitoquímica. Para completar los resultados obtenidos previamente en el tronco del encéfalode la alpaca con ambos neuropéptidos. Además se estudia la distribución de neurotensina, somatostatina y ACTH, tras aplicar una técnia inmunocitoquímica. [EN]In this thesis we study in the diencephalon of the alpaca the distribution of CGRP and leucinaencefalina...

  13. Diversity and abundance of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in forestomach of alpacas (Lama pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

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    Pei, Cai-Xia; Liu, Qiang; Dong, Chang-Sheng; Li, HongQuan; Jiang, Jun-Bing; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Two bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from the forestomach of alpacas and sheep fed alfalfa. After the amplification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primers, equal quantities of PCR products from the same species were mixed and used to construct the two libraries. Sequence analysis showed that the 60 clones from alpacas were divided into 27 phylotypes with 25% clones affiliated with Eubacterium sp. F1. The 60 clones from sheep were divided into 21 phylotypes with 7 phylotypes affiliated with Prevotella ruminicola (40% clones). Clones closely related to Clostridium proteoclasticum, Eubacterium sp. F1, Clostridium cellobioparum, Mogibacterium neglectum, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridiaceae bacterium WN011, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium orbiscindens, Eubacterium sp. F1, Cytophaga sp. Dex80-37, Treponema bryantii and Pelotomaculum sp. FP were only found in the forestomach of alpacas, and those to Anaerovorax odorimutans, Treponema zioleckii, Bifidobacterium indicum, Paludibacter propionicigenes, Paraprevotella clara, Eubacterium siraeum, Desulfotomaculum sp. CYP1, Clostridium bolteae, Clostridium termitidis and Clostridiaceae bacterium DJF_LS40 only in the rumen of sheep. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the forestomach of alpacas had significantly lower density of bacteria, with bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies (6.89 [Log10 (copies per gram of wet weight)]), than that of sheep (7.71, Pclone libraries also appeared different in Shannon index (library from alpacas 3.30 and from sheep 3.04). Our results showed that there were apparent differences in the bacterial diversity and abundance in the forestomach between alpacas and sheep.

  14. 雌性羊驼子宫的B超检测%The Ultrasonic Monitor of Uterus in Female Alpacas(Lama Pacos)

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    谢建山; 贺俊平; 程志学; 董常生

    2012-01-01

    To establish and optimize the ultrasonotomography assay for the inspection of the alpaca uterus and explore the reproductive characters of alpaca, 3 non-pregnant mature alpaca were used for studying through trans-rectum palpation, trans-rectum ultrasonic inspection and dissection. There were the same result using the three inspection methods. The results showed that the uterine horn curled slightly, the uterine wall was echotexture, there was no cavum in the uterus. The alpaca cervix had 3 annular folds.%为建立优化B超对羊驼子宫的系统检测技术,探索羊驼繁殖特性,选用3只未妊娠成年羊驼对子宫进行直肠检测、超声检测和解剖观察研究,结果显示,超声检测下,子宫角略弯,可见子宫壁回声,内无空腔,中间夹杂有点状回声,子宫颈可见3道环形皱褶.超声结果与直肠检测和解剖结果一致.

  15. Comparación de las características físicas de las fibras de la llama ch´aku (Lama glama) y la alpaca Huacaya (Lama pacos) del centro experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Los objetivos fueron evaluar los efectos de especie y sexo sobre las características físicas de las fibras de llama Ch´aku y alpaca Huacaya de un año de edad, del Centro Experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno y determinar las correlaciones de las principales características. Las muestras de fibra se obtuvieron del C.E. Quimsachata del INIA, ubicada en distrito de Santa Lucia (Puno-Perú); y fueron a...

  16. Inducción de la reacción acrosómica en espermatozoides de ratón mediante solubilizados de zona pelucida de alpaca (Lama pacos L.

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    Luis Guzmán

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La acrosina, es uno de los componentes principales del acrosoma, presenta actividad similar a la tripsina, y es liberado luego de la reacción acrosómica (RA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la inducción de la RA en espermatozoides de ratón con zonas pelúcidas homólogas y heterólogas. Espermatozoides de ratón capacitados por 2 horas en medio IVF suplementado con albúmina, heparina y suero sintético a 37 ºC y 5% CO2 fueron incubados en ausencia de Zona Pelucida (ZP o en presencia de solubilizados de ZP aisladas de ratón (0,78 mg/ml y alpaca (0,78 mg/ml y 2,35 mg/ml. La RA se evaluó mediante inmunocitoquímica con anticuerpo monoclonal anti-acrosina humana C5F10 a intervalos de 1 hora durante 4 horas. Los resultados obtenidos en espermatozoides de ratón evidencian un incremento signifi cativo (p< 0,05 de la reacción acrosó- mica inducida con ZP homóloga y heteróloga.

  17. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

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    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

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    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures.

  19. Presence and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Peru.

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    Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rosadio-Alcántara, Raúl; Maturrano-Hernández, Lenin; Luna-Espinoza, Luis; Zanabria-Huisa, Víctor; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-07-06

    The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and β-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible.

  20. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  1. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.

  2. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña,D.; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L; Castro, D

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  3. The Effects of Endothelin-3 on the Melanocyte Characteristic and Expression of Hair Color Genes in Melanocytes from Alpaca (Lama Pacos) in vitro%内皮素-3对羊驼黑色素细胞特征及细胞内毛色基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 白俊明; 范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 庞亚妙; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of endothelin-3 (EDN3) on the expression of hair color genes of alpaca.The activity of melanocyte,the production of melanin in melanocytes and the expressions of related genes and proteins including Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB),KIT,Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) in alpaca melanocytes in cultures with addition of different dose of EDN3(0,10-9,10-8,10-7mol · L-1),were examined by MTT,ultraviolet spectrophotometry,qRT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.The results showed that the amount of melanocytes was increased with the increasing double-or tri-dendrites; At the addition dose of 10-8 mol · L-1 for 72 h after adding EDN3,compared to control group,the proliferation of melanocytes was obvious and the expressions of EDNRB,KIT,MITF and TYR significantly up-regulated at the level of both transcription and translation in melanocytes(P<0.05).Moreover,the production of melanin in melanocytes significantly increased(P<0.05).These findings indicate that EDN3 play an important role in regulating melanins production in melanocytes in alpaca.%为了研究内皮素-3(Endothelin-3,EDN3)对羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞内毛色形成相关基因的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol· L-1)的EDN3,通过MTT法、紫外分光光度法、qRT-PCR和Western blotting技术分别检测黑色素细胞活力、黑色素产量、相关基因和蛋白(包括内皮素受体B(Endothelin receptor B,EDNRB)、KIT、小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR))的表达情况.结果表明,在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞添加EDN3 72 h 后,黑色素细胞呈双树突或三树突状,且细胞数量明显增加;在添加适当浓度10-8mol·L-1时,细胞具有明显的增殖,细胞内EDNRB、KIT、MITF和TRY在转录水平和蛋白水平的表达量被上调,

  4. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  5. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, C L; Robinson, T F; Hunter, Z R; Taylor, L; White, J; Johnston, N P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 (C1) and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay. The study was divided into two experiments. In Experiment 1 (EXP 1), 10 male alpacas (3+ years old, 65 kg BW) were divided into two groups, housed in drylot pens, provided ad libitum water and fed alfalfa (AH) or grass hay (GH) for 30 days. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter (DM) and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Four adult male (3+ years old, 60 kg BW), C1 fistulated alpacas were housed in metabolism crates and divided into two forage groups for Experiment 2 (EXP 2). Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Diurnal C1 VFA samples were drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. There were no differences between forages for tract weight, C1 and caecum digesta DM or NDF. Differences were noted (p pH between forages and sub-tract site. Volatile fatty acids concentrations were different (p < 0.05) for forage and site, and total VFA was higher for AH than GH (110.6 and 79.1 mm) and C1 than caecum (40.7 and 27.6 mm). Proportion of VFA was significant (p < 0.05) for forage and site, C1 acetate highest for GH (84.8 vs. 74.0 mm) and caecum acetate 83.7 and 76.2 mm for GH and AH respectively. These data demonstrate the level of VFA produced in C1 and the caecum of alpacas and the diurnal VFA patterns. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species.

  6. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue.

  7. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  8. Presence, distribution and steroidogenic effect of the peptides orexin A and receptor 1 for orexins in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giovanna; Assisi, Loredana; Squillacioti, Caterina; Paino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Nicola; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The orexins A (oxA) and B are peptides discovered in the rat hypothalamus and successively found in some peripheral organs of the mammalian body. They binds two protein G-coupled receptors defined receptor 1 (ox1r) and 2 for orexins, the first of which is highly specific for oxA while the second binds both the peptides with equal affinity. This work aimed to detect the presence of oxA and ox1r in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and investigate the role played by them on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The species alpaca acquired, in the last years, increasing zootechnical interest for the quality of the wool produced and its breeding spread from the country of origin to USA, Australia and Europe. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to detect oxA in Leydig and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, resting spermatocytes, round and oval spermatids. Ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in Leydig cells and round, oval and elongated spermatids. The expression of the two peptides in tissue extracts was established by using Western blotting technique. Such results demonstrated that in the alpaca testis exists in a cellular complex able to produce and/or internalize oxA. Finally, the effect of oxA on steroidogenesis was investigated by means of in vitro cultured thin testis slices which were added with oxA or/and Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a steroidolitic agent basally produced by the Sertoli cell. OxA evoked increase of testosterone production while MIS a decrease. The consecutive addition of oxA and MIS, or vice versa, highlighted an antagonistic interplay between the two substances which has been thought to be the main molecular event at the basis of the oxA-stimulated steroidogenesis mechanism.

  9. ALTERACIONES ANÁTOMO-HISTOPATOLÓGICAS TESTICULARES EN ALPACAS (Vicugna pacos) BENEFICIADAS EN NUÑOA, PUNO.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios S., William; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Chavera C., Alfonso; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Huamán U., Héctor; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Huanca L., Wilfredo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la frecuencia y se caracterizó las alteraciones anátomo-histopatológicas testiculares en alpacas beneficiadas en la zona de Nuñoa, Puno. Se hizo el examen macroscópico de los testículos de 177 alpacas, donde 102 presentaron tamaño y peso disminuido, además de quistes epididimarios uni o bilaterales. Muestras de tejido testicular se fijaron con Solución de Bouin por 28 horas, y se tiñeron con Hematoxilina y Eosina, Ácido Periódico de Schiff y Tricrómico de Masson. Se encontró una ...

  10. Localization of orexin B and receptor 2 for orexins in testicular cytotypes of the camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; Assisi, L; Mirabella, N; Langella, E; Costagliola, A; Vittoria, A

    2017-02-08

    The orexins A (OxA) and B (OxB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in many physiological functions of the mammalian body. They act through the binding of two G-coupled receptors named receptor 1 (OX1 ) and receptor 2 (OX2 ) for orexins. The first receptor is specific for OxA, while the second binds both the substances with equal affinity. The orexins and the relative receptors have been traced by means of different techniques also at the periphery of the body and particularly in the adrenals, and in gastrointestinal and genital organs. Aim of this work was to investigate the presence of OxB and OX2 by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca, a species primarily breed in Chile and Ecuador and recently diffused in Europe where the quality of its wool is particularly appreciated. OxB immunoreactivity (IR) was found in the tubular compartment of the testis where spermatogonia (resting), zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes, and spermatids clearly showed differently sized and shaped cytoplasmic positive structures. OX2 -IR was found both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the testis and particularly in Leydig cells and round and elongated spermatids. Western blotting analysis of testis lysates showed the presence of a protein band whose molecular weight corresponded to that currently assigned to OX2 . Such findings easily translate the hypothesis that OxB and its receptor 2 play a functional role both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the alpaca testis.

  11. Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from llama and alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Anderson, David; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2013-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes a variety of infections termed necrobacillosis. There are 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum (subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme) that differ morphologically and biochemically and in virulence. Leukotoxin, a secreted protein, is considered to be the major virulence factor. In camelids, F. necrophorum causes a variety of infections, generally involving the lips, tongue, pharynx, interdigital spaces, foot pad, larynx, mandible, or maxillary bones. The objective of the current study was to characterize the presumptive Fusobacterium isolates from a variety of necrotic infections in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and determine whether the strains possess leukotoxin activities. A total of 7 isolates from alpaca and 2 isolates from llama were characterized. Based on growth characteristics in broth culture, and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analyses, all 9 isolates belonged to subsp. necrophorum and possessed the putative hemagglutinin gene. Western blot analysis with antileukotoxin antibodies raised in rabbit showed the presence of leukotoxin protein in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Furthermore, flow cytometry of the culture supernatants demonstrated cytotoxicity to bovine and alpaca polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The extent of cytotoxicity to either alpaca or bovine PMNs differed among camelid strains. The cytotoxicity of many of the camelid strains was higher (P llama and alpaca are similar to bovine isolates, and leukotoxin may be a major virulence factor.

  12. DETERMINACIÓN DE LOS PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS ÓPTIMOS PARA LA RECUPERACIÓN DE QUERATINA DE FIBRAS DE Vicugna pacos (ALPACA) MEDIANTE EL USO DE LÍQUIDOS IÓNICOS PRÓTICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Vargas, Sheyla Joseline

    2016-01-01

    Los líquidos iónicos próticos (PILs) son una nueva clase de disolventes que entre otras aplicaciones, permiten la disolución de polímeros naturales; en la presente tesis se han sintetizados varios PILs de base amoniacal, utilizando para esto cuatro cationes diferentes (trietanolamina, dietilamina, dietanolamina, dimetiletanolamina) y dos aniones (ácido acético y ácido fórmico), con el objetivo de disolver fibra de Vicugna pacos (alpaca), una forma de queratina, que en su porció...

  13. Determinación de los Parámetros Fisicoquimicos Optimos para la Recuperación de Queratina de Fibras de Vicugna pacos (Alpaca) Mediante el uso de líquidos Ionicos Proticos

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Vargas, Sheyla Joseline

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Los líquidos iónicos próticos (PILs) son una nueva clase de disolventes que entre otras aplicaciones, permiten la disolución de polímeros naturales; en la presente tesis se han sintetizados varios PILs de base amoniacal, utilizando para esto cuatro cationes diferentes (trietanolamina, dietilamina, dietanolamina, dimetiletanolamina) y dos aniones (ácido acético y ácido fórmico), con el objetivo de disolver fibra de Vicugna pacos (alpaca), una forma de queratina, que en su porción co...

  14. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-03-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint.

  15. Distribución de sustancia P y metioninaencefalina en el tronco del encéfalo de la alpaca (lama pacos): estudio inmunocitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Eliana de Souza

    2009-01-01

    [ES]El presente trabajo trata de la distribución de neuropéptidos en el sistema nervioso central de mamíferos, mediante la aplicación de técnicas inmunocitoquímicas. Hasta hoy hemos descrito en el sistema nervioso central de mamíferos la distribución de fibras y somas que contienen neuropéptidos pertenecientes a numerosas familias de neuropéptidos . Este trabajo es parte de la línea que se viene desarrollando sobre la distribución de neuropéptidos en el sistema nervioso central de la alpac...

  16. Seasonal effects on gestation length and birth weight in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Moore, G H; Bruce, G D

    1997-04-01

    Gestation lengths and birth weights were measured in 162 pregnancies in alpacas (Lama pacos) farmed in the high country of the South Island of New Zealand. A comparison of pregnancies from spring (mid-October to mid-December) and autumn (mid-February to late April) matings showed that gestation lengths were 12.5 days longer in spring (348.9 +/- 1.4 days vs. 336.4 +/- 1.2 days; P gestation length of 0.11 days (P gestation length. After adjustment for gestation length, crias born in autumn weighed 1.0 kg more than those born in spring (8.8 +/- 0.15 kg vs. 7.8 +/- 0.18 kg: P < 0.001). Female crias weighed 0.4 kg less than males at birth (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in this environment it will be difficult to maintain spring-mated females in a 12 month breeding cycle.

  17. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gna_pacos_L.png Vicugna_pacos_NL.png Vicugna_pacos_S.png Vicugna_pacos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NS ...

  19. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y; Poulsen, Keith P; McGuirk, Sheila M; Livesey, Michael A; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P; Pinkerton, Marie E

    2010-12-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section.

  20. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare.

  1. The PACo channel strategy; La strategie du reseau PACo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The PACo channel was created in june 1999 to answer government demands in the domain of new energies, to stimulate the new technologies development and to participate to enterprises growth. The first year was devoted in particular to the fuel cell and the hydrogen fuel. This document presents an analysis of the first year of program management. (A.L.B.)

  2. Septic orchitis in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Swor, T M; Löhr, C V; Tibary, A; Barrington, G M

    2000-09-01

    An adult, intact male alpaca was presented with an acute onset of unilateral scrotal swelling. Following complete physical and ultrasonographic examination, the most likely differential diagnoses were orchitis, hematoma, and testicular torsion. The animal was castrated and histopathologic evaluation revealed unilateral orchitis. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was cultured.

  3. Who Is the Dalai Lama?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The U.S.Congress awarded the 14th Dalai Lama the Congressional gold medal on October 17.In response,the Chinese side pointed out that the Dalai Lama,the former chief representative of the feudal serfdom under the theocratic socio-political structure in Tibet,has never been the"representative of democracy"he proclaims he is.A signed article by Hua Zi,entitled"Dalai Lama in Glory of Religion, U.S.in Glory of Democracy"and released by Xinhua News Agency, reveals some deeds and words of the Dalai Lama that have nothing in common with recognized principles of democracy and human rights.

  4. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  5. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

  6. Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.

  7. Dalai Lama Taken to Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In an interview with Germany’s Der Spiegel magazine on March 26,2007, the 14th Dalai Lama explained his view on the Tibet issue,disguising himself as an exile persecuted by the Chinese Government and a monk with no political ambitions.His words,it seems,

  8. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  9. Pharmacokinetics of intrarectal omeprazole in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmulak, T; Stanley, S; Kass, P H; Wiebe, V; McKemie, D; Pusterla, N

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole in three different vehicles when administered rectally to six alpacas. Alpacas were given single doses of omeprazole (4 mg/kg) in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over design with a 1 week washout period. Omeprazole formulations consisted of (1) Treatment A: omeprazole paste mixed in surgical lubricant (2) Treatment B: omeprazole capsule contents in 8.4% sodium bicarbonate and (3) Treatment C: omeprazole capsule contents in surgical lubricant and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Plasma samples were drawn at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 300 and 480 min. Omeprazole plasma concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated median peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 7.35 (3.2-15.2), 7.30 (1.7-10.9) and 8.65 (1.8-19.3) ng/mL and median area under the concentration curve (AUC((0-180))) of 747 (237-1681) min x ng/mL, 552.9 (39-1063) min x ng/mL, and 972 (107-1841) min x ng/mL for treatments A, B and C, respectively. The median half-lives were similar between groups: 38, 50, and 53 min. As a result of the low measured omeprazole plasma concentrations, it is assumed that rectal absorption of omeprazole is poor in alpacas and not an effective route of administration.

  10. Identification of Lama glama as Reservoirs for Acinetobacter lwoffii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Martín M.; Díaz, Ailén M.; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Manghi, Marcela A.; Leoni, Juliana; Castro, Marisa S.; Ferrari, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    South American Camelids have an increasing relevance in local economies, worldwide. These animals are bred for their meat, fur and as companion and therapy animals. Thus, their sanitary status should be well-established. According to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health), respiratory infections mainly produced by Pasteurella spp. have been reported for camelids. It has been stated that this microorganism causes a mild disease, although many authors report it is an important cause of mortality among alpacas. Nevertheless, the incidence of infection by Pasteurella spp. in camelids still needs to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the occurrence of nasopharyngeal colonization of Lama glama by respiratory bacteria, and to assess the usefulness of serological tests for clinical diagnosis. The colonization was studied by culture techniques carried out with material taken by nasopharyngeal swabs. Bacterial isolates were first phenotypically characterized and then identified by MALDI/TOF-MS. The presence of specific serum antibodies was studied by ELISA and Western blot. In the present work Pasteurella spp. was not found. Nevertheless, we report for the first time, the colonization of L. glama by bacteria of the Acinetobacter lwoffii, at a reliable level in 19.4% of the animals. Acinetobacter species are found in different environmental sources, as well as vegetables, animals, and humans, and their role in infections has recently gained relevance. The results presented herein contribute to a better understanding of the respiratory microbiota in camelids, and increase the knowledge about environmental distribution of Acinetobacter non-baumanii species. Given that these respiratory bacteria might be the cause of infection among cattle, and even humans, this report highlights the need for further research. PMID:28303121

  11. The Dalai Lama: A Separatist In Disguise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In his five decades of exile, the Dalai Lama has never stopped plotting to seek "Tibet independence" through allying with foreign forces to internationalize the so-called "Tibet issue" and press the Chinese Government.

  12. Exposing Dalai Lama As a Dishonest Person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Dalai Lama is an honest man, a certain Western politician once said.Is that true?Let’s look at the Dalai Lama’s recent"appeal to the Chinese people"and find out. In his appeal on March 28,the Dalai Lama said he can guarantee ethnic Han peo- ple"he has no intention to split Tibet from China or cause a rift between the Han and Tibetan peoples."On the contrary,he"has constantly pur- sued a solution to the Tibet issue on the basis of lasting and mutual benefit between the Han and Tibetan groups."

  13. Lama Firemen at thePotala Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    INSIDE the Potala Palace lives its own fire brigade, comprising 11 lamas.Constructed from earth and wood, the Potala Palace houses a large number of priceless cultural relics, as well as silks and satins, such as thangkas and prayer banners. Great importance is therefore attached to fire prevention. Protective clothing and advanced

  14. In the Lab with the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Leigh E.

    2005-01-01

    The Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan Buddhist leader was invited to speak at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in November 2005 to promote the idea that through meditation, an emerging meeting point for science and religion in contemporary culture can be reached. However, some members of the association were offended at the implied endorsement…

  15. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  16. Stable recombinant alpaca antibodies for detection of Tulip virus X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.

    2008-01-01

    For detection of the plant pathogenic Tulip virus X (TuVX), a panel of six recombinant antibodies was identified. To this end, a repertoire of variable domains from heavy-chain immunoglobulins (VHH) was cloned from an alpaca, which had been immunized with TuVX. Binding domains were selected by phage

  17. Lama Gangchen and His Self Healing Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOLMA; YANGZOIN

    2002-01-01

    When I came across Lama Gangchen in Nepalyears ago,he was then residing in Italy. He has agood command of Buddhist Tantric theory andpractice,as well as wide knowledge of Tibetanmedicine.He is also active in propagating Tibetan Buddhismand Tibetan medicine, especially in working to protect thepsychic environment and promote education and charityundertakings.For this purpose, he has visited more than 30countries and regions.

  18. Prospección serológica del virus parainfluenza 3 en camélidos sudamericanos en Chile A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CP Cepeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En un total de 370 sueros obtenidos de 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Llama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 106 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus parainfluenza 3 (VPI-3. La prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación mostró que 91 (24,6% de los camélidos sudamericanos (CSA distribuidos en 18 (20,7% alpacas, 36 (40,9% llamas, 27 (18,9% vicuñas y 10 (11,2% guanacos tenían anticuerpos. El rango de los títulos de las muestras positivas estuvo entre 8 y 256 con una media geométrica de 31. Los resultados establecen que los CSA en Chile están infectados con VPI-3.A total of 370 sera collected from 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Lama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 106 vicunas (Vicugna vicugna were investigated for the presence of antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV-3. Hemagglutination inhibition test indicated that a total of 91 (24.6% South American camelids (SAC had PIV-3 antibodies, including 18 (20.7% alpacas, 36 (40.9% llamas, 27 (18.9% vicunas and 10 (11.2% guanacos. Titers of the positive samples ranged from 8 to 256 with a geometric mean of 31. These results establish that SAC in Chile are infected with PIV-3.

  19. New file format PaCo for standardized data and meta data exchange; PaCo - Ein neues Datenformat zum standardisierten Austausch von Parameterwerten und Meta-Informationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gekeler, M. [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The definition of the PaCo format enables the transport of parameter values as well as qualification stage information. Since PaCo is based on a unified naming of the qualification stage and their meanings, it is possible to exchange data between different companies. Additionally, the use of one PaCo file containing parameter values and qualification stage information together increases process safety. PaCo also provides reliable documentation of the qualification stage for each parameter and allows the user the possibility to estimate the overall project state. (orig.)

  20. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    Full Text Available Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  1. Behind the Dalai Lama's Holy Cloak(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Editor's Note:Dalai Lama has been changed so popular these years that it seems he becomes a logo to some extent.But who is the Dalai Lama?Most of people are puzzled.Not long before I read a couple of papers and enjoyed them very much.Maybe our read-ers are willing to share them and interested them.

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN FENOTÍPICA Y PRODUCTIVA DE LA EXPLOTACIÓN DE ALPACAS EN LA COMUNIDAD DE HUAYTIRE Y ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UNA LÍNEA DE BASE SISTEMATIZADA CON FINES DE MEJORAMIENTO GANADERO – TACNA 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    LA ALPACA. GENERALIDADES LÍNEA DE BASE. GENERALIDADES ASPECTOS METODOLÓGICOS VARIABILIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN ALPACAS ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE ALPACAS EN LOS REBAÑOS FAMILIARES CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA FIBRA DE ALPACA MALFORMACIONES FENOTÍPICAS EN ALPACAS

  3. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly; Monrad, Jesper

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalences and intensities of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites in lamas in the Bolivian Andes. A quantitative and qualitative necro-copro-parasitlogical study was performed on 33 lamas between October and December 2007. At the time of necropsy the......  lamas were aged 1½  to >4 years. They originated from 14 different farms in the most lama dense areas of Bolivia: Oruro, Potosi, La Paz and the highlands above Cochabamba. In total 16 different species of nematodes, one cestode species, one trematode species, and one coccidian genus were detected...... %); in the liver: Fasciola hepatica (12 %); in faeces Eimeria spp. (82 %). Pathological changes in the liver were ascribed to be most probably caused by L. chavezi larva migration. The latter species, considered to be the very most pathogenic of all lama GIT nematode species, was also the species detected...

  4. LAMA5 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAMA5 belongs to the alpha subfamily of laminin chains and is a major component of basement membranes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The laminins, a family of heterotrimeric extracellular glycoproteins, affect tissue development and integrity in such diverse organs as the kidney, lung, skin, and nervous system. It is thought that laminins mediate the attachment, migration, and organization of cells into tissues during embryonic development by interacting with other extracellular matrix components. Laminin is a complex glycoprotein, consisting of three different polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma), which are bound to each other by disulfide bonds into a cross-shaped molecule comprising one long and three short arms with globules at each end. Alpha-5 is a subunit of laminin-10 (laminin-511), laminin-11 (laminin-521) and laminin-15 (laminin-523). LAMA5 is expressed in heart, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle, pancreas, retina and placenta. There is little or no expression in brain and liver.

  5. LABA/LAMA combinations versus LAMA monotherapy or LABA/ICS in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo GJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo J Rodrigo,1 David Price,2,3 Antonio Anzueto,4,5 Dave Singh,6 Pablo Altman,7 Giovanni Bader,8 Francesco Patalano,8 Robert Fogel,7 Konstantinos Kostikas8 1Departamento de Emergencia, Hospital Central de las Fuerzas Armadas, Montevideo, Uruguay; 2Academic Primary Care, Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute, Singapore; 4University of Texas Health Science Center, 5South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 6Medicines Evaluation Unit, National Institute for Health Research Respiratory and Allergy Clinical Research Facility, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, England, UK; 7Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 8Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs indicate that long-acting bronchodilator combinations, such as β2-agonist (LABA/muscarinic antagonist (LAMA, have favorable efficacy compared with commonly used COPD treatments. The objective of this analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of LABA/LAMA with LAMA or LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS in adults with stable moderate-to-very-severe COPD. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and clinical trial/manufacturer databases included RCTs comparing ≥12 weeks’ LABA/LAMA treatment with LAMA and/or LABA/ICS (approved doses only. Eligible studies were independently selected by two authors using predefined data fields; the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Results: Eighteen studies (23 trials were eligible (N=20,185. LABA/LAMA significantly improved trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 from baseline to week 12 versus both LAMA and LABA/ICS (0.07 L and 0.08 L, P<0.0001, with patients more likely to achieve clinically

  6. The Dalai Lama:A Separatist in Disguise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama’s recent meeting with the Dalai Lama has sparked strong reactions in China. Xinhua News Agency released an article titled "Foreign Backing Gives Dalai Lama No Room But Doom" to reveal the illegitimate nature of the Dalai Lama’s "Tibetan Government-in-exile." The article, bylined Yiduo, also attacked the monk’s "Tibet independence." Excerpts of the article follow

  7. Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical

  8. BEHIND THE DALAI LAMA'S HOLY CLOAK(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Editor's Note:Note:Dalai Lama has been changed so popular these years that it seems he becomes a logo to some extent.But who is the Dalai Lama?Most of people are puzzled.Not long before I read a couple of papers and enjoyed them very much.Maybe our readers are willing to share them and interested them.Here are excerpts from them. The one is from Michael Backman,who is an internationally renowned writer,columnist and speaker.He specializes in writing and speaking about Asia:its economies,politics,business...

  9. Automatic Feature Interaction Analysis in PacoSuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanderperren

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build upon previous work that aims at recuperating aspect oriented ideas into component based software development. In that research, a composition adapter was proposed in order to capture crosscutting concerns in the PacoSuite component based methodology. A composition adapter is visually applied onto a given component composition and the changes it describes are automatically applied. Stacking multiple composition adapters onto the same component composition can however lead to unpredictable and undesired side-effects. In this paper, we propose a solution for this issue, widely known as the feature interaction problem. We present a classification of different interaction levels among composition adapters and the algorithms required to verify them. The proposed algorithms are however of exponential nature and depend on both the composition adapters and the component composition as a whole. In order to enhance the performance of our feature interaction analysis, we present a set of theorems that define the interaction levels solely in terms of the properties of the composition adapters themselves.

  10. HLA genes in Lamas Peruvian-Amazonian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Juan; Seclen, Segundo; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Villena, A; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Zamora, Jorge; Moreno, Almudena; Ira-Cachafeiro, Juan; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    The Lamas Amerindians are the Chancas descents who established before 1532 a.d. (Spanish conquest) at Lamas City, Wayku quarter in a Peruvian-Amazonian province (San Martin). The Lamas HLA profile shows significant differences with other Amerindians HLA profile, i.e.: (a) a higher number of newly found haplotypes compared to other studied Amerindian populations, particularly HLA-A*02-B*48-DRB1*0403-DQB1*0302, A*02-B*48-DRB1*0804-DQB1*0402 and A*02-B*40-DRB1*0407-DQB1*0302; (b) a relative high frequency of HLA-DRB1*0901 (a high frequency southern Asian allele) and HLA-B*48 (a Na-Dene, Siberian and Eskimo allele); both alleles are also found frequently in Quechuas and Aymaras, but not in many other (particularly Meso American) Amerindians and (c) correspondence and neighbor-joining dendrogram analyses show that Lamas (Chancas) may have an origin close to Amazonian Indians that later reached the Andean altiplano.

  11. History of the Dalai Lama in Government Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGGUOQING

    2004-01-01

    The Dalai Lama ruled Tibet for prolonged period of time, but this was not the situation in the beginning when the title was created. The religious leader first received the honorific title in the second half of the 16th century, some 100 years later after the death of Gendain Zhuba (later confirmed posthumously as the 1 st Dalai

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Jesper; Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly;

    %); in the liver: Fasciola hepatica (12 %); in faeces Eimeria spp. (82 %). Pathological changes in the liver were ascribed to be most probably caused by L. chavezi larva migration. The latter species, considered to be the very most pathogenic of all lama GIT nematode species, was also the species detected...

  13. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in females alpacas of SAIS Pachacutec, Central Sierra of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz C., Hernán; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Casas A., Eva; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Li E., Olga; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in alpacas at the production unit of Cuyo, part of SAIS Pachacutec in the Central Sierra of Peru. Blood samples were collected in 258 female alpacas in January 2003. Sera were tested against T. gondii antibodies by the Indirect Immunoflorescence test (IFI). The results showed that 8.5 ± 3.4% (22/258) of animals had antibodies against the parasite. This frequency is lower than in other alpac...

  15. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  16. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in Alpacas on Two Maryland Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one fecal samples were collected from adult alpacas and crias (ages 10 wk to 10 yr) on two farms in central Maryland. The farms raised both suri (silky-haired) and huacaya (crimpy-haired) breeds. Females and crias were housed together on pasture, whereas older/breeding males were maintained o...

  17. Generation of recombinant alpaca VHH antibody fragments for the detection of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Saeger, de T.; Rusanova, T.; Waalwijk, C.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To develop sensor technologies based on genetically engineered recognition elements, recombinant antibodies characterised by high stability are a prerequisite. Here we describe the first successful isolation of recombinant alpaca single-domain antibody fragments with high affinity to the mycotoxin o

  18. The New Physics and Cosmology - Dialogues with the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Arthur; Houshmand, Zara

    2004-03-01

    What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with leading physicists and a historian? This book is the carefully edited record of the fascinating discussions at a Mind and Life conference in which five leading physicists and a historian (David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Arthur Zajonc, Anton Zeilinger, and Tu Weiming) discussed with the Dalai Lama current thought in theoretical quantum physics, in the context of Buddhist philosophy. A contribution to the science-religion interface, and a useful explanation of our basic understanding of quantum reality, couched at a level that intelligent readers without a deep involvement in science can grasp. In the tradition of other popular books on resonances between modern quantum physics and Zen or Buddhist mystical traditions--notably The Dancing Wu Li Masters and The Tao of Physics , this book gives a clear and useful update of the genuine correspondences between these two rather disparate approaches to understanding the nature of reality.

  19. Paying a visit: The Dalai Lama Effect on international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Andreas; Klann, Nils-Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Is political compliance a precondition for healthy trade relations with China? The Chinese government frequently threatens that meetings between its trading partners' officials and the Dalai Lama will be met with animosity and ultimately harm trade ties with China. We run a gravity model of exports to China from 159 partner countries between 1991 and 2008 to test the extent to which bilateral tensions affect trade with autocratic China. In particular, we investigate empirically whether countr...

  20. Pengaruh Perlakuan Mekanis dan Konsentrasi Giberelin serta Lama Perendaman terhadap Perkecambahan Biji Palem Kol (Licuala grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan mekanis, konsentrasi Giberelin dan lama perendaman terhadap pematahan masa dormansi biji palem kol. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di desa Bah Kapul Kecamatan Martoba Pematang Siantar yang berlangsung bulan Nopember 1998 sampai dengan bulan Maret 1999. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan perlakuan mekanis, konsentrasi dan lama perendaman. Faktor pertama adalah perlakuan mekanis terdiri da...

  1. Clinical and molecular characterization of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy due to LAMA2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavassini, Bruno F; Carboni, Nicola; Nielsen, Jørgen E;

    2011-01-01

    In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations.......In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations....

  2. Development and application of camelid molecular cytogenetic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human-camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly.

  3. Alianzas paródicas y melancolía en Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, C.C. van

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines Paco Ignacio Taibo II’s detective novels, which narrate communitarian battles against power through parody. The essay hones in on the relationship between parody and melancholy, which are relevant to understand that, in Taibo II’s novels, imagining popular alliances is both enter

  4. [Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubus, K; Wöckel, A; Felton, C; Schwarzenberger, J; Sobiraj, A

    2015-01-01

    Urachal fistula is a neonatal condition. There are two reported forms: a congenital and an acquired form. We describe the case of a 6-hour-old female alpaca cria that was presented with a damp umbilicus and a meconium impaction. Conservative treatment of the urachal fistula with local and systemic medication was unsuccessful after 6 days; therefore, a resection of the umbilicus under general anaesthesia was performed. Reconvalescence was uneventful.

  5. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  6. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  7. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% (18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. This study was carried out in the Histology and Embriology laboratory at the Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny of the Altiplano National University, with alpacas coming from the EPS Rural Alliance (4140 m.a.s.l., Quimsachata Research Center (4050 m.a.s.l. and the Raya Research Center (4130 m.a.s.l. whose objective was the study the process of the uterine involution after parturition from day 0 to 30. For such purpose 34 multiparous alpacas from 4 to 6 year old were selectec. The results were: Macroscopically the uterusweight lost 71,07% (385,25g, 25,54% (138,55g and 3,42% (18,6g at first

  8. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...... Vmean and the end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension (PETCO2) decrease, suggesting that PaCO2 contributes to the reduction in MCA Vmean. In a fixed body position, PETCO2 tracks changes in the PaCO2 but when assuming the upright position, cardiac output (Q) decreases and its distribution over the lung changes...

  9. Algılama ve Eğitim

    OpenAIRE

    ÜLGEN, GÜLTEN

    1983-01-01

    Hangi düzeyde öğretim yapılırsa yapılsın, konu ne olursa olsun ister genel bilgi, isterse bir disiplinle ilgili mesleğe hazırlayıcı nitelikte olsun eğitimcilerin ortak bir hedefi vardır: O da öğrencinin kendi gelişme kapasitesini etkili bir şekilde kullanabilmesidir. Bireyin gelişmesini sağlayan üç önemli kapasitesi vardır: (1) Algılama, (2) Hissetme ve (3) Yapma kapasiteleri. Bu üç kapasite bireyin çevresiyle etkileşim sürecinde biribirini de etkileyerek onun tüm gelişimini sağlar. O halde b...

  10. Is Meeting the Dalai Lama a Bargaining Chip?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Days before the 11th China-EU Summit sched-uled for early December in France,French President Nicolas Sarkozy,who currently holds the rotating presidency of the EU,said that he would meet with the Dalai Lama after the summit.In response,China announced it would postpone the China-EU Summit,a harsh stance that caused an international media frenzy.Why did China throw itself into this unusual rage?Is it because the French Government has infringed upon the bottom line of its national in-terests?Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei spoke to Yan Xuetong,Director of the Institute of International Studies at Tsinghua University,about these questions.

  11. Evaluation of Lama5 as a candidate for the mouse ragged (Ra) mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Albrechtsen, R; Chambers, D M;

    1998-01-01

    The laminin alpha5 chain is a component of the basement membranes of many developing and adult tissues. The mouse laminin alpha5 chain gene (Lama5) has been mapped close to the locus of the semidominant ragged (Ra) mutation on distal chromosome 2. The cause of the Ra mutation, which is usually...... lethal in the homozygous state, has not been determined. We have investigated whether a defect in Lama5 is responsible for the ragged mutation, using the RaJ strain. No differences in the level of the laminin alpha5 chain transcript were found in placental RNA from homozygous RaJ mutant embryos compared...... to normal littermates. Antiserum raised against a recombinant laminin alpha5 chain polypeptide stained the basement membranes of both normal and homozygous mutant embryos to a similar extent. More precise mapping of Lama5 on an interspecific Ra backcross indicated that Lama5 is proximal to the Ra locus...

  12. Komunikasi Antarpribadi Keluarga Tki (Studi Kasus Penggunaan Teknologi Komunikasi Antarpribadi Keluarga TKI di Desa Stabat Lama)

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Many families were not living in house together because of job reason. So, Face to face communication seldom done by family members. But, along the growing globalization era. The emergence of various kinds modern technology in life which could assist and facilitate all activities. This situation was felt by Indonesian migrant worker family in Stabat Lama. Indonesian Migrant worker family in Stabat lama used communication technology for communicate and know the conditions of Indonesian migrant...

  13. Claves para una lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Cortés, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    A modo de homenaje, nuestro texto propone la lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía a partir del análisis de cinco claves: la técnica de guitarra, el ritmo, la armonía, la melodía y los préstamos de otras músicas en torno a dos ejes, el grupo flamenco y el cajón. Acotaciones sobre el concepto de “toque flamenco”, sobre el Niño Ricardo y sobre Sabicas completan esta lectura de la obra del recién fallecido Maestro de Algeciras

  14. A Discussion of the 13th Dalai Lama during the Period from 1910 to 1912

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhongcui

    2014-01-01

    Following the decline of the Qing dynasty and its weak foreign policy , the Tibetan people became gradually dissatisfied with: ( i ) the Qing local administration ’ s lack of progress;( ii) their succumbing to the force of Britain; and ( iii ) their wantonly selling their local benefits . Especially during the time of the 13th Dalai Lama, this kind of mood of dissatisfaction further deep-ened.In order to maintain the benefits of Tibet, the 13th Dalai Lama tried to submit reports directly to the Qing court , and was eager to get the support from the central government of the Qing dynasty . However , this effort did not reach the central gov-ernment due to the barriers created by the royally appointed minister in Tibet . The British army launched a second invasion of Tibet in 1903, and soon occupied Lhasa.To the 13th Dalai Lama’ s disappointment , Youtai, the royal minister in Ti-bet, did not consider the Tibetan ’ s strong anger about the British invasion , but tried to appease the enemy in order to safeguard “peaceful relations”. And, at the same time he framed the 13th Dalai Lama saying“his abandonment of the land became an excuse for the foreign enemy ’ s invasion”. The Qing court then , without making a detailed investigation , announced a decree that abolished Thubten Gyatso ’ s title of Dalai Lama. Since then , misunderstanding between the 13 th Dalai La-ma and the Qing court deepened further , and some upper-class Tibetans even considered leav-ing the Qing . Taking advantage of the Qing ’ s improper attitude towards the 13th Dalai Lama, Britain began officially to carry out a strategy of winning over the heart of the 13th Dalai Lama. In February, 1910, the 13th Dalai Lama leftLhasa and went into exile in India.Britain wasvery happy about the Dalai ’ s arrival in India.The British man with whom the 13th Dalai Lamahad the most contact during his stay in British Indi -a was Charles Alfred Bell, a political officer ofSikkim.Bell noted the

  15. Pituitary null cell adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, M D; Kiupel, M; Draper, A C E

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama.

  16. Morphometric analysis of llama (Lama glama) sperm head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, C; Lombardo, D M; Giuliano, S; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, M I; Miragaya, M H

    2012-05-01

    Llama production in Argentina has increased, as the international interest in breeding this type of animals has grown in the last years. Considering the great polymorphism that llama spermatozoa present at evaluation using light microscopy, the aim of this study was to objectively evaluate llama sperm head morphometry using digital morphometric analysis. Five ejaculates from each of eight males were obtained to evaluate morphometric parameters of 8000 sperm heads stained with Tinción 15(®). The following average results were obtained for each parameter: size parameters: area 20.09 μm(2), length 6.60 μm, width 4.14 μm, equivalent circle diameter 5.06 μm, curve length 5.79 μm and curve width 3.48 μm; boundary parameters: perimeter 18.54 μm and convex perimeter 17.34 μm; and shape parameters: roundness 1.28 and elongation 1.59. Morphometric parameters of sperm head were compared between ejaculates of the same male and between males. Significant differences between ejaculates of the same male were found for all parameters evaluated (P < 0.01). Significant differences between males were found for all morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) except for curve length, curve width and perimeter. The differences detected would indicate that there is not a single morphometric pattern for Lama glama sperm head, because parameter values cannot be standardised.

  17. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  18. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  19. Mutations in Lama1 disrupt retinal vascular development and inner limiting membrane formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Malia M; Mammadova-Bach, Elmina; Alpy, Fabien; Klein, Annick; Hicks, Wanda L; Roux, Michel; Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Smith, Richard S; Orend, Gertraud; Wu, Jiang; Peachey, Neal S; Naggert, Jürgen K; Lefebvre, Olivier; Nishina, Patsy M

    2010-03-05

    The Neuromutagenesis Facility at the Jackson Laboratory generated a mouse model of retinal vasculopathy, nmf223, which is characterized clinically by vitreal fibroplasia and vessel tortuosity. nmf223 homozygotes also have reduced electroretinogram responses, which are coupled histologically with a thinning of the inner nuclear layer. The nmf223 locus was mapped to chromosome 17, and a missense mutation was identified in Lama1 that leads to the substitution of cysteine for a tyrosine at amino acid 265 of laminin alpha1, a basement membrane protein. Despite normal localization of laminin alpha1 and other components of the inner limiting membrane, a reduced integrity of this structure was suggested by ectopic cells and blood vessels within the vitreous. Immunohistochemical characterization of nmf223 homozygous retinas demonstrated the abnormal migration of retinal astrocytes into the vitreous along with the persistence of hyaloid vasculature. The Y265C mutation significantly reduced laminin N-terminal domain (LN) interactions in a bacterial two-hybrid system. Therefore, this mutation could affect interactions between laminin alpha1 and other laminin chains. To expand upon these findings, a Lama1 null mutant, Lama1(tm1.1Olf), was generated that exhibits a similar but more severe retinal phenotype than that seen in nmf223 homozygotes. The increased severity of the Lama1 null mutant phenotype is probably due to the complete loss of the inner limiting membrane in these mice. This first report of viable Lama1 mouse mutants emphasizes the importance of this gene in retinal development. The data presented herein suggest that hypomorphic mutations in human LAMA1 could lead to retinal disease.

  20. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% 18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. Histológicamente: durante los primeros días la superficie uterina es irregular y presenta proyecciones endometriales de aspecto fungiforme y esta cubierto por células pavimentosas, estroma con la presencia de linfocitos, macrófagos y fibroblastos, glándulas reducidas en su diámetro. A partir del sexto día, muestra cambio en el regenerativo, el epitelio de hace predominantemente cúbico, Del sexto al doceavo día el epitelio continua irregular con pequeñas áreas con células epiteliales pavimentosas y cúbicas, lo cual coincide con el cambio en el peso del útero en forma significativa

  1. MUTU ORGANOLEPTIK DAN KIMIAWI TERASI UDANG REBON DENGAN KADAR GARAM BERBEDA DAN LAMA FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    apri dwi anggo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Terasi merupakan produk fermentasi udang dengan penambahan garam. Fermentasi dengan garam menyebabkan perombakan protein menjadi asam amino misalnya asam glutamat sebagai penghasil cita rasa khas terasi. Kadar garam dan lama fermentasi merupakan faktor penting pada proses pembuatan terasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh perbedaan konsentrasi garam dan lama fermentasi terhadap kualitas terasi rebon terutama kandungan asam glutamat. Bahan baku yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah rebon (Acetes sp. kering tawar dengan panjang ±2 cm per ekor. Perlakuan garam dengan konsentrasi 2%, 8,5%, 15% dan lama fermentasi (8 hari dan 32 hari. Metode penelitian menggunakan metode experimental field dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK pola split plot in time 3 kali ulangan. Parameter yang diuji meliputi organoleptik, pH, kadar protein, asam glutamat, kadar air dan profil asam amino. Parameter kadar protein, asam glutamat dan profil asam amino pada fermentasi hari ke 32 yang diamati hanya perlakuan konsentrasi kadar garam terbaik pada hari ke 8. Nilai organoleptik terasi berkisar antara 7,65-8,32 artinya produk tersebut dapat diterima konsumen. Nilai pH Nilai pH terasi rebon berkisar antara 7,09 sampai 7,89. Konsentrasi garam 2% pada terasi rebon menghasilkan kadar protein dan asam glutamat tertinggi yaitu 47,14%+0,20 (dry base. Asam amino yang dominan pada terasi rebon adalah asam glutamat dan asam aspartat. Lama fermentasi menyebabkan penurunan asam glutamat terasi rebon.Kata kunci: asam glutamat, fermentasi, garam, rebon

  2. LAMA2-related myopathy; frequency among congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Muscular dystrophy caused by LAMA2-gene mutations is an autosomal recessive disease typically presenting as a severe, early-onset congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). However, milder cases with a limb-girdle type muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been described. Methods: In this study...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1884 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1884 ref|NP_063902.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Lama pacos] emb|CAC00503.1| NADH2 [Lama pac...os] emb|CAD98814.1| NADH2 protein [Lama pacos] NP_063902.1 0.026 24% ...

  4. Pengaruh Tingkat Konsentrasi GA3 dan Lama Pencelupan terhadap Pembentukan Buah Partenokarpi pada Semangka {Citrullvs vulgaris Schard)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Lilis Sriwaty Elfrida Sitorus, Pengaruh Tingkat Konsentrasi GA3dan Lama Pencelupan terhadap Pembentukan Buah Partenokarpi pada Semangka {Citrullvs vulgaris Schard) dibawah bimbingan Ibu Dr. Ir. Jenimar, MS dan Bapak Ir. Hot Setiado, MS. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat konsentrasi GA3 dan Lama Pencelupan yang tepat bagi pembungaan dan pembentukan buah partenokarpi pada tanaman semangka. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di rumah kaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera...

  5. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of pion-pion scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Peláez, J R; Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J

    2009-01-01

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  6. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of {pi}{pi} scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, J.R.; Garcia Martin, R. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica II, Univ. Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid. Spain (Spain); Kaminski, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Yndurain, F.J. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, C-XI Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  7. Study of Neutron From a Dense Plasma Focus Paco Instrument by Means of Nuclear Tracks Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milanese

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A most interesting feature of dense plasma foci is the acceleration of charge particle at energy in the range of MeV per nucleon. Using deuterium gas, this devices produce fusion D-D reactions, generation fast neutron pulses (~ 2.5 MeV. The device used in the present work is a Mather-type dense plasma focus, called PACO. It is a 2kJ device at 31 kV, with an oxygen-free copper anode, 50 mm long with 40 mm diameter. The coaxial cathode is formed by ten copper rods arranged in a squirrel cage configuration at a radius of 50mm. The insulator in an annular Pyrex® tube located at the base of the anode. The energy store is provided by four 1 µF (40 kV, 40 nH capacitors in parallel. The plasma focus was operated at 1.5 mb deuterium gas pressure. Neutron and accelerated particles are analyzed with material detectors (CR-39 Lantrack® for different conditions. A detailed study is made of track diameters when the plastic is chemically etched with, 6N KOH at 60°C (±1 for 12 h.

  8. Changes in liveweight and behaviour of alpaca dams and offspring following weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J C; Littlejohn, R P; Davis, G H

    1993-12-01

    The effects of offspring sex, weight, age, and level of interaction with the dam on responses to weaning were examined to assist in the development of a weaning protocol for alpacas. In the first study, preand post-weaning activities, and weight change over Days -12-0,0-7 and 7-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 20 dam-offspring (hembra-cria) pairs aged 81-200 days. Pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (Phembra weight change followed the same pattern. Over Days 0-2, grazing and sitting activities of hembras and crias were replaced by standing and walking along paddock fencelines, although by Day 2 fenceline activities had decreased (Phembra-cria pairs aged 124-160 days. During 10 hours of observation on Days -5 and -4, the total duration of sucking by individual crias varied from 0-18 minutes, and the mean +/- SEM duration of sucking was 1.94 +/- 0.113 minutes. Cria sucking behaviour was positively related to growth rate prior to and weight at weaning (Phembras lost weight over Days 0-8 and 8-16. The changes in growth rate and behaviour in Studies 1 and 2 indicated that weaning can be stressful for hembras and crias. However, there was no evidence from either study that pre-weaning behavioural or physical characteristics were related to the changes.

  9. Common Arterial Trunk in a 3-Day-Old Alpaca Cria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumugi Anne Kurosawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-day-old alpaca cria presented for progressive weakness and dyspnea since birth. Complete bloodwork, thoracic radiographs, and endoscopic examination of the nasal passages and distal trachea revealed no significant findings. Echocardiogram and contrast study revealed a single artery overriding a large ventricular septal defect (VSD. A small atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale was also noted. Color flow Doppler and an agitated saline contrast study revealed bidirectional but primarily right to left flow through the VSD and bidirectional shunting through the atrial defect. Differential diagnosis based on echocardiographic findings included common arterial trunk, Tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary atresia with a VSD. Postmortem examination revealed a large common arterial trunk with a quadricuspid valve overriding a VSD. Additionally, defect in the atrial septum was determined to be a patent foramen ovale. A single pulmonary trunk arose from the common arterial trunk and bifurcated to the left and right pulmonary artery, consistent with a Collet and Edwards’ type I common arterial trunk with aortic predominance. Although uncommon, congenital cardiac defects should be considered in animals presenting with clinical signs of hypoxemia, dyspnea, or failure to thrive.

  10. PENGARUH JUS DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle Linn SEBAGAI BAHAN PRECURING DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN ANGKA PEROKSIDA DENDENG AYAM PETELUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysia Tenny Damayanti Indriastuti

    2012-09-01

    mempertahankan komposisi kimia secara proposional dan menekan angka peroksida sehingga memperpanjang lama penyimpanan dendeng ayam petelur afkir. (Kata kunci: Daging ayam, Daun sirih, Dendeng, Komposisi kimia, Angka peroksida

  11. Abnormal Wnt and PI3Kinase signaling in the malformed intestine of lama5 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Ritié

    Full Text Available Laminins are major constituents of basement membranes and are essential for tissue homeostasis. Laminin-511 is highly expressed in the intestine and its absence causes severe malformation of the intestine and embryonic lethality. To understand the mechanistic role of laminin-511 in tissue homeostasis, we used RNA profiling of embryonic intestinal tissue of lama5 knockout mice and identified a lama5 specific gene expression signature. By combining cell culture experiments with mediated knockdown approaches, we provide a mechanistic link between laminin α5 gene deficiency and the physiological phenotype. We show that laminin α5 plays a crucial role in both epithelial and mesenchymal cell behavior by inhibiting Wnt and activating PI3K signaling. We conclude that conflicting signals are elicited in the absence of lama5, which alter cell adhesion, migration as well as epithelial and muscle differentiation. Conversely, adhesion to laminin-511 may serve as a potent regulator of known interconnected PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways. Thus deregulated adhesion to laminin-511 may be instrumental in diseases such as human pathologies of the gut where laminin-511 is abnormally expressed as it is shown here.

  12. Genotype-phenotype correlation in a large population of muscular dystrophy patients with LAMA2 mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh

    2010-04-01

    Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy 1A (MDC1A) results from mutations in the LAMA2 gene. We report 51 patients with MDC1A and examine the relationship between degree of merosin expression, genotype and clinical features. Thirty-three patients had absence of merosin and 13 showed some residual merosin. Compared to the residual merosin group, patients with absent merosin had an earlier presentation (<7days) (P=0.0073), were more likely to lack independent ambulation (P=0.0215), or require enteral feeding (P=0.0099) and ventilatory support (P=0.0354). We identified 33 novel LAMA2 mutations; these were distributed throughout the gene in patients with absent merosin, with minor clusters in exon 27, 14, 25 and 26 (55% of mutations). Patients with residual merosin often carried at least one splice site mutation and less frequently frameshift mutations. This large study identified novel LAMA2 mutations and highlights the role of immunohistochemical studies for merosin status in predicting clinical severity of MDC1A.

  13. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  14. Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2011-07-01

    Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.

  15. Hubungan Lama Aktivitas Membaca dengan Derajat Miopia pada Mahasiswa Pendidikan Dokter FK Unand Angkatan 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Maulud Fauziah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMiopia adalah salah satu kelainan refraksi pada mata dengan prevalensi yang tinggi di dunia. Berbagai faktor yang berhubungan dengan miopia seperti faktor keturunan dan lingkungan. Faktor lingkungan yang berperan kuat adalah kerja dekat seperti membaca. Lama membaca dapat meningkatkan risiko dan progresivitas miopia. Mahasiswa kedokteran berisiko mengalami miopia karena banyak melakukan aktivitas membaca yang lama dan intensif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat miopia. Metode studi menggunakan desain cross sectional analitik dengan 121 sampel. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan kuesioner tentang riwayat miopia dan lama membaca. Data dianalisis dengan uji chi-square (x² dengan kemaknaan (p<0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa kejadian miopia lebih banyak terjadi pada mahasiswa perempuan (78.5%. Miopia pertama kali paling banyak terjadi pada usia 13 tahun (19%. Pertambahan ukuran refraksi per tahun pada mahasiswa miopia rata-rata adalah 0.30 D. Sebagian mahasiswa miopia menghabiskan waktu untuk membaca lebih dari 10.7 jam/hari (52.9%, sebagian lagi kurang dari 10.7 jam/hari (47.1%. Mahasiswa miopia sebagian besar menderita miopia ringan. Analisis statistik hubungan lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat miopia didapatkan nilai p=0,15. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat myopia.Kata kunci: lama membaca, derajat miopiaAbstractMyopia is a refractive error of the eye with a high prevalence in the world. Various factors association with myopia such as heredity and environmental factor. The strongest role an environmental is near work such as reading. Reading time can increase risk and progression of myopia. Medical students have the risk of myopia because of long and intensive reading. This study aimed to determine relationship the duration of reading activities with the degree of myopia. This study used a

  16. GAT 3 - fuel cells and their management (PACoGES). Progress report; GAT 3 - piles a combustible et leur gestion (PACoGES). Rapport final (juillet 2002 a juin 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.

    2005-07-01

    The Topic Analysis Group PACoGES ('Piles a Combustible et leur Gestion') has conducted thoughts on fuel cells and their management with all the searchers concern with researches and developments on fuel cells and in particular on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC, ITSOFC) running at high temperature (600 to 1000 C). This has concerned about 200 searchers working in about fifty laboratories (CNRS, CEA, EDF, GDF, INRETS, CNAM, Armines, and several industrial teams). Here is given the final report 2002-2004 concerning all the researches carried out by this Group. (O.M.)

  17. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China); Dong, Changsheng, E-mail: cs_dong@sxau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China)

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  18. Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, Maria Magdalena; Niedbalski, Jorge Julio; Moroso, Roberto Luis; Acuña, H.; Malamud, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates. Fil: Supán, L.. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Insti...

  19. “Sympathetic travelling”: horizontal ethics and aesthetics in Paco Ignacio Taibo’s Belascoarán Shayne novels

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article Jennifer Lewis argues that the detective novels of Paco Ignacio Taibo II adapt the conventions of the detective novel in order to examine and critique the idea of ‘Mexicanness’ in a post-colonial world.. She argues that these novels, with their unlikely (anti)hero, fantastic plots and playfully ironic style, respond in different ways to an array of different questions triggered by Mexico’s violent history: how to represent a city that is both “magical” and monstrous; how to re...

  20. La animalizaci??n como proceso de caracterizaci??n novelesca en la narrativa policiaca de Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Parra, Diego

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar los mecanismos literarios al servicio de la caracterizaci??n de personajes basados en la animalizaci??n a lo largo de la narrativa polic??aca del autor mexicano Paco Ignacio Taibo II. A partir de un relevamiento l??xico, se trata de estudiar las referencias animales y el campo sem??ntico creado por estas im??genes: en particular uno muy rico ligado a la situaci??n de inestabilidad en el panorama pol??tico, social y econ??mico del M??xico contemp...

  1. Dual therapy strategies for COPD: the scientific rationale for LAMA + LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Joshua S Cohen,1 Matthew C Miles,2 James F Donohue,3 Jill A Ohar2 1United Lung and Sleep Clinic, Saint Paul, MN, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle with inhaled bronchodilators is the cornerstone of treatment for stable COPD, with inhaled corticosteroids reserved for those with a history of exacerbations. Tiotropium has occupied center stage in COPD treatment for over 10 years and improves lung function, quality of life, exercise endurance, and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs improve lung function, reduce dynamic hyperinflation, increase exercise tolerance, health-related quality of life, and reduce acute exacerbation of COPD. The combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs and LABAs is thought to leverage different pathways to induce bronchodilation using submaximal drug doses, increasing the benefits and minimizing receptor-specific side effects. Umeclidinium/vilanterol is the first combination of LAMA/LABA to be approved for use in stable COPD in USA and Europe. Additionally, indacaterol/glycopyrronium and aclidinium/formoterol have been approved in Europe and in numerous locations outside USA. Several other agents are in the late stages of development, most of which offer once-daily dosing. The benefits of new LAMA/LABA combinations include improved pulmonary function, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life, and in some cases, reduced exacerbations. These evolving treatments will provide new opportunities and challenges in the management of COPD. Keywords: bronchodilator, fixed-dose combination, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD treatment

  2. Wind effects on snow cover in Pascua-Lama, Dry Andes of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoin, Simon; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Kinnard, Christophe; Borstel, Kirsten; Glen E. Liston

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We present the first application of a distributed snow model (SnowModel) in the instrumented site of Pascua-Lama in the Dry Andes (2600-5630 m above sea level, 29°S). A model experiment was performed to assess the effect of wind on the snow cover patterns. A particular objective was to evaluate the role of blowing snow on the glacier formation. The model was run using the data from 11 weather stations over a complete snow season. First, a cross-validation of the meteor...

  3. Modelagem da cinética de polimerização em lama de eteno

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Giraldi Fisch

    2004-01-01

    A modelagem matemática é uma ferramenta que apresenta diversas vantagens no estudo de processos industriais como, por exemplo, entender e desenvolver tecnologias, avaliar o impacto de variáveis nas propriedades do produto, estudos de redução de custos de produção e de impacto ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver e validar um modelo matemático para um reator de bancada de polimerização em lama de eteno, enfatizando o desenvolvimento do modelo cinético. O modelo do reator contempl...

  4. FRESH COMMENTS ON NEGOTIATION BETWEEN THE 14TH DALAI LAMA AND THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Iwrote for China’s Tibet of the topicbefore, and many of our readerswrote us explaining their under-standing for efforts made by theCentral Government in issues concerningnegotiation with the 14th Dalai Lama.However, the 14th Dalai astonishedthe world by lecturing on October 24,2001 in Strasbourg that he would work on"the Chinese leaders"for"a channel to beexploited,through negotiation with theChinese Government,for the settlementof problems that exist between China andTibet."

  5. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project: analysis of radio source properties between 5 and 217 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonavera, Laura; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Galluzzi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project has yielded observations of 464 sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) between 4.5 and 40 GHz. The main purpose of the project was to investigate the spectral properties of mm-selected radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with the ESA's Planck satellite frequency bands, minimizing the variability effects by observing almost simultaneously with the first two Planck all-sky surveys. In this paper we present the whole catalogue of observations in total intensity. By comparing PACO with the various measures of Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) flux densities we found the best consistency with the PCCS "detection pipeline" photometry (DETFLUX) that we used to investigate the spectral properties of sources from 5 to 217 GHz. Of our sources, 91% have remarkably smooth spectrum, well described by a double power law over the full range. This suggests a single emitting region, at variance with the notion that "flat" spectra resu...

  6. PENGARUH LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP EFISIENSI SEL SURYA TERSENSITISASI DYE DARI TINTA SOTONG DAN EKSTRAK TEH HITAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Choirul Umam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya merupakan energy alternatif yang sangat berpotensi untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu jenis sel surya adalah sel surya organic yang menggunakan elektrolit sebagai medium transport muatan dan dye sebagai penyerap sinar matahari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi lama perendaman dalam dye hasil ekstraksi teh hitam dan tinta sotong terhadap efisiensi sel surya dan mengetahui efisiensi sel surya tersensitisasi dye dengan menggunakan kaca TCO. Pembuatan Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC diawali dengan menyiapkan elektroda yang dibuat dari nanokristal TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada substrat kaca konduktif, yang kemudian direndam dalam dye. Sedangkan elektroda lawan dibuat dengan cara melapiskan grafit pensil pada kaca konduktif. Sel surya dibentuk dengan struktur sandwich dimana dua substrat kaca konduktif mengapit komponen- komponen dari DSSC. Lama perendaman sel surya dalam dye mempengaruhi voltase dan arus keluaran. Daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye teh hitam sebesar    8,85 x 10-8  W dan 8,5 x 10-3  %. Sedangkan daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye tinta sotong sebesar 23,4 x 10-8 W dan 23,19 x 10-3 %.

  7. PENGARUH LAMA DAN CARA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN KANDUNGAN AFLATOKSIN PADA GAPLEK DI RUMAH TANGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukati Saidin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoksin yang mencemari makanan dapat menyebabkan timbulnya kanker hati. Gaplek merupakan salah satu komoditi yang dapat tercemar aflatoksin. Ada beberapa daerah di Indonesia yang menggunakan gaplek sebagai makanan pokok. Karena gaplek pada umumnya disimpan sampai panen berikutnya maka ada peluang untuk tercemar aflatoksin. Karena itu perlu diteliti sampai berapa jauh pencemaran aflatoksin pada gaplek. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama dan cara penyimpanan terhadap cemaran aflatoksin pada gaplek.Gaplek yang sudah dikeringkan dengan cara yang lazim dilakukan di daerah dengan makanan pokok gaplek dibagi menjadi 3 bagian. Bagian pertama disimpan di lantai semen terbuka, bagian kedua disimpan dalam bakul terbuka dan bagian ketiga di simpan dalam karung goni yangdiikat. Analisa kandungan aflatoksin dan kadar air gaplek dilakukan pada permulaan dan 4, 8, 12, 16 dan 20 minggu dalam penyimpanan.Perkembangan cemaran aflatoksin gaplek dalam penyimpanan ini mengungkapkan makin lama gaplek disimpan makin tinggi kadar aflatoksinnya. Rata-rata kadar air gaplek selama penyimpanan berkisar antara 13,1% sampai 14,0%. Gaplek yang disimpan di lantai menunjukkan kandungan aflatoksin tertinggi, diikuti oleh gaplek yang disimpan dalam bakul dan dalam karung.Hasil penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa sampai waktu panen berikutnya sekitar 10 bulan, kandungan aflatoksin gaplek yang disimpan di dalam karung diikat belum mencapai taraf yang menbahayakan kesehatan.

  8. The Gilt-Roofed Hall for the Tenth Panchen Lama Inaugurated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    ERDENI Choji Gylitsan.the tenth Panchen Lama,oneof the two highest-ranking Living Buddhas(the otherbeing the Dalai Lama)of Tibetan Lamaism,was bornin 1938 and died on January 28,1989.Before his death heserved as vice-chairman of the Standing Committee of theNational People‘s Congress He was a great patriot,a famousstatesman and an outstanding leader of Tibetan Lamaism.After his death,the central government allocated a large sumof money to build a magnificent gold-plated stupa at the ZhaxiLhunbo Monastery,in Xigaze, to accord with the wishes ofthe Tibetan people and to commemorate his great achieve-ments,his love for his religion nd his service to his country.The total investment for the gold-plated stupa was over64 million yuan and the construction took three years andeight months to complete The stupa,11.52 meters high andcovered in gold.leaf,used 614 kilograms of gold,275 kilo-grams of silver and 1,018 gemstones of various kinds.It has

  9. KOMUNITAS MAKROZOOBENTOS DAN AKUMULASI KROMIUM DI SUNGAI CIMANUK LAMA, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbi Mei Gitarama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The residue of human activities and batik industrial waste water surrounding the river will be able to increase the accumulation of chromium and to disrupt macrozoobenthic communities in the river. The aims of this study was to assess the impact of human activities surrounding the river to the macrozoobenthic communities and the accumulation of chromium in Cimanuk Lama River, Indramayu District, West Java. The study has been conducted from AprilMay 2015 based on three times sampling at three different sampling stations. The result of this study shows that the chromium accumulated in the waters of all station still meet the standard quality ranging from 0,010-0,016 mg/l, but only station 1 fulfills the standard quality for chromium accumulated in the river sediment with the range of all stations was about 11,72-46,63 mg/kg. The results also show that the community index analysis describes the change of macrozoobenthic community at all stations caused by environmental pressure, especially at the station 2 which is indicated by the highest score of Family Biotic Index. The accumulation of the chromium in the waters and the change of macrozoobenthic community structure are mostly influenced by the use of the Cimanuk Lama river long for agricultural and fisheries activities, and also batik home industry.

  10. Pengaruh Upright Position Terhadap Lama Kala I Fase Aktif pada Primigravida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaflindawati ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak  Angka Kematian Ibu (AKI di Indonesia 5,2 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Malaysia dan 2,4 kali lebih tinggi dibanding dengan Thailand.  Survey Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI mencatat bahwa partus lama merupakan penyebab kesakitan dan kematian maternal dan perinatal utama disusul oleh perdarahan, panas tinggi dan eklampsia.Sebagai bentuk penerapan asuhan sayang ibu disarankan melakukan mobilisasi saat persalinan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuktikan pengaruh uprigh position terhadap lama persalinan kala I fase aktif pada ibu primigravida (hamil pertama. Telah dilakukan penelitian observasional dengan desain cross sectional terhadap 38orang  yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu 19 orang dengan kelompok upright dan 19 orang dengan kelompok berbaring, dengan pengambilan sampel secara consecutive sampling kemudian diamati dan dihitung rerata lama persalinan kala I fase aktif. Data dianalisis dengan uji statistik menggunakan uji t independent dan hasilnya terdapatperbedaan yang signifikan dengan nilai p< 0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata lama persalinan kala I fase aktif dengan upright position adalah 161,05 ± 40,26 menit dan untuk posisi berbaring adalah  263,68 ± 39,47  menit. Hasil uji statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan dengan  nilai  p< 0,05. Kesimpulan studi ini ialah upright position dapat mempercepat proses persalinan kala I fase aktif pada primigravida.Kata kunci: posisi berdiri, posisi berbaring, fase aktif, lama persalinan, primigravidaAbstract Maternal mortality rate (MMR in Indonesia is 5.2 times higher than that of Malaysia, and 2.4 times higher than Thailand. Indonesian Health Demographic Survey (IHDS recorded that neglected labor is the main cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, followed by bleeding, high fever and eclampsia. As a form of implementing maternal loving care, prospective mothers were encouraged to perform activities such as walking, standing, moving

  11. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aba, M.A.; Forsberg, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I{sup 125}LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 {mu}3g L{sup -1}. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, declined to 15% at 4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}), 16% (7.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 9.8% (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 {mu}L to 100 {mu}L (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs.

  12. Beyond lung function in COPD management : effectiveness of LABA/LAMA combination therapy on patient-centred outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Thys; Cazzola, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Bronchodilators are central to the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical studies combining different classes of bronchodilators, in particular a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and a long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA), have demonstrated greater improvements in

  13. Novel sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes modulating cis-acting regulatory elements and RNA secondary structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Siala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we detected new sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes in 5 ethnic populations, and analysed their effect on enhancer composition and mRNA structure. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were performed and followed by bioinformatics analyses using ESEfinder as well as MFOLD software. We found 3 novel sequence variations in the LAMA2 (c.3174+22_23insAT and c.6085 +12delA and SGCG (c.*102A/C genes. These variations were present in 210 tested healthy controls from Tunisian, Moroccan, Algerian, Lebanese and French populations suggesting that they represent novel polymorphisms within LAMA2 and SGCG genes sequences. ESEfinder showed that the c.*102A/C substitution created a new exon splicing enhancer in the 3'UTR of SGCG genes, whereas the c.6085 +12delA deletion was situated in the base pairing region between LAMA2 mRNA and the U1snRNA spliceosomal components. The RNA structure analyses showed that both variations modulated RNA secondary structure. Our results are suggestive of correlations between mRNA folding and the recruitment of spliceosomal components mediating splicing, including SR proteins. The contribution of common sequence variations to mRNA structural and functional diversity will contribute to a better study of gene expression.

  14. De la relación entre identidad y alteridad en las representaciones televisivas de los usuarios de paco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alvarez Broz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos proponemos dar cuenta del modo en que el medio televisivo representa diferencialmente a la diversidad de usuarios de paco. Las imágenes y los discursos que se elaboran en torno de estos actores realizan un reenvío permanente a la clase social a la que pertenecen. De allí, es que nos interesa problematizar la relación entre identidad-alteridad que tematiza la televisión en las configuraciones sociodiscursivas que elabora, poniendo especial atención en las estrategias mediáticas que emplea para argumentar la construcción de tipos de usuarios diferentes.

  15. Functional respiratory imaging to assess the interaction between systemic roflumilast and inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos W

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wim Vos,1 Bita Hajian,2 Jan De Backer,1 Cedric Van Holsbeke,1 Samir Vinchurkar,1 Rita Claes,2 Annemie Hufkens,2 Paul M Parizel,3 Lieven Bedert,4 Wilfried De Backer2 1FLUIDDA nv, Groeningenlei, Kontich, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat, Edegem, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, ZNA Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium Background: Patients with COPD show a significant reduction of the lobar hyperinflation at the functional residual capacity level in the patients who improved >120 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after 6 months of treatment with roflumilast in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs/long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs.Methods: Functional respiratory imaging was used to quantify lobar hyperinflation, blood vessel density, ventilation, aerosol deposition, and bronchodilation. To investigate the exact mode of action of roflumilast, correlations between lobar and global measures have been tested using a mixed-model approach with nested random factors and Pearson correlation, respectively.Results: The reduction in lobar hyperinflation appears to be associated with a larger blood vessel density in the respective lobes (t=−2.154, P=0.040; lobes with a higher percentage of blood vessels reduce more in hyperinflation in the responder group. Subsequently, it can be observed that lobes that reduce in hyperinflation after treatment are better ventilated (t=−5.368, P<0.001. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI-based aerosol deposition showed that enhanced ventilation leads to more peripheral particle deposition of ICS/LABA/LAMA in the better-ventilated areas (t=2.407, P=0.024. Finally, the study showed that areas receiving more particles have increased FRI-based bronchodilation (t=2.564, P=0.017, leading to an increase in FEV1 (R=0.348, P=0.029.Conclusion: The study demonstrated that orally administered

  16. Development of pyrosequencing method for detection of LAMA5 rs944895%焦磷酸测序技术检测LAMA5rs944895基因多态性方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾政军; 王华; 彭向京; 黄定梅; 王果

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To establish a pyrosequencing based method for detection LAMA5 rs944895 polymorphism and to determine the frequency of this polymorphism in healthy Chinese. METHODS: After preparation of gDNA from blood of 201 subjects, LAMA5 rs944895 target fragments were amplified by PCR, LAMA5 rs944895 polymorphism was detected on PyroMark ID by pyrosequencing technology.The reliability of pyrosequencing method was validated by repeat tests and Sanger sequencing.RESULTS:We established a new pyrosequencing method to detect the LAMA5 rs944895 polymorphism in healthy Chinese. The detection rate and repetiti on rate were both 100%. The frequencies of A allele and G allele were 72.4% and 27.6%, respectively. And the frequencies of AA, AG and GG genotype were 53.2%, 38.3% and 8.5%, respectively. The genotype frequencies match the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.55). CONCLUSION: This pyrosequencing assay to detect the LAMA5 rs944895 polymorphism is proved to be a rapid, accurate and highthroughput alternative to conventional methods,and it can be a preferred option in research and clinical application.%目的:建立LAMA5 rs944895基因多态性分析的焦磷酸测序方法,并分析该多态性在中国健康人群中的分布频率.方法:制备201例健康人外周血gDNA,应用PyroMarkID焦磷酸测序仪进行LAMA5 rs944895基因多态位点的焦磷酸测序,并经过重复性试验和毛细管电泳测序验证该方法的准确性.结果:建立了LAMA5rs944895基因多态性分析的焦磷酸测序新方法,检出率100%,重复性试验和毛细管电泳测序验证准确可靠.201例健康人中A等位基因频率为72.4%,G为27.6%;AA、AG、GG等位基因型频率分别为53.2%、38.3%和8.5%,符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡(P=0.55).结论:LAMA5rs944895基因多态性分析的焦磷酸测序新方法具有快速、准确和高通量的优点,适合于在科研和临床应用中推广.

  17. A case of nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in a llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Alroy, Karen Ann; Ticona, Daniel Santiago; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Infection by the larval form of Oestrus ovis (sheep bot fly) is common in many areas of Peru. This is an obligate parasite of sheep and goats, and it is the cause of oestrosis, or nasal myiasis, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations in livestock. A case of myiasis caused by O. ovis in a llama (Lama glama) in Cuzco, Peru, is reported here. This llama presented with respiratory distress and died due to bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia. During the necropsy, six intact dipterous larvae were recovered from the nasal fossae and cranial sinuses being identified as O. ovis. This is the first report of nasal myiasis in llamas due to O. ovis in Peru.

  18. Social and Engaged Buddhism: The CEBB Experience and Lama Padma Samten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyve Redyson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to make a historical recovery of the emergence of CEBB (Centro de Estudos Budistas Bodisatva and his experiences as a vehicle for dissemination of Tibetan Buddhism in Brazil, as well as the very trajectory of Lama Padma Samten, its founder, and current religious leadership of this tradition. We intend to demonstrate that the CEBB experience set in a form of social and engaged Buddhism where prospects facing on education, social welfare and the preservation and respect for human rights are elements that approach the Brazilian reality. The lived experience of CEBB also binds to work at great social risk communities, but always connected with Brazilian identities of Buddhism that mirror the altruistic action, based on generosity and contemplation. Linked to CEBB it is also, in large part, the history and development of Buddhism in Brazil that link growth statistics and expansion as a result of social work engaged and universal responsibility with human beings.

  19. Pengaruh Variasi Lama Waktu Hidrogenasi terhadap Pembentukan Metal Hidrida pada Paduan MgAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arif Pradana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paduan berbasis magnesium (Mg merupakan salah satu paduan yang dapat digunakan sebagai Hydrogen Storage Material. Pemaduan Magnesium dengan aluminium bertujuan untuk menurunkan energi aktivasi proses reaksi hidrogen dengan paduan Mg-Al. Paduan Mg-Al dengan komposisi Mg-42 at.% Al disintesa melalui proses milling dengan waktu 40 jam yang menghasilkan solid solution MgAl. Serbuk hasil milling disintering dengan temperatur 600oC dengan holding time selama 2 jam dalam lingkungan argon sehingga terbentuk fase Mg17Al12. Serbuk Mg17Al12 kemudian dihidrogenasi pada tekanan 1MPa, temperatur 4000C dengan variasi lama waktu hidrogenasi 1, 2 , dan 3 jam. Analisis difraksi sinar-X mengidentifikasi adanya faseMgH2 dengan perkiraan % wt sebesar  1.242%, 3.082% dan 4.2% setelah dilakukan proses hidrogenasi selama 1 , 2 dan 3 jam.

  20. A Discussion on the Origin,Characteristics of and Reasons for the Decline of Muli’s Great Lama-Tusi System of Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Heping; Qin Xinghao

    2015-01-01

    Muli,located in the southwest of Sichuan province, is a multi - ethnic enclave where Tibetans are the main residents. Historical-ly,Muli was called the“Muli Lama Kingdom”( simply called the“Muli Kingdom”). This title summarizes the characteristics of Muli’s ruling sys-tem —namely that Tibetan Buddhism occupied the dominant ruling position and its role was powerful;the position of Tusi( the native official )and other key administrative positions were held by lamas and-politics and religion were unified. In addi-tion,during two to three hundred years of history, the Great Lamas held the position of Tusi,and ruled the area with the support of lamas and the temple hierarchy. Although there was aggression from the outside, there was no inside fighting. Succession was orderly. In contrast,this phenome-na was very rare in other Tibetan areas,therefore, it is worth while to research this phenomenon.

  1. Rata-rata Lama Hari Pemasangan Infus dalam Terjadinya Flebitis pada Pasien yang Dipasang Infus di RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiah, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Lama hari pemasangan infus pada pasien yang dipasang infus memiliki resiko tinggi terjadi flebitis dan kejadiannya tergantung pada kondisi kesehatan secara keseluruhan dan lamanya pemasangan infus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan rata-rata lama hari pemasangan infus dalam terjadinya flebitis pada pasien yang dipasang infus di RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain deskriptif dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 60 orang responden yang diambil dengan teknik purpos...

  2. Effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen balance in neurosurgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍洋; 王强; 熊利泽; 胡胜; 曾祥龙

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen supply/consumption balance during craniotomy for removal of tumors, and to explore an anesthetic technique for neurosurgery and an appropriate degree of PaCO2 during neuroanesthesia. Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients with supratentorial tumors for elective craniotomy, ASA grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ, were randomly allocated to six groups. Patients were anesthetized with continuous intravenous infusion of 2% procaine 1.0 mg*kg-1*min-1 in Group Ⅰ, inhalation of 1.0%-1.5% isoflurane in Group Ⅱ, and infusion of 2% procaine 0.5 mg*kg-1*min-1 combined with inhalation of 0.5%-0.7% isoflurane in Group Ⅲ during the period of study. The end-tidal pressure of CO2 (PET CO2 )was maintained at 4.0 kPa in these 3 groups. In Group Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ, the anesthetic technique was the same as that in Group Ⅰ but the PETCO2 was adjusted to 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 kPa respectively for 60 min during which the study was performed. The radial arterial and retrograde jugular venous blood samples were obtained at the onset and the end of this study for determining jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and cerebral extraction of oxygen (CEO2). Results: In Group Ⅰ and Ⅲ SjvO2, AVDO2 and CEO2 remained stable. Although SjvO2 kept constant, AVDO2 and CEO2 decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group Ⅱ. Moreover, AVDO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅱ were significantly lower than those of Group Ⅲ (P<0.05). In Group Ⅳ, 60 min after hyperventilation, SjvO2 and jugular venous oxygen content(CjvO2) decreased markedly (P<0.01) while CEO2 increased significantly (P<0.01). In addition, SjvO2, CjvO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅳ were significantly different from the corresponding parameters in Group Ⅴ and Group Ⅵ (P<0.05). In view of sustained excessive hyperventilation, SjvO2 was less than 50% in 37.5% patients of Group Ⅳ. Conclusion: Anesthesia with

  3. Héroïsme et conscience de l’échec chez Paco Ignacio Taibo II : le Mexique selon Cosa Fácil, La

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Michael

    2016-01-01

    « Héroïsme et conscience de l'échec chez Paco Ignacio Taibo II » s'intéresse, grâce à la grille d'identification générique que constitue l'organisation fonctionnelle du roman policier, aux anomalies fondamentales présentes dans l'oeuvre de l'écrivain mexicain Paco Ignacio Taibo II. Si la structure narrative propre au genre est l'illustration de l'indéfectible victoire de la Loi, alors, la décomposition progressive de toute la grammaire fondatrice doit être vue comme l'expression de la défianc...

  4. PENGARUH KETEBALAN IRISAN DAN LAMA PEREBUSAN (BLANCHING TERHADAP GAMBARAN MAKROSKOPIS DAN KADAR MINYAK ATSIRI SIMPLISIA DRINGO (Acorus calamus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa simplisia perlu mengalami proses seperti perajangan dan blanching. Perajangan dilakukan untuk mempermudah proses pengeringan, pengepakan dan penggilingan. Semakin tipis bahan yang dikeringkan, semakin cepat penguapan air yang dikandung, sehingga mempercepat waktu pengeringan. Namun irisan yang terlalu tipis menyebabkan zat yang mudah menguap seperti minyak atsiri akan berkurang kadarnya, sehingga mempengaruhi komposisi, bau dan rasa terutama pada simplisia seperti temu lawak, temu giring, jahe, kencur dan bahan sejenis lainnya. Perebusan (blanching adalah suatu proses pemanasan yang diberikan kepada bahan mentah selama beberapa menit  pada  suhu  air  mendidih yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas produk yang diolah. Rimpang tanaman ini secara empiris digunakan sebagai insektisida, demam nifas, karminatif. disentri dan limpa bengkak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh ketebalan irisan dan lama perebusan (blanching terhadap gambaran makroskopis dan kadar minyak atsiri simplisia dringo (Acorus calamus L. Sebagai model digunakan Acorus calamus L. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap menggunakan 2 faktor perlakuan, yaitu faktor pertama ketebalan irisan (K. yaitu K1 =2 mm, K2 =4 mm. K3 = 6 mm dan lama blanching (B yaitu BO = tanpa blanching, B 1 = 5 menit dan B2 = 10 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kualitas (warna, bentuk permukaan dan tekstur simplisia dan kadar minyak atsiri rimpang dringo. Simplisia dengan ketebalan irisan 2 mm tanpa perlakuan blanching menghasilkan minyak atsiri lebih tinggi (4,5% dengan kualitas simplisia yang lebih baik (warna putih kekuningan, permukaan rata dan tekstur liat, mudah dipatahkan sedangkan yang hasil terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan ketebalan irisan 2 mm dengan perlakuan lama blanching 10 menit yaitu  warna simplisia coklat, keadaan fisik irisan bergelombang, permukaan keras, sukar dipatahkan dengan kadar minyak atsiri (2%. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa tebal

  5. L'area faunistica del camoscio appenninico (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) di Lama dei Peligni. Evoluzione del nucleo e problemi gestionali

    OpenAIRE

    de Gentile, L.; I. Filippone

    2003-01-01

    L'Area Faunistica del Camoscio appenninico di Lama dei Peligni (CH) nel Parco Nazionale della Majella è stata istituita nel 1990 con lo scopo principale di fungere da serbatoio di animali da utilizzare per operazioni di rinforzo della popolazione di Camosci in natura. Inoltre è stata ed è un notevole strumento per sensibilizzare la popolazione ed il pubblico alla conservazione della specie nonché una forte attrazione turistica per l'intera Valle dell'Aventino nel Parco Nazionale della Majella...

  6. Uso de dos Análogos de Superóxido Dismutasa para prevenir la Desestabilizaciòn Espermática Prematura durante la Criopreservación y Vitrificación en espermatozoides de Alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Santiani Acosta, Alexei Vicent

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo consta de 3 experimentos y tuvo como objetivo principal evaluar el efecto de 2 antioxidantes análogos de superóxido dismutasa (Tempo y Tempol) durante los procesos de criopreservación y vitrificación de espermatozoides de alpaca sobre parámetros de funcionalidad espermática. En el Experimento 1, 15 muestras espermáticas obtenidas de la cola del epidídimo y 5 muestras de semen de alpaca fueron vitrificadas en medios Tris base y HTF utilizando diferentes azúcares (fructosa, ...

  7. Noninvasive ventilation for hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD and initial post-support deterioration of pH and PaCO2 may not predict failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Raj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To correlate the degree of encephalopathy, baseline values of PaCO2 and pH, and their early response to NIV with eventual in-hospital outcome in patients of severe acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD. Design: Retrospective review. Setting: Intensive care unit. Material and methods: 24 episodes of acute exacerbation of COPD in 17 patients (10 females, 7 males with a mean age of 59.5 years (range 48 - 82 where NIV was initiated. Data collected: encephalopathy score at baseline and at 24 hours, respiratory rate, breathing pattern, serial arterial blood gases, duration of NIV support per day and hospital days. Results: All patients had severe hypercapnia (mean peak PaCO2 89.0 mm Hg ± 21; range 66-143, respiratory acidosis (mean nadir pH 7.24 ± 0.058, range 7.14 - 7.33 and tachypnoea (mean respiratory rate 29.5 ± 4.69/mt; range 24 - 40. In 17 episodes, altered mental state was present (encephalopathy score 1.92 ± 1.32, median 2.5. Clinically stable condition occurred over several days (mean 13± 9.6 days; range 5 - 40. Intubation was avoided in 22 out of 24 episodes (91.6% despite significant initial worsening of PaCO2 and pH. Two patients died. The mean time on NIV was16.5 hours/day (range 4 - 22. Conclusions: In selected patients of COPD with acute hypercapnic failure on NIV worsening PaCO2 and pH in the initial hours may not predict failure provided the level of consciousness and respiratory distress improve.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08552-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CING IN PROGRESS *** f... 48 0.57 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WO...RKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC231687 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-302G14, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 (....57 1 ( AC229617 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-435F5, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226638 ) Lama pacos cl...one CH246-281G15, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226637 ) Lama pacos clone C... 1 ( CU462853 ) Pig DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 46 2.3 1 ( AC232180 ) Lama pacos clone

  9. Keratins extracted from Merino wool and Brown Alpaca fibres: thermal, mechanical and biological properties of PLLA based biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E; Aluigi, A; Armentano, I; Morena, F; Emiliani, C; Martino, S; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M; Puglia, D

    2015-02-01

    Keratins extracted from Merino wool (KM) and Brown Alpaca fibres (KA) by sulphitolysis and commercial hydrolyzed keratins (KH) were used as fillers in poly(l-lactic) acid based biocomposites processed by solvent casting in chloroform. Different contents (1 wt.% and 5 wt.%) of keratins were considered and the morphological, thermal, mechanical, chemical and biological behaviours of the developed PLLA biocomposites were investigated. The results confirmed that surface morphologies of biocomposites revealed specific round-like surface topography function of different microsized keratin particles in different weight contents, such as the analysis of bulk morphologies which confirmed a phase adhesion strictly dependent by the keratin source. Transparency and thermal responses were deeply affected by the presence of the different keratins and their interaction with the PLLA matrix. Tensile test results underlined the possibility to modulate the mechanical behaviour of PLLA selecting the keratin type and content in order to influence positively the elastic and/or plastic response. It was demonstrated that surface characteristics of PLLA/KA systems also influenced the bovine serum albumin adsorption, moreover PLLA and PLLA biocomposites based on different kinds of keratins supported the culture of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells, indicating that these biocomposites could be useful materials for medical applications.

  10. Parásitos de alevinos de gamitana (Colossoma macropomum y paco (Piaractus brachypomus cultivados en el C.I. Quistococha, Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alcántara Bocanegra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En acuicultura, los peces son susceptibles al ataque de virus, bacterias, hongos y ectoparásitos. Estos organismos se tornan en un serio problema cuando los peces se encuentran con bajas defensas naturales, se crían en altas densidades y/o se altera drásticamente la calidad de agua. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la fauna de parásitos presentes en alevinos de paco (Piaractus brachypomus y gamitana (Colossoma macropomum provenientes de estanques del Centro de Investigación Quistococha del IIAP. Un total de 30 ejemplares de cada especie fueron examinados a través de la preparación de frotis fresco de branquias, piel, aletas y tubo digestivo. Entre las dos especies estudiadas, gamitana demostró una mayor prevalencia de infestación, mayor intensidad de parásitos y mayor índice de infestación parasitaria. Los alevinos de paco mostraron una mayor resistencia a la propagación y al ataque de parásitos. Se identificaron monogeneos de las familias Dactylogyridae y Gyrodactylidae, solo en gamitana, mientras que el protozoo ciliado Trichodina se halló exclusivamente en paco. Los parásitos identificados no causaron ninguna mortalidad en los peces.

  11. Pengaruh Lama Paparan Gelombang Ultrasonik Frekuensi Terapi terhadap Jumlah Koloni Bakteri Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fransiska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Gelombang Untrasonik telah digunakan untuk terapi dan diagnosis, di klinik kedokteran gigi popular digunakan untuk ultrasonik skaler. Efek termal dan nontermal gelombang ultrasonik dapat mempengaruhi lingkungan tumbuh bakteri, merusak enzim bakteri, dan struktur bakteri. Streptococcus mutans merupakan bakteri penyebab karies gigi. Tujuan penelitian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama paparan gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi terapi 3,5 MHz terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans. Cara penelitian. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 20 buah cawan petri yang berisi koloni bakteri streptococcus mutans dengan media agar darah. Dua puluh buah petri dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol (A dan kelompok perlakuan (B, C, D. kelompok perlakuan diaplikasi gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi 3,5MHz  selama 5, 10, dan 15 menit, sedangkan kelompok kontrol tidak diberi perlakuan apapun. Perhitungan jumlah koloni bakteri dilakukan dengan pengamatan menggunakan colony counter dengan standart plate count (SPC method. Hasil penelitian jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans dianalisis menggunakan ANAVA satu jalur menunjukkan ada perbedaan yang signifikan (p<0,05 berarti terdapat pengaruh lama paparan gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi terapi 3,5 MHz terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans. Hasil analisis post hoc (LSD terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans juga menunjukkan ada perbedaan rerata antar kelompok perlawanan yang signifikan (p<0,05. Kesimpulan. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah lama paparan gelombang ultrasonik frekuensi terapi 3,5 MHz berpengaruh terhadap jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans.    Introduction. Ultrasonic waves have been used for therapy and diagnosis, in dental clinic ultrasonic waves are used popular for ultrasonic scaler. Thermal and non thermal effects from ultrasonic wave influence the environment of bacteria disturb bacteria enzyme and the bacteria

  12. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  13. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman terhadap Absorpsi Tetrasiklin pada Adsorben Limbah Sisik Ikan Gurami (Osphronemus Gouramy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Pratama

    2016-03-01

    nm. Tahapan ini diulangi sebanyak lima kali. Hasilnya kadar tetrasiklin dalam larutan pada lama perendaman 1 jam menunjukkan kadar terendah yaitu 160,6 μg/μl. Dari pengamatan mikroskopis terlihat adanya ikatan antara tetrasiklin dan kolagen sisik ikan. Sisik ikan gurami dapat mengabsorbsi tetrasiklin dengan lama perendaman efektif yaitu 1 jam dengan mekanisme ikatan antara kolagen sisik ikan dengan kristal tetrasiklin Influence of Immersion Length on Tetracycline Absorption on Gourami (Osphronemus Gouramy Scales as Adsorbent. Gourami (Osphronemus Gouramy scales are one of the natural sources of collagen. This fish scale’s collagen has functional properties, such as bio-degradable (easily decomposed, bio-compatible (compatible with surrounding tissue, and potential as bio-adsorbent. The absorbent properties of collagen are currently used as a transport material in local drug delivery for periodontal disease treatment, which is known as tetracycline chip. However, this chip is made of synthetic collagen so it is not absorbable by the body’s system. The price is also expensive. This study’s aim is to prove the potency of Gourami scales as a source of collagen in medical treatment, especially as a transport material of tetracycline for periodontal disease treatment. The gourami scale was obtained from seafood restaurant in Jember, Jawa Timur. About 500 mg of gourami scales was immersed into 20 ml tetracycline solution in beaker glass. About 200 μl solution from the beaker glass was taken with micropipette after 1-hour, 2-hour, 4-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour after immersed. After that, the solution was collected into an eppendorf for each time. The absorbance was measured with spectrophotometer at 450 nm wave length. This procedure was repeated five times. The lowest absorbance occured at 1-hour time (160,6 μg/μl. The result from light and inverted microscope examination shows a bond between collagen from gourami scales with tetracycline. Gourami scale has the

  14. KETIKA KEBIJAKAN ORDE LAMA MEMASUKI DOMAIN PENDIDIKAN: PENYIAPAN DAN KINERJA GURU SEKOLAH DASAR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasih Umasih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals how the educational policy in Indonesia during The Old Order. The domination of government (Soekarno as expressed in the domination theory by Antonio Gramsci which a politic is a commander and it can dominate whole Indonesia society life including an educational aspect. Furthermore, Soekarno as an individual manivesto has given a space for PKI because of their closeness. When the Minister, Prijono, issued a decision concerning about Pancawardhana Educational System, The Institution of National Education which is affiliated by PKI giving a formulation of Pancacinta. An education in the political manifesto obliges teachers enter into a practical politics life, teachers have to be revolutionary . It means that the learning practice is given toward students through indoctrination.  No less than 2000 teachers in the East java and the Cental Java finally became PKI members, then about  580 teachers of elementary school from the West Java. Even PKI has succeeded to divide the organization of teacher’s membership into The Cental Vak PGRI and  non Vak Central PGRI. Keywords : The Old Order, The Pacawardhana Educational System, the performance of elementary teachers.  Artikel ini mengungkapkan bagaimana kebijakan pendidikan Indonesia pada masa Orde Lama. Dominasi pemerintah (Soekarno seperti diungkapkan dalam teori  dominasi oleh ntonio Gramsci di mana politik adalah panglima dan dapat mendominasi segala kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia termasuk dalam bidang pendidikan. Tidak hanya itu, Presiden Soekarno sebagai manivesto perseorangan  juga  telah  memberi ruang gerak pada PKI karena kedekatan hubungannya dengan Presiden Soekarno.  Ketika Menteri Prijono mengeluarkan keputusan tentang Sistem Pendidikan Pancawardhana, Lembaga Pendidikan Nasional yang berafiliasi dengan PKI memberi rumusan tentang Pancacinta. Pendidikan dalam alam manipol mengharuskan guru terjun dalam kehidupan politik praktis, guru harus revolusioner yang

  15. 羊驼垂体催乳素(PRL)基因全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Full-length cDNA of PRL Gene from Alpaca Pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛霖莉; 董常生; 赫晓燕; 范瑞文; 王海东; 曹靖; 郝欢庆

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for studying biological function and application of alpaca prolactin (PRL), the alpaca PRL cDNA sequence were cloned and analyzed.According to the known cDNA sequences from mammals, alpaca PRL primers was designed and the full-length cDNA of PRL from alpaca pituitary was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE techniques.The size of full-length cDNA of PRL from alpaca pituitary was 959 bp and it contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 687 bp which encoded PRL precursor protein with 229 AA.PRL precursor protein was a single-chain polypeptide composed of 30-AA signal peptide and 199-AA mature peptide.The spatial structure of alpaca PRL protein was similar to human GH.The result of the sequence alignment showed that the amino acids composition of alpaca PRL was similar to most mammals, but the methionine at 81-AA (51-AA for mature peptide) might lead to different spatial structure which might impact functions of alpaca PRL.A phylogenetic tree constructed basing on the amino acid sequences of alpaca PRL and other organisms showed that the relationships between alpaca PRL and camel PRL were closest and that the evolution speed of alpaca was very slow with no ' episodic' evolution pattern as most mammals such as primates, rodents and ruminant.%获得并分析羊驼PRL基因cDNA全序列结构,为研究羊驼催乳素(PRL)的各种生物学作用和生产应用提供理论依据.根据已知的不同哺乳动物的PRL基因cDNA序列,设计羊驼PRL引物,运用RT-PCR方法和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)技术获得羊驼PRL基因cDNA全序列.羊驼PRL基因cDNA序列全长959 bp,编码区为687bp,编码229个氨基酸的PRL碰前体蛋白.预测羊驼PRL蛋白质的空间结构类似人生长激素(GH),但在81位(成熟肽为51位)为蛋氨酸可能导致蛋白空间结构的不同而影响羊驼PRL的功能;序列比对结果表明,羊驼PRL的cDNA序列与大多数哺乳动物相似.构建的基因进化树分析结果显示,羊驼PRL与骆

  16. LAMA/LABA vs ICS/LABA in the treatment of COPD in Japan based on the disease phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizawa N

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nobuyuki Hizawa Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Abstract: In the combined use of bronchodilators of different classes, ie, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs, bronchodilation is obtained both directly, through LABA-mediated stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors, and indirectly, through LAMA-mediated inhibition of acetylcholine action at muscarinic receptors. The clinical trial data for LABAs/LAMAs in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continue to be promising, and these combinations will provide the convenience of delivering the two major bronchodilator classes, recommended as first-line maintenance options in COPD treatment guidelines. COPD is a complex condition that has pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. These clinical manifestations are highly variable, and several are associated with different responses to currently available therapies. The concept of a COPD phenotype is rapidly evolving from one focusing on the clinical characteristics to one linking the underlying biology to the phenotype of the disease. Identification of the peculiarities of the different COPD phenotypes will permit us to implement a more personalized treatment in which the patient’s characteristics, together with his or her genotype, will be key to choosing the best treatment option. At present in Japan, fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs and LABAs are frequently prescribed in the earlier stages of COPD. However, ICSs increase the risk of pneumonia. Notably, 10%–30% of patients with COPD with or without a history of asthma have persistent circulating and airway eosinophilia associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and sensitivity to steroids. Thus, sputum or blood eosinophil counts might identify a subpopulation in which ICSs could have potentially deleterious effects as well as a subpopulation that

  17. Combining proteomic tools to characterize the protein fraction of llama (Lama glama) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Bianchi, Leonardo; Henry, Céline; Miranda, Guy; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Llamas belong to the Camelidae family along with camels. While dromedary camel milk has been broadly characterized, data on llama milk proteins are scarce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of llama milk. Skimmed llama milk proteins were first characterized by a 2D separation technique coupling RP-HPLC in the first dimension with SDS-PAGE in the second dimension (RP-HPLC/SDS-PAGE). Llama milk proteins, namely caseins (αs1 -, αs2 -, β-, and κ-caseins), α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, were identified using PMF. Llama milk proteins were also characterized by online LC-ESI-MS analysis. This approach allowed attributing precise molecular masses for most of the previously MS-identified llama milk proteins. Interestingly, α-lactalbumin exhibits distinct chromatographic behaviors between llama and dromedary camel milk. De novo sequencing of the llama α-lactalbumin protein by LC coupled with MS/MS (LC-MS/MS) showed the occurrence of two amino acid substitutions (R62L/I and K89L/I) that partly explained the higher hydrophobicity of llama α-lactalbumin compared with its dromedary counterpart. Taken together, these results provide for the first time a thorough description of the protein fraction of Lama glama milk.

  18. Identification of Lamanema chavezi Becklund 1963 infection in a llama (Lama glama) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Julie Ann C; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Kreuder, Amanda J; Schleining, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Lamanema chavezi, a parasitic nematode of New World camelids, was diagnosed by examination of feces and formalin-fixed liver from a 14-month-old female llama (Lama glama) that died after a 6-week illness. Infection with L. chavezi was initially suspected when a granuloma containing an unidentified nematode was detected microscopically in the hepatic parenchyma from a necropsy specimen. The subsequent diagnosis of L. chavezi infection was based on the morphologic features of 2 immature nematodes dissected from individual hepatic granulomas, characteristics of eggs detected in feces of the llama by centrifugal flotation in sugar solution (specific gravity: 1.30), development of third-stage larvae within the eggs after incubation of the llama feces at room temperature for ≥30 days, and the morphology of third-stage larvae released from the embryonated eggs. Collectively, these findings indicate that the llama, born and raised in Oregon, harbored an autochthonous L. chavezi infection. Eggs identified as L. chavezi were also detected by centrifugal flotation of pelleted feces from 3 of 7 herd mates of the llama indicating this parasite is endemic in the Oregon herd. The findings reported herein serve to alert diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners to the occurrence of L. chavezi in New World camelids in the United States and describe diagnostic features of this potential pathogen.

  19. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy due to LAMA2 mutations: diagnostic difficulties due to associated peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophelia H S; Foley, A Reghan; Phadke, Rahul; Mathew, Ann Agnes; Pitt, Matthew; Sewry, Caroline; Muntoni, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    We report an eleven year old girl with early motor difficulties initially diagnosed with a peripheral neuropathy in another hospital based on abnormal electrophysiological findings. Our clinical assessment did not highlight obvious clinical features supporting a peripheral neuropathy but evidence of mild proximal weakness. Electrophysiological studies performed at our hospital revealed evidence of a sensorimotor demyelinating polyneuropathy with possible axonal involvement. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed subtle white matter signal abnormalities, interpreted as nonspecific. Given the patient's proximal weakness and a mildly elevated serum creatine kinase, we performed a muscle biopsy. The muscle had mildly dystrophic features and subtly depleted laminin α2 expression. There was diffusely upregulated laminin α5 expression, and depletion of laminin α2 in intramuscular motor nerves, which made us suspect a partial laminin α2 (merosin) deficiency. Muscle MRI showed predominant posterior and medial compartments involvement. The patient was found to have autosomal recessively inherited double heterozygous LAMA2 mutations. This case illustrates the mild end of the partial merosin deficiency phenotypic spectrum, and highlights how careful assessment of laminin α2 expression in intramuscular motor nerves can be a helpful diagnostic clue in partial merosin deficiency.

  20. Víctor Mercante y su proyecto educativo: Reforma de Saavedra-Lamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa I. Alonso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que es posible pensar la historia de la educación como un camino para lograr reconstruir la producción y circulación de ideas de una determinada época, el presente trabajo tiene como objeto no solo iniciar el estudio de un pedagogo como lo es Víctor Mercante [1870-1934] involucrado en la educación argentina de finales del Siglo XIX y principios del XX-sino comenzar a recorrer una trayectoria profesional permeada de las discusiones y debates de la época. Mercante aporta una mirada que presenta aspectos innovadores en clave de un período histórico determinado rico por el abanico de perspectivas culturales que en él se concentran. Con este objeto hemos trabajado en el análisis del contenido de la reforma educativa Saavedra-Lamas de la cual es mentor y en su sustento teórico, a partir del propio pensamiento de Mercante y de las condiciones en las que la misma fue implementada y en las que fue derogada. La intención final es alcanzar una explicación que de cuenta de las condiciones de la relación entre corrientes y tradiciones intelectuales, fuerzas políticas y actores sociales en el marco de un proceso de reforma educativa

  1. KUALITAS KERTAS SENI DARI PELEPAH TANAMAN SALAK MELALUI “BIOCHEMICAL” JAMUR Phanerochaete crysosporium DAN Pleurotus ostreatus DENGAN VARIASI LAMA PEMASAKAN DALAM NaOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triastuti Rahayu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kertas seni atau biasa disebut kertas daur ulang merupakan kertas yang biasa digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan kerajinan tangan. Biasanya terbuat dari limbah tanaman yang mengandung serat tinggi. Limbah pelepah tanaman salak yangtidak termanfaatkan mengandung serat tinggi yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan kertas seni. Bahan baku tersebut diproses melalui biopulping jamur Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kualitas kertas seni dari pelepah tanaman salak melalui biokraft jamur Phanerochaete crysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus dengan variasi lama pemasakan dalam NaOH dengan parameter penelitian uji daya tarik, daya sobek dan uji sensoris (tekstur, warna, kenampakan serat dan daya terima masyarakat. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan dua faktor, faktor 1 yaitu lama pemasakan dalam NaOH 15% (P1=1 jam, P2= 2 jam dan faktor 2 yaitu lama inkubasi (L1= 30 hari, L2= 45 hari dengan 4 perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas kertas seni terbaik adalah pada perlakuan P2L1 (lama pemasakan 2 jam dan lama inkubasi 30 hari yaitu 0,243 N/mm2 yang merupakan hasil uji daya tarik dan 18,711 N yang merupakan daya sobek tertinggi, tekstur halus, warna coklat muda, kenampakan serat kurang jelas dan panelis suka terhadap kertas ini.

  2. Pengaruh Lama Penyinaran Gelombang Mikro Terhadap Pembentukan Struktur dan Sifat Thermal Karbon Hitam dari Bambu Ori (Bambusa arundinacea dan Bambu Petung (Dendrocalamus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Rei Sakura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bambu merupakan salah satu tumbuhan yang memiliki bentuk batang tinggi, berongga, berbentuk bulat dan memiliki kekuatan yang baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh proses penyinaran gelombang mikro terhadap pembentukan struktur dan sifat thermal karbon hitam dari bambu ori (Bambusa arundinacea dan bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper. Metode sintesis karbon hitam yaitu dengan melakukan penyinaran gelombang mikro dengan variasi lama penyinaran selama 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 menit, serta variasi daya 400, 600, dan 800 watt. Pengujian nilai kalor terhadap karbon hitam untuk mengetahui potensi bahan bakar. Perubahan gugus fungsi diuji dengan Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectrometer. Untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa atau fasa, dilakukan pengujian X-Ray Difraction. Struktur mikro akan dipelajari menggunakan uji Scanning Electron Microscope. Hasil dari pengujian tersebut yaitu semakin lama pemanasan gelombang mikro, maka berat sisa yang dihasilkan semakin sedikit. Semakin tinggi daya, maka karbon yang dihasilkan semakin homogen. Waktu pemanasan yang semakin lama, mengakibatkan karbon yang terbentuk semakin baik dan homogen.

  3. Lama Merokok dan Jumlah Konsumsi Rokok terhadap Trombosit pada Laki-laki Perokok Aktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Sundari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jumlah perokok dan jumlah rokok yang dikonsumsi mengalami peningkatan dari waktu ke waktu. Rokok dapat memengaruhi trombosit yang dapat menyebabkan gangguan kardiovaskular. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian potong lintang yang bertujuan untuk menganalisis lama merokok dan jumlah rokok yang dikonsumsi terhadap jumlah trombosit, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, platelet crit (PCT, dan platelet large cell ratio (PLCR. Penelitian dilakukan di Pabrik Garmen Cimahi pada tahun 2014 yang diikuti oleh 31 laki-laki perokok aktif berusia 19 - 50 (32,97 + 10,28 tahun, 70,9% di antaranya sebagai perokok sedang. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif, uji normalitas Shapiro-Wilk, dan uji korelasi Spearman’s rho. Peserta telah merokok selama minimal dan maksimal dengan rata-rata (+ SB, yaitu 3 - 25 tahun (10,48 + 6,33 dan konsumsi rokok sebanyak 5 - 25 batang per hari (13,10 + 4,99. Jumlah trombosit 171 - 422 (280,9 + 56,2 x 10^3 sel/mm3, MPV 8,8 - 13,6 (10,14 + 0,93 fL, PDW 8,7 - 13,8 (10,27 + 1,22 fL, PLCR 14,4 - 38,8% (24,91 + 5,46, dan PCT 0,1 - 0,4%(0,28 + 0,06. Sebaran ukuran trombosit ditemukan normal, namun dengan ukuran besar sesuai nilai MPV dan PLCR yang tinggi. PCT normal berkorelasi sangat kuat dengan jumlah trombosit. Jumlah batang rokok yang dikonsumsi berkorelasi lemah dengan lamanya merokok. Lama merokok dan jumlah rokok yang dikonsumsi berkorelasi negatif dengan jumlah trombosit, MPV, PDW maupun PLCR. Smoking Period and Number of Cigarette Consumption with Thrombocyte among Active Male Smokers Number of smokers and cigarette consumption are increasing from time to time. Cigarettes influence thrombocytes which may cause cardiovascular disorder. This study was a cross sectional study aiming to analyze smoking period and cigarette consumption number toward the number of thrombocytes, MPV, PDW, PCT and PLCR. This study was conducted at Cimahi Garment Factory in 2014 participated by 31 active male smokers in age

  4. LAMA/LABA vs ICS/LABA in the treatment of COPD in Japan based on the disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    In the combined use of bronchodilators of different classes, ie, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), bronchodilation is obtained both directly, through LABA-mediated stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors, and indirectly, through LAMA-mediated inhibition of acetylcholine action at muscarinic receptors. The clinical trial data for LABAs/LAMAs in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continue to be promising, and these combinations will provide the convenience of delivering the two major bronchodilator classes, recommended as first-line maintenance options in COPD treatment guidelines. COPD is a complex condition that has pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. These clinical manifestations are highly variable, and several are associated with different responses to currently available therapies. The concept of a COPD phenotype is rapidly evolving from one focusing on the clinical characteristics to one linking the underlying biology to the phenotype of the disease. Identification of the peculiarities of the different COPD phenotypes will permit us to implement a more personalized treatment in which the patient's characteristics, together with his or her genotype, will be key to choosing the best treatment option. At present in Japan, fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and LABAs are frequently prescribed in the earlier stages of COPD. However, ICSs increase the risk of pneumonia. Notably, 10%-30% of patients with COPD with or without a history of asthma have persistent circulating and airway eosinophilia associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and sensitivity to steroids. Thus, sputum or blood eosinophil counts might identify a subpopulation in which ICSs could have potentially deleterious effects as well as a subpopulation that benefits from ICSs. In this review, I propose one plausible approach to position ICSs and LABAs/LAMAs in clinical practice, based on both

  5. [Knowledge of the endoparasitic fauna of Lama guanicoe Muller, 1776, from the Mitre Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, G T; Merino, M L

    1989-01-01

    Parasitological fauna of Lama guanicoe in the Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, is analyzed in this paper. Coproparasitological tests of 58 samples were performed, and on this basis, the presence of the following genera was determined: Haemonchus, Marshallagia, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomun and Chavertia. Marshallagia and Chabertia are reported for the first time for this host. The dung piles are not considered as parasitic barriers. Infections occur in two seasons: at the beginning of the spring and at the beginning of summer, as a survival strategy of parasitic nematodes. Parasites of L. guanicoe would be secondarily acquired form cattle.

  6. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence.

    Organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively, and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles.

    Water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the

  7. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively). The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation

  8. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively. The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly

  9. PENGARUH METODE PENGERINGAN DAN KONSENTRASI BUMBU SERTA LAMA PERENDAMAN DALAM LARUTAN BUMBU TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK DAN SENSORI DENDENG BABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Veerman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh metode pengeringan dan konsentrasi bumbu serta lama perendaman terhadap pH dan sensori dendeng daging babi. Irisan daging direndam dalam larutan bumbu dengan konsentrasi 40, 20, 13,3, dan 10%. Lamanya perendaman adalah 1, 3, 5, dan 7 jam, kemudian dilakukan pengeringan dengan sinar matahari dan oven. Parameter yang diamati meliputi pH dan parameter sensori. Data pH dianalisis dengan analisis variansi Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial 2×4×4 dengan tiga kali ulangan, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Data uji sensori dianalisis dengan analisis non parametrik  menggunakan uji Hedonik menurut Kruskal-Wallis, dilanjutkan  analisis deskriptif kuantitatif (jaring labalaba pada program MS Excel. Metode pengeringan dan konsentrasi bumbu serta lama perendaman, dan interaksi ketiga perlakuan berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap pH dendeng daging babi. Berdasarkan diagram jaring laba-laba, uji sensori meliputi parameter warna menunjukkan coklat sampai coklat keemasan, rasa menunjukkan agar suka sampai sangat suka dan daya terima menunjukkan agak suka sampai sangat suka. Metode pengeringan matahari menghasilkan tekstur kasar sampai agak kasar dan keempukan menunjukkan keras sampai agak keras. Metode pengeringan oven menunjukkan parameter warna agak coklat sampai coklat keemasan dan rasa agak suka sampai sangat suka, sedangkan daya terima tidak suka sampai agak suka, tekstur kasar sampai agak kasar dan keempukan keras sampai agak keras. (Kata kunci: Dendeng babi, Kualitas pH, Uji sensori, Metode pengeringan, Konsentrasi bumbu

  10. Targeted Disruption of the Lama3 Gene in Adult Mice Is Sufficient to Induce Skin Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Monika; König, Sabrina; Aumailley, Monique

    2017-02-01

    Genetic, clinical, and biochemical studies have shown that integrity of the dermal-epidermal junction requires a particular subset of laminins, that is, those containing the α3 chain encoded by the Lama3 gene. Inherited mutations in the human gene or introduction of constitutive mutations in the mouse gene prevent expression of these laminins, causing junctional epidermolysis bullosa, a very severe, often lethal disorder characterized by detachment of the epidermis from the dermis. This has precluded in vivo functional analysis of α3 chain-containing laminins, and it is still unknown whether and how they contribute to adult skin homeostasis. To address this question, we have disrupted the Lama3 gene in basal keratinocytes of adult mice. This led to the gradual disappearance of α3 chain-containing laminins along the dermal-epidermal junction and formation of subepidermal blisters like in congenital junctional epidermis bullosa. The mice lose their nails and have bullae and erosions on the footpads. Because the blistering is restricted to the interfollicular epidermis, the animals do not lose the epidermis and are viable. There is abundant and scattered deposition of collagen VII on the dermal side of the blisters, inflammation, and development of skin fibrosis with extensive accumulation of interstitial and microfibrillar collagens.

  11. Perubahan asupan zat gizi tidak berpengaruh terhadap lama rawat inap pada pasien dewasa di RSUP Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmala Nurmala

    2016-08-01

    malnutrisi juga dapat terjadi setelah dirawat di rumah sakit. Hasil studi pendahuluan menunjukkan bahwa 75% pasien mengalami penurunan status gizi selama dirawat di rumah sakit. Terapi gizi merupakan bagian penting dari proses pengobatan dan pemulihan serta dapat mempersingkat lama rawat inap.Tujuan: Untuk mengidentifikasi efek perubahan asupan zat gizi terhadap status gizi dan lama rawat inap pada pasien dewasa.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan desain kohort prospektif. Subjek dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok, yaitu kelompok yang memiliki asupan zat gizi tidak adekuat (<80% pada awal masa rawat inap di rumah sakit sebagai kelompok terpapar dan kelompok yang memiliki asupan zat gizi adekuat (≥80% pada awal masa rawat inap di rumah sakit sebagai kelompok tidak terpapar. Pengukuran asupan makan dilakukan setelah pasien tiga hari dirawat di rumah sakit untuk selanjutnya dibandingkan dengan rata–rata pengukuran asupan pasien sebelum pulang.Hasil: Perubahan pada asupan dan status gizi tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap lama rawat inap pasien dewasa di bangsal penyakit dalam dan saraf RSUP Dr.Sardjito. Terapi gizi secara signifikan mempengaruhi perubahan status gizi pasien dengan RR = 2,24.Kesimpulan: Perubahan pada asupan dan status gizi tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap lama rawat inap. Terapi gizi yang diberikan dapat memiliki pengaruh sebesar 2,24 kali untuk mengubah status gizi pasien.KATA KUNCI: lama rawat inap, status gizi, asupan zat gizi, terapi gizi

  12. Association of the Laminin, Alpha 5 (LAMA5) rs4925386 with height and longevity in an elderly population from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Maria; Crocco, Paolina; De Rango, Francesco; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2016-04-01

    Studies in animal models and humans suggest that reduced growth and adult stature are associated with lifespan extension. Moreover, epidemiological studies reported a positive association between adult height and risk of multiple cancers. Yet, it is unclear which factors mediate these relationships. Laminins are major components of the basement membranes and cooperate with growth factors and matrix-dependent receptors in cell proliferation and differentiation. Previously, we reported the association of rs659822-C/T in LAMA5, encoding the laminin-α5 chain, with weight and height in a cohort of healthy 64-107 aged Italian individuals. Notably, two independent meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies found the C-allele of LAMA5 rs4925386-C/T correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer. We tested additional SNPs within the LAMA5 gene for association with anthropometric traits and longevity in our cohort of elderly subjects (N=624). Under an additive model, the rs2427283-C allele (P=0.02) and the rs4925386-T allele (P=0.01) were associated with shorter stature. Age-stratified analyses showed that the rs4925386-T allele was also positively associated with longevity (P=0.001). The association of LAMA5 rs4925386 alleles with both inter-individual differences in height and in longevity suggests that laminins may be among the factors linking stature and cancer susceptibility.

  13. Análisis de diversidad genética en tres poblaciones de llamas (Lama glama del noroeste argentino Analisis of genetic diversity in three llama (Lama glama populations from north-western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA V BUSTAMANTE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe la variabilidad genética actual de tres poblaciones de llamas (Lama glama del noroeste argentino (NOA, afectadas a la producción de fibra. Originariamente, las tropas fueron una única población la cual fue subdividida hace 10 años. Se estudiaron muestras de ADN de 77 animales mediante amplificación por PCR de 12 loci microsatélite con cebadores específicos de llama. La alta variabilidad genética comprobada se sustenta en el hallazgo total de 140 alelos diferentes, 9 a 16 alelos por locus y rangos de heterocigosidad observada y esperada por locus de 1 a 0 y 0,9 a 0,47, respectivamente. Diecinueve de treinta y seis pruebas de equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg mostraron desvíos significativos (P The current genetic variability of three llama (Lama glama management units from the northwestern Argentine (NOA was analyzed. The troops, originally comprised a unique population that 10 years ago was divided into the current three. The DNA of 77 animals was studied by PCR amplification of 12 loci using microsatellite primers specific of Lama glama. A high level of genetic variability is sustained by the finding of one hundred and forty total alleles, a range of 9 to 16 allele number per locus and observed and expected hetrozygosities per locus varying from 1 to 0 and 0.9 to 0.47, respectively. Distributed within the three troops 44 private alleles were detected and proposed for uses such as to exchange new allelic variants. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium test for each locus within each population showed significant deviation (P < 0.05 due to heterozygotes deficiency which may obey to the natural polygynic behaviour of the species. A moderated genetic differentiation between populations (Fst = 0.076; P = 0.000 may be explained by the introduction of foreing males parents at the moment of the original population subdivision. Transference to breeders of the data here obtained may be important in future management programmes

  14. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.

  15. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00662-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66A10 map 8... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232718 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-155B3, WORKING DRAFT ...SEQUE... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232398 ) Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis clone KBrH009C03,... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232356 ) Lama paco

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16225-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS... 46 4.4 1 ( AC233188 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-474C1, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE...... 46 4.4 1 ( AC231204 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-260A19, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14752-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 2.0 2 ( AC016754 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 11 clone RP11-514F3, WORK... 40 2.0 2 ( AC231556 ) Lama pacos c...map ... 40 2.1 3 ( AC229956 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-269L22, WORKING DRAFT SEQU..

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14977-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available some 5 clon... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232179 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-396L20, WORKING DRAF...T SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232178 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-380H24, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( EK496662 )

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12230-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EU159113 |pid:none) Camelus dromedarius mitochondrion... 35 8.0 Y19184_11( Y19184 |pid:none) Lama pacos co...nspo... 35 8.0 AJ566364_11( AJ566364 |pid:none) Lama pacos complete mitochondrial... 35 8.0 >AC105378_11( AC

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLD388 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6055249 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 40 0.50 2 ( AC232784 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-216B4, WORKING ...DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC19251

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05111-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e from clone CH211-269M1 in ... 34 0.004 7 ( AC226639 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-29... DNA sequence from clone DKEY-145J6 in l... 38 0.083 4 ( AC232666 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-243P10, WORKING D

  3. Pärnu mudaravila restaureerimine ja juurdeehitus = Restoration and extension of the Pärnu mud baths / Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teedumäe, Tarmo, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Restaureeritud ja uue juurdeehitusega Pärnu mudaravila Ranna puiestee 1, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Inga Raukas, Arhitektuuriagentuur, Allianss Arhitektid. Sisearhitektid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari (Vaikla Stuudio). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  4. Questioning western assessment of trauma among Tibetan torture survivors. A quantitative assessment study with comments from Buddhist Lamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    not have an influence on the level of distress. After the assessment study, eight Tibetan lamas were interviewed about their views on our methods and results. They questioned the validity of our western rating scales and explained that our results might be influenced by the Tibetan culture, which among......Our study falls in line with the numerous studies providing a critique of the use of western diagnostic instruments for assessing trauma in a cross-cultural context. Our purpose has been to give evidence for the Tibetan torture survivors' degree of traumatisation and for their use of spirituality...... to overcome their difficult situation. In addition we wanted to question the use of our western methods in an Asian context. 102 tortured refugees attended a formalised needs assessment including neuropsychological and psychological measures of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the Hopkins Symptom...

  5. Pengaruh Lama Pemberian Diet Tinggi Kolesterol terhadap Kadar LDL dan TGF-Β Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biomechy Oktomalioputri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiet tinggi kolesterol ini akan meningkatkan kadar Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL sebagai penanda hiperlipidemia yang berdampak pada terjadinya aterosklerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β memiliki peranan dalam proses terjadinya aterosklerosis ini. Keterlibatannya dalam hiperlipidemia sebagai faktor risiko utama aterosklerosis belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh lama permberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan TGF-β pada tikus putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode post test only control group design yang dilakukan terhadap tikus Rattus novergicus jantan umur 3-4 bulan, berat 200-250 gram. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, A, B dan C. Selain kelompok kontrol, kelompok tikus diberi diet tinggi kolesterol berupa lemak kambing 10%, telur puyuh 5%, selama 10 hari untuk kelompok A, 20 hari untuk kelompok B dan 30 hari untuk kelompok C. Pada akhir percobaan darah tikus diambil dan dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar LDL dan TGF-β serum. Hasil penelitian diolah secara bivariat. Analisis yang digunakan yaitu uji oneway Anova. Hasil penelitian diketahui terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap peningkatan kadar LDL serum tikus dengan p=0,01 (p<0,05. Terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap penurunan kadar TGF-β dimana p=0,04 (p>0,05. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan tikus putih Rattus novergicus strain Wistar.Kata kunci: diet tinggi kolesterol, LDL, TGF-β AbstractHigh-cholesterol diet will increase Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL levels which impact to atherosclerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β play a role in atherosclerosis process. But its involvement in hyperlipidemia as the main risk factor of atherosclerosis still unknown. The objective of this study was

  6. Expression microarray analysis reveals alternative splicing of LAMA3 and DST genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Li

    Full Text Available Prior studies have demonstrated tumor-specific alternative splicing events in various solid tumor types. The role of alternative splicing in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is unclear. Our study queried exon-level expression to implicate splice variants in HNSCC tumors.We performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP tissue samples at an exon expression level. In our comparison we ranked genes based upon a novel score-the Maximum-Minimum Exon Score (MMES--designed to predict the likelihood of an alternative splicing event occurring. We validated predicted alternative splicing events using quantitative RT-PCR on an independent cohort.After MMES scoring of 17,422 genes, the top 900 genes with the highest scores underwent additional manual inspection of expression patterns in a graphical analysis. The genes LAMA3, DST, VEGFC, SDHA, RASIP1, and TP63 were selected for further validation studies because of a high frequency of alternative splicing suggested in our graphical analysis, and literature review showing their biological relevance and known splicing patterns. We confirmed TP63 as having dominant expression of the short DeltaNp63 isoform in HNSCC tumor samples, consistent with prior reports. Two of the six genes (LAMA3 and DST validated by quantitative RT-PCR for tumor-specific alternative splicing events (Student's t test, P<0.001.Alternative splicing events of oncologically relevant proteins occur in HNSCC. The number of genes expressing tumor-specific splice variants needs further elucidation, as does the functional significance of selective isoform expression.

  7. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI BAHAN STABILISATOR PEG 1000 DAN LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP KESTABILAN DIMENSI KAYU KECAPI (Sandoricum koetjape Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusyiani Lusyiani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kayu bersifat higroskopis dan anisotropis, karena itulah untuk meningkatkan kualitas kayu diperlukan suatu perlakuan stabilisasi dimensi.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh konsentrasi Polyethylene Glycol 1000 dan waktu perendaman terhadap stabilisasi dimensi kayu yakni nilai penyusutannya.  Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Polyethylene glycol 1000, kayu Kecapi dan air suling sebagai pelarutnya.  Proses stabilisasi dimensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode proses difusi bulking yang mengganti bahan penstabilnya dengan air.  Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah sebanyak 120 buah sampel.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Polyethylene Glycol 1000 pada tingkat konsentrasi 30% dan lama perendaman 5 hari memiliki nilai stabilisasi dimensi terbaik untuk semua parameter yang diuji.  Tingkat konsentrasi tertinggi untuk Polyethylene Glycol 1000 dan lama perendaman yang terlama, nilai penyusutannya paling kecil dan juga dapat meningkatkan nilai stabilisasi dimensi. Wood is hygroscopic and anisotropic, hence it is needed to improve the quality of wood by dimension stabilization treatment. The aim of study is to examine the effect of Polyethylene Glycol  1000 concentration and soaking time on the shrinkage rate stabilization dimensions. Polyethylene glycol 1000 and Kecapi wood were used in the research and distilled water as a solvent.  Stabilization was carried out by bulking method that replaced stabilizer material with water by diffusion process.  A member of 120 pieces samples were used in the study. The research results showed that Polyethylene Glycol  1000 at 30% concentration level and 5 days of soaking time have the best value of stabilization for all tested parameters.  The hingher level concentration of Polyethylene Glycol 1000 and the longer immersion time, smaller shrinkage and increasing the value of stabilization dimensions, as well.

  8. Fornecimento de cálcio para plantas de eucalyptus saligna por meio de aplicação de resíduo industrial lama de cal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Aparecida Simonete

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo industrial lama de cal, originado da produção de papel kraft branqueada de eucalipto, apresenta em sua composição quantidade considerável de cálcio (Ca, o que pode contribuir para reduzir o consumo de fertilizantes em plantios florestais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da lama de cal como fonte de Ca e seus efeitos sobre a disponibilidade de nutrientes e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea de plantas de eucalipto, foram conduzidos dois ensaios em vasos, em casa de vegetação, na área de pesquisa da Klabin Florestal do Paraná. Os solos utilizados foram um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico (RQo e um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NV. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas fontes de Ca, calcário dolomítico e lama de cal, e de uma testemunha, sendo identificados como: RQo testemunha, RQo calcário e RQo lama de cal; e NV testemunha, NV calcário e NV lama de cal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Para tanto, plantas de Eucalyptus saligna foram mantidas por 126 dias em vasos. Quantificou-se a produção de matéria seca e realizaram-se as análises de folhas e dos solos, por ocasião da coleta das plantas. Os dados revelaram que tanto a adição de calcário dolomítico quanto a lama de cal promoveram o fornecimento de Ca para as plantas de eucalipto, proporcionando aumentos na produção de matéria seca. Os teores de Ca e Na nas folhas de eucalipto foram acrescidos com a adição do resíduo ao solo, em comparação com o tratamento com calcário dolomítico, enquanto os teores de N, P, K e S foram semelhantes. As plantas cultivadas nos tratamentos RQo testemunha e RQo lama de cal apresentaram teores foliares de Mg abaixo da faixa considerada adequada. A adição de lama no solo elevou o pH e as concentrações de Ca e de Na, reduziu o Al trocável e não influenciou na disponibilidade de Mg, fato que pode proporcionar deficiência de Mg às plantas, em

  9. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani Paredes, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de producción de 1998 – 2000. Determinándose que las principales causas de mortalidad dealpacas son: Agentes infecciosos 51.70%, anormalidades orgánicas24.08%, causas accidentales 13.36%, causas nutricionales 7.83% yenfermedades parasitarias 3.03%. Las causas infecciosas de mayorfrecuencia fueron: Las neumonías 31.12%, entero toxemia 20.90%,estomatitis 17.46% y otras en menor frecuencia. La mortalidad por causas orgánicas son la Caquexia de los animales 58.88%, aunque en puna seca la torsión intestinal y atonía ruminal son de mayor frecuencia. Se encontró como causas accidentales de muerte a: Traumatismos 50.30%, depredadores 28.63%, falsa deglución 7.35%, asfixia 7.16% y otros con menor frecuencia. Las principales causas nutricionales de mortalidad son:Desnutrición 27.12%, inanición 23.73%, falta de leche 19.32% y otras en menor proporción. Las causas parasitarias de mortalidad se determino: Sarna 33.33%, sarcosistiosis 28.95%, coccidiosis 25.44%, gastroenteritis verminosa 10.52%, dictiocaulosis e hidatidosis 0.88% respectivamente.SummaryThe present study took place in three main centers of alpaquera production of the department of Puno: Rural Alliance EPS, CIP “the Ray” - a Fist located in the zone ecological land of humid Fist and Quimsachata Annex of INIA - Fist located in the ecological zone land of dry Fist; with the aim of determining the main causes of mortality of alpacas. By means of an analytical observacional study

  10. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M I; Bertin, A; Squeo, F A; Cortés, A; Gouin, N

    2015-01-23

    Feces-based population genetic studies have become increasingly popular. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rates from fecal material vary depending on the species, populations, loci, and extraction protocols. Here, we assessed the PCR amplification success of three microsatellite markers and a segment of the mitochondrial control region of DNA extracted from field-collected feces of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) using two protocols - Qiagen DNA Stool Kit and 2 cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (2CTAB/PCI) method. Chelex resin treatment to remove inhibitors was also tested. Our results show that the mitochondrial locus was the most difficult to amplify. PCR success rates improved for all markers after Chelex treatment of extracted DNA, and 2CTAB/PCI method (95.83%) appeared to perform slightly better than stool kit (91.67%) for the nuclear markers. Amplification success was significantly influenced by the extraction method, Chelex treatment, and locus (P 0.89), but they decreased slightly after treatment for amplification of nuclear markers and markedly after treatment for amplification of the mitochondrial control region. Thus, we showed that Chelex treatment gives high PCR success, especially for nuclear markers, and adequate DNA extraction rates can be achieved from L. guanicoe feces even from non-fresh fecal material. Although not significant, 2CTAB/PCI method tended to provide higher successful amplification rates on a whole set of samples, suggesting that the method could be particularly useful when using small sample sizes.

  11. First isolation of mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis from wild guanacos (Lama guanicoe) on Tierra del Fuego Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M; Herthnek, D; Bölske, G; Leiva, S; Kruze, J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to search for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection in a free-ranging wild animal species in a region where Johnes's disease has yet to be reported and to classify Map isolates using a genomic typing method. Fecal samples were obtained from 501 wild guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Tierra del Fuego Island, Chile, in August 2006. Samples were cultured using Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without mycobactin J. After 9 mo of incubation, suspected Map colonies showing mycobactin dependence were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on IS900 and F57. Isolates were further tested using IS1311 PCR with restriction endonuclease analysis in order to type the guanaco Map strains. Twenty-one of 501 (4.2%) animals were fecal culture-positive for Map; identity was confirmed by real-time PCR and isolates were classified as cattle-type. Most culture-positive animals were located in four contiguous geographic areas, and the infection was most commonly found among adult animals. Prevalence was higher in females (5.9%) than males (3.1%) but the difference was not statistically significant. This represents the first isolation of Map from a free-ranging wildlife species in Chile. It expands the geographic range of paratuberculosis and the diversity of wildlife species that can become infected with Map.

  12. Mortality of a captive axis deer (Axis axis) and a llama (Lama glama) due to ingestion of Wedelia glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Margineda, Carlos A; Cid, María S; Diab, Santiago S; Weber, Natalia; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Campero, Carlos M; Odriozola, Ernesto R

    2012-11-01

    The current study describes a naturally occurring cluster of cases of Wedelia glauca intoxication. Seven of 14 axis deer (Axis axis) and 1 of 8 llamas (Lama glama) in a zoo of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, died suddenly after ingestion of a new batch of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay bales contaminated with the hepatotoxic plant W. glauca. Necropsies of 1 deer and 1 llama were performed. Pathological findings in both animals included severe diffuse acute centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and hemorrhage, and clear yellowish translucent gelatinous edema on the wall of the gall bladder and the serosa of the choledochoduodenal junction. Fragments of W. glauca plants were identified in the hay based on the botanical characteristics of the leaves. Samples of gastric contents were examined by microhistological analysis, which identified epidermal fragments of W. glauca based on the presence of characteristic uniseriate glandular hairs (trichomes), confirming recent ingestion of W. glauca in both cases. The fragments were quantified and represented 5% of all examined vegetal fragments in the deer and 10% in the llama.

  13. Teachings on Peace of the 14th Dalai Lama and Selected Literary Philosophers: Implications for Global Peace Education

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    Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -This study delved on the 14th Dalai Lamas’ and the selected literary philosophers’ teachings on peace and their implications for global peace education. To achieve the objective of this study, the qualitative philosophical method of research in analyzing the tenets of peace in the representative literary works was employed. This involved the science of textual criticism and hermeneutics supported by the researcher’s analysis and insights with reference to the content of the texts to bring about the philosophical treatment of the selected works. The results of analysis and interpretation revealed how the 14th Dalai Lama, Daisaku Ikeda and Thich Nhat Hanh registered in strong conviction that through inner peace, genuine world peace can be achieved. This study proceeds further by citing the intrapersonal, interpersonal and international aspects of peace dealt with in the selected works. Likewise, this paper finds the teachings of the identified literary philosophers embodying their treatment of characters and state of affairs as being and becoming searchers for the true meaning of peace. The findings of this study bespeaks of the writers’ works as tributes to humanity and man’s capacity to create a better and peaceful world

  14. CDK5对羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞TYR和MITF mRNA表达的调节%Regulation of TYR and MITF mRNA Expression by CDK5 in Alpaca Melanocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞娜; 范瑞文; 程志学; 田雪; 刘佳; 高磊; 马峥; 董常生

    2011-01-01

    为了证实CDK5是否参与羊驼毛色的形成,本研究主要对CDK5在羊驼黑色素细胞中调节TYR和MI TF的表达进行了研究.本研究首先采用免疫组织化学方法检测CDK5在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中的定位,再通过脂质体将CDK5转染于羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞,之后通过Western blot和qRT-PCR的方法检测转染后黑色素细胞中CDK5蛋白、TYR和MITF mRNA的表达.免疫组化结果显示CDK5位于黑色素细胞的胞质和细胞核内;Western blot结果显示转染组黑色素细胞中CDK5蛋白表达量明显高于对照组;qRT-PCR结果显示CDK5可下调MITF的表达,同时上调TYR的表达,转染组黑色素细胞中MITF和TYR mRNA的表达水平分别是对照组细胞的0.264 9和3.931 3倍.结果揭示CDK5可能通过调节黑色素细胞核中TYR和MITF mRNA的表达,从而参与调控羊驼毛色形成.%In order to investigate whether CDK5 could participate in the coat color formation of alpaca, the regulation of CDK5 on TYR and MITF expression in alpaca melanocytes was tested in this study. The localization of CDK5 in cultured alpaca melanocytes was examined by immunohis-tochemistry. Then CDK5 was transfected into cultured alpaca melanocytes by liposomes. Following the transfection, CDK5 protein was detected by Western blot and the expression of MITF and TYR was detected by quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). The immunohistochemistry results showed that CDK5 was expressed in cytoplasm and nucleus of cultured alpaca melanocytes; Western blot results showed that the level of CDK5 protein was apparently higher in transfected melanocytes than that in normal melanocytes, and qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA abundance of MITF was down-regulated while the mRNA abundance of TYR was up-regulated by the transfection with CDK5, and the expression level of MITF and TYR mRNA in transfected melanocytes was 0. 264 9 and 3. 931 3 folds higher than that in controlled melanocytes respectively. The results suggest

  15. Identificación de biomarcadores asociados con la infección de Mycobacterium bovis y la respuesta inmunológica protectora a la tuberculosis en alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculosis bovina es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa que afecta una amplia gama de hospederos en los que se encuentra la alpaca. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las características inmunológicas de la tuberculosis latente, utilizando como herramienta diagnóstica una técnica de inmunoensayo (ELISA) para medición de la citoquina interferón gamma (INF-γ), secretada por los leucocitos sensibilizados durante un periodo de cultivo de 24 horas con antígenos específicos (ESAT-6 y CFP10)...

  16. 中国汉族人群病理性高度近视与EGR1和LAMA2基因多态位点的关联分析%Controversial opinion:evaluation ofEGR1 andLAMA2 loci for high myopia in Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-yu LIN; Zhu HUANG; Ning LU; Wei CHEN; Hui FANG; Wei HAN

    2016-01-01

    Functional studies have suggested the important role of early growth response 1 (EGR1) and Lamininα2- chain (LAMA2) in human eye development. Genetic studies have reported a significant association of the single nu-cleotide polymorphism (SNP) in theLAMA2 gene with myopia.This study aimed to evaluate the association of the tagging SNPs (tSNPs) in theEGR1 andLAMA2 genes with high myopia in two independent Han Chinese populations. Four tSNPs (rs11743810 in theEGR1 gene; rs2571575, rs9321170, and rs1889891 in theLAMA2 gene) were se-lected, according to the HapMap database (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), and were genotyped using the ligase detection reaction (LDR) approach for 167 Han Chinese nuclear families with extremely highly myopic offspring (0.05). Haplotype analysis of tSNPs in theLAMA2 genes also did not show a significant association (P>0.05). Meanwhile, population-based association analysis also showed no significant asso-ciation results with high myopia (P>0.05). On the basis of our family- and population-based analyses for the Han Chinese population, we did not find positive association signals of the four SNPs in theLAMA2 andEGR1 genes with high myopia.%目的:检测分析 EGR1和 LAMA2基因序列中单核苷酸多态性位点(SNP)在中国汉族人病理性高度近视的遗传机制中的作用。创新点:检测了EGR1基因外显子序列中的SNP,验证了其与高度近视发病无关联;检测了 LAMA2基因中热点区域中的三个SNP,发现在我国汉族人群中,这几个 SNP 与高度近视发病的遗传机制无关,与先前国外报道结果不同。方法:收集167个高度近视核心家系以及485例散发高度近视患者和499例正视眼对照者。根据HapMap单倍型数据库以及先前的研究结果选择标签SNP(图1和2),测定所收集患者的相应基因型,采用Haploview和卡方分析软件作关联分析,并以关联分析效能软件计算本研究的计算效能(表3和4)。

  17. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with 1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies.

  18. L'area faunistica del camoscio appenninico (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata di Lama dei Peligni. Evoluzione del nucleo e problemi gestionali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gentile

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L'Area Faunistica del Camoscio appenninico di Lama dei Peligni (CH nel Parco Nazionale della Majella è stata istituita nel 1990 con lo scopo principale di fungere da serbatoio di animali da utilizzare per operazioni di rinforzo della popolazione di Camosci in natura. Inoltre è stata ed è un notevole strumento per sensibilizzare la popolazione ed il pubblico alla conservazione della specie nonché una forte attrazione turistica per l'intera Valle dell'Aventino nel Parco Nazionale della Majella. L'Area Faunistica è ubicata nei pressi del centro abitato di Lama dei Peligni (CH sul versante Orientale della Majella ad un'altitudine che va dai 750 agli 850 m s.l.m. ed ha un'astensione complessiva di 4,2 ettari. Nel corso degli anni è stato necessario suddividere il recinto in 4 subrecinti per poter disporre di spazi separati utili per la gestione sanitaria del nucleo di animali ospitati. Inizialmente la responsabilità tecnica amministrativa è stata curata dal Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo in collaborazione con il WWF Italia, successivamente è stata curata dalla Riserva Regionale "Majella Orientale" per passare dal 2000 all'Ente Parco Nazionale della Majella. L'area faunistica di Lama dei Peligni è stata attivata con l'immissione di un maschio prelevato in natura dalla popolazione della Val di Rose nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise e 5 femmine provenienti dal'Area Faunistica di Bisegna nel medesimo Parco. Nel periodo dal 1990 al 2002 sono nati 37 camosci e ne sono deceduti 20. Inoltre si sono verificati 14 rientri di animali provenienti dalla popolazione in natura e dall'Area Faunistica sono stati reimmessi 25 capi sul massiccio della Majella. L'Area di Lama dei Peligni ha consentito l'attivazione di un'ulteriore Area Faunistica nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Sasso Monti della Laga fornendo 1 femmina. Lo scopo principale del presente lavoro è di analizzare criticamente i dati raccolti in un database e di individuare un protocollo di

  19. Caracterização ambiental de lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais Environmental characterization of processing sludge of ornamental stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo dos Santos Braga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais (LBRO são resíduos que apresentam composição química variada em função da composição das rochas, do processo de beneficiamento, dos processos de reaproveitamento de águas e lamas, das propriedades dos insumos, entre outros fatores. A caracterização e classificação das LBRO são de grande importância, principalmente para o Estado do Espírito Santo, por possuir um expressivo número de empresas do setor. Neste trabalho, são apresentados os resultados de caracterização e classificação de lamas de desdobramento e polimento de mármores e granitos, segundo a NBR 10004/2004. Todas as amostras de lamas de tear convencional e de politriz analisadas foram classificadas como Classe IIA. Percebeu-se que a identificação dos resíduos por fonte geradora permite a proposição de tecnologias limpas, como o uso de teares a fio diamantado que utilizam o mínimo de insumos e de pastilhas diamantadas metálicas isentas de elementos tóxicos, contribuindo para a melhoria das características químicas das LBRO.The sludges produced in the cutting and polishing of ornamental stones are residues with diverse chemical composition that depend on the composition of the stones, the cutting and polishing process, the processes involved in the recycling of water and sludges, among others. The characterization and classification of these resulting sludges have great importance, especially for the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which is an important producer of ornamental stones. In this work, the results of characterization and classification of developmental and polishing sludges were presented, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004. All the sludge samples from the cutting and polishing equipment were classified as Class IIA. We observed that the identification of the residues according to the generation source allows the proposition of clean technologies usage, such as cutting

  20. Evaluation of Differences between PaCO2 and ETCO2 by Age as Measured during General Anesthesia with Patients in a Supine Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Satoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the arterial to end-tidal partial pressure gradient of carbon dioxide according to age in the supine position during general anesthesia. Methods. From January 2001 to December 2013, we evaluated 596 patients aged ≥16 years who underwent general anesthesia in the supine position. The anesthetic charts of these 596 patients, all classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, were retrospectively reviewed to investigate the accuracy of PaCO2 and ETCO2. Results. The a-ETCO2 was 3.0 ± 2.1 mmHg for patients aged 16 to <65 years and 4.1±3.1 mmHg for patients ≥65 years. The a-ETCO2 was 2.4±3.1 mmHg for patients aged 16 to 25 years, 3.1±2.2 mmHg for patients aged 26 to 35 years, 3.0±2.2 mmHg for patients aged 36 to 45 years, 3.4±2.0 mmHg for patients aged 46 to 55 years, 3.2±2.0 mmHg for patients aged 56 to 64 years, 4.3±3.2 mmHg for patients aged 65 to 74 years, and 3.7±2.8 mmHg for patients aged 75 to 84 years. Conclusion. The arterial to end-tidal partial pressure gradient of carbon dioxide tended to increase with increasing age.

  1. Hasil skrining berdasarkan metode MNA (mini nutritional assestment tidak berpengaruh terhadap lama rawat inap dan status pulang pasien lanjut usia di RSUP Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta

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    Wahyu Hardi Prasetyo

    2016-08-01

    of result screening during initial hospitalization to discharge status of eldery patients based on MNA method was RR 1.29. This indicated that malnourished patient were at risk for uncovered discharged as much as 1.29 greater than those not malnourhized.Conclusions: There was no impact of screening result in admission to length of stay. There was impact of nutritional status to length of discharged status.KEYWORDS: discharge home, length of stay, nutritional status in initial admission.ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Pertumbuhan penduduk lanjut usia (umur ≥60 tahun meningkat secara cepat pada abad 21 ini, yang pada 2000 di seluruh dunia telah mencapai 425 juta jiwa (± 6,8%. Jumlah ini diperkirakan akan mengalami peningkatan hampir dua kali lipat pada 2025. Di Indonesia, persentase lanjut usia pada 1995 mencapai 7,5%. Dengan meningkatnya angka harapan hidup, jumlah lanjut usia pun akan bertambah banyak. Hal ini terkait dengan perlunya peningkatan pelayanan kesehatan lanjut usia. Pada lanjut usia, masalah gizi erat kaitannya dengan penyakit. Salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan lanjut usia menjadi rawan gizi yaitu peningkatan morbiditas penyakit. Dengan meningkatnya risiko penyakit dan disertai gangguan nutrisi pada lanjut usia, perlu dilakukan identifikasi risiko malnutrisi pada lanjut usia sedini mungkin. Penilaian status gizi awal pasien masuk rumah sakit sangat penting dilakukan secara rutin karena dapat menggambarkan status gizi pasien saat itu, mendeteksi pasien-pasien yang berisiko tinggi, dan membantu mengidentifikasi perawatan gizi secara spesifik pada masing-masing pasien sehingga dukungan nutrisi yang tepat dapat diterapkan untuk meningkatan status gizi pasien.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui pengaruh hasil skrining awal berdasarkan metode MNA (mini nutritional assessment terhadap lama rawat inap dan status pulang pasien lanjut pada ruang rawat inap penyakit dalam dan saraf di RSUP Dr.Sardjito Yogyakarta.Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian observasional

  2. Hubungan Kadar Glukosa Darah Saat Masuk Rumah Sakit Dengan Lama Hari Rawat Pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA Di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

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    Rosi Oktarina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHiperglikemia masih menjadi topik penelitian yang sering dihubungkan dengan kejadian sindrom koroner akut (SKA di dunia, terutama hiperglikemia saat masuk rumah sakit. Hal ini didasari oleh beberapa pengaruh kadar glukosa darah yang tinggi terhadap sistem kardiovaskuler seperti gangguan fungsi ventrikel kiri, stroke volume yang menurun, regurgitasi katup mitral berulang, gangguan pada waktu pengisian diastolik hingga risiko tinggi untuk arritmia, serta hubungannya dengan peningkatan risiko trombosis. Sehingga semakin memperjelas pengaruh hiperglikemia yang tidak hanya dapat meningkatkan risiko terjadinya SKA, melainkan juga dapat memperburuk kondisi pasien SKA sendiri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi hubungan kadar glukosa darah sewaktu dengan lama hari rawat pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian analitik dengan menggunakan desain penelitian Cross Sectional Study. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diambil di Instalasi Rekam Medik (Medical Record, yakni data rekam medik pasien yang didiagnosis sebagai Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA yang dirawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat DR. M. Djamil Padang Periode Januari–Desember 2011. Ditemukan sebagian besar pasien SKA masuk rumah sakit dengan kadar Glukosa Darah Sewaktu (GDS sebesar ≥ 200 mg/dl (40% dan lama hari rawat sebesar ≥ 7 hari (52%. Dari hasil analisa bivariat dengan menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman ditemukan adanya hubungan searah antara kadar glukosa darah saat masuk rumah sakit dengan lama hari rawat pasien SKA dengan kekuatan hubungan yang sedang, r = +0,492, p = 0, 000 (p<0,05. Pemantauan terhadap kadar GDS yang diperiksa saat pasien masuk rumah sakit perlu dilakukan dan untuk penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan dapat diteliti lebih lanjut faktor-faktor lain yang mempengaruhi lama hari rawat pasien SKA.Kata kunci: Kadar glukosa darah saat masuk RS, lama hari rawatAbstractHyperglicemia is still become a research

  3. PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PROSES SULFONASI DALAM PROSES PRODUKSI METHYL ESTER SULFONIC ACID (MESA MENGGUNAKAN SINGLE TUBE FALLING FILM REACTOR (STFR

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    Siti Mujdalipah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Temperature and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA Production Process usingSingle Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR Siti Mujdalipah, Erliza Hambali, Ani Suryani, Edi Zulchaidir ABSTRAK Methyl Ester Sulfonic Acid (MESA merupakan produk antara dari surfaktan Metil Ester Sulfonat (MES. MESmemiliki beragam aplikasi dalam produk personal care, pencuci dan pembersih, dan untuk Enhanced Oil Recovery(EOR. Proses produksi MESA menggunakan gas SO3 dalam Single Tube Falling Film Reactor (STFR merupakanteknologi yang umum digunakan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi proses sulfonasi metil ester oleinterbaik menggunakan gas SO3 dalam STFR. Kajian dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu tahap penelitian, tahap analisis,dan tahap pengolahan data. Tahap produksi MESA terdiri dari pembuatan metil ester (ME dari olein minyak sawit dankajian pengaruh suhu dan lama proses sulfonasi. Tahap analisis meliputi analisis sifat Þ siko kimia olein minyak sawit,analisa sifat Þ siko kimia ME olein sawit, dan analisis sifat Þ siko kimia MESA olein sawit. Kajian pengaruh suhu danlama proses sulfonasi terhadap proses sulfonasi metil ester olein terdiri dari suhu 70, 90, dan 110 oC dan lama prosessulfonasi 30, 60, dan 90 menit. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruh nyataterhadap kadar bahan aktif. Analisis varian pada !=0,01 juga menunjukan bahwa lama proses sulfonasi berpengaruhnyata terhadap nilai pH, bilangan asam, bilangan iod, dan kemampuan MESA dalam menurunkan tegangan antarmuka(IFT, Interfacial Tension antara air formasi dan minyak bumi. Proses sulfonasi terbaik dicapai pada suhu sulfonasi 90oCdan lama proses sulfonasi 90 menit. Kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik dapat menghasilkan MESA dengan karakteristikkadar bahan aktif 31,44%, pH 2,66, bilangan asam 24,88 ml NaOH/g sampel, bilangan iod 11,95 mg I/g sampel, danmemiliki kemampuan menurunkan IFT antara air formasi dan minyak bumi dari 30 dyne

  4. OBTENÇÃO DE PASTAS MINERAIS A PARTIR DO ESPESSAMENTO DE LAMAS PROVENIENTES DE PROCESSAMENTO FOSFÁTICO

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    Mário Campos De Rezende Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os minérios atualmente lavrados têm apresentado teores cada vez menores, impactando no aumento da produção de rejeitos e necessitando de técnicas para viabilizar sua disposição a seco. Entre essas técnicas, espessamento e processos de agregação de partículas, como a floculação, são utilizados para a produção de líquidos clarificados e de pastas minerais. Devido à menor quantidade de água, as pastas apresentam inúmeras vantagens ambientais e tecnológicas, sendo  necessário considerar previamente suas propriedades reológicas, entre elas a altura de abatimento. O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar as pastas minerais obtidas a partir do espessamento de lamas, quanto ao seu abatimento, e selecionar a dosagem de floculante que apresente as melhores respostas de sedimentação e clarificação dos líquidos sobrenadantes. Os resultados foram obtidos através de ensaios de sedimentação descontínua em proveta, com floculante catiônico e aniônico, apresentando como única variável operacional a dosagem de floculante. Os líquidos clarificados obtidos em cada ensaio tiveram sua turbidez determinada por turbidímetro digital. No que se refere aos parâmetros reológicos, testes slump foram utilizados para determinação da consistência das pastas minerais, em ampla faixa de concentração de sólidos. Resultados mostraram que o floculante catiônico apresentou melhor resposta de sedimentação e clarificação de sobrenadante, cuja velocidade de sedimentação e turbidez foram, respectivamente, 2,40cm/s e 9,4NTU. Para pastas com mais de 80% de sólidos, não foi observado abatimento significativo, próximo a 0,3cm, ao passo que, para polpas diluídas, as mesmas se espalhavam totalmente pela superfície.

  5. SPECIAL MISSION OF THE HERO OF THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA VASILY KHOMUTNIKOV IN TIBET TO DALAI-LAMA XIII

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    Vladimir Badakhaevich UBUSHAEV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the diplomatic activities of the prominent military and statesman of Kalmykia Vasily Alekseevich Khomutnikov, who fulfilled an important task of the Soviet government. The consideration of this problem is reasoned by the attempts to revise and not to forget the role of people who made a significant contribution to the strengthening of our state at the turning points of its development. At the present stage of understanding this story, there is a growing interest to its "human" content, as history is created by people. One of them was Colonel V. A. Khomutnikov who performed a special task of the Soviet government to develop close cooperation of Soviet Russia with Buddhist Tibet, Mongolia and India. On 13 September, 1921 the expedition of travelers on 12 camels departed from the city of Urga (now Ulan Bator. Disguised as pilgrims, the members of the mission joined the caravan of "a hundred people" en route to Tibet. The half of the 100 people in the caravan were Tibetans and others were Mongols Halaszi, Torghuts and Buryats. The caravan was headed by a Buddhist priest GaghanLama. In the 1920s, the Eastern direction of the foreign policy of the Soviet state was based on the principle of active involvement of India, China, Mongolia and other Asian countries in the revolutionary process in order to ensure the victory of socialism in the East. The leaders of the Soviet state V. I. Lenin, L. D. Trotsky, I. V. Stalin also believed that after the defeat of the revolution in the Western countries it was necessary to turn the route of the world revolution to the East, as there were potential revolutionary forces. According to L. Trotsky, it was necessary to form a wellarmed corps in the Urals and send it to India and Afghanistan. The same idea was actively developed by prominent political and public figures of Kalmykia and Buryatia. Based on the results of the conducted research, the author notes that the main result of the

  6. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  7. Identifikasi Pertumbuhan Jamur Aspergillus Sp pada Roti Tawar yang Dijual di Kota Padang Berdasarkan Suhu dan Lama Penyimpanan

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    Dina Khaira Mizana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPangan yang cukup banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat sebagai makanan kudapan di Indonesia adalah roti tawar. Jamur merupakan mikroorganisme utama yang berperan penting dalam proses pembuatan dan pembusukan roti. Aspergillus merupakan kontaminan umum pada berbagai substrat di daerah tropis maupun subtropik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membandingkan pertumbuhan jamur Aspergillus sp yang disimpan pada suhu kamar dan suhu di kulkas. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental analitik. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pertumbuhan jamur pada suhu kamar lebih cepat dibandingkan suhu kulkas. Pada suhu kamar 25C-28C, jamur Aspergillus sp tumbuh mulai hari ke-3 (33,3% diikuti pada hari ke-4 (66,7%, sedangkan pada suhu kulkas (10C-15C mulai tumbuh pada hari ke-5. Temperatur  ini juga berhubungan dengan kelembaban relatif karena semakin tinggi suhu maka  kelembaban relatif semakin rendah dan sebaliknya, semakin rendah suhu maka kelembaban relatif  akan semakin tinggi. Kesimpulan studi ini ialah terdapat perbedaaan pertumbuhan jamur Aspergillus sp yang disimpan pada suhu kamar dan suhu di kulkas walaupun perbedaannya tidak terlalu besar.Kata kunci: roti tawar, aspergillus sp, suhu, lama penyimpanan AbstractThe popular foods consumed by Indonesian citizens is loaves. Fungus is the main microorganism which has the main role in the process of loaves production and decomposition. Aspergillusis the eukaryotes microorganism that has the widest spread in the nature. This worm is also spreading in various substrates in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. The objective of this study was to compare the growth of Aspergillus sp stored in the room temperature and refrigerator temperature This research is analytic experimental. The results of this research showed  that the growth of fungus in the room temperature is faster than refrigerator temperature. In the room temperature, the fungus growth starts in the day-3 (33.3% that is followed by dy-4 (66

  8. 论十三世达赖扶植的“坚塞”所扮演的历史角色%The Historical Role of"sPyan bSal"the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Fostered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达瓦

    2014-01-01

    以龙夏·多吉次嘉、擦荣·达桑占堆、土登贡培为代表的一批近代重要人物,在十三世达赖喇嘛的扶植和重用之下,被民众称为“坚塞”。他们在维护达赖自身安全和权威、推进“新政”改革措施等方面扮演了重要的角色,成为十三世达赖喇嘛执政时期的独特现象,也是近代西藏地方统治阶级复杂斗争的鲜活表现。%Longsha · Dordge Tsedga, Tsarong · Dasang Dramdwi, Thubden Gongpei as the representatives of a group of important figures in the modern history of Tibet, were fostered and put in important positions by the 13 Dalai Lamas. Tibetan people called them"sPyan bSal". They played an important role in safeguarding the thir⁃teenth Dalai Lama's security and authority and promoting the Dalai Lama's reform measures. It was a unique phenomenon at the ruling period of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama, but it also displayed the complicated struggle of the Tibetan ruling class during that period.

  9. 喇嘛溪沟泥石流形成条件及易发性评价%Formation Conditions and Proneness Evaluation of Debris Flow at Lama Stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅焕然

    2013-01-01

    雅安—泸沽高速公路途径汉源县境内文武坡喇嘛溪沟的昔格达地层,工程地质性质极差.该流域坡面受水长期冲刷,形成多条冲沟;沟道纵比降大,且侧壁松散固体物质丰富,侵蚀严重,在暴雨的诱发下有可能发生泥石流,直接对高速公路的修建与运营造成影响.在调查研究的基础上,分析了喇嘛溪沟泥石流形成的条件,对流速、冲击力、总量等进行了计算,并评价了该泥石流的易发性,结果表明:喇嘛溪沟泥石流的类型属于暴雨型稀性泥石流,相应设计概率下的暴发规模属小型,泥石流流量很小,基本以水土流失形式存在.建议采取一定的防治措施.%Ya'an-Lugu Highway passes the Xigeda Strata at Lama Stream,Wenwu Slope,Hanyuan County,subject to adverse engineering geological properties.There are many gullies formed due to long-term water erosion on slope surface in this river basin.As a result of large vertical slope,loose sidewall,rich solid matters and serious erosion,debris flow is possible to arise when induced by rainstorm,affecting the highway construction and operation directly.Based on the surveys,the formation conditions of debris flow at Lama Stream were analyzed,the flow rate,impact force and total amount calculated,and the proneness of the debris flow evaluated.The results show that the debris flow at Lama Stream is stormy and watery so that under corresponding design probability,the outbreak scale is small with small flow rate and in the form of water and soil loss basically.Thus it is recommended to adopt some prevention and control measures.

  10. Analysis of Document Delivery Data of the National Academic Network and Information Center ULAKBİM Belge Sağlama Verilerinin Analizi

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    Yurdagül Ünal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the document delivery requests submitted to the Document Delivery Services Unit of the National Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBİM. It concentrates on the journals and their age whence document delivery requests were filled. We tracked the data with regards to document delivery requests that were submitted to the Unit for two months. We found that the Documet Delivery Services Unit satisfied two-thirds (6.036 of a total of 9.213 document delivery requests submitted to the Unit during the two months' period of our study. Requests were satisfied from a total of 1.671 journal titles. Almost half (42% of those journal titles were used only once for document delivery purposes. A small number (135 of "core" journals satisfied one-thirds (35% of requests and the distribution of journals conforms to Bradford's Law of Scattering. Half (median of all requests were satisfied from journal issues that were published within the last seven years. This indicates that more recent articles are requested much more heavily, which is parallel with the phenomenon of literature obsolescence. From submission to the mailing of the document, it took a total of 15 days to fill a document delivery request. Data regarding document delivery requests should be gathered for collection development purposes. It would then be possible to identify core journals and their back issues that should be acquired and maintained. Bu araştırmada amaç, ULAKBİM Cahit Arf Bilgi Merkezi Belge Sağlama Hizmetleri Birimi'ne gelen isteklerin hangi dergilerde ve hangi yıllarda yayımlanan makalelere yapıldığını belirlemektir. Çalışmada, belge sağlama istekleri ile ilgili veriler, iki ay süreyle Birim e yapılan isteklerin izlenmesi suretiyle elde edilmiştir. Araştırmamızın sonunda Birim'e yapılan 9.213 isteğin üçte ikisinin (6.036 karşılandığı görülmüştür. İstekler 1.671 ayrı dergiden sağlanmış ve bu dergilerin

  11. The Late Pleistocene distribution of vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) and the “extinction” of the gracile llama (“Lama gracilis”): New molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jaco; Shapiro, Beth; Prieto, Alfredo; Marín, Juan Carlos; González, Benito A.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-07-01

    We present the results of a palaeogenetic analysis of two Late Pleistocene camelids originating in southern Chile. Our analysis of two mitochondrial DNA fragments (control region and cytochrome b gene) reveals that these specimens do not belong to an extinct taxon, but rather to extant vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna), whose modern distribution is restricted to the extreme elevations of the Andes, more than 3500 km to the north of where these specimens originated. Our results also suggest fossil specimens from Patagonia that are currently assigned to the extinct taxon Lama gracilis, may actually belong to V. vicugna, implying a continuous distribution of the latter from the southern tip of South America to the Andes during the Final Pleistocene. The haplotypes of both specimens are not present in modern populations, suggesting a loss of genetic diversity concomitant with the contraction of the vicuña geographical distribution during the Final Pleistocene or early Holocene.

  12. Environmental behavior of soils and mixtures of soil-whitewash mud Comportamento ambiental de solos e misturas solo lama-de-cal

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    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to observe the behavior of soils in natural state and in mixtures, in different ratios, with the industrial solid residue called whitewash mud. The work was conducted with samples of typical soils from the region of Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brazil. Wet chemical analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used in order to obtain the classification of the industrial solid residue. Solubilization and leaching tests were performed and X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques were carried out. The results showed that the whitewash mud was classified as non-inert, but with great capacity of heavy metal retention largely owed to the kaolinite and goethite presence in the clay fraction of the soils, making it difficult to have heavy metals readily available for exchange.O presente estudo buscou observar o comportamento de solos em seu estado natural e em misturas, em diferentes teores, com o resíduo sólido industrial denominado lama-de-cal. A pesquisa foi conduzida com amostras de solos típicas da região de Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brasil. A análise química por via úmida e espectrofotometria de absorção atômica foram usadas para obter a classificação do resíduo sólido industrial. Testes de solubilização, lixiviação, analise de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram executados. Os resultados indicaram que a lama-de-cal não é inerte, mas com grande capacidade de retenção de metais pesados, em grande parte devido à presença de caulinita e goethita na fração argila dos solos.

  13. The Life Story of the 9th Dalai Lama and His Age%九世达赖喇嘛生平及其时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曦

    2015-01-01

    The Ninth Dalai Lama was the first one who was recognized by the central government after the Golden Urn Policy promulgated in Qing Dynasty .But Jiaqing Emperor finally agreed to recognize be-cause the applications of local government and Tibetan ministers .But he died in eleven after the recogni-tion and didn't do a lot of achievement as others in previous generations .Great changes had taken place at home and abroad during the age of the Ninth Dalai Lama , and the Qing government began to decline , so the governing force became fading both in mainland of China and Tibet , too.%九世达赖喇嘛是清中央政府颁定金瓶掣签制度之后,首位需要通过这一程序认定的达赖喇嘛,但是由于西藏地方政府及驻藏大臣的申请,嘉庆皇帝最后同意免于掣签。他在被认定后于十一岁便不幸圆寂,其一生极为短暂,没有如他前世诸辈有较大的作为。但正是在他生活的时代,国内国外局势逐渐发生了很大的变化。清政府开始走向衰落,无论在内地还是西藏,其统治力均不如前代。

  14. Changes in blood hemoglobin and blood gases PaO2 and PaCO2 in severe COPD overa three-year telemonitored program of long-term oxygen treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Negro Roberto W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the effects of long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT on blood hemoglobin (Hb in severe COPD are limited. The aim was to assess blood Hb values in severe COPD, and investigate the time-course of both Hb and blood gas changes during a 3-year telemetric LTOT. Methods A cohort of 132 severe COPD patients (94 males; 71.4 years ± 8.8 sd, newly admitted to the tele-LTOT program, was investigated. Subjects were divided according to their original blood Hb: group A: 2 and PaCO2 (mmHg, SaO2 (%, and BMI were measured at LTOT admission (t0, and at least quarterly over three years (t1-t3. Wilcoxon test was used to compare t0 vs. t1 values; linear regression to assess a possible Hb-BMI relationship; ANOVA to compare changes in Hb time-courses over the 3 years. Results LTOT induced a systematic increase of PaO2, and changes were significant since the first year (from 52.1 mmHg ± 6.6sd to 65.1 mmHg ± 8.7 sd, p 2 were quite similar. Comparable and equally significant trends were seen in all subgroups (p 2 dropped within the first year of LTOT (from 49.4 mmHg ± 9.1sd to 45.9 mmHg ±7.5 sd, p 0-t1 comparison proved significant (p 2 decline over the remaining two years (p  15 g/dl (ANOVA p 2, PaCO2 and SaO2 dramatically improved. In anemic subjects effects were smaller and slower, oxygenation being equally ameliorated by LTOT. Conclusions LTOT effects on Hb and PaCO2 are regulated by an Hb-dependent gradient which seems independent of the original impairment of blood gases and of effects on oxygenation.

  15. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  16. 彝族燕麦酒营销文化战略--以拉玛酒业为例%On Yi Peopleˊs Oats Wine Marketing Culturual Strategies:Taking Lama Winery as the Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊英

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study on Yi peopleˊs oats wine marketing cultural strategies,especially on its market status quo,this paper briefly introduces Lama Winery sample and its marketing cultural bottleneck,providing suggestions for Lama oats wineˊs developing bottleneck and Lama Wineryˊs brand management. Lama oats wine market positioning has two advantages:health elements and ethnic features. The establishing direction of the Yi Peopleˊs oats wine marketing cultural strategies:making analysis from green marketing,internet marketing,relationship marketing,service marketing,culture marketing and channel marketing and trying to find joint points.%从研究彝族燕麦酒营销文化战略出发,尤其针对彝族燕麦酒所处的市场现状,简要介绍拉玛酒业样本及其所处营销文化困局;对拉唛燕麦酒发展瓶颈、拉玛酒业品牌经营提出改善建议。对拉唛燕麦酒进行市场定位,分析其定位优势有二:健康元素与民俗风情;彝族燕麦酒营销文化战略构建方向:分别从绿色营销、网络营销、关系营销、服务营销、文化营销和渠道营销等进行分析,寻找结合点。

  17. Pengaruh Konsentrasi dan Lama Aplikasi Sodium Hipoklorit (NaOCL sebagai Bahan Irigasi Saluran Akar terhadap Kekuatan Geser Perlekatan Siler Berbahan Dasar Resin Pada Dentin Saluran Akar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjung Nugraheni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Salah satu tahap penting perawatan saluran akar yaitu preparasi saluran akar. Pada preparasi saluran akar digunakan bahan Irigasi sodium hipoklorit (NaOCI, dengan konsentrasi 0,5%-5.25%. Penggunaan NaOCL berpengaruh pada struktur permukaan dentin saluran akar, yang selanjutnya mempengaruhi perlekatan dentin saluran akar dengan bahan pengisi saluran akar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi dan lama aplikasi NaOCI terhadap kekuatan geser perlekatan siler berbahan dasar resin pada dentin saluran akar. Metode Penelitian. Tiga puluh gigi premolar dipotong arah bukolingual, jaringan pulpa dibersihkan dan permukaan dentin saluran akar diratakan. Gigi difiksasi resin akrilik, sisi dentin saluran akar menghadap ke atas. Sampel dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok masing-masing 15 gigi, kelompok 1 di rendam dalam 6ml NaOCI 2,5%. Kelompok II direndam dalam 6 ml NaOCI 5%. Kelompok I dan II dibagi menjadi 3 sub kelompok lama perendaman, yaitu sub kelompok a direndam selama 5 menit, sub kelompok diremdam selama 10 menit, sub kelompok direndam selama 15 menit. Cetakan siler difiksasi pada akar gigi, dilakukan insersi siler ke dalam cetakan kemudian dimasukkan inkubaror pada suhu 370 C selama 72 jam. Pengujian kekuatan geser perlekatan menggunakan Universal Testing Machine. Hasil penelitian. Hasil uji statistik AVANA dua jalur menunjukkan kekuatan geser perlekatan siler berbahan dasar resin pada dentin saluran akar setelah diirigasi dengan konsentrasi NaOCI dan lama irigasi yang berbeda terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (p=0,007. Uji LSD menunjukkan bahwa kekuatan geser perlekatan siler berbahan dasar resin berbeda bermakna pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 2,5% selama 5 menit dengan 15 menit,, pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 2,5% selama 10 menit dengan 15 menit, pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 5% selama 15 menit dengan kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 2,5% selama 15 menit serta pada kelompok yang diirigasi NaOCI 5% selama 5

  18. Incorporação de lama de mármore e granito em massas argilosas Incorporation of marble and granite sludge in clay materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de resíduos industriais como aditivos na fabricação de produtos cerâmicos vem despertando um crescente interesse dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos e está se tornando prática comum. Este trabalho descreve a variação do comportamento de uma argila utilizada numa indústria de cerâmica vermelha, resultante de adições de uma lama de mármore e granito, tal como é produzida em uma indústria de beneficiamento de pedras ornamentais do estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Misturas de argila e rejeito (10 - 50% em peso foram compactadas uniaxialmente e sinterizadas a temperaturas entre 950 e 1150 °C. Os resultados obtidos por análise química e mineralógica (DRX e FRX, análises térmicas (DTA, TG e dilatometria, medidas de distribuição granulométrica, porosidade, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão, revelam que a lama de mármore e granito pode ser incorporada na massa de argila sem perda ou comprometimento das propriedades dos corpos sinterizados de cerâmica vermelha.The use of industrial waste materials as additives in the manufacture of ceramic products has been attracting a growing interest from researchers in recent years and is becoming common practice. This work describes the changes in the behavior of the clay material used in a red-ceramic industry due to additions of a granite and marble sludge, produced in an ornamental stone processing industry in Rio Grande do Norte. Mixtures of clay and waste material (10 - 50 wt.% were uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1150 °C. Results from chemical and mineralogical analysis (XRD and XRF, thermal analysis (DTA, TG and dilatometry, particle size distribution, porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, show that the granite and marble sludge can be added to the clay material with no detrimental effect on the properties of the sintered red-clay products.

  19. A study on the soil characteristic and properties of riverbank soil samples from Sungai Perak, Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlan, M. N.; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Ghazali, M. F.; Selamat, M. R.; Othman, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) technology is new in Malaysia and only a few efforts have been made to understand the RBF mechanisms and processes. Soil characteristics and properties play important roles in determining the suitability of the site for the RBF application. A research has been carried out in Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia to identify the characteristics of the riverbank soil for different layers of the pumping well (PW) and three adjacent monitoring wells namely MW2, MW3, and MW5. Particle size distributions and hydraulic conductivities of the soils were obtained from sieve analyses and constant head permeability tests. The subsurface soils of the study site consisted of medium sand, fine sand, coarse sand and gravel but them medium sand was highest in percentage over the other types of soil. The aquifer extended down to 8 m. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the PW was 0.91 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 6 m deep. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the monitoring wells was 5.03 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 2.20 to 3.20 m of MW5. The overall well production capacity determined from the pumping test was 112.10 m3/hr.

  20. An Unknown Tradition of Han Chinese Conversions to Tibetan Buddhism:Han Chinese Incarnate Lamas and Parishioners of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Amdo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gray Tuttle

    2013-01-01

    AbstrActThis article examines Han Chinese who has historically practiced Tibetan Buddhism in the Qinghai-Gansu border region. The main primary sources were published in the 1990s, based on surveys by Chinese social scientists who were sent around in the 1950s to collect data on Tibetan Buddhist institutions as well as additional independent surveys from the 1980s and my own site visits in 2006. On the basis of these sources, I argue that there are at least 100,000 and probably as many as 200,000 Han Chinese on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu (part of the Amdo cultural region for Tibetans) practicing Tibetan Buddhism, following traditions that seem to have been in place for centuries. I also discuss the sixteen historic cases of Han Chinese reincarnate lamas and the over one hundred monasteries in this region affiliated with Han Chinese. Finally, I note the sectarian affiliations (jiaopai: Nyingma, Geluk, etc.) and religious practices of these Chinese communities practicing Tibetan Buddhism.

  1. 从历代《达赖喇嘛传》看活佛转世定制%Look into t he Reincarnation System of Living Buddha based on the Biographies of the Sucessive Dalai Lamas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阴海燕; 边巴拉姆

    2016-01-01

    达赖喇嘛转世从来不是纯粹的宗教事务,更不是个人事务。达赖喇嘛世系活佛世制度产生之初,就与明朝中央政府保持了密切联系。清代乾隆朝以后,凡达赖喇嘛世手续,掣签或不掣签,均需呈报中央核定。历代中央政府高度重视达赖喇嘛活佛转事务,不断加强审验管理力度,在达赖喇嘛活佛转世上形成了一整套规范管理的历史制。可以说,达赖喇嘛转世灵童的寻访认定过程,始终体现了中央政府权威,象征着中对西藏地方行使主权。%Dalai Lama’s reincarnation has neither been pure religious matter nor personal affairs .Since the beginning,Dalai Lama’s reincarnation system had kept a close contact with the Central Government of the Ming Dynasty .By Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty ,every procedure of the Dalai Lama ’ s reincarnation , ncluding whether lot -drawing or not ,must be reported to the Central Government for approval . Generations of the Central Government attaches great importance to the reincarnation of the Dalai ama,and continuously strengthen the inspection management .Searching process of the Dalai Lama ’ s re-ncarnation always embodies the authority of the Central Government .And it was a symbol of manage-ent that the Central Government exercise sovereignty over Tibet .Mainly according to the Biography of he Dalai Lamas ,the paper combed the history formation and development process of Dalai Lama ’ s rein-arnation system and the management of the Central Governments over Tibet .

  2. Reciclagem da poeira e lama geradas na fabricação de aço inoxidável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Nolasco Sobrinho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado, em escala de laboratório, um estudo da recuperação dos metais cromo e níquel, contidos em resíduos gerados no processo de fabricação de aço inoxidável, utilizando-se altas temperaturas (1570, 1600 e 1635ºC. A maioria desses tipos de resíduos, principalmente a lama, ainda é disposta em aterros ou estocada. Nesse trabalho foram utilizados dois tipos de resíduo com alto teor de cromo, uma poeira (RESA e o uma lama (RESB. A primeira etapa do estudo, fundamental para o estudo visando à reciclagem dos resíduos, foi a caracterização utilizando as seguintes técnicas: análise química, distribuição granulométrica (MALVERN, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e análise de micro-regiões (EDS. A segunda etapa envolveu a aglomeração dos resíduos caracterizados e outros reagentes, antes de serem introduzidos no aço líquido, utilizando-se uma briquetadora manual. Foram fabricados três briquetes com cada um dos resíduos. A terceira etapa da pesquisa foi a adição dos briquetes de resíduos no aço líquido e retirada periódica de amostras do banho para avaliação da incorporação do cromo contido nos resíduos no aço. O tipo de aço utilizado foi o aço carbono ASTM 1020. Os experimentos foram realizados em um equipamento em escala laboratorial, composto de um forno vertical que pode atingir até 1700ºC e seu controlador. O forno possui uma região de temperatura uniforme de cerca de 13 cm e, nessa região, o cadinho de alumina contendo aço é colocado. Esse equipamento foi construído para o estudo das reações envolvidas quando se adicionam resíduos em aço líquido. A atmosfera interna do aparato pode ser controlada. Após a introdução do briquete no aço líquido e sua fusão foram retiradas, periodicamente, amostras do banho em intervalos de tempo de três em três minutos para análise dos teores de vários elementos, principalmente o cromo, o níquel e o sil

  3. Presence of two cave bear species in La Lucia cave (Lamasón, Cantabria, N Spain): Ursus deningeri von Reichenau and Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth= Presencia de dos especies de oso de las cavernas en la Cueva de la Lucia(Lamasón, Cantabria, N de España):Ursus deningeri von Reichenau y Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    2005-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio paleontológico sistemático y tafonómico de dos acumulaciones de dientes y huesos de osos fósiles de la Cueva de la Lucia (Lamasón, Cantabria). Los restos de oso se localizaron en dos sitios distintos de la cueva: La Sala (LUS) y La Rampa (LUR). El inventario general de hallazgos y el cálculo de edades a partir del desgaste dentario revelan que en LUR, una parte remota de la cueva sin acceso directo, se han encontrado abundantes restos de U.deningeri que testimo...

  4. Industrial solid waste (whitewash mud use in forest road pavements Utilização do resíduo sólido industrial (lama-de-cal em pavimentos de estradas florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of industrial solid waste (whitewash mud on geotechnical properties considering the following engineering parameters: California Bearing Ratio (CBR, Atterberg limits and Permeability test. Seven soil samples derived from Alagoinhas, Bahia - Brazil, were classified by the Transportation Research Board (TRB system. Two were selected as having a great geotecnical potential classified as A-3 (0 and A-2-4 (0, whitewash mud contents 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% dry weight and medium compaction effort were studied in the laboratory testing program. The results indicated the soil denominated good gravel as being the most promising one, when stabilized with whitewash mud, reaching the best results with the dosage of 20 and 25% of whitewash mud.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do resíduo sólido industrial (lama-de-cal nas propriedades geotécnicas de amostras de solo da região de Alagoinhas, BA, Brasil. Das sete amostras coletadas, apenas duas foram selecionadas, por apresentar maior potencial geotécnico. Utilizaram-se ensaios de caracterização, CBR e permeabilidade, cujos resultados indicaram que a amostra de solo denominada good gravel quando estabilizada com lama-de-cal, na dosagem de 20 e 25%, foi a mais promissora.

  5. İhracatın İthalatı Karşılama Oranlarının Parçalı Regresyonlarla Modellenmesi / Modeling with Piecewise Regression of Ratios of Export to Import

    OpenAIRE

    Genç, Aşır; Erkan OKTAY; Ömer ALKAN

    2012-01-01

    Özet: İhracat ve ithalat, bir ülkenin dış ticaretini oluşturur. Dış ticaret istatistiklerinebakılarak ülkenin ekonomik durumu hakkında değerlendirme yapılabilmektedir. Buistatistiklerden biri de ihracatın ithalatı karşılama oranıdır. Bu çalışmada Türkiye'nin1923-2010 yılları arası ihracatın ithalatı karşılama oranlarının yıllık değişimleri parçalıregresyonlarla incelenmiştir. Verilerin dağılım grafiğine bakıldığında 1923-2010 yıllarıarası ihracatın ithalatı k...

  6. Emprego de uma lama com caráter refratário para o processo de fundição odontológica Use of a refractory slurry characteristic in mold casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor PANZERI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de novos materiais, especialmente aqueles metálicos, tem sido uma constante na odontologia. Graças às necessidades da indústria no desenvolvimento de produtos cada vez com maior resistência, principalmente à corrosão, a prótese tem-se beneficiado com um número elevado de ligas metálicas excelentes. Para atender a necessidade de conformar as ligas em restaurações ou aparelhos próprios à nossa profissão, devem ser desenvolvidos refratários para estas ligas. Este é o caso da proposta de usar uma lama refratária como molde para confecção da fundição. A lama proposta, além de servir aos propósitos, tem-se mostrado capaz de oferecer melhor acabamento da liga.The use of new materials, particularly metal alloys, has been a constant trend in Dentistry. The industrial need to develop products with greater resistance to corrosion has benefited prosthodontics with a large number of excellent metallic alloys. In order to adapt such alloys to dental restorations or devices, refractory materials ought to be developed. That is the aim of using slurry as a mold in the casting process, which also makes it possible to obtain surfaces with improved finish.

  7. Estudio comparativo de muestras arqueofaunísticas de guanaco (Lama guanicoe de la cuenca superior del río Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lorena L'Heureux

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo plantea el análisis de los procesos naturales y culturales que intervinieron en la estructuración de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de dos sitios arqueológicos de tierras bajas (Alero del Bosque y El Sosiego 2 y uno de tierras altas (Piedra Quemada localizados en la cuenca superior del río Santa Cruz, con el objetivo de evaluar el uso diferencial entre estas áreas. Se analizaron las modificaciones antrópicas predepositacionales y postdepositacionales de naturaleza no antrópica en las muestras de guanaco representadas. Se observó un predominio de especímenes correspondientes a la región del esqueleto apendicular y de individuos adultos (>2 años y una alta fragmentación del material, principalmente en el sitio Piedra Quemada. Los rangos de meteorización fueron amplios en las tres muestras, siendo la media obtenida en la muestra de Alero del Bosque significativamente menor a la de los otros sitios. Las modificaciones óseas postdepositacionales fueron relativamente poco significativas en los conjuntos de Piedra Quemada y Alero del Bosque en comparación con la muestra de El Sosiego 2. Las diferencias esperadas entre los sitios de tierras altas y los de tierras bajas respecto de los perfiles de edad y representatividad diferencial de partes esqueletarias no se verificaron, probablemente como resultado del alto grado de fragmentación de los conjuntos.The aim of this paper is to analyze the natural and cultural processes intervening in the formation of the archaeofaunal assemblages from three archaeological sites, located in very different settings in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin: 1 Alero del Bosque; 2 El Sosiego 2; and 3 Piedra Quemada. The analysis was focused on the post-depositional and anthropic modifications in samples of guanaco bones (Lama guanicoe. Elements from the apendicular skeleton of adult individuals (>2 years old dominated all the assemblages. Most of the bones were highly fractured, especially in the

  8. Síntese e caracterização de hidróxidos duplos a partir da lama vermelha Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides from red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. P. O. Cunha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo do refino da bauxita, comumente conhecido como lama vermelha, tem mostrado ser capaz de ligar metais traços tais como o cobre, cádmio, zinco, cromo, níquel e chumbo sob condições apropriadas. A neutralização da lama vermelha é necessária porque essa lama é tipicamente cáustica, com pH em torno de 13. Muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas envolvendo a utilização da lama vermelha, porque contem uma série de elementos valiosos. Assim a utilização da lama vermelha como material de construção e como adsorvente é atrativa porque ela é utilizada em grande quantidade. Nada pode ser feito sem descartar componentes valiosos como titânio, zircônio e principalmente ferro. A síntese de hidrotalcita conectada com a reciclagem de soluções alcalinas representa uma maneira efetiva de uso dessa solução considerando a forte demanda por proteção ambiental no mundo. Os compostos tipo hidrotalcita, precipitados durante a neutralização da lama, também removem oxi-ânions de metais de transição através da combinação de intercalações e adsorção de espécies aniônicas na sua superfície externa. Os hidróxidos duplos lamelares (HDL vêm sendo investigados à muitos anos como materiais hospedeiros para uma variedade de reações de intercalação de anions. A estrutura lamelar dos HDLs pode ser usada para controlar a adição ou remoção de uma variedade de espécies químicas, tanto orgânicas quanto inorgânicas. Isto é alcançado através de sua habilidade de adaptar a separação das lamelas de hidróxidos, e da reatividade da região interlamelar. O material resultante adsorve anions quando colocado em soluções e reverte a estrutura da hidrotalcita. Avanços significativos têm sido alcançados recentemente na caracterização desses materiais, incluindo estudos estruturais sobre o mecanismo de intercalação. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a síntese e caracterização de HDLs a partir da lama vermelha, e

  9. Apuntes sobre la geografía eclesiástica de Ourense: Tourém, Lama de Arcos, «Couto Mixto» y «Pueblos Promiscuos»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Figueiredo, José Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meet the ecclesiastical geography of a diocese is to be a key task to understand their historical memory. The previously unknown files of the Vatican offer valuable information for knowing the lights and shadows of the Diocesan Church in the contemporary period. Presented in this article document processes of the dismemberment of the parish church of St. Peter of Tourém and St. Mary of Lama de Arcos, and the solution to the question of the “Couto Mixto” and “Pueblos Promiscuos”, and the last under the decree of the Congregation Consistorial of 1954.Conocer la geografía eclesiástica de una diócesis resulta ser una tarea fundamental para comprender su memoria histórica. Los inéditos fondos vaticanos ofrecen una valiosa información para conocer las luces y las sombras de la Iglesia diocesana en el periodo contemporáneo. En este artículo se presentan los procesos documentales del desmembramiento de las parroquias de San Pedro de Tourém y Santa María de Lama de Arcos, así como la solución a la cuestión del “Couto Mixto” y los “Pueblos Promisicuos”, y el último arreglo del decreto de la Congregación Consistorial de 1954. [gl] Coñecer a xeografía eclesiástica dunha diocese resulta ser unha tarefa fundamental para comprender a súa memoria histórica. Os inéditos fondos vaticanos ofrecen unha valiosa información para coñecer as luces e as sombras da Igrexa diocesana no periodo contemporáneo. Neste artigo preséntanse os procesos documentais do desmembramento das parroquias de San Pedro de Tourém e Santa María de Lama de Arcos, así como a solución á cuestión do “Couto Mixto” e os “Pobos Promisicuos”, e o último arranxo do decreto da Congregación Consistorial de 1954.

  10. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R B Perry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m² compared to obese cases (BMI≥30 Kg/m². We performed two case-control genome-wide studies using two accepted cut-offs for defining individuals as overweight or obese. We used 2,112 lean type 2 diabetes cases (BMI<25 kg/m² or 4,123 obese cases (BMI≥30 kg/m², and 54,412 un-stratified controls. Replication was performed in 2,881 lean cases or 8,702 obese cases, and 18,957 un-stratified controls. To assess the effects of known signals, we tested the individual and combined effects of SNPs representing 36 type 2 diabetes loci. After combining data from discovery and replication datasets, we identified two signals not previously reported in Europeans. A variant (rs8090011 in the LAMA1 gene was associated with type 2 diabetes in lean cases (P = 8.4×10⁻⁹, OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.09-1.18], and this association was stronger than that in obese cases (P = 0.04, OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]. A variant in HMG20A--previously identified in South Asians but not Europeans--was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese cases (P = 1.3×10⁻⁸, OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.07-1.15], although this association was not significantly stronger than that in lean cases (P = 0.02, OR = 1.09 [95% CI 1.02-1.17]. For 36 known type 2 diabetes loci, 29 had a larger odds ratio in the lean compared to obese (binomial P = 0.0002. In the lean analysis, we observed a weighted per-risk allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.10-1.17], P = 3.2×10⁻¹⁴. This was larger than the same model fitted in the obese analysis where the OR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.08], P = 2.2×10⁻¹⁶. This study provides evidence that stratification of type 2 diabetes cases by BMI may help

  11. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacosalpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  12. Construction of eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA 3 .1 (+)-GFP-MC1R and its expression in alpaca hair follicle stem cells%真核表达载体 pcDN A3.1(+)-G FP-M C1R 的构建及在羊驼毛囊干细胞中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白瑞; 王振华; 尹志红; 弓慧敏; 于志慧; 庞全海

    2015-01-01

    旨在构建含有 MC1R基因的pcDNA3.1(+)真核重组表达载体,为进一步研究 MC1R的生物学功能奠定基础。应用RT‐PCR技术从羊驼皮肤cDNA文库中扩增 MC1R基因全长cDNA ,然后通过双酶切将 MC1R基因全长cDNA克隆到真核表达载体pcDNA3.1(+),然后采用脂质体法转染体外培养的羊驼毛囊干细胞后,通过G418筛选培养,建立稳定的转染体系,直接荧光观察pcDNA3.1/MC1R融合蛋白在细胞中的分布定位,并通过Western Blot方法检测 MC1R在羊驼毛囊干细胞中的表达。结果表明,成功构建了pcDNA3.1/MC1R重组表达载体,并且发现试验组的毛囊干细胞中表达 MC1R蛋白显著高于空白组(P<0.05)。成功构建了含有绿色荧光蛋白基因的真核表达载体pcDNA3.1/MC1R ,且 MC1R基因在羊驼毛囊干细胞中获得表达。%It is the base of further study on MC1R biological functions to construct the pcD‐NA3 .1 eukaryotic expression vector of MC1R gene in alpaca .MC1R gene was amplified by RT‐PCR with the cDNA from alpaca skin library .PCR products and pcDNA3 .1 plasmid were digested and recycled by BamHI and EcoRI endonuclease .The positive clones were selected , from which plasmid DNA was abstracted and identified by restriction endonuclease ,sequence identification and sequencing . The pcDNA3 .1/MC1R recombinant expression plasmid was transfected into alpaca hair follicle stem cells by Lipofectamine TM 2000 .After screening culture by G418 ,a stably‐transfected cell system was established .Fluorescent microscopy was em‐ployed to reveal the localization of MC1R in alpaca hair follicle stem cells ,and the transcrip‐tion and expression of the MC1R were identified by Western Blot .The results show that eu‐karyotic expression vector pcDNA3 .1/MC1R was successfully constructed .When pcDNA3 . 1/MC1R recombinant expression plasmids were transfected into alpaca hair follicle stem cells , the

  13. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  14. Estudo das reações alcalis-sílica associadas ao uso da lama vermelha em argamassas colantes e de revestimento Study of alkali-silica reactions associated with the use of red mud in plastering mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação de resíduos industriais em matrizes cimentícias, com o objetivo de inertização, é uma alternativa de reutilização que tem sido bastante estudada nos últimos anos. No presente trabalho, estudou-se a lama vermelha, resíduo sólido gerado no processo de beneficiamento da bauxita e que, devido a seu elevado pH, é considerado "perigoso". Apesar do uso deste resíduo ter sido reportada em trabalhos anteriores, algumas patologias podem estar associadas à sua utilização, devido à elevada concentração de íons alcalinos (principalmente o sódio, favorecendo as reações álcalis-sílica (RAS e às dificuldades de moldagem (reologia devido à elevada finura deste resíduo. Apesar destes prováveis problemas provenientes do uso indiscriminado da lama vermelha como adição às argamassas e concretos, ainda são poucas as pesquisas que os contemplam, sendo este o foco do presente trabalho. Foram verificadas as propriedades reológicas das argamassas, utilizando um reômetro e a avaliação da RAS, de acordo com as normas ASTM C 1260-07 e NBR 11582. Os resultados obtidos foram bastante satisfatórios quanto ao comportamento das argamassas frente à RAS, apesar da elevada concentração de álcalis na lama vermelha, com grande influência reológica.The incorporation of industrial wastes in cementitious matrices, with the goal of inertization, is an alternative of reuse that has been extensively studied in recent years. In this paper, the red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production by the Bayer process from bauxite ore and considered "hazardous" due to the high pH, was studied. Despite the use of this waste have been reported in previous studies, some pathologies may be associated with its use, due to high concentration of alkali ions (mainly sodium, favoring the alkali-silica reactions (ASR and the difficulties of molding (rheology because of high fineness of this waste. Despite these potential

  15. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI LARUTAN ASAM ASETAT DAN LAMA WAKTU PERENDAMAN TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT GELATIN CEKER AYAM The Effect Concentration of Acetic Acid Solution and Soaking Time on Chiken Claw Gelatin Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine influence of acetic acid solution concentration and soaking time on chemical and physical properties of chiken claw gelatin. The experiment used Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with two factors of treatment. The first factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisting of 3 levels (0,5; 2,0 and 3,5 % w/v. The second factor was soaking time in acetic acid solution also consisting of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 hours. The gelatin product was analyzed for yield, protein, moisture, ash, viscosity, gel strength, and pH of gelatin. The results showed that concentration of acetic acid solution had significant effect (P<0,01 on the yields, protein, pH and also had significant effect (P<0,05 on moisture, but no significant effect on ash content, viscosity, and gel strength. The soaking time had significant effect (P<0,01 on protein and had significant effect (P<0,05 on moisture, but no significant effect on the yields, ash content, viscosity, gel strength, and pH of gelatin.   Keywords: Gelatin, chiken claw, concentration of acetic acid solution, soaking time.   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi larutan asam asetat dan lama perendaman terhadap sifat kimia dan fisik gelatin ceker ayam potong yang dihasilkan. Penelitian dilaksanakan menggunakan Rancangan Blok Lengkap Teracak (RBL dua faktor. Faktor pertama yaitu konsentrasi larutan asam asetat terdiri dari 3 taraf (0,5 ; 2,0 dan 3,5 % v/v, sedangkan faktor kedua adalah lama perendaman juga dengan 3 taraf (2 ; 4 dan 6 jam. Gelatin yang dihasilkan dianalisis rendemen, kadar protein, air, abu, viskositas, kekuatan gel dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi larutan asam asetat berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap rendemen, kadar protein, pH dan juga berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kadar air, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar abu, viskositas dan kekuatan gel. Waktu perendaman berpengaruh

  16. Perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik heat cured akibat kelembaban dan lama penyimpanan (Changes in glass transition temperature and heat cured acrylic resin mass due to moisture and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2014-09-01

    massa pada resin akrilik. Metode: Metode penelitian adalah eksperimen laboratoris. spesimen resin akrilik disimpan dalam kondisi kelembaban 90%, 70%, 40% dan 30% selama 24 jam, satu minggu, satu bulan dan dua bulan. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga metode curing, yaitu konvensional JIs, 24 jam curing pada suhu 70 °C dan menggunakan microwave. Hasil: Kelembaban rendah menyebabkan perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik. Penyimpanan lebih lama dari resin akrilik dalam kelembaban rendah, dapat mempengaruhi perubahan yang lebih besar dari suhu transisi kaca dan massa dari resin akrilik. Simpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kelembaban dan penyimpanan yang lebih lama dari resin akrilik dapat mempengaruhi suhu transisi kaca dan perubahan massa.

  17. Aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário na cultura da soja Surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone on soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de lodos de esgoto, lama cal, escória de aciaria e calcário sobre o estado nutricional e a produtividade da soja, em sistema plantio direto. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 4x4+1, constituído por quatro tratamentos - resíduos de lodo de esgoto centrifugado (LC e de biodigestor (LB, escória de aciaria (E e lama cal (Lcal - nas doses 0, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1, mais o controle com 2 Mg ha-1 de calcário. As plantas de soja apresentaram maior concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio, em 2003, 2004 e 2005, e de potássio, em 2003 e 2004, em razão dos tratamentos LC, LB, E, Lcal e calagem. A produtividade da soja foi favorecida pela aplicação dos tratamentos no sistema plantio direto, em 2003, 2004 e 2005. O fósforo, e o cálcio contribuíram para o aumento da produtividade da soja em 2003 e 2004.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the surface application of sewage sludge, aqueous lime, flue dust and limestone on soybean nutrition and yield in notill system. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, in factorial scheme of 4x4+1, and consisted of four residues: centrifuged sewage sludge (CSS, biodigestor sewage sludge (BSS, flue dust (FD and aqueous lime (AL, at 0, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1, and one additional control treatment with dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The soybean plants showed greater contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in 2003, 2004 and 2005, and potassium contents in 2003 and 2004, due to the treatments CSS, BSS, FD, AL and limestone. Soybean grain yield was also enhanced due to surface applications of the treatments in notill system in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The phosphorus and calcium contributed to increase soybean yield in 2003 and 2004.

  18. Optik Fiberli Dağınık Algılama Yöntemiyle Enerji Kablosunda Sıcaklık ve Gerginliğin Algılanması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Günday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available XLPE (çapraz bağlı polietilen yalıtkanlı yüksek gerilim kablolarında, kablo yalıtkanı, çalışma esnasında elektriksel, ısıl ve mekanik etkilere maruz kalır. Kablo yalıtkanının maruz kaldığı önemli etkilerden biri maksimum işletme sıcaklığı, diğeri de yalıtkan üzerinde meydana gelen gerginliktir. Bu çalışmada, 1550 nm'de tek modlu optik fiber kullanılarak 380 kV yüksek gerilim kablosunda kablo boyunca sıcaklık ve gerginlik algılama benzetimleri yapılmıştır. Kablo boyunca sıcaklık verilerine ulaşabilmek için, Raman saçılmasını baz alan dağınık sıcaklık algılama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Kablo boyunca gerginlik verilerinin elde edilebilmesi için de, geri saçılan işaretin Brillouin frekans kayması bilgisinden faydalanılmıştır. Kablo ek yerleri, kesişim noktaları ve boru içinden geçme gibi benzetim koşulları altında ve Matlab 6.5 programı kullanılarak 5 km uzunluklu kablo boyunca sıcaklık ve gerginlik profilleri 1.5 m uzamsal çözünürlükte, ~ 1.25 oC sıcaklık çözünürlüğü ve ~ 50 με gerginlik çözünürlüğü ile elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca, kablo boyunca Brillouin frekans kayması ve Brillouin güç değişimi profillerinden faydalanılarak, frekans kayması üzerindeki etkin değer (RMS gürültüsü ~ 1.20 MHz ve güç değişimi üzerindeki RMS gürültüsü ~ % 0.45 olarak hesaplanmıştır.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16087-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e mth2-103l13, WORKING DR... 46 5.4 1 ( AC231342 ) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-33p5, WORKING DRAF... 46 5....4 1 ( AC229616 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-370O14, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46 5.4 1 ( AC208349 ) Zea mays chromo

  20. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustanir Mustanir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidrida logam berbasis MgH2 dengan sisipan 1 wt% katalis Fe telah berhasil disintesis dengan teknik ball milling. Hasil proses miling selama 80 jam menunjukkan bahwa ukuran butir material telah membentuk struktur nanokristal. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh profil difraksi sinar-X dimana terjadi pelebaran puncakpuncak difraksinya dengan meningkatnya waktu miling. Hasil uji absorpsi secara gravimetrik diketahui bahwa MgH2 berkatalis 1 wt% Fe mampu menyerap hydrogen sebesar 5,5 wt% dalam waktu ~20 menit pada temperatur 300 oC. Hasil ini sekaligus memperlihatkan bahwa sejumlah kecil katalis Fe bekerja secara baik dalam memperbaiki sifat absorpsi material penyimpan hydrogen berbasis Mg.(Metal hydrides are of great interest as hydrogen storage media especially for automotive application. Hydrides of magnesium and magnesium alloys are particularly attractive as they combine potentially high hydrogen storage capacities, 7.6 wt%. But, unfortunately, the sorption properties are poor. For example, conventional hydrogenation of magnesium requires prolonged treatment at temperatures of 300 oC and above. Here, we report the absorption properties of MgH2 catalyzed with a small amount of Fe element (1wt% under argon atmosphere prepared by ball milling in 80 hours. As the results, it showed the influence of milling time on the absortion kinetics of material which could absorp hydrogen in amount 5.5 within 20 minutes at 300 oC. It is obvious that longer milling time and small amount of catalyst could improve the sorption properties of Mg-based hydrides. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 13rd November 2009, Revised: 25th December 2009, Accepted: 31st December 2009][How to Cite: M. Mustanir, Z. Jalil. (2009. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 69

  1. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustanir Mustanir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidrida logam berbasis MgH2 dengan sisipan 1 wt% katalis Fe telah berhasil disintesis dengan teknik ball milling. Hasil proses miling selama 80 jam menunjukkan bahwa ukuran butir material telah membentuk struktur nanokristal. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh profil difraksi sinar-X dimana terjadi pelebaran puncakpuncak difraksinya dengan meningkatnya waktu miling. Hasil uji absorpsi secara gravimetrik diketahui bahwa MgH2 berkatalis 1 wt% Fe mampu menyerap hydrogen sebesar 5,5 wt% dalam waktu ~20 menit pada temperatur 300 oC. Hasil ini sekaligus memperlihatkan bahwa sejumlah kecil katalis Fe bekerja secara baik dalam memperbaiki sifat absorpsi material penyimpan hydrogen berbasis Mg.(Metal hydrides are of great interest as hydrogen storage media especially for automotive application. Hydrides of magnesium and magnesium alloys are particularly attractive as they combine potentially high hydrogen storage capacities, 7.6 wt%. But, unfortunately, the sorption properties are poor. For example, conventional hydrogenation of magnesium requires prolonged treatment at temperatures of 300 oC and above. Here, we report the absorption properties of MgH2 catalyzed with a small amount of Fe element (1wt% under argon atmosphere prepared by ball milling in 80 hours. As the results, it showed the influence of milling time on the absortion kinetics of material which could absorp hydrogen in amount 5.5 within 20 minutes at 300 oC. It is obvious that longer milling time and small amount of catalyst could improve the sorption properties of Mg-based hydrides. © 2009 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved[Received: 13rd November 2009, Revised: 25th December 2009, Accepted: 31st December 2009][How to Cite: M. Mustanir, Z. Jalil. (2009. Pengaruh Lama Miling Terhadap Sifat Absorpsi Material Penyimpan Hidrogen MgH2 yang Dikatalisasi Dengan Fe (The Role of Milling Time on the Absorption Behaviour of MgH2 Catalyzed by Fe. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(2: 69

  2. Memorials to 10th Bainqen Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Memorialsto10thBainqenLamaMarchingintunewiththeheartbeatoftimeandsocialprogress,themasterremainedontheTibetanPlateauandinthem...

  3. THE TRUE COLORS OF THE DALAI LAMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE TRUE COLORS OF THE DALAI LAMATHETRUECOLORSOFTHEDALAILAMA¥WANGGUI&WANGDUITheDalaiLama,exiledinIndiaforthepast36years,isoft...

  4. Policy on Dalai Lama Remains Unchanged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Policy on Dalai Lama Remains UnchangedPolicyonDalaiLamaRemainsUnchangedMay23marksthe43rdanniversaryofthepeacefulliberationofT...

  5. Livrai-nos da lama, Dalai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Cattelan

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Tomando como referencial teórico as concepções de Linguagem de Culioli (1997, de Metaforização de Lakoff (1997 e de Integração Conceptual de Fauconnier (1997, analisarse- ão casos em que esse processo cognitivo ocorre, procurando determinar se ele é um processo que restringe os discursos, cerceando a liberdade, ou se é um mecanismo que permite a impressão de plasticidade e maleabilidade à linguagem.

  6. Personal Cyber Security Provision Scale development studyKişisel Siber Güvenliği Sağlama Ölçeği geliştirme çalışması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Erol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a scale to determine internet users behavior related to cyber security. In this context created an item pool in accordance with expert opinion. This item pool was administered to 810 people for exploratory factor analysis. In exploratory factor analysis; principal component analysis method which is commonly used and Varimax vertical rotation method to determine the factor structure was used. Scale was administered to 292 people and structural equation modeling approach was applied to confirmation study.As a result of factor analysis,“Personal Cyber Security Provision Scale" which consists of 5 factors and 25 items and has a good compatibility was occurred.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı internet kullanıcılarının siber güvenlik ile ilgili davranışlarını belirlemeye yönelik bir ölçek geliştirmektir. Bu bağlamda öncelikle uzman görüşü doğrultusunda 26 maddelik bir madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Bu madde havuzu yapı geçerliliğinin test edilmesi için Facebook sosyal paylaşımda bir uygulamayı kullanan 810 kişiye uygulanarak açımlayıcı faktör analizi yapılmıştır. Açımlayıcı faktör analizinde en sık kullanılan yöntem olan temel bileşenler analizi yöntemi kullanılmış, ölçekteki faktör yapısını belirlemek için ise Varimax - dikey döndürme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Ölçeğin doğrulama çalışması için ise aynı sosyal ağ uygulamasını kullanan ve daha önce ölçeğin uygulandığı kişilerin elendiği292 kişinin verisi kullanılarak yapısal eşitlik modeli yaklaşımı uygulanmıştır. Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda 5 faktörlü ve 25 maddeden oluşan; doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda ise elde edilen uyum indekslerine göre iyi bir uyuma sahip "Kişisel Siber Güvenliği Sağlama Ölçeği" ortaya çıkmıştır.

  7. Avaliação qualitativa do efeito de agentes de limpeza na camada de lama dentinária: estudo ultra-estrutural em microscopia eletrônica de varredura Smear layer removal: a qualitative scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Junho de ARAÚJO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando qualquer instrumento abrasiona ou corta a dentina, produz na superfície uma camada de lama dentinária ou "smear layer". Dependendo do agente de união indicado em Odontologia adesiva, há a necessidade ou não da remoção da camada de lama da superfície dentinária. Com a finalidade de verificar a ação de diferentes substâncias para a limpeza dentinária, utilizamos 20 dentes pré-molares superiores íntegros, mantidos em soro fisiológico, nos quais as coroas foram seccionadas ao meio no sentido mésio-distal. Com instrumento diamantado, removeu-se o esmalte da porção vestibular e da porção lingual da coroa e, com uma broca carbide cilíndrica lisa nº 56, cortou-se aproximadamente 1 mm de dentina com alta rotação sob abundante refrigeração ar/água, para produzir a camada de lama dentinária. Em seguida, essa superfície foi tratada com diferentes substâncias e lavada por 30 segundos com "spray" ar/água. No controle, foi simplesmente utilizado o "spray" ar/água. Os espécimes foram montados em suportes metálicos, preparados e visualizados no MEV-DSM 950 da Zeiss, em aumentos que variaram de 100 a 5.000 vezes. Os materiais que mais removeram a camada de lama foram, em ordem crescente: 1. "spray" ar/água; 2. fluoreto de sódio 2%; 3. associação alternada de Dakin/Tergensol; 4. água oxigenada 3%; 5. jateamento com óxido de alumínio 50 mm; 6. flúor acidulado 1,27%; 7. ácido poliacrílico 25%; 8. ácido fosfórico 10%.A smear layer is produced on the dentin surface after abrasion or cutting by instruments. Its removal is indicated or not according to the kind of bonding agent used in adhesive dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of some substances on the smear layer. Twenty upper non-carious premolars, stored in isotonic saline solution, were mesiodistally hemi-sectioned and the buccal and lingual enamel was removed with high speed diamond bur. One millimeter of the dentinal

  8. Alteração de atributos físicos em latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Oxisol physical attributes affected by surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludges and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos industriais e urbanos podem atuar como condicionadores do solo, pois possuem a capacidade de alterar suas propriedades físicas. Contudo, não há referência para os atributos físicos do solo quando esses resíduos são aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema plantio direto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário nos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob sistema plantio direto. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro resíduos: lodos de esgoto centrifugado - LC e de biodigestor - LB, escória de aciaria - E, e lama cal - Lcal, interagindo com quatro doses (0, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1, aplicadas na forma seca mais uma testemunha (controle, constituída da aplicação de 2 t ha-1 de calcário. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, com quatro repetições. A presença de Ca na composição de lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado, escória de aciaria e calcário permite o aumento da agregação das partículas, diâmetro médio ponderado, índice de estabilidade de agregados, porosidade e retenção de água, sendo essas alterações distintas para cada fonte, dose e profundidade de reação no solo. A aplicação superficial da lama cal na dose de 8 t ha-1, após 27 meses de reação, proporcionou a maior agregação das partículas no solo, desde a superfície até 40 cm de profundidade.The residues flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge (centrifuge and biodigestor may affect soil physical attributes. The use of industrial and urban residues in soil, with emphasis to sewage sludge, was done in tilled soil, and there are no repports on soil physical attributes affected by these residues on soil surface in no-till system The goal of this study was to evaluate the physical attributes of a an Oxisol in no-till system by surface dispoasal of sewage sludge, flue

  9. CHURRERÍA PACO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Calificación del suelo: URBANO CONSOLIDADO Clasificación del suelo: URBANO Declaración BIC:No Fecha de construcción: 1967 Grado de protección: PARCIAL LA CHURRERÍA ESTÁ TOTALMENTE TRANSFORMADA Y NO QUEDA NINGÚN VESTIGIO MATERIAL, A EXCEPCIÓN DE LAS FOTOS ANTIGUAS. LA CHURRERÍA SE LOCALIZA EN UN LATERAL DE LA IGLESIA DE INGENIO, EN LA PLAZOLETA DE SAN BLAS. LOS CHURROS SE REALIZAN LOS SÁBADOS, DOMINGOS Y DÍAS DE FIESTA. EN EL COMEDOR TIENE UN ESCAPA...

  10. Multifrequency polarimetry of a complete sample of PACO radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, V.; Massardi, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Casasola, V.; Gregorini, L.; Trombetti, T.; Burigana, C.; De Zotti, G.; Ricci, R.; Stevens, J.; Ekers, R. D.; Bonavera, L.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Liuzzo, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Mignano, A.; Paladino, R.; Toffolatti, L.; Tucci, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present high-sensitivity polarimetric observations (σP ≃0.6 mJy) in six bands covering the 5.5-38 GHz range of a complete sample of 53 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, achieved a 91 per cent detection rate (at 5σ). Within this frequency range, the spectra of about 95 per cent of sources are well fitted by double power laws, both in total intensity and in polarization, but the spectral shapes are generally different in the two cases. Most sources were classified as either steep- or peaked-spectrum but less than 50 per cent have the same classification in total and in polarized intensity. No significant trends of the polarization degree with flux density or with frequency were found. The mean variability index in total intensity of steep-spectrum sources increases with frequency for a 4-5 yr lag, while no significant trend shows up for the other sources and for the 8 yr lag. In polarization, the variability index, which could be computed only for the 8 yr lag, is substantially higher than in total intensity and has no significant frequency dependence.

  11. Correção da acidez e mobilidade de íons em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Liming and ion mobility in an Oxisol under surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez, saturação por bases e a mobilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio no perfil de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi conduzido experimento em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, de 2002 a 2005. A possível interferência dos ácidos orgânicos, provenientes da aveia-preta, decorrentes da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, foram igualmente avaliadas nas doses de 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose de 2 t ha-1. A aplicação superficial de doses crescentes de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado permitiu verificar aumento do valor de pH no solo. Esses resíduos e o lodo de esgoto de biodigestor elevaram a saturação por bases e a disponibilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio até a profundidade de 40 cm no solo, com apenas três meses de reação. A pequena quantidade de ácidos orgânicos na parte aérea da aveia-preta não justificou o rápido deslocamento dos nutrientes e da neutralização do solo em subsuperfície. Os resíduos escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado podem ser utilizados como corretivos da acidez e aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema de plantio direto.The experiment was carried out under field conditions in a no-tillage system from 2002 to 2005, aiming to evaluate liming, base saturation and nitrate, calcium and magnesium mobility in a dystrophic Clay Rhodic Hapludox soil. The possible interference of organic acid catering of black oat through surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge from a centrifuge and a biodigestor were also evaluated at rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 as well as an additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at the rate of 2 t ha-1. Due to the increasing surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and

  12. Disponibilidade de metais pesados em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Heavy metal exchangeable in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns atributos químicos do solo e a disponibilidade de cádmio (Cd, cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni, mercúrio (Hg, chumbo (Pb e arsênio (As, por meio da extração pelo DTPA, em conseqüência da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugados e de biodigestores, nas doses 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose 2 Mg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, durante 2003 e 2004. A aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, até a dose 8 Mg ha-1, assim como o calcário na dose 2 Mg ha-1, não trazem problemas de disponibilidade ao ambiente, com relação aos metais pesados Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni e As, quando aplicados sobre a superfície em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, no sistema plantio direto. A fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados às culturas da soja e aveia-preta foi nula, quando foram aplicadas doses de até 8 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto, escória e lama cal sobre a superfície do solo, no sistema plantio direto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil chemical attributes and exchange of cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and arsenic (As by DTPA extractor in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge in rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1 and one additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design under field conditions, in a no-tillage system in 2003 and 2004. The surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge centrifuge and biodigestor at 8 Mg ha-1, as well as the application of limestone at 2 Mg ha-1, cause no problems of exchange to the environment, related to the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni

  13. miR-663通过靶向 TGF-β1调控羊驼黑色素细胞的黑色素生成%Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Melanocytes Regulated by miR-663 Through Targeting TGF-β1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小云; 金雷皓; 苗潋涓; 丁娜; 范瑞文; 董常生

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the present study is to identify the target genes of miR-663 and investigate the role of miR-663 in melanin synthesis in alpaca melanocytes.[Method]The potential targets and binding sites of TGF-β1 were predicted and analyzed by Targetscan, RNAhybrid and RNA22. The similarity of 3′UTR of TGF-β1 sequences from various species was analyzed by DNAMAN. The dual-luciferase construct of pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was created by inserting partial TGF-β1 3′UTR into the pmirGLO vector by SacⅠ and XbaⅠ restriction sites. The regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 was validated by co-transfecting pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR construct with miR-663 mimic into 293T cells. The over-expression of miR-663 was achieved by transfecting melanocytes with miR-663 mimic. The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7 and β-catenin in melanocytes transfected with miR-663 mimic were analyzed by qRT-PCR or Western blotting, respectively. The effects of miR-663 on melanin synthesis were evaluated by measuring the melanin content of the cells.[Result]There are 68 potential targets for miR-663 predicted by bioinformatics, including 74 conserved binding sites and 44 less conserved binding sites. DNAMAN analysis showed that all 3′UTR sequences of TGF-β1 from analyzed species are highly conserved and enriched potential target sites. One of the potential targets of miR-663 is TGF-β1, which is involved in the development of hair follicle as well as melanin pigmentation. The alpaca 3′UTR sequence of TGF-β1 contains three miR-663 potential binding sites. To confirm the regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 through its 3′UTR, a dual-luciferase reporter vector pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was successfully constructed and co-transfected into 293T cells with miR-663 mimic. The luciferase assay experiments showed that the luciferase activity was 31.01%lower in cells co-transfected with pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR and miR-663 mimic than that in control cells, suggesting

  14. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de lamas residuais urbanas (LRU aos solos destinados a pastagens, ainda escassamente utilizada no País, contribui, com frequência, para melhorar os níveis de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de alguns nutrientes das plantas e para diminuir o risco de erosão, pelo aumento da cobertura vegetal. Todavia, a presença eventual de níveis elevados de metais pesados, compostos orgânicos poluentes e organismos patogénicos nas LRU condiciona a dose a aplicar e torna imprescindível o controlo desses factores nos solos aos quais foram incorporadas. Também o teor elevado de azoto que por vezes contêm pode inibir a actividade simbiótica do rizóbio, prejudicando a sobrevivência das leguminosas na pastagem. Neste trabalho, examinaram-se a produção de matéria seca, a composição florística e o teor de cobre (Cu na biomassa vegetal, em dois anos consecutivos de um ensaio com uma mistura pratense semeada para cortes sucessivos, instalado, no Outono de 2001, num Luvissolo Háplico de baixa fertilidade, em Mértola, ao qual foi aplicado LRU secundária proveniente da ETAR de Évora, com um elevado teor de Cu. No mesmo período, apreciou-se a evolução, na camada superficial do solo, dos teores de M.O., de alguns macronutrientes e do Cu extraível por água régia. Avaliouse, ainda, a grandeza da população rizobiana que nodula o trevo (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii e procedeu-se à prospecção de indicadores de contaminação fecal (bactérias coliformes e enterococos. No ano seguinte à aplicação da LRU, examinou-se a evolução, no solo, de 11 compostos bifenilospoliclorados (PCBs, 13 pesticidas organoclorados e 16 hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (PAHs. O ensaio, de blocos casualizados, teve como modalidades três níveis de LRU (L 0 = 0, L1 = 12 e L2 = 24 t/ha e duas repetições. A mistura semeada incluiu azevém anual, panasco, cinco espécies de trevo, bisserula e serradela. Além de muito maiores produ

  15. 关于顺治皇帝召五世达赖喇嘛入京的论争--从洪承畴的一道奏疏谈起%Debate about Summoning Dailai Lama to Beijing in the Shun-Chih Period:Starting from Hong Chengchou Memorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔继来

    2014-01-01

    顺治皇帝召五世达赖喇嘛入京一事引发满汉之间的激烈论争,顺治八年洪承畴所上奏疏是汉臣意见的集中代表。论争是满汉文化的交锋,清朝入关之初,正处于满汉民族文化冲突的凸显时期,入仕清朝的晚明汉官群体不仅希望跻身外族政治集团,更希望能用传统的儒家思想影响顺治皇帝,建构新王朝的治国理念。论争又是国家民族政策的辩论与选择,五世达赖喇嘛最终入京觐见并受封,对满、蒙、藏上层的联合起到了关键作用,也有利于边疆的稳定和国家的统一。%The Shun-Chih Emperor summoned Dalai Lama to Beijing, which aroused a heated debate, with Hong Chengtao Memorials in Shunzhi 8th Year the representative view of all the Han ministers. This debate is the controversy between Manchu and Han at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty when there was the highlight of the cultural conflict since the late Ming Han official group not only hoped to enter the alien political leadership, but also wanted to use the traditional Confucian ideas to influence the Shun-Chih Emperor in or-der to construct new governing philosophy. Also, this controversy is on the debate and choice of the nationality policy. At last, the Fifth Dalai Lama was summoned into Beijing and titles were conferred on him. Thus, it played a critical role in the Manchu-Mongolia-Tibet upper class unity and was also conducive to border stability and national unity.

  16. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas.

  17. DOSSIER: OSTEOMETRÍA DE CAMÉLIDOS SUDAMERICANOS / South American camelid osteometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de elementos óseos y su asignación a una especie animal concreta es un tema central para la zooarqueología. Por ello desde la década de 1970 se han estudiado las diferencias morfométricas que permiten la diferenciación de especies que comparten una morfología ósea similar, especialmente cuando ésta es el resultado de un proceso de domesticación o de mejora de alguno de los caracteres de la población (e.g. Albarella y Payne 2005, von den Driesch 1976, Davis 1996, Payne y Bull 1988, Reitz 1994, Uerpmann 1979, Weinstock 2003 y bibliografía allí citada. Esta similitud morfológica puede tener sus dificultades en casos particulares como el de los camélidos sudamericanos. Esta familia (Camelidae está compuesta actualmente por cuatro especies: Lama guanicoe Muller 1776 (guanaco, Lama glama Linnaeus 1758 (llama, Lama pacos o Vicugna pacos Linnaeus 1758 (alpaca y Vicugna vicugna o Lama (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 (vicuña.Ante la presencia de tantas variedades diferentes de camélidos es sumamente importante el estudio de las variaciones morfológicas, que permitan diferenciar las distintas especies, tema al que la osteometría pretende aportar nuevos datos para esta familia tan conspicua en el registro arqueológico y paleontológico sudamericano. Esto es una cuestión clave si lo que se intenta es realizar una reconstrucción paleoeconómica de las poblaciones humanas del pasado o de la paleoecología del ambiente en donde desarrollaron sus actividades.En los últimos años se ha implementado la aplicación de distintas técnicas sobre los restos de camélidos con el fin de avanzar en el análisis de la composición de los conjuntos recuperados de sitios arqueológicos de varias regiones del país y de países limítrofes (Noroeste argentino, Patagonia argentina y norte de Chile.Estas variaciones han sido estudiadas a través de dos vías de análisis: uno de tipo cualitativo y otro cuantitativo. Las formas de

  18. DOSSIER: Osteometría de camélidos sudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de elementos óseos y su asignación a una especie animal concreta es un tema central para la zooarqueología. Por ello desde la década de 1970 se han estudiado las diferencias morfométricas que permiten la diferenciación de especies que comparten una morfología ósea similar, especialmente cuando ésta es el resultado de un proceso de domesticación o de mejora de alguno de los caracteres de la población (e.g. Albarella y Payne 2005, von den Driesch 1976, Davis 1996, Payne y Bull 1988, Reitz 1994, Uerpmann 1979, Weinstock 2003 y bibliografía allí citada. Esta similitud morfológica puede tener sus dificultades en casos particulares como el de los camélidos sudamericanos. Esta familia (Camelidae está compuesta actualmente por cuatro especies: Lama guanicoe Muller 1776 (guanaco, Lama glama Linnaeus 1758 (llama, Lama pacos o Vicugna pacos Linnaeus 1758 (alpaca y Vicugna vicugna o Lama (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 (vicuña.Ante la presencia de tantas variedades diferentes de camélidos es sumamente importante el estudio de las variaciones morfológicas, que permitan diferenciar las distintas especies, tema al que la osteometría pretende aportar nuevos datos para esta familia tan conspicua en el registro arqueológico y paleontológico sudamericano. Esto es una cuestión clave si lo que se intenta es realizar una reconstrucción paleoeconómica de las poblaciones humanas del pasado o de la paleoecología del ambiente en donde desarrollaron sus actividades. En los últimos años se ha implementado la aplicación de distintas técnicas sobre los restos de camélidos con el fin de avanzar en el análisis de la composición de los conjuntos recuperados de sitios arqueológicos de varias regiones del país y de países limítrofes (Noroeste argentino, Patagonia argentina y norte de Chile. Estas variaciones han sido estudiadas a través de dos vías de análisis: uno de tipo cualitativo y otro cuantitativo. Las formas de

  19. The Selection of the Candidates Leaving for Britain to Study during the Ruling Period of the 13th Dalai Lama and their Departure%十三世达赖喇嘛时期西藏赴英留学生的选派考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朗杰紫丹

    2015-01-01

    十三世达赖喇嘛在什么样的背景下,产生了派遣留学生到西方学习的想法;他推行的新政措施的重要内容之一,派遣留学生一事,又是怎么实施的;最终怎么选定或产生这四位赴英留学生的;他们又是什么时候离开西藏启程去英国等问题,说法各异,与史实有一定的出入.文章以藏文、汉文和英文资料为依据,结合人物访谈资料,对十三世达赖喇嘛时期西藏赴英留学生的选定和启程等方面,提出了自己的观点.%The questions like: what was the social background when the 13th Dalai Lama came up the idea of sending Tibetan students studying in the West? Was it one of the important components of his new deal? How was it undertaken? How eventually were the four candidates selected studying in Britain? When did they leave Tibet for Britain? and so on and so forth, have different answers, which have some discrepancies with the histori-cal facts. This article provides the author's own view of the historical event by referring to the Tibetan and Chi-nese, and English documents and literatures combined with some interview data.

  20. Hubungan Lama Menonton Televisi Dengan Perilaku Agresif Remaja

    OpenAIRE

    Azwardi, Yusri

    2015-01-01

    Background. Television is one of the most favorite and powerful influence mass media for adolescent recently. Meanwhile, excessive television viewing had negative impacts such as aggressive behavior, substance use, obesity, sleep disorder, and poor school performance. Therefore, adopted from American Academy of Pediatrics, Indonesian Pediatric Society recommended limiting children’s screen time to no more than 2 hours per day. Objective. To assess the association between time spent of wat...

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Jesper; Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly;

    (prevalences in brackets): In C3 (third stomach compartment): Camelostrongylus mentulatus (33 %), Haemonchus contortus (15 %), Graphinema aucheniae (12 %), Marshallagia occidentalis (6 %), Ostertagia ostertagi (12 %); in the small intestine: Lamanema chavezi (64 %), Nematodirus spathiger (55 %), Nematodirus...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of certain members of a protein family called laminins. Laminin proteins are made of three different subunits called ... 2 subunit. This subunit is found in the laminin 2 protein, also known as merosin; it is ...

  3. International Politics of the Reincarnation of the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    requires a careful assessment of the adversary’s commitment to use military power. Past Action Theory and Current Calculus Theory examine the credibility...of such a commitment. Past Action Theory examines the history of keeping and breaking commitments to the adversary power’s leaders and predicts the...threatening behavior. Daryl G. Press tested the two theories in four different cases and concluded that Current Calculus was valid. Past Action theory requires

  4. The 11th Panchen Lama Traveled to Chengde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From July 26 to 30,the 11th Panchen Erdeni Choskyi Gyalpo paid a visit to Chengde in Hebei Province for his religion activities. He respectively visited the Summer Resort,Puning Monastery, Anyuan Monastery,Xumi Fushou Monastery,and Putuo Zongsheng Monastery and paid his homage to Buddha keeping in those monasteries.In Puning Monastery(Monastery of universal peace),

  5. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hydrolyze 24-hour dentue plaque is 15.66 TU/mg enzyme activity for 10 minutes soaking. Soaking the denture in papain for 10 minutes makes all of the detected plaque protein bands remobe. In conclusion, efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque is papain activity of 15.66 TU/mg by soaking duration of 10 minutes. Further research is suggested to examine papain residue on the denture that may influence the denture wearer biocompatibility.

  6. DALAI LAMA AND ASAHARA: A Mirror Image of Evil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    DALAILAMAANDASAHARA:AMirrorImageofEvil¥//SHAZHOUShokoAsahara,the"veneratedmaster"oftheAumShinrikyoSect.admittedresponsibility...

  7. Odnokursniki. Dalai-lama i finski monah / Ilja Sundelevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sundelevitsh, Ilja

    2003-01-01

    Ilmar Kruusamäe, Peeter Alliku, Imat Suumani ja Albert Gulki töödest Kursi koolkonna näitusel Tallinna Kunstihoones ja selle galeriis. Matti Kurki ja Nagashila tööde näitus "Virgumine" ning Leonhard Lapini fotod Dalai laamast on Deco galeriis

  8. Dalai Lama and His Fifty Years’ Harm to Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paisal Peuchmongkol

    2009-01-01

    <正>In the last few days, the Thais have read some reports through the media about Tibetans protesting against the Chinese Government. According to the reports, the protests were staged at the time of the fiftieth anniversary of "China’s occupation over

  9. The Reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    TheReincarnationofthe13thDalaiLama¥OnMay17,1995,thespokesmanoftheStateCouncilissuedastatementthattheDalai'schoiceofthereincar...

  10. Factores asociados a parasitismo gastrointestinal en guanacos silvestres (Lama guanicoe)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Pablo Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Fil: Moreno, Pablo Gastón. Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas; Argentina. Recientes investigaciones han demostrado que el estado de salud en animales silvestres es crucial para modular las dinámicas de infección de las enfermedades. Existe un sinergismo entre la condición fisiológica, el sistema inmunológico de un individuo y su susceptibilidad para contraer enfermedades. La meta de esta tesis fue investigar los factores determinantes de abundanc...

  11. Fertilidade e contaminação por metais pesados e microrganismos fecais de um solo sob pastagem pela aplicação de lama residual urbana Soil fertility and contamination by heavy metals and faecal microorganisms as affected by biosolids application in pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em vastas áreas do Alentejo, os solos sob pastagem natural apresentam baixa fertilidade. A aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU veicula matéria orgânica (M.O. e nutrientes para o solo, mas também pode introduzir metais pesados e bactérias de origem fecal, pelo que é conveniente monitorizar o solo após a adição destes resíduos. Comparam-se as fertilizações orgânica com LRU e a mineral, nos efeitos em alguns índices de fertilidade e contaminação metálica e fecal de um solo derivado de xistos e grauvaques, no Alentejo, no 1º ano de um campo experimental com pastagens. O campo, com um esquema experimentalem “split-plot”, foi constituído por seis talhões de 0,5 ha, correspondentes a três tratamentos de fertilização (nula, mineral e orgânica, com LRU, em dois tipos de pastagem, natural e semeada. Aplicaram-se cerca de 13 t/ha de uma mistura de LRU das ETARs de tratamento secundário de Alvito e de Vila Nova de Baronia, com teores apreciáveis de M.O., N e Ca. A adubação incluiu N, P, K, Zn e Mo. Determinaram-se os valores de pH (H2O e os teores de M.O. total, N total, P e K “assimiláveis”, catiões de troca e de Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn extraíveis por água régia, em amostras de terra (fracção In wide areas of Alentejo, soils under natural pasture have low fertility. Urban biosolids (UB application introduce organic matter (O.M. and nutrients in the soil, but it can also add heavy metals and bacteria of faecal origin. Thus, soil monitoring after the application of these residues is required. Organic with UB and mineral fertilisations were compared regarding their effects on some fertility and metallic and faecal pollution indicators of a soil derived from schists and grauwacks, in the 1st year of a field experiment with pastures. The experimental layout was a split-plot design, with six plots of 0.5 ha, referring to three fertilisation treatments (“nil”, mineral, and organic, with UB, in natural and sown

  12. The materno-fetal interface in llama (Lama guanicoe glama A interface materno-fetal em lhamas (Lama guanicoe glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iturrizaga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 9 llamas (28 through 36 weeks of gestation were collected and fixed in 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (light microscopy and in 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde (transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The material was processed in paraplast and slides (5mm were stained with HE, PAS, Masson-Trichrome, acid phosphatase and Perl's. The uteroferrin was immunolocalized. The results show that llama placenta is chorioallantoic, diffuse, folded and epitheliochorial, and the fetus is covered with an epidermal membrane. The trophoblast cells have variable morphology: cubic, rounded and triangular cells, with cytoplasm containing PAS-positive granules. Binucleated cells with large cytoplasm and rounded nuclei, as well as giant trophoblastic cells with multiple nuclei were also observed. Numerous blood vessels were observed beneath the cells of the uterine epithelium and around the chorionic subdivided branches. Glandular activity was shown by PAS, Perl's, and acid phosphatase positive reactions in the cytoplasm and glandular lumen, and by immunolocalization of the uteroferrin in the glandular epithelium. The uterine glands open in spaces formed by the areoles, which are filled by PAS-positive material. The llama fetus was covered by the epidermal membrane, composed of stratified epithelium, with up to seven layers of mono-, bi- or trinucleated cells. The high level of maternal and fetal vascularization surfaces indicates an intense exchange of substances across both surfaces. The metabolic activity shown in the uterine glands suggests an adaptation of the gestation to the high altitudes of the natural habitat of this species.Fragmentos da placenta de 9 animais (28-36 semanas de gestação, provenientes do Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura (IVITA, Cusco-Peru, e da Universidad del Altiplano (UNA, Puno-Peru, foram colhidos e fixados em paraformoldeído 4% em PBS para microscopia de luz e em glutaraldeido em 2,5% PBS para microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e de varredura. O material incluido em paraplast cortado com 5 mm foi processado para HE, PAS, Tricrômio de Masson, fosfatase ácida e Perl's e para imuno-histoquimica da uteroferrina. Os resultados mostraram que a placenta da lhama é corialantóide, difusa, pregueada e epiteliocorial e o feto está recoberto pela membrana epidermal. O trofoblasto possui morfologia variada: células cúbicas, arredondadas ou triangulares, com citoplasma contendo grânulos PAS+. Células binucleadas com citoplasma aumentado e núcleo arredondado e células trofoblásticas aumentados com múltiplos núcleos, também foram observadas. Grande quantidade de vasos sanguíneos foi observada entre as células do epitélio uterino e ao redor das projeções coriônicas, as quais estavam subdivididas. A atividade glandular foi demonstrada pelas reações de PAS, Perl's e fosfatase ácida positivas e pela imunolocalização da uteroferrina na luz e epitélio glandular. As glândulas uterinas abrem-se nos espaços formados pelas aréolas, as quais estavam preenchidas por material PAS+. Os fetos das lhamas estavam recobertos pela membrana epidermal, constituída por um epitélio estratificado composto por mais de 7 camadas de células mono, bi ou trinucleadas. A alta vascularização das superfícies materna e fetais indica intensa capacidade de trocas de substâncias entre as duas superfícies, e a atividade metabólica mostrada pelas glândulas uterinas sugere adaptação da gestação às altitudes elevadas do habitat natural desta espécie.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15827-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AA from... 64 2e-08 2 ( DJ395561 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 74 2e-08 1 ( DD06669...1 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 74 2e-08 1 ( AC232720 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-257F...entially Expressed i... 72 5e-08 2 ( DD066150 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differential...e-08 3 ( DJ395676 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 72 6e-08 2 ( DD066806 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differential... gateway clone IM... 72 8e-08 1 ( DJ395004 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 72 8e-08 1

  14. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on lidocaine and articaine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, K C; Furtado, D P; Ramacciato, J C; Cabral, A M; Haas, D A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO₂ can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO₂ and PaO₂ on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO₂, and PaO₂ were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO₂ from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO₂ from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO₂ and/or increase in PaO₂ raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity.

  15. Multi-frequency polarimetry of a complete sample of PACO radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Galluzzi, V; Bonaldi, A; Casasola, V; Gregorini, L; Trombetti, T; Burigana, C; De Zotti, G; Ricci, R; Stevens, J; Ekers, R D; Bonavera, L; Alighieri, S di Serego; Liuzzo, E; Lopez-Caniego, M; Mignano, A; Paladino, R; Toffolatti, L; Tucci, M

    2016-01-01

    We present high sensitivity polarimetric observations in 6 bands covering the 5.5-38 GHz range of a complete sample of 53 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), achieved a 91% detection rate (at 5 sigma). Within this frequency range the spectra of about 95% of sources are well fitted by double power laws, both in total intensity and in polarisation, but the spectral shapes are generally different in the two cases. Most sources were classified as either steep- or peaked-spectrum but less than 50% have the same classification in total and in polarised intensity. No significant trends of the polarisation degree with flux density or with frequency were found. The mean variability index in total intensity of steep-spectrum sources increases with frequency for a 4-5 year lag, while no significant trend shows up for the other sources and for the 8 year lag. In polarisation, the variability index, that could...

  16. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  17. Morfología del linfocentro cervical superficial de la llama (Lama glama Morphology of the superficial cervical lymph center of the llama (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gauna Añasco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el linfocentro cervical superficial de la llama realizándose disecciones macroscópicas y microscopía óptica, para brindar las bases científicas de la circulación linfática de regiones anatómicas del miembro torácico de interés bromatológico. Las piezas anatómicas se obtuvieron de animales anestesiados previamente, destinados a faena. Las mismas fueron inyectadas con masa de Gerota modificada13, y luego fijadas con soluciones de formol al 10 % y ácido fénico al 3%. Para microscopía óptica se emplearon los métodos tradicionales. Los vasos linfáticos aferentes provienen de las regiones de la mano, antebrazo, brazo. Los linfonódulos muestran superficie lisa y menor tamaño en comparación con otras especies. Histológicamente los nódulos linfáticos no presentan el patrón característico de médula, corteza y paracorteza. Se observa que presentan nódulos linfáticos, tejido linfático anodular denso y tejido linfoideo difuso distribuido a través de los nódulos linfáticos primarios y secundarios. La cápsula no presenta fibras de músculo liso. Los senos peritrabeculares están rodeados por tejido linfoideo difuso.The superficial cervical lymph center of the llama was studied trough macroscopic dissections and light microscopy, offering scientific bases about lymph drainage from anatomical regions which belong to the forelimb with importance for inspecting meat. The thoracic limbs were injected with modified Gerota's mass; they were fixed by using a 10% buffered formalin solution. For light microscopy traditional methods were used. The afferent lymph vessels come from forefoot, antebrachial, brachial regions. The lymph nodes have flat surface and are smaller than those of other species. They have not a characteristic pattern of cortex, paracortex and medulla. Anyway they present lymph nodules, dense anodular lymphatic and diffuse lymphatic tissues distributed through the primary and secondary lymph nodules. The capsule does not present smooth muscle fibres and the peritrabecular sinuses are surrounded by diffuse limphatic tissue.

  18. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 14, 2005 update no. 29; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 mars 2005, no. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol and running in internal reforming mode 2)effect of the methanol and ethanol permeation on the efficiencies of a direct alcohol fuel cell with a PtRu/C anode 3)analysis of an hybrid SOFC micro-turbine micro-generation system 4)dynamic modelling and simulation of a small hybrid wind-fuel cell system 5)simulation of a system combining SOFC and PEMFC 6)assessment of the impacts and of the economical aspects of the fuel cell APU part 1: modelling of the cost and the efficiencies of the system part 2)impacts on the health and on the environment, analysis of the life cycle and optimization 7)efficiencies of vehicles equipped with direct hydrogen or reformed methanol PEMFC 8)methods for supplying fuel cell devices 9)auxiliary fuel cell system 10)analysis of life cycle of maritime applications of fuel cells 11)critical analysis of different hydrogen production and uses ways 12)comparison of the hydrogen and natural gas production processes in a thermodynamical and environmental point of view 13)research and development on the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  19. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 16, 2004 update no. 23; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 16 avril 2004, no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the importance of the fuel choice in the efficiency of the SOFC 2)assessment model of a centralized electric power system: SOFC/gas turbine 3)a direct borohydride fuel cell 4)thermodynamic optimization of the internal structure of a fuel cell 5)a SOFC/gas turbine cogeneration system 6)micro-fuel cells for portable applications 7)comparison of performances of direct alcohol fuel cells using different anode catalysts 8)materials and designs for SOFC used in stationary and mobile applications 9)development of measurement techniques for two-phase hydrogen weight flow 10)semi-conductors potentiometric probe for the hydrogen detection in air 11)integration of a fuel cell in an electric system, using a regulator based on the theory of regulation by disturbances accommodation 12)'greening London's black cabs': a study of the use potential of fuel cells cabs in London 13)gasification of leather residues - part 1 - experimental study in a pilot gasifier with a descending current 14)use of composite conducting membranes to produce hydrogen by water dissociation 15)molybdenum carbide based catalyst for the water gas reaction used in fuel cells vehicles applications 16)hydrogen production process from methane hydrates with carbon dioxide hydrates sequestration 17)comparative study between the hydrogen adsorption on super activated carbon and on carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  20. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 31, 2005 update no. 31; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 31 mai 2005, no. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)Comparison of the carbon formation domains in a SOFC fed with methane 2)efficiencies of energy storage systems using hydrogen and oxygen 3)electric power and water autonomous generator 4)efficiencies of fuel cells systems running with pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} for automobiles applications 5)desulfurization of JP-8 fuel, by selective adsorption on an nickel based adsorbent for micro-SOFC 6)fast response methanol detector running in a wide range of concentrations and temperatures 7)microstructural changes of the unit membrane-electrode during aging tests in strongly wet conditions 8)super-capacitors used as an energy storage system in an hybrid fuel cell system for mobile applications 9)comparison of the steam reforming assisted by hexane and iso-octane microwave plasma 10)continuous production of hydrogen by synthesis gas fermentation (water gas conversion by biological way) 11)titanium coated with carbon nano-tubes as a potential mean to store hydrogen 12)hydrogen storage in magnesium nano-structured composite materials 13)simulation of an hydrogen storage system from hydrides thermally coupled with a fuel cell. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  1. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 8, 2003 update no. 18; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 8 decembre 2003, no. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of different recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and with the different other energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells or internal combustion engine, will it be really a 'or'? 2)fuel cell systems with a high yield using heat generated by the fuel for producing an addition of electricity 3)the design of DFC (Direct Fuel Cell) 4)electricity production by glucose oxidation in bacterial fuels without intermediary 5)simulation of a photovoltaic/micro-hydraulic/hydrogen system for feeding a house in the Alpes area. Part 2: the integrated system 6)recent advances in the field of materials for fuel cells 7)new materials for hydrogen production in PEMFC 8)modelling of the performances of lithium-ion batteries for fuel cells vehicles 9)hydrogen production at low temperature from oxygenated hydrocarbons 10)an alternative system for stationary hydrogen production: the iron sponge reforming cycle 11)a steam reformer for abating the releases of an internal combustion engine 12)hydrogen separation and purification: hydrogen recycling for SOFC 13)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: are carbon nano-tubes good means of hydrogen storage? 14)energetic scenarios until 2050 15)the use of wind energy on the electric network. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  2. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 28, 2005 update no. 32; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 28 juin 2005, no. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)advantages of the use of hydrogen compared with kerosene 2)comparative study of three types of microbial fuel cells 3)carbon nano-tubes for electric applications 4)separation of the CO{sub 2} during the hydrocarbons gasification 5)hydrogen production from hydrocarbons assisted by plasma 6)plasma pyrolysis of biomass for synthesis gas and carbonaceous adsorbent production 7)fast starting reformer for automobile applications 8)development of a unit of hydrogen production from LPG for PEM systems: assessment at the laboratory scale of the sub-units of auto-thermal reforming and of selective oxidation 9)hydrogen and electric power production, with CO{sub 2} sequestration, by redox species chemical cycle reforming (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as support) 10)exergy and economic analysis of a PEM electrolyser running at different temperatures and pressures 11)nano-structured materials for hydrogen storage 12)composite materials based on light elements for hydrogen storage. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  3. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 14, 2004 update no. 25; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 juin 2004, no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the American plan of de-regulated electric power production with fuel cells 2)application of single wall carbon nano-tubes in fuel cells 3)scenarios of SOFC introduction on the Japanese market 4)advanced SOFC technology and developments at the Siemens Westinghouse firm 5)manufacture and optimal size of a PEMFC cogeneration system for multi-residential application: application to the decomposition strategy 6)analysis of the life cycle of fuel cells using disposal gas 7)technical and economical analysis of a three-generation SOFC system 8)use of APU-FC for an average class tactical lorry, during a use in partial electric power supply or in condition of a silent stand by 9)modelling of the current supply of a lorry at stop: comparison between a idling engine and a APU 10)production of hydrogen and carbon nano-tubes by methane decomposition in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor 11)hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of gas-oil 12)simulations of cold starting of a gasoline reformer for mobile applications of fuel cells 13)ethanol production by steam reforming on a Pd/{gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trading catalyst 14)control of the CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and of the deactivation of the catalyst for the gasoline steam reforming 15)comparison of three integrated processes of partial oxidation producing hydrogen for fuel cells applications 16)search of new methods of the mixture: natural gas/hydrogen production for use in natural gas systems in The Netherlands 17)outline of the energy/hydrogen storage: progress achieved with the different techniques and future prospect of nano-materials 18) hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by solar way 19)forecast and measurement of the limits of the flammability domain of fuel cells. The references of these articles rae detailed. (O.M.)

  4. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  5. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). January 31, 2002 update, no. 5; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 31 janvier 2002, no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: fuel cells and fuel cell systems with a non-aqueous electrolyte; the co-development of a fuel cell electrode by Mitsubishi Materials, Kansai Electric Power and Fine Ceramics; a tubular fuel cell under development at the Japan national institute of advanced industrial sciences and technologies (AIST); a patent for an essential component (electro-catalyst) of Medis Technologies' fuel cells; a SOFC with good performances; influence of CO concentration and gas pressure on the performances of a PAFC-type cell; analysis of the life cycle of hydrogen fuel: a methodology for a strategic approach of decision; R and D of a clean hydrogen-based energy system; Teledyne Energy Systems proposes a new hydrogen production system; green alga: still more hydrogen; thermodynamic study and optimization of the hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes; large-scale hydrogen production from hydrocarbons; comparative study of fuels for the production of hydrogen on-board of fuel cell powered vehicles; hydrogen storage in carbon nano-structures; fundamental aspects of the Ti-H system: theoretical and experimental behaviour. (J.S.)

  6. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 18, 2004 update no. 24; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 18 mai 2004, no. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)comparison of the costs between the electric-powered vehicles and the fuel cell vehicles 2)fuel savings of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles 3)direct formic acid fuel cells producing high current density 4)use of biogas in a SOFC 5)test unit for the determination of the seasonal performance of fuel cell residential systems 6)new management technique of fuel cells for optimizing the output power and the fuel use yield 7)SOFC/micro-turbines systems: current progress achieved and future development 8)advances in the field of the PEMFC 9)advances in the field of new materials for PEMFC 10)hybridization of fuel cell vehicles: an accessible solution for efficient traction systems 11)exergy life cycle analysis of systems of production and storage of hydrogen for mobile application 12)hydrogen and electric power production from coal with CO{sub 2} sequestration 13)H{sub 2}S low temperature removal with ZnO in gas mixtures containing vapor for applications in fuel cells 1-ZnO particles and extruded compounds 14)catalytic nano-composite membranes for CO abatement in fuel cell applications 15)activity and stability of Cu-CeO catalysts in the water-gas conversion for fuel cell applications 16)hydrogen production for fuel cell by ethanol partial oxidation on a nickel based catalyst 17)micro-reactor for hydrogen production in micro-fuel cell applications 18)hydrogen storage capacity and electrochemical properties of the electrode material La{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 3.825}Co{sub 0.675}Mn{sub x}(A) 19)hydrogen storage and desorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  7. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). August 8, 2002 update, no. 7; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 8 aout 2002, no. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: characteristics of a PEM fuel cell submitted to a transient increase of CO concentration; perspectives of the different fuel cell technologies in transport applications; development of a portable fuel cell system for the soldier's equipment; direct 2-propanol low temperature fuel cell; a fuel cell system quasi-directly supplied with methanol and based on a mixture of electrolytic polymers; catalysis in low temperature fuel cells (part.1: the cathode stakes); manufacturing and performance of the new multi-layer cathodes for SOFCs; patent about intermediate plates for the limitation of the movement of the bolts used for the fastening of a fuel cell core; the Paul Sherrer institute is testing a zinc and synthetic gas production process that use solar energy, natural gas and zinc oxide; experimental evaluation of a combined plasma/catalyst system for the production of hydrogen from the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons; hydrogen production using a new chemo-organo-trophic bacteria: Citrobacter sp. Y19; hydrogen as energy vector: competition or complementarity with fossil fuels; hydrogen storage in general and in light monocrystalline metal hydrides in particular; the nuclear option for the production of hydrogen as energy of the future. (J.S.)

  8. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). June 15, 2001 update, no. 0; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 15 juin 2001, no. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: effect of hydrogen on the magnetic properties of iron nano-crystalline particulates; smaller fuel cells; development of a 1 kW PEMFC; materials for low temperature SOFCs; development and operation of a 150 W DMFC; materials science and engineering: a key-technology for the commercialization of fuel cells; chemical and electrochemical behaviour of Ni-Ti in cathodic conditions as used in a MCFC; patent for stainless steel bipolar plates; development of proton conductive membranes for PEMFCs and DMFCs; development and characterization of acid-doped polymer mixtures (poly-benzimidazole/sulfonated poly-sulfone) used as fuel cell electrolyte; modification of a proton conductive membrane for the reduction of methanol diffusion in a DMFC; DMFC based on a new low cost nano-porous membrane; method for controlling the connexion between a fuel cell and a power grid; steam reforming of biomass-derived ethanol for hydrogen production devoted to fuel cells; hydrogen production by catalytic decomposition of methane; hydrogen storage. (J.S.)

  9. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). September 23, 2003 update no. 16; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 23 septembre 2003, no. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the behaviour of the electrode potential in direct hydrazine fuels 2)a device of desalination fed with a fuel cell 3)experiment in the field of residential fuel cell systems at ECN (Energy Research Center) 4)'design of a divided feeding' for SOFC with an internal reforming system 5)water management and thermal management in a fuel cell vehicle fed with hydrogen extracted from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) 6)a mathematical model of propulsion systems by PEMFC for mobile applications 7)assessment of the feasibility of a DMFC containing an alkaline membrane 8)semi-empirical assessment model of the performance of a DMFC, first part: development of the model and validation 9)PEMFC and the challenge of CO 10)materials for SOFC 11)natural gas and LPG desulfurization for fuel cells reformers 12)heat exchangers for reforming techniques 13)desulfurization of a fuel for fuel cell system 14)hydrogen production from solar thermal reactor 15)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: nano-structured storage materials having modified covalent bonds sp2. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  10. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). July 21, 2003 update no. 14; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 21 juillet 2003, no. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells fed with wood in different buildings 2)use of CO{sub 2} produced in a SOFC in a reactor in which algae are produced 3)PEMFC systems: the requirement of using polymers running at higher temperatures to better manage the heat and water 4)a technical and economical assessment of a fuel cell system decoupled of the electric network to feed buildings located in Sweden 5)use of ammonia as fuel in SOFC 6)direct oxidation fuel cells running with pure propanol-2 6)fuel cells at protonic ceramics for a running at a higher yield with methane 7)future role of gold in fuel cell systems 8)a heat management system in a fuel cell 9)tests in real conditions of the running of a fuel cell hybrid bus 10)a hydrogen production unit from hydrocarbons without releases for fuel cells used for mobile and portable applications 11)development of a methanol reformer for fuel cells 12)the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons for fuel cells used in transport applications 13)the properties of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides with vanadium having a centred cubic structure. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  11. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. November 15, 2004 update no. 28; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 novembre 2004, no. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)commercialization of fuel cells: technical and economical difficulties to the development of a hydrogen basic equipment 2)public directives to promote the acceptance of fuel cells for automotive industry 3)direct alcohol SOFC: current - voltage characteristics and composition of the fuel gas 4)control by the fuzzy logic method of an autonomous or connected to the electric system SOFC 5)determination of the energetic yield of a DMFC by a fuel circulation system 6)an hybrid system SOFC-Stirling motor of 5 kW 7)control system of PEM type APU feed with gasoline 8)development of a DMFC generator of 2W 8)analysis of the life cycle of the hydrogen production processes 9)hydrogen production for fuel cells by ethanol catalytic steam reforming 10)methanol production from coal: what are the aims of the research? 11)application of a membrane electrochemical reactor to the hydrogen production process by iodine-sulfur thermochemical cycles 12)hydrogen storage in carbonated nano-materials: possibilities and challenges. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  12. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 22, 2004 update no. 22; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 mars 2004, no. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and renewable energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)recent developments in the field of polymer electrolyte fuel cells membranes running above 100 C 2)a new study method of a two-phase flow in a direct methanol fuel cell 3)fuel cell system 4)direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells running with dimethyl ether for portable applications 5)new fuel cells developments for aerospace equipment 6)anode materials for SOFC 7)application of the fuel cell technology to the rail transport 8)hydrogen production by hydrocarbons steam reforming on Ni or Fe based catalysts which are modified by an alkaline earth metal 9)thermochemical hydrogen production from Pacinum virgatum plant 10)development of a catalyst for biomass gasification, in a double-bed gasifier 11)the role of hydrogen in the development of wind power electric systems: the case of Ireland 12)feasibility study of a hydrogen distribution basic equipment for fuel cells vehicles, based on the use of electric power produced in off-peak hours in Japan 13)'bio-hydrogen' production: future developments and limits to a practical application 14)improvement of the hydrogen production from a biomass gasification process, indirectly heated. Removal of carbon dioxide releases with a new biological reformer 15)storage of hydrogen cooled with liquid nitrogen 16)ten years of running of a renewable energy production system based on hydrogen. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  13. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). October 23, 2001 update, no. 2; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 23 octobre 2001, no. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, transportation systems, hydrogen production and energy in general: Japan foresees 10 million of clean vehicles from now to 2010; the fuel cell: a new clean and efficient energy source; development of biogas production units for fuel cells; thermodynamic analysis of an hydrogen-supplied proton conductive SOFC; materials for the high temperature reduction of oxygen in a SOFC; stability of of SOFC components; LaSrMnO metal interface for SOFCs; oxygen ion transport in SOFCs; test of a fuel cell-powered bus in 2002; comparative study of fuels for the on-board hydrogen production; electricity and hydrogen cogeneration from natural gas without emission; solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas; IFC patent: self-thermal reformer of gas fuel for a fuel cell system; some considerations about water electrolysis from a solution of sodium hydroxide; hydrogen production from high temperature water; a more compact and efficient wind turbine. (J.S.)

  14. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. August 13, 2004 update no. 26; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 13 aout 2004, no. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells, hydrogen and energy supply in Australia 2)fuel cell system 3)exergy analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol or methane 4)a SOFC fed with H{sub 2}S 5)challenges to take up in the control of fuel cells systems: role of dynamic models 6)hydrogen as energetic vector for autonomous applications based on renewable energy sources 7)passive feed system for DMFC 8)heterogeneous poly-acids membrane for DMFC 8)ferritic stainless steel assessment as interconnections material for SOFC 9)an approach of super-capacitors integration in fuel cell electric-powered vehicles and emulation of the electric characteristics of the cell using an automatic converter 10)catalytic activity correlations: the difficult case of the hydrogen production from ammonia 11)desulfurization of natural gas and LPG, for reformers, in fuel cells systems 12)Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by an homogeneous precipitation method, and used for methanol steam reforming 13)renewable energy production: role of gas and electric power networks to cope with the intermittence problem, with the hydrogen production and storage 14)comparison of the hydrogen adsorption on carbon nano-structures 15)hydrogen detector based on an optical and an electric switching. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  15. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). December 7, 2001 update, no. 3; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 7 decembre 2001, no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage, and of renewable energies in general: studies of the humidification of PEMFCs; chemical engineering in the automotive industry; environmental impact of the manufacturing of tubular and planar SOFCs; fullerenes for portable fuel cells; hydrogen fuel produced from the gasification of solid municipal fuels; required electric power for a large-scale production of hydrogen for vehicles; hydrogen produced from methane decomposition: an application for the decarbonization of fossil fuels; production of synthesis gas from ethanol vapo-reforming; electrochemical characterization of the hydrogen adsorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electric arc and laser ablation techniques; hydrogen storage in ultrasound wave processed carbonized materials; hydrogen storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles; year 2000 status of renewable energies in France; renewable energy sources: too insufficient efforts made in the UK; wind turbine in the country of wind mills (Netherlands); a research institute for wind energy in the Netherlands; feasibility study of underwater CO{sub 2} storage. (J.S.)

  16. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. Actualization of the 30 september 2003, no.8; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 30 septembre 2002, no.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on september 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components, vehicles), the hydrogen production (the ethanol reforming), hydrogen storage (materials activation), safety, regulation and standards, carbon dioxide emissions decrease and fuel production. For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  17. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network (PACO). January 28, 2004 update no. 20; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 janvier 2004, no. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the characteristics of PEMFC running at negative exterior temperatures 2)the effects of CO poisoning on PEMFC at temperatures until 200 C 3)the mechanical properties of tubular SOFC 4)fuel cells fed with coal 5)analysis of cogeneration system: planar SOFC/gas turbine 6)modelling of fuel cells for transport, according to the neuronal networks method 7)design of hybrid fuel cell systems 8)a comparative study of direct methanol fuel cells for vehicles 9)desulfurization by adsorption and catalytic steam reforming of gas oil for applications in fuel cells 10)feasibility study of hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles by naphtha on-board steam reforming 11)reforming catalyst of kerosene for fuel cell, kinetics and modelling of steam reforming 12)reforming by partial oxidation of low lubricant power gas oil, of dimethyl ether and methane for SOFC 13)conversion of solar heat in fuels by solar thermochemistry 14)hydrogen purification for fuel cells: selective oxidation of CO on Pt-Fe / zeolite catalysts 15)hydrogen photo-production from cellulose derived compound, with a system: chlorophyll / platinum nano-particles 16)hydrogen storage in commercial activated carbon. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  18. Pengaruh Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa dengan Sirup Glukosa dan Lama Pemasakan Terhadap Mutu Kembang Gula Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Syaiful Bakhri

    2010-01-01

    This research aim to know the influence of ratio sucrose concentration with glucose syrup and time of cooking for coconut sugar cane quality produced. This research used random comprehensive of program (RAL) with two factors are sucrose concentration ratio with glucose syrup (G): 70%:30%, 80%:20%, 90%:10%, and 100%:0% and time 0f cooking (L): 8 minute, 10 minute, 12 minute, and 14 minute. The parameter who analysed are water content, reduction sugar, the value of colour organoleptic, taste...

  19. Neivelt : Soome lama oli tunduvalt hullem / Indrek Neivelt ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neivelt, Indrek, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Hansapanga endise juhiga, kes vastab küsimustele Eesti majanduse hetkeseisust, pannes praegusele olukorrale hindeks kolm pluss. Vt. samas: Mis hinde panete tänasele majandusseisule ja miks? Vastavad: Juhan Parts, Andres Lipstok, Aivar Sõerd, Andrus Säälik, Urmas, Klaas ja Ester Tuiksoo

  20. Korelasi Antara Lama Kebuntingan, Bobot Lahir dan Jenis Kelamin Pedet Hasil Inseminasi Buatan pada Sapi Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Prasojo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research was to study the correlation between the gestation period with sex and birthweight of new born calves as the result of artificial insemination (AI in bali cattle. Data were collecteddirectly from AI technicians in some districts in the province of bali from 1997 to 2003. A total, of 10759inseminated cows and 799 of which were with completed data of, date of birth, birth weight and sex ofcalves. The data were collected from 3 districts, involving Gianyar (205 samples, Badung (221 samplesand Bangli (373 samples. Result showed that the gestation period of bali cows were 284.4±5.7 days andbirth weight of 18.4±1.6 kg. Sex ratios (male : female of bali calves resulted from AI in 1997 to 2003 were1.2:1. There were positive correlation between gestation period and birth weight (P>0.01 as well asbetween gestation period and sex of calves with a high correlation coefficient (0.075 which proved thatmale calves had longer gestation period than females.

  1. Murine muscular dystrophy caused by a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 (Lama2) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Wu, X R; Wewer, U M;

    1994-01-01

    The classic murine muscular dystrophy strain, dy, was first described almost 40 years ago. We have identified the molecular basis of an allele of dy, called dy2J, by detecting a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 chain gene--the first identified mutation in laminin-2. The G to A mutation in a splice...

  2. Pengaruh Konsentarasi Kalsium Klorida (CACl2) Dan Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Mutu Tepung Bawang Putih

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This research was perfomed to find the effect of concentration of calcium clorida and storage time on the quality of union flour. A completely rondomited with two factors was used in the research, i.e: concentration of calcium clorida (1, 2, 3, and 4) and storage time (1, 2, 3, and 4). Parameters analysed were moisture content, yield, ath content, and organoleptic value (colour and aroma). The result indicated that the concentration of calcium clorida had highly significant effect on yield, m...

  3. 76 FR 20011 - Mark De La Lama, P.A.; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... prescribe drugs necessary to treat such common ailments as excessive weight, Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, acute pain, acute anxiety attacks, and testosterone deficiencies... with various conditions. The MOA was to remain in effect for five years from the date of...

  4. Pengaruh lama waktu pengomposan kiambang (Azolla Pinnata) terhadap kadar C-Organik, N, P, dan K

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Judika Meylisza

    2013-01-01

    A research about the effect of Kiambang’s decomposition time on C-Organic, Nitrogen, Phosfor, and Kalium level has been carried out. The sample was taken from Liberia village and was cut into small pieces, then start the decomposition process with adding the EM4 bacteria and varying the decomposition time with interval 3 days. The C-Organic was determined by Walkey Black method, Nitrogen with Kjeldahl method, Phosfor with UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, and Potassium with Atomic Absorption Spec...

  5. Macroscopic and histological investigation of guanaco footpads (Lama guanicoe, Müller 1776).

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Horst Erich; Skewes, Oscar; Helmreich, Magda; Böck, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The surface of guanaco footpads is characterized by hairless skin with up to 4-mm-thick stratum corneum that protects from abrasion. The horny layer is pliable and elastic, and ensures firm contact with irregular ground. It is padded with a particular structure of the subcutaneous layer, the digital cushion. The flat cushions of each of the two digits are of elongated ovate shape, each about 45-mm long, up to 20-mm wide, and 8-mm thick. The cushions are lined by a 1-2-mm-thick capsule that resembles a tunica albuginea. The capsule consists of coarse collagen fibers, with elastic fibers absent. The cushion capsule and dermis approach each other, and fuse along a line that runs parallel to the longitudinal axes of cushion and digit. Loose connective tissue rich in elastic fibers and acidic glycosaminoglycans separates dermis and cushion capsule lateral to the narrow interconnecting zone. The cushion capsule encloses cloudy yellowish, gelatinous material. Microscopy shows bundles of elastic fibers in abundant mucinous matrix. Tightly gathered elastic bundles adjoin the inner surface of the capsule. Rough cords of elastic fibers branch out from there and traverse to the opposite side. The cushion is pressed flat, and elastic fibers are stretched when bearing weight. With relief of load, elastic fibers contract and reset the cushion's shape. Contractile cells are absent. A resistant capsule and easily malleable mucinous contents establish the functioning as a gel pad. Mucinous connective tissue between elastic fiber bundles contains abundant basophilic matrix. Hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate are main matrix constituents. Spindle-shaped or stellate fibroblasts contain vimentin, S100 protein, and neuron specific enolase. Moprhology, staining characteristics and synthesis activities of these cells meet the criteria to be classified as myxoid cells. The connective tissue in guanaco digital cushions represents myxoid tissue.

  6. PRODUKSI SELULASE KASAR DARI KAPANG TRICHODERMA VIRIDE DENGAN PERLAKUAN KONSENTRASI SUBSTRAT AMPAS TEBU DAN LAMA FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS WAYAN GUNAM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in order to utilize bagasse as substrates to produce crude cellulase from Trichoderma viride. This research used a randomized block design with factorial pattern which consisted of two factors. The first factor was the concentration of substrate which consisted of three levels namely, substrate concentration of 1%, 2%, and 3%. The second factor was the fermentation time which consisted of three levels namely, 5, 7, and 9 days. Each treatment classified into two groups based on time of production. The results showed that the concentration of bagasse and fermentation time significantly influenced the parameters observation of crude cellulase production from Trichoderma viride. The optimal treatment combination to produce crude cellulase with maximum activity was the treatment of 3% substrate concentration and fermentation time of 7 days with an average value of cellulase activity (filter paperase, soluble protein, and cellulase specific activity were 0.771 Unit/mL, 0.262 mg/mL, and 2.940 Unit/mg, respectively.

  7. DINAMIKA DEMOKRASI DI INDONESIA MASA ORDE LAMA: STUDI KASUS ANTARA SUKARNO VERSUS MASYUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insan Fahmi Siregar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The conflict between President Sukarno and Masyumi Party showed an increase from one period to the next. The intensity of the conflict is increasingly hard since the release of President Conception , and reach its peak during the guided democracy. Almost every statement and policy of Sukarno are always opposed by Masyumi. Vice versa, Sukarno judge the criticism as a form of defiance and resistance. The existence of a negative assessment of each party, and not ending conflict between the two sides, then worsen the relationship between Sukarno Masjumi. Masyumi assess Sukarno ignore the principles of democracy, and Sukarno judged that Masyumi is the enemy of guided democracy. The battle between Masyumi which is based on the attitudes and actions of constitutional democracy should end with Sukarno's policies and decisions to disband the Masyumi on behalf of democracy. Keywords: Masyumi, Sukarno, democracy, guided democracy  

  8. PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN VITAMIN C PADA CABAI RAWIT PUTIH (CAPSICUM FRUSTESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANI RACHMAWATI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature and length of storage on vitamin C concentration of chili (Capsicum frustescens was observed on this study. Samples were taken from farmer’s field around Gianyar Regency of Bali. The chilies were treated with temperature such as 10ºC, 20ºC, and 29ºC (room temperature and stored for 5, 10, and 15 days. Jacobs method was applied for vitamin C determination. The highest vitamin C content was obtain from control (59,9 mg/100 ml. On the other hand, the lowest was from chili that stored at room temperature for 15 days (23,6 mg/100 ml. For weight loss, the highest of loss was from chili which stored at room temperature for 15 days.

  9. Conformation and anatomical relations of the liver of llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A N C; Ghezzi, M D; Domínguez, M T; Lupidio, M C; Gómez, S A; Alzola, R H

    2009-04-01

    Morphological studies of the liver of the llama are structural supportive to the clinical practice, surgery and specific diagnostic techniques. The aims of this study were first to determine the location of the organ and the direction of its major axis to project it to the abdominal wall, identifying visible and palpable bony references. Secondly, to characterize and determine anatomical relations of the surfaces, borders and angles of the llama liver, as well as, of its lobulation. Twenty adult llamas of both sexes and two foetuses of 6.5- and 7-month-old were used. Llama liver is a post-diaphragmatic organ located in the cranial abdominal region, in the right hypochondrium, in relationship with the last six ribs. Dorsally, it can exceeds the last (twelfth) rib. Its major axis presents a cranio-ventral bent. Its shape is irregularly triangular. It presents two surfaces (parietal and visceral), three borders (cranial, caudal and ventral) and three angles (dorsal, cranial and caudal).

  10. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation in llama (Lama glama) sperm using the sperm chromatin dispersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, M I; Lombardo, D; Arraztoa, C C; Giuliano, S M; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

    2012-03-01

    The integrity of sperm chromatin is now viewed as an important factor in male fertility and in early embryonic development. The objectives of this study were: (1) adapt the simple and inexpensive sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test to evaluate DNA fragmentation in llama sperm and establish the halo patterns observed in this species, (2) determine an effective and reliable positive control for this technique and (3) evaluate correlation between the SCD test and the toluidine blue (TB) stain. To adapt the SCD test, three different mercaptoethanol (ME) concentrations were assayed (2.5%, 5% and 10% ME). To determine an effective positive control, three treatments (incubation at 100 °C for 30 min, incubation with 0.3 M NaOH for 30 min at room temperature and exposure to UV light for 2h) were assayed. The concentration selected to use in the SCD test was 5% ME, because it produced the largest halo while still conserving the structure of the core. Four DNA dispersion patterns were clearly observed: (I) nuclei with large DNA dispersion halos; (II) nuclei with medium halos; (III) nuclei with very small halos and (IV) nuclei with no halo. All treatments used as positive controls were effective in producing DNA fragmentation. A high correlation (r=0.84, P=0.03) was observed between spermatozoa without halos and TB positive cells. To conclude, SCD patterns in llama sperm have been established as well as a repeatable positive control for the assay. The SCD test and TB stain are simple and inexpensive techniques that can be used to evaluate DNA damage in llama sperm.

  11. Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapi, W V; Eden, K B; Edwards, J F; Snowden, K F

    2015-05-01

    The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects several mammalian species in the southeastern United States, including horses, but infections have not been reported in camelids. This is a report of H. americana infection in a 6-year-old llama with extensive cardiac pathology and congestive heart failure. Parasite-induced granulomas were widely disseminated and included overwhelming involvement of the lungs and liver. Microscopic lesions in the heart included myofiber degeneration and necrosis, with extensive replacement fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence of H. americana in the lungs.

  12. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentration and then stored at temperature of 10 0C. The results show that the fruitfly of oriental fruitfly (Bactrocera dorsalis was completely killed by treating in deep water testing at temperature of 46 0C for 10 minutes or at 43 0C for 30 minutes. The VHT of papaya at fruit core temperature of 45.5-46.0 0C for 15-30 minutes following waxing using beeswax of 6% in concentration was found to be effective to control pest and diseases until 21 days of storage without any visible signs of heat injury and without adversely affecting the quality of the fruit.

  13. Islam Aboge Pelestarian Nilai-Nilai Lama Di Tengah Perubahan Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Sulaiman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Komunitas Islam Aboge menghadapi tantangan global yang membawa perubahan pada pola hidup yang lebih dinamis. Komunitas Islam Aboge dapat dibedakan menjadi dua golongan, yakni Islam “nyantri”dan Islam “nyandi”. Pada era globalisasi, komunitas tersebut telah mengalami perubahan / pegeseran dalam sistem keyakinan dan sistem ritualnya karena faktor pembangunan, pendidikan, urbanisasi, dan dakwah. Untuk menjaga kelangsungannya, komunitas Islam Aboge memiliki strategi adaptasi tersendiri, yakni strategi adaptasi konservatif dan strategi adaptasi resistensi. Strategi adaptasi konservatif dilakukan melalui sistem kekerabatan, sistem pembaitan, dan pembinaan pemerintah. Sementara itu, strategi adaptasi resistensi hanya bersifat toleran terhadap apa saja yang dilakukan pihak lawan. Dengan semangat seperti inilah komunitas Islam Aboge dapat melestarikan nilai-nilai warisan budaya leluhur sehingga mampu bertahan hingga sepanjang jaman.Kata kunci: Islam Aboge, Perubahan Sosial, Strategi Adaptasi AbstractIslam Aboge community face the global challenge that impact on lifestyle changes were more dynamic. Islam Aboge community can be classified in two categories, namely “Islam Nyantri” and “Islam Nyandi”. In the age of globalization, the community has experienced a change or shift in beliefs and ritual system because of severalfactors: development, education, urbanization, and religious missionary. In keeping its existence, Islam Aboge community has its own adaptation strategies, namely conservative adaptation strategy and resistence adaptaion strategy. Conservativeadaptation strategy carried out through kinship system, religious-path system, and goverment guidance. Meanwhile resistence adaptation strategy were only tolerant of whatever is done by the opponents. With this spirit, Islam Aboge community preserve the value of cultural heritage so it can survive along age.Keywords: Islam Aboge, Social Change, Adaptation Strategy

  14. PEMBERIAN KOLKHISIN DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN BERBEDA PADA INDUKSI POLIPLOIDI TANAMAN PACAR AIR (IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sastriyani Wiendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to induce polyploidy on Impatiens balsamina L. Seedlings of I. balsamina was immersed in 0,01% colchicines solution for 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Chromosome of I. balsamina was visualized using squash method stained with aceto-orcein. Morphological observations were conducted on plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and width, number of branches flowering time and size of flower. The result revealed that 0,01% solution of colchicine was able to induce polyploidy on I. balsamina. Obsevation on morphological characteristic showed that colchicine treatment increased plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and number of branches. Colchicine treatment induced earlier flowering time, but flower size was unaffected. Twelve chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12 were observed in the diploid seedlings while 25 chromosomes were observed in the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 24 seedlings.

  15. KMT Envoy Huang Musong Sent to Mourn the 13th Dalai Lama in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    KMTEnvoyHuangMusongSenttoMournthe13thDalaiLamainLhasaSEXINLOBSANGTOINZHUBThe13thDalaiLamapasedawayonthe30thdayofthe12thTibeta...

  16. Wu Zhongxin and the Enthronement Ceremony for the 14th Dalai Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SHAZHAGANDAINBANJIUnesummerdayin1939(theTibetanYearofEarthRabbit),ToinbaGyizongQambaKezhol(amonkoficialinchargeofsacrificia...

  17. THE ONLY ONE Of THE DALAI LAMAS TO PREACH ’TIBETAN INDEPENDENCE’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE ONLY ONE Of THE DALAI LAMAS TO PREACH 'TIBETAN INDEPENDENCE'THEONLYONEOfTHEDALAILAMASTOPREACH'TIBETANINDEPENDENCE'¥//Thro...

  18. WHO EXNIBITS THE GREATEST CARE:The Central Government or the Dalai Lama?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WHOEXNIBITSTHEGREATESTCARE:TheCentralGovernmentortheDalaiLama?¥HUAZIWhileTibetansareoverjoyedwithallthechanges,theDalaiLamacr...

  19. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  20. Randomized Clinical Trial of Laparoscopic Versus Open Repair of the Perforated Peptic Ulcer: The LAMA Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.E. Bertleff; J.A. Halm; W.A. Bemelman; A.C. van der Ham; E. van der Harst; H.I. Oei; J.F. Smulders; E.W. Steyerberg; J.F. Lange

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become popular during the last decade, mainly because it is associated with fewer postoperative complications than the conventional open approach. It remains unclear, however, if this benefit is observed after laparoscopic correction of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). The goa

  1. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open repair of the perforated peptic ulcer: The LAMA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.E. Bertleff (Marietta); J.A. Halm (Jens); W.A. Bemelman (Willem); A.C. van der Ham (Arie); E. van der Harst (Erwin); H.I. Oei (Hok); J.F. Smulders; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Laparoscopic surgery has become popular during the last decade, mainly because it is associated with fewer postoperative complications than the conventional open approach. It remains unclear, however, if this benefit is observed after laparoscopic correction of perforated pep

  2. LAMA PAJANAN ORGANOFOSFAT TERHADAP PENURUNAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOLINESTERASE DALAM DARAH PETANI SAYURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure Effects toward Inhibition of Blood Cholinesterase Activity among Vegetable Farmers. Organophosphate pesticides can inhibit blood cholinesterase in human body. This study aimed to find relationship between length of exposure of organophosphate pesticides with cholinesterase enzyme activity in the farmers’ blood. The study was conducted at the Joint Farmers Group in Kelurahan Campang year 2009 using cross-sectional study design and sampling by the simple random sampling method (56 respondents. Data collection was carried out by interview and blood cholinesterase was measured using the Livibond Cholinesterase Test Kit AF267. Results showed that 100% farmers were poisoned, with 71.4% suffer from light-over-exposure and 28.6% moderate-over exposure. Bivariate test analysis using chi-square test showed that there are no statistically significant relationship between the length of exposure (year of working as pesticide farmer, spraying time per week, and the last time spraying with poisoning level (over-exposure probable and serious-over exposure. It takes the role of government to educate and trained farmers how to use pesticide safely and the importance of personal protective equipment to reduce the poisoning level.

  3. Secagem e combustão de lamas biológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Mario Alejandro Heredia

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the paper pulp production process in order to understand the origin of the sewage sludge was performed. Then a general revision of the current treatment options for this type of waste was addressed. The thermal treatment by combustion was focused and a review of the state of the art of this process was performed. The high moisture content of sludge was identified as a major concern. Thus a revision of the state of the art regarding thermal drying of sewage sludge was perform...

  4. Ciliate protozoa of the forestomach of llamas (Lama glama) from locations at different altitude in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, María Cerón; Marcoppido, Gisela; Dekker, Anna; Fondevila, Manuel; Fuente, Gabriel De La; Morici, Gabriel; Cravero, Silvio

    2016-01-20

    This study describes the diversity and concentration of the protozoal population from the forestomach of llamas in Argentina at three altitudinal locations. Protozoal diversity was studied in samples from eight llamas from Hurlingham (Buenos Aires, 43 m altitude), four from Tilcara (Jujuy, 2465 m altitude) and six llamas from Cieneguillas (Jujuy, 3800 m altitude). The total concentrations of protozoa in the forestomach contents were 7.9, 9.1 and 4.1 cells x 104 ml-1 in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively (P>0.05). Entodinium spp. represented 97.9, 92.3 and 71.4% of the protozoal community in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively, and the remaining protozoa belonged to the Eudiplodinium genus. Entodinium spp. were identified as E. caudatum (mostly morphotype dubardi), E. longinucleatum, E. parvum, E. bovis, E. exiguum, E. dubardi, and a minor presence of E. bimastus (in three animals) and E. ovibos (in one animal). In regards to the rest of protozoal species, Eudiplodinium maggii is the first reported host record for the genus in llamas. This species was present in the forestomach of 14 out of 18 llamas tested, and in one case it was the unique protozoal species. The vestibuliferids, Dasytricha and Isotricha were absent from the forestomach of llamas. Similarly, other species such as those from the Caloscolex genus, Diplodinium cameli and Entodinium ovumrajae, commonly found in Old World Camelids, were also absent from llamas.

  5. DINAMIKA DEMOKRASI DI INDONESIA MASA ORDE LAMA: STUDI KASUS ANTARA SUKARNO VERSUS MASYUMI

    OpenAIRE

    Insan Fahmi Siregar

    2011-01-01

    The conflict between President Sukarno and Masyumi Party showed an increase from one period to the next. The intensity of the conflict is increasingly hard since the release of President Conception , and reach its peak during the guided democracy. Almost every statement and policy of Sukarno are always opposed by Masyumi. Vice versa, Sukarno judge the criticism as a form of defiance and resistance. The existence of a negative assessment of each party, and not ending conflict between the two s...

  6. Karakter Visual dan Gaya Ilustrasi Naskah Lama di Jawa Periode 1800-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Yanti Damayanti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of illustrated writing and drawing was found in the old manuscripts of Indonesia. Some parts of those old manuscripts show unique illustrations depicting local identity of Nusantara. It is thought that the manuscript reflects societal culture of thinking as well as aesthetic achievement of visual art. The illustrations of those old Javanese manuscripts were well documented and represented in various visual styles, drawing methods, themes, and visualized objects; even though their visual concepts practically resembles to each other.  The presented paper discusses the visual character and styles of illustrations found in the old manuscripts of Java within the year of 1800-1920. The illustration in those old Javanese manuscripts shows continuous correlation to the visual style of the past era and the present. Thus, it emboldens the characteristics of Indonesian visual states. It reflects structured illustration and visual style as well as expressive symbols of the Javanese society. Illustration of the old Javanese manuscript in the year 1800-1920 showed some changes and uniqueness in its visuals, comprising interaction between animism in the Pre-Hinduism era, cultural paradigm of Hinduism-Budhism, Islamic beliefs, and Colonialism. Having observed the visual illustration in the old Javanese manuscripts, it can be deduced that their styles are characterized as decorative, naturalistic, realistic, simple, and deformed.

  7. Kemampuan Ekstrak Daun Zodia (Evodia suaveolens) Sebagai Repellent Nyamuk Aedes aegypti Berdasarkan Lama Penggunaannya

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Melati Agnes Anggreini

    2011-01-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) disease is a contagious disease that caused by dengue virus and infected by Ae. aegypti. Since reported in 1968, this disease has become endemic and reported every year in Indonesia. One of the way to avoid it by using anti mosquitoes lotion which generally made by synthetic chemistry. Therefore, it necessary to find natural substance to avoid mosquitoes, one of the natural substances that can use is from zodia leaves (Evodia suaveolens) as repellent. The a...

  8. PENENTUAN LAMA SULFONASI PADA PROSES PRODUKSI SURFAKTAN MES UNTUK APLIKASI EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rivai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For producing oil remains that remained at old oil wells (mature field, a method of advanced oil acquirement improvement known as an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR should be applied. Surfactant plays an important role in EOR process by reducing interfacial tension (IFT, altering wettability, reducing oil viscosity, and stabilizing dispersion to facilitate the process of oil jetting from reservoir to production well. To optimally cleanse oil that still remained a surfactant compatible with formation water and reservoir is needed. This study was conducted to get the best time of sulfonation process for producing MES surfactant with lower interfacial tension for EOR application. Results showed that the best times of sulfonation process with lower interfacial tension value were 3 and 4 hours

  9. Six-Year-Old Becomes the Reincarnated Soul Boy of the 10 Panchen Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Six-Year-OldBecomestheReincarnatedSoulBoyofthe10PanchenLamaByZHANGZONGInAugust1987,the10thPanchenLamagaveatwo-hourinterviewto...

  10. On Negotiations Between the Central Government and the 14th Dalai Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    OnNegotiationsBetweentheCentralGovernmentandthe14thDalaiLamaHUAZIWhenPresidentJiangZemingavealectureinHarvardUniversitylastNo...

  11. Pengaruh Perbandingan Sari Mengkudu dengan Sari Nenas dan Lama Pemanasan terhadap Mutu Permen Mengkudu Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Melina Farida

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted to determine the effect of comparison of noni with pineapple juices and time of heating on the quality of mix noni candy. This research was performed in January 2013 – April 2013 at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e. : the comparison of noni with pineapple juices (S) (70% : 30%; 60% : 40%; 50% : 50%; 60% : 40%) and time of heating (L) (20 minutes, 2...

  12. Determination of GH and PRL in Alpaca Placenta%羊驼胎盘中GH和PRL含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹; 赫晓燕; 张维俊

    2010-01-01

    为了更好的研究羊驼胎盘的再利用,采用放射免疫分析(RIA)方法测定羊驼产后胎盘中生长激素(GH)和催乳素(PRL)的含量,对羊驼产后胎盘中GH和PRL的表达量进行了精确定量.RIA法测定结果显示,平均每只羊驼胎盘含GH为13.084 5 ng,含PRL约153.3 μg,结果提示,羊驼胎盘可作为除垂体外GH和PRL,尤其是PRL天然产物的来源.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ma_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Lama+glama&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  14. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis.

  15. 九世班禅与十三世达赖失和原因探析%The Analysis of the Contradiction between the 9th Panchen Lama and the 13th Dalai Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雷

    2006-01-01

    达赖、班禅两大活佛系统,同领藏传佛教格鲁派.清中叶以前的历辈达赖、班禅均能彼此相安,和好相处,各执领地.然而到了清朝末年,在多方因素的制约下,双方产生矛盾并不断升级,最终九世班禅与十三世达赖关系破裂.其矛盾演变结果,对近代西藏地方的发展和中央与西藏地方的关系产生了一定影响.

  16. Fistulación y canulación permanente del compartimento 1 (Rumen en Llamas (Lama glama Permanent fistulation and cannulation of compartment 1 (Rumen of the Llama (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar estudios de evaluación nutricional de recursos alimentarios potencialmente utilizables por la Llama y relacionarlos con características ruminales de estos animales, hemos practicado fistulaciones permanentes del compartimento 1 (rumen. Cuatro llamas hembras de un peso promedio de 65 kg, fueron fistuladas usando la técnica quirúrgica descrita por Cabrera y col. (1980, 1997. Los animales se mantuvieron sin alimento por 72 h, se atropinizaron, y anestesiaron con Ketamina (Ketostop® i.m. 10 mg/k de peso y se infiltraron localmente con lidocaína al 2%. Se removió un trozo circular de piel de diez cm de diámetro de la fosa lumbar izquierda y los planos musculares subyacentes se separaron usando disección obtusa. El peritoneo fue abierto y la pared ruminal fijada al borde de la piel usando puntos en "U", cuidando de mantener siempre el peritoneo entre las dos capas. Finalmente, el circulo de pared ruminal comprendido entre las suturas, fue removido y la zona fue tratada con Qemispray®. La fístula, fue inmediatamente cerrada con una cánula de goma tipo 10 C (Bar Diamond,Inc., Parma, Idaho, U.S.A. Durante cinco días los animales fueron tratados con antibióticos (I.M. y las suturas fueron removidas al séptimo día. Los animales soportaron muy bien el procedimiento quirúrgico y se adaptaron adecuadamente a la cánula. Actualmente los animales han completado 24 meses de operados sin que hubieran presentado ningún problema derivado de ello, excepto por pequeñas fugas de contenido ruminal en algunas de las cánulas, de escasa trascendenciaTo carry out nutritional evaluation of potentially useful feedstuffs and related ruminal metabolic studies in Llama, we have performed permanent fistulations of compartment 1 (rumen in this specie. Four adult female llamas with a mean weight of 100 kg were fistulated using the surgical technique described by Cabrera et al. (1980, 1997. They were kept without food for 72 hr., atropinized and anaesthetized with Ketamine (Ketostop® i.m. 10 mg/k of body weight. Lidocaine (2% was used for local blockage. A piece of skin 10 cm in diameter of the left upper lumbar fossa was removed and the subjacent muscular layers were separated by blunt dissection. The peritoneum was opened and the ruminal wall was sutured to the edge of the skin using "U" stitches, maintaining the peritoneum between the two layers. Finally, the part of ruminal wall limited by de suture was cut away and all the surgical zone area was disinfected with Quemispray®. The resulting opening was closed immediately with a natural rubber cannula (Bar Diamond, Inc., Parma, Idaho, U.S.A.. Antibiotics (i.m. were used for five days and sutures were removed at the 7th day after surgery. All of the animals, except one, withstood quite well the surgical procedure and adapted well to the cannula. At present, the animals have completed 24 months after surgery without mayor problems. Some of the cannulas showed a minor leak, which is frequent in these procedures

  17. PENGARUH DOSIS DAN LAMA PERLAKUAN EKSTRAK DAUN KALIANDRA MERAH (Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn. TERHADAP STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI GINJAL MENCIT (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Assiam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of red calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsusMeissn. leaf extrac on the histological structure of the kidney of mice (Mus musculus L..Treatment was administered orally with varying doses. This research used a CompletelyRandomized Design in factorial pattern of two factors, doses (0 or control, 2, 4, and 6 mg/kgBW and length of treatment (7, 14, and 21 days, so there are 12 combination groups with 3replications of each. Organ was collected on days 8, 15, and 22 to observe histologicalstructure of the kidney. Renal histological observation of edema, Bowman’s spaceconstriction, and protein deposition, showed no correlation between both factors, but a veryreal correlation occurs in the damage of fatty degeneration, hemorrhage, and nucleuspyknotic. Histological observation of glomerular congestion and infiltration of inflammatorycells did not show any correlation between dose and duration of treatment.Keywords: red calliandra, histopathology of kidney, male mice

  18. Sequential extraction applied to Peruibe black mud, SP, Brazil; Extracao sequencial aplicada a lama negra de Peruibe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson Koyaishi

    2014-07-01

    The Peruibe Black mud is used in therapeutic treatments such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne and seborrhoea, as well as in the treatment of myalgia, arthritis, rheumatism and non-articular processes. Likewise other medicinal clays, it may not be free from possible adverse health effects due to possible hazardous minerals leading to respiratory system occurrences and other effects, caused by the presence of toxic elements. Once used for therapeutic purposes, any given material should be fully characterized and thus samples of Peruibe black mud were analyzed to determine physical and chemical properties: moisture content, organic matter and loss on ignition; pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity and swelling index. The elemental composition was determined by Neutron Activation Analysis, Atomic Absorption Graphite Furnace and X-ray fluorescence; the mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Another tool widely used to evaluate the behavior of trace elements, in various environmental matrices, is the sequential extraction. Thus, a sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate the mud in specific geochemical forms and verify how and how much of the elements may be contained in it. Considering the several sequential extraction procedures, BCR-701 method (Community Bureau of Reference) was used since it is considered the most reproducible among them. A simple extraction with an artificial sweat was, also, applied in order to verify which components are potentially available for absorption by the patient skin during the topical treatment. The results indicated that the mud is basically composed by a silty-clay material, rich in organic matter and with good cation exchange capacity. There were no significant variations in mineralogy and elemental composition of both, in natura and mature mud forms. The analysis by sequential extraction and by simple extraction indicated that the elements possibly available in larger quantities to be absorbed by the skin during treatment are Ca, Mg, Mn and Na. (author)

  19. PENGARUH LAJU PENDINGINAN, SUHU, DAN LAMA KRISTALISASI PADA PROFIL TRIASILGLISEROL DAN SIFAT PELELEHAN PRODUK FRAKSIONASI MINYAK KELAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursalin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fractionation will produce a fraction of olein and stearin with different composition of high melting and low melting as well the distribution of triacylglycerol (TAG in the form of trisaturated (St3, disaturated (St2U and monosaturated (StU2. This research aimed to study the effect of critical cooling rate and crystallization temperature on the composition and profile of TAG changes as well the melting properties of the fractionated coconut oil products. Coconut oilwas heated at 70°C then cooledat differentcooling rate to reach various crystalization temperatures. The oil was then stirred at 15rpm and allowed to crystallize at different period of time, and finally fractionated by vacuum filtration using Whatman #40 paper. Fractionation temperatures were the same as crystalization temperatures. The results showed that the critical cooling rate was proportional to the solid-like to liquid-like ratio, the content of St3 and SFC profile of olein fraction but inversely proportional to the content of St2U and StU2 TAG. Interval crystallization temperature between 21.30 and 21.73 °C produced the S/L ratio, the content of St3 TAG and SFC profiles of olein fractions lower and the content of St2U and StU2 TAG higher than the temperature interval below or above it. Coconut oil fractionation more effective in higher crystallization temperature or lower critical cooling rate. In these cooling treatments, St3 TAG which has high melting pointwould be concentrated at stearin fraction, while St2U and StU2 TAG and MCTwould be at olein fraction. Therefore, it will increase melting properties of stearin fraction and decrease olein fraction.

  20. Activity modulation of microbial enzymes by llama (Lama glama) heavy-chain polyclonal antibodies during in vivo immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Weill, F S; Paz, M L; Cela, E M; González Maglio, D H; Leoni, J

    2012-03-01

    Since they were first described in 1993, it was found that recombinant variable fragments (rVHHs) of heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) from Camelidae have unusual biophysical properties, as well as a special ability to interact with epitopes that are cryptic for conventional Abs. It has been assumed that in vivo raised polyclonal HCAbs (pHCAbs) should behave in a similar manner than rVHHs; however, this assumption has not been tested sufficiently. Furthermore, our own preliminary work on a single serum sample from a llama immunized with a β-lactamase, has suggested that pHCAbs have no special ability to down-modulate catalytic activity. In this work, we further explored the interaction of pHCAbs from four llamas raised against two microbial enzymes and analyzed it within a short and a long immunization plan. The relative contribution of pHCAbs to serum titer was found to be low compared with that of the most abundant conventional subisotype (IgG(1)), during the whole immunization schedule. Furthermore, pHCAbs not only failed to inhibit the enzymes, but also activated one of them. Altogether, these results suggest that raising high titer inhibitory HCAbs is not a straightforward strategy - neither as a biotechnological strategy nor in the biological context of an immune response against infection - as raising inhibitory rVHHs.

  1. First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals.

  2. Caracterización de genes vinculados al crecimiento y al color de capa en la Llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La Llama es el Camélido doméstico más abundante de Argentina. La cría de Llamas constituye una actividad económica de gran importancia debido a que es una especie poliproductora de carne, fibra, cuero y transporte. Actualmente existe interés creciente por mejorar el rendimiento y calidad de estos productos. El estudio de genes candidatos permite vincular las variaciones de un carácter y la manera en que éste se manifiesta en el fenotipo del individuo. En ese contexto la hormona de crecimiento...

  3. Single domain antibodies with VH hallmarks are positively selected during panning of llama (Lama glama) naïve libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monegal, Ana; Olichon, Aurelien; Bery, Nicolas; Filleron, Thomas; Favre, Gilles; de Marco, Ario

    2012-01-01

    Independent variable domains with VH hallmarks have been repeatedly identified in immune and pre-immune VHH libraries. In some cases, stable independent VH domains have been also isolated in mouse and human recombinant antibody repertoires. However, we have come to realize that VHs were selected with a higher efficiency than VHHs during biopanning of a pre-immune (VHH) library. The biochemical and biophysical comparison did not indicate a presence of any feature that would favor the VH binders during the selection process. In contrast, selected VHHs seemed to be more stable than the VHs, ruling out the existence of a thermodynamically - favored VH sub-class. Therefore, we reasoned that a certain degree of thermodynamic instability may be beneficial for both displaying and expression of VH(H)s when the Sec-pathway is used for their secretion to avoid the cytoplasmic trapping of fast-folding polypeptides. Indeed, VHHs, but not VHs, were accumulated at higher concentrations when expressed fused to the dsbA leader peptide, a sequence that drives the linked polypeptides to the co-translational SRP secretion machinery. These data suggest that the thermodynamically favored VHHs can be lost during biopanning, as previously observed for DARPins and in contrast to the recombinant antibodies in scFv format.

  4. Fresh Fruit of Tibetan Studies—Compillation of Chronology of the Dalai Lamas and the Panchen Erdenis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    CHANGYUANQheCentralUniversityPublishingHouserecentlypublishedtheChronologyoftheDalaiLamasandthePanchenErdenis,compiledunderDa...

  5. The Third Dalai Lama So nam Gya tso%三世达赖喇嘛索南加措

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达宝次仁

    2003-01-01

    16世纪是格鲁派在西藏发展相对艰难的一个时期.在与藏巴汗斗争并处于不利地位的关键时刻,三世达赖应邀去蒙古传法,把格鲁派的势力推广至蒙古,为格鲁派的发展赢得了强大的后盾.三世达赖在蒙古地区的传法活动,客观上为民族团结、社会安定及祖国统一也起了积极的作用.

  6. The fifth Dalai Lama and Tibetan Culture%五世达赖对藏族文化的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    番人

    2005-01-01

    五世达赖喇嘛是藏传佛教史中的重要人物。名叫阿旺洛桑嘉措(ngag—dbang—blo—bzang—rgya—mtsho,1617—1682),其生于1617年10月21日。按藏历说就是火蛇年的九月廿三日。五世达赖是西藏山南地区雅隆河谷的琼结县人。作为四世达赖的三个转世灵童之一。

  7. Pengaruh Musik Keroncong selama Pelaksanaan Kangaroo Mother Care terhadap Respons Fisiologis dan Lama Rawat Bayi dengan Berat Badan Lahir Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rahmawati

    2015-11-01

    (LBW infants. Some care interventions in neonatal intensive care unit, such as infant massage, KMC and listening to music have advantage for infant growth in form of physiological responses and reduce LBW infant-nursing length. This study aimed to determine advantage of keroncong music toward LBW infant’s response during KMC and nursing length. The study design was quasi experimental using pretest and posttest using control group design. Population was mothers and LBW infants implementing KMC. Samples were 60 infants taken by purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria determined for LBW infants were having weight 1,500 – 2,499 gram, without considering pregnancy age, having ability to suckle though still weak, not suffering breathing distress. Meanwhile, exclusion criteria were infants with congenital disorder, sepsis symptoms and infants during therapy photo. Statistical test used paired t-test, independent t-test with p value 0.05. In conclusion, keroncong music influences on decrease of pulse, respiration during KMC and length of infant nursing.

  8. Kajian Kesesuaian Ekowisata Mangrove di Pantai Bali Desa Mesjid Lama Kecamatan Talawi Kabupaten Batu Bara Provinsi Sumata Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Pesta Saulina

    2016-01-01

    Bali Beach is a beach located in Batu Bara with an area of approximately 637.22 ha which is a coastal area about 30.6% of the total area of its territory. This study aims to determine the potential of mangrove ecosystem ecotourism as an object, calculate the suitability and mangrove eco-tourism carrying capacity, inventory of facilities and supporting infrastructure in Bali Beach and create patterns of mangrove ecotourism management at Bali Beach. Potential of mangrove obtained by transect me...

  9. Noninvasive monitoring of PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation and minimal access surgery in adults: End-tidal versus transcutaneous techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Paul; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) may be inaccurate during one-lung ventilation (OLV). This study was performed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive monitoring of PCO2 using transcutaneous CO2 (TC-CO2) with ET-CO2 in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) during OLV. Materials and Methods: In adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgical procedures, PCO2 was simultaneously measured with TC-CO2 and ET-CO2 devices and compa...

  10. 78 FR 57808 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... include fibers from camels, alpacas, llamas, and vicunas.\\37\\ The Act further provides that fibers from... the sheep, lamb, angora goat, cashmere goat, camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna.\\39\\ The Commission... Cashmere goat as well as the fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna. Thus, the...

  11. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  12. Generation of a phage-display library of single-domain camelid VH H antibodies directed against Chlamydomonas reinhardtii antigens, and characterization of VH Hs binding cell-surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Rosenberg, Julian N; Wauchope, Akelia D; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Weeks, Donald P; Oyler, George A

    2013-11-01

    Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are powerful tools for the detection, quantification, purification and subcellular localization of proteins of interest in biological research. We have generated camelid (Lama pacos) heavy chain-only variable VH domain (VH H) libraries against antigens in total cell lysates from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The sdAbs in the sera from immunized animals and VH H antibody domains isolated from the library show specificity to C. reinhardtii and lack of reactivity to antigens from four other algae: Chlorella variabilis, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antibodies were produced against a diverse representation of antigens as evidenced by sera ELISA and protein-blot analyses. A phage-display library consisting of the VH H region contained at least 10(6) individual transformants, and thus should represent a wide range of C. reinhardtii antigens. The utility of the phage library was demonstrated by using live C. reinhardtii cells to pan for VH H clones with specific recognition of cell-surface epitopes. The lead candidate VH H clones (designated B11 and H10) bound to C. reinhardtii with EC50 values ≤ 0.5 nm. Treatment of cells with VH H B11 fused to the mCherry or green fluorescent proteins allowed brilliant and specific staining of the C. reinhardtii cell wall and analysis of cell-wall genesis during cell division. Such high-complexity VH H antibody libraries for algae will be valuable tools for algal researchers and biotechnologists.

  13. Uus töölpeinguseadus : nagu Soomes lama ajal? Ei, veel karmim / Maret Maripuu, Tarmo Kriis, Peep Peterson ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Vestlusringis on sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu, Eesti tööandjate keskliidu juhataja Tarmo Kriis ja transpordi ametiühingu juhatuse esimees Peep Peterson. Lisatud: mida eelnõu muudab? ; ametiühingute keskliidu juhi Harri Taliga kommentaar: dzhungliseaduste tagasitulek? ; Helmes ASi nõukogu esimehe Jaan Pillesaare kommentaar: praegune seadus on tobe

  14. Short communication: milk output in llamas (Lama glama) in relation to energy intake and water turnover measured by an isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an isotope dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the isotope dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the isotope dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by isotope dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas.

  15. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R.B. Perry (John); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); L. Yengo (Loic); N. Amin (Najaf); J. Dupuis (Josée); M. Ganser (Martha); H. Grallert (Harald); P. Navarro (Pau); M. Li (Man); L. Qi (Lu); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.A. Scott (Robert); P. Almgren (Peter); D.E. Arking (Dan); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B. Balkau (Beverley); R. Benediktsson (Rafn); R.N. Bergman (Richard); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); N.P. Burtt (Noël); H. Campbell (Harry); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); F.S. Collins (Francis); C. Gieger (Christian); T. Green (Todd); S. Hadjadj (Samy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); C. Herder (Christian); A. Hofman (Albert); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A. Köttgen (Anna); P. Kraft (Peter); Y. Labrune (Yann); C. Langenberg (Claudia); A.K. Manning (Alisa); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); A.P. Morris (Andrew); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.S. Pankow (James); A.K. Petersen; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I. Prokopenko (Inga); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); M. Roden (Michael); I. Rudan (Igor); D. Rybin (Denis); L.J. Scott (Laura); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); R. Sladek (Rob); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Vivequin (Sidonie); M.N. Weedon (Michael); A.F. Wright (Alan); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J.B. Meigs (James); J.F. Wilson (James); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D. Altshuler (David); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); P. Froguel (Philippe); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L. Groop (Leif); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); S. Cauchi (Stephane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCommon diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m2) compared

  16. Stratifying Type 2 Diabetes Cases by BMI Identifies Genetic Risk Variants in LAMA1 and Enrichment for Risk Variants in Lean Compared to Obese Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, John R. B.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Yengo, Loic; Amin, Najaf; Dupuis, Josee; Ganser, Martha; Grallert, Harald; Navarro, Pau; Li, Man; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Scott, Robert A.; Almgren, Peter; Arking, Dan E.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori; Burtt, Noel P.; Campbell, Harry; Charpentier, Guillaume; Collins, Francis S.; Gieger, Christian; Green, Todd; Hadjadj, Samy; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Johnson, Andrew D.; Kottgen, Anna; Kraft, Peter; Labrune, Yann; Langenberg, Claudia; Manning, Alisa K.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Oostra, Ben; Pankow, James; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, William; Roden, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Scott, Laura J.; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sladek, Rob; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vivequin, Sidonie; Weedon, Michael N.; Wright, Alan F.; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Kao, Linda; Meigs, James B.; Wilson, James F.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia; Altschuler, David; Morris, Andrew D.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Groop, Leif; Frayling, Timothy M.; Cauchi, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI= 30 Kg/m(2)). We performed two

  17. A note on the effects of pre-slaughter operations of llamas (Lama glama on the concentrations of some blood constituents related to stress and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Mamani-Linares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of pre-slaughter operations in llamas on physiological (concentrations of some blood constituents and carcass quality (pH and bruises indicators under commercial conditions. Thirty llamas raised on pasture, 18-24 months old and average live weight of 54.2±6.4 kg were transported on a single 3 h journey in one batch to the slaughterhouse. Blood samples were taken on farm one hour before loading, after unloading, after lairage (18 h and during exsanguination to measure the concentrations of various stress-related variables. Mean values for the blood variables showed a significant rise (P < 0.05 in the concentration of cortisol immediately after transport (16.9 ng/mL, as well as CK activity after lairage (528.4 UI/L; β-hydroxybutyrate concentration showed similar mean values for the different sampling times. A total of 19 bruises were found on 9 of the carcasses. The backs (loin of carcasses had more bruises (57.89%, followed by thorax (21.05%. Irregularly shaped bruises were the most frequent (81.25%, followed by circular bruises (18.75%. It was concluded that pre-slaughter handling of llamas under these commercial conditions produced physiological changes similar to those in other species, which fall within acceptable limits for their welfare; however stress could be reduced and adverse effects like bruises could be minimized by designing proper facilities, by following OIE recommendations on the welfare of animals during stunning and by training of personnel handling llamas all along the Bolivian meat chain.

  18. APORTES DEL FEMINISMO DE IVONE GEBARA Y MARTA LAMAS A LA REFLEXIÓN DE GÉNERO EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    OpenAIRE

    Rayón Fabela, María Catalina

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de la situación de la mujer en América Latina tiene relevancia a partir del ingreso de los planteamientos feministas al terreno académico. Desde los diferentes enfoques se comienza a estudiar la realidad política, social y económica de la mujer en los países de América Latina, en donde, sin embargo mujeres y hombres participan socialmente. La intervención de las mujeres se hace más significativa a medida que intentan estructurar sus reivindicaciones en las organizaciones feministas...

  19. Preferencias alimenticias del guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis y su competencia con el ganado doméstico en la Reserva Nacional de Calipuy, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Linares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el grado de competencia alimentaria entre el guanaco y el ganado doméstico en la Reserva Nacional de Calipuy. La cobertura vegetal (CV se determinó con un censo de vegetación y l a composición de las dietas mediante la técnica microhistológica de las heces (50 guanacos, 35 vacunos y 25 equinos. La sobreposición dietaria se determinó mediante el Índice de Horn (I , l as preferencias alimentarias mediante el índice de Ivlev (E , y la diversidad de la dieta con índice de Shannon - Weaver (D. Se encontró una baja - moderada competencia alimentaria entre el guanaco y el ganado bovino y equino. La sobreposición dietar ia fue mayor durante la época lluviosa (I = 0. 80 y 0.88 en que la oferta de forraje fue alta (CV= 63% ; y menor durante la época seca (I= 0.58 y 0.64 en que hubo escasez de alimento (CV= 50% . El guanaco fue un consumidor selectivo intermedio. La divers idad dietaria de los adultos aumentó durante la época seca (D = 0.62; p60% y no mostró la misma flexibilidad (I=0.90, p<0.01. L os juveniles y los chulengos fueron más sensibles a las variaciones estacionales , consumie nd o un menor porcentaje de arbustos pero tuvieron una preferencia marcada por las hierbas bajas.

  20. Pengaruh Dosis dan Lama Fermentasi Tepung Ampas Kelapa (Cocos nucifera L.) Oleh Aspergillus niger dan Ragi TapeTerhadap Kualitas Nutrisi Pakan

    OpenAIRE

    Tamba, Ira Vandwinata Br

    2017-01-01

    Alternative feed is very important in providing the nutrients for cattle in its compliance and production. One of alternative feed that be used is coconut pulp. Value protein rough, coarse fat, and crude fiber is factors be calculated in making of rations for cattle and pH is the important factor in fermentation. This study was conducted in Laboratory Animal Breeding and Reproduction in May-June 2016. This study used a RAL factorial with three factors, type of microbe (Aspergillu niger and ta...

  1. Treatment of water contaminated with gasoline using red mud as adsorbents; Tratamento de aguas contaminadas com gasolina utilizando lama vermelha como adsorvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Ernesto B. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Engenharia Ambiental e da Qualidade; Silva, Paula T.S. e [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Campos, Ronaldo J.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Cromatografia Instrumental; Schuler, Alexandre R.P.; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio A. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The underground or superficial water contamination for oil derivatives, mainly gasoline, has attracted the attention, of the civil society and scientific community in function of the great risks that represent for the environment and the health human. On the other hand, the metallurgical industry has special interest in researches that look for applications commonly for the residue of the improvement of known aluminum as 'red mud'. Such element represents an environmental liability, generating considerable costs for treatment and final disposition adapted. The red mud has characteristics adsorbents thankfully. This work seeks to evaluate the potential of application of the red mud as adsorbent for the separation process between water and oil. In this sense the percentile oil removal was evaluated in a polluted water with gasoline, as well as the effects of the following variables: time of contact (t), amount of used red mud (M), concentration of present oil in the water (Ci) and amount of used polluted water (V) through a planning complete factorial type 24. The results presented here are not conclusive. However one argues which the reasons so that the objectives completely were not reached and if it considers solutions. (author)

  2. STUDI PENGETAHUAN DAN PERILAKU MASYARAKAT TERHADAP PERANAN MAMALIA KECIL DALAM PENULARAN BEBERAPA ZOONOSIS DI TAMALABBA MAMPU, UJUNG TANAH, MAKASAR DAN TIBAN LAMA, BATAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Isfandari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since Hemorrhagic Fever Renal Syndrome (HFRS already identified in 5 harbours in Indonesia, including Makasar and Batam, it is necessary to study whether Hantavirus existed in Makasar and Batam. In addition to the laboratory findings, study on knowledge and practice of the people is important for developing appropriate intervention program. Using structured questionnaire, the knowledge and practicestudy was employed towards 191 and 200 respondents in Makasar and Batam respectively. Results showed that the knowledge on zoonotic disease of Makassar people was better than that of Batam people. But withthe better education level of Batam people, appropriate intervention will have promising result in the area. Key words : Zoonotic, Practice, Hantaan

  3. Perbandingan Waktu Awitan dan Lama Kerja Kombinasi Bupivakain 0,5% dan Lidokain 2% dengan Bupivakain 0,5% pada Blokade Infraklavikular untuk Operasi Lengan Bawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pawana Destiara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of local anesthetic drugs bupivacaine and lidocaine can produce rapid onset and long duration of action. The purpose of this study was to compare the onset and duration of action between 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lidocaine combination and 0.5% bupivacaine on infraclavicular block for forearm surgery. This study was conducted using a randomized double blind controlled clinical trial on 36 adult patients aged 18–60 years who underwent forearm surgery under infraclavicular block using nerve stimulator guidance in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital between the period of April to June 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: patients in bupivacaine and lidocaine (BL group and bupivacaine (Bgroup. The statistical analysis were performed using the student’s t-test, chi-square, Fisher’s Exact, Kolmogorov Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney U-test. The onsets of sensory and motor blocks in BL group were 7.1±2 min and 10.9±5.3 min, repectively and B group were 19.8±4.5 min and 29±7.7 min, respectively. The durations of sensory and motor blocks in BL group were 540.9±195.1 min and 445.6±158.9 min and B group were 837.6±376.6 min and 653.9±304.3 min. This study reveals that the combination of 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lidocaine in infraclavikular block had a faster onset of sensory and motor blocks compared to 0.5% bupivacaine and a shorter duration of action compared to 0.5% bupivacaine.

  4. LAMA PENYIMPANAN GALUR LOKAL Bacillus thuringiensis H l4 DALAM BUAH KELAPA DAN UJI EFIKASINYA TERHADAP BERBAGAI JENTIK NYAMUK VEKTOR DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch.P Blondine Ch.P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation using Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain which was kept in coconuts during the days 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and its efficacy test toward malaria (Anopheles spp, filaria (Culex quinquefasciatus and  Dengue  Haemmoraghic Fever (Aedes aegypti which were conducted in the microbiology laboratory in Vector Control Research and Reservoir Unit Salatiga. The efficacy test of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain was conducted according to the 1989 WHO procedure of to obtain the survival death of concentration vector larvae test. The result showed that B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain, which was kept in coconuts during the days 4, 7, 14, and 28, was still effective to kill various of vector mosquito larvae test even though at different concentration. The smaller concentration of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain for controlling 50% and 90% 3rd instar larvae Cx. quinquefasciatus (from 5 species which were tested was 0.002 ml/100 ml (LC50 and 0.003 ml/100 ml (LC90 with a Total Viable Cell (IVC  and a Total Viable Spore Count  (IVSC of 6.8x106 cells/ml and 7.1x106 Spores/ml at day 14th after an exposure of 24 hours respectively. After an exposure of 48 hours, the concentration needed to kill the larvae, which was mentioned above, was 0.001 ml/100 ml (LC50 and 0.027 ml/100 ml (LC90. The investigation should be developed further by using local media for formulating the local strain of B. thuringiensis H-14.   Keywords: Lethal Concentration (LC, mosquito, B. thuringiensis H-14

  5. Meat quality attributes of the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the Kh'ara genotype of llama (Lama glama) reared extensively in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani-Linares, L W; Gallo, C B

    2013-05-01

    Twenty male llama of the Kh'ara genotype, reared extensively in the north of Chile, were slaughtered at ages between 2 and 4 permanent teeth (2 to 3.5years) and analyses were carried out on the Longissimus lumborum muscle, including composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash, cholesterol, amino acids, fatty acid profile and collagen content) and meat quality parameters (pH, color, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force). Llama meat was characterized by a low cholesterol (39.04mg/100g) and intramuscular fat (1.56%) content, a total collagen content of 6.28mg/g, of which 20.28% was soluble collagen. Amino acid composition and fatty acid profile were similar to those found for beef finished on forage. Llama meat showed a low n-6/n-3 (4.69) and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (1.55) ratio and acceptable values of DFA (65.78%). Quality parameters in llama Longissimus muscle were within the ranges reported for more traditional meats such as beef and lamb.

  6. Detection of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in llama (Lama glama) oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, R; Argañaraz, M E; Miceli, D C; Apichela, S A

    2014-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in several reproductive events like oocyte-spermatozoa interaction and semen liquefaction. In order to study their role in the llama oviductal reproductive process, MMP activity in oviductal fluid (OF) was assayed. Considering that llama genome sequences are partially known, a strategy to procure cDNA sequences of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was designed. Afterwards, their expression patterns in the different llama oviductal segments were assayed. Gelatine zymograms detected 62 and 94 kDa protease activities that matched MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, respectively. Expression pattern analysis showed that MMP and TIMP mRNAs were present in ampulla, isthmus, utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and papilla. Altogether, these findings support the argument that MMPs/TIMPs are produced in the oviduct and secreted into the oviductal lumen. Our results encourage further studies to elucidate the role of these proteins in reproductive oviductal events.

  7. MANFAAT PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG KUNYIT (Curcuma domestica Val DAN TEPUNG JAHE (Zingiber officinale TERHADAP KUALITAS BAKSO ITIK AFKIR DENGAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Nur Lestarini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the advantage of tumeric flour (Curcuma domestica Val and ginger flour (Zingiber officinale addition on quality of culled duck meatball in different storage times. The materials were thigh duck, tumeric flour and ginger flour. The design used in experiment was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial pattern 4x3 as the first factor was concentration of turmeric flour (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5% and ginger flour (0; 1; 2; 3% and the second one was storage time (0; 8; 16 hours. The result of the research showed that storage time affected (P<0.05 pH, tenderness and waterholding capacity. Concentration of tumeric flour and ginger flour affected tenderness.There was no interaction between those two factors on pH, water-holding capacity, tenderness,and total proteolitic bacteria. Concentration of turmeric flour 0,5% and ginger flour 1% with storage time during 0 hours gave the best result, with a pH value 6.49, tenderness 0.31, water-holding capacity 22.27, and a total proteolytic bacteria , 3.57x104. In conclusion, the finest result founded at 0.5% of turmeric flour and 1% of ginger flouraddition in meatball before storage. (Keywords: Culled duck, Ginger flour, Meatball, Storage time, Tumeric flour

  8. Perbandingan Kebutuhan Propofol dan Lama Bangun antara Kombinasi Propofol-Ketamin dan Propofol-Fentanil pada Pasien yang Dilakukan Kuretase yang Diukur dengan Bispectral Index (BIS

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    Wirawan Anggorotomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate administration of safe, easy-to-obtain, and constantly available sedatives and analgesia, is needed for pain reduction throughout curettage procedures. The goal of this study was to examine differences in propofol requirements and emergence time between propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations in patients undergoing curettage. A single-blind randomized controlled trial study was performed on 60 patients who underwent curettage procedures. The patients were divided into two groups: propofol-ketamine (PK and propofol-fentanyl (PF. Blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, and oxygen saturation and BIS data were analysed using a t-test and Mann-Whitney test. This study showed that propofol requirements differ significantly (p<0.001 between the two groups where in PK group where 4/30 subjects received additional propofol, compared to PF group 14/30 subjects received additional propofol. The wake up time for PK group was 25.75±2.47 minutes compared to 21.08±2.52 minutes for the PF group. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. The conclusions of this study are propofol requirements for PK group is less compared to PF group and the emergence time for PK group is longer compared to PF group.

  9. 清代达赖喇嘛奏事权探析%A probe into Dalai Lama' s right of presenting memorial directly to the emperor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽楣

    2007-01-01

    清末,十三世达赖喇嘛土登嘉措趁入京觐见的机会向中央政府提出直接向皇帝奏事权的请求,清朝政府依照惯例未予同意.本文据所掌握的历史档案史料,对这一问题的处理过程进行简要分析研究.

  10. Inside story on association between Mao Zedong and Dalai Lama%毛泽东和达赖交往内幕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹固强

    2005-01-01

    一个是开国领袖毛泽东,一个是西藏领袖达赖。建国初期,为了共同的政治利益,两个不同信仰的人走在一起,在近十年的合作中,他们演绎出怎样的政治风云?

  11. Electron microscopy study of red mud after seawater neutralisation; Estudo por microscopia eletronica de transmissao de lama vermelha tratada com agua do mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, S.P.; Kiyohara, P.K. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/LME/USP), SP (Brazil); Antunes, M.L.P., E-mail: malu@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Frost, Ray [Queensland University of Technology (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Red Mud, residue of Bayer process for extracting alumina from bauxite, is produced in large quantity. This residue is very alkaline and can cause damage to health and the environment. One way to minimize the environmental impact of this residue is neutralization by sea water. The Brazilian Red Mud was treated with sea water. It appears that the initial pH of the samples is reduced to 8. The analysis by x-ray diffraction allows to identify the formation of hydrotalcite and aragonite. The transmission electron microscopy images show that this consists of particles with dimensions between 0.02 to 2 μm. It was possible to identify by EDS/MET particles of magnesium, confirming the formation of hydrotalcite. (author)

  12. Recycling of the reduction sludge of manganese in the production of ceramics; Reciclagem da lama de reducao de manganes na producao de ceramicas vermelhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.G.; Araujo, F.G.S., E-mail: camilac46@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (REDEMAT/UFOP), MG (Brazil); Kruger, F.L. [Fundacao Gorceix (DEPEC), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Pesquisa e de Educacao Continuada; Jannotti Junior, N. [Vale Manganes, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    To study the use of manganese reduction residues, from the electric arc furnaces for the production of manganese ferro-alloys, as raw materials for construction bricks, different ceramic compositions were formulated with contents of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10wt% of waste addition to the clay used commercially, and sintered at different temperatures, 850, 950 and 1050°C. After firing, the ceramic samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction and by spectrophotometry. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by flexural strength, apparent porosity and specific mass, water absorption, linear shrinkage and loss on ignition. With the help of technics and experiment planning programs, the effects of the variables: temperature, composition and interaction between them over the results were discussed. This work proved that the addition of manganese reduction sludge to the clay, for the production of ceramic construction bricks, is highly feasible, from a technical standpoint. (author)

  13. Pengaruh Lama Pemasangan Infus dengan Kejadian Flebitis pada Pasien Rawat Inap di Bangsal Penyakit Dalam dan Syaraf Rumah Sakit Nur Hidayah Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imram Radne Rimba Putri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Infusion is one invasive procedure performed in a hospital. Inpatient therapy and intravenous fluids are given continuously in the long term will increase the likelihood of complications from infusion, one of which is the occurrence of phlebitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of treatment duration infusion with the incidence of phlebitis in patients on the ward and neurological disease in the Nur Hidayah hospital in Bantul. This research is an analytic observational study with cross sectional approach, the number of samples is determined by calculation slovin as many as 133 people, with the sampling technique used purposive sampling. Data results from this study showed that respondents with a longer infusion <3 days a total of 37 respondents (32.8% who did not have phlebitis 31 respondents (10.8% and those with phlebitis 6 respondents (26.2%. As for respondents with a longer infusion ≥3 days as many as 76 respondents (67.2% who experienced phlebitis 74 respondents (53.8% and who had not had phlebitis 2 respondents (22.2%. Based on the results of data analysis using chi-square test values obtained p-value of 0.000, which means the value significantly smaller than the significance level α: 0.05, it means that the research hypothesis is accepted. In conclusion, that there is a long infusion influence on the incidence of phlebitis. Therefore, it may be advisable for the health care team in a hospital for treatment of patients infusion according to the procedure, especially for patients with infusion of more than 3 days, to avoid the occurrence of phlebitis.

  14. fek Penambahan Deksametason 5 mg pada Bupivakain 0,5% terhadap Mula dan Lama Kerja Blokade Sensorik Anestesia Epidural untuk Operasi Ortopedi Ekstremitas Bawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity orthopedic surgery performed with regional epidural anesthesia was still have weakness which is long onset of time. This study was conducted to determine the onset time and duration time of sensory blockade epidural anesthesia between the use of dexamethasone 5 mg addition to 0.5% bupivacaine for lower limb orthophedic surgery. The study was using randomized controlled blind method on 32 ASA I–II patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery under epidural anesthesia. Consecutive sampling and random allocation of block of permutation groups was applied. In group I, dexamethasone 5 mg was added to bupivacaine 0.5% 15 mL while in group II NaCl 1 mL was added to bupivacaine 0.5% 15 mL. The results were statistically tested using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. It was shown that the onset time of sensory blockade was not significantly faster when dexamethasone was added in bupivacaine 0.5%, 13.56 minutes versus 14.31 minutes (p=0.27. The duration time of sensory blockade in dexamethasone in bupivacaine 0.5% group was longer 399.81 minutes, compared to the bupivacaine 0.5% group, 227.43 minutes (p=0.00. In conclusions, the addition of dexamethasone 5 mg to bupivacaine 0.5% 15 mL does not produced faster onset time. However, the duration sensory blockade time is longer than bupivacaine 0,5% 15 mL is used.

  15. Pengaruh kemasan dan lama penyimpanan Acetobacter sp. RMG-2 dalam bahan pembawa terhadap populasi dan produksi bioselulosa dengan konsentrasi inokulum terbatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Melliawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioselulosa or nata de coco is one food product that contains 25% fiber, which is very useful to support health, especially the digestive system. Along with the development of science and technology, raw material for making nata de coco become increasingly diverse as well as developing its usefulness for the wider interests. Inoculum became one of the things that are important in nata production process is also a determinant of product quality. This research was conducted to obtain information about the packaging is good for storing inoculum Acetobacter sp. RMG-2 in the carrier material and the efficiency of inoculum for the production bioselulosa. Two kinds of containers (straws and plastic bags with two kinds of carrier material (cellulose pulp and CMC are used. Storageof inoculum carried out for 20 weeks at 4 ° C. The measured parameter is the number of population, wet weight, dry weight and thickness as well bioselulosa pesentase minimal inoculum for the manufacture bioselulosa. Result, the inoculum in the CMC are packed using a straw is better than the plastic bag packaging, with a population of Acetobacter sp RMG-2 at 4.53 × 108 cells/ml, while in the plastic bag packaging population reached 3.5 x 107 cells/ml, respectively during storage was 20 weeks (five months. Bioselulosa production uses between 1-15 ml inoculum in 1250 ml of medium/tray of wet weight data obtained vary. With 1 ml of inoculum produced an average wet weight of 725 grams with a thickness of 0.6 cm. Research on the percentage of inoculum between 0.1 to 1.0%, showingthat the use of 0.1% (in the CMC carrier materials for 8 weeks can still be used for production with the average bioselulosa/100 ml of medium weight 31.45 grams wet, 1.6 g dry weight and thickness of 0.8 cm during the 7 days incubation. Investigation was still continuing to be carried out to get optimal results.

  16. Perbandingan antara Kombinasi Bupivakain 0,125% dan Dexmedetomidin 1 µg/Kgbb dengan Bupivakain 0,125% Melalui Blok Kaudal Terhadap Lama Analgesi Pascaoperasi Hipospadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Caudal blockage is the most frequently used regional anestesia technique in pediatric surgery. Various local anesthetic agents have been frequently used in this technique. Bupivacaine is one of the most used local anesthetics due to its long duration of action. Dexmedetomidin is an α2agonist that is used as adjuvant in lengthening bupivacaine duration when it is administered via caudal blockage. In increasing its effectiveness, the combination of bupivacaine with dexmedetomidin in low concentrationd and low dose can be given. This study was performed to assess the postoperative analgesia duration using caudal blockage between the combined 0.125% bupivacaine-1µg/Kg BW dexmedetomidin and 0.125% bupivacaine solely in pediatric patients having hypospadic surgery. The study was applied to 30 pediatric patients with ASA I and II physical status, and aged 1-6 years that received hypospadic surgery with general anesthesia, to whom caudal blockage applied postoperatively. The patients were divided into two groups. One group (BD group was treated using the combined 0.125% bupivacaine-1 µg/Kg BW dexmedetomidin (0.5 cc/kg BW, the other group (B group was treated with 0.125% bupivacaine (0.5 cc/kb BW as control group. Postoperative analgesia duration was recorded. The data of the study results were assessed using Mann-Whitney test. Postoperative analgesia duration of BD group (863.0 [36.34] minutes was very significantly (p<0.001 longer than that in B group (378.08 [37.87] minutes. The conclusion of this study indicated that the use of combined 0.125% bupivacaine-1 µg/Kg BW dexmedetomidin for caudal blockage as analgetic agent after hypospadic surgery resulted longer analgesia duration than that of 0.125% bupivacaine solely

  17. HUBUNGAN LAMA KERJA DAN POSISI KERJA DENGAN KELUHAN OTOT RANGKA LEHER DAN EKTREMITAS ATAS PADA PEKERJA GARMEN PEREMPUAN DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints are the common symptoms in occupational diseases that can cause workers disability and absenteeism. Objectives: to evaluate the percentage of neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and its relation with occupational and individual factors (socioeconomic, smoking habit, blood sugar level, and body mass index. Methods: a cross sectional study among 778female garment workers in North Jakarta in 2005. Samples were selected purposively with inclusion criteria (age 18—55 years old, minimal 1 year working period. Results: The percentage of neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptom was 75.7 % (in detail 59.9 % on hands, 32 % on neck, 11.8% on shoulders, 11.1 % on back, and 9.6 % on elbow. The symptoms were weariness 81.2 %, hyperesthesia 50.6 %, pain 16.1 %, parasthesia 12.4 %, and weakness 11 %. The factors significantly related to neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were working period and work position. The musculoskeletal symptoms in persons who had 1—10 years working period was higher than 11—25 years working period (OR 1.78 95 %CI 1.15-2.76 p=0.01, and working in sitting position was higher than standing position (OR 1.44 95 %CI 1.02-2.05p=0.038. Intervention through workplace modification such as the table or the chair height can protect workers from neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms.   Keyword : neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms, female workers, garment

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN MACROSCÓPICA Y MICROSCÓPICA DE LAS GLÁNDULAS ANEXAS DEL APARATO REPRODUCTOR MASCULINO DE LA LLAMA (Lama glama).

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza T., Galy; Laboratorio de Anatomía, Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú.; Castro, Alejandra; Laboratorio de Anatomía, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA), Campus Universitario, (7000) Tandil, Provincia de Bs. As., Argentina; Lupidio, María; Laboratorio de Histología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA), Campus Universitario, (7000) Tandil, Provincia de Bs. As., Argentina; Domínguez, María; Laboratorio de Anatomía, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA), Campus Universitario, (7000) Tandil, Provincia de Bs. As., Argentina; Gómez, Susana; Laboratorio de Histología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA), Campus Universitario, (7000) Tandil, Provincia de Bs. As., Argentina; Ghezzi, Marcelo; Laboratorio de Anatomía, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA), Campus Universitario, (7000) Tandil, Provincia de Bs. As., Argentina

    2012-01-01

    Se caracterizó la estructura macroscópica y microscópica de las glándulas sexuales anexas del tracto reproductor de la llama macho empleando ocho animales adultos. Se hizo el estudio macroscópico in situ y de órganos aislados, y se colectaron muestras de los órganos para la evaluación histológica. El estudio macroscópico reveló la presencia de dos ampollas en el conducto deferente, ausencia de glándulas seminales, próstata con cuerpo lobulado, istmo y porción diseminada, y dos glándulas bulbo...

  19. Tingkat Insidensi Malaria di Wilayah Pemanasan Kelambu Berinsektisida Tahan Lama dan Wilayah Kontrol (MALARIA INCIDENCE RATE OF HEAT ASSISTED REGENERATION LONG LASTING INSECTICIDAL NETS AREA AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etih Sudarnika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN is one effective way to prevent malaria. Permethrin treatedLLIN is one type of LLIN which is recommended by WHO. Several studies have shown that these types ofLLIN requiring heat assisted regeneration after washing to enhance the biological activity of insecticidethat contained in the LLIN fibers. This study aimed to compare the incidence rates of malaria in childrenunder five years old who live in the intervention area (where the heat assisted regeneration on LLIN afterwashing was applied and control area (where the heat assisted regeneration on LLIN after washing wasnot applied. Data of malaria cases was collected from laboratory log book at all health centers in BangkaDistrict, in the period of June June 2007 until July 2008. Data were analyzed with Poisson regressionmodels. The results showed that the incidence rate of malaria in children under five years old was notsignificantly different between the treatment and control areas.

  20. Montagem e caracterização elétrica de pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS Assembly and electrical characterization of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosane Aparecida Tarôco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a review of the design features and the electrochemistry characterization of anode-supported planar SOFC. Studies and results of metallic alloy interconnectors and recovery for protection against corrosion and for contact layer are showed. Moreover a discussion of examples of measurements of impedance spectrometry, according to the literature and our experimental results are made. For the anode supported fuel cells the power density varies from 0.1 to 0.5 Wcm², according to results in the literature (showed in this paper. For electrolyte supported fuel cell the power density can be 10 Wcm-2 for high temperatures. An English-Portuguese glossary of most used terms in SOFC stack is given for greater clarity and to introduce new terms to the reader.

  1. Characteristic and Mechanism of CO2 Laser-Induced Melting to PA%CO2激光诱导聚酰胺的融化特征与机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文胜; 周建忠; 黄舒; 樊玉杰

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the melting mechanism between CO2 laser and Polyamide materials,the melting experiment of PA 12 was carried out by low-power CO2 laser with static or scanning way under room temperature,and the morphology of melted samples have been examined by means of light microscopy,scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD),meanwhile,the effect of laser irradiation method and process parameters to melting samples was analyzed.It can be seen that the melting of sample was not obvious with beam 2 mm and power < 1 W,while experimental samples were got pyrogenic ablation with laser power >3 W during irradiating,so power intensity 0.32 W/mm2 is the sample melting threshold.The surface of samples can be melted by static irradiation,while melting depth of samples will increase with the increased laser power and scanning times,and the crystalline of melted samples have obviously improved after irradiation.The results of experiment were in good agreement with theoretical research,which will provide guidance for Polyamide materials micro-processing by CO2 laser.%为了探索CO2激光对聚酰胺材料的热效应融化机理,在常温下,利用低功率CO2激光对聚酰胺PA12进行定位和扫描辐照融化实验,通过光学显微镜和扫描电镜(SEM)观察形貌特征,以及X射线衍射仪(XRD)分析微观结构,研究激光参数和辐照方式对融化特征的影响.实验发现,在光斑直径2 mm时,激光功率<1W试样融化不明显,激光功率>3W热分解显著,激光功率密度0.32 W/mm2是试样融化阈值;激光定位辐照获得固体试样的浅表层融化,当激光扫描辐照时,试样融化深度随激光功率和扫描次数的增大而加深直至完全融化;试样融化后的结晶度有明显提高.实验结果和理论研究相吻合,这对于利用CO2激光进行聚酰胺材料的微成型加工有指导意义.

  2. Síntese e caracterização de perovskitas do tipo LaNi1-xCu xO3 para a purificação de hidrogênio para PaCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, J. S.; Silva, L.A.; Rangel,M.C.; Araújo,G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foram estudados sólidos do tipo LaNi1-xCuxO3 (x = 0,0; 0,3 e 0,5), com estrutura perovskita, visando a desenvolver catalisadores destinados à produção de hidrogênio de alta pureza na reforma interna de células a combustível de óxido sólido (SOFC). Observou-se que as condições experimentais usadas na preparação favoreceram a incorporação quantitativa dos cátions ao precursor e a formação dos sólidos com estrutura perovskita. Esses materiais mostraram diferentes propriedades red...

  3. 论十四世达赖喇嘛的历史观——兼评托马斯·莱尔德《西藏的历史:达赖喇嘛访谈录》%On the 14th Dalai Lama's concept of history-also a comment on The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama by Thomas Laird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁俊艳

    2009-01-01

    文章利用笔者所译托马斯·莱尔德一书中的资料,对十四世达赖喇嘛在该书中所反映的历史观进行了系统、深入和较为全面的探讨,十四世达赖喇嘛的历史观是他在1959年流亡印度、建立"流亡政府",从事"西藏独立"活动的过程中逐渐形成的,主要包括三方面的内容:宗教神学史观、分裂史观、主观主义史观.研究十四世达赖喇嘛的历史观,对于深刻认识其言行及思想本质,揭露其分裂阴谋具有重要的意义.

  4. Contemporary Tibetan's View of Tulkus(sprul-sku)%当代藏族人的活佛观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嘎·达哇才仁

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction This article relies on a combination of questionnaires and interviews in an attempt to understand contemporary Tibetans' basic opinions of and attitudes towards incarnate lamas.The incarnate lama is the highest religious practitioner in Tibetan Buddhism.

  5. Effects of exogenous melatonin on blood biochemical index of female alpaca%外源褪黑激素对羊驼部分血液生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海燕; 董宽虎; 李鹏飞

    2006-01-01

    试验将12只雌性阿帕克羊驼随机分为4组,用简易的外科手术在其颈部皮下埋植褪黑激素(MLT)缓释剂,埋植量为0、50、100、150mg,经过对各水平MLT埋植组羊驼血清催乳素(PRL)、血清尿素氮(BUN)、血液中生长激素(GH)和血清总蛋白(TP)影响的分析,探讨MLT促进羊驼绒毛生长的机理.研究结果表明,MLT可显著(P<0.05)降低羊驼血液PRL和BUN的水平,增加了羊驼GH水平和TP含量.

  6. The Effect of TGF-β3 on the Melanocyte Cultured in vitro of Alpaca%TGF-β3对体外培养的羊驼黑色素细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彧; 石占全; 姬凯元; 杨姗姗; 范瑞文

    2015-01-01

    为了研究转化生长因子β3(Transforming growth factor beta3,TGF-β3)对体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞表型的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度TGF-β3(6.25、12.5、25、50 ng·mL-1),通过实时监测和检测细胞增殖、毛色相关基因小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)、酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)和酪氨酸酶相关蛋白2(Tyrosinase related protein 2,TYRP2)表达以及黑色素产量的变化.结果表明:(1)在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加50 ng·mL-1浓度的TGF-β3后,在前30 h内对细胞增殖有抑制效果,30 h后对细胞增殖有明显的长时程维持细胞数量作用,但对TGF-β3添加的剂量没有依赖性;(2)添加TGF-β3后,黑色素细胞内MITF、TYR和TYRP2的表达量均被下调,而且黑色素细胞产生黑色素的量也被下调,主要以添加50 ng·mL-1时下调最为显著.结果揭示,TGF-β3通过对羊驼黑色素细胞内MITF、TYR和TYRP2的表达的影响,并调控黑色素的产生,对黑色素细胞的生物学功能具有重要的影响.

  7. The analysis of different clinical features between asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients%慢性阻塞性肺疾病-哮喘重叠综合征和COPD患者临床特征的差异性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓梅; 贺云鹏; 许元文

    2016-01-01

    ACOS and 80 patients with COPD from 2013 to 2015 in our hospital in 30%≤FEV1<80% in the stable phase. The common data of the enrolled patients included the age,sex,smoking, and allergic rhinitis or other allergic diseases in family. We analyzed laboratory index including PaO2,PaCO2,CRP,white blood cells,IgE of serums and compared the proportion of antibiotics,system used of glucocorticoid and noninvasive ventilation in hospitalization of acute exacerbation and followed up exacerbating frequency after using ICS united LABA/LAMA. Results The age and smoking index in the ACOS group were lower than the COPD group (P < 0.05). The allergic rhinitis or other familial allergic diseases,lower age of 60,the high IgE in serum were risk factor, in ACOS. In acute exacerbation, the PaCO2,IgE and WBC in serum were higher than that of the COPD group(P <0.05). The midian length of stay in hosipital was 12 days in the ACOS group and 8 days in the COPD group. The proportion of antibiotics,systemic administration of glucocorticoid and noninvasive ventilation in hospitalization of acute exacerbation in the ACOS group were higher than that of the COPD group (P < 0.05). The exacerbating frequency was decreased after using ICS united LABA/LAMA(1.2±0.6 vs 3.8±1.3,P < 0.05)in both ACOS and COPD groups. Conclusions The allergic diseases may participate in ACOS, in which it has familial tendency. In acute exacerbation, ACOS patients had even more inflammation and faster course than COPD patients. Using ICS united LABA/LAMA can reduce exacerbating frequency in ACOS.

  8. Comparison of resource use by COPD patients on inhaled therapies with long-acting bronchodilators: a database study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Chris M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this analysis was to compare health care costs and utilization among COPD patients who had long-acting beta-2 agonist (LABA OR long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA; LABA AND LAMA; or LABA, LAMA, AND inhaled corticosteroid (ICS prescription claims. Methods This was a 12 month pre-post, retrospective analysis using COPD patients in a national administrative insurance database. Propensity score and exact matching were used to match patients 1:1:1 between the LABA or LAMA (formoterol, salmeterol, or tiotropium, LABA and LAMA (tiotropium/formoterol or tiotropium/salmeterol, and LABA, LAMA and ICS (bronchodilators plus steroid groups. Post-period comparisons were evaluated with analysis of covariance. Costs were evaluated from a commercial payer perspective. Results A total of 523 patients were matched using 29 pre-period variables (e.g., demographics, medication exposure. Post-match assessments indicated balance among the cohorts. COPD-related costs differed among groups (LABA or LAMA $2,051 SE = 91; LABA and LAMA $2,823 SE = 62; LABA, LAMA and ICS $3,546 SE = 89; all p Conclusions Significant cost differences driven mainly by pharmaceuticals were observed among LABA or LAMA, LABA and LAMA and LABA, LAMA and ICS therapies. A COPD-related cost offset was observed from single bronchodilator to two bronchodilators. Addition of an ICS with two bronchodilators resulted in higher treatment costs without reduction in other COPD-related costs compared with two bronchodilators.

  9. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    , urgentness and resource usage over a dense-time model. The semantic interpretation of PACoR is defined in the form of a timed transition system expressing the timed behavior and dynamic creation of processes. We define a translation of PACoR systems to Parameterized Stopwatch Automata (PSA). The translation......This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness...... preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification....

  10. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  11. 1906-1908年日本当局与十三世达赖喇嘛的接触%Japanese Government's Contact with the 13th Dalai Lama during 1903-1908

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永章

    2005-01-01

    本文主要利用日文资料,探析了1906-1908年期间日本当局与流亡内地的十三世达赖喇嘛的种种接触,披露了许多鲜为人知的史实.指出日本政府从其"大陆政策"出发,利用各种手段接近和拉拢达赖喇嘛,并大肆灌输"亲日"及"联日"思想,怂恿西藏独立,企图实现"日藏邦交",使西藏成为其附庸,这充分暴露了20世纪初日本当局企图染指我国西藏的险恶用心.

  12. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GULA MERAH DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR GIZI DAN RASA TELUR ITIK ASIN [The Effect of Palm Sugar and Storage on Nutrient Content and Taste of Salted Ducks Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Yusriani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This research used 150 duck eggs age one as subject day. There were two factors analyzed here. The first was the amount of palm sugar which consisted of 25 grams, 50 grams, and 75 grams. The second factor were the storage duration which consisted of 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The nutrient content parameters measured were rates protein, fat and ash content. Sensory quality parameters measured were color and taste. The analysis showed that in processing/making salted duck egg, palm sugar addition influenced protein content significantly (Fc = 7,0 > Ftab = 4,5 fat content ( Fc 67,3 > Ftab= 8,7 and ash content (Fc = 64,6 > F tab = 8,7 very significantly. However, organoleptic test showed that palm sugar addition did not influenced color and taste of salted duck egg significantly. Storage duration influenced protein content significantly (Fc= 6,9 F tab = 8,7 but did not significantly influenced ash content (Fc = 3,5 < Ftab = 4,46. Storage duration also influenced taste of salted duck egg, but did not for its color. The interaction of treatment between palm sugar addition and storage duration just influenced fat content of salted duck egg significantly. The salted duck egg made by addition 75 grams palm sugar and stored 5 weeks (A3B3 the highest content of fat. The salted ducks eeg made by addition of 25 grams palm sugar and stored duration produced the salted ducks egg with high content of fat and ash. Organoleptic test indicated that the panelis preferred the salted taste duck egg made by addition of palm sugar 25 grams and storaged for 3 weeks having reddish yellow color.

  13. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars; Avaliacao da lama vermelha como material pozolanico em substituicao ao cimento para producao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C., E-mail: elizmanfroi@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: malik@valores.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  14. Influência da adição de aluminato de cobalto na lama de zirconita do processo de fundição de precisão

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Cesar Tremarin

    2011-01-01

    O aluminato de cobalto no processo de revestimento na fundição de precisão favorece a nucleação no metal líquido. Este fenômeno atua na superfície externa do componente. Neste estudo um componente e corpos de prova de ensaio de tração em aço inoxidável AISI 347 foram vazados em moldes cerâmicos, com e sem aluminato de cobalto. Para verificar a influência foram executados 24 ensaios de tração e analisados 48 componentes e os corpos de prova de tração utilizando a técnica de metalografia ótica....

  15. The Biography of the 5th Dalai Lama and the studies of the history of China's norhwest nationalities%《五世达赖喇嘛传》与西北民族史研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正寅

    2004-01-01

    《五世达赖喇嘛》中有许多反映蒙古和西藏政治、文化、宗教情况的资料,是研究西藏地方史、清朝断代史、宗教史和民族史的重要著述.本文简要论述了这部自传的史料价值.

  16. Research on the Fifth Dalai Lama and the Event Rebelled against the Qing Dynasty by Wu Sangui%五世达赖喇嘛与吴三桂反清叛乱事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林

    2005-01-01

    本文应用全新的史料,全面分析、考察了五世达赖喇嘛在吴三桂反清叛乱事件中的所作所为,对以往研究者在这一问题上所持的两种截然不同的观点进行了甄别.

  17. A Brief Introduction to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Ngawang Losang Thubten Gyatso%十三世达赖喇嘛阿旺洛桑土登嘉措浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多杰才旦

    2004-01-01

    本文以多种渠道获得的访谈及文献资料为基础,从多种角度对十三世达赖喇嘛阿旺洛桑土登嘉措的一生进行了个性化的概括和评述,并试图通过对其间发生的重大历史事件的剖析,真实地反映出这一历史时期西藏地方与中央政府关系的本来面貌.

  18. The Cultural Interpretation of the Thirteen Codes Established in the Period of Fifth Dalai Lama%五世达赖时期制定的十三法典的文化解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄全毅

    2011-01-01

    五世达赖时期制定的,是藏族文化发展史上具有代表性的一部法典,它是古代西藏成文法的集大成者.立法严谨、内容丰富,为清代西藏稳定与发展发挥了重要作用.

  19. The Eighth Dalai Lama and to Put down the Kuoerka to Harass Tibet%八世达赖剌嘛与平定廓尔喀侵扰西藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    星全成

    2005-01-01

    18世纪末,廓尔喀先后两次入侵西藏,损害了包括西藏人民在内的整个中华民族的尊严.清王朝及时发兵西藏,在达赖喇嘛和西藏人民的协持下,迅速驱逐廓尔喀,从而保卫了西藏,巩固了边防,解除了西藏人民的灾难,增强西藏地方政府和全体民众的向心力.

  20. Studies on Chinese Translation and Publication of Love Songs of the Sixth Dalai Lama Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho in Recent Years%仓央嘉措情歌汉语译介出版研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武江

    2011-01-01

    近年来,仓央嘉措情歌的汉语译介出版达到了一个前所未有的高潮.从翻译出版学的角度,分析仓央嘉措情歌汉语译介出版的不同阶段、译介出版传播的形式、存在的问题将给人们以思考与启迪.

  1. Pengaruh Rasio Mol Reaktan dan Lama Sulfonasi terhadap Karakteristik Methyl Ester Sulfonic (MES) dari Metil Ester Minyak Sawit (Effects of Mol Ratio and Sulfonation Time on Methyl Ester Sulfonic (MES) Characteristics from Methyl Ester of Palm Oil)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Hidayati; Pudji Permadi; Hestuti Eni

    2017-01-01

    An experiment of sulfonation process of methyl ester to produce methyl ester sulfonates (MES) was caried out using methyl ester palm oil in factorial design and NaHSO as sulfonating agent with variation of ratio mol NaHSO : methyl ester (1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:2 ) and sulfonation time (3 hour (L1), 4.5 hour (L2) and 6 hour (L3). The result showed that the best sulfonation condition present in 1:1,5 mol ratio and sulfonation time of 4,5 hour. The best characteristic of MES was produced em...

  2. Adsorção do corante Reativo Azul 19 em solução aquosa por lama vermelha tratada quimicamente com peróxido de hidrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Cristina de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Reactive Blue 19 dye onto activated red mud was investigated. Red mud was treated with hydrogen peroxide (LVQ and heated at both 400 ºC (LVQ400 and 500 ºC (LVQ500. These samples were characterized by pH, specific surface area, point of zero charge and mineralogical composition. Adsorption was found to be significantly dependent on solution pH, with acidic conditions proving to be the most favorable. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm was the most appropriate to describe the phenomenon of dye removal using LVQ, LVQ400 and LVQ500, with maximum adsorption capacity of 384.62, 357.14 and 454.54 mg g-1, respectively.

  3. Remoção do ácido mefenâmico em água utilizando carvão ativado em pó, lama vermelha e oxidação com cloro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Moruzzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of activated carbon powder (ACP, red mud and oxidation with chlorine to remove mefenamic acid in water are described, aimed at their application as a complement to sewage treatment processes in Brazil. A study on the behavior of mefenamic acid in water was performed by evaluating its dissolution for different concentrations and times. Subsequently, the optimal conditions for removal of mefenamic acid were investigated using ACP adsorption at different pH and concentrations, and red mud adsorption using different pH. The utilization of different pH and times was also investigated to establish the ideal conditions for chemical oxidation of the drug. Among the different conditions studied, the best condition for drug removal by ACP and red mud were 100% and 96%, respectively, while the best condition for chemical oxidation occurred using solutions with pH 6 and 7 and reaction times of 30 and 60 minutes.

  4. Estudo sobre a utilização da lama vermelha para a remoção de corantes em efluentes têxteis Study on the use of red mud for removal of dyes from textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Batista da Silva Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud is the principal residue of the alumina (Al2O3 industry. Generated during the Bayer process, it is characterized by strong alkalinity and ion exchange. Iron oxides are the principal component (30 to 60%. Annually millions of tons of red mud are generated in the world. Red mud disposal is responsible for a large part of the cost of alumina production. On the other hand, textile industry wastewaters containing dyes have a great impact on the environment and on human health. In this paper the possibility of applying red mud for the removal of dyes was investigated by two processes: adsorption and degradation by the Fenton reagent.

  5. Quando a lama virou pedra e mandacaru secou... Eu perdi o seu retrato : um estudo semiótico e comparativo dos cacioneiros de Luiz Gonzaga e Adoniran Barbosa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A partir de uma experiência vivenciada com alunos dos cursos de Graduação e Especialização em Letras que se mostraram interessados na semiótica e nos processos desenvolvidos nas análises para a compreensão e produção de textos, buscaram-se, na teoria semiótica, subsídios para o exame da significação dos textos em discurso. Neste trabalho, que tem como corpus textos selecionados das obras dos cantores e compositores Luiz Gonzaga e Adoniran Barbosa, foram realizadas análises comparativas, sob u...

  6. Efeitos do hormônio do crescimento (GH) na evolução da doença distrófica do modelo murino B6.Wk-Lama2dy-2J/J

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Denise Fernandes Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    As distrofias musculares (DM) se caracterizam por degeneração progressiva e irreversível da musculatura esquelética. Dentre estas, a Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD), constitui doença letal ligada ao cromossomo X, caracterizada pela ausência de distrofina na membrana das fibras musculares, afetando um em cada 3.000 meninos nascidos vivos, sendo que a maioria será confinada à cadeira de rodas a partir dos 6 anos de idade e com sobrevida, sem cuidados especiais, em torno dos 25. Apesar do u...

  7. The Regent and the Search for, the Selection &the Installation of the Dalai Lama's Reincarnation%热振与达赖喇嘛转世灵童的寻访、遴选及坐床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张皓

    2012-01-01

    十三世达赖喇嘛转世灵童的寻访与遴选、十四世达赖喇嘛的坐床,是中国近现代政治史上的一件大事,热振的地位举足轻重,贡献很大.他之所以主张以拉木登珠为转世灵童并主张不用掣签,既是出于巩固和提高自己在西藏地方政府中的权力与地位的考虑,又与九世班禅、国民政府及内地的主张有关.他先是提出由蒙藏委员会驻藏代表张威白参加坐床大典,随后欢迎中央大员吴忠信入藏主持,并协助吴忠信完成了对转世灵童的认证和坐床.这一切,热振基本上是按照旧例办理的,其权力与地位也得到了进一步的提高.

  8. Ejaculatory process and related semen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Moscoso, R; Alarcon, V; Ordoñez, C

    2002-01-01

    South American camelids are dribble ejaculators, and urethral contractions occur throughout copulation, which may last 25 min. The urethral contractions and their association with semen characteristics during copulation were determined in llamas and alpacas. A transrectal probe was held in the rectum of the male while copulating an artificial vagina, which was accessed underneath the dummy through a hole. The semen-collecting tube was changed every 5 min. Semen characteristics, color, volume, consistency, motility, concentration, and percentage of live sperm were determined at 5-min intervals. Urethral contractions were evenly distributed during copulation: 40 in alpacas and 63 in llamas (p < .05), with a general range of 11 to 132. Semen color was milky in 63%, and translucent in 36.5% for alpacas; and creamy (9.9%), milky (47%), and translucent (42%) for llamas. The mean volume of ejaculate was 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, and 3.0 mL for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min, respectively. Semen consistency was variable: viscous (65%) and semiviscous (34%) in alpacas; and viscous (57%) and semiviscous (42%) in llamas. Spermatic motility varied between 60 and 80% for the llama, and 40 and 80% for the alpaca. Spermatic concentration varied between 60 and 188 x 10(3)/mm3 in llamas, and 30 and 170 x 10(3)/mm3 in alpacas. Percentage of live sperm varied the least: 81 to 90% in llamas and 65 to 90% in alpacas. The ejaculate of llamas and alpacas is not fractionated, urethral contractions are evenly distributed, during copulation, and semen characteristics are present throughout the copulatory period.

  9. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  10. A New Tactic for Engagement with Iran: Faith-Based Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    human rights and the Dalai Lama for the welfare of the Tibetan people. The Islamic Republic of Iran is an extreme case where the government and...increased role in fostering peace in the Middle East.173 President Obama met with the Dalai Lama , Tibet‘s exiled spiritual leader, in...with religious leaders in the Middle East. 174CNN Politics, ―Obama meets with Dalai Lama despite

  11. The Utility of Freedom: A Principal-Agent Model for Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    1st ed. (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009); Melvyn C. Goldstein, The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama ...and equipment to the rebel fighters. This phase ends in March of 1959, with the escape of the Dalai Lama to exile in India.50 The second phase...ends in 1974 when the Dalai Lama ordered the remaining resistance members to lay down their arms and take up the ―long term approach‖ to the Tibetan

  12. NEW BOOKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    4th Dalai Lama Yundain GyamcoAuthored by 5th Dalai Lama and translated by Chen Qingying and Ma Lianlong, the book tells the life of the 4th Dalai Lama who was the only non-Tibetan among the various generations of the Dalai Lama.As he was the first reincarnated Mongolian Living Buddha of the Gelug Sect, he held an important position in the history of the Gelug Sect. His period was a period filled with social changes, and little historical materials are found to cover his period. Publication of the book, published by the Tapei All Buddhist Cultural Undertakings Co. Ltd., is obviously a must-read book.

  13. End-inspiratory rebreathing reduces the end-tidal to arterial PCO2 gradient in mechanically ventilated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Machina, Matthew; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph Arnold; Minkovich, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of the arterial partial pressures of CO2 (PaCO2) of critically ill patients by measuring their end-tidal partial pressures of CO2 (PetCO(2)) would be of great clinical value. However, the gradient between PetCO(2) and PaCO2 (Pet-aCO(2)) in such patients typically varies over a

  14. Technology channel fuel cells; Reseau technologique piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the PACo channel, its research and development program and the calendar of the first year. The PACo channel aims at stimulate the technology innovation in the domain of the fuel cells and organize collaborations between enterprises and research laboratories. (A.L.B.)

  15. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...

  16. Four of the south americans working at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Peruvian Jose Lamas Valverde (at back), and Brazilians (clockwise from right) Miriam Gandelman, Erica Polycarpo and Leandro de Paula Le peruvien Jose Lamas Valverde (au fond) et (dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre, a partir du centre) les bresiliens Miriam Gandelman, Erica Polycarpo et Leandro de Paula

  17. Uyghurs in Xinjiang: United or Divided Against the PRC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    44 Although Qadir is not a leader in the same manner the Dalai Lama is to the Tibetans, mainly because she does not carry the religious...significance or authority the Dalai Lama has as the reincarnate spiritual leader and the head of the Tibetan government in exile, she nevertheless has brought

  18. China: The Awakened Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    At the same time, President Obama refused to meet the Dalai Lama . Critics saw the combination of these actions as appeasement towards China.126...Obama met with the Dalai Lama . As far as the Chinese are concerned, these issues are purely domestic issues, and therefore, they are solely within

  19. PERTUMBUHAN Kappaphycus alvarezii DENGAN PENAMBAHAN EKSTRAK Sargassum aquifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Ali Akbar; Nunik Cokrowati; Mursal Ghazali; S Sunarpi; Aluh Nikmatullah

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan Sargassum aquifolium dengan konsentrasi dan lama waktu perendaman yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan Kappaphycus alvarezii, serta mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan S. aquifolium terhadap persentase kadar karaginan K. alvarezii. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan perlakuan faktorial yang terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu faktor 1 berupa konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum aquifolium dan faktor 2 berupa perlakuan lama perend...

  20. Potala Palace Reappears with Splendor and Spectacle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangCongbiao

    2003-01-01

    The original Potala Palace, built in the 7th century for the meditation by King Songtsen Gampo, was ruined in natural disasters and human wars in ensuring centuries and little had remained. The current structure was rebuilt by the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century and became the Winter Palace of Dalai Lamas from that time.

  1. A Mandala's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A Tibetan Buddhist monk, Lama Tenzin, spent a week at the Manhattan private school where the author of this article was the middle school director. Lama Tenzin did not come to introduce students to Buddhism or to explain the plight of the Tibetan people. Instead, he came to create a piece of art that is a specialty of his and his brother monks': a…

  2. Probing Brain Oxygenation with Near Infrared spectroscopy, the Role of Carbon Dioxide and Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. A simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2 is presented. It can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. It enable the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. Controlled breathing can change the PaCO2. Experiments on human subjects relating the PaCO2 to rSO2, measured with brain oximeters, are presented. A simple model relating the mean blood pressure to CBF is worked out.

  3. Effect of α-MSH on Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Skin Melanocytes in vitro%α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖和黑素生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志慧; 白瑞; 范瑞文; 杨刚; 董彦君; 贺俊平; 董常生

    2010-01-01

    旨在研究α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone,α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞(Melano-cyte,MC)增殖和黑素合成的影响.体外培养正常羊驼皮肤黑素细胞,观察不同浓度α-MSH(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol·L-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、黑素含量、表皮黑皮素-1受体(Melanocortin 1 receptor,MC1R)基因、小眼畸形相关转录因(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)基因表达量的影响.结果表明,α-MSH处理羊驼皮肤黑索细胞3 d后,羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增多,黑素含量、MC1R和TYR基因表达量都明显增加(P<0.05),以10-8mol·L-1组最为显著,MITF基因表达量也明显增加(P<0.05),以10-7mol·L-1组最为显著.α-MSH能诱导羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、树突增长、黑素合成增加、MC1R、MITF和TYR基因表达量增高.

  4. Carbon dioxide monitoring during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery in severely obese patients: transcutaneous versus end-tidal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Joanna M; McKee, Chris; Tobias, Joseph D; Herz, Daniel; Sohner, Paul; Teich, Steven; Michalsky, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Various factors including severe obesity or increases in intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy can lead to inaccuracies in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) monitoring. The current study prospectively compares ET and transcutaneous (TC) CO2 monitoring in severely obese adolescents and young adults during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery. Carbon dioxide was measured with both ET and TC devices during insufflation and laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The differences between each measure (PETCO2 and TC-CO2) and the PaCO2 were compared using a non-paired t test, Fisher's exact test, and a Bland-Altman analysis. The study cohort included 25 adolescents with a mean body mass index of 50.2 kg/m2 undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. There was no difference in the absolute difference between the TC-CO2 and PaCO2 (3.2±3.0 mmHg) and the absolute difference between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 (3.7±2.5 mmHg). The bias and precision were 0.3 and 4.3 mmHg for TC monitoring versus PaCO2 and 3.2 and 3.2 mmHg for ET monitoring versus PaCO2. In the young severely obese population both TC and PETCO2 monitoring can be used to effectively estimate PaCO2. The correlation of PaCO2 to TC-CO2 is good, and similar to the correlation of PaCO2 to PETCO2. In this population, both of these non-invasive measures of PaCO2 can be used to monitor ventilation and minimize arterial blood gas sampling.

  5. The Role of Laminin α4 in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Pathological Mechanism of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Nan; Zhang, Xuemei; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Ying; Luo, Xin; Liu, Xiru; Zhuang, Baimei; Peng, Wei; Qi, Hongbo

    2015-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with defective placental angiogenesis and poor placentation. Laminins are the main noncollagenous glycoproteins in basement membranes, and laminin α4 (LAMA4) promotes the migration, proliferation, and survival of various cells. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the role of LAMA4 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) function during the development of PE. We found expression levels of LAMA4 in human PE placentas were significantly lower compared to the control placentas. The LAMA4 small-interfering RNA transfection and hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) intervention reduced the migratory and tube formation abilities of HUVECs. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways interacted with LAMA4 expression and H/Rexposure led to MAPK pathways activation in HUVECs. We demonstrated that LAMA4 is very crucial in promoting the functions of endothelial cells. Oxidative stress plays a vital role in controlling expression of LAMA4 through MAPK signaling pathways, which suggests a possible pathological mechanism of PE.

  6. Veno-venous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal: Can We Reduce Dependence on Mechanical Ventilation During En-route Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    sec. MV (L/min), respiratory rate (RR), Hemolung blood flow (BF, L/min), CO2 removal by the Hemolung (VHemolungCO2, ml/min), PaO2 and PaCO2, plasma...Hemolung console (ALung Technologies, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA). Arterial tension of oxygen ( PaO2 , mm Hg) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2, mm Hg) were measured at...changes were not significant. PaO2 was lower at 2 hours, whereas PaCO2 was higher at 48 and 72 hours after insertion when compared to baseline values

  7. Impeccable Timing: The Political Efficiency of Prc-U.S. Surveillance Confrontations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    toward Impeccable. On the March 10 Tibetan anniversary, the Dalai Lama stated that PRC rule has “thrust Tibetans into such depths of suffering and...York Times, March 10, 2009, http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/10/the- dalai - lamas -hell-on-earth-speech/. 205 House Resolution on Tibet (H.R. 226...thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/10/the- dalai - lamas - hell-on-earth-speech/. Martin, Dan. “China Warns U.S. on Taiwan as Military Talks Resume.” AFP, February 27

  8. Asia-Pacific Economic Update, 2012. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    is well known that the Dalai Lama represents a thorn in China’s side because Tibet is one of China’s core interests. In fact, it is also well known...that China takes offense when the Dalai Lama visits countries in support of the Tibetan cause; especially when his visit is given official treatment...and they estimate that exports to China fall by 8.1%, on average, when the Dalai Lama meets with a head of state.33 While Fuchs and Klann (2010

  9. Plaadid / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Nelly "Da Derrty Versions The reinvention", Zero 7 "When It Falls", Ilya "They Died For Beauty", Paco De Lucia "Costas Buenas", Murphy Lee "Da Skool Boy Presents", To Rococo Rot "Hotel Morgen"

  10. Kahe näoga maja / Mark Soosaar, Leele Välja, Tarmo Teedumäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tervisekeskus ja hotell "Hedon" Pärnu ajaloolises mudaravilahoones ja selle juurdeehituses. Arhitektuur: Inga Raukas, Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman (arhitektuuriagentuur Allianss Arhitektid). Sisearhitektuur: Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio). Valmimisaasta: 2014

  11. Linnagaleriis avatakse eramunäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" Viljandi Linnagaleriis. Tutvuda saab 21. sajandi esimestel aastatel Eestis valminud huvitavamate väikemajadega. Kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco Ulman

  12. Täiskasvanute lõbustuspark vee peal / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arhitekt Paco Ulmani fotonäitus "Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 7. augustini 2011. Eksponeeritud fotoseeria kujutab Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm liinidel sõitvate laevade tühje interjööre

  13. Moemärke Hispaaniast / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Kuulsad Hispaania moekunstnikud Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Cristobal Balenciaga, Agatha Ruiz de la Prada (sünd. 1960), Oscar de la Renta (1932), Paloma Picasso (1949). Rõivapoodide ketid Zara, Mango ja El Corte Ingles

  14. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  15. Orman Kaynaklarının Konumsal ve Zamansal Değişiminin Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri ve Uzaktan Algılama Teknikleri İle İrdelenmesi: İnayet ve Yenice Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İhsan KADIOĞULLARI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Orman ekosistemlerinin sürdürülebilir planlaması ve isletilmesi için, geçmisteki durumlarıyla birlikte orman kaynaklarının zamansal degisimlerinin ve buna etki eden faktörlerin anlasılması oldukça önemlidir. İnayet ve Yenice Orman İşletme Seflikleri'nde (32 660 ha, orman kaynaklarının degisimi zamansal ve konumsal olarak incelenmistir. Çalısma kapsamında, alanın 1987-2001 yılı Landsat uydu görüntüleri sınıflandırılmıs ve 1972, 1993, 2004 yılı mescere tipleri haritaları Cografi Bilgi Sistemleri (CBS ile sayısallastırılarak konumsal analizleri yapılmıstır. Ayrıca, orman kaynaklarının konumsal yapısındaki (orman parçalarının sayı ve konumsal dagılımları değişimi FRAGSTATSTM programı ile belirlenmistir. Ormanlık alanlarda amenajman planları mescere haritasına göre 1972 ve 1993 yılları arasında %3.61; 1987 ve 2001 yılları arasında da %4.74, 1993 ve 2004 yılları arasında %3.37; 1972 ve 2004 yılları arasında %7.10 oranında artış olmustur. Ormanlık alanların kapalılıgı artması nedeniyle kalitesi artmıs ve “c, cd” çag sınıfındaki alan artısı sebebiyle ise orta yaslı bir yapıya dogru ilerlemistir. Konumsal yapı bakımından incelendiginde; dogal gençlestirme, agaçlandırma çalısmaları, yogun orman kullanımı, yasadısı kullanım, yerlesim alanlarının artması ve düz alanlardaki altyapısal gelismeler nedeniyle ortalama orman parça alanı (MPS ve en büyük parça indeksi (LPI azalmıs, parça sayısı (NP ve ormanların parçalılıgı genel olarak artmıstır. Ayrıca, 1972 ve 2001 döneminde arazi kullanımı demografik dinamiklere ragmen ve uygun ormancılık faaliyetlerine baglı olarak ormancılık lehine gelisme göstermistir. Demografik hareketliliginin genelde ilçe merkezinde olması, köy merkezlerinde (kırsal kesimde nüfusun fazla degismemesi nedeniyle orman yapısının degisiminde kısmen etkili oldugu belirlenmistir. Sonuçta; orman kaynaklarının etkin ve sürdürülebilir planlanması için zamansal degisimin özellikle miktar, kalite ve konumsal yapı itibariyle ortaya konulması ve degisime etkili faktörlerin belirlenmesi gerekmektedir.

  16. 十三世达赖对"坚塞"的扶植及"坚塞"在施政过程中的作用%On the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Fostering "sPyan bSal" and the Later's Function on Implementing Plitical Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达瓦

    2003-01-01

    十三世达赖喇嘛在他执政后期前所未有地扶植一批"坚塞",并通过他们推行了一系列施政措施.这是特殊时代的特殊历史现象.本文把这一现象放在大的历史背景下作了分析.

  17. A Historical Analysis of Secret American Instigation of Dalai Lama to Flee the Country around the Signing of "Seventeen-Article Agreement"%"十七条协议"签订前后美国秘密策动达赖出逃历史探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程早霞

    2007-01-01

    "十七条协议"签订前后美国国务院及美驻印度使馆出台了一系列促动达赖出逃的行动计划、方案与建议.文章分析了美国秘密插手中国西藏事务的鲜为人知的历史,揭示了冷战初期美国秘密利用西藏问题阻止中国统一的图谋.

  18. Além da lama e do lixo: movimentos de escolarização em São Pedro, Vitória/ES (1977-2007 Beyond the mud and the waste: schooling movements in San Pedro, Victoria/ES (1977-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia Rodrigues Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Discute o processo histórico de escolarização da infância no bairro São Pedro I, em Vitória/ES. Relaciona-o com o movimento de constituição da região na década de 1970. Toma como lócus o CMEI da Amizade, instituição que acompanha a primeira referência de espaço educativo. Privilegia como fonte o relato dos sujeitos residentes no bairro, expressos em dois livros sobre o movimento de constituição da região, escritos por uma moradora, e uma obra produzida por pesquisadores, moradores e a Prefeitura de Vitória. Também destaca as narrativas de uma cozinheira e de uma auxiliar de serviços gerais, profissionais da instituição pesquisada. As fontes são analisadas como "testemunhos", como conhecimento através de "vestígios". Procura compreender os "usos táticos" e "estratégicos" praticados pelos sujeitos na mobilização popular, na organização das moradias e instituições educativas, bem como os reflexos dessa experiência para os que permanecem no CMEI educando crianças, atualmente.This paper discusses the historical process of schooling in childhood in the neighborhood of San Pedro I, in Victoria, E.S. It looks at the constitutional movement of the 1970s in the (E.S. region. As its focal point, it takes "CMEI da Amizade", an institution that follows the first reference to educational space. It has as a privileged source, the accounts of residents of the neighborhood. These subjects' accounts, are expressed in two books on the region's constitutional movement, one written by a resident, and another, a work produced by researchers, residents and the local government of Victoria. It also highlights the narratives of a cook and a general services assistant, professionals of the institution being investigated. The sources are analyzed as witness accounts providing remnants of knowledge and therefore comparative data. What it seeks to understand are the "practical strategies" and "tactics" employed by the subjects in these popular movements: the housing organizations; the educational institutions; to reflect on these experiences to assist those that remain in CMEI teaching children currently.

  19. William Wordsworth's 'Double Awareness' of Memory in Virginia Woolf's Mrs Dalloway = William Wordsworth'un 'Hatıranın Çift Yönlü Algılaması' Kavramının Virgina Woolf'un Mrs Dalloway Adlı Romanındaki Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali GÜNEŞ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Romanticism in modernist British writer Virginia Woolf's novel, Mrs Dalloway. Although her works are experimental and new, they are part of a wider and developing perspective in the historical process of literary tradition, so that they cannot be viewed as completely breaking away from literary tradition, but rather as a reworking and redevelopment in its evolution. In her reworking of the traditional novel, this paper may suggest that Woolf made it "new" by returning to the Romantics, particularly to Wordsworth. By this claim, this paper does not mean that Woolf copied Wordsworth exactly, but was profoundly and pervasively influenced by his aesthetic views, especially in relation to her understanding of life as "consciousness". By returning to the Romantics, Woolf develops her sense of "reality" as both fragmented and whole, and of the "self" as fragmented but desiring and imagining unity. Hence she not only strove to construct a poetical or lyrical novel to express that contradictory view but also used her fiction to explore the mystery of the subjective consciousness as the dominant modernist view. In order to express her perception of modernist identity, Woolf used memory as a device in Mrs Dalloway and thus developed a new way of narration as well as a new view of human identity. By means of this new method, she left the objective narration of the traditional novel, and thus meaning or the view of identity in Woolf's late fiction is not static but undecided, unfinished and mysterious.

  20. The Actual State of Affairs of the Third Changkya Hutuktu Going to Tibet to Identify the Reincarnate of the Seventh Dalai Lama%三世章嘉入藏主持认定七世达赖喇嘛转世灵童的真相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建新

    2010-01-01

    三世章嘉入藏主持认定七世达赖喇嘛的转世灵童是清代西藏政教关系方面的重大事项,对此有简略的记载.目前,学术界的研究成果认同该书的观点.本文依据档案资料发现,七世达赖喇嘛转世灵童的认定过程远比的记载复杂与曲折.

  1. Eksperimendid ruumis / Toomas Tammis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammis, Toomas, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuriteaduskonnas tehakse erialaprojekti kõrval väga erinevaid ruumilisi harjutusi. Esitletud on valik väiksemate töötubade ja kursuste töid: Kineetilise arhitektuuri töötuba "Volditav, klapitav, rullitav, pakitav", 2014 (juhendaja Renee Puusepp); Parameetrilise disaini valikaine, 2011 (juhendaja Raul Kalvo, assistent Kristjan Männigo); Maketistuudio, 2014 (juhendaja Paco Ulman); Eksperimentaalse arhitektuuri problemaatika, 2014 (juhendajad Martin Melioranski ja Paco Ulman)

  2. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU, but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values of clinically stable children on mechanical ventilation were recorded. Children with extra-pulmonary ventriculoatrial shunts were excluded. The P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 difference and its variability and reproducibility were studied. Results: A total of 624 concurrent readings were obtained from 105 children (mean age [SD] 5.53 [5.43] years requiring invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the PICU. All had continuous P ET CO 2 monitoring and an arterial line for blood gas measurement. The mean (SD number of concurrent readings obtained from each child, 4-6 h apart was 6.0 (4.05. The P ET CO 2 values were higher than PaCO 2 in 142 observations (22.7%. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual admission specific (ANOVA, P < 0.001. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference correlated positively with the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension [P(A-aO 2 ] difference (ρ = 0.381 P < 0.0001. There was a fixed bias between the P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 measuring methods, difference +0.66 KPa (95% confidence interval: +0.57 to +0.76. Conclusions: The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual specific. It was not affected by the primary disorder leading to the ventilation.

  3. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Maraca " Tremende Rumba", Dynamite Vikings "Vikingology", Tom Jones "Greatest Hits", Melanie C "Reason", Dallas "Delay Lama", Daredevil "The Album", The Stone Roses "The Very Best Of The...", "Providence"

  4. 50 CFR 14.4 - What terms do I have to understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; Ferret (domestic)—Mustela putorius; Goat—Capra hircus; Horse—Equus caballus; Llama—Lama glama; Pig—Sus scrofa; Sheep—Ovis aries; Water buffalo—Bubalus bubalus; White lab mice—Mus musculus; White lab...

  5. Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Difficult-to-Treat Asthma: Emerging Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkhi, Adeeb; Tabatabaian, Farnaz; Casale, Thomas B

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a complex disease where many patients remain symptomatic despite guideline-directed therapy. This suggests an unmet need for alternative treatment approaches. Understanding the physiological role of muscarinic receptors and the parasympathetic nervous system in the respiratory tract will provide a foundation of alternative therapeutics in asthma. Currently, several long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are on the market for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of tiotropium, a LAMA, as add-on therapy in uncontrolled asthma. These studies led to FDA approval for tiotropium use in asthma. In this review, we discuss how the neurotransmitter acetylcholine itself contributes to inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and remodeling in asthma. We further describe the current clinical studies evaluating LAMAs in adult and adolescent patients with asthma, providing a comprehensive review of the current known physiological benefits of LAMAs in respiratory disease.

  6. Esperanto-Movado en Japanio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOI IEKO

    1996-01-01

    OKA Asajiroo,lama zoologo,estis unuajapano,kiu lernis Esperanton en Germanio en1891.Tamen ne estis li,sed franca pastro,Alphonse Mistler,kiu enkondukis Esperantonen Japanion en 1902.Li instruis Esperanton al

  7. Estimation of arterial PCO2 from a lung model during ramp exercise in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent; Costes, Frédéric; Busso, Thierry

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to propose a new approach to estimate non-invasively arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(a)CO2) approach was based on the reconstruction of alveolar gas composition over each breath from a tidally ventilated lung model (P(M)(CO2)). Eight healthy young subjects were studied during a ramp exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial samples were drawn at rest and every minute during the exercise test for determination of P(a)CO2 . P(a)CO2 was compared with indirect estimates of P(CO2) : P(M)(CO2), end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET)(CO2)) and an empirical equation involving P(ET)(CO2) and tidal volume (P(J)(CO2)). The difference between estimated and measured P(a)CO2 on the whole ramp exercise was -0.3+/-1.9mmHg for P(M)(CO2), 1.0+/-2.2mmHg for P(ET)(CO2) and -1.7+/-1.7mmHg for P(J)(CO2) . P(ET)(CO2) and P(J)(CO2) were significantly different from actual P(a)CO2 (P<0.001). It is concluded that, on the basis of the bias, the breathing lung model gave better estimates of P(a)CO2 than the two other indirect methods during ramp exercise.

  8. Wajah Nasionalisme pada Pengajaran Bahasa Indonesia di Perguruan Tinggi Prancis

    OpenAIRE

    Armin, Mardi Adi

    2014-01-01

    Hubungan bahasa dan kebudayaan Indonesia-Prancis dan sebaliknya sudah berlangsung cukup lama. Beberapa pengarang dan pelukis terkenal Indonesia seperti Raden Saleh, Salim, NH Dini, Farida Soemargono telah lama tinggal dan berkarya di Prancis. Mereka memliki keluarga sebagai hasil perkawinan dengan orang-orang Prancis, namun mereka tetap memillih kewarganegaraan Indonesia dan berkarya lewat pengajaran dan penerjemahan buku-buku berbahasa Indonesia. Pembelajaran bahasa dan kebudayaan I...

  9. Pharmacologic rationale underlying the therapeutic effects of tiotropium/olodaterol in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelaia G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Girolamo Pelaia,1 Alessandro Vatrella,2 Maria Teresa Busceti,1 Luca Gallelli,3 Cecilia Calabrese,4 Rosa Terracciano,3 Nicola Lombardo,1 Rosario Maselli11Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 2Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, 3Department of Health Science, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Bronchodilators are the most important drugs used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In particular, these therapeutic agents are mostly long-acting compounds utilized via inhalation, and include LAMA (long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists and LABA (long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists. Because LAMA and LABA induce bronchodilation by distinct mechanisms of action, LABA/LAMA combinations provide a reciprocal potentiation of the pharmacological effects caused by each component. Hence, many COPD patients who do not achieve a satisfactory control of their symptoms using a single, either LAMA or LABA bronchodilator, can experience relevant benefits with the use of LAMA/LABA fixed combinations. Many different LAMA/LABA combinations have been recently developed and evaluated in randomized clinical trials. In this context, our review focuses on the pharmacological mechanisms underpinning the bronchodilation elicited by the LAMA tiotropium bromide and the LABA olodaterol. We also discuss the results of the most important clinical studies carried out in COPD patients to assess the efficacy and safety of tiotropium/olodaterol combinations.Keywords: LAMA, LABA, tiotropium, olodaterol, dual bronchodilation, tiotropium/olodaterol combinations

  10. How could it be possible to only follow one s Inclination in choosing the reincarnation of the living Buddhas?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    For over ten years (particularly in re- cent times),the 14~(th) Dalai Lama has from time to time been addressing is- sues concerning his reincarnation.He has frequently said,on various occasions,that if he passed away in India,his suc- cessor-the 15~(th) Dalai Lama,would definitely follow in his political mission.He claimed that the re-

  11. Self-immolation and the exchange of self and others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    On the recent self-immolations as a form of Tibetan protest, the Dalai Lama's statement on it, and its relation to some doctrinal aspects such as karma and the bodhisattvas' ability to exchange of Self and other.......On the recent self-immolations as a form of Tibetan protest, the Dalai Lama's statement on it, and its relation to some doctrinal aspects such as karma and the bodhisattvas' ability to exchange of Self and other....

  12. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dear Editor, Ref.To our tele talk to day,I have the honour to write you as you claimed that"Rarely do journalist challenge the Dalai Lama". Dalai Lama is an hypocrite who used to systematically fool people and his principle of peace are too bogus,he must be stopped in the frame work of peace as his fol-lowers are sluggish and kept themself burried under ignorance.

  13. Dancing with the Dragon: U.S.-China Engagement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    2010, President Obama met the Dalai Lama , the spiritual leader of Tibet, in the White House. President Obama commended the Dalai’s commitment to non...the U.S. was interfering in Chinese internal affairs, thereby damaging U.S.-China relations and offending the Chinese people. China considers Dalai ... Lama a separatist who threatens Chinese territorial integrity. In November 2011, President Obama announced the U.S. strategic rebalancing and its

  14. NEW BOOKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Qing Dynasty Archives On the Dalai lamasThe Dalai Lama was one of the two leaders of the Gelug (Yellow) Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. It won the honorific title of the Dalai lama in 1653 from Qing Emperor Shunzhi, and the Living Buddha had since been following the reincarnation system under the supervision of the Central Government. His soul boy was not legal until he won the confirmation of the Central Government. Whenever there is the need not to go through the set system, Central Government permission is a must.The Dalai Lama also did his best to seek authorization of the Central Government which would therefore issue him certificate of authority and seal of power.All these were recorded in archives, part of which are contained in the book. Its major chapters contain 154 pieces of archives related with certification of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni under the reign of Qing Emperor Shunzhi, the demise of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni, efforts made to look for their soul boys, selection of th

  15. The influence of oxygenotherapy on the hypercapnia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxygen therapy is a necessary therapeutic method in treatment of severe chronic respiratory failure (CRF, especially in phases of acute worsening. Risks which are to be taken into consideration during this therapy are: unpredictable increase of carbon dioxide in blood, carbonarcosis, respiratory acidosis and coma. The aim of this study was to show the influence of oxygen therapy on changes of arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure. Methods. The study included 93 patients in 104 admittances to the hospital due to acute exacerbation of CFR. The majority of the patients (89.4% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, while other causes of respiratory failure were less common. The effect of oxygenation was controlled through measurement of PaO2 and PaCO2 in arterial blood samples. To analyze the influence of oxygen therapy on levels of carbon dioxide, greatest values of change of PaO2 and PaCO2 values from these measurements, including corresponding PaO2 values from the same blood analysis were taken. Results. The obtained results show that oxygen therapy led to the increase of PaO2 but also to the increase of PaCO2. The average increase of PaO2 for the whole group of patients was 2.42 kPa, and the average increase of PaCO2 was 1.69 kPa. There was no correlation between the initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 and changes of PaCO2 during the oxygen therapy. Also, no correlation between the produced increase in PaO2 and change in PaCO2 during this therapy was found. Conclusion. Controlled oxygen therapy in patients with severe respiratory failure greatly reduces the risk of unwanted increase of PaCO2, but does not exclude it completely. The initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 are not reliable parameters which could predict the response to oxygen therapy.

  16. Epistatic dissection of laminin-receptor interactions in dystrophic zebrafish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztal, Tamar E; Sonntag, Carmen; Hall, Thomas E; Currie, Peter D

    2012-11-01

    Laminins form essential components of the basement membrane and are integral to forming and maintaining muscle integrity. Mutations in the human Laminin-alpha2 (LAMA2) gene result in the most common form of congenital muscular dystrophy, MDC1A. We have previously identified a zebrafish model of MDC1A called candyfloss (caf), carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the zebrafish lama2 gene. In the skeletal muscle, laminins connect the muscle cell to the extracellular matrix (ECM) by binding either dystroglycan or integrins at the cell membrane. Through epistasis experiments, we have established that both adhesion systems individually contribute to the maintenance of fibre adhesions and exhibit muscle detachment phenotypes. However, larval zebrafish in which both adhesion systems are simultaneously genetically inactivated possess a catastrophic failure of muscle attachment that is far greater than a simple addition of individual phenotypes would predict. We provide evidence that this is due to other crucial laminins present in addition to Lama2, which aid muscle cell attachments and integrity. We have found that lama1 is important for maintaining attachments, whereas lama4 is localized and up-regulated in damaged fibres, which appears to contribute to fibre survival. Importantly, our results show that endogenous secretion of laminins from the surrounding tissues has the potential to reinforce fibre attachments and strengthen laminin-ECM attachments. Collectively these findings provide a better understanding of the cellular pathology of MDC1A and help in designing effective therapies.

  17. laminin alpha 1 gene is essential for normal lens development in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosenko Dmitry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laminins represent major components of basement membranes and play various roles in embryonic and adult tissues. The functional laminin molecule consists of three chains, alpha, beta and gamma, encoded by separate genes. There are twelve different laminin genes identified in mammals to date that are highly homologous in their sequence but different in their tissue distribution. The laminin alpha -1 gene was shown to have the most restricted expression pattern with strong expression in ocular structures, particularly in the developing and mature lens. Results We identified the zebrafish lama1 gene encoding a 3075-amino acid protein (lama1 that possesses strong identity with the human LAMA1. Zebrafish lama1 transcripts were detected at all stages of embryo development with the highest levels of expression in the developing lens, somites, nervous and urogenital systems. Translation of the lama1 gene was inhibited using two non-overlapping morpholino oligomers that were complementary to sequences surrounding translation initiation. Morphant embryos exhibited an arrest in lens development and abnormalities in the body axis length and curvature. Conclusion These results underline the importance of the laminin alpha 1 for normal ocular development and provide a basis for further analysis of its developmental roles.

  18. Involvement of Ca2+ Signaling in the Synergistic Effects between Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists and β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Fukunaga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs and short-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (SABAs play important roles in remedy for COPD. To propel a translational research for development of bronchodilator therapy, synergistic effects between SABAs with LAMAs were examined focused on Ca2+ signaling using simultaneous records of isometric tension and F340/F380 in fura-2-loaded tracheal smooth muscle. Glycopyrronium (3 nM, a LAMA, modestly reduced methacholine (1 μM-induced contraction. When procaterol, salbutamol and SABAs were applied in the presence of glycopyrronium, relaxant effects of these SABAs are markedly enhanced, and percent inhibition of tension was much greater than the sum of those for each agent and those expected from the BI theory. In contrast, percent inhibition of F340/F380 was not greater than those values. Bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, significantly increased the relaxant effect of LAMA without reducing F340/F380. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa channels, significantly suppressed the effects of these combined agents with reducing F340/F380. In conclusion, combination of SABAs with LAMAs synergistically enhances inhibition of muscarinic contraction via decreasing both Ca2+ sensitization mediated by PKC and Ca2+ dynamics mediated by KCa channels. PKC and KCa channels may be molecular targets for cross talk between β2-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors.

  19. Involvement of Ca2+ Signaling in the Synergistic Effects between Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists and β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Airway Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kentaro; Kume, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tetsuya; Shigemori, Wataru; Tohda, Yuji; Ogawa, Emiko; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and short-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (SABAs) play important roles in remedy for COPD. To propel a translational research for development of bronchodilator therapy, synergistic effects between SABAs with LAMAs were examined focused on Ca2+ signaling using simultaneous records of isometric tension and F340/F380 in fura-2-loaded tracheal smooth muscle. Glycopyrronium (3 nM), a LAMA, modestly reduced methacholine (1 μM)-induced contraction. When procaterol, salbutamol and SABAs were applied in the presence of glycopyrronium, relaxant effects of these SABAs are markedly enhanced, and percent inhibition of tension was much greater than the sum of those for each agent and those expected from the BI theory. In contrast, percent inhibition of F340/F380 was not greater than those values. Bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), significantly increased the relaxant effect of LAMA without reducing F340/F380. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, significantly suppressed the effects of these combined agents with reducing F340/F380. In conclusion, combination of SABAs with LAMAs synergistically enhances inhibition of muscarinic contraction via decreasing both Ca2+ sensitization mediated by PKC and Ca2+ dynamics mediated by KCa channels. PKC and KCa channels may be molecular targets for cross talk between β2-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors. PMID:27657061

  20. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds.

  1. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  2. Camelid cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiocco, Marco L; Scansen, Brian A; Bonagura, John D

    2009-07-01

    Cardiovascular disorders, although not thoroughly described in the literature, are frequently diagnosed in South American camelids, causing morbidity, mortality, and loss of production. Definitive confirmation concerning the heritability of cardiac defects in these species is lacking; however, this potential exists and should be taken into account when counseling breeders and owners. This article describes the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in llamas and alpacas and reviews the most recent literature. Unique aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in these species are also reviewed.

  3. Capítulo 8. Preguntas por temas de intervención

    OpenAIRE

    Yeckting Vilela, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    El principal propósito de los talleres participativos fue el seguimiento a las visiones colectivas del impacto de los proyectos de desarrollo, de sus aportes y limitaciones. Las preguntas respondidas en dinámicas grupales permitieron obtener una información asociada a conocimientos, actitudes, creencias y experiencias de los delegados participantes en los programas y estrategias de los proyectos especiales de PAMPA I, PAMPA II y CECI Alpaca. Los temas fueron elegidos de acuerdo a los principa...

  4. Regulation of cerebral blood flow in mammals during chronic hypoxia: a matter of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Philip N; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2010-02-01

    Respiratory-induced changes in the partial pressures of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) play a major role in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Elevations in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) lead to vasodilatation and increases in CBF, whereas reductions in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) lead to vasoconstriction and decreases in CBF. A fall in PaO2 (hypoxia) below a certain threshold (balance between the myriad of vasodilators and constrictors derived from the endothelium, neuronal innervations and perfusion pressure. This review examines the extent and mechanisms by which hypoxia regulates CBF. Particular focus will be given to the marked influence of hypoxia associated with exposure to high altitude and chronic lung disease. The associated implications of these hypoxia-induced integrative alterations for the regulation of CBF are discussed, and future avenues for research are proposed.

  5. Evaluation of the Extension of the Cerebral Blood Flow and its Main Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, A

    1999-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF) - cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), cerebral metabolism, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and cardiac output, the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in being independent of autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and it allows to explore the full range of the CBF. We have developed a simple physical model, and have derived a simple four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy way, directly from the experimental data. With this model five experimental data sets of human, rats, baboons and dogs were well fitted. The same type of parametrization was also used successfully for fitting experimental data of PaO2 of dogs. We have also looked on the dependence of the parameters on other factors and were able to evaluate their dependence on the mean arterial blood pressure.

  6. Peculiarities of Brain's Blood Flow : Role of Carbon Dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. This research resulted in a simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy manner, directly from the experimental data. With this model earlier experimental data sets of Rhesus monkeys and rats were well fitted. Human data were also fitted with this model. Exact formulae were found, which can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. The merit of this transformation is that it enable us the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. This transformation makes possible the use of experimental animal data instead of human ones.

  7. Respiratory Dialysis: Reduction in Dependence on Mechanical Ventilation by Venovenous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    console. Arterial tension of oxy- gen ( PaO2 , mm Hg) and CO2 (PaCO2, mm Hg) were measured at baseline, 2 hrs after insertion of the Hemolung and every 6 hrs... PaO2 was lower at 2 hrs, whereas PaCO2 was higher at 48 and 72 hrs after inser- tion when compared to baseline values (Table 1). The pH was unchanged...Tidal volume, mL 650 14 556 24 576 9 574 15 578 15 .087 .084 .16 .18 PaO2 , mm Hg 96 2 77 5 a 103 8 97 16 112 8 .04 .94 .55 .08 PaCO2

  8. Indacaterol-Glycopyrronium versus Salmeterol-Fluticasone for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Banerji, Donald; Chapman, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most guidelines recommend either a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) plus an inhaled glucocorticoid or a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) as the first-choice treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have a high risk of exacerbations. The role...... of treatment with a LABA-LAMA regimen in these patients is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial. Patients who had COPD with a history of at least one exacerbation during the previous year were randomly assigned to receive, by inhalation, either...... the LABA indacaterol (110 μg) plus the LAMA glycopyrronium (50 μg) once daily or the LABA salmeterol (50 μg) plus the inhaled glucocorticoid fluticasone (500 μg) twice daily. The primary outcome was the annual rate of all COPD exacerbations. RESULTS: A total of 1680 patients were assigned...

  9. Aclidinium bromide inhalation powder for the long-term, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Alfano, Roberto; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Aclidinium is a twice-daily long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) with an interesting pharmacological profile. Recent evidence indicates that this LAMA, in addition to causing a significant improvement in lung function and other important supportive outcomes, such as health related quality of life, dyspnea and nighttime/early morning symptoms in patients suffering from COPD, is also able to significantly reduce the rate of exacerbations of any severity, is extremely effective in controlling the COPD symptoms, is able to reduce lung hyperinflation, and has an excellent cardiovascular safety profile. Consequently, aclidinium should be considered a first-line approach at least for the symptomatic treatment of COPD although there are still few head-to-head studies comparing this LAMA with other bronchodilators. In any case, aclidinium can be taken into account in the treatment of different COPD phenotypes (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, exacerbators and patients with overlap COPD asthma).

  10. Triple inhaled therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuschi, Paolo; Malerba, Mario; Macis, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Santini, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Combining individual drugs in a single inhaler is the most convenient way to deliver triple therapy. A long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) added to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) fixed-dose combination (FDC) can improve efficacy of pharmacological treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). New inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA FDCs, including fluticasone furoate/vilanterol/umeclidinium, budesonide/formoterol/glycopyrronium and beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium, are in Phase III of clinical development for COPD. Triple inhaled therapy might be particularly useful in patients with severe to very severe COPD, above all in those with peripheral blood or sputum eosinophilia, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) or frequent exacerbators. Future prospective studies should assess efficacy and safety of triple ICS/LABA/LAMA therapy in selected COPD phenotypes.

  11. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2......). Carbon dioxide in the blood and cerebral tissue has great influence on vasoactivity and thereby blood volume of the brain. We have found no studies on the correlation between P(ET)CO(2) or P(TC)CO(2), and P(a)CO(2) during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)....

  12. Índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus “PACO” en relación a los factores ambientales, en el Centro de Investigaciones Quistococha del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos – Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Dinis Vásquez, Narda Zaraiva

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la relación que existe entre los índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus "paco" y las variaciones de los factores ambientales en el Centro de Investigaciones de Quistococha del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana, Iquitos–Perú. Se realizó de junio a agosto del 2010, fueron analizados un total de 180 individuos, repartidos en 60 larvas, 60 post larvas y 60 alevinos de paco colectado...

  13. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head......-up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central...

  14. Adaptive support ventilation with percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelo, Denise P; Dongelmans, Dave A; Middelhoek, Pauline; Korevaar, Johanna C; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-09-01

    We determined the need for changes in minute ventilation with adaptive support ventilation after percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy under endoscopic guidance in 34 intensive care unit patients. During the procedure, minute ventilation was not changed; only maximum pressure limits were adjusted, if necessary. After insertion of the tracheotomy, cannula minute ventilation was adjusted only if Paco(2)-values changed >or=0.5 kPa from baseline. In 74% of patients, adaptive support ventilation was unable to maintain minute ventilation during the use of the endoscope, mandating pressure limitation adjustments. In a minority of patients (26%), minute ventilation had to be adjusted to achieve similar Paco(2) values.

  15. Vented Versus Unvented Chest Seals for Treatment of Pneumothorax and Prevention of Tension Pneumothorax in a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    baseline levels of the previously mentioned parameters and confirmed by chest x-ray study. PaO2 and PaCo2 were also measured. RESULTS: PTx produced...that approached 0 mm Hg as expected (Fig. 2) with subsequent significant reductions in percent SpO2, SvO2 (Fig. 3), and PaO2 levels. The VT and RR...Partial pressures of oxygen ( PaO2 ) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in the final blood samples were significantly deranged at the Figure 2. IP measured during

  16. Electroencephalogram investigations of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate and acetate dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during acetate and bicarbonate dialysis in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms was found only during the course of bicarbonate dialysis. However, in acetate dialysis, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2), we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing, dysrhythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during acetate dialysis was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called 'disequilibrium' causing a cessation of dialysis in three patients.

  17. [Electro-encephalographic study of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate dialysis and acetate dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during AHD and BHD in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms could be found only during the course of BHD. However, in AHD, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing down, dysrythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during AHD was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called "disequilibrium" causing a cessation of dialysis in 3 patients.

  18. Treatment evolution after COPD diagnosis in the UK primary care setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keele E Wurst

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: To assess the treatment progression during the 24 months following a formal diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the UK primary care setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of newly diagnosed COPD patients was identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD from 1/1/2008 until 31/12/2009. Maintenance therapy prescribed within the first 3 months of diagnosis and in the subsequent 3-month intervals for 24 months were analyzed. Treatment classes included long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs, long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs, inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs, and respective combinations. At each 3-month interval, discontinuation, switching, addition, and stepping down patterns were analyzed cumulatively for the first 12 months and over the 24-month of follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 3199 patients with at least one prescription of a maintenance therapy at baseline and during 4th-6th month interval were included in the analysis. At diagnosis (0-3 months, the most frequently prescribed maintenance therapy was LABA+ICS (43%, followed by LAMA (24% and LABA+LAMA+ICS (23%. Nearly half the patients (LABA-50%, LAMA-43% starting on a monobronchodilator had additions to their treatment in 24 months. Compared to other medications, patients starting on a LAMA were most likely to escalate to triple therapy in 24 months. Nearly one-fourth of the patients prescribed triple therapy at baseline stepped down to LABA+ICS (25% or LAMA (31% within 24 months. CONCLUSION: Disease progression is evident over the 24 months after COPD diagnosis, as more patients were prescribed additional maintenance therapy in the 24-month period compared to baseline. The changes in therapy suggest that it is difficult to achieve a consistently improved COPD disease state.

  19. Laminin gene LAMB4 is somatically mutated and expressionally altered in gastric and colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Ryoung; An, Chang Hyeok; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are important in tumor invasion and metastasis as well as in maintenance of normal epithelial cell structures. However, mutation status of laminin chain-encoding genes remains unknown in cancers. Aim of this study was to explore whether laminin chain genes are mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that laminin chain genes LAMA1, LAMA3, LAMB1 and LAMB4 had mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences that might be mutation targets in the cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the genes in 88 GC and 139 CRC [high MSI (MSI-H) or stable MSI/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L)] by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. In the present study, we found LAMB4 (11.8% of GC and 7.6% of CRC with MSI-H), LAMA3 (2.9% of GC and 2.5 of CRC with MSI-H), LAMA1 (5.9% of GC with MSI-H) and LAMB1 frameshift mutations (1.3% of CRC with MSI-H). These mutations were not found in MSS/MSI-L (0/114). We also analyzed LAMB4 expression in GC and CRC by immunohistochemistry. Loss of LAMB4 expression was identified in 17-32% of the GC and CRC. Of note, the loss expression was more common in the cancers with LAMB4 mutation or those with MSI-H. Our data show that frameshift mutations of LAMA1, LAMA3, LAMB1 and LAMB4, and loss of LAMB4 may be features of GC and CRC with MSI-H.

  20. New combinations in the treatment of COPD: rationale for aclidinium–formoterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorvaia C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cristoforo Incorvaia,1 Marcello Montagni,2 Elena Makri,1 Erminia Ridolo21Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento Hospital, Milan, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyAbstract: The current guidelines on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD recommend the prominent use of bronchodilators, including long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs, while inhaled corticosteroids are recommended only in patients with severe disease or frequent exacerbations. LABA–LAMA combinations are indicated when single bronchodilators are insufficient to control COPD. A number of LABA–LAMA combinations are available, based on twice-daily or once-daily administration according to the 12- or 24-hour duration of action, respectively. The aclidinium–formoterol combination is based on the new LAMA aclidinium bromide, which has a high selectivity for M3 muscarinic receptors and a fast onset of action, and the well-known LABA formoterol. Both drugs require twice-daily administration. The fixed-dose combination of aclidinium 400 µg/formoterol 12 µg has shown in randomized controlled trials fast and sustained bronchodilation that was greater than either monotherapy and provided clinically significant improvements in dyspnea and health status compared with placebo, also reducing the use of rescue medications. The overall incidence of adverse events was low and comparable to placebo. These data define the aclidinium–formoterol fixed-dose combination as a new treatment option for patients with COPD. The need for twice-daily administration could be an apparent disadvantage compared to the available once-daily LABA–LAMA combinations, but the immediately perceived benefit in reducing dyspnea due to the fast onset of action, as well as reported correct patient use and satisfaction with the Genuair inhaler might prove useful in favoring adherence

  1. Relevance of dosage in adherence to treatment with long-acting anticholinergics in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo JL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Izquierdo,1 José Manuel Paredero,2 Raul Piedra3 1Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Primary Care, Guadalajara Integrated Care Management, Guadalajara, Spain Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the degree of adherence for two standard regimens for administrating anticholinergic drugs (12 and 24 hours in patients with chronic obstruction of the airflow and to establish whether the use of a once-daily dose improves the level of treatment adherence.Methods: We used long-acting anticholinergics (LAMAs as a study variable, and included the entire health area of Castile-La Mancha, numbering 2,100,998 inhabitants, as the study population. We analyzed a total of 16,446 patients who had been prescribed a LAMA between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013. The follow-up period, based on a centralized system of electronic prescription management, was extended until December 2014.Results: During 2013, the medication collected was 7.4%–10.7% higher than indicated by labeling. This was very similar for all LAMAs, irrespective of the patient’s sex, the molecule, the device, and the drug dosage. We did not observe seasonal variations in the consumption of LAMAs, nor did we detect differences between prescription drugs for once-daily (every 24 hours versus twice-daily (every 12 hours administration, between the different molecules, or between different types of inhalers for the same molecule. The results were similar in 2014.Conclusion: The principal conclusion of this study is that, in an area with a centralized management system of pharmacological prescriptions, adherence to treatment with LAMAs is very high, irrespective of the molecules or inhalation device. We did not find that patients who used twice-daily medication had a lower adherence. Keywords: COPD, treatment, adherence, LABAs, LAMAs, PDC, asthma

  2. Using sewage sludge from Municipal and Industrial Solid Wastes to produce a Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Mário Brum

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado - Biotecnologia em Controlo Biológico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar que lamas têm capacidade para o desenvolvimento de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) com a intenção de produzir um biopesticida. Neste estudo, realizamos testes de crescimento bacteriano em lamas de estações de tratamento de águas residuais urbanas e industriais. A bactéria utilizada foi uma estirpe nativa de Bt isolada na ilha de São Miguel. Os totais de células viáveis, taxa de crescimento m...

  3. Sera Monastery's Home for the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊侬格·林班巴拉

    2007-01-01

    @@ Xirao Jiangcan, a 78-year-old lama, is sunbathing in front of a scripture-chanting hall in Sera Monastery in Lhasa, Tibet. He feels comfortable in the warmth of the sun. A native of Deqin County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yun-nan, Xirao came to Lhasa at the age of 26. He has lived in Sera Monastery for 52 years. Currently he resides in the monastery's Old People's Home. Many other old lamas also live in the old people's home.

  4. Characteristics of patients with COPD newly prescribed a long-acting bronchodilator: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurst KE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Keele E Wurst,1 Samantha St Laurent,1 Hana Mullerova,2 Kourtney J Davis3 1Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Uxbridge, UK; 3Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Wavre, Belgium Introduction: This study aimed to characterize patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD newly prescribed a long-acting bronchodilator (LABD, and to assess changes in medication over 24 months. Methods: A cohort of patients with COPD aged ≥40 years newly prescribed an LABD between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 were identified from the Truven Marketscan® Commercial Database (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, MI, USA and followed for 24 months. Inclusion criteria included no prior prescription for an LABD or inhaled corticosteroids for 12 months prior to the LABD index date (baseline. Patient characteristics were examined. As LABDs were mainly long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs, additions, switches, discontinuation, adherence to (medication possession ratio, and persistence (proportion of days covered with LAMA monotherapy were assessed for 24 months following the index date. Adherence and persistence with long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs were also assessed. Results: A cohort of 3,268 patients aged 40–65 years was identified (mean age 55.8 years, 48% male. LAMA monotherapy was prescribed to 93% of patients who received an LABD. During the 24-month follow-up, 16% of these patients added COPD medication, 10% switched to an inhaled corticosteroid-containing medication, and 25% discontinued after one LAMA prescription at baseline. Over 12 and 24 months, adherence to LAMA was 40% and 33%, respectively, and adherence to LABA was 29% and 24%, respectively. Over the same time periods, persistence with LAMA monotherapy was 19% and 15%, respectively, and persistence with LABA was 9% and 7%, respectively. Conclusion: Adherence to newly initiated LAMA

  5. Ethnic Museum of the Central University for Nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    THE Central University for Nationalities Ethnic Museum houses over 20,000 cultural relics relating to China’s 56 ethnic groups. The majority of these are traditional costumes and ornaments that examplify expertise on the part of ethnic minorities in weaving, dying, embroidery and tannage. Some are decades, and others centuries old. Exhibits such as the gifts to Chairman Mao Zedong and the central government in the early days of the People’s Republic from the Panchen Lama, Dalai Lama, and ethnic minorities across China are of great political and historical significance.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of roflumilast in combination with bronchodilator therapies in patients with severe and very severe COPD in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyshkin Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yevgeniy Samyshkin,1 Michael Schlunegger,2 Susan Haefliger,3 Sabine Ledderhose,3 Matthew Radford11IMS Health, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, London, United Kingdom; 2Marketing Specialty Care, 3Medical Department, Takeda Pharma AG, Pfäffikon, SwitzerlandObjective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD represents a burden on patients and health systems. Roflumilast, an oral, selective phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor reduces exacerbations and improves lung function in severe/very severe COPD patients with a history of exacerbations. This study aimed to estimate the lifetime cost and outcomes of roflumilast added-on to commonly used COPD regimens in Switzerland.Methods: A Markov cohort model was developed to simulate COPD progression in patients with disease states of severe, very severe COPD, and death. The exacerbation rate was assumed to be two per year in severe COPD. COPD progression rates were drawn from the published literature. Efficacy was expressed as relative ratios of exacerbation rates associated with roflumilast, derived from a mixed-treatment comparison. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted for roflumilast added to long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA, long-acting ß2-agonist/inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS, and LAMA + LABA/ICS. The analysis was conducted from the Swiss payer perspective, with costs and outcomes discounted at 2.5% annually. Parameter uncertainties were explored in one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Results: In each of the comparator regimens mean life expectancy was 9.28 years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained were 6.19. Mean estimated lifetime costs per patient in the comparator arms were CHF 83,364 (LAMA, CHF 88,161 (LABA/ICS, and CHF 95,564 (LAMA + LABA/ICS respectively. Adding roflumilast resulted in a mean cost per patient per lifetime of CHF 86,754 (LAMA + roflumilast, CHF 91,470 (LABA/ICS + roflumilast, and CHF 99,364 (LAMA + LABA/ICS + roflumilast

  7. Senescence-Induced Alterations in the Laminin Component of Prostate Epithelial Extracellular Matrix Regulate Progression of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    this to be especially relevant to the senescence process. Since many chemotherapeutic agents act through induction of a senescence process, this work...tumours (Reed et al, 2007). The therapeutic implications are especially of interest in the treatment of cancers that produce large quantities of collagen...full-length LMα4 chain (LAMA4) cDNA was ob- tained from OriGene (Rockville, MD) in their nonselectable vector (pCMV6-XL4). We subcloned the LAMA4 cDNA

  8. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  9. Disainikaart : Baskimaa / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Baskimaa skulptoritest, moekunstnikest, disaineritest, arhitektidest, kunstnikest. Edouardo Chillida (1924-2002), Cristóbal Balenciaga (1895-1972), Koldo Barroso, Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Iñaki Aspiazu (sünd. 1955), Nisa Goiburu (sünd. 1946), Jose Maria González Castillo (1927-2003), Itziar Okariz (sünd. 1965)

  10. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: Role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Grüne (Frank); S. Kazmaier (Stephan); R.J. Stolker (Robert J.); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk); A. Weyland (Andreas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2 -induced changes in CBF, CVR,

  11. Time-course of ventilation, arterial and pulmonary CO(2) tension during CO (2) increase in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Toru; Okada, Yasumasa; Hara, Yasushi; Sakamaki, Fumio; Kyotani, Shingo; Tomita, Takeshi; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    2012-01-01

    A change of ventilation (VE), PaCO( 2 ) (arterial CO( 2 ) tension) and PvCO( 2 ) (pulmonary arterial CO( 2 ) tension) with time was not evaluated precisely during exercise or CO( 2 ) rebreathing in humans. In this study, changes of these variables with time were fitted to exponential curves {y = Exp ( x/ T + A ) + k} and compared. When exercise pulmonary hemodynamics was examined in 15 cardiac patients to decide therapies, we asked the patients to undergo CO( 2 ) rebreathing using air with supplementation of consumed O( 2 ). Arterial and pulmonary blood was drawn every minute. During exercise, T was 28.2 ± 8.4 and 26.8 ± 12.4, and A was 0.80 ± 0.50 and 0.50 ± 0.90 in VE and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with no statistical differences. During CO( 2 ) rebreathing, T was 18.6 ± 5.8, 41.8 ± 38.0 and 21.6 ± 9.7 and A was 0.39 ± 0.67, 1.64 ± 1.35 and 0.17 ± 0.83 in VE, PaCO( 2 ) and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with statistical difference of PaCO( 2 ) from other variables, suggesting that VE and PvCO( 2 ) showed same mode of change according to time but PaCO( 2 ) did not.

  12. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...

  13. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  14. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  15. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    . Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  16. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B;

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF...

  17. Hypercapnic acidosis attenuates the pulmonary innate immune response in ventilated healthy mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, F.J.; Vaneker, M.; Pickkers, P.; Snijdelaar, D.G.; Egmond, J. van; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation with small tidal volumes reduces the development of ventilator-induced lung injury and mortality, but may increase PaCO2. It is not clear whether the beneficial effect of a lung-protective strategy results from reduced ventilation pressures/tidal volumes or is medi

  18. Pildid räägivad lugusid, vorstid samuti / Andry Ervald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ervald, Andry

    2006-01-01

    Koomiksinäitus Rakvere galeriis. Osa võtavad Peeter Krosmann (1971), Kristel Maamägi (1986), Lilli-Krõõt Repnau (1982), Elina Sildre (1980), Joonas Sildre (1980), Veiko Tammjärv (1967), Paco Ulman (1980), Edvin Aedma ja rühmitus Endorfin Fractured Communications. Kristel Maamägi oma töödest

  19. Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, R.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Strauss, R.; Clark, J. M.; Puglia, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The ventilation (V), end-tidal PCO2 (PACO2), and CO2 elimination rate were determined in men at rest breathing CO2-free gas over the pressure range 1-50 ATA and the gas density range 0.4-25 g/l, during slow and rapid compressions, at stable elevated ambient pressures and during slow decompressions. Progressive increase in pulmonary gas flow resistance due to elevation of ambient pressure and inspired gas density to the He-O2 equivalent of 5000 feet of seawater was found to produce a complex pattern of change in PACO2. It was found that as both ambient pressure and pulmonary gas flow resistance were progressively raised, PACO2 at first increased, went through a maximum, and then declined towards values near the 1 ATA level. It is concluded that this pattern of PACO2 change results from the interaction on ventilation of the increase in pulmonary resistance due to the elevation of gas density with the increase in respiratory drive postulated as due to generalized central nervous system excitation associated with exposure to high hydrostatic pressure. It is suggested that a similar interaction exists between increased gas flow resistance and the increase in respiratory drive related to nitrogen partial pressure and the resulting narcosis.

  20. Alates 24. IX on Rotermanni soolalao galeriil...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Narva kolledzhi uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutööde näitus. I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla