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Sample records for alpacas lama pacos

  1. Effects on the quality of frozen-thawed alpaca (Lama pacos)semen using two different cryoprotectants and extenders

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    Alexei Santiani; Wilfredo Huanca; Rómulo Sapana; Teodosio Huanca; Néstor Sepúlveda; Raúl Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate two extenders and two cryoprotectant agents (CPA) for alpaca semen cryopreservation. Methods:Semen samples were obtained from four adult alpacas (Lama pacos) and frozen using extender Ⅰ (TRIS, citrate, egg yolk and glucose) or extender Ⅱ (skim milk, egg yolk and fructose), each containing either glycerol (G) or ethylene glycol (EG) as CPA. Consequently, four groups were formed: 1) extender Ⅰ-G; 2) extender Ⅰ-EG; 3) extender Ⅱ-G;and 4) extender Ⅱ-EG. Semen was diluted in a two-step process: for cooling to 5 ℃ (extenders without CPA), and for freezing (extenders with CPA). Viability and acrosome integrity were assessed using trypan blue and Giemsa stains. Results: When compared, the motility after thawing was higher (P < 0.05) in groups Ⅱ-EG (20.0 % ± 6.7 %)and Ⅱ-G (15.3 % ± 4.1%) than that in groups Ⅰ-G (4.0 % ± 1.1%) and Ⅰ-EG (1.0 % ± 1.4 %). Viable spermatozoa with intact acrosomes in groups Ⅱ-EG (18.7 % ± 2.9 %) and Ⅱ-G (12.7 % ± 5.9 %) were higher than that in groups Ⅰ-G (5.7 % ± 1.5 %) and Ⅰ-EG (4.0 % ± 1.0 %). Conclusion: The skim milk- and egg yolk-based extenders containing ethylene glycol or glycerol to freeze alpaca semen seems to promote the survival of more sperm cells with intact acrosomes than the other extenders.

  2. Tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation

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    Connolly DJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice, the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

  3. Aislamiento e identificación de pestivirus obtenidos de alpacas (Lama pacos y llamas (Lama glama de la Región Metropolitana, Chile Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos and llamas (Lama glama introduced to the Región Metropolitana, Chile

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    M O Celedón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El ambiente natural para más del 90% de las alpacas (Lama pacos y llamas (Lama glama, camélidos sudamericanos (CSA domésticos de Chile, se ubica entre los 11° y 21° latitud sur a 3.800 y 5.000 m de altitud. En el último tiempo las alpacas y las llamas han sido introducidas en otros lugares geográficos del país, donde toman contacto con rumiantes domésticos, facilitándose la infección con el virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB que está presente en bovinos, ovinos y caprinos de Chile. El VDVB incluye a dos especies, VDVB genotipo I y VDVB genotipo II, que junto con el virus de la enfermedad de la frontera (VEF y el virus de la peste porcina clásica (PPC conforman el género Pestivirus de la familia Flaviviridae. Este estudio evalúa la hipótesis que los CSA introducidos en la Región Metropolitana (R.M. de Chile están infectados con pestivirus. Para hacer el aislamiento viral se tomaron muestras de 80 CSA de la RM, 42 alpacas y 35 llamas vivas, 2 llamas muertas y un feto abortado provenientes de 4 rebaños sospechosos de estar infectados con pestivirus. Las muestras fueron inoculadas en cultivos celulares primarios de pulmón fetal bovino (libre de VDVB, subcultivando por 5 veces cada muestra. Para detectar antígenos de pestivirus, las células con las muestras fueron analizadas por prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa y de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta. Para la caracterización molecular, una fracción del fragmento no traducido del genoma viral (5’UTR de los aislados fue amplificado por RT-PCR y posteriormente, para identificar las especies virales, fue tratado con las enzimas de restricción Bgl I, Pst I y Xho I. Los resultados muestran que 18 CSA, 10 de alpacas y 8 de llamas de los 4 rebaños estudiados estaban infectadas con pestivirus. Todos los aislados fueron no citopáticos. En 6 alpacas se aisló VDVB I y en 4 alpacas y 8 llamas se aisló VDVB II. El virus fue obtenido desde 8 alpacas sanas, 2 alpacas con aborto, 5 llamas

  4. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs).

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    Maass, David R; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2007-07-31

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the smaller, more tractable and widely available alpaca is an excellent source of VHH coding DNA. Alpaca sera IgG consists of about 50% HCAbs, mostly of the short-hinge variety. Sequencing of DNA encoding more than 50 random VHH and hinge domains permitted the design of PCR primers that will amplify virtually all alpaca VHH coding DNAs for phage display library construction. Alpacas were immunized with ovine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and a VHH phage display library was prepared from a lymph node that drains the sites of immunizations and successfully employed in the isolation of VHHs that bind and neutralize ovine TNFalpha. PMID:17568607

  5. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

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    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  6. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

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    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  7. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

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    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  8. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

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    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  9. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

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    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  10. 羊驼毛纤维中黑色素含量的相关性研究%The Correlationship Between Different Kinds of Melanins in the Fleece of Alpaca (Lama Pacos)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 白俊明; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    To supply the evidence of identification of alpaca hair color, the difference and correlation between different melanins in alpaca hair was studied. According to the visual inspection, 22 different hair color genotypes with 3 alpacas each were selected. Alpaca fleece was taken from the back and then dissolved with different solution to get melanins. The Amount of Total Melanins (ASM), Eumelanin (EM) and Pheomelanin (PM) in alpaca fleece with different hair color were measured with spectrophotometric assay, sepia as a standard for the spectrophotometric assay. Then the difference and correlation between the amount of melanins were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and linear regression curve method, respectively. The results showed that there were difference in ASM (P0.05) between alpaca fleece with different hair color, and that two models were deduced from the linear regression curve analysis:model 1: Sp.ASM=-0.313+3.168×Sp.EM+E (R2:0.902, t=-3.732, P=0.000); model 2: Sp.EM=0.285+0.143× Sp.ASM+E(R2:0.902,t=6.769,P=0.000). It was suggested that ASM and EM could be used as the parameters to differentiate hair color of alpaca because of significant correlation to hair color, moreover, both of them have the relation of linear regression curve.%  为研究羊驼毛纤维中黑色素含量的相关性,以为建立鉴定羊驼毛色的参数标准提供理论依据。选择肉眼观察认为表型不同的22种自然毛色的羊驼,每个表型选取3只羊驼,从背部采集羊驼毛,用不同的方法溶解,以乌贼黑为标准品,用紫外分光光度计法测定羊驼毛纤维中碱性可溶总黑色素(ASM)、真黑素(EM)和褐黑素(PM)的含量,通过单因素方差和线性回归曲线分别分析不同毛色羊驼毛纤维中黑色素的差异性和相关性。结果表明:ASM和EM在不同毛色的毛纤维中呈差异显著(分别为P<0.01和P<0.05),而 PM 呈差异不显著(P>0.05)。线性回归曲线

  11. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

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    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

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    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures.

  13. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

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    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  14. SCF/c-KIT signal regulates the proliferation and division of alpaca (lama pacos) hair follicle melanocytes and its mechanism%干细胞因子及其受体c-KIT对羊驼毛囊黑色素细胞增殖与分化的影响及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜俊兵; 于秀菊; 田雪; 贺俊平; 董常生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the cytological mechanism of the genesis of different coat color in alpaca by investigating the regulation mechanism of the SCF/c-KIT signal on the cell division, proliferation and distribution of alpaca hair follicle melanocytes. Methods We selected eight mature female alpacas, four with pigmented coat color and four with natural white coat color. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the expression distribution of SCF and c-KIT receptor. Comparative quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine expression levels of SCF and c-kit genes. Results The expression of SCF and c-KIT immunoactivity was detected in different coat color skin, but the expression level and localization were different in the hair follicle. △△Ct method was used for quantitative analysis of the expression levels of SCF and c-kit genes in different coat colors of alpaca skin. The comparative expression of gene SCF in colored skins was 2. 41 times of white skins, and the comparative expression of gene c-kit in colored skins was 1.20 times of white skins.Conclusion SCF/c-KIT signal regulates the hair follicle melanocytes proliferation and division. The mature degree and mounts of melanocytes in hair follicle play central role in the genesis of coat color of alpaca. Furthermore, the differential distribution of melanocytes in hair follicle is mainly regulated by the SCF signal.%目的 探讨SCF/c-KIT信号通路对羊驼毛囊黑色素细胞分化、增殖和定位的作用及羊驼丰富毛色性形状形成的细胞学机制.方法 选取8只成年雄性羊驼(4只有色被毛,4只白色被毛),采用免疫组织化学方法研究SCF和c-KIT在羊驼皮肤组织中的表达定位;采用实时定量PCR方法分析SCF和c-kit基因在羊驼皮肤组织中的表达水平.结果 SCF和c-KIT受体在不同毛色皮肤组织中均有表达,但在不同被毛颜色羊驼皮肤组织中的表达量和表达部位存在差异;ΔΔCt法统计分析SCF和c-kit基因在不同颜色

  15. The Effects of Endothelin-3 on the Melanocyte Characteristic and Expression of Hair Color Genes in Melanocytes from Alpaca (Lama Pacos) in vitro%内皮素-3对羊驼黑色素细胞特征及细胞内毛色基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 白俊明; 范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 庞亚妙; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of endothelin-3 (EDN3) on the expression of hair color genes of alpaca.The activity of melanocyte,the production of melanin in melanocytes and the expressions of related genes and proteins including Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB),KIT,Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) in alpaca melanocytes in cultures with addition of different dose of EDN3(0,10-9,10-8,10-7mol · L-1),were examined by MTT,ultraviolet spectrophotometry,qRT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.The results showed that the amount of melanocytes was increased with the increasing double-or tri-dendrites; At the addition dose of 10-8 mol · L-1 for 72 h after adding EDN3,compared to control group,the proliferation of melanocytes was obvious and the expressions of EDNRB,KIT,MITF and TYR significantly up-regulated at the level of both transcription and translation in melanocytes(P<0.05).Moreover,the production of melanin in melanocytes significantly increased(P<0.05).These findings indicate that EDN3 play an important role in regulating melanins production in melanocytes in alpaca.%为了研究内皮素-3(Endothelin-3,EDN3)对羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞内毛色形成相关基因的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol· L-1)的EDN3,通过MTT法、紫外分光光度法、qRT-PCR和Western blotting技术分别检测黑色素细胞活力、黑色素产量、相关基因和蛋白(包括内皮素受体B(Endothelin receptor B,EDNRB)、KIT、小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR))的表达情况.结果表明,在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞添加EDN3 72 h 后,黑色素细胞呈双树突或三树突状,且细胞数量明显增加;在添加适当浓度10-8mol·L-1时,细胞具有明显的增殖,细胞内EDNRB、KIT、MITF和TRY在转录水平和蛋白水平的表达量被上调,

  16. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  17. Effects of vasectomy on seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in male alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L K; Campbell, A J; Sandoval, S; Tibary, A

    2013-12-01

    Azoospermia is a common finding in male alpacas which present for infertility. The challenge is to differentiate azoospermia of testicular origin from non-testicular origin. In several species, alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in seminal plasma have been used as a diagnostic marker of contributions of the testis and epididymis to the ejaculate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP assay could differentiate testicular from non-testicular azoospermia in male alpacas. An experimental model of bilateral outflow obstruction (pre-scrotal vasectomy) was used in 22 male alpacas, aged 2-9 years. No reproductive history was available. Animals were submitted for electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia and vasectomy performed. Five weeks later, animals were submitted for EE. Vasectomy was not successful in one animal, which was removed from analysis. AP levels were compared in seminal plasma in the pre- and post-vasectomy samples. The mean ± SEM concentration of AP in pre-vasectomy seminal plasma was 504.29 ± 166.45 U/l (range 10-2910); the post-vasectomy levels were 252.48 ± 81.77 U/l (range 0-1640; p = 0.06). In 71.4% of animals, AP levels decreased, varying from 18% to 100% reduction. Results of this study suggest that AP is not produced exclusively by the testis and epididymis in alpacas and that AP assay is not a valid diagnostic test for determination of origin of azoospermia; the gold standard for diagnosis of origin of azoospermia remains testicular biopsy. PMID:23790090

  18. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  19. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, David R.; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the...

  20. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue.

  1. [Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerigk, D; Theuß, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

    2014-01-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection. PMID:24920091

  2. Presence, distribution and steroidogenic effect of the peptides orexin A and receptor 1 for orexins in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giovanna; Assisi, Loredana; Squillacioti, Caterina; Paino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Nicola; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The orexins A (oxA) and B are peptides discovered in the rat hypothalamus and successively found in some peripheral organs of the mammalian body. They binds two protein G-coupled receptors defined receptor 1 (ox1r) and 2 for orexins, the first of which is highly specific for oxA while the second binds both the peptides with equal affinity. This work aimed to detect the presence of oxA and ox1r in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and investigate the role played by them on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The species alpaca acquired, in the last years, increasing zootechnical interest for the quality of the wool produced and its breeding spread from the country of origin to USA, Australia and Europe. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to detect oxA in Leydig and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, resting spermatocytes, round and oval spermatids. Ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in Leydig cells and round, oval and elongated spermatids. The expression of the two peptides in tissue extracts was established by using Western blotting technique. Such results demonstrated that in the alpaca testis exists in a cellular complex able to produce and/or internalize oxA. Finally, the effect of oxA on steroidogenesis was investigated by means of in vitro cultured thin testis slices which were added with oxA or/and Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a steroidolitic agent basally produced by the Sertoli cell. OxA evoked increase of testosterone production while MIS a decrease. The consecutive addition of oxA and MIS, or vice versa, highlighted an antagonistic interplay between the two substances which has been thought to be the main molecular event at the basis of the oxA-stimulated steroidogenesis mechanism.

  3. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  4. Distribución de neuropéptidos en el tronco del encéfalo de la alpaca (lama pacos): estudio inmunocitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Eliana de Souza

    2010-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis doctoral trata de la distribución de los neuropéptidos en el Sistema Nervioso Central de mamíferos después de la aplicación de técnicas inmunocitoquímica. Hasta hoy hemos descrito en el Sistema Nervioso Central de los mamíferos la distribución de fibras y/o somas con neuropéptidos pertenecientes a numerosas familias. Ya hemos publicados trabajos con CGRP y Leucina-encefalina y este estudio es continuación de la línea que se viene desarrollando sobre la distribuci...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gna_pacos_L.png Vicugna_pacos_NL.png Vicugna_pacos_S.png Vicugna_pacos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NL htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NS ...

  6. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; de Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G.; Morgan, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted.

  7. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y.; Poulsen, Keith P.; McGuirk, Sheila M.; Livesey, Michael A.; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P.; Pinkerton, Marie E.

    2010-01-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section. PMID:21358933

  8. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y.; Poulsen, Keith P; McGuirk, Sheila M.; Livesey, Michael A.; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P.; Pinkerton, Marie E.

    2010-01-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section.

  9. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnost...

  10. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare.

  11. Dalai Lama at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 30 August CERN turned aside from its usual day-to-day preoccupations when Director-General Herwig Schopper played host to the Dalai Lama of Tibet and his entourage during the holy man's 1983 visit to Europe. In welcoming his visitor, Professor Schopper stressed the role of particle physics in helping to understand man's place in the cosmos, and how the Dalai Lama's interest would further the interrelation of science, philosophy and religion. The Dalai Lama visited the UA 1 experiment (rolled back into its 'garage' during the present fixed target operations at CERN) and the large installations for the neutrino experiments in the West Area of the SPS machine. There was an intriguing exchange of views with CERN theorists, who described how science has continually modified our view of the world around us

  12. LAMA2-related myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Muscular dystrophy caused by LAMA2-gene mutations is an autosomal recessive disease typically presenting as a severe, early-onset congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). However, milder cases with a limb-girdle type muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been described. METHODS: In this study......, we assessed the frequency and phenotypic spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy in CMD (n = 18) and LGMD2 (n = 128) cohorts identified in the last 15 years in eastern Denmark. The medical history, brain-MRI, muscle pathology, muscle laminin-α2 expression, and genetic analyses were assessed...... dystrophy and its prevalence in an LGMD2 cohort, which indicates that LAMA2 muscular dystrophy should be included in the LGMD2 nomenclature....

  13. Who Is the Dalai Lama?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The U.S.Congress awarded the 14th Dalai Lama the Congressional gold medal on October 17.In response,the Chinese side pointed out that the Dalai Lama,the former chief representative of the feudal serfdom under the theocratic socio-political structure in Tibet,has never been the"representative of democracy"he proclaims he is.A signed article by Hua Zi,entitled"Dalai Lama in Glory of Religion, U.S.in Glory of Democracy"and released by Xinhua News Agency, reveals some deeds and words of the Dalai Lama that have nothing in common with recognized principles of democracy and human rights.

  14. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  15. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective. PMID:26930223

  16. Bilateral renal agenesis in an alpaca cria

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Keith P; Gerard, Mathew P.; Spaulding, Kathy A.; Geissler, Kyleigh A.; Anderson, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    A 3-day-old male alpaca cria was presented for lack of vigor and failure to urinate since birth. Based on the history, laboratory data, ultrasonographs, surgical findings, and postmortem examination, the cria was diagnosed with bilateral renal agenesis and hypoplastic bladder, a congenital condition rarely seen in veterinary medicine.

  17. Dalai Lama Taken to Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In an interview with Germany’s Der Spiegel magazine on March 26,2007, the 14th Dalai Lama explained his view on the Tibet issue,disguising himself as an exile persecuted by the Chinese Government and a monk with no political ambitions.His words,it seems,

  18. Construction of phage display VHH antibody library against avian H5N1 virus from alpaca%抗H5N1禽流感病毒VHH抗体库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严安; 熊慧; 王颖; 孙冰玉; 夏立亮; 吴标; 包文静; 车小燕; 孙志伟; 金维荣; 赵国屏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To construct phage display variable domain of heavy chain antibody library (VHH antibody library) from alpaca immunized with inactivated H5N1 vaccine for the future screening of VHH antibodies against avian H5N1 influenza virus. Methods: The camelid species (alpaca, Lama pacos ) was selected for immunization with inactivated H5N1 vaccine. Hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay of serum from immunized alpaca was performed against H5N1 avian influenza virus one week after the fourth inntmization. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated for the amplification of VHH fragments by RT-PCR. PCR products were then purified and inserted into phagemid vector pCANTAB5E. The VHH antibody gene library was obtained by electroporating recombinant pCANTAB5E-VHH vectors into E. coli TG1 cells.The library capacity and diversity of VHH antibody gene library was determined by sequencing analysis. The HI assay was performed with the culture supernatant of primary phage display VHH antibody library. Results:After four rounds of immunization with inactivated H5N1 vaccine,HI antibody titer of the alpaca serum reached to 1: 2 560, which was higher than those fiom immunized mice. A first set of antibody gene library totalling 3 × l08 members were created after cloning VHH genes into a phagemid vector pCANTAB5E. The sequence of 14 members of the unselected library indicated that the camelid VHH antibody library we constructed possessed high diversity and good capacity. The supematant from the primary phage display library displayed effieient HI effect against avian H5N1 influenza virus. And the titration of our phage display VHH library reached 2.17 × l011. Conclusion: Taken together, phage display VHH antibody library from immunized alpaca is successfully constructed,which provides a platform for VHH antibody preparation against H5N1 virus. This will give light to future study on treatment and diagnosis of avian H5N1 influenza virus.%目的:构建抗H5N1禽流感病毒的小羊驼免

  19. Genetics Home Reference: LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description LAMA2 -related muscular dystrophy is a disorder that causes weakness and wasting ( ...

  20. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  1. Reproductive biotechnologies in Swedish male alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina

    2016-01-01

    Alpacas have become more popular during the last decades. The herds have been built up by importing live animals since reproductive biotechnologies, for example artificial insemination and semen preservation, are not well-developed in this species. A major problem is the viscosity of the seminal plasma which hinders processing or evaluation of the semen. Enzymes have been used to deal with the viscous seminal plasma but they may damage spermatozoa or render them incapable of fertilization. Th...

  2. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  3. The Dalai Lama: A Separatist In Disguise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In his five decades of exile, the Dalai Lama has never stopped plotting to seek "Tibet independence" through allying with foreign forces to internationalize the so-called "Tibet issue" and press the Chinese Government.

  4. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  5. Exposing Dalai Lama As a Dishonest Person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Dalai Lama is an honest man, a certain Western politician once said.Is that true?Let’s look at the Dalai Lama’s recent"appeal to the Chinese people"and find out. In his appeal on March 28,the Dalai Lama said he can guarantee ethnic Han peo- ple"he has no intention to split Tibet from China or cause a rift between the Han and Tibetan peoples."On the contrary,he"has constantly pur- sued a solution to the Tibet issue on the basis of lasting and mutual benefit between the Han and Tibetan groups."

  6. In the Lab with the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Leigh E.

    2005-01-01

    The Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan Buddhist leader was invited to speak at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in November 2005 to promote the idea that through meditation, an emerging meeting point for science and religion in contemporary culture can be reached. However, some members of the association were offended at the implied endorsement…

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in an alpaca cria

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Genova, Suzanne G.

    2011-01-01

    A 7-hour-old alpaca was presented for lethargy and depression. The cria responded favorably to initial treatment but developed acute-onset dyspnea 48 hours later. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed by thoracic imaging and blood gas analysis. The cria was successfully treated with corticosteroids and discharged from the hospital.

  8. The expression of KRT2 and its effect on melanogenesis in alpaca skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yucong; Song, Yajun; Geng, Qingling; Ding, Zengfeng; Qin, Yilong; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng; Geng, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the keratin 2 (KRT2) on alpaca melanocyte in vivo and vitro, the immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and alpaca melanocytes transfection methods were used. The results showed that mRNA and protein expression of KRT2 was highly expressed in brown skin in comparison with that in white skin. Moreover, we found that KRT2 was expressed in alpaca melanocytes in vitro by immunocytochemistry. After transfection with KRT2 in alpaca melanocytes, the relative mRNA and protein expression of KRT2, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) in alpaca skin melanocytes was increased with significant differences; a further result was the increase of melanin production. The results suggested that KRT2 functions in alpaca hair color formation, which offered an essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of melanogenesis. PMID:27265811

  9. Detection of an Antigenic Group 2 Coronavirus in an Adult Alpaca with Enteritis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Genova, Suzanne G.; Streeter, Robert N.; Simpson, Katharine M.; Kapil, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic group 2 coronavirus was detected in a fecal sample of an adult alpaca by reverse transcription-PCR. The presence of alpaca coronavirus (ApCoV) in the small intestine was demonstrated by immune histochemistry with an antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibody that reacts with group 2 coronaviruses. Other common causes of diarrhea in adult camelids were not detected. We conclude that nutritional stress may have predisposed the alpaca to severe ApCoV infection.

  10. Prospección serológica del virus parainfluenza 3 en camélidos sudamericanos en Chile A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CP Cepeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En un total de 370 sueros obtenidos de 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Llama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 106 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus parainfluenza 3 (VPI-3. La prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación mostró que 91 (24,6% de los camélidos sudamericanos (CSA distribuidos en 18 (20,7% alpacas, 36 (40,9% llamas, 27 (18,9% vicuñas y 10 (11,2% guanacos tenían anticuerpos. El rango de los títulos de las muestras positivas estuvo entre 8 y 256 con una media geométrica de 31. Los resultados establecen que los CSA en Chile están infectados con VPI-3.A total of 370 sera collected from 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Lama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 106 vicunas (Vicugna vicugna were investigated for the presence of antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV-3. Hemagglutination inhibition test indicated that a total of 91 (24.6% South American camelids (SAC had PIV-3 antibodies, including 18 (20.7% alpacas, 36 (40.9% llamas, 27 (18.9% vicunas and 10 (11.2% guanacos. Titers of the positive samples ranged from 8 to 256 with a geometric mean of 31. These results establish that SAC in Chile are infected with PIV-3.

  11. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (Pviscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands were not present in all samples of alpaca seminal plasma. There were no significant changes in the concentration of any protein fractions during the four periods. Moreover, the protein fraction of the 60-kDa (total protein

  12. Lama Gangchen and His Self Healing Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOLMA; YANGZOIN

    2002-01-01

    When I came across Lama Gangchen in Nepalyears ago,he was then residing in Italy. He has agood command of Buddhist Tantric theory andpractice,as well as wide knowledge of Tibetanmedicine.He is also active in propagating Tibetan Buddhismand Tibetan medicine, especially in working to protect thepsychic environment and promote education and charityundertakings.For this purpose, he has visited more than 30countries and regions.

  13. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    Full Text Available Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  14. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  15. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (Pviscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (Pviscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

  16. Behind the Dalai Lama's Holy Cloak(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Editor's Note:Dalai Lama has been changed so popular these years that it seems he becomes a logo to some extent.But who is the Dalai Lama?Most of people are puzzled.Not long before I read a couple of papers and enjoyed them very much.Maybe our read-ers are willing to share them and interested them.

  17. PACTEL OECD project planning (PACO). PACTEL OECD project planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD launched the SETH project to investigate issues relevant for accident prevention and management and to ensure the existence of integral thermal hydraulic test facilities. The facilities included in the SETH project are PKL from Germany and PANDA from Switzerland. At the early stages of the SETH project an idea was raised to exploit the PACTEL facility in a similar OECD project. Without any external funding the analytical work in the required extent would not be possible within Lappeenranta University of Technology, the party responsible of operating PACTEL. This fact directed the PACO project proposal to be conducted for the SAFIR programme. The aim of the PACO project is to prepare a project proposal to OECD of a PACTEL related project. To attain this objective some preliminary analyses have to be performed to ensure the relevancy of the proposed topic. The low power situation, i.e. midloop state was chosen to be the topic in the PACO studies and project planning basis. The plan is to use PACTEL to examine vertical steam generator behaviour during the midloop operation and the following loss of residual heat removal system transient. Such a possibility is acknowledged with special alterations to PACTEL. The APROS code version 5.04.07 was selected as a tool for the preanalyses. The virtual simulation of the chosen experimental situation would give a preconception on the phenomena to be expected and the progression of the transient. Originally the PACO project was planned to continue only for a few months, ending up with the project proposal to OECD during the summer time 2004. During the pre-calculation process it became obvious that the time expected was not enough to establish good pre-calculation results. The reasons for this relates to time used to learn and adapt the use of the chosen code, improvements and corrections in modelling as well as the code ability to manage the special conditions defined for the project topic. Another aspect on completing a

  18. International politics of the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama

    OpenAIRE

    Otgonbayar Sarlagtay, Mashbat

    2007-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Mongolia's strategic options in the event of a Mongol-Chinese confrontation over a clash of interests arising from the potential succession the next Dalai Lama, understood in Mongolia religiously through a process reincarnation. Mongolia would welcome the Dalai Lama's reincarnation in the country since Tibetan Buddhism enjoys the allegiance of many of Mongolia's people and is a part of Mongolia's national identity. Mongolia's democratic government in Ulaanbaatar must ...

  19. The Dalai Lama:A Separatist in Disguise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama’s recent meeting with the Dalai Lama has sparked strong reactions in China. Xinhua News Agency released an article titled "Foreign Backing Gives Dalai Lama No Room But Doom" to reveal the illegitimate nature of the Dalai Lama’s "Tibetan Government-in-exile." The article, bylined Yiduo, also attacked the monk’s "Tibet independence." Excerpts of the article follow

  20. Magnetosome Expression of Functional Camelid Antibody Fragments (Nanobodies) in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Pollithy, Anna; Romer, Tina; Lang, Claus; Müller, Frank D.; Helma, Jonas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Schüler, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Numerous applications of conventional and biogenic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as in diagnostics, immunomagnetic separations, and magnetic cell labeling, require the immobilization of antibodies. This is usually accomplished by chemical conjugation, which, however, has several disadvantages, such as poor efficiency and the need for coupling chemistry. Here, we describe a novel strategy to display a functional camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) from an alpaca (Lama pacos) on the surf...

  1. Automatic Feature Interaction Analysis in PacoSuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanderperren

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build upon previous work that aims at recuperating aspect oriented ideas into component based software development. In that research, a composition adapter was proposed in order to capture crosscutting concerns in the PacoSuite component based methodology. A composition adapter is visually applied onto a given component composition and the changes it describes are automatically applied. Stacking multiple composition adapters onto the same component composition can however lead to unpredictable and undesired side-effects. In this paper, we propose a solution for this issue, widely known as the feature interaction problem. We present a classification of different interaction levels among composition adapters and the algorithms required to verify them. The proposed algorithms are however of exponential nature and depend on both the composition adapters and the component composition as a whole. In order to enhance the performance of our feature interaction analysis, we present a set of theorems that define the interaction levels solely in terms of the properties of the composition adapters themselves.

  2. Mempelajari Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Dan Penyangraian Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Terhadap Mutu Bubuk Kakao

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Janner P

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama fermentasi dan penyangraian biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap mutu bubuk kakao. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua faktor yakni lama fermentasi (0, 2, 4 dan 6 hari) dan lama penyangraian (0, 25, 50 dan 75 menit). Parameter analisa adalah kadar air, kadar abu, kadar lemak, daya larut dalam air dan nilai organoleptik (aroma, warna dan rasa). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama f...

  3. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  4. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia

    OpenAIRE

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Mathews, Lindsey A.; Firshman, Anna M.; Quandt, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult.

  5. BEHIND THE DALAI LAMA'S HOLY CLOAK(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Editor's Note:Note:Dalai Lama has been changed so popular these years that it seems he becomes a logo to some extent.But who is the Dalai Lama?Most of people are puzzled.Not long before I read a couple of papers and enjoyed them very much.Maybe our readers are willing to share them and interested them.Here are excerpts from them. The one is from Michael Backman,who is an internationally renowned writer,columnist and speaker.He specializes in writing and speaking about Asia:its economies,politics,business...

  6. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  7. History of the Dalai Lama in Government Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGGUOQING

    2004-01-01

    The Dalai Lama ruled Tibet for prolonged period of time, but this was not the situation in the beginning when the title was created. The religious leader first received the honorific title in the second half of the 16th century, some 100 years later after the death of Gendain Zhuba (later confirmed posthumously as the 1 st Dalai

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites of Lamas in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Jesper; Nissen, Anne Malene; Nees, Ellinor Spörndly;

    %); in the liver: Fasciola hepatica (12 %); in faeces Eimeria spp. (82 %). Pathological changes in the liver were ascribed to be most probably caused by L. chavezi larva migration. The latter species, considered to be the very most pathogenic of all lama GIT nematode species, was also the species detected...

  9. Multivariate analysis of the volumetric capnograph for PaCO2 estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Baker, William L.; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Mittal, Sumit; Watkins, Taylor; Salinas, Jose; Cancio, Leopoldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: End-tidal CO2 (eTCO2) can be used to estimate the arterial CO2 (PaCO2) under steady-state conditions, but that relationship deteriorates during hemodynamic or respiratory instability. We developed a multivariate method to improve our ability to estimate the PaCO2, by using additional information contained in the volumetric capnograph (Vcap) waveform. We tested this approach using data from a porcine model of chest trauma/hemorrhage. Methods: This experiment consisted of 3 stages: pre...

  10. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the communit

  11. Generation of recombinant alpaca VHH antibody fragments for the detection of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Saeger, de T.; Rusanova, T.; Waalwijk, C.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To develop sensor technologies based on genetically engineered recognition elements, recombinant antibodies characterised by high stability are a prerequisite. Here we describe the first successful isolation of recombinant alpaca single-domain antibody fragments with high affinity to the mycotoxin o

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  13. Alianzas paródicas y melancolía en Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, C.C. van

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines Paco Ignacio Taibo II’s detective novels, which narrate communitarian battles against power through parody. The essay hones in on the relationship between parody and melancholy, which are relevant to understand that, in Taibo II’s novels, imagining popular alliances is both enter

  14. Discontinuation of furosemide decreases PaCO(2) in patients with COPD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brijker, F.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the discontinuation of furosemide treatment resulted in a decrease in PaCO(2) and an increase in daytime and nocturnal oxygenation. BACKGROUND: Furosemide is widely prescribed in patients with COPD for the treatment of peripheral edema. It is known that furosemid

  15. The New Physics and Cosmology - Dialogues with the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Arthur; Houshmand, Zara

    2004-03-01

    What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with leading physicists and a historian? This book is the carefully edited record of the fascinating discussions at a Mind and Life conference in which five leading physicists and a historian (David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Arthur Zajonc, Anton Zeilinger, and Tu Weiming) discussed with the Dalai Lama current thought in theoretical quantum physics, in the context of Buddhist philosophy. A contribution to the science-religion interface, and a useful explanation of our basic understanding of quantum reality, couched at a level that intelligent readers without a deep involvement in science can grasp. In the tradition of other popular books on resonances between modern quantum physics and Zen or Buddhist mystical traditions--notably The Dancing Wu Li Masters and The Tao of Physics , this book gives a clear and useful update of the genuine correspondences between these two rather disparate approaches to understanding the nature of reality.

  16. Hubungan Lama Aktivitas Membaca dengan Derajat Miopia pada Mahasiswa Pendidikan Dokter FK Unand Angkatan 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Mutia Maulud Fauziah; Hidayat, M; Julizar .

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakMiopia adalah salah satu kelainan refraksi pada mata dengan prevalensi yang tinggi di dunia. Berbagai faktor yang berhubungan dengan miopia seperti faktor keturunan dan lingkungan. Faktor lingkungan yang berperan kuat adalah kerja dekat seperti membaca. Lama membaca dapat meningkatkan risiko dan progresivitas miopia. Mahasiswa kedokteran berisiko mengalami miopia karena banyak melakukan aktivitas membaca yang lama dan intensif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama ak...

  17. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Stacy H; Mathews, Lindsey A; Firshman, Anna M; Quandt, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  18. Clinical and molecular characterization of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy due to LAMA2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavassini, Bruno F; Carboni, Nicola; Nielsen, Jørgen E;

    2011-01-01

    In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations.......In this study we describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to LAMA2 mutations....

  19. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M;

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...... Vmean and the end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension (PETCO2) decrease, suggesting that PaCO2 contributes to the reduction in MCA Vmean. In a fixed body position, PETCO2 tracks changes in the PaCO2 but when assuming the upright position, cardiac output (Q) decreases and its distribution over the lung changes...

  20. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  1. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project: the spectrally-selected sample

    CERN Document Server

    Bonaldi, Anna; Massardi, Marcella; De Zotti, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) have provided multi-frequency (5-40 GHz) flux density measurements of complete samples of Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with Planck frequency bands, almost simultaneously with Planck observations. In this work we analyse the data in total intensity for the spectrally-selected PACO sample, a complete sample of 69 sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz selected from the AT20G survey catalogue to be inverted or upturning between 5 and 20 GHz. We study the spectral behaviour and variability of the sample. We use the variability between AT20G (2004-2007) and PACO (2009-2010) epochs to discriminate between candidate High Frequency Peakers (HFPs) and candidate blazars. The HFPs picked up by our selection criteria have spectral peaks > 10 GHz in the observer frame and turn out to be rare (200 mJy sources), consistent with the short duration of this phase implied by the `youth' scenario. Most (~ 89 %) of blazar candida...

  2. Is Meeting the Dalai Lama a Bargaining Chip?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Days before the 11th China-EU Summit sched-uled for early December in France,French President Nicolas Sarkozy,who currently holds the rotating presidency of the EU,said that he would meet with the Dalai Lama after the summit.In response,China announced it would postpone the China-EU Summit,a harsh stance that caused an international media frenzy.Why did China throw itself into this unusual rage?Is it because the French Government has infringed upon the bottom line of its national in-terests?Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei spoke to Yan Xuetong,Director of the Institute of International Studies at Tsinghua University,about these questions.

  3. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased.

  4. Evaluation of Lama5 as a candidate for the mouse ragged (Ra) mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Albrechtsen, R; Chambers, D M;

    1998-01-01

    The laminin alpha5 chain is a component of the basement membranes of many developing and adult tissues. The mouse laminin alpha5 chain gene (Lama5) has been mapped close to the locus of the semidominant ragged (Ra) mutation on distal chromosome 2. The cause of the Ra mutation, which is usually...... lethal in the homozygous state, has not been determined. We have investigated whether a defect in Lama5 is responsible for the ragged mutation, using the RaJ strain. No differences in the level of the laminin alpha5 chain transcript were found in placental RNA from homozygous RaJ mutant embryos compared...... to normal littermates. Antiserum raised against a recombinant laminin alpha5 chain polypeptide stained the basement membranes of both normal and homozygous mutant embryos to a similar extent. More precise mapping of Lama5 on an interspecific Ra backcross indicated that Lama5 is proximal to the Ra locus...

  5. LAMA3基因与癌症关系研究进展%Progress of the relationship between LAMA3 gene and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓东

    2016-01-01

    层黏连蛋白是由a、β、γ亚基通过卷曲螺旋域组装而成的异三聚体分子,是构成基底膜的主要成分,能维护基底膜功能,并在调节细胞迁移和机械信号转导、肿瘤侵袭和转移中发挥作用.LAMA3基因编码层黏连蛋白a亚基与癌症的发生关系密切.本文对LAMA3基因和癌症的关系、LAMA3甲基化在癌症发病机制中作用的研究进展作一综述.

  6. A new homozygous nonsense mutation in LAMA3A underlying laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, M; Mozafari, N; Kariminejad, A; Asadikani, Z; Ozoemena, L; McGrath, J A

    2013-12-01

    Laryngo-onycho-cutaneous (LOC) syndrome is a subtype of autosomal recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in which there is prominent skin and mucosal granulation tissue that can lead to delayed wound healing, laryngeal obstruction and blindness. Thus far, all cases are of Punjabi ancestry and have been shown to result from a founder mutation in the LAMA3 gene, notably involving a single nucleotide insertion mutation in exon 39, which is specific to the LAMA3A (designated exon 1 of LAMA3A) and not the LAMA3B1 or LAMA3B2 isoforms. Here, we describe a new pedigree with LOC syndrome. Affected individuals (from Iran) have the characteristic clinicopathological and molecular features of LOC syndrome: prominent granulation tissue (especially affecting the eyes), normal intensity laminin-332 immunostaining at the dermal-epidermal junction, and autosomal recessive mutations in the LAMA3A-specific exon. The pathogenic mutation is a homozygous nonsense mutation, designated p.Gln57X, which just affects the laminin-α3a transcript. These findings therefore expand the molecular basis of LOC syndrome. PMID:23869449

  7. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  8. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  9. A Discussion of the 13th Dalai Lama during the Period from 1910 to 1912

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhongcui

    2014-01-01

    Following the decline of the Qing dynasty and its weak foreign policy , the Tibetan people became gradually dissatisfied with: ( i ) the Qing local administration ’ s lack of progress;( ii) their succumbing to the force of Britain; and ( iii ) their wantonly selling their local benefits . Especially during the time of the 13th Dalai Lama, this kind of mood of dissatisfaction further deep-ened.In order to maintain the benefits of Tibet, the 13th Dalai Lama tried to submit reports directly to the Qing court , and was eager to get the support from the central government of the Qing dynasty . However , this effort did not reach the central gov-ernment due to the barriers created by the royally appointed minister in Tibet . The British army launched a second invasion of Tibet in 1903, and soon occupied Lhasa.To the 13th Dalai Lama’ s disappointment , Youtai, the royal minister in Ti-bet, did not consider the Tibetan ’ s strong anger about the British invasion , but tried to appease the enemy in order to safeguard “peaceful relations”. And, at the same time he framed the 13th Dalai Lama saying“his abandonment of the land became an excuse for the foreign enemy ’ s invasion”. The Qing court then , without making a detailed investigation , announced a decree that abolished Thubten Gyatso ’ s title of Dalai Lama. Since then , misunderstanding between the 13 th Dalai La-ma and the Qing court deepened further , and some upper-class Tibetans even considered leav-ing the Qing . Taking advantage of the Qing ’ s improper attitude towards the 13th Dalai Lama, Britain began officially to carry out a strategy of winning over the heart of the 13th Dalai Lama. In February, 1910, the 13th Dalai Lama leftLhasa and went into exile in India.Britain wasvery happy about the Dalai ’ s arrival in India.The British man with whom the 13th Dalai Lamahad the most contact during his stay in British Indi -a was Charles Alfred Bell, a political officer ofSikkim.Bell noted the

  10. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV—from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO2. Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO2/air mixture (5% CO2, 30% O2 and 65% N2) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO2 (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO2 occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation

  11. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. PMID:25683297

  12. Abnormal development of glomerular endothelial and mesangial cells in mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrass, C K; Berfield, A K; Ryan, M C; Carter, W G; Hansen, K M

    2006-09-01

    Mice with targeted disruption of the lama3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 chain of laminin-5 (alpha3beta3gamma2, 332), develop a blistering skin disease similar to junctional epidermolysis bullosa in humans. These animals also develop abnormalities in glomerulogenesis. In both wild-type and mutant animals (lama3(-/-)), podocytes secrete glomerular basement membrane and develop foot processes. Endothelial cells migrate into this scaffolding and secrete a layer of basement membrane that fuses with the one formed by the podocyte. In lama3(-/-) animals, glomerular maturation arrests at this stage. Endothelial cells do not attenuate, develop fenestrae, or form typical lumens, and mesangial cells (MCs) were not identified. LN alpha3 subunit (LAMA3) protein was identified in the basement membrane adjacent to glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) in normal rats and mice. In developing rat glomeruli, the LAMA3 subunit was first detectable in the early capillary loop stage, which corresponds to the stage at which maturation arrest was observed in the mutant mice. Lama3 mRNA and protein were identified in isolated rat and mouse glomeruli and cultured rat GEnCs, but not MC. These data document expression of LAMA3 in glomeruli and support a critical role for it in GEnC differentiation. Furthermore, LAMA3 chain expression and/or another product of endothelial cells are required for MC migration into the developing glomerulus. PMID:16850021

  13. Progesterone levels in the ovarian, uterine, and systemic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryo mortality was studied in a group of 20 pregnant alpacas. The reproductive organs of the females were monitored by ultrasound examination to determine signs of sustained pregnancy or embryo mortality. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein twice weekly from mating to determine progesterone levels through gestation or until the occurrence of embryo mortality. Ovarian hysterectomy was conducted in four animals at day nine post-mating, in three animals at the time of embryo mortality detection and in two others at day 73 of gestation. Blood samples from the ovarian and uterine veins were collected during the surgery and prior to hysterectomy for progesterone determination. The remnant of embryo membranes and the uterus and ovarian structures were macroscopically examined after surgery. The three cases of embryo mortality occurred at days 19, 40 and 69 of gestation. Progesterone levels were high during the process of embryo mortality. (author)

  14. Progesterone levels in the ovarian uterine and systematic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South American camelids is one the limited options that Peruvian Highland people, has to get economic incomes. It is possible to get fibre, meat, and animals as product from this animal production system; however, reproductive efficiency is not good because birth rate and embryo mortality are around 45-55% and 50%, respectively (Fernandez Baca, 1970). There is not so much information about between age, pathogen agents, and genital tract alterations in relation to embryo mortality. This means that improving genetic programmes or breeding systems cannot fulfil the goals of an efficient production system. New Zealand reports 24% embryo mortality between 21-30 days of gestation (Ridland et al., 1993). According to Boland (2000), there is no relation between peripheral serum levels and ovaryuterus circulation levels of progesterone; so embryo survival would be relational to progesterone levels in the ovarian and uterine veins. In this study we have considered serum progesterone levels, in uterus-ovarian circulation in luteal phase animals compared with early pregnancy and embryo mortality process. Twenty open female alpacas with recorded previous parturitions were used. They were breed with a male when they showed sexual receptivity and was found an 8 mm follicle in any of the ovaries (Bravo, 1999). Ovario-hysterectomy was performed in four animals nine days after breeding to use their serum samples as diestrus references, and the rest (16 animals), ovario-hysterectomy was performed after positive pregnancy diagnosis, that was monitored every other day by ultrasound during gestation or until embryo mortality occurred. There was an ultrasound evaluation of ovaries and uterus from day 15 post breeding until day 90 or when embryo mortality evidences was found. This was considered to have occurred when embryo cardiac beat decreased, embryo motility lost, or suspended particles in foetal fluids apparition. (Adams, 1989; Parraguez,1997). Blood samples were taken from jugular

  15. Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama

    OpenAIRE

    Suhana Johar; Hafsah Yahiya; Adi Irfan Che-Ani; Norngainy Mohd Tawil; Abdul Gaffer Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and highlights the importance parts of a conservation programs, particularly for timber building. Masjid Lama Mulong is one of a remaining cultural heritage experiencing conservation works as to restore the uniqueness of the building and its history that once existed. Made from cengal, one of the famous local hardwoods, however, it is not spared to the threat of decay and deterioration from its agent. In conservation, one of the important stages is to insp...

  16. Laboratory Animal Management Assistant (LAMA): a LIMS for active research colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Marko; Hearty, Taryn; Wong, Tony Y. T.; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Simpson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory Animal Management Assistant (LAMA) is an internet-based system for tracking large laboratory mouse colonies. It has a user-friendly interface with powerful search capabilities that ease day-to-day tasks such as tracking breeding cages and weaning litters. LAMA was originally developed to manage hundreds of new mouse strains generated by a large functional genomics program, the Pleiades Promoter Project (http://www.pleiades.org). The software system has proven to be highly flexible, suitable for diverse management approaches to mouse colonies. It allows custom tagging and grouping of animals, simplifying project-specific handling and access to data. Finally, LAMA was developed in close collaboration with mouse technicians to ease the transition from paper- or Excel-based management systems to computerized tracking, allowing data export in a popular spreadsheet format and automatic printing of cage cards. LAMA is an open-access software tool, freely available to the research community at http://launchpad.net/mousedb. PMID:20411264

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1884 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1884 ref|NP_063902.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Lama pacos] emb|CAC00503.1| NADH2 [Lam...a pacos] emb|CAD98814.1| NADH2 protein [Lama pacos] NP_063902.1 0.026 24% ...

  18. Development and Utilization of Camelid VHH Antibodies from Alpaca for 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bever, Candace R. S.; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRN...

  19. A novel LAMA3 mutation in a newborn with junctional epidermolysis bullosa herlitz type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Garofoli, Francesca; Decembrino, Lidia; Castiglia, Daniele; Tadini, Gianluca; Bellingeri, Andrea; Borghesi, Alessandro; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Manzoni, Paolo; Stronati, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The case of a male neonate of 41 weeks' gestation who developed blistering of the skin immediately after birth is described. His parents were consanguineous Tunisians. Electron microscopy of a cutaneous biopsy showed skin cleavage within the lamina lucida and immunoepitope mapping revealed a complete absence of laminin 332 expression. These findings referred to the diagnosis of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) Herlitz type. The neonate died at 3 months of age due to sepsis. Molecular analysis of laminin 332 chain genes LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 disclosed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in LAMA3 (p.Y955X). Clinical and laboratory analyses are essential for the diagnosis of JEB subtypes, and molecular analysis screening is crucial to manage a new pregnancy in families with suspected cases of JEB. PMID:20881434

  20. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Zubillaga; Oscar Skewes; Nicolás Soto; Jorge E Rabinovich

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matri...

  1. Identification of GABRA1 and LAMA2 as new DNA methylation markers in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunwoo; Oh, Taejeong; Chung, Hyuncheol; Rha, Sunyoung; Kim, Changjin; Moon, Youngho; Hoehn, Benjamin D; Jeong, Dongjun; Lee, Seunghoon; Kim, Namkyu; Park, Chanhee; Yoo, Miae; An, Sungwhan

    2012-03-01

    Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of genes is a common epigenetic phenomenon found in early cancers. Therefore conducting genome-scale methylation studies will enhance our understanding of the epigenetic etiology behind carcinogenesis by providing reliable biomarkers for early detection of cancer. To discover novel hypermethylated genes in colorectal cancer by genome-wide search, we first defined a subset of genes epigenetically reactivated in colon cancer cells after treatment with a demethylating agent. Next, we identified another subset of genes with relatively down-regulated expression patterns in colorectal primary tumors when compared with normal appearing-adjacent regions. Among 29 genes obtained by cross-comparison of the two gene-sets, we subsequently selected, through stepwise subtraction processes, two novel genes, GABRA1 and LAMA2, as methylation targets in colorectal cancer. For clinical validation pyrosequencing was used to assess methylation in 134 matched tissue samples from CRC patients. Aberrant methylation at target CpG sites in GABRA1 and LAMA2 was observed with high frequency in tumor tissues (92.5% and 80.6%, respectively), while less frequently in matched tumor-adjacent normal tissues (33.6% for GABRA1 and 13.4% for LAMA2). Methylation levels in primary tumors were not significantly correlated with clinico-pathological features including age, sex, survival and TNM stage. Additionally, we found that ectopic overexpression of GABRA1 in colon cancer cell lines resulted in strong inhibition of cell growth. These results suggest that two novel hypermethylated genes in colorectal cancer, GABRA1 and LAMA2, may have roles in colorectal tumorigenesis and could be potential biomarkers for the screening and the detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice. PMID:22038115

  2. Dual therapy strategies for COPD: the scientific rationale for LAMA + LABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua S; Miles, Matthew C; Donohue, James F; Ohar, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle with inhaled bronchodilators is the cornerstone of treatment for stable COPD, with inhaled corticosteroids reserved for those with a history of exacerbations. Tiotropium has occupied center stage in COPD treatment for over 10 years and improves lung function, quality of life, exercise endurance, and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) improve lung function, reduce dynamic hyperinflation, increase exercise tolerance, health-related quality of life, and reduce acute exacerbation of COPD. The combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and LABAs is thought to leverage different pathways to induce bronchodilation using submaximal drug doses, increasing the benefits and minimizing receptor-specific side effects. Umeclidinium/vilanterol is the first combination of LAMA/LABA to be approved for use in stable COPD in USA and Europe. Additionally, indacaterol/glycopyrronium and aclidinium/formoterol have been approved in Europe and in numerous locations outside USA. Several other agents are in the late stages of development, most of which offer once-daily dosing. The benefits of new LAMA/LABA combinations include improved pulmonary function, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life, and in some cases, reduced exacerbations. These evolving treatments will provide new opportunities and challenges in the management of COPD. PMID:27143870

  3. Genotype-phenotype correlation in a large population of muscular dystrophy patients with LAMA2 mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh

    2010-04-01

    Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy 1A (MDC1A) results from mutations in the LAMA2 gene. We report 51 patients with MDC1A and examine the relationship between degree of merosin expression, genotype and clinical features. Thirty-three patients had absence of merosin and 13 showed some residual merosin. Compared to the residual merosin group, patients with absent merosin had an earlier presentation (<7days) (P=0.0073), were more likely to lack independent ambulation (P=0.0215), or require enteral feeding (P=0.0099) and ventilatory support (P=0.0354). We identified 33 novel LAMA2 mutations; these were distributed throughout the gene in patients with absent merosin, with minor clusters in exon 27, 14, 25 and 26 (55% of mutations). Patients with residual merosin often carried at least one splice site mutation and less frequently frameshift mutations. This large study identified novel LAMA2 mutations and highlights the role of immunohistochemical studies for merosin status in predicting clinical severity of MDC1A.

  4. Binding of USF to a non-canonical E-box following stress results in a cell-specific derepression of the lama3 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Virolle, Thierry; Coraux, Christelle; Ferrigno, Olivier; Cailleteau, Laurence; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Pognonec, Philippe; Aberdam, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the lama3 gene, encoding the laminin α3A chain, is restricted to specialized epithelia. We previously showed that lama3 gene expression is controlled by an epithelial enhancer through the cooperative effect of AP-1 binding sites. In fibroblasts, there is no lama3 expression because of the recruitment of a repressor complex absent or inactive in epithelial cells. In this paper, we show evidence that this repression of the lama3 gene is relieved by exogenous and UV-induced USF-1 t...

  5. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  6. PETCO2 measured by a new lightweight mainstream capnometer with very low dead space volume offers accurate and reliable noninvasive estimation of PaCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daijiro Takahashi, Takehiko Hiroma, Tomohiko NakamuraDivision of Neonatology, Nagano Children’s Hospital, Nagano, JapanObjective: Although capnometers are widely used in adult and pediatric intensive care units, they are not widely used in neonatal intensive care units due to issues such as the weight of sensors, dead space, and leakage from tracheal intubation tubes. These authors developed a light and low dead space airway adaptor of end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2 and evaluated the correlations between PETCO2 and partial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 in rabbits while changing tidal volume and leakage volume.Methods: Firstly, Japanese rabbits weighing 2 kg were divided into three tidal volumes (6 mL/kg, 10 mL/kg, or 15 mL/kg, and PETCO2 and PaCO2 were measured. Secondly, the respiratory apparatus was set to a tidal volume/body weight ratio of 10 mL/kg, leakage rates were divided into seven groups, and PETCO2  and PaCO2 were measured.Results: PETCO2 and PaCO2 were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.9099, P < 0.0001 when there was no leakage in the tracheal intubation tubes. No significant differences were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (Pa-ETCO2 in the three tidal volume/body weight groups or for groups in which leakage rate was <60%, but significant deviations in Pa-ETCO2 were noted in groups with leakage rate 60%.Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 when tidal volume/body weight ratio was 6–15 mL/kg with leakage rate <60%. Lightweight mainstream capnometer with a low amount of dead space airway adaptor might be useful in very low birth weight infants with small tidal volume.Keywords: capnography, mainstream, neonate

  7. Relevance between TYR and Different Hair Color of Alpaca%酪氨酸酶与羊驼毛色相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 赵英虎; 刘朝亮; 董常生

    2011-01-01

    为揭示羊驼毛色形成机理以及毛用性状改良奠定基础,选用羊驼作为试验动物群体,以酪氨酸酶作为影响羊驼毛色性状的候选基因,采用荧光定量PCR技术、免疫组织化学、免疫印迹等生物学方法从基因与蛋白方面分析了羊驼酪氨酸酶(tyrosinase,TYR)在不同毛色个体的表达量.荧光定量PCR结果显示TYR基因在棕色个体中的mRNA表达量高于白色个体中.免疫印迹实验与免疫组化实验均表明TYR蛋白在棕色个体中的蛋白表达量高于在白色个体中的蛋白表达量.综上,毛色表型与酪氨酸酶的表达量存在相关性,TYR参与调控了毛色色素沉着过程.%The certain biological foundation for the formation mechanism of alpaca hair color and the reforming of color characters were established.Alpaca were used as the experimental animal group.TYR gene was taken as candidate genes affecting the character of alpaca' s hair color.TYR expression quantity were analysed by using several biological methods including quantitative real time PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot.Results of QRT-PCR showed that, TYR gene expressive quantities in brown alpacas were higher than ones in white alpacas.Results of immunohistochemistry and western blot indicated protein expression quantities of TYR in brown alpaca were higher than ones in white alpaca.To sum up, the phenotype of brown and white color and the expression amount of TYR have relevance, TYR participated in regulating and controlling hair pigmentation.

  8. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project: analysis of radio source properties between 5 and 217 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonavera, Laura; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Galluzzi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project has yielded observations of 464 sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) between 4.5 and 40 GHz. The main purpose of the project was to investigate the spectral properties of mm-selected radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with the ESA's Planck satellite frequency bands, minimizing the variability effects by observing almost simultaneously with the first two Planck all-sky surveys. In this paper we present the whole catalogue of observations in total intensity. By comparing PACO with the various measures of Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) flux densities we found the best consistency with the PCCS "detection pipeline" photometry (DETFLUX) that we used to investigate the spectral properties of sources from 5 to 217 GHz. Of our sources, 91% have remarkably smooth spectrum, well described by a double power law over the full range. This suggests a single emitting region, at variance with the notion that "flat" spectra resu...

  9. Hubungan Lama Aktivitas Membaca dengan Derajat Miopia pada Mahasiswa Pendidikan Dokter FK Unand Angkatan 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Maulud Fauziah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMiopia adalah salah satu kelainan refraksi pada mata dengan prevalensi yang tinggi di dunia. Berbagai faktor yang berhubungan dengan miopia seperti faktor keturunan dan lingkungan. Faktor lingkungan yang berperan kuat adalah kerja dekat seperti membaca. Lama membaca dapat meningkatkan risiko dan progresivitas miopia. Mahasiswa kedokteran berisiko mengalami miopia karena banyak melakukan aktivitas membaca yang lama dan intensif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat miopia. Metode studi menggunakan desain cross sectional analitik dengan 121 sampel. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan kuesioner tentang riwayat miopia dan lama membaca. Data dianalisis dengan uji chi-square (x² dengan kemaknaan (p<0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa kejadian miopia lebih banyak terjadi pada mahasiswa perempuan (78.5%. Miopia pertama kali paling banyak terjadi pada usia 13 tahun (19%. Pertambahan ukuran refraksi per tahun pada mahasiswa miopia rata-rata adalah 0.30 D. Sebagian mahasiswa miopia menghabiskan waktu untuk membaca lebih dari 10.7 jam/hari (52.9%, sebagian lagi kurang dari 10.7 jam/hari (47.1%. Mahasiswa miopia sebagian besar menderita miopia ringan. Analisis statistik hubungan lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat miopia didapatkan nilai p=0,15. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara lama aktivitas membaca dengan derajat myopia.Kata kunci: lama membaca, derajat miopiaAbstractMyopia is a refractive error of the eye with a high prevalence in the world. Various factors association with myopia such as heredity and environmental factor. The strongest role an environmental is near work such as reading. Reading time can increase risk and progression of myopia. Medical students have the risk of myopia because of long and intensive reading. This study aimed to determine relationship the duration of reading activities with the degree of myopia. This study used a

  10. Development and utilization of camelid VHH antibodies from alpaca for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Candace R S; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies. PMID:25005746

  11. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China); Dong, Changsheng, E-mail: cs_dong@sxau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China)

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  12. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of α-MSH to stimulate α-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to α-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm2 of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 μM L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of α-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the α-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance α-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete α-MSH to enhance the α-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  13. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), HCO3-, pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO3- and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO2, end-tidal CO2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2, but correlated with arterial HCO3- and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO3- and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

  14. Dual therapy strategies for COPD: the scientific rationale for LAMA + LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Joshua S Cohen,1 Matthew C Miles,2 James F Donohue,3 Jill A Ohar2 1United Lung and Sleep Clinic, Saint Paul, MN, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle with inhaled bronchodilators is the cornerstone of treatment for stable COPD, with inhaled corticosteroids reserved for those with a history of exacerbations. Tiotropium has occupied center stage in COPD treatment for over 10 years and improves lung function, quality of life, exercise endurance, and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs improve lung function, reduce dynamic hyperinflation, increase exercise tolerance, health-related quality of life, and reduce acute exacerbation of COPD. The combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs and LABAs is thought to leverage different pathways to induce bronchodilation using submaximal drug doses, increasing the benefits and minimizing receptor-specific side effects. Umeclidinium/vilanterol is the first combination of LAMA/LABA to be approved for use in stable COPD in USA and Europe. Additionally, indacaterol/glycopyrronium and aclidinium/formoterol have been approved in Europe and in numerous locations outside USA. Several other agents are in the late stages of development, most of which offer once-daily dosing. The benefits of new LAMA/LABA combinations include improved pulmonary function, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life, and in some cases, reduced exacerbations. These evolving treatments will provide new opportunities and challenges in the management of COPD. Keywords: bronchodilator, fixed-dose combination, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD treatment

  15. FRESH COMMENTS ON NEGOTIATION BETWEEN THE 14TH DALAI LAMA AND THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Iwrote for China’s Tibet of the topicbefore, and many of our readerswrote us explaining their under-standing for efforts made by theCentral Government in issues concerningnegotiation with the 14th Dalai Lama.However, the 14th Dalai astonishedthe world by lecturing on October 24,2001 in Strasbourg that he would work on"the Chinese leaders"for"a channel to beexploited,through negotiation with theChinese Government,for the settlementof problems that exist between China andTibet."

  16. 半巢式PCR法构建天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库%Construction of Alpaca-derived Naive Single-domain Antibody Phage Display Library by Semi-nested PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂追; 许杨; 何庆华; 陶勇

    2010-01-01

    目的:构建天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库,淘选可应用于食品安全检测的单域重链抗体.方法:以未经免疫的健康羊驼(Lama pacos)外周血为起始材料,提取RNA反转录为cDNA,根据重链抗体保守序列设计引物,通过半巢式PCR法扩增获得全套重链抗体可变区编码基因,将其克隆至噬菌粒pHEN1,电转化大肠杆菌TG1得到初级抗体库,辅助噬菌体KM13感染后得到噬菌体展示库.采用固相淘选法分别对3种人工抗原进行淘选.结果:单域重链抗体编码基因得到有效扩增,经10次电转化获得初级文库,命名为SNAL,实际库容量达到1.6×107个独立克隆,菌落PCR鉴定结果表明,克隆效率约为87%,辅助噬菌体救援后得到的展示文库命名为SNA-PDL,滴度达1013CFU/mL.对3种不同人工抗原DON-MBSA、NOR-BSA和AFB1-OVA的淘选均有富集现象.结论:构建了天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库,文库的多样性较好,可以用于后续淘选.

  17. PENGARUH LAMA DAN CARA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN KANDUNGAN AFLATOKSIN PADA GAPLEK DI RUMAH TANGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukati Saidin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoksin yang mencemari makanan dapat menyebabkan timbulnya kanker hati. Gaplek merupakan salah satu komoditi yang dapat tercemar aflatoksin. Ada beberapa daerah di Indonesia yang menggunakan gaplek sebagai makanan pokok. Karena gaplek pada umumnya disimpan sampai panen berikutnya maka ada peluang untuk tercemar aflatoksin. Karena itu perlu diteliti sampai berapa jauh pencemaran aflatoksin pada gaplek. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama dan cara penyimpanan terhadap cemaran aflatoksin pada gaplek.Gaplek yang sudah dikeringkan dengan cara yang lazim dilakukan di daerah dengan makanan pokok gaplek dibagi menjadi 3 bagian. Bagian pertama disimpan di lantai semen terbuka, bagian kedua disimpan dalam bakul terbuka dan bagian ketiga di simpan dalam karung goni yangdiikat. Analisa kandungan aflatoksin dan kadar air gaplek dilakukan pada permulaan dan 4, 8, 12, 16 dan 20 minggu dalam penyimpanan.Perkembangan cemaran aflatoksin gaplek dalam penyimpanan ini mengungkapkan makin lama gaplek disimpan makin tinggi kadar aflatoksinnya. Rata-rata kadar air gaplek selama penyimpanan berkisar antara 13,1% sampai 14,0%. Gaplek yang disimpan di lantai menunjukkan kandungan aflatoksin tertinggi, diikuti oleh gaplek yang disimpan dalam bakul dan dalam karung.Hasil penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa sampai waktu panen berikutnya sekitar 10 bulan, kandungan aflatoksin gaplek yang disimpan di dalam karung diikat belum mencapai taraf yang menbahayakan kesehatan.

  18. PENGARUH LAMA PERENDAMAN TERHADAP EFISIENSI SEL SURYA TERSENSITISASI DYE DARI TINTA SOTONG DAN EKSTRAK TEH HITAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Choirul Umam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya merupakan energy alternatif yang sangat berpotensi untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu jenis sel surya adalah sel surya organic yang menggunakan elektrolit sebagai medium transport muatan dan dye sebagai penyerap sinar matahari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi lama perendaman dalam dye hasil ekstraksi teh hitam dan tinta sotong terhadap efisiensi sel surya dan mengetahui efisiensi sel surya tersensitisasi dye dengan menggunakan kaca TCO. Pembuatan Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC diawali dengan menyiapkan elektroda yang dibuat dari nanokristal TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada substrat kaca konduktif, yang kemudian direndam dalam dye. Sedangkan elektroda lawan dibuat dengan cara melapiskan grafit pensil pada kaca konduktif. Sel surya dibentuk dengan struktur sandwich dimana dua substrat kaca konduktif mengapit komponen- komponen dari DSSC. Lama perendaman sel surya dalam dye mempengaruhi voltase dan arus keluaran. Daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye teh hitam sebesar    8,85 x 10-8  W dan 8,5 x 10-3  %. Sedangkan daya dan efisiensi maksimum yang dihasilkan menggunakan dye tinta sotong sebesar 23,4 x 10-8 W dan 23,19 x 10-3 %.

  19. Detection of novel LAMA3 mutation in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in a Jordanian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Eman F; Battah, Hamdi A; Akl, Kamal F; Khalil, Raida W; Al Amori, Iyad

    2013-08-01

    The Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) subtype usually presents as a severe lethal inherited variant of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) caused by a homozygous mutation in the genes LAMA3, LMAB3, or LAMAC3. Each gene encodes one of the three chains of heterotrimer laminin-332 proteins (including the alpha-3 chain, beta-3 chain and gamma-2-chain) responsible for the adherence of the epidermis to the underlying dermis. The aim of this report is to add to the existing knowledge about EB by describing a novel mutation in a gene responsible for genodermatosis. A case of a Jordanian male neonate, born to healthy, first cousin consanguineous parents, who developed nonhealing blistering skin and mucous membrane lesions, crusted erosions with significant granulation tissue and dystrophic nails immediately after birth is described. The patient was diagnosed as having a novel LAMA3 mutation causing (H-JEB) by immunofluorescence mapping and molecular analysis. Both parents and this baby's sibling were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. Pre-implantation diagnosis using molecular analysis for subsequent pregnancies in this family is crucial for managing any new pregnancy. PMID:22963541

  20. Pengaruh Upright Position Terhadap Lama Kala I Fase Aktif pada Primigravida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaflindawati ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak  Angka Kematian Ibu (AKI di Indonesia 5,2 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Malaysia dan 2,4 kali lebih tinggi dibanding dengan Thailand.  Survey Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI mencatat bahwa partus lama merupakan penyebab kesakitan dan kematian maternal dan perinatal utama disusul oleh perdarahan, panas tinggi dan eklampsia.Sebagai bentuk penerapan asuhan sayang ibu disarankan melakukan mobilisasi saat persalinan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuktikan pengaruh uprigh position terhadap lama persalinan kala I fase aktif pada ibu primigravida (hamil pertama. Telah dilakukan penelitian observasional dengan desain cross sectional terhadap 38orang  yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu 19 orang dengan kelompok upright dan 19 orang dengan kelompok berbaring, dengan pengambilan sampel secara consecutive sampling kemudian diamati dan dihitung rerata lama persalinan kala I fase aktif. Data dianalisis dengan uji statistik menggunakan uji t independent dan hasilnya terdapatperbedaan yang signifikan dengan nilai p< 0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata lama persalinan kala I fase aktif dengan upright position adalah 161,05 ± 40,26 menit dan untuk posisi berbaring adalah  263,68 ± 39,47  menit. Hasil uji statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan dengan  nilai  p< 0,05. Kesimpulan studi ini ialah upright position dapat mempercepat proses persalinan kala I fase aktif pada primigravida.Kata kunci: posisi berdiri, posisi berbaring, fase aktif, lama persalinan, primigravidaAbstract Maternal mortality rate (MMR in Indonesia is 5.2 times higher than that of Malaysia, and 2.4 times higher than Thailand. Indonesian Health Demographic Survey (IHDS recorded that neglected labor is the main cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, followed by bleeding, high fever and eclampsia. As a form of implementing maternal loving care, prospective mothers were encouraged to perform activities such as walking, standing, moving

  1. Beyond lung function in COPD management : effectiveness of LABA/LAMA combination therapy on patient-centred outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Thys; Cazzola, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Bronchodilators are central to the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical studies combining different classes of bronchodilators, in particular a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and a long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA), have demonstrated greater improvements in

  2. Novel sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes modulating cis-acting regulatory elements and RNA secondary structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Siala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we detected new sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes in 5 ethnic populations, and analysed their effect on enhancer composition and mRNA structure. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were performed and followed by bioinformatics analyses using ESEfinder as well as MFOLD software. We found 3 novel sequence variations in the LAMA2 (c.3174+22_23insAT and c.6085 +12delA and SGCG (c.*102A/C genes. These variations were present in 210 tested healthy controls from Tunisian, Moroccan, Algerian, Lebanese and French populations suggesting that they represent novel polymorphisms within LAMA2 and SGCG genes sequences. ESEfinder showed that the c.*102A/C substitution created a new exon splicing enhancer in the 3'UTR of SGCG genes, whereas the c.6085 +12delA deletion was situated in the base pairing region between LAMA2 mRNA and the U1snRNA spliceosomal components. The RNA structure analyses showed that both variations modulated RNA secondary structure. Our results are suggestive of correlations between mRNA folding and the recruitment of spliceosomal components mediating splicing, including SR proteins. The contribution of common sequence variations to mRNA structural and functional diversity will contribute to a better study of gene expression.

  3. Effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen balance in neurosurgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍洋; 王强; 熊利泽; 胡胜; 曾祥龙

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen supply/consumption balance during craniotomy for removal of tumors, and to explore an anesthetic technique for neurosurgery and an appropriate degree of PaCO2 during neuroanesthesia. Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients with supratentorial tumors for elective craniotomy, ASA grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ, were randomly allocated to six groups. Patients were anesthetized with continuous intravenous infusion of 2% procaine 1.0 mg*kg-1*min-1 in Group Ⅰ, inhalation of 1.0%-1.5% isoflurane in Group Ⅱ, and infusion of 2% procaine 0.5 mg*kg-1*min-1 combined with inhalation of 0.5%-0.7% isoflurane in Group Ⅲ during the period of study. The end-tidal pressure of CO2 (PET CO2 )was maintained at 4.0 kPa in these 3 groups. In Group Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ, the anesthetic technique was the same as that in Group Ⅰ but the PETCO2 was adjusted to 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 kPa respectively for 60 min during which the study was performed. The radial arterial and retrograde jugular venous blood samples were obtained at the onset and the end of this study for determining jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and cerebral extraction of oxygen (CEO2). Results: In Group Ⅰ and Ⅲ SjvO2, AVDO2 and CEO2 remained stable. Although SjvO2 kept constant, AVDO2 and CEO2 decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group Ⅱ. Moreover, AVDO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅱ were significantly lower than those of Group Ⅲ (P<0.05). In Group Ⅳ, 60 min after hyperventilation, SjvO2 and jugular venous oxygen content(CjvO2) decreased markedly (P<0.01) while CEO2 increased significantly (P<0.01). In addition, SjvO2, CjvO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅳ were significantly different from the corresponding parameters in Group Ⅴ and Group Ⅵ (P<0.05). In view of sustained excessive hyperventilation, SjvO2 was less than 50% in 37.5% patients of Group Ⅳ. Conclusion: Anesthesia with

  4. Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama Defects Investigation in Old Timber Building: Case Study of Masjid Lama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Johar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and highlights the importance parts of a conservation programs, particularly for timber building. Masjid Lama Mulong is one of a remaining cultural heritage experiencing conservation works as to restore the uniqueness of the building and its history that once existed. Made from cengal, one of the famous local hardwoods, however, it is not spared to the threat of decay and deterioration from its agent. In conservation, one of the important stages is to inspect and investigate defects, as to assure the implementations of appropriate improvements are made accordance with the conditions and the state of deteriorations. In this part, some of the important features of the investigators should take into account before any investigation is made. From the overall investigation, defects are mostly caused by mechanical and biological category. Decay due to termite attacks and soft rot are among the highest rank which is mostly found contributed for the seriousness deterioration due to the presence of dampness.

  5. Functional respiratory imaging to assess the interaction between systemic roflumilast and inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos W

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wim Vos,1 Bita Hajian,2 Jan De Backer,1 Cedric Van Holsbeke,1 Samir Vinchurkar,1 Rita Claes,2 Annemie Hufkens,2 Paul M Parizel,3 Lieven Bedert,4 Wilfried De Backer2 1FLUIDDA nv, Groeningenlei, Kontich, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat, Edegem, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, ZNA Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium Background: Patients with COPD show a significant reduction of the lobar hyperinflation at the functional residual capacity level in the patients who improved >120 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after 6 months of treatment with roflumilast in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs/long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs.Methods: Functional respiratory imaging was used to quantify lobar hyperinflation, blood vessel density, ventilation, aerosol deposition, and bronchodilation. To investigate the exact mode of action of roflumilast, correlations between lobar and global measures have been tested using a mixed-model approach with nested random factors and Pearson correlation, respectively.Results: The reduction in lobar hyperinflation appears to be associated with a larger blood vessel density in the respective lobes (t=−2.154, P=0.040; lobes with a higher percentage of blood vessels reduce more in hyperinflation in the responder group. Subsequently, it can be observed that lobes that reduce in hyperinflation after treatment are better ventilated (t=−5.368, P<0.001. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI-based aerosol deposition showed that enhanced ventilation leads to more peripheral particle deposition of ICS/LABA/LAMA in the better-ventilated areas (t=2.407, P=0.024. Finally, the study showed that areas receiving more particles have increased FRI-based bronchodilation (t=2.564, P=0.017, leading to an increase in FEV1 (R=0.348, P=0.029.Conclusion: The study demonstrated that orally administered

  6. Noninvasive ventilation for hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD and initial post-support deterioration of pH and PaCO2 may not predict failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Raj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To correlate the degree of encephalopathy, baseline values of PaCO2 and pH, and their early response to NIV with eventual in-hospital outcome in patients of severe acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD. Design: Retrospective review. Setting: Intensive care unit. Material and methods: 24 episodes of acute exacerbation of COPD in 17 patients (10 females, 7 males with a mean age of 59.5 years (range 48 - 82 where NIV was initiated. Data collected: encephalopathy score at baseline and at 24 hours, respiratory rate, breathing pattern, serial arterial blood gases, duration of NIV support per day and hospital days. Results: All patients had severe hypercapnia (mean peak PaCO2 89.0 mm Hg ± 21; range 66-143, respiratory acidosis (mean nadir pH 7.24 ± 0.058, range 7.14 - 7.33 and tachypnoea (mean respiratory rate 29.5 ± 4.69/mt; range 24 - 40. In 17 episodes, altered mental state was present (encephalopathy score 1.92 ± 1.32, median 2.5. Clinically stable condition occurred over several days (mean 13± 9.6 days; range 5 - 40. Intubation was avoided in 22 out of 24 episodes (91.6% despite significant initial worsening of PaCO2 and pH. Two patients died. The mean time on NIV was16.5 hours/day (range 4 - 22. Conclusions: In selected patients of COPD with acute hypercapnic failure on NIV worsening PaCO2 and pH in the initial hours may not predict failure provided the level of consciousness and respiratory distress improve.

  7. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  8. Pengaruh Variasi Lama Waktu Hidrogenasi terhadap Pembentukan Metal Hidrida pada Paduan MgAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arif Pradana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paduan berbasis magnesium (Mg merupakan salah satu paduan yang dapat digunakan sebagai Hydrogen Storage Material. Pemaduan Magnesium dengan aluminium bertujuan untuk menurunkan energi aktivasi proses reaksi hidrogen dengan paduan Mg-Al. Paduan Mg-Al dengan komposisi Mg-42 at.% Al disintesa melalui proses milling dengan waktu 40 jam yang menghasilkan solid solution MgAl. Serbuk hasil milling disintering dengan temperatur 600oC dengan holding time selama 2 jam dalam lingkungan argon sehingga terbentuk fase Mg17Al12. Serbuk Mg17Al12 kemudian dihidrogenasi pada tekanan 1MPa, temperatur 4000C dengan variasi lama waktu hidrogenasi 1, 2 , dan 3 jam. Analisis difraksi sinar-X mengidentifikasi adanya faseMgH2 dengan perkiraan % wt sebesar  1.242%, 3.082% dan 4.2% setelah dilakukan proses hidrogenasi selama 1 , 2 dan 3 jam.

  9. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  10. Movimientos anti-mineros: el caso de Pascua-Lama en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Urkidi Azkarraga, Leire

    2008-01-01

    En los últimos años, el aumento de proyectos de minería aurífera en América Latina ha dado lugar a toda una serie de protestas comunitarias englobadas en la consigna del “NO a la minería de oro”. El conflicto de Pascua-Lama, en el chileno Valle del Huasco, fue estudiado durante cuatro meses de trabajo de campo dentro de la metodología de Investigación-Acción. A partir de aquí, se analizaron los intereses y valores defendidos por los actores involucrados en el conflicto así como sus respectiva...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08552-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CING IN PROGRESS *** f... 48 0.57 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WO...RKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC231687 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-302G14, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 (....57 1 ( AC229617 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-435F5, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226638 ) Lama pacos cl...one CH246-281G15, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226637 ) Lama pacos clone C... 1 ( CU462853 ) Pig DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 46 2.3 1 ( AC232180 ) Lama pacos clone

  12. Temel Bağlama Öğretiminde Kullanılmakta Olan ve Önerilen Tezene Tekniğinin Öğrencilerin Bağlama Çalma Becerilerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar, Servet

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırma, bağlama öğretiminin temel aşamasına ilişkin olarak hazırlanan ‘Temel Bağlama Öğretiminde Kullanılmakta Olan ve Önerilen Tezene Tekniği’ şeklinde ifade edilen iki tezene öğretim tekniğinin karşılaştırmalı sonuçlarını içermektedir. Araştırma kapsamında öncelikle literatür taramasına gidilmiş ve bu doğrultuda hazırlıklar yapılmıştır. Üniversitelerin müzik birimlerinde bağlama dersi veren uzman öğreticilere uygulanan anket sonuçları doğrultusunda ‘Kullanılmakta Olan Tezene Tekniğ...

  13. Partial deletion of the LAMA3 gene is responsible for hereditary junctional epidermolysis bullosa in the American Saddlebred Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, K T; Henney, P J; Ennis, R B

    2009-02-01

    Laminin 5 is a heterotrimeric basement membrane protein integral to the structure and function of the dermal-epidermal junction. It consists of three glycoprotein subunits: the alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains, which are encoded by the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes respectively. A mutation in any of these genes results in the condition known as hereditary junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). A 6589-bp deletion spanning exons 24-27 was found in the LAMA3 gene in American Saddlebred foals born with the skin-blistering condition epitheliogenesis imperfecta. The deletion confirms that this autosomal recessive condition in the American Saddlebred Horse can indeed be classified as JEB and corresponds to Herlitz JEB in humans. A diagnostic test was developed and nine of 175 randomly selected American Saddlebred foals from the 2007 foal crop were found to be carriers of the mutation (frequency of 0.026). PMID:19016681

  14. PENGARUH KETEBALAN IRISAN DAN LAMA PEREBUSAN (BLANCHING TERHADAP GAMBARAN MAKROSKOPIS DAN KADAR MINYAK ATSIRI SIMPLISIA DRINGO (Acorus calamus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa simplisia perlu mengalami proses seperti perajangan dan blanching. Perajangan dilakukan untuk mempermudah proses pengeringan, pengepakan dan penggilingan. Semakin tipis bahan yang dikeringkan, semakin cepat penguapan air yang dikandung, sehingga mempercepat waktu pengeringan. Namun irisan yang terlalu tipis menyebabkan zat yang mudah menguap seperti minyak atsiri akan berkurang kadarnya, sehingga mempengaruhi komposisi, bau dan rasa terutama pada simplisia seperti temu lawak, temu giring, jahe, kencur dan bahan sejenis lainnya. Perebusan (blanching adalah suatu proses pemanasan yang diberikan kepada bahan mentah selama beberapa menit  pada  suhu  air  mendidih yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas produk yang diolah. Rimpang tanaman ini secara empiris digunakan sebagai insektisida, demam nifas, karminatif. disentri dan limpa bengkak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh ketebalan irisan dan lama perebusan (blanching terhadap gambaran makroskopis dan kadar minyak atsiri simplisia dringo (Acorus calamus L. Sebagai model digunakan Acorus calamus L. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap menggunakan 2 faktor perlakuan, yaitu faktor pertama ketebalan irisan (K. yaitu K1 =2 mm, K2 =4 mm. K3 = 6 mm dan lama blanching (B yaitu BO = tanpa blanching, B 1 = 5 menit dan B2 = 10 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kualitas (warna, bentuk permukaan dan tekstur simplisia dan kadar minyak atsiri rimpang dringo. Simplisia dengan ketebalan irisan 2 mm tanpa perlakuan blanching menghasilkan minyak atsiri lebih tinggi (4,5% dengan kualitas simplisia yang lebih baik (warna putih kekuningan, permukaan rata dan tekstur liat, mudah dipatahkan sedangkan yang hasil terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan ketebalan irisan 2 mm dengan perlakuan lama blanching 10 menit yaitu  warna simplisia coklat, keadaan fisik irisan bergelombang, permukaan keras, sukar dipatahkan dengan kadar minyak atsiri (2%. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa tebal

  15. Gambaran Status Yodium Pada Ibu Hamil Di Desa Lama, Desa Baru Dan Desa Hulu Kecamatan Pancur Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Mhd. Syahputra

    2008-01-01

    Gangguan akibat kekurangan yodium merupakan kumpulan gejala yang dapat ditimbulkan oleh karena tubuh menderita kekurangan yodium dalam waktu yang lama. Akibat dan kekurangan yodium ini dapat terjadi mulai dan ibu hamil yang melahirkan bayi kretinism sampai gangguan psikoneurologis yang lebih rendah. Indonesia adalah suatu negara dengan prevalensi tinggi dan gangguan defesiensi yodium. Oleh sebab itu pada tahun 1993 Indonesia telah menetapkan program yodisasi garam tingkat nasional akan tetapi...

  16. Targeted Disruption of the LAMA3 Gene in Mice Reveals Abnormalities in Survival and Late Stage Differentiation of Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Maureen C.; Lee, Keesook; Miyashita, Yuko; Carter, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins α6β4 and α3β1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the α3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all α3-laminin isoforms from epithelial B...

  17. The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2013-05-01

    In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (Pviscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (Pviscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation. PMID:23537479

  18. KETIKA KEBIJAKAN ORDE LAMA MEMASUKI DOMAIN PENDIDIKAN: PENYIAPAN DAN KINERJA GURU SEKOLAH DASAR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasih Umasih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals how the educational policy in Indonesia during The Old Order. The domination of government (Soekarno as expressed in the domination theory by Antonio Gramsci which a politic is a commander and it can dominate whole Indonesia society life including an educational aspect. Furthermore, Soekarno as an individual manivesto has given a space for PKI because of their closeness. When the Minister, Prijono, issued a decision concerning about Pancawardhana Educational System, The Institution of National Education which is affiliated by PKI giving a formulation of Pancacinta. An education in the political manifesto obliges teachers enter into a practical politics life, teachers have to be revolutionary . It means that the learning practice is given toward students through indoctrination.  No less than 2000 teachers in the East java and the Cental Java finally became PKI members, then about  580 teachers of elementary school from the West Java. Even PKI has succeeded to divide the organization of teacher’s membership into The Cental Vak PGRI and  non Vak Central PGRI. Keywords : The Old Order, The Pacawardhana Educational System, the performance of elementary teachers.  Artikel ini mengungkapkan bagaimana kebijakan pendidikan Indonesia pada masa Orde Lama. Dominasi pemerintah (Soekarno seperti diungkapkan dalam teori  dominasi oleh ntonio Gramsci di mana politik adalah panglima dan dapat mendominasi segala kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia termasuk dalam bidang pendidikan. Tidak hanya itu, Presiden Soekarno sebagai manivesto perseorangan  juga  telah  memberi ruang gerak pada PKI karena kedekatan hubungannya dengan Presiden Soekarno.  Ketika Menteri Prijono mengeluarkan keputusan tentang Sistem Pendidikan Pancawardhana, Lembaga Pendidikan Nasional yang berafiliasi dengan PKI memberi rumusan tentang Pancacinta. Pendidikan dalam alam manipol mengharuskan guru terjun dalam kehidupan politik praktis, guru harus revolusioner yang

  19. Non satellite veins in the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, G H; Ríos, C M; Rodríguez Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C L

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the major differences in the venous system of the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama) and that of other mammals, including humans. Eight adult llamas, preserved by means of 6% formalin solution at 0 degrees C, were dissected. The venous system was perfused with a solution of 17% coloured industrial gelatin. Two venous systems are recognised, superficial and deep. The veins of the deep system follow the same course as the arteries, except for two important veins located in the femoral, popliteal and crural regions. A more voluminous vein than the femoral originates in a venous tripod in the proximal part of the femoral canal and forms an anastomosis with the femoral vein distally. The popliteal vein gives off an expansion located along the popliteal region. In the leg, it continues with a vein that accompanies the tibial nerve and forms an anastomosis distally with the medial saphenous vein. The described venous distribution represents an interesting complement to the medial saphenous, popliteal and femoral veins, being more important than the last one for its volume. In the thigh it would correspond to the deep femoral vein as in humans and dogs; the homology in the popliteal and leg regions is too difficult because it probably corresponds to the caudal tibial vein of the human, the caudal branch of the medial saphenous vein, and the satellite vein of the tibial nerve in the horse. PMID:10456991

  20. Víctor Mercante y su proyecto educativo: Reforma de Saavedra-Lamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa I. Alonso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que es posible pensar la historia de la educación como un camino para lograr reconstruir la producción y circulación de ideas de una determinada época, el presente trabajo tiene como objeto no solo iniciar el estudio de un pedagogo como lo es Víctor Mercante [1870-1934] involucrado en la educación argentina de finales del Siglo XIX y principios del XX-sino comenzar a recorrer una trayectoria profesional permeada de las discusiones y debates de la época. Mercante aporta una mirada que presenta aspectos innovadores en clave de un período histórico determinado rico por el abanico de perspectivas culturales que en él se concentran. Con este objeto hemos trabajado en el análisis del contenido de la reforma educativa Saavedra-Lamas de la cual es mentor y en su sustento teórico, a partir del propio pensamiento de Mercante y de las condiciones en las que la misma fue implementada y en las que fue derogada. La intención final es alcanzar una explicación que de cuenta de las condiciones de la relación entre corrientes y tradiciones intelectuales, fuerzas políticas y actores sociales en el marco de un proceso de reforma educativa

  1. Binding of USF to a non-canonical E-box following stress results in a cell-specific derepression of the lama3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolle, Thierry; Coraux, Christelle; Ferrigno, Olivier; Cailleteau, Laurence; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Pognonec, Philippe; Aberdam, Daniel

    2002-04-15

    Expression of the lama3 gene, encoding the laminin alpha3A chain, is restricted to specialized epithelia. We previously showed that lama3 gene expression is controlled by an epithelial enhancer through the cooperative effect of AP-1 binding sites. In fibroblasts, there is no lama3 expression because of the recruitment of a repressor complex absent or inactive in epithelial cells. In this paper, we show evidence that this repression of the lama3 gene is relieved by exogenous and UV-induced USF-1 through its interaction with a non-canonical E-box site. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we find that UV stress induces USF to bind to the lama3 promoter in vivo. We further demonstrate that this loss of cell specificity is directly related to the accessibility of the E-box, resulting in a strong induction in fibroblasts, while expression remains constitutively high in keratinocytes. This accessibility appears to be dependent upon the recruitment of a fibroblastic repressor complex. Therefore, we speculate that anchorage of this repressor complex in fibroblasts modifies the enhancer geometry, allowing USF to interact under stress-inducing conditions with its heptameric binding site. PMID:11937633

  2. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence.

    Organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively, and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles.

    Water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the

  3. Characterization and Selection of 3-(1-Naphthoyl)-Indole Derivative-Specific Alpaca VHH Antibodies Using a Phage Display Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Murakami, Akikazu; Yoshida, Maiko; Muraoka, Jin; Wakai, Junko; Kenjyou, Noriko; Ito, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    A new alpaca VHH antibody library against 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives was developed from alpaca immunized with 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Hep-KLH) protein conjugates as the immunogen. From this library, two 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivative-specific clones, named NN01 and NN02, were isolated using biopanning technology. The binding specificity of these clones was confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Based on the results of c-ELISA, a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of these two VHH antibodies, NN01 and NN02, in the case of 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid (Hep; one of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives) as an inhibitor exhibited an approximate 3 × 10(-7) M and 6 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Thus, VHH antibodies produced in this study could be considered a useful tool for the detection of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives. PMID:27556911

  4. Review of Research Progress on the Related Genes with the Coat Color of Alpaca%羊驼毛色相关基因研究进展的综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸文达; 杨川

    2012-01-01

    羊驼毛纤维颜色丰富,具有22种天然色,与其他哺乳动物一样,主要由遗传基因决定。掌握控制羊驼毛色基因的改变,可以有效地控制羊驼毛色的转变。哺乳动物的毛色表型与动物体内黑色素的种类、数量、合成及分布有关。在羊驼皮肤组织中,Agouti基因、MC1R基因、酪氨酸酶基因家族、KIT基因、AIF基因、β-catenin基因、Wnt3α基因、Mitf-M基因、EDNRA基因、EDNRB基因、CDK5基因、PRS5基因、P基因及花斑突变都参与羊驼毛色的形成与调控。综述了羊驼毛色相关基因的研究进展。%The hair fiber color of alpaca,with 22 natural colors, is mainly determined by heredity gene like other mammals . To master and control the changes the hair color genes of alpaca could effectively regulate the changes of hair colors of alpaca. The hair phenotypes of mammals are related to the types, amount,composition and distribution of melanin in animals. In the skin tissue of alpaca, Agouti gene ,MC1R gene, tyrosine gene family, KIT gene ,A1F gene ,~-catenin gene, Wnt3et gene ,Mitf-M gene ,EDNRA gene ,EDNRB gene, CDK5 gene, PRS5 gene, P gene and piebaldness mutation all participated in the formation and regulation of alpaca hair color.

  5. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa: prenatal exclusion in a fetus at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J A; Kivirikko, S; Ciatti, S; Moss, C; Dunnill, G S; Eady, R A; Rodeck, C H; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J

    1995-09-01

    Mutations in the three genes (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2) that encode the three chains (alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, respectively) of laminin 5, a protein involved in epidermal-dermal adhesion, have been established as the genetic basis for the inherited blistering skin disorder, Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a child with H-JEB and identified a nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene (LAMA3) consisting of a homozygous C-to-T transition resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA-->TGA) on both alleles. The parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. Direct mutation analysis was used to perform DNA-based prenatal diagnosis from a chorionic villus biopsy at 10 weeks' gestation in a subsequent pregnancy. The fetus was predicted to be genotypically normal with respect to the LAMA3 mutation. PMID:8530087

  6. 羊驼皮肤中可溶性鸟苷酸环化酶的表达差异%The Different Expression of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase in Alpaca Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊珍; 范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 石占全; 姬凯元; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the function of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in alpaca skin and coat color regulation,differential expression of sGC in skin of brown versus white alpacas was examined using quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR),Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Expression of sGC mRNA was lower (0.16 fold) in skin samples from brown alpacas relative to expression in skin of white alpacas with significant difference (P<0.01).Using a rabbit polyclonal sGC antibody,an immune reactive band corresponding to sGC was detected by Western blotting analysis in skin samples from white and brown alpacas,showing a weaker signal detected in the samples from brown alpacas with significant difference (P<0.01).The results of immunohistochemistry revealed that sGC was localized in the cytoplasm and intercellular substance of upper hair papilla in hair follicles of alpacas with white hair color,but was localized in ytoplasm and intercellular substance of lower hair bulb and outer root sheath cells in hair follicles of alpacas with brown hair color.Observed differential expression and localization of sGC in skin of white versus brown alpacas suggests a potential role in hair color regulation.%采用免疫组织化学、实时荧光定量PCR和Western blotting对可溶性鸟苷酸环化酶(sGC)在棕色和白色羊驼皮肤中的表达差异进行了研究,以探讨sGC在羊驼皮肤中的作用.实时荧光定量PCR结果显示,sGC在棕色羊驼皮肤中的相对表达量较低,是其在白色羊驼皮肤中的表达量的0.16倍,且差异极显著(P<0.01);Western blotting结果显示,在羊驼皮肤总蛋白中含有与兔多克隆抗体发生免疫阳性反应的条带,在棕色皮肤中的反应阳性弱于白色皮肤,且差异极显著(P<0.01);免疫组织化学结果表明,sGC免疫阳性主要分布在白色羊驼皮肤毛囊的毛球上方细胞及细胞间质,而在棕色羊驼皮肤毛囊中,sGC免疫阳性主要分布在毛球底部和外根鞘细胞及

  7. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department)

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani Paredes, Javier; Condemayta Condemayta, Zacarias; Calle Charaja, Leoncio

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de ...

  8. Pärnu mudaravila restaureerimine ja juurdeehitus = Restoration and extension of the Pärnu mud baths / Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teedumäe, Tarmo, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Restaureeritud ja uue juurdeehitusega Pärnu mudaravila Ranna puiestee 1, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Inga Raukas, Arhitektuuriagentuur, Allianss Arhitektid. Sisearhitektid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari (Vaikla Stuudio). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  9. Analysis and Evaluation of the Components and Flavouring Substances in Alpaca Meat%羊驼肉成分分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋华; 李鹏飞; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    为分析羊驼肉营养成分、矿物质元素及维生素,采集9头羊驼肉,用常规方法测定常量营养素,等离子体发射光谱法分析矿物元素,氨基酸分析法测定氨基酸,高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定维生素.结果显示,羊驼肉蛋白质含量高,占原样基础的25.6%;矿物质含量为1.9%、尤以钾、磷和钠含量最多,钙、镁、锌含量也较高;维生素含量丰富,其中VC含量最高,脂溶性VE含量也较高;羊驼肉中舍有17种氨基酸,其中7种人体必需氨基酸(赖氨酸、苯丙氨酸、蛋氨酸、苏氨酸、异亮氨酸、亮氨酸、缬氨酸)占肌肉(干样)总量的31.64%,4种鲜味氨基酸(谷氨酸、丙氨酸、甘氨酸和天冬氨酸)占肌肉(干样)总量的31.61%,谷氨酸含量高达13.12%,赖氨酸含量较高(7.47%),缺乏色氨酸,是一种优质的肉类资源.%In order to analyze the nutritional components,mineral elements and the vitamine content of the Alpaca Meat.The raw meat was collected from the nine white Alpaca; Macronutrients was detected by routine methods ; Mineral elements were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mission spectrometry; Amino acid was detected by amino acid analyzer;the Vitamine was analysed by HPLC.The result displayed,Alpaca meat protein content was high,accounting for 25.6%(original sample) ; Mineral content was 1.9%,most especially in potassium,phosphorus and sodium,calcium,magnesium,zinc content were also higher; Vitamin content was rich,the highest content of VC,fat-soluble VE content were also higher; Alpaca meat contains 17 kinds of amino acids,of which 7 kinds of essential amino acid (lysine,phenylalanine,methionine,threonine,isoleucine,leucine,valine) accounted for 31.64% (dry sample),four kinds of umami amino acid (glutamic acid,alanine,glycine and aspartic acid) accounted for 31.61% (dry sample) ; Especially the glutamate content as high as 13.12%,lysine content was higher (7.47%),lacking of tryptophan.So that it

  10. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively. The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly

  11. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLD388 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6055249 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 40 0.50 2 ( AC232784 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-216B4, WORKING ...DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC19251

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12230-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EU159113 |pid:none) Camelus dromedarius mitochondrion... 35 8.0 Y19184_11( Y19184 |pid:none) Lama pacos co...nspo... 35 8.0 AJ566364_11( AJ566364 |pid:none) Lama pacos complete mitochondrial... 35 8.0 >AC105378_11( AC

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15371-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 44 9.1 1 ( AC232824 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-360M16, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 44 ...9.1 1 ( AC232721 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-275J9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 44 9.1 1

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16225-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS... 46 4.4 1 ( AC233188 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-474C1, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE...... 46 4.4 1 ( AC231204 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-260A19, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06072-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ter... 46 1.2 1 ( AC232175 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-232F1, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE......99 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING CANCELLED *... 44 4.7 1 ( AC229615 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-292B1

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05111-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e from clone CH211-269M1 in ... 34 0.004 7 ( AC226639 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-29... DNA sequence from clone DKEY-145J6 in l... 38 0.083 4 ( AC232666 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-243P10, WORKING D

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14752-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 2.0 2 ( AC016754 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 11 clone RP11-514F3, WORK... 40 2.0 2 ( AC231556 ) Lama pacos c...map ... 40 2.1 3 ( AC229956 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-269L22, WORKING DRAFT SEQU..

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00662-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66A10 map 8... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232718 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-155B3, WORKING DRAFT ...SEQUE... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232398 ) Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis clone KBrH009C03,... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232356 ) Lama paco

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14977-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available some 5 clon... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232179 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-396L20, WORKING DRAF...T SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232178 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-380H24, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( EK496662 )

  1. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Levet, Carla S; Betts, Guy N J; Harris, Adrian L; Homer, Jarrod J; West, Catharine M L; Miller, Crispin J

    2009-11-01

    The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the splicing index and a new metric based on the variation of reliability weighted fold changes to detect changes in the splicing patterns. The approach was validated on a cancer/normal sample dataset in which alternative splicing events had been confirmed using RT-PCR. We then analysed ten head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using exon arrays and identified differentially expressed splice variants in five samples with high versus five with low levels of hypoxia-associated genes. The analysis identified a splice variant of LAMA3 (Laminin alpha 3), LAMA3-A, known to be involved in tumour cell invasion and progression. The full-length transcript of the gene (LAMA3-B) did not appear to be hypoxia-associated. The results were confirmed using qualitative RT-PCR. In a series of 59 prospectively collected head and neck tumours, expression of LAMA3-A had prognostic significance whereas LAMA3-B did not. This work illustrates the potential for alternatively spliced transcripts to act as biomarkers of disease prognosis with improved specificity for particular tissues or conditions over assays which do not discriminate between splice variants. PMID:19936049

  2. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S Moller-Levet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the splicing index and a new metric based on the variation of reliability weighted fold changes to detect changes in the splicing patterns. The approach was validated on a cancer/normal sample dataset in which alternative splicing events had been confirmed using RT-PCR. We then analysed ten head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using exon arrays and identified differentially expressed splice variants in five samples with high versus five with low levels of hypoxia-associated genes. The analysis identified a splice variant of LAMA3 (Laminin alpha 3, LAMA3-A, known to be involved in tumour cell invasion and progression. The full-length transcript of the gene (LAMA3-B did not appear to be hypoxia-associated. The results were confirmed using qualitative RT-PCR. In a series of 59 prospectively collected head and neck tumours, expression of LAMA3-A had prognostic significance whereas LAMA3-B did not. This work illustrates the potential for alternatively spliced transcripts to act as biomarkers of disease prognosis with improved specificity for particular tissues or conditions over assays which do not discriminate between splice variants.

  3. c-myc蛋白在不同毛色羊驼皮肤中的定位及表达%Localization and Expression of c-myc Protein in Different Colors of Alpaca Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丽; 田雪; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to explore the localization and expression of c-myc in different colors of alpaca skin.The tissues were obtained from white and brown adult alpacas' skins.The protein expression and the localization of c-myc were measured by immunohistochemistry.The positive signals of c-myc were found in hair bulb of hair follicle,and the comparative expression level of c-myc in brown alpacas was 5.51 times higher than that in white ones according to the average optical density analysis which indicated that c-myc may involve in the regulation of hair color formation.%为了探索c-myc蛋白在羊驼皮肤中的定位及表达情况,以不同毛色的成年羊驼为研究对象,采用免疫组织化学方法检测c-myc蛋白在羊驼皮肤组织中的表达和定位.结果显示,c-myc在羊驼皮肤毛囊毛球部细胞中呈阳性表达,根据光密度值分析得出c-myc在棕色羊驼毛囊中显著表达,其相对表达量是白色羊驼的5.51倍.研究表明c-myc可能参与羊驼毛色形成.

  4. Pregnancy diagnosis from urine in even-toed ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis reviewed possible non-invasive pregnancy diagnostic methods in ungulates with special attention to diagnosis from urine. The practical part was focused on pregnancy diagnosis from urine in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The aims of the thesis were to examine the possibility of catching fresh urine directly from female alpacas and to evaluate three pregnancy diagnostic tests from urine in alpacas – the seed germination test, the barium chloride test, and the Cuboni reaction. The r...

  5. Questioning western assessment of trauma among Tibetan torture survivors. A quantitative assessment study with comments from Buddhist Lamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    did not have an influence on the level of distress. After the assessment study, eight Tibetan lamas were interviewed about their views on our methods and results. They questioned the validity of our western rating scales and explained that our results might be influenced by the Tibetan culture, which...... Symptom Checklist 25 (HSCL-25). Even though significant correlations between the amount of the measures of organized violence and neuropsychological and psychological distress were found in our data, the division of the material into different subgroups according to e.g. religious and non-religious groups...... among other things can be characterized as having a view and articulation of suffering much more complex than the units of our study's rating scales....

  6. cDNA sequence of the horse (Equus caballus) LAMA3 gene and characterization of two intronic SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Dragan; Mata, Xavier; Chadi, Sead; Guérin, Gérard

    2005-12-01

    Laminins are large heterotrimeric basement membrane glycoproteins composed of alpha, beta and gamma chains. The Laminin 5 isoform has an alpha3beta3gamma2 composition and is essential for the adhesion of basal keratinocytes to the underlying epithelial basement membrane where it is mainly located. Mutations in the genes coding for the 3 chains have been associated with a severe skin blistering disease, Herlitz's junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), observed in different species as man, dog, cat and horse. In this study, we report the sequence of the 5.2 kb horse laminin alpha 3 cDNA (LAMA3) as well as the detection of two intronic SNPs. These data will be useful to further identify causal mutations for the disease in this gene. PMID:16287627

  7. Questioning western assessment of trauma among Tibetan torture survivors. A quantitative assessment study with comments from Buddhist Lamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    Our study falls in line with the numerous studies providing a critique of the use of western diagnostic instruments for assessing trauma in a cross-cultural context. Our purpose has been to give evidence for the Tibetan torture survivors' degree of traumatisation and for their use of spirituality...... not have an influence on the level of distress. After the assessment study, eight Tibetan lamas were interviewed about their views on our methods and results. They questioned the validity of our western rating scales and explained that our results might be influenced by the Tibetan culture, which among...... other things can be characterized as having a view and articulation of suffering much more complex than the units of our study's rating scales....

  8. Expression microarray analysis reveals alternative splicing of LAMA3 and DST genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Li

    Full Text Available Prior studies have demonstrated tumor-specific alternative splicing events in various solid tumor types. The role of alternative splicing in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is unclear. Our study queried exon-level expression to implicate splice variants in HNSCC tumors.We performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP tissue samples at an exon expression level. In our comparison we ranked genes based upon a novel score-the Maximum-Minimum Exon Score (MMES--designed to predict the likelihood of an alternative splicing event occurring. We validated predicted alternative splicing events using quantitative RT-PCR on an independent cohort.After MMES scoring of 17,422 genes, the top 900 genes with the highest scores underwent additional manual inspection of expression patterns in a graphical analysis. The genes LAMA3, DST, VEGFC, SDHA, RASIP1, and TP63 were selected for further validation studies because of a high frequency of alternative splicing suggested in our graphical analysis, and literature review showing their biological relevance and known splicing patterns. We confirmed TP63 as having dominant expression of the short DeltaNp63 isoform in HNSCC tumor samples, consistent with prior reports. Two of the six genes (LAMA3 and DST validated by quantitative RT-PCR for tumor-specific alternative splicing events (Student's t test, P<0.001.Alternative splicing events of oncologically relevant proteins occur in HNSCC. The number of genes expressing tumor-specific splice variants needs further elucidation, as does the functional significance of selective isoform expression.

  9. Molecular analysis of the human laminin alpha3a chain gene (LAMA3a): a strategy for mutation identification and DNA-based prenatal diagnosis in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, L; Cserhalmi-Friedman, P B; Tang, M; Ryan, M C; Uitto, J; Christiano, A M

    1998-09-01

    Mutations in the genes (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2) encoding the subunit polypeptides of the cutaneous basement membrane zone protein laminin 5 have been reported in different forms of junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), an inherited blistering skin disease. In this study, we present the complete exon-intron organization of the "a" transcript of the laminin alpha3 chain gene, LAMA3a, which is expressed primarily in the skin. We have performed fine-resolution mapping of this gene on chromosome 18q11.2 using a human-hamster radiation hybrid panel. We have also developed a mutation-detection strategy based on the exon-intron structure of LAMA3a. This strategy, based on PCR amplification of genomic sequences, followed by heteroduplex scanning and automated nucleotide sequencing, was used for successful mutation screening in a family with the lethal (Herlitz) type of JEB, and two novel LAMA3 mutations were identified in the proband. The mutations consisted of a single-base pair deletion in LAMA3a exon A11 on the paternal allele, designated 1239delC, and a two-base pair deletion in LAMA3a exon A23 on the maternal allele, designated 2959delGG. This information was also used for DNA-based prenatal testing in a subsequent pregnancy in this family. Collectively, these results attest to our expanding capability to elucidate the genetic basis of various forms of epidermolysis bullosa using molecular techniques. PMID:9759651

  10. Fornecimento de cálcio para plantas de eucalyptus saligna por meio de aplicação de resíduo industrial lama de cal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Aparecida Simonete

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo industrial lama de cal, originado da produção de papel kraft branqueada de eucalipto, apresenta em sua composição quantidade considerável de cálcio (Ca, o que pode contribuir para reduzir o consumo de fertilizantes em plantios florestais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da lama de cal como fonte de Ca e seus efeitos sobre a disponibilidade de nutrientes e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea de plantas de eucalipto, foram conduzidos dois ensaios em vasos, em casa de vegetação, na área de pesquisa da Klabin Florestal do Paraná. Os solos utilizados foram um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico (RQo e um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NV. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas fontes de Ca, calcário dolomítico e lama de cal, e de uma testemunha, sendo identificados como: RQo testemunha, RQo calcário e RQo lama de cal; e NV testemunha, NV calcário e NV lama de cal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Para tanto, plantas de Eucalyptus saligna foram mantidas por 126 dias em vasos. Quantificou-se a produção de matéria seca e realizaram-se as análises de folhas e dos solos, por ocasião da coleta das plantas. Os dados revelaram que tanto a adição de calcário dolomítico quanto a lama de cal promoveram o fornecimento de Ca para as plantas de eucalipto, proporcionando aumentos na produção de matéria seca. Os teores de Ca e Na nas folhas de eucalipto foram acrescidos com a adição do resíduo ao solo, em comparação com o tratamento com calcário dolomítico, enquanto os teores de N, P, K e S foram semelhantes. As plantas cultivadas nos tratamentos RQo testemunha e RQo lama de cal apresentaram teores foliares de Mg abaixo da faixa considerada adequada. A adição de lama no solo elevou o pH e as concentrações de Ca e de Na, reduziu o Al trocável e não influenciou na disponibilidade de Mg, fato que pode proporcionar deficiência de Mg às plantas, em

  11. A recurrent homozygous nonsense mutation within the LAMA3 gene as a cause of Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in patients of Pakistani ancestry: evidence for a founder effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J A; Kivirikko, S; Ciatti, S; Moss, C; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J

    1996-04-01

    The anchoring filament protein laminin 5 is abnormally expressed in the skin of patients with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a H-JEB child of first-cousin Pakistani parents, and identified a homozygous C-to-T transition in the LAMA3 gene of laminin 5 resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA-TGA) on both alleles. This mutation, R650X, has been previously reported in two other seemingly unrelated H-JEB individuals of Pakistani ancestry. Although this mutation may represent a mutational hotspot within the LAMA3 gene, haplotype analysis based on a silent intragenic polymorphism (GCC/GCG, alanine 429; GenBank no. L34155), and on three flanking microsatellite polymorphism (D18S45, D18S478, and D18S480), suggests that a common ancestral allele may be present in all three cases. PMID:8618022

  12. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani Paredes, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de producción de 1998 – 2000. Determinándose que las principales causas de mortalidad dealpacas son: Agentes infecciosos 51.70%, anormalidades orgánicas24.08%, causas accidentales 13.36%, causas nutricionales 7.83% yenfermedades parasitarias 3.03%. Las causas infecciosas de mayorfrecuencia fueron: Las neumonías 31.12%, entero toxemia 20.90%,estomatitis 17.46% y otras en menor frecuencia. La mortalidad por causas orgánicas son la Caquexia de los animales 58.88%, aunque en puna seca la torsión intestinal y atonía ruminal son de mayor frecuencia. Se encontró como causas accidentales de muerte a: Traumatismos 50.30%, depredadores 28.63%, falsa deglución 7.35%, asfixia 7.16% y otros con menor frecuencia. Las principales causas nutricionales de mortalidad son:Desnutrición 27.12%, inanición 23.73%, falta de leche 19.32% y otras en menor proporción. Las causas parasitarias de mortalidad se determino: Sarna 33.33%, sarcosistiosis 28.95%, coccidiosis 25.44%, gastroenteritis verminosa 10.52%, dictiocaulosis e hidatidosis 0.88% respectivamente.SummaryThe present study took place in three main centers of alpaquera production of the department of Puno: Rural Alliance EPS, CIP “the Ray” - a Fist located in the zone ecological land of humid Fist and Quimsachata Annex of INIA - Fist located in the ecological zone land of dry Fist; with the aim of determining the main causes of mortality of alpacas. By means of an analytical observacional study

  13. Association of variation in the LAMA3 gene, encoding the alpha-chain of laminin 5, with atopic dermatitis in a German case-control cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Stemmler, Susanne; Parwez, Qumar; Petrasch-Parwez, Elisabeth; Epplen, Jörg T; Hoffjan, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder caused by complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Besides mutations in the filaggrin gene, leading to impaired skin barrier function, variation in genes encoding additional skin proteins has been suggested to contribute to disease risk. Laminin 5, playing an important role in skin integrity, is composed of three subunits encoded by the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes in which biallelic mutations cause epi...

  14. Cloning of the laminin {alpha}3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, F.; Ortonne, J.P. [INSERM, Nice (France)]|[Hospital Pasteur, Nice (France); Galliano, M.F. [INSERM, Nice (France)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Laminin 5 and laminin 6 are basement membrane proteins synthesized by the basal cells of stratifying squamous epithelia. Altered expression of laminin 5 has been associated with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB), a severe epidermal blistering disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and searched for mutations in the LAMA3 gene in H-JEB patients. In one H-JEB family, an affected individual exhibited drastically reduced immunoreactivity to antibodies directed against the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and an impaired expression of the corresponding mRNA transcripts. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the proband`s keratinocytes identified a homozygous single basepair deletion in the transcripts encoding the laminin {alpha}3A and {alpha}3B isoforms. The mutation causes a frameshift and premature termination codon in both alleles of the LAMA3 gene. Inheritance of the clinical H-JEB phenotype was consistent with the segregation of the mutated allele in the family. We also report the identity of the {alpha} chains of laminin 5 and epiligrin and provide evidence that LAMA3 transcripts are distinct from the laminin 6 {alpha} chain mRNA. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in lethal (Herlitz) junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivirikko, S; McGrath, J A; Baudoin, C; Aberdam, D; Ciatti, S; Dunnill, M G; McMillan, J R; Eady, R A; Ortonne, J P; Meneguzzi, G

    1995-05-01

    The inherited mechanobullous disorder, junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), is characterized by extensive blistering and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. The diagnostic hallmarks of JEB include ultrastructural abnormalities in the hemidesmosomes of the cutaneous basement membrane zone, as well as an absence of staining with antibodies against the anchoring filament protein, laminin 5. Therefore, the three genes encoding alpha 3, beta 3 and gamma 2 chains of laminin 5, known as LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2, are candidate genes for JEB. We have previously demonstrated mutations in the LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes in several families with JEB. We initiated mutation analysis from an affected child by PCR amplification of individual LAMA3 exons, followed by heteroduplex analysis. Nucleotide sequencing of heteroduplexes identified a homozygous nonsense mutation within domain I/II of the alpha 3 chain. These findings provide the first evidence that nonsense mutations within the LAMA3 gene are also involved in the pathogenesis of JEB, and indicate that mutations of all three genes of laminin 5 can result in the JEB phenotype. PMID:7633458

  16. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the {alpha}3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa: Prenatal exclusion in a fetus at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, J.A. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Ciatti, S.; Christiano, A.M. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Mutations in the three genes (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2) that encode the three chains ({alpha}3, {Beta}3, and {gamma}2, respectively) of laminin 5, a protein involved in epidermal-dermal adhesion, have been established as the genetic basis for the inherited blistering skin disorder, Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a child with H-JEB and identified a nonsense mutation in the {alpha}3 chain gene (LAMA3) consisting of a homozygous C-to-T transition resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA {r_arrow} TGA) on both alleles. The parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. Direct mutation analysis was used to perform DNA-based prenatal diagnosis from a chorionic villus biopsy at 10 weeks` gestation in a subsequent pregnancy. The fetus was predicted to be genotypically normal with respect to the LAMA3 mutation. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Cloning of the laminin alpha 3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, F; Baudoin, C; Miquel, C; Galliano, M F; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J; Ortonne, J P; Meneguzzi, G

    1995-11-20

    Laminin 5 and laminin 6 are basement membrane proteins synthesized by the basal cells of stratifying squamous epithelia. Altered expression of laminin 5 has been associated with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB), a severe epidermal blistering disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the alpha 3 chain of laminin 5 and searched for mutations in the LAMA3 gene in H-JEB patients. In one H-JEB family, an affected individual exhibited drastically reduced immunoreactivity to antibodies directed against the alpha 3 chain of laminin 5 and an impaired expression of the corresponding mRNA transcripts. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the proband's keratinocytes identified a homozygous single basepair deletion in the transcripts encoding the laminin alpha 3A and alpha 3B isoforms. The mutation causes a frameshift and premature termination codon in both alleles of the LAMA3 gene. Inheritance of the clinical H-JEB phenotype was consistent with the segregation of the mutated allele in the family. We also report the identity of the alpha chains of laminin 5 and epiligrin and provide evidence that LAMA3 transcripts are distinct from the laminin 6 alpha chain mRNA. PMID:8586427

  18. Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M C; Tizard, R; VanDevanter, D R; Carter, W G

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the entire 170-kDa chain of epiligrin (alpha 3Ep) and a genomic clone encoding the alpha 3Ep gene (LamA3). Analysis of multiple cDNA clones revealed two distinct transcripts (alpha 3EpA and alpha 3EpB). Sequencing of the alpha 3EpA transcript indicated sequence and structural homology to laminin alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains that extend from domain IIIa through the carboxyl-terminal G domain. The alpha 3EpB transcript encodes a larger amino-terminal domain and contains additional epidermal growth factor repeats and sequences corresponding to domain IV of alpha 1 laminin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the LamA3 gene is located on chromosome 18q11.2, a locus distinct from the LamA1 gene (18p11.3). The G domain of the epiligrin alpha 3 chain contains five subdomains that are individually related to the G subdomains reported for Drosophila and vertebrate laminin alpha chains. Sequence divergence within the G domain of alpha 3 epiligrin suggests that it is functionally distinct from laminin, consistent with our previous report showing that epiligrin interacts with different integrin adhesion receptors. Analysis of RNA from human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified multiple epiligrin transcripts that were down-regulated by viral transformation and differentiation. In contrast, epiligrin expression was up-regulated in wound sites of human skin. PMID:8077230

  19. Expression and Localization of Wnt3a in Different Colors of Alpaca Skin%Wnt3a在不同毛色羊驼皮肤中的表达和定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云飞; 董常生; 田雪; 卢绪秀; 郭青云; 张丹丽; 解晓晶; 于秀菊; 贺俊平; 王海东

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在探索Wnt3a在羊驼皮肤中的表达与定位.以不同毛色的成年羊驼为研究对象,应用荧光定量PCR技术分析不同毛色羊驼皮肤Wnt3a基因的相对表达量,并运用Western blotting及免疫组织化学法对Wnt3a蛋白在不同毛色羊驼皮肤中进行表达和定位研究.结果:荧光定量PCR结果显示棕色羊驼中Wnt3a mRNA相对表达量是白色羊驼的2.9702倍;Western blotting结果表明,羊驼皮肤组织组蛋白提取物中存在相对分子质量约39 ku的产物,棕色羊驼皮肤平均蛋白表达量显著高于白色羊驼;免疫组织化学结果显示Wnt3a在羊驼皮肤毛囊的根鞘和毛球部呈阳性表达,根据光密度值分析得出Wnt3a在棕色和白色羊驼毛囊中的表达差异显著(P<0.05).通过以上研究显示Wnt3a可能与羊驼毛色形成具有相关性.%This experiment was conducted to explore the expression and localization of Wnt3a in different colors of alpaca skin. The tissues were obtained from white and brown adult alpacas skins. The comparative expression quantity of gene Wnt3a in different coat colors was analyzed by real time quantitative PCR. The protein expression and localization of Wnt3a were measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results of QRT-PCR showed that the comparative expression quantity of gene Wnt3a in brown alpacas was 2. 970 2 times than that in white ones. The Western blotting results showed that the protein expression of wnt3a in brown alpaca skins was significantly higher than that in white alpaca. The positive signals of Wnt3a were found in hair bulb and outer root sheath of hair follicle, and the expression of Wnt3a was significantly different between the white and brown alpaca skin based on the average optical density (P< 0. 05). Our findings showed that Wnt3a may involved in the regulation of hair color formation.

  20. Targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene in mice reveals abnormalities in survival and late stage differentiation of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M C; Lee, K; Miyashita, Y; Carter, W G

    1999-06-14

    Laminin 5 regulates anchorage and motility of epithelial cells through integrins alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1, respectively. We used targeted disruption of the LAMA3 gene, which encodes the alpha3 subunit of laminin 5 and other isoforms, to examine developmental functions that are regulated by adhesion to the basement membrane (BM). In homozygous null animals, profound epithelial abnormalities were detected that resulted in neonatal lethality, consistent with removal of all alpha3-laminin isoforms from epithelial BMs. Alterations in three different cellular functions were identified. First, using a novel tissue adhesion assay, we found that the mutant BM could not induce stable adhesion by integrin alpha6beta4, consistent with the presence of junctional blisters and abnormal hemidesmosomes. In the absence of laminin 5 function, we were able to detect a new ligand for integrin alpha3beta1 in the epidermal BM, suggesting that basal keratinocytes can utilize integrin alpha3beta1 to interact with an alternative ligand. Second, we identified a survival defect in mutant epithelial cells that could be rescued by exogenous laminin 5, collagen, or an antibody against integrin alpha6beta4, suggesting that signaling through beta1 or beta4 integrins is sufficient for survival. Third, we detected abnormalities in ameloblast differentiation in developing mutant incisors indicating that events downstream of adhesion are affected in mutant animals. These results indicate that laminin 5 has an important role in regulating tissue organization, gene expression, and survival of epithelium. PMID:10366601

  1. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with 1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies. PMID:26708647

  2. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with 1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies.

  3. Caracterização ambiental de lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais Environmental characterization of processing sludge of ornamental stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo dos Santos Braga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais (LBRO são resíduos que apresentam composição química variada em função da composição das rochas, do processo de beneficiamento, dos processos de reaproveitamento de águas e lamas, das propriedades dos insumos, entre outros fatores. A caracterização e classificação das LBRO são de grande importância, principalmente para o Estado do Espírito Santo, por possuir um expressivo número de empresas do setor. Neste trabalho, são apresentados os resultados de caracterização e classificação de lamas de desdobramento e polimento de mármores e granitos, segundo a NBR 10004/2004. Todas as amostras de lamas de tear convencional e de politriz analisadas foram classificadas como Classe IIA. Percebeu-se que a identificação dos resíduos por fonte geradora permite a proposição de tecnologias limpas, como o uso de teares a fio diamantado que utilizam o mínimo de insumos e de pastilhas diamantadas metálicas isentas de elementos tóxicos, contribuindo para a melhoria das características químicas das LBRO.The sludges produced in the cutting and polishing of ornamental stones are residues with diverse chemical composition that depend on the composition of the stones, the cutting and polishing process, the processes involved in the recycling of water and sludges, among others. The characterization and classification of these resulting sludges have great importance, especially for the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which is an important producer of ornamental stones. In this work, the results of characterization and classification of developmental and polishing sludges were presented, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004. All the sludge samples from the cutting and polishing equipment were classified as Class IIA. We observed that the identification of the residues according to the generation source allows the proposition of clean technologies usage, such as cutting

  4. Expression and Immunolocalization of Melanocortin Receptor 1 (MC1R) in Alpaca Skin with Different Coat Color%黑素皮质素受体1(MC1R)在不同毛色羊驼皮肤组织中的表达与定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉红; 杨刚; 范瑞文; 朱芷葳; 董常生

    2012-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of coat color formation and the relationship between MC1R expression and coat color of alpaca, the expression and immunolocalization of MC1R in skin of alpacas with different coat color were analyzed. The adult white and brown alpaca were observed. Both immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods were used to examine the expression and immunolocalization of MC1R in skins. The result showed that; (1) Immunohistochemistry results showed that MC1R positive immunoreactivity was prominently located at the epidermis, outer root sheath, the proximal hair bulb and follicular papilla. However, in brown alpaca skin, MC1R was prominently located at the epidermis and the proximal hair bulb with a strong staining. In white alpaca skin, MC1R was prominently located at the outer root sheath and epidermis, but it expressed with a weak staining in the proximal hair bulb. MC1R expression was higher in brown skin alpaca than that in white skin alpaca (P<0. 01). (2) Western blotting results showed that the protein band in 35 ku extracted in crude protein of skin tissue responsed to MC1R polyclonal antibody in rabbit. MC1R protein expressed in different coat color skin and MC1R expression was higher in brown skin alpaca than that in white skin alpaca (P<0. 01). It indicated that expression and immunolocalization of MC1R was related with the phenotype of coat color.%旨在通过研究黑素皮质素受体1(MC1R)在羊驼皮肤组织中的定位与表达,探讨其在羊驼毛色形成中的作用机制及与毛色的相关性.选用成年白色羊驼与棕色羊驼为研究对象,采用免疫组织化学方法及免疫印迹法(Western blotting),对MC1R在羊驼皮肤中的表达进行定位和定量分析.结果,(1)免疫组化结果显示,MC1R蛋白在白色和棕色羊驼皮肤表皮、毛囊周围外根鞘组织、毛乳头以及毛球周围都呈阳性着色.在棕色羊驼,阳性表达部位主要分布于毛球顶部及表皮,呈强阳性着色.在

  5. Hubungan Kadar Glukosa Darah Saat Masuk Rumah Sakit Dengan Lama Hari Rawat Pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA Di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Oktarina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHiperglikemia masih menjadi topik penelitian yang sering dihubungkan dengan kejadian sindrom koroner akut (SKA di dunia, terutama hiperglikemia saat masuk rumah sakit. Hal ini didasari oleh beberapa pengaruh kadar glukosa darah yang tinggi terhadap sistem kardiovaskuler seperti gangguan fungsi ventrikel kiri, stroke volume yang menurun, regurgitasi katup mitral berulang, gangguan pada waktu pengisian diastolik hingga risiko tinggi untuk arritmia, serta hubungannya dengan peningkatan risiko trombosis. Sehingga semakin memperjelas pengaruh hiperglikemia yang tidak hanya dapat meningkatkan risiko terjadinya SKA, melainkan juga dapat memperburuk kondisi pasien SKA sendiri. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi hubungan kadar glukosa darah sewaktu dengan lama hari rawat pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian analitik dengan menggunakan desain penelitian Cross Sectional Study. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diambil di Instalasi Rekam Medik (Medical Record, yakni data rekam medik pasien yang didiagnosis sebagai Sindrom Koroner Akut (SKA yang dirawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat DR. M. Djamil Padang Periode Januari–Desember 2011. Ditemukan sebagian besar pasien SKA masuk rumah sakit dengan kadar Glukosa Darah Sewaktu (GDS sebesar ≥ 200 mg/dl (40% dan lama hari rawat sebesar ≥ 7 hari (52%. Dari hasil analisa bivariat dengan menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman ditemukan adanya hubungan searah antara kadar glukosa darah saat masuk rumah sakit dengan lama hari rawat pasien SKA dengan kekuatan hubungan yang sedang, r = +0,492, p = 0, 000 (p<0,05. Pemantauan terhadap kadar GDS yang diperiksa saat pasien masuk rumah sakit perlu dilakukan dan untuk penelitian yang akan datang diharapkan dapat diteliti lebih lanjut faktor-faktor lain yang mempengaruhi lama hari rawat pasien SKA.Kata kunci: Kadar glukosa darah saat masuk RS, lama hari rawatAbstractHyperglicemia is still become a research

  6. SPECIAL MISSION OF THE HERO OF THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA VASILY KHOMUTNIKOV IN TIBET TO DALAI-LAMA XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Badakhaevich UBUSHAEV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the diplomatic activities of the prominent military and statesman of Kalmykia Vasily Alekseevich Khomutnikov, who fulfilled an important task of the Soviet government. The consideration of this problem is reasoned by the attempts to revise and not to forget the role of people who made a significant contribution to the strengthening of our state at the turning points of its development. At the present stage of understanding this story, there is a growing interest to its "human" content, as history is created by people. One of them was Colonel V. A. Khomutnikov who performed a special task of the Soviet government to develop close cooperation of Soviet Russia with Buddhist Tibet, Mongolia and India. On 13 September, 1921 the expedition of travelers on 12 camels departed from the city of Urga (now Ulan Bator. Disguised as pilgrims, the members of the mission joined the caravan of "a hundred people" en route to Tibet. The half of the 100 people in the caravan were Tibetans and others were Mongols Halaszi, Torghuts and Buryats. The caravan was headed by a Buddhist priest GaghanLama. In the 1920s, the Eastern direction of the foreign policy of the Soviet state was based on the principle of active involvement of India, China, Mongolia and other Asian countries in the revolutionary process in order to ensure the victory of socialism in the East. The leaders of the Soviet state V. I. Lenin, L. D. Trotsky, I. V. Stalin also believed that after the defeat of the revolution in the Western countries it was necessary to turn the route of the world revolution to the East, as there were potential revolutionary forces. According to L. Trotsky, it was necessary to form a wellarmed corps in the Urals and send it to India and Afghanistan. The same idea was actively developed by prominent political and public figures of Kalmykia and Buryatia. Based on the results of the conducted research, the author notes that the main result of the

  7. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  8. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  9. 论十三世达赖扶植的“坚塞”所扮演的历史角色%The Historical Role of"sPyan bSal"the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Fostered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达瓦

    2014-01-01

    以龙夏·多吉次嘉、擦荣·达桑占堆、土登贡培为代表的一批近代重要人物,在十三世达赖喇嘛的扶植和重用之下,被民众称为“坚塞”。他们在维护达赖自身安全和权威、推进“新政”改革措施等方面扮演了重要的角色,成为十三世达赖喇嘛执政时期的独特现象,也是近代西藏地方统治阶级复杂斗争的鲜活表现。%Longsha · Dordge Tsedga, Tsarong · Dasang Dramdwi, Thubden Gongpei as the representatives of a group of important figures in the modern history of Tibet, were fostered and put in important positions by the 13 Dalai Lamas. Tibetan people called them"sPyan bSal". They played an important role in safeguarding the thir⁃teenth Dalai Lama's security and authority and promoting the Dalai Lama's reform measures. It was a unique phenomenon at the ruling period of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama, but it also displayed the complicated struggle of the Tibetan ruling class during that period.

  10. Differential cytokine modulation of the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, encoding the constitutive polypeptides, alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, of human laminin 5 in epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang, K; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J; Mauviel, A

    1995-07-24

    Laminin 5, an anchoring filament protein previously known as nicein/kalinin/epiligrin, consists of three polypeptide chains, alpha 3, beta 3, and gamma 2, encoded by the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. The expression of laminin 5 was detected by Northern hybridization with specific cDNA probes in various epidermal keratinocyte cultures, whereas no expression of any of the three genes could be detected in foreskin fibroblast cultures. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) enhanced LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2 gene expression in human epidermal keratinocytes, as well as in HaCaT and Balb/K cells in culture, although the extent of enhancement was greater for LAMA3 and LAMC2 genes than for LAMB3. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-alpha) alone did not alter the expression of LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes in human epidermal keratinocytes, whereas it inhibited the expression of LAMA3. These results suggest that the expression of the three genes encoding the laminin 5 subunits is not coordinately regulated by the cytokines tested. PMID:7635220

  11. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  12. Alunite in the Pascua-Lama high-sulfidation deposit: Constraints on alteration and ore deposition using stable isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyell, C.L.; Leonardson, R.; Rye, R.O.; Thompson, J.F.H.; Bissig, T.; Cooke, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Pascua-Lama high-sulfidation system, located in the El Indio-Pascua belt of Chile and Argentina, contains over 16 million ounces (Moz) Au and 585 Moz Ag. The deposit is hosted primarily in granite rocks of Triassic age with mineralization occurring in several discrete Miocene-age phreatomagmatic breccias and related fracture networks. The largest of these areas is Brecha Central, which is dominated by a mineralizing assemblage of alunite-pyrite-enargite and precious metals. Several stages of hydrothermal alteration related to mineralization are recognized, including all types of alunite-bearing advanced argillic assemblages (magmatic-hydrothermal, steam-heated, magmatic steam, and supergene). The occurrence of alunite throughout the paragenesis of this epithermal system is unusual and detailed radiometric, mineralogical, and stable isotope studies provide constraints on the timing and nature of alteration and mineralization of the alunite-pyiite-enargite assemblage in the deposit. Early (preore) alteration occurred prior to ca. 9 Ma and consists of intense silicic and advanced argillic assemblages with peripheral argillic and widespread propylitic zones. Alunite of this stage occurs as fine intergrowths of alunite-quartz ?? kaolinite, dickite, and pyrophyllite that selectively replaced feldspars in the host rock. Stable isotope systematics suggest a magmatic-hydrothermal origin with a dominantly magmatic fluid source. Alunite is coeval with the main stage of Au-Ag-Cu mineralization (alunite-pyrite-enargite assemblage ore), which has been dated at approximately 8.8 Ma. Ore-stage alunite has an isotopic signature similar to preore alunite, and ?? 34Salun-py data indicate depositional temperatures of 245?? to 305??C. The ??D and ?? 18O data exclude significant involvement of meteoric water during mineralization and indicate that the assemblage formed from H2S-dominated magmatic fluids. Thick steam-heated alteration zones are preserved at the highest elevations in

  13. lama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability: learning from Hawai`i's displaced place and culture-based science standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2011-03-01

    This response to Mitchell and Mueller's "A philosophical analysis of David Orr's theory of ecological literacy" comments on their critique of Orr's use of the phrase "ecological crisis" and what I perceive as their conflicting views of "crisis." I present my views on ecological crisis informed by standpoint theory and the definition of crisis as turning point. I connect the concept of turning point to tipping point as used in ecology to describe potentially irreversible changes in coupled social-ecological systems. I suggest that sustainable societies may provide models of adaptive learning in which monitoring of ecological phenomena is coupled to human behavior to mitigate threats to sustainability before a crisis/tipping point is reached. Finally, I discuss the Hawai`i State Department of Education's removal of its Indigenous science content standard Mālama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability and its continued use in community-based projects.

  14. Environmental behavior of soils and mixtures of soil-whitewash mud Comportamento ambiental de solos e misturas solo lama-de-cal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to observe the behavior of soils in natural state and in mixtures, in different ratios, with the industrial solid residue called whitewash mud. The work was conducted with samples of typical soils from the region of Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brazil. Wet chemical analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used in order to obtain the classification of the industrial solid residue. Solubilization and leaching tests were performed and X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques were carried out. The results showed that the whitewash mud was classified as non-inert, but with great capacity of heavy metal retention largely owed to the kaolinite and goethite presence in the clay fraction of the soils, making it difficult to have heavy metals readily available for exchange.O presente estudo buscou observar o comportamento de solos em seu estado natural e em misturas, em diferentes teores, com o resíduo sólido industrial denominado lama-de-cal. A pesquisa foi conduzida com amostras de solos típicas da região de Alagoinhas, Bahia-Brasil. A análise química por via úmida e espectrofotometria de absorção atômica foram usadas para obter a classificação do resíduo sólido industrial. Testes de solubilização, lixiviação, analise de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram executados. Os resultados indicaram que a lama-de-cal não é inerte, mas com grande capacidade de retenção de metais pesados, em grande parte devido à presença de caulinita e goethita na fração argila dos solos.

  15. The Life Story of the 9th Dalai Lama and His Age%九世达赖喇嘛生平及其时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曦

    2015-01-01

    The Ninth Dalai Lama was the first one who was recognized by the central government after the Golden Urn Policy promulgated in Qing Dynasty .But Jiaqing Emperor finally agreed to recognize be-cause the applications of local government and Tibetan ministers .But he died in eleven after the recogni-tion and didn't do a lot of achievement as others in previous generations .Great changes had taken place at home and abroad during the age of the Ninth Dalai Lama , and the Qing government began to decline , so the governing force became fading both in mainland of China and Tibet , too.%九世达赖喇嘛是清中央政府颁定金瓶掣签制度之后,首位需要通过这一程序认定的达赖喇嘛,但是由于西藏地方政府及驻藏大臣的申请,嘉庆皇帝最后同意免于掣签。他在被认定后于十一岁便不幸圆寂,其一生极为短暂,没有如他前世诸辈有较大的作为。但正是在他生活的时代,国内国外局势逐渐发生了很大的变化。清政府开始走向衰落,无论在内地还是西藏,其统治力均不如前代。

  16. Influência da adição de carbonato de sódio na reactividade térmica de lamas residuais de minas de tungsténio

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2009-01-01

    No presente trabalho analisou-se a influência do tempo e da temperatura de calcinação, de lamas residuais de minas de tungsténio aditivadas com carbonato de sódio. A reactividade das lamas foi avaliada através de ensaios de resistência á compressão em argamassas activadas alcalinamente. Os resultados apontam para o facto da adição do carbonato de sódio não permitir a obtenção níveis de reactividade tão elevados como os obtidos sem a utilização deste aditivo.

  17. Aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário na cultura da soja Surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone on soybean crop

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de lodos de esgoto, lama cal, escória de aciaria e calcário sobre o estado nutricional e a produtividade da soja, em sistema plantio direto. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 4x4+1, constituído por quatro tratamentos - resíduos de lodo de esgoto centrifugado (LC) e de biodigestor (LB), escória de aciaria (E) e lama cal (Lcal) - nas doses 0, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1, mais o controle com 2 Mg ha-1 de calcá...

  18. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae) [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3h1

    OpenAIRE

    María Zubillaga; Oscar Skewes; Nicolás Soto; Jorge E Rabinovich

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix...

  19. 彝族燕麦酒营销文化战略--以拉玛酒业为例%On Yi Peopleˊs Oats Wine Marketing Culturual Strategies:Taking Lama Winery as the Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊英

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study on Yi peopleˊs oats wine marketing cultural strategies,especially on its market status quo,this paper briefly introduces Lama Winery sample and its marketing cultural bottleneck,providing suggestions for Lama oats wineˊs developing bottleneck and Lama Wineryˊs brand management. Lama oats wine market positioning has two advantages:health elements and ethnic features. The establishing direction of the Yi Peopleˊs oats wine marketing cultural strategies:making analysis from green marketing,internet marketing,relationship marketing,service marketing,culture marketing and channel marketing and trying to find joint points.%从研究彝族燕麦酒营销文化战略出发,尤其针对彝族燕麦酒所处的市场现状,简要介绍拉玛酒业样本及其所处营销文化困局;对拉唛燕麦酒发展瓶颈、拉玛酒业品牌经营提出改善建议。对拉唛燕麦酒进行市场定位,分析其定位优势有二:健康元素与民俗风情;彝族燕麦酒营销文化战略构建方向:分别从绿色营销、网络营销、关系营销、服务营销、文化营销和渠道营销等进行分析,寻找结合点。

  20. The influence of the arid Andean high plateau on the phylogeography and population genetics of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Juan C; González, Benito A; Poulin, Elie; Casey, Ciara S; Johnson, Warren E

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the phylogeography and population genetics of the largest wild artiodactyl in the arid and cold-temperate South American environments, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) was conducted. Patterns of molecular genetic structure were described using 514 bp of mtDNA sequence and 14 biparentally inherited microsatellite markers from 314 samples. These individuals originated from 17 localities throughout the current distribution across Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. This confirmed well-defined genetic differentiation and subspecies designation of populations geographically separated to the northwest (L. g. cacsilensis) and southeast (L. g. guanicoe) of the central Andes plateau. However, these populations are not completely isolated, as shown by admixture prevalent throughout a limited contact zone, and a strong signal of expansion from north to south in the beginning of the Holocene. Microsatellite analyses differentiated three northwestern and 4-5 southeastern populations, suggesting patterns of genetic contact among these populations. Possible genetic refuges were identified, as were source-sink patterns of gene flow at historical and recent time scales. Conservation and management of guanaco should be implemented with an understanding of these local population dynamics while also considering the preservation of broader adaptive variation and evolutionary processes.

  1. An Unknown Tradition of Han Chinese Conversions to Tibetan Buddhism:Han Chinese Incarnate Lamas and Parishioners of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Amdo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gray Tuttle

    2013-01-01

    AbstrActThis article examines Han Chinese who has historically practiced Tibetan Buddhism in the Qinghai-Gansu border region. The main primary sources were published in the 1990s, based on surveys by Chinese social scientists who were sent around in the 1950s to collect data on Tibetan Buddhist institutions as well as additional independent surveys from the 1980s and my own site visits in 2006. On the basis of these sources, I argue that there are at least 100,000 and probably as many as 200,000 Han Chinese on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu (part of the Amdo cultural region for Tibetans) practicing Tibetan Buddhism, following traditions that seem to have been in place for centuries. I also discuss the sixteen historic cases of Han Chinese reincarnate lamas and the over one hundred monasteries in this region affiliated with Han Chinese. Finally, I note the sectarian affiliations (jiaopai: Nyingma, Geluk, etc.) and religious practices of these Chinese communities practicing Tibetan Buddhism.

  2. A study on the soil characteristic and properties of riverbank soil samples from Sungai Perak, Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlan, M. N.; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Ghazali, M. F.; Selamat, M. R.; Othman, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) technology is new in Malaysia and only a few efforts have been made to understand the RBF mechanisms and processes. Soil characteristics and properties play important roles in determining the suitability of the site for the RBF application. A research has been carried out in Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia to identify the characteristics of the riverbank soil for different layers of the pumping well (PW) and three adjacent monitoring wells namely MW2, MW3, and MW5. Particle size distributions and hydraulic conductivities of the soils were obtained from sieve analyses and constant head permeability tests. The subsurface soils of the study site consisted of medium sand, fine sand, coarse sand and gravel but them medium sand was highest in percentage over the other types of soil. The aquifer extended down to 8 m. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the PW was 0.91 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 6 m deep. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the monitoring wells was 5.03 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 2.20 to 3.20 m of MW5. The overall well production capacity determined from the pumping test was 112.10 m3/hr.

  3. 危重患者呼气末二氧化碳与动脉血二氧化碳的相关性研究%Correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide and PaCO2 in critically ill adult patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚凤; 李文强; 陈阵; 胡念丹; 魏捷

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨成年患者在急危重状态下呼气末二氧化碳( ETCO2)与动脉血二氧化碳(PaCO2)的相关性.方法:100例ICU患者入院后使用碳酸波形图监测初始ETCO2值,监测完毕迅速抽血做血气分析监测PaCO2值.统计分析ETCO2和PaCO2之间的相关性与一致性,并比较主流法和旁流法监测对ETCO2的影响.结果:100例患者ETCO2平均值为31.32±7.81 mmHg,PaCO2平均值为35.44±8.57 mmHg,ETCO2和PaCO2呈中度相关(r=0.67).Bland-Altman绘图显示PaCO2与ETCO2差值的均值为4.12 mmHg,一致性范围为(-9,+17).主流法和旁流法监测对ETCO2值没有显著影响.结论:碳酸波形图监测的ETCO2不足以准确反映成年患者在急危重状态下PaCO2的变化.%To explore the correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and PaCO2 in critically ill adult patients. Methods; Initial ETCO2 of 100 patients were monitored by using capnograph after admitted in ICU. Then blood was taken immediately for gas analysis for monitoring PaCO2 value. The correlation and consistency between ETCO2 and PaCO2 were analyzed, and the effect of ETCO2 monitoring with mainstream and sidestfeam was compared. Results: The mean value of ETCO2 was 31.32 ±7. 81mmHg,and the mean value of PaCO2 was 35.44 ±8.57mmHg,the correlation between ETCO2 and PaCO2 was moderate ( r = 0. 67 ). The Bland-Altman plots showed the mean difference between the PaCO2 and ETCO2 levels was 4.12 mmHg,the limits of agreement were -9 to + 17 mmHg. There was no significant influence on value of ETC02 with the methods of mainstream and sidestream. Conclusion: ETCO2 monitoring with capnograph does not accurately enough to predict PaCO2 in adult patients in critical condition.

  4. Reciclagem da poeira e lama geradas na fabricação de aço inoxidável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Nolasco Sobrinho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado, em escala de laboratório, um estudo da recuperação dos metais cromo e níquel, contidos em resíduos gerados no processo de fabricação de aço inoxidável, utilizando-se altas temperaturas (1570, 1600 e 1635ºC. A maioria desses tipos de resíduos, principalmente a lama, ainda é disposta em aterros ou estocada. Nesse trabalho foram utilizados dois tipos de resíduo com alto teor de cromo, uma poeira (RESA e o uma lama (RESB. A primeira etapa do estudo, fundamental para o estudo visando à reciclagem dos resíduos, foi a caracterização utilizando as seguintes técnicas: análise química, distribuição granulométrica (MALVERN, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e análise de micro-regiões (EDS. A segunda etapa envolveu a aglomeração dos resíduos caracterizados e outros reagentes, antes de serem introduzidos no aço líquido, utilizando-se uma briquetadora manual. Foram fabricados três briquetes com cada um dos resíduos. A terceira etapa da pesquisa foi a adição dos briquetes de resíduos no aço líquido e retirada periódica de amostras do banho para avaliação da incorporação do cromo contido nos resíduos no aço. O tipo de aço utilizado foi o aço carbono ASTM 1020. Os experimentos foram realizados em um equipamento em escala laboratorial, composto de um forno vertical que pode atingir até 1700ºC e seu controlador. O forno possui uma região de temperatura uniforme de cerca de 13 cm e, nessa região, o cadinho de alumina contendo aço é colocado. Esse equipamento foi construído para o estudo das reações envolvidas quando se adicionam resíduos em aço líquido. A atmosfera interna do aparato pode ser controlada. Após a introdução do briquete no aço líquido e sua fusão foram retiradas, periodicamente, amostras do banho em intervalos de tempo de três em três minutos para análise dos teores de vários elementos, principalmente o cromo, o níquel e o sil

  5. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Serrão; H. Domingues; Fernandes, M.; MARTINS, J.; F. Pires; I. Saraiva; Fareleira, P.; Matos, N.; Ferreira, E.; A. M. Campos; C. Horta; A. Dordio

    2009-01-01

    A aplicação de lamas residuais urbanas (LRU) aos solos destinados a pastagens, ainda escassamente utilizada no País, contribui, com frequência, para melhorar os níveis de matéria orgânica (M.O.) e de alguns nutrientes das plantas e para diminuir o risco de erosão, pelo aumento da cobertura vegetal. Todavia, a presença eventual de níveis elevados de metais pesados, compostos orgânicos poluentes e organismos patogénicos nas LRU condiciona a dose a aplicar e torna imprescindível o controlo desse...

  6. La figura histórica de Lama Zhang : una aproximación desde el estudio comparativo de los votos Mahāyāna y Vajrayāna en la tradición budista tibetana

    OpenAIRE

    Robaina Rodríguez, Marlevis

    2015-01-01

    Lama Zhang, importante maestro budista, militar y político ha sido reconocido en la historia como una controvertida figura dentro de la sociedad tibetana del siglo XII. Pese a trascender como un exponente innovador de la práctica Vajrayāna fue severamente criticado por sus actividades militares en los disturbios de Lhasa. Este trabajo se desarrolla en el contexto del resurgimiento e institucionalización del budismo como religión oficial tras la caída del imperio tibetano. En él se presenta un...

  7. Industrial solid waste (whitewash mud use in forest road pavements Utilização do resíduo sólido industrial (lama-de-cal em pavimentos de estradas florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of industrial solid waste (whitewash mud on geotechnical properties considering the following engineering parameters: California Bearing Ratio (CBR, Atterberg limits and Permeability test. Seven soil samples derived from Alagoinhas, Bahia - Brazil, were classified by the Transportation Research Board (TRB system. Two were selected as having a great geotecnical potential classified as A-3 (0 and A-2-4 (0, whitewash mud contents 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% dry weight and medium compaction effort were studied in the laboratory testing program. The results indicated the soil denominated good gravel as being the most promising one, when stabilized with whitewash mud, reaching the best results with the dosage of 20 and 25% of whitewash mud.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do resíduo sólido industrial (lama-de-cal nas propriedades geotécnicas de amostras de solo da região de Alagoinhas, BA, Brasil. Das sete amostras coletadas, apenas duas foram selecionadas, por apresentar maior potencial geotécnico. Utilizaram-se ensaios de caracterização, CBR e permeabilidade, cujos resultados indicaram que a amostra de solo denominada good gravel quando estabilizada com lama-de-cal, na dosagem de 20 e 25%, foi a mais promissora.

  8. Estudio comparativo de muestras arqueofaunísticas de guanaco (Lama guanicoe de la cuenca superior del río Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lorena L'Heureux

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo plantea el análisis de los procesos naturales y culturales que intervinieron en la estructuración de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de dos sitios arqueológicos de tierras bajas (Alero del Bosque y El Sosiego 2 y uno de tierras altas (Piedra Quemada localizados en la cuenca superior del río Santa Cruz, con el objetivo de evaluar el uso diferencial entre estas áreas. Se analizaron las modificaciones antrópicas predepositacionales y postdepositacionales de naturaleza no antrópica en las muestras de guanaco representadas. Se observó un predominio de especímenes correspondientes a la región del esqueleto apendicular y de individuos adultos (>2 años y una alta fragmentación del material, principalmente en el sitio Piedra Quemada. Los rangos de meteorización fueron amplios en las tres muestras, siendo la media obtenida en la muestra de Alero del Bosque significativamente menor a la de los otros sitios. Las modificaciones óseas postdepositacionales fueron relativamente poco significativas en los conjuntos de Piedra Quemada y Alero del Bosque en comparación con la muestra de El Sosiego 2. Las diferencias esperadas entre los sitios de tierras altas y los de tierras bajas respecto de los perfiles de edad y representatividad diferencial de partes esqueletarias no se verificaron, probablemente como resultado del alto grado de fragmentación de los conjuntos.The aim of this paper is to analyze the natural and cultural processes intervening in the formation of the archaeofaunal assemblages from three archaeological sites, located in very different settings in the Upper Santa Cruz Basin: 1 Alero del Bosque; 2 El Sosiego 2; and 3 Piedra Quemada. The analysis was focused on the post-depositional and anthropic modifications in samples of guanaco bones (Lama guanicoe. Elements from the apendicular skeleton of adult individuals (>2 years old dominated all the assemblages. Most of the bones were highly fractured, especially in the

  9. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John R B; Voight, Benjamin F; Yengo, Loïc; Amin, Najaf; Dupuis, Josée; Ganser, Martha; Grallert, Harald; Navarro, Pau; Li, Man; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Scott, Robert A; Almgren, Peter; Arking, Dan E; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori; Burtt, Noël P; Campbell, Harry; Charpentier, Guillaume; Collins, Francis S; Gieger, Christian; Green, Todd; Hadjadj, Samy; Hattersley, Andrew T; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Johnson, Andrew D; Kottgen, Anna; Kraft, Peter; Labrune, Yann; Langenberg, Claudia; Manning, Alisa K; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew P; Oostra, Ben; Pankow, James; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pramstaller, Peter P; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, William; Roden, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Scott, Laura J; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sladek, Rob; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Vivequin, Sidonie; Weedon, Michael N; Wright, Alan F; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Kao, Linda; Meigs, James B; Wilson, James F; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia; Altschuler, David; Morris, Andrew D; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Froguel, Philippe; Palmer, Colin N A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Groop, Leif; Frayling, Timothy M; Cauchi, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMIlean type 2 diabetes cases (BMIlean cases or 8,702 obese cases, and 18,957 un-stratified controls. To assess the effects of known signals, we tested the individual and combined effects of SNPs representing 36 type 2 diabetes loci. After combining data from discovery and replication datasets, we identified two signals not previously reported in Europeans. A variant (rs8090011) in the LAMA1 gene was associated with type 2 diabetes in lean cases (P = 8.4×10⁻⁹, OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.09-1.18]), and this association was stronger than that in obese cases (P = 0.04, OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]). A variant in HMG20A--previously identified in South Asians but not Europeans--was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese cases (P = 1.3×10⁻⁸, OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.07-1.15]), although this association was not significantly stronger than that in lean cases (P = 0.02, OR = 1.09 [95% CI 1.02-1.17]). For 36 known type 2 diabetes loci, 29 had a larger odds ratio in the lean compared to obese (binomial P = 0.0002). In the lean analysis, we observed a weighted per-risk allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.10-1.17], P = 3.2×10⁻¹⁴. This was larger than the same model fitted in the obese analysis where the OR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.08], P = 2.2×10⁻¹⁶. This study provides evidence that stratification of type 2 diabetes cases by BMI may help identify additional risk variants and that lean cases may have a stronger genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes. PMID:22693455

  10. Síntese e caracterização de hidróxidos duplos a partir da lama vermelha Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides from red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. P. O. Cunha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O resíduo do refino da bauxita, comumente conhecido como lama vermelha, tem mostrado ser capaz de ligar metais traços tais como o cobre, cádmio, zinco, cromo, níquel e chumbo sob condições apropriadas. A neutralização da lama vermelha é necessária porque essa lama é tipicamente cáustica, com pH em torno de 13. Muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas envolvendo a utilização da lama vermelha, porque contem uma série de elementos valiosos. Assim a utilização da lama vermelha como material de construção e como adsorvente é atrativa porque ela é utilizada em grande quantidade. Nada pode ser feito sem descartar componentes valiosos como titânio, zircônio e principalmente ferro. A síntese de hidrotalcita conectada com a reciclagem de soluções alcalinas representa uma maneira efetiva de uso dessa solução considerando a forte demanda por proteção ambiental no mundo. Os compostos tipo hidrotalcita, precipitados durante a neutralização da lama, também removem oxi-ânions de metais de transição através da combinação de intercalações e adsorção de espécies aniônicas na sua superfície externa. Os hidróxidos duplos lamelares (HDL vêm sendo investigados à muitos anos como materiais hospedeiros para uma variedade de reações de intercalação de anions. A estrutura lamelar dos HDLs pode ser usada para controlar a adição ou remoção de uma variedade de espécies químicas, tanto orgânicas quanto inorgânicas. Isto é alcançado através de sua habilidade de adaptar a separação das lamelas de hidróxidos, e da reatividade da região interlamelar. O material resultante adsorve anions quando colocado em soluções e reverte a estrutura da hidrotalcita. Avanços significativos têm sido alcançados recentemente na caracterização desses materiais, incluindo estudos estruturais sobre o mecanismo de intercalação. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a síntese e caracterização de HDLs a partir da lama vermelha, e

  11. Apuntes sobre la geografía eclesiástica de Ourense: Tourém, Lama de Arcos, «Couto Mixto» y «Pueblos Promiscuos»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Figueiredo, José Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meet the ecclesiastical geography of a diocese is to be a key task to understand their historical memory. The previously unknown files of the Vatican offer valuable information for knowing the lights and shadows of the Diocesan Church in the contemporary period. Presented in this article document processes of the dismemberment of the parish church of St. Peter of Tourém and St. Mary of Lama de Arcos, and the solution to the question of the “Couto Mixto” and “Pueblos Promiscuos”, and the last under the decree of the Congregation Consistorial of 1954.Conocer la geografía eclesiástica de una diócesis resulta ser una tarea fundamental para comprender su memoria histórica. Los inéditos fondos vaticanos ofrecen una valiosa información para conocer las luces y las sombras de la Iglesia diocesana en el periodo contemporáneo. En este artículo se presentan los procesos documentales del desmembramiento de las parroquias de San Pedro de Tourém y Santa María de Lama de Arcos, así como la solución a la cuestión del “Couto Mixto” y los “Pueblos Promisicuos”, y el último arreglo del decreto de la Congregación Consistorial de 1954. [gl] Coñecer a xeografía eclesiástica dunha diocese resulta ser unha tarefa fundamental para comprender a súa memoria histórica. Os inéditos fondos vaticanos ofrecen unha valiosa información para coñecer as luces e as sombras da Igrexa diocesana no periodo contemporáneo. Neste artigo preséntanse os procesos documentais do desmembramento das parroquias de San Pedro de Tourém e Santa María de Lama de Arcos, así como a solución á cuestión do “Couto Mixto” e os “Pobos Promisicuos”, e o último arranxo do decreto da Congregación Consistorial de 1954.

  12. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacosalpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  13. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R B Perry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m² compared to obese cases (BMI≥30 Kg/m². We performed two case-control genome-wide studies using two accepted cut-offs for defining individuals as overweight or obese. We used 2,112 lean type 2 diabetes cases (BMI<25 kg/m² or 4,123 obese cases (BMI≥30 kg/m², and 54,412 un-stratified controls. Replication was performed in 2,881 lean cases or 8,702 obese cases, and 18,957 un-stratified controls. To assess the effects of known signals, we tested the individual and combined effects of SNPs representing 36 type 2 diabetes loci. After combining data from discovery and replication datasets, we identified two signals not previously reported in Europeans. A variant (rs8090011 in the LAMA1 gene was associated with type 2 diabetes in lean cases (P = 8.4×10⁻⁹, OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.09-1.18], and this association was stronger than that in obese cases (P = 0.04, OR = 1.03 [95% CI 1.00-1.06]. A variant in HMG20A--previously identified in South Asians but not Europeans--was associated with type 2 diabetes in obese cases (P = 1.3×10⁻⁸, OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.07-1.15], although this association was not significantly stronger than that in lean cases (P = 0.02, OR = 1.09 [95% CI 1.02-1.17]. For 36 known type 2 diabetes loci, 29 had a larger odds ratio in the lean compared to obese (binomial P = 0.0002. In the lean analysis, we observed a weighted per-risk allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI 1.10-1.17], P = 3.2×10⁻¹⁴. This was larger than the same model fitted in the obese analysis where the OR = 1.06 [95% CI 1.05-1.08], P = 2.2×10⁻¹⁶. This study provides evidence that stratification of type 2 diabetes cases by BMI may help

  14. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos (Lama guanicoe (Artiodactyla, Camelidae [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3h1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Zubillaga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe, a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012 of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant.

  15. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos (Lama guanicoe (Artiodactyla, Camelidae [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4c3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Zubillaga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe, a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012 of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant.

  16. Estudo das reações alcalis-sílica associadas ao uso da lama vermelha em argamassas colantes e de revestimento Study of alkali-silica reactions associated with the use of red mud in plastering mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação de resíduos industriais em matrizes cimentícias, com o objetivo de inertização, é uma alternativa de reutilização que tem sido bastante estudada nos últimos anos. No presente trabalho, estudou-se a lama vermelha, resíduo sólido gerado no processo de beneficiamento da bauxita e que, devido a seu elevado pH, é considerado "perigoso". Apesar do uso deste resíduo ter sido reportada em trabalhos anteriores, algumas patologias podem estar associadas à sua utilização, devido à elevada concentração de íons alcalinos (principalmente o sódio, favorecendo as reações álcalis-sílica (RAS e às dificuldades de moldagem (reologia devido à elevada finura deste resíduo. Apesar destes prováveis problemas provenientes do uso indiscriminado da lama vermelha como adição às argamassas e concretos, ainda são poucas as pesquisas que os contemplam, sendo este o foco do presente trabalho. Foram verificadas as propriedades reológicas das argamassas, utilizando um reômetro e a avaliação da RAS, de acordo com as normas ASTM C 1260-07 e NBR 11582. Os resultados obtidos foram bastante satisfatórios quanto ao comportamento das argamassas frente à RAS, apesar da elevada concentração de álcalis na lama vermelha, com grande influência reológica.The incorporation of industrial wastes in cementitious matrices, with the goal of inertization, is an alternative of reuse that has been extensively studied in recent years. In this paper, the red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production by the Bayer process from bauxite ore and considered "hazardous" due to the high pH, was studied. Despite the use of this waste have been reported in previous studies, some pathologies may be associated with its use, due to high concentration of alkali ions (mainly sodium, favoring the alkali-silica reactions (ASR and the difficulties of molding (rheology because of high fineness of this waste. Despite these potential

  17. Perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik heat cured akibat kelembaban dan lama penyimpanan (Changes in glass transition temperature and heat cured acrylic resin mass due to moisture and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2014-09-01

    massa pada resin akrilik. Metode: Metode penelitian adalah eksperimen laboratoris. spesimen resin akrilik disimpan dalam kondisi kelembaban 90%, 70%, 40% dan 30% selama 24 jam, satu minggu, satu bulan dan dua bulan. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga metode curing, yaitu konvensional JIs, 24 jam curing pada suhu 70 °C dan menggunakan microwave. Hasil: Kelembaban rendah menyebabkan perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik. Penyimpanan lebih lama dari resin akrilik dalam kelembaban rendah, dapat mempengaruhi perubahan yang lebih besar dari suhu transisi kaca dan massa dari resin akrilik. Simpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kelembaban dan penyimpanan yang lebih lama dari resin akrilik dapat mempengaruhi suhu transisi kaca dan perubahan massa.

  18. Aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário na cultura da soja Surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone on soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de lodos de esgoto, lama cal, escória de aciaria e calcário sobre o estado nutricional e a produtividade da soja, em sistema plantio direto. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 4x4+1, constituído por quatro tratamentos - resíduos de lodo de esgoto centrifugado (LC e de biodigestor (LB, escória de aciaria (E e lama cal (Lcal - nas doses 0, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1, mais o controle com 2 Mg ha-1 de calcário. As plantas de soja apresentaram maior concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio, em 2003, 2004 e 2005, e de potássio, em 2003 e 2004, em razão dos tratamentos LC, LB, E, Lcal e calagem. A produtividade da soja foi favorecida pela aplicação dos tratamentos no sistema plantio direto, em 2003, 2004 e 2005. O fósforo, e o cálcio contribuíram para o aumento da produtividade da soja em 2003 e 2004.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the surface application of sewage sludge, aqueous lime, flue dust and limestone on soybean nutrition and yield in notill system. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, in factorial scheme of 4x4+1, and consisted of four residues: centrifuged sewage sludge (CSS, biodigestor sewage sludge (BSS, flue dust (FD and aqueous lime (AL, at 0, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1, and one additional control treatment with dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The soybean plants showed greater contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in 2003, 2004 and 2005, and potassium contents in 2003 and 2004, due to the treatments CSS, BSS, FD, AL and limestone. Soybean grain yield was also enhanced due to surface applications of the treatments in notill system in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The phosphorus and calcium contributed to increase soybean yield in 2003 and 2004.

  19. Effect of ET-1 on Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Skin Melanocytes in vitro%内皮素-1(ET-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖和黑素生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 张杰; 穆晓丽; 白瑞; 董彦君; 白俊明; 董常生

    2011-01-01

    旨在研究内皮素-1 (Endothelin-1,ET-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞(Melanocyte,MC)增殖和黑素合成的影响.本研究中,体外培养正常羊驼皮肤黑素细胞,观察不同浓度ET-1(0、0.1、1、10、100 nmol·L-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、黑素含量、内皮素受体B(Endothelin recepter B,EDNRB)基因、酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)基因、酪氨酸相关蛋白-1(Tyrosinase related protein 1,TRP-1)基因和表皮黑皮素1受体(Melanocortin 1 receptor,MC1R)基因表达量的影响.结果表明,ET-1处理羊驼皮肤黑素细胞3d后,羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增多,黑素含量、EDNRB、TRP-1和TYR基因表达量都明显增加(P<0.05),以10 nmol·L-1组最为显著.ET-1能诱导羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、树突增长,诱导EDNRB、TYR和TRP-1基因表达量增高,使黑素合成增加;同时诱导MC1R基因表达量增高,从而通过α-MSH信号通路对羊驼黑色素的生成产生影响.%To study the effects of Endothelin-l(ET-l) on the proliferation and melanin synthesis of cultured alpaca skin melanocytes, the cultured alpaca skin melanocytes were treated with various concentrations of ET-KO, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nmol · L-1) in vitro. The effects of ET-1 on mel-anocyte proliferation, melanin contents, EDNRB, TYR, TRP-1 and MC1R gene expeession in cultured melanocytes were observed. Three days after treatment with ET-1, the number of melanocytes increased and melanin contents, EDNRB, TYR and TRP-1 gene expression levels also remarkably increased in treated cells compared to those in untreated cells(P<0. 05), especially when the concentration was 10 nmol · L-11. The result indicate that ET-1 can induce the dendrites elongated, proliferation and the expression of EDNRB, TYR and TRP-1, and induce the melanin synthesis; Also, ET-1 induce the expression of MC1R gene, and affect the melanin synthesis of alpaca by the pathway of a-MSH.

  20. Study on the Integration Mode of Beijing Lama Temple and the Surrounding Environment%北京雍和宫与周边环境融合模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晓晖; 付雨竺; 房淑媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper taking the fusion model of Lama Tem-ple and the surrounding environment as the research object, based on a lot of investigation, data col ection, data sorting, aiming at the problems of residential environment, road traffic, public facilities, tourism scenic spots overloading, and pol-ution and so on, put forward the concrete methods and strate-gies of protection, utilization and development.%本文以雍和宫与周边环境融合模式为研究对象,在大量调研、资料收集、数据整理的基础上,针对雍和宫周边人居环境、道路交通、公共设施、景区超载、旅游污染等诸多问题,提出了保护、开发和利用的具体方法和策略。

  1. Sosyal Bilgiler Dersinde Animasyon ve Dijital Harita Kullanımının Öğrencilerin Mekânı Algılama Becerilerine Yönelik Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Aktürk, Volkan

    2012-01-01

    Bu araştırmanın amacı, ilköğretim 6.sınıf Sosyal Bilgiler dersi ‘Yeryüzünde Yaşam’ ünitesinde öğrencilere verilmesi gereken temel becerilerden mekânı algılama becerisinin animasyon ve dijital harita ( sayısal harita ) kullanılarak geliştirilmesidir. Araştırmada 24 sorudan oluşan çoktan seçmeli başarı testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın hipotezleri SPSS 15 programı kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Geliştirilen ölçme aracı Afyonkarahisar il merkezinde bulunan Atatürk ilköğretim Okulu 6. sınıf öğ...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16087-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e mth2-103l13, WORKING DR... 46 5.4 1 ( AC231342 ) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-33p5, WORKING DRAF... 46 5....4 1 ( AC229616 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-370O14, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46 5.4 1 ( AC208349 ) Zea mays chromo

  3. Disponibilidade de metais pesados em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Heavy metal exchangeable in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Wanderley da Silva Paganini; Iraê Amaral Guerrini

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns atributos químicos do solo e a disponibilidade de cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), níquel (Ni), mercúrio (Hg), chumbo (Pb) e arsênio (As), por meio da extração pelo DTPA, em conseqüência da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugados e de biodigestores, nas doses 0 (testemunha), 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose 2 Mg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineament...

  4. Novel approaches in andrology examination and follicular fluid biochemical characterization in the optimization of reproductive technologies in farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vencato, Juri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reported in this Thesis was to increase our understanding of two aspects of the reproductive system in farm animals: the andrological evaluation and the follicular fluid composition. The final aim was to give some tools that can be helpful in optimizing the application of assisted reproductive technologies. Studies were conducted in bulls, rams, alpacas, lamas and dairy buffalo cows. The first study was designed to investigate the efficacy of scrotal thermograp...

  5. THE TRUE COLORS OF THE DALAI LAMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE TRUE COLORS OF THE DALAI LAMATHETRUECOLORSOFTHEDALAILAMA¥WANGGUI&WANGDUITheDalaiLama,exiledinIndiaforthepast36years,isoft...

  6. Análise técnica e avaliação de trechos experimentais de misturas solo-lama de cal com vistas a aplicações em estradas florestais Technical analysis and evaluation of experimental field road sites of soil-whitewash mud mixtures for forest ROAD applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Cardoso Machado; Reginaldo Sérgio Pereira; Tiago Pinto da Trindade; Dario Cardoso de Lima; Carlos Alexandre Braz de Carvalho; Sérgio Luis Martins Santos

    2007-01-01

    Trechos rodoviários experimentais são ferramentas úteis para a avaliação da eficiência de material de construção de estradas. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma avaliação do desempenho de trechos experimentais construídos com camadas de solos estabilizados com o resíduo sólido industrial denominado lama de cal, que é um subproduto gerado em indústrias de celulose. Com base nos resultados de ensaios de resistência mecânica de um extenso programa de laboratório, em que se realizaram ensaios de cara...

  7. Correção da acidez e mobilidade de íons em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Liming and ion mobility in an Oxisol under surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Büll; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Rafael Marcelino; Munir Mauad

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez, saturação por bases e a mobilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio no perfil de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi conduzido experimento em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, de 2002 a 2005. A possível interferência dos ácidos orgânicos, provenientes da aveia-preta, decorrentes da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, foram igualmente avaliadas nas doses de 0 ...

  8. Alteração de atributos físicos em latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Oxisol physical attributes affected by surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludges and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa; Leonardo Theodoro Bull; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Maria Helena Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Os resíduos industriais e urbanos podem atuar como condicionadores do solo, pois possuem a capacidade de alterar suas propriedades físicas. Contudo, não há referência para os atributos físicos do solo quando esses resíduos são aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema plantio direto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário nos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob sistema plan...

  9. Avaliação qualitativa do efeito de agentes de limpeza na camada de lama dentinária: estudo ultra-estrutural em microscopia eletrônica de varredura Smear layer removal: a qualitative scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Junho de ARAÚJO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando qualquer instrumento abrasiona ou corta a dentina, produz na superfície uma camada de lama dentinária ou "smear layer". Dependendo do agente de união indicado em Odontologia adesiva, há a necessidade ou não da remoção da camada de lama da superfície dentinária. Com a finalidade de verificar a ação de diferentes substâncias para a limpeza dentinária, utilizamos 20 dentes pré-molares superiores íntegros, mantidos em soro fisiológico, nos quais as coroas foram seccionadas ao meio no sentido mésio-distal. Com instrumento diamantado, removeu-se o esmalte da porção vestibular e da porção lingual da coroa e, com uma broca carbide cilíndrica lisa nº 56, cortou-se aproximadamente 1 mm de dentina com alta rotação sob abundante refrigeração ar/água, para produzir a camada de lama dentinária. Em seguida, essa superfície foi tratada com diferentes substâncias e lavada por 30 segundos com "spray" ar/água. No controle, foi simplesmente utilizado o "spray" ar/água. Os espécimes foram montados em suportes metálicos, preparados e visualizados no MEV-DSM 950 da Zeiss, em aumentos que variaram de 100 a 5.000 vezes. Os materiais que mais removeram a camada de lama foram, em ordem crescente: 1. "spray" ar/água; 2. fluoreto de sódio 2%; 3. associação alternada de Dakin/Tergensol; 4. água oxigenada 3%; 5. jateamento com óxido de alumínio 50 mm; 6. flúor acidulado 1,27%; 7. ácido poliacrílico 25%; 8. ácido fosfórico 10%.A smear layer is produced on the dentin surface after abrasion or cutting by instruments. Its removal is indicated or not according to the kind of bonding agent used in adhesive dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of some substances on the smear layer. Twenty upper non-carious premolars, stored in isotonic saline solution, were mesiodistally hemi-sectioned and the buccal and lingual enamel was removed with high speed diamond bur. One millimeter of the dentinal

  10. Impacto da aplicação de lama residual urbana e de fertilizan­tes minerais em solos sob pastagem no Alentejo Impact of sewage sludge and mineral fertilizers application in soils un­der pasture from the Alentejo region

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Serrão; Martins, J.C.; Fareleira, P.; M.A. Castelo Branco; Varela, A.; H. Domingues; Fernandes, M.; F. Pires; Guerreiro, A.; J. Ramos; A. M. Campos

    2010-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as alterações nos indicado­res do solo pH em água, MO e N totais, catiões de troca, P, K, Cu e Zn “assimilá­veis”, metais pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) e bactérias de origem fecal, entre 2004 e 2007, em dois campos experimentais com pastagens, por efeito da aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU) e da fertilização mineral. As modalidades incluíram as com­binações de dois tipos de pastagem (natural e semeada) com três tratamentos (0, LRU e Adubação), na Herdade do Revez (Luvis...

  11. Alteração de atributos físicos em latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Oxisol physical attributes affected by surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludges and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos industriais e urbanos podem atuar como condicionadores do solo, pois possuem a capacidade de alterar suas propriedades físicas. Contudo, não há referência para os atributos físicos do solo quando esses resíduos são aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema plantio direto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário nos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob sistema plantio direto. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro resíduos: lodos de esgoto centrifugado - LC e de biodigestor - LB, escória de aciaria - E, e lama cal - Lcal, interagindo com quatro doses (0, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1, aplicadas na forma seca mais uma testemunha (controle, constituída da aplicação de 2 t ha-1 de calcário. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, com quatro repetições. A presença de Ca na composição de lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado, escória de aciaria e calcário permite o aumento da agregação das partículas, diâmetro médio ponderado, índice de estabilidade de agregados, porosidade e retenção de água, sendo essas alterações distintas para cada fonte, dose e profundidade de reação no solo. A aplicação superficial da lama cal na dose de 8 t ha-1, após 27 meses de reação, proporcionou a maior agregação das partículas no solo, desde a superfície até 40 cm de profundidade.The residues flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge (centrifuge and biodigestor may affect soil physical attributes. The use of industrial and urban residues in soil, with emphasis to sewage sludge, was done in tilled soil, and there are no repports on soil physical attributes affected by these residues on soil surface in no-till system The goal of this study was to evaluate the physical attributes of a an Oxisol in no-till system by surface dispoasal of sewage sludge, flue

  12. Análise técnica e avaliação de trechos experimentais de misturas solo-lama de cal com vistas a aplicações em estradas florestais Technical analysis and evaluation of experimental field road sites of soil-whitewash mud mixtures for forest ROAD applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trechos rodoviários experimentais são ferramentas úteis para a avaliação da eficiência de material de construção de estradas. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma avaliação do desempenho de trechos experimentais construídos com camadas de solos estabilizados com o resíduo sólido industrial denominado lama de cal, que é um subproduto gerado em indústrias de celulose. Com base nos resultados de ensaios de resistência mecânica de um extenso programa de laboratório, em que se realizaram ensaios de caracterização dos solos e estudos de dosagem das misturas, foram construídos três trechos experimentais na região de Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brasil. Em uma avaliação qualitativa desses trechos experimentais, o melhor desempenho de campo foi associado àquele construído com a mistura contendo 70% de solo cascalho de primeira e 30% do resíduo lama de cal.Experimental field road test sites are useful technical tools for evaluating the efficiency of road engineering materials. This paper is directed to the evaluation of performance of experimental field road test sites built using mixtures of in-place soils and industrial waste from the cellulose industry named whitewash mud. Analysis of data from an extensive laboratory testing program including soils geotechnical characterization and mixtures mechanical strength tests led to the construction of three experimental field road test sites in the municipality of Alagoinhas, Bahia State, Brazil. Data from a qualitative evaluation of these sites under field traffic conditions support that best performance can be associated to the road pilot test site built using mixture contents of 70 % of first class gravel and 30 % of whitewash mud.

  13. miR-663通过靶向 TGF-β1调控羊驼黑色素细胞的黑色素生成%Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Melanocytes Regulated by miR-663 Through Targeting TGF-β1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小云; 金雷皓; 苗潋涓; 丁娜; 范瑞文; 董常生

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the present study is to identify the target genes of miR-663 and investigate the role of miR-663 in melanin synthesis in alpaca melanocytes.[Method]The potential targets and binding sites of TGF-β1 were predicted and analyzed by Targetscan, RNAhybrid and RNA22. The similarity of 3′UTR of TGF-β1 sequences from various species was analyzed by DNAMAN. The dual-luciferase construct of pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was created by inserting partial TGF-β1 3′UTR into the pmirGLO vector by SacⅠ and XbaⅠ restriction sites. The regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 was validated by co-transfecting pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR construct with miR-663 mimic into 293T cells. The over-expression of miR-663 was achieved by transfecting melanocytes with miR-663 mimic. The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7 and β-catenin in melanocytes transfected with miR-663 mimic were analyzed by qRT-PCR or Western blotting, respectively. The effects of miR-663 on melanin synthesis were evaluated by measuring the melanin content of the cells.[Result]There are 68 potential targets for miR-663 predicted by bioinformatics, including 74 conserved binding sites and 44 less conserved binding sites. DNAMAN analysis showed that all 3′UTR sequences of TGF-β1 from analyzed species are highly conserved and enriched potential target sites. One of the potential targets of miR-663 is TGF-β1, which is involved in the development of hair follicle as well as melanin pigmentation. The alpaca 3′UTR sequence of TGF-β1 contains three miR-663 potential binding sites. To confirm the regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 through its 3′UTR, a dual-luciferase reporter vector pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was successfully constructed and co-transfected into 293T cells with miR-663 mimic. The luciferase assay experiments showed that the luciferase activity was 31.01%lower in cells co-transfected with pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR and miR-663 mimic than that in control cells, suggesting

  14. Disponibilidade de metais pesados em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Heavy metal exchangeable in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns atributos químicos do solo e a disponibilidade de cádmio (Cd, cromo (Cr, níquel (Ni, mercúrio (Hg, chumbo (Pb e arsênio (As, por meio da extração pelo DTPA, em conseqüência da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugados e de biodigestores, nas doses 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose 2 Mg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, durante 2003 e 2004. A aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal, lodo de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, até a dose 8 Mg ha-1, assim como o calcário na dose 2 Mg ha-1, não trazem problemas de disponibilidade ao ambiente, com relação aos metais pesados Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni e As, quando aplicados sobre a superfície em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, no sistema plantio direto. A fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados às culturas da soja e aveia-preta foi nula, quando foram aplicadas doses de até 8 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto, escória e lama cal sobre a superfície do solo, no sistema plantio direto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil chemical attributes and exchange of cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and arsenic (As by DTPA extractor in an Oxisol with surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge in rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1 and one additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at 2 Mg ha-1. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design under field conditions, in a no-tillage system in 2003 and 2004. The surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge centrifuge and biodigestor at 8 Mg ha-1, as well as the application of limestone at 2 Mg ha-1, cause no problems of exchange to the environment, related to the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni

  15. Correção da acidez e mobilidade de íons em Latossolo com aplicação superficial de escória, lama cal, lodos de esgoto e calcário Liming and ion mobility in an Oxisol under surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a correção da acidez, saturação por bases e a mobilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio no perfil de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi conduzido experimento em condições de campo, em área sob sistema plantio direto, de 2002 a 2005. A possível interferência dos ácidos orgânicos, provenientes da aveia-preta, decorrentes da aplicação superficial de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodos de esgoto centrifugado e de biodigestor, foram igualmente avaliadas nas doses de 0 (testemunha, 2, 4 e 8 t ha-1 e um tratamento adicional composto pela calagem superficial na dose de 2 t ha-1. A aplicação superficial de doses crescentes de escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado permitiu verificar aumento do valor de pH no solo. Esses resíduos e o lodo de esgoto de biodigestor elevaram a saturação por bases e a disponibilidade de nitrato, cálcio e magnésio até a profundidade de 40 cm no solo, com apenas três meses de reação. A pequena quantidade de ácidos orgânicos na parte aérea da aveia-preta não justificou o rápido deslocamento dos nutrientes e da neutralização do solo em subsuperfície. Os resíduos escória de aciaria, lama cal e lodo de esgoto centrifugado podem ser utilizados como corretivos da acidez e aplicados sobre a superfície do solo no sistema de plantio direto.The experiment was carried out under field conditions in a no-tillage system from 2002 to 2005, aiming to evaluate liming, base saturation and nitrate, calcium and magnesium mobility in a dystrophic Clay Rhodic Hapludox soil. The possible interference of organic acid catering of black oat through surface application of flue dust, aqueous lime and sewage sludge from a centrifuge and a biodigestor were also evaluated at rates of zero (control, 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 as well as an additional treatment of dolomitic limestone at the rate of 2 t ha-1. Due to the increasing surface applications of flue dust, aqueous lime and

  16. Contributo para a melhoria de solos marginais destinados a pastagens pela aplicação de lama residual urbana, sem riscos ambientais Contribution to the improvement of degraded soils under pastures through sewage sludge application, without environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de lamas residuais urbanas (LRU aos solos destinados a pastagens, ainda escassamente utilizada no País, contribui, com frequência, para melhorar os níveis de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de alguns nutrientes das plantas e para diminuir o risco de erosão, pelo aumento da cobertura vegetal. Todavia, a presença eventual de níveis elevados de metais pesados, compostos orgânicos poluentes e organismos patogénicos nas LRU condiciona a dose a aplicar e torna imprescindível o controlo desses factores nos solos aos quais foram incorporadas. Também o teor elevado de azoto que por vezes contêm pode inibir a actividade simbiótica do rizóbio, prejudicando a sobrevivência das leguminosas na pastagem. Neste trabalho, examinaram-se a produção de matéria seca, a composição florística e o teor de cobre (Cu na biomassa vegetal, em dois anos consecutivos de um ensaio com uma mistura pratense semeada para cortes sucessivos, instalado, no Outono de 2001, num Luvissolo Háplico de baixa fertilidade, em Mértola, ao qual foi aplicado LRU secundária proveniente da ETAR de Évora, com um elevado teor de Cu. No mesmo período, apreciou-se a evolução, na camada superficial do solo, dos teores de M.O., de alguns macronutrientes e do Cu extraível por água régia. Avaliouse, ainda, a grandeza da população rizobiana que nodula o trevo (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii e procedeu-se à prospecção de indicadores de contaminação fecal (bactérias coliformes e enterococos. No ano seguinte à aplicação da LRU, examinou-se a evolução, no solo, de 11 compostos bifenilospoliclorados (PCBs, 13 pesticidas organoclorados e 16 hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (PAHs. O ensaio, de blocos casualizados, teve como modalidades três níveis de LRU (L 0 = 0, L1 = 12 e L2 = 24 t/ha e duas repetições. A mistura semeada incluiu azevém anual, panasco, cinco espécies de trevo, bisserula e serradela. Além de muito maiores produ

  17. 关于顺治皇帝召五世达赖喇嘛入京的论争--从洪承畴的一道奏疏谈起%Debate about Summoning Dailai Lama to Beijing in the Shun-Chih Period:Starting from Hong Chengchou Memorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔继来

    2014-01-01

    顺治皇帝召五世达赖喇嘛入京一事引发满汉之间的激烈论争,顺治八年洪承畴所上奏疏是汉臣意见的集中代表。论争是满汉文化的交锋,清朝入关之初,正处于满汉民族文化冲突的凸显时期,入仕清朝的晚明汉官群体不仅希望跻身外族政治集团,更希望能用传统的儒家思想影响顺治皇帝,建构新王朝的治国理念。论争又是国家民族政策的辩论与选择,五世达赖喇嘛最终入京觐见并受封,对满、蒙、藏上层的联合起到了关键作用,也有利于边疆的稳定和国家的统一。%The Shun-Chih Emperor summoned Dalai Lama to Beijing, which aroused a heated debate, with Hong Chengtao Memorials in Shunzhi 8th Year the representative view of all the Han ministers. This debate is the controversy between Manchu and Han at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty when there was the highlight of the cultural conflict since the late Ming Han official group not only hoped to enter the alien political leadership, but also wanted to use the traditional Confucian ideas to influence the Shun-Chih Emperor in or-der to construct new governing philosophy. Also, this controversy is on the debate and choice of the nationality policy. At last, the Fifth Dalai Lama was summoned into Beijing and titles were conferred on him. Thus, it played a critical role in the Manchu-Mongolia-Tibet upper class unity and was also conducive to border stability and national unity.

  18. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil "Atrapado en el fango": ecoidioma del sufrimiento con enfermedades respiratorias infantiles en un manglar urbano del Nordeste de Brasil "Atolado na lama": ecoidioma de sofrimento com doenças respiratórias infantis em um manguezal urbano do Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Nations

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama. Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity.Situado en el neo-democrático globalizado Nordeste brasileño, este estudio antropológico analiza el papel del contexto ecológico en el encuadramiento para experimentar y expresar la miseria humana. Entrevistas etnográficas, narrativas y un "análisis semántico contextualizado" revelan la experiencia vivida a causa de enfermedades respiratorias infantiles en 22 residentes de manglares urbanos. Los informantes hablan en un "eco-lenguaje de incomodidad respiratoria", basado en una "eco-lógica" popular, reflejando la dura realidad de "vivir en la humedad, en el manglar." Residentes de áreas elevadas legitiman sus sentimientos de superioridad, estigmatizando los residentes en la "Baixada" como un tabú, como enfermos (cisticercosis porcina, gripe porcina, etc., como "cerdos inmundos, atrapados en el fango". Animalizando las identidades de sus habitantes, despreciándolos a la categoría de no-personas. Además de infecciones, los niños sufren barreras sociales derivadas

  19. The Selection of the Candidates Leaving for Britain to Study during the Ruling Period of the 13th Dalai Lama and their Departure%十三世达赖喇嘛时期西藏赴英留学生的选派考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朗杰紫丹

    2015-01-01

    十三世达赖喇嘛在什么样的背景下,产生了派遣留学生到西方学习的想法;他推行的新政措施的重要内容之一,派遣留学生一事,又是怎么实施的;最终怎么选定或产生这四位赴英留学生的;他们又是什么时候离开西藏启程去英国等问题,说法各异,与史实有一定的出入.文章以藏文、汉文和英文资料为依据,结合人物访谈资料,对十三世达赖喇嘛时期西藏赴英留学生的选定和启程等方面,提出了自己的观点.%The questions like: what was the social background when the 13th Dalai Lama came up the idea of sending Tibetan students studying in the West? Was it one of the important components of his new deal? How was it undertaken? How eventually were the four candidates selected studying in Britain? When did they leave Tibet for Britain? and so on and so forth, have different answers, which have some discrepancies with the histori-cal facts. This article provides the author's own view of the historical event by referring to the Tibetan and Chi-nese, and English documents and literatures combined with some interview data.

  20. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-01-01

    Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hy...

  1. LAMA PEMBERSIHAN EFISIEN PAPAIN PADA PENGLEPASAN PLAK GIGITIRUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyday denture cleaning is needed to prevent the mouth from denture stomatitis and esthetic concern. Enzyme cleansers are developed in attempt to break down the organic components of denture plaque. The aim of this research is to determine the efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque. The research was done on 16 patients with complete dentures. Plaque removal was determined by Lowry method and SDS PAGE. The result shows that papain dose required to hydrolyze 24-hour dentue plaque is 15.66 TU/mg enzyme activity for 10 minutes soaking. Soaking the denture in papain for 10 minutes makes all of the detected plaque protein bands remobe. In conclusion, efficient cleansing duration of papain solution to remove 24-hour denture plaque is papain activity of 15.66 TU/mg by soaking duration of 10 minutes. Further research is suggested to examine papain residue on the denture that may influence the denture wearer biocompatibility.

  2. Odnokursniki. Dalai-lama i finski monah / Ilja Sundelevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sundelevitsh, Ilja

    2003-01-01

    Ilmar Kruusamäe, Peeter Alliku, Imat Suumani ja Albert Gulki töödest Kursi koolkonna näitusel Tallinna Kunstihoones ja selle galeriis. Matti Kurki ja Nagashila tööde näitus "Virgumine" ning Leonhard Lapini fotod Dalai laamast on Deco galeriis

  3. Dalai Lama and His Fifty Years’ Harm to Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paisal Peuchmongkol

    2009-01-01

    <正>In the last few days, the Thais have read some reports through the media about Tibetans protesting against the Chinese Government. According to the reports, the protests were staged at the time of the fiftieth anniversary of "China’s occupation over

  4. DALAI LAMA AND ASAHARA: A Mirror Image of Evil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    DALAILAMAANDASAHARA:AMirrorImageofEvil¥//SHAZHOUShokoAsahara,the"veneratedmaster"oftheAumShinrikyoSect.admittedresponsibility...

  5. Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, S; Carretero, M; Gambarotta, M; Neild, D; Trasorras, V; Pinto, M; Miragaya, M

    2010-03-01

    Llama semen is characterized by great structural viscosity and minimal sperm progressive motility. These characteristics, inherent to South American Camelid ejaculates, have slowed down the development of assisted reproductive techniques in these species. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of dilutions and incubation time with H-TALP-BSA medium, with and without adding 0.1% collagenase, on the qualitative and quantitative semen characteristics, for its use in assisted fertility techniques. Ejaculates (n=8; r=3) were obtained using electroejaculation. Each ejaculate was evaluated and then split into four aliquots. Two of these were diluted 4:1 and 8:1 in 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA (treatments 1 and 3) and the other two 4:1 and 8:1 in H-TALP-BSA without collagenase (treatments 2 and 4). Treatments 1 and 2 were incubated 4 min at 37 degrees C while treatments 3 and 4 were incubated 8 min. All aliquots were centrifuged at 800 x g for 4 min immediately after incubation. Supernatants were pipetted to observe thread formation and pellets were re-diluted in H-TALP-BSA. Supernatants from samples treated with collagenase did not form a thread when pipetted, while the ones from samples that were not treated with the enzyme did. Only semen samples treated with collagenase showed progressive sperm motility, with averages over 40%. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) for the percentage of live spermatozoa and for the percentage of detached heads between raw and treated semen samples. Percentages of spermatozoa with functional membranes were significantly higher (Psemen and in samples incubated without collagenase. These results show that treating semen with 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA improves semen rheological properties while facilitates the separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma in llama; it also promotes sperm progressive motility, while maintaining sperm membrane functionality and integrity. Consequently, this protocol could be used for in vitro llama embryo production with ejaculated spermatozoa. PMID:19616391

  6. Nyeri Punggung pada Operator Komputer Akibat Posisi dan Lama Duduk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Wulan Sumekar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the pain that often occurs in human is low back pain, usually occurs in adults aged 33-55 years. According to data at regional hospital Lampung Tengah in 2006, there were 32 patients with low back pain, and increased in the next two years. Majority of patients were computer operator. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sitting position and duration on low back pain. This study was cross sectional study of 120 computer operators in Bandar Jaya Disctrict of Lampung. The results showed that 27/65 (41.5% on good sitting position group experienced low back pain, while in the bad sitting position was11/12 (91.7%, with p = 0.011 and risk value 15.481 times. In> the >4 hours sitting duration group, 37/63 (58.7% experienced low back pain, whereas in <4 hours group was 1 / 13 (7.1%, with p = 0.006 and risk value 18.497 times. Combination of -sitting position and duration has a significant effect on low back pain (p = 0.017 and 0.010 and gave 21.400 and 24 607 times risk. In conclusion, each sitting position and duration has influence on low back pain, and is a risk factor. Combination of sitting position and duration increase its impact and risk.

  7. Fertilidade e contaminação por metais pesados e microrganismos fecais de um solo sob pastagem pela aplicação de lama residual urbana Soil fertility and contamination by heavy metals and faecal microorganisms as affected by biosolids application in pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Serrão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em vastas áreas do Alentejo, os solos sob pastagem natural apresentam baixa fertilidade. A aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU veicula matéria orgânica (M.O. e nutrientes para o solo, mas também pode introduzir metais pesados e bactérias de origem fecal, pelo que é conveniente monitorizar o solo após a adição destes resíduos. Comparam-se as fertilizações orgânica com LRU e a mineral, nos efeitos em alguns índices de fertilidade e contaminação metálica e fecal de um solo derivado de xistos e grauvaques, no Alentejo, no 1º ano de um campo experimental com pastagens. O campo, com um esquema experimentalem “split-plot”, foi constituído por seis talhões de 0,5 ha, correspondentes a três tratamentos de fertilização (nula, mineral e orgânica, com LRU, em dois tipos de pastagem, natural e semeada. Aplicaram-se cerca de 13 t/ha de uma mistura de LRU das ETARs de tratamento secundário de Alvito e de Vila Nova de Baronia, com teores apreciáveis de M.O., N e Ca. A adubação incluiu N, P, K, Zn e Mo. Determinaram-se os valores de pH (H2O e os teores de M.O. total, N total, P e K “assimiláveis”, catiões de troca e de Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn extraíveis por água régia, em amostras de terra (fracção In wide areas of Alentejo, soils under natural pasture have low fertility. Urban biosolids (UB application introduce organic matter (O.M. and nutrients in the soil, but it can also add heavy metals and bacteria of faecal origin. Thus, soil monitoring after the application of these residues is required. Organic with UB and mineral fertilisations were compared regarding their effects on some fertility and metallic and faecal pollution indicators of a soil derived from schists and grauwacks, in the 1st year of a field experiment with pastures. The experimental layout was a split-plot design, with six plots of 0.5 ha, referring to three fertilisation treatments (“nil”, mineral, and organic, with UB, in natural and sown

  8. Impacto da aplicação de lama residual urbana e de fertilizan­tes minerais em solos sob pastagem no Alentejo Impact of sewage sludge and mineral fertilizers application in soils un­der pasture from the Alentejo region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Serrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações nos indicado­res do solo pH em água, MO e N totais, catiões de troca, P, K, Cu e Zn “assimilá­veis”, metais pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn e bactérias de origem fecal, entre 2004 e 2007, em dois campos experimentais com pastagens, por efeito da aplicação de lama residual urbana (LRU e da fertilização mineral. As modalidades incluíram as com­binações de dois tipos de pastagem (natural e semeada com três tratamentos (0, LRU e Adubação, na Herdade do Revez (Luvisso­los e Leptossolos Háplicos e com quatro tratamentos (0, LRU, LRU+Calagem e Adubação+Calagem, na Herdade da Cri­méia (Luvissolos Férricos. Foram os teores médios de MO total e P “assimilável” as características químicas, comuns aos solos dos dois campos, em que o efeito benéfico das LRU na camada super­ficial foi significativo (P ≤ 5%. A aplicação de LRU também induziu os maiores acrés­cimos significativos de N total e de Mg de troca no solo da Herdade do Revez. A cala­gem elevou o pH e o teor de Mg de troca do solo, na Herdade da Criméia. As LRU não contaminaram os solos com metais pesados. Os níveis populacionais de coliformes e de enterococos fecais aumentaram, logo após a aplicação das LRU, para decrescerem pro­gressivamente ao longo do tempo, igualan­do-se aos das testemunhas.We evaluated the changes in the soil indi­cators pH in water, total OM and N, ex­changeable cations, available P, K, Cu, and Zn, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and faecal origin bacteria, between 2004 and 2007, as affected by sewage sludge (SS application and mineral fertili­sation in two field experiments with pas­tures. The treatments were the combinations of two types of pasture (natural and sown with three fertilisation treatments (0, SS, in­organic fertilisers in the experiment of Herdade do Revez (Haplic Luvisols and Haplic Leptosols, and four fertilisation treatments (0, SS, Liming+SS, and Lim

  9. The materno-fetal interface in llama (Lama guanicoe glama A interface materno-fetal em lhamas (Lama guanicoe glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Iturrizaga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 9 llamas (28 through 36 weeks of gestation were collected and fixed in 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (light microscopy and in 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde (transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The material was processed in paraplast and slides (5mm were stained with HE, PAS, Masson-Trichrome, acid phosphatase and Perl's. The uteroferrin was immunolocalized. The results show that llama placenta is chorioallantoic, diffuse, folded and epitheliochorial, and the fetus is covered with an epidermal membrane. The trophoblast cells have variable morphology: cubic, rounded and triangular cells, with cytoplasm containing PAS-positive granules. Binucleated cells with large cytoplasm and rounded nuclei, as well as giant trophoblastic cells with multiple nuclei were also observed. Numerous blood vessels were observed beneath the cells of the uterine epithelium and around the chorionic subdivided branches. Glandular activity was shown by PAS, Perl's, and acid phosphatase positive reactions in the cytoplasm and glandular lumen, and by immunolocalization of the uteroferrin in the glandular epithelium. The uterine glands open in spaces formed by the areoles, which are filled by PAS-positive material. The llama fetus was covered by the epidermal membrane, composed of stratified epithelium, with up to seven layers of mono-, bi- or trinucleated cells. The high level of maternal and fetal vascularization surfaces indicates an intense exchange of substances across both surfaces. The metabolic activity shown in the uterine glands suggests an adaptation of the gestation to the high altitudes of the natural habitat of this species.Fragmentos da placenta de 9 animais (28-36 semanas de gestação, provenientes do Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura (IVITA, Cusco-Peru, e da Universidad del Altiplano (UNA, Puno-Peru, foram colhidos e fixados em paraformoldeído 4% em PBS para microscopia de luz e em glutaraldeido em 2,5% PBS para microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e de varredura. O material incluido em paraplast cortado com 5 mm foi processado para HE, PAS, Tricrômio de Masson, fosfatase ácida e Perl's e para imuno-histoquimica da uteroferrina. Os resultados mostraram que a placenta da lhama é corialantóide, difusa, pregueada e epiteliocorial e o feto está recoberto pela membrana epidermal. O trofoblasto possui morfologia variada: células cúbicas, arredondadas ou triangulares, com citoplasma contendo grânulos PAS+. Células binucleadas com citoplasma aumentado e núcleo arredondado e células trofoblásticas aumentados com múltiplos núcleos, também foram observadas. Grande quantidade de vasos sanguíneos foi observada entre as células do epitélio uterino e ao redor das projeções coriônicas, as quais estavam subdivididas. A atividade glandular foi demonstrada pelas reações de PAS, Perl's e fosfatase ácida positivas e pela imunolocalização da uteroferrina na luz e epitélio glandular. As glândulas uterinas abrem-se nos espaços formados pelas aréolas, as quais estavam preenchidas por material PAS+. Os fetos das lhamas estavam recobertos pela membrana epidermal, constituída por um epitélio estratificado composto por mais de 7 camadas de células mono, bi ou trinucleadas. A alta vascularização das superfícies materna e fetais indica intensa capacidade de trocas de substâncias entre as duas superfícies, e a atividade metabólica mostrada pelas glândulas uterinas sugere adaptação da gestação às altitudes elevadas do habitat natural desta espécie.

  10. 驼源天然单域重链抗体库的构建与鉴定%Construction and Biopanning of Camelid Naive Single-domain Antibody Phage Display Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂追; 许杨; 刘夏; 何庆华; 陶勇

    2011-01-01

    从未经主动免疫的健康羊驼(Lamapacos)外周血淋巴细胞中提取总RNA,反转录后作为第一轮PCR的模板.根据重链抗体保守区域设计引物,经巢式PCR法扩增获得了全套重链抗体可变区基因,将其克隆至噬菌粒 pHENl,电转化大肠杆菌TG1得到初级抗体库NAL,含有2×10个独立克隆,菌落PCR和Hinf Ⅰ酶切分析结果显示,克隆效率大于97%,文库的多样性良好.辅助噬菌体救援后,得到噬菌体展示文库命名为NA-PDL,滴度达10CFU/ml.以真菌毒素人工抗原DON-MBSA为目标抗原,对NA-PDL进行了淘选,第二轮洗脱物中,阳性克隆率达36.4%,提示针对目标抗原的噬菌体颗粒得到了有效富集,文库NA-PDL多样性较好,为后续淘选针对特定抗原的单域重链抗体奠定了基础.%The objective is to construct a camelid na(i)ve single-domain heavy chain antibody phage display library. Total RNA was purified from 30ml blood of two healthy non-immune alpacas ( Lama pacos) and directly used for complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis. Three sets of primers were designed based on the conserved region of heavy-chain antibody. The repertoire of VHH coding sequence was amplified by nested PCR, and the PCR products were cloned into a phagemid vector pHEN1. By electroporation of E. coli TG1 , the primary library (designate NAL) was obtained containing more than 107 independence clones. After helper phage rescue, the phage display library ( designate SNA-PDL) was generated with a titre up to 1013 CFU/ml. The library exhibited high diversity as judged by the Hinf Ⅰ restriction pattern. Solid phage biopanning against artificial antigen DONMBSA showed significant enrichment of binding phage particles. The positive rate of panning round two was 36.4% . The data indicated that a na(i)ve single-domain antibody phage display library was constructed. which has good diversity and would be useful for generating VHHs with specific binding affinity.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15827-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AA from... 64 2e-08 2 ( DJ395561 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 74 2e-08 1 ( DD06669...1 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 74 2e-08 1 ( AC232720 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-257F...entially Expressed i... 72 5e-08 2 ( DD066150 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differential...e-08 3 ( DJ395676 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 72 6e-08 2 ( DD066806 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differential... gateway clone IM... 72 8e-08 1 ( DJ395004 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 72 8e-08 1

  12. Spontaneous fluctuations in cerebral blood flow regulation: contribution of PaCO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, R B; Dineen, N E; Brodie, F G; Robinson, T G

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the temporal variability of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), the transient response of cerebral blood flow to rapid changes in arterial blood pressure, a new approach was introduced to improve the temporal resolution of dynamic CA assessment. Continuous bilateral recordings of cerebral blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler, middle cerebral artery), end-tidal Pco(2) (Pet(CO(2)), infrared capnograph), and blood pressure (Finapres) were obtained at rest and during breath hold in 30 young subjects (25 ± 6 yr old) and 30 older subjects (64 ± 4 yr old). Time-varying estimates of the autoregulation index [ARI(t)] were obtained with an autoregressive-moving average model with coefficients expanded by orthogonal decomposition. The temporal pattern of ARI(t) varied inversely with Pet(CO(2)), decreasing with hypercapnia. At rest, ARI(t) showed spontaneous fluctuations that were significantly different from noise and significantly correlated with spontaneous fluctuations in Pet(CO(2)) in the majority of recordings (young: 72% and old: 65%). No significant differences were found in ARI(t) due to aging. This new approach to improve the temporal resolution of dynamic CA parameters allows the identification of physiologically meaningful fluctuations in dynamic CA efficiency at rest and in response to changes in arterial CO(2). PMID:20884837

  13. Morfología del linfocentro cervical superficial de la llama (Lama glama Morphology of the superficial cervical lymph center of the llama (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gauna Añasco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el linfocentro cervical superficial de la llama realizándose disecciones macroscópicas y microscopía óptica, para brindar las bases científicas de la circulación linfática de regiones anatómicas del miembro torácico de interés bromatológico. Las piezas anatómicas se obtuvieron de animales anestesiados previamente, destinados a faena. Las mismas fueron inyectadas con masa de Gerota modificada13, y luego fijadas con soluciones de formol al 10 % y ácido fénico al 3%. Para microscopía óptica se emplearon los métodos tradicionales. Los vasos linfáticos aferentes provienen de las regiones de la mano, antebrazo, brazo. Los linfonódulos muestran superficie lisa y menor tamaño en comparación con otras especies. Histológicamente los nódulos linfáticos no presentan el patrón característico de médula, corteza y paracorteza. Se observa que presentan nódulos linfáticos, tejido linfático anodular denso y tejido linfoideo difuso distribuido a través de los nódulos linfáticos primarios y secundarios. La cápsula no presenta fibras de músculo liso. Los senos peritrabeculares están rodeados por tejido linfoideo difuso.The superficial cervical lymph center of the llama was studied trough macroscopic dissections and light microscopy, offering scientific bases about lymph drainage from anatomical regions which belong to the forelimb with importance for inspecting meat. The thoracic limbs were injected with modified Gerota's mass; they were fixed by using a 10% buffered formalin solution. For light microscopy traditional methods were used. The afferent lymph vessels come from forefoot, antebrachial, brachial regions. The lymph nodes have flat surface and are smaller than those of other species. They have not a characteristic pattern of cortex, paracortex and medulla. Anyway they present lymph nodules, dense anodular lymphatic and diffuse lymphatic tissues distributed through the primary and secondary lymph nodules. The capsule does not present smooth muscle fibres and the peritrabecular sinuses are surrounded by diffuse limphatic tissue.

  14. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). December 2001 update, no. 4; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de decembre 2001, no.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells and hydrogen production: an overview of the technical and economical challenges of fuel cells; development of low temperature SOFCs; InDEC B.V. (Innovative Dutch Electro Ceramics) pilot production plant for planar SOFC components; sheet of conductive material with gaseous diffusion layer properties for fuel cells; catalytic properties of new anode materials for methane-fueled SOFCs; JRCM, Nippon Steel, NKK and Teikoku Sanso jointly develop the process of hydrogen extraction from coking plant gas; hydrogen production from vapo-reforming of vegetal oil in presence of nickel catalysts; performances of Pd and Pd/Ag membranes for a CO conversion reactor; on-board hydrogen production. (J.S.)

  15. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). August 8, 2002 update, no. 7; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 8 aout 2002, no. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: characteristics of a PEM fuel cell submitted to a transient increase of CO concentration; perspectives of the different fuel cell technologies in transport applications; development of a portable fuel cell system for the soldier's equipment; direct 2-propanol low temperature fuel cell; a fuel cell system quasi-directly supplied with methanol and based on a mixture of electrolytic polymers; catalysis in low temperature fuel cells (part.1: the cathode stakes); manufacturing and performance of the new multi-layer cathodes for SOFCs; patent about intermediate plates for the limitation of the movement of the bolts used for the fastening of a fuel cell core; the Paul Sherrer institute is testing a zinc and synthetic gas production process that use solar energy, natural gas and zinc oxide; experimental evaluation of a combined plasma/catalyst system for the production of hydrogen from the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons; hydrogen production using a new chemo-organo-trophic bacteria: Citrobacter sp. Y19; hydrogen as energy vector: competition or complementarity with fossil fuels; hydrogen storage in general and in light monocrystalline metal hydrides in particular; the nuclear option for the production of hydrogen as energy of the future. (J.S.)

  16. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 14, 2004 update no. 25; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 juin 2004, no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the American plan of de-regulated electric power production with fuel cells 2)application of single wall carbon nano-tubes in fuel cells 3)scenarios of SOFC introduction on the Japanese market 4)advanced SOFC technology and developments at the Siemens Westinghouse firm 5)manufacture and optimal size of a PEMFC cogeneration system for multi-residential application: application to the decomposition strategy 6)analysis of the life cycle of fuel cells using disposal gas 7)technical and economical analysis of a three-generation SOFC system 8)use of APU-FC for an average class tactical lorry, during a use in partial electric power supply or in condition of a silent stand by 9)modelling of the current supply of a lorry at stop: comparison between a idling engine and a APU 10)production of hydrogen and carbon nano-tubes by methane decomposition in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor 11)hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of gas-oil 12)simulations of cold starting of a gasoline reformer for mobile applications of fuel cells 13)ethanol production by steam reforming on a Pd/{gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trading catalyst 14)control of the CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and of the deactivation of the catalyst for the gasoline steam reforming 15)comparison of three integrated processes of partial oxidation producing hydrogen for fuel cells applications 16)search of new methods of the mixture: natural gas/hydrogen production for use in natural gas systems in The Netherlands 17)outline of the energy/hydrogen storage: progress achieved with the different techniques and future prospect of nano-materials 18) hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by solar way 19)forecast and measurement of the limits of the flammability domain of fuel cells. The references of these articles rae detailed. (O.M.)

  17. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 29, 2005 update no. 30; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 29 avril 2005, no. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and transport and distribution. Their different titles are given below: 1)hydrogen and energetic strategies first part: current progress achieved and requirements 2)hydrogen and energetic strategies second part: influences on the world stability 3)fuel cells: a future technology respectful with the environment 4)thermo-economical modelling and optimization of fuel cells systems 5)simulation of a SOFC fed with methane 6)processes analyses and assessment of the exergy losses in a SOFC 7)characterization and analysis of the efficiencies of a SOFC with a proton conducting ceramic electrolyte 8)economic and environmental feasibility study of a group of fuel cells cogeneration systems of 200 kW on the campus of the Stanford university 9)in situ measurements of water distribution in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell 10)comparison of electric power and hydrogen production systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration and storage 11)cold plasma use for hydrocarbons reforming 12)study of the cracks growth in AISI 304 weldings and steel plates under hydrogen or synthetic air atmosphere. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  18. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  19. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. Actualization of the 04 march 2003, no.10; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de 04 mars 2003, no.10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on march 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low and medium power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components), the hydrogen production (catalytic burner for carrier hydrogen production, catalysts, fuel reforming for fuel cell vehicles). For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 28, 2005 update no. 32; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 28 juin 2005, no. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)advantages of the use of hydrogen compared with kerosene 2)comparative study of three types of microbial fuel cells 3)carbon nano-tubes for electric applications 4)separation of the CO{sub 2} during the hydrocarbons gasification 5)hydrogen production from hydrocarbons assisted by plasma 6)plasma pyrolysis of biomass for synthesis gas and carbonaceous adsorbent production 7)fast starting reformer for automobile applications 8)development of a unit of hydrogen production from LPG for PEM systems: assessment at the laboratory scale of the sub-units of auto-thermal reforming and of selective oxidation 9)hydrogen and electric power production, with CO{sub 2} sequestration, by redox species chemical cycle reforming (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as support) 10)exergy and economic analysis of a PEM electrolyser running at different temperatures and pressures 11)nano-structured materials for hydrogen storage 12)composite materials based on light elements for hydrogen storage. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  1. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 22, 2004 update no. 22; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 mars 2004, no. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and renewable energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)recent developments in the field of polymer electrolyte fuel cells membranes running above 100 C 2)a new study method of a two-phase flow in a direct methanol fuel cell 3)fuel cell system 4)direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells running with dimethyl ether for portable applications 5)new fuel cells developments for aerospace equipment 6)anode materials for SOFC 7)application of the fuel cell technology to the rail transport 8)hydrogen production by hydrocarbons steam reforming on Ni or Fe based catalysts which are modified by an alkaline earth metal 9)thermochemical hydrogen production from Pacinum virgatum plant 10)development of a catalyst for biomass gasification, in a double-bed gasifier 11)the role of hydrogen in the development of wind power electric systems: the case of Ireland 12)feasibility study of a hydrogen distribution basic equipment for fuel cells vehicles, based on the use of electric power produced in off-peak hours in Japan 13)'bio-hydrogen' production: future developments and limits to a practical application 14)improvement of the hydrogen production from a biomass gasification process, indirectly heated. Removal of carbon dioxide releases with a new biological reformer 15)storage of hydrogen cooled with liquid nitrogen 16)ten years of running of a renewable energy production system based on hydrogen. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  2. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 14, 2005 update no. 29; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 mars 2005, no. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol and running in internal reforming mode 2)effect of the methanol and ethanol permeation on the efficiencies of a direct alcohol fuel cell with a PtRu/C anode 3)analysis of an hybrid SOFC micro-turbine micro-generation system 4)dynamic modelling and simulation of a small hybrid wind-fuel cell system 5)simulation of a system combining SOFC and PEMFC 6)assessment of the impacts and of the economical aspects of the fuel cell APU part 1: modelling of the cost and the efficiencies of the system part 2)impacts on the health and on the environment, analysis of the life cycle and optimization 7)efficiencies of vehicles equipped with direct hydrogen or reformed methanol PEMFC 8)methods for supplying fuel cell devices 9)auxiliary fuel cell system 10)analysis of life cycle of maritime applications of fuel cells 11)critical analysis of different hydrogen production and uses ways 12)comparison of the hydrogen and natural gas production processes in a thermodynamical and environmental point of view 13)research and development on the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  3. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 16, 2004 update no. 23; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 16 avril 2004, no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the importance of the fuel choice in the efficiency of the SOFC 2)assessment model of a centralized electric power system: SOFC/gas turbine 3)a direct borohydride fuel cell 4)thermodynamic optimization of the internal structure of a fuel cell 5)a SOFC/gas turbine cogeneration system 6)micro-fuel cells for portable applications 7)comparison of performances of direct alcohol fuel cells using different anode catalysts 8)materials and designs for SOFC used in stationary and mobile applications 9)development of measurement techniques for two-phase hydrogen weight flow 10)semi-conductors potentiometric probe for the hydrogen detection in air 11)integration of a fuel cell in an electric system, using a regulator based on the theory of regulation by disturbances accommodation 12)'greening London's black cabs': a study of the use potential of fuel cells cabs in London 13)gasification of leather residues - part 1 - experimental study in a pilot gasifier with a descending current 14)use of composite conducting membranes to produce hydrogen by water dissociation 15)molybdenum carbide based catalyst for the water gas reaction used in fuel cells vehicles applications 16)hydrogen production process from methane hydrates with carbon dioxide hydrates sequestration 17)comparative study between the hydrogen adsorption on super activated carbon and on carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  4. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 8, 2003 update no. 18; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 8 decembre 2003, no. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of different recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and with the different other energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells or internal combustion engine, will it be really a 'or'? 2)fuel cell systems with a high yield using heat generated by the fuel for producing an addition of electricity 3)the design of DFC (Direct Fuel Cell) 4)electricity production by glucose oxidation in bacterial fuels without intermediary 5)simulation of a photovoltaic/micro-hydraulic/hydrogen system for feeding a house in the Alpes area. Part 2: the integrated system 6)recent advances in the field of materials for fuel cells 7)new materials for hydrogen production in PEMFC 8)modelling of the performances of lithium-ion batteries for fuel cells vehicles 9)hydrogen production at low temperature from oxygenated hydrocarbons 10)an alternative system for stationary hydrogen production: the iron sponge reforming cycle 11)a steam reformer for abating the releases of an internal combustion engine 12)hydrogen separation and purification: hydrogen recycling for SOFC 13)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: are carbon nano-tubes good means of hydrogen storage? 14)energetic scenarios until 2050 15)the use of wind energy on the electric network. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  5. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). September 23, 2003 update no. 16; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 23 septembre 2003, no. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the behaviour of the electrode potential in direct hydrazine fuels 2)a device of desalination fed with a fuel cell 3)experiment in the field of residential fuel cell systems at ECN (Energy Research Center) 4)'design of a divided feeding' for SOFC with an internal reforming system 5)water management and thermal management in a fuel cell vehicle fed with hydrogen extracted from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) 6)a mathematical model of propulsion systems by PEMFC for mobile applications 7)assessment of the feasibility of a DMFC containing an alkaline membrane 8)semi-empirical assessment model of the performance of a DMFC, first part: development of the model and validation 9)PEMFC and the challenge of CO 10)materials for SOFC 11)natural gas and LPG desulfurization for fuel cells reformers 12)heat exchangers for reforming techniques 13)desulfurization of a fuel for fuel cell system 14)hydrogen production from solar thermal reactor 15)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: nano-structured storage materials having modified covalent bonds sp2. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  6. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). December 7, 2001 update, no. 3; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 7 decembre 2001, no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage, and of renewable energies in general: studies of the humidification of PEMFCs; chemical engineering in the automotive industry; environmental impact of the manufacturing of tubular and planar SOFCs; fullerenes for portable fuel cells; hydrogen fuel produced from the gasification of solid municipal fuels; required electric power for a large-scale production of hydrogen for vehicles; hydrogen produced from methane decomposition: an application for the decarbonization of fossil fuels; production of synthesis gas from ethanol vapo-reforming; electrochemical characterization of the hydrogen adsorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electric arc and laser ablation techniques; hydrogen storage in ultrasound wave processed carbonized materials; hydrogen storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles; year 2000 status of renewable energies in France; renewable energy sources: too insufficient efforts made in the UK; wind turbine in the country of wind mills (Netherlands); a research institute for wind energy in the Netherlands; feasibility study of underwater CO{sub 2} storage. (J.S.)

  7. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. Actualization of the 30 september 2003, no.8; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 30 septembre 2002, no.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on september 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components, vehicles), the hydrogen production (the ethanol reforming), hydrogen storage (materials activation), safety, regulation and standards, carbon dioxide emissions decrease and fuel production. For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network (PACO). January 28, 2004 update no. 20; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 janvier 2004, no. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the characteristics of PEMFC running at negative exterior temperatures 2)the effects of CO poisoning on PEMFC at temperatures until 200 C 3)the mechanical properties of tubular SOFC 4)fuel cells fed with coal 5)analysis of cogeneration system: planar SOFC/gas turbine 6)modelling of fuel cells for transport, according to the neuronal networks method 7)design of hybrid fuel cell systems 8)a comparative study of direct methanol fuel cells for vehicles 9)desulfurization by adsorption and catalytic steam reforming of gas oil for applications in fuel cells 10)feasibility study of hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles by naphtha on-board steam reforming 11)reforming catalyst of kerosene for fuel cell, kinetics and modelling of steam reforming 12)reforming by partial oxidation of low lubricant power gas oil, of dimethyl ether and methane for SOFC 13)conversion of solar heat in fuels by solar thermochemistry 14)hydrogen purification for fuel cells: selective oxidation of CO on Pt-Fe / zeolite catalysts 15)hydrogen photo-production from cellulose derived compound, with a system: chlorophyll / platinum nano-particles 16)hydrogen storage in commercial activated carbon. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  9. Pengaruh Komposisi Dan Lama Perendaman Serat Palem Saray Terhadap Sifat Komposit Dengan Matriks Poliester

    OpenAIRE

    Tamba, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Research of the effect of composition and soaking time of fishtail palm on properties of composite with polyester resin had been done. The research aims to determine the effect of variations in the composition of fishtail palm and duration of immersion of the fiber with 5% NaOH to the characterization of the composite. Comparison of the composition of the fishtail palm used in the manufacture of this composite is 0%; 1%; and 2%. And variations of the duration of immersion of th...

  10. PENERAPAN REGRESI COX PROPORTIONAL HAZARD UNTUK MENDUGA FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMENGARUHI LAMA MENCARI KERJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE ARI SUDANA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is a statistical method that accommodates the collection of censored data. One of popular method in survival analysis is the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression. The Cox Proportional Hazard Regression can be used to see old looking for work where data may contain censored data. This article aims investigate the characteristics of job seekers and the variables that affect old looking for work. To establish the best model using Stepwise Selection method. Prior to that the assumption of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression is tested using log minus log curve. The results obtained from Cox Proportional Hazards Regression model is as follows  

  11. Macroscopic and histological investigation of guanaco footpads (Lama guanicoe, Müller 1776).

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Horst Erich; Skewes, Oscar; Helmreich, Magda; Böck, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The surface of guanaco footpads is characterized by hairless skin with up to 4-mm-thick stratum corneum that protects from abrasion. The horny layer is pliable and elastic, and ensures firm contact with irregular ground. It is padded with a particular structure of the subcutaneous layer, the digital cushion. The flat cushions of each of the two digits are of elongated ovate shape, each about 45-mm long, up to 20-mm wide, and 8-mm thick. The cushions are lined by a 1-2-mm-thick capsule that resembles a tunica albuginea. The capsule consists of coarse collagen fibers, with elastic fibers absent. The cushion capsule and dermis approach each other, and fuse along a line that runs parallel to the longitudinal axes of cushion and digit. Loose connective tissue rich in elastic fibers and acidic glycosaminoglycans separates dermis and cushion capsule lateral to the narrow interconnecting zone. The cushion capsule encloses cloudy yellowish, gelatinous material. Microscopy shows bundles of elastic fibers in abundant mucinous matrix. Tightly gathered elastic bundles adjoin the inner surface of the capsule. Rough cords of elastic fibers branch out from there and traverse to the opposite side. The cushion is pressed flat, and elastic fibers are stretched when bearing weight. With relief of load, elastic fibers contract and reset the cushion's shape. Contractile cells are absent. A resistant capsule and easily malleable mucinous contents establish the functioning as a gel pad. Mucinous connective tissue between elastic fiber bundles contains abundant basophilic matrix. Hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate are main matrix constituents. Spindle-shaped or stellate fibroblasts contain vimentin, S100 protein, and neuron specific enolase. Moprhology, staining characteristics and synthesis activities of these cells meet the criteria to be classified as myxoid cells. The connective tissue in guanaco digital cushions represents myxoid tissue.

  12. Pengaruh Lama Ekstraksi Terhadap Mutu Pektin Dari Kulit Durian (Durio zibethinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Lenty Artha

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed to know the effect of extraction time on the quality of durian peel pectin and to know how to extract pectin and to add economic value of durian peel waste. This research was conducted using a completely randomized design with one factor, namely the extraction time, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours and 5 hours. The parameters analyzed were yield, moisture content, ash content, equivalent weigh, methoxyl content, galacturonic level, and colour. Extraction time had ...

  13. 76 FR 20011 - Mark De La Lama, P.A.; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ..., but was not. On May 3, 1985, Respondent was convicted in Bangkok, Thailand for ``Possession and..., while the ALJ noted that Respondent had been convicted (in 1985) in Thailand of possession and attempted..., 74 FR 36751, 36756-57 (2009) (rejecting consideration of socioeconomic status of...

  14. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentration and then stored at temperature of 10 0C. The results show that the fruitfly of oriental fruitfly (Bactrocera dorsalis was completely killed by treating in deep water testing at temperature of 46 0C for 10 minutes or at 43 0C for 30 minutes. The VHT of papaya at fruit core temperature of 45.5-46.0 0C for 15-30 minutes following waxing using beeswax of 6% in concentration was found to be effective to control pest and diseases until 21 days of storage without any visible signs of heat injury and without adversely affecting the quality of the fruit.

  15. Lama Pemanasan Metode Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) dan Pelilinan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pepaya Selama Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    Rokhani Hasbullah; Elpodesy Marlisa; Edy Hartulistiyoso; Dadang

    2008-01-01

    Horticulture products are host for Tephritidae fruitflies that are considered a quarantine risk by many importing countries. This research was conducted to find out the specific condition for the heat treatment using vapor heat treatment (VHT) method to control pest and diseases of papaya and the fruit quality during storage. Papayas were vapor heat treated at medium temperature of 46.5 0C for 0, 15, and 30 minutes. After the treatment, the fruits were waxed using beeswax of 6 % in concentrat...

  16. Kemampuan Ekstrak Daun Zodia (Evodia suaveolens) Sebagai Repellent Nyamuk Aedes aegypti Berdasarkan Lama Penggunaannya

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Melati Agnes Anggreini

    2011-01-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) disease is a contagious disease that caused by dengue virus and infected by Ae. aegypti. Since reported in 1968, this disease has become endemic and reported every year in Indonesia. One of the way to avoid it by using anti mosquitoes lotion which generally made by synthetic chemistry. Therefore, it necessary to find natural substance to avoid mosquitoes, one of the natural substances that can use is from zodia leaves (Evodia suaveolens) as repellent. The a...

  17. Dual therapy strategies for COPD: the scientific rationale for LAMA + LABA

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen J; Miles MC; Donohue JF; Ohar JA

    2016-01-01

    Joshua S Cohen,1 Matthew C Miles,2 James F Donohue,3 Jill A Ohar2 1United Lung and Sleep Clinic, Saint Paul, MN, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle with inhaled bronchodilators is the cornerstone of...

  18. Neivelt : Soome lama oli tunduvalt hullem / Indrek Neivelt ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neivelt, Indrek, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Hansapanga endise juhiga, kes vastab küsimustele Eesti majanduse hetkeseisust, pannes praegusele olukorrale hindeks kolm pluss. Vt. samas: Mis hinde panete tänasele majandusseisule ja miks? Vastavad: Juhan Parts, Andres Lipstok, Aivar Sõerd, Andrus Säälik, Urmas, Klaas ja Ester Tuiksoo

  19. Lens-Aided Multi-Angle Spectroscopy (LAMAS) Reveals Small-Scale Outflow Structure in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Green, P J

    2006-01-01

    Spectral differences between lensed quasar image components are common. Since lensing is intrinsically achromatic, these differences are typically explained as the effect of either microlensing, or as light path time delays sampling intrinsic quasar spectral variability. Here we advance a novel third hypothesis: some spectral differences are due to small line-of-sight differences through quasar disk wind outflows. In particular, we propose that variable spectral differences seen only in component A of the widest separation lens SDSSJ1004+4112 are due to differential absorption along the sightlines. The absorber properties required by this hypothesis are akin to known broad absorption line (BAL) outflows but must have a broader, smoother velocity profile. We interpret the observed CIV emission line variability as further evidence for spatial fine structure transverse to the line of sight. Since outflows are likely to be rotating, such absorber fine structure can consistently explain some of the UV and X-ray va...

  20. Pengaruh Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa dengan Sirup Glukosa dan Lama Pemasakan Terhadap Mutu Kembang Gula Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Syaiful Bakhri

    2010-01-01

    This research aim to know the influence of ratio sucrose concentration with glucose syrup and time of cooking for coconut sugar cane quality produced. This research used random comprehensive of program (RAL) with two factors are sucrose concentration ratio with glucose syrup (G): 70%:30%, 80%:20%, 90%:10%, and 100%:0% and time 0f cooking (L): 8 minute, 10 minute, 12 minute, and 14 minute. The parameter who analysed are water content, reduction sugar, the value of colour organoleptic, taste...

  1. Profil Mikrobiologis Pollard yang Difermentasi dengan Ekstrak Limbah Pasar Sayur pada Lama Peram yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Setya Utama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Profile microbiological of pollard fermented with extract of waste vegetable market in different long ripened  ABSTRACT. The purpose of fermentation is to produce a product (material feed that have nutritional content, texture and better biological availability, while it also can reduce the anti-nutritional. Microorganisms are often used as probiotics in feed is kind of Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microorganisms are able to produce secondary metabolites such as β -glucan, mannan oligosaccharides and anti-cancer. Very familier as probiotic Lactobacillus among humans or livestock , while saccharomyces cerevisiae have specific characteristics in animal feed because of its ability to produce glutamic acid which can increase feed palatability. Grant Saccharomyces cerevisie can enhance digest protein and fiber, such as cellulose and hemicellulose , with Sacaromyces cerevisiea supplementation can increase the rate of short-chain fatty acids in cecum and suppresses the growth of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae species. Observing the above, needed an activity to find additional engineering efforts antibiotics as a source of natural probiotic , prebiotic and synbiotic on the particular poultry and livestock in general, to take advantage of the waste as a probiotic supplement that naturally produced feed additives to support healthy organic livestock production and economically.

  2. Profil Mikrobiologis Pollard yang Difermentasi dengan Ekstrak Limbah Pasar Sayur pada Lama Peram yang Berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    Cahya Setya Utama; Bambang Sulistiyanto; Bhakti Etza Setiani

    2013-01-01

    Profile microbiological of pollard fermented with extract of waste vegetable market in different long ripened  ABSTRACT. The purpose of fermentation is to produce a product (material feed) that have nutritional content, texture and better biological availability, while it also can reduce the anti-nutritional. Microorganisms are often used as probiotics in feed is kind of Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microorganisms are able to produce secondary metabolites such as β -gluc...

  3. PRODUKSI SELULASE KASAR DARI KAPANG TRICHODERMA VIRIDE DENGAN PERLAKUAN KONSENTRASI SUBSTRAT AMPAS TEBU DAN LAMA FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS WAYAN GUNAM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in order to utilize bagasse as substrates to produce crude cellulase from Trichoderma viride. This research used a randomized block design with factorial pattern which consisted of two factors. The first factor was the concentration of substrate which consisted of three levels namely, substrate concentration of 1%, 2%, and 3%. The second factor was the fermentation time which consisted of three levels namely, 5, 7, and 9 days. Each treatment classified into two groups based on time of production. The results showed that the concentration of bagasse and fermentation time significantly influenced the parameters observation of crude cellulase production from Trichoderma viride. The optimal treatment combination to produce crude cellulase with maximum activity was the treatment of 3% substrate concentration and fermentation time of 7 days with an average value of cellulase activity (filter paperase, soluble protein, and cellulase specific activity were 0.771 Unit/mL, 0.262 mg/mL, and 2.940 Unit/mg, respectively.

  4. Wu Zhongxin and the Enthronement Ceremony for the 14th Dalai Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SHAZHAGANDAINBANJIUnesummerdayin1939(theTibetanYearofEarthRabbit),ToinbaGyizongQambaKezhol(amonkoficialinchargeofsacrificia...

  5. THE ONLY ONE Of THE DALAI LAMAS TO PREACH ’TIBETAN INDEPENDENCE’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE ONLY ONE Of THE DALAI LAMAS TO PREACH 'TIBETAN INDEPENDENCE'THEONLYONEOfTHEDALAILAMASTOPREACH'TIBETANINDEPENDENCE'¥//Thro...

  6. WHO EXNIBITS THE GREATEST CARE:The Central Government or the Dalai Lama?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WHOEXNIBITSTHEGREATESTCARE:TheCentralGovernmentortheDalaiLama?¥HUAZIWhileTibetansareoverjoyedwithallthechanges,theDalaiLamacr...

  7. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  8. On Negotiations Between the Central Government and the 14th Dalai Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    OnNegotiationsBetweentheCentralGovernmentandthe14thDalaiLamaHUAZIWhenPresidentJiangZemingavealectureinHarvardUniversitylastNo...

  9. KMT Envoy Huang Musong Sent to Mourn the 13th Dalai Lama in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    KMTEnvoyHuangMusongSenttoMournthe13thDalaiLamainLhasaSEXINLOBSANGTOINZHUBThe13thDalaiLamapasedawayonthe30thdayofthe12thTibeta...

  10. Murine muscular dystrophy caused by a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 (Lama2) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Wu, X R; Wewer, U M;

    1994-01-01

    The classic murine muscular dystrophy strain, dy, was first described almost 40 years ago. We have identified the molecular basis of an allele of dy, called dy2J, by detecting a mutation in the laminin alpha 2 chain gene--the first identified mutation in laminin-2. The G to A mutation in a splice...

  11. Ciliate protozoa of the forestomach of llamas (Lama glama) from locations at different altitude in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, María Cerón; Marcoppido, Gisela; Dekker, Anna; Fondevila, Manuel; Fuente, Gabriel De La; Morici, Gabriel; Cravero, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the diversity and concentration of the protozoal population from the forestomach of llamas in Argentina at three altitudinal locations. Protozoal diversity was studied in samples from eight llamas from Hurlingham (Buenos Aires, 43 m altitude), four from Tilcara (Jujuy, 2465 m altitude) and six llamas from Cieneguillas (Jujuy, 3800 m altitude). The total concentrations of protozoa in the forestomach contents were 7.9, 9.1 and 4.1 cells x 104 ml-1 in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively (P>0.05). Entodinium spp. represented 97.9, 92.3 and 71.4% of the protozoal community in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively, and the remaining protozoa belonged to the Eudiplodinium genus. Entodinium spp. were identified as E. caudatum (mostly morphotype dubardi), E. longinucleatum, E. parvum, E. bovis, E. exiguum, E. dubardi, and a minor presence of E. bimastus (in three animals) and E. ovibos (in one animal). In regards to the rest of protozoal species, Eudiplodinium maggii is the first reported host record for the genus in llamas. This species was present in the forestomach of 14 out of 18 llamas tested, and in one case it was the unique protozoal species. The vestibuliferids, Dasytricha and Isotricha were absent from the forestomach of llamas. Similarly, other species such as those from the Caloscolex genus, Diplodinium cameli and Entodinium ovumrajae, commonly found in Old World Camelids, were also absent from llamas. PMID:27395861

  12. Pengaruh Letak Daun dan Lama Fermentasi terhadap Mutu Teh Daun Gaharu

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmadini, Fathia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of leaf position and fermentation time on the quality of agarwood tea leaf and to study the potential of agarwood leaf as brewed tea. The research was using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e leaf position (L): (shoot leaf, the second leaf, and the third leaf) and fermentation time (T) : (70 minutes, 80 minutes, 90 minutes and 100 minutes). Parameters analyzed were yield, moisture content, ash content, tannin content, antioxidant...

  13. Korelasi Antara Lama Kebuntingan, Bobot Lahir dan Jenis Kelamin Pedet Hasil Inseminasi Buatan pada Sapi Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Prasojo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research was to study the correlation between the gestation period with sex and birthweight of new born calves as the result of artificial insemination (AI in bali cattle. Data were collecteddirectly from AI technicians in some districts in the province of bali from 1997 to 2003. A total, of 10759inseminated cows and 799 of which were with completed data of, date of birth, birth weight and sex ofcalves. The data were collected from 3 districts, involving Gianyar (205 samples, Badung (221 samplesand Bangli (373 samples. Result showed that the gestation period of bali cows were 284.4±5.7 days andbirth weight of 18.4±1.6 kg. Sex ratios (male : female of bali calves resulted from AI in 1997 to 2003 were1.2:1. There were positive correlation between gestation period and birth weight (P>0.01 as well asbetween gestation period and sex of calves with a high correlation coefficient (0.075 which proved thatmale calves had longer gestation period than females.

  14. Uji Lama Pengeringan dan Tebal Tumpukan Pada Pengeringan Kentang Dengan Alat Pengering Surya Tipe Rak

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, Hendra Samuel

    2015-01-01

    HENDRA SAMUEL MARPAUNG: The Effect of Drying Time and Heap Thickness on Drying of Sweet Potatoes Using Tray Type Solar Dryer, supervised by AINUN ROHANAH and RISWANTI SIGALINGGING. Drying of sweet potatoes in tray tipe solar dryer to make sweet potato flour can be a solution of food problem in Indonesia as the productivity of sweet potatoes is very high and can be made into various of type carbohydrate source of food to substitute rice and grist, and also can reduce fuel consumption. The r...

  15. Evaluation of Lama glama semen viscosity with a cone-plate rotational viscometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, C; Martínez Sarrasague, M; Giuliano, S; Rubin de Celis, E; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M

    2012-05-01

    Llama semen is highly viscous. This characteristic is usually evaluated subjectively by measuring the thread formed when carefully pippeting a sample of semen. The aims of this study were (i) to objectively determine and analyse llama semen viscosity, (ii) to compare semen viscosity between ejaculates of the same male as well as between different males, (iii) to study the correlation between viscosity and other semen characteristics and (iv) to evaluate the effect of collagenase on semen viscosity. Semen viscosity was evaluated using a cone-plate Brookfield rotational viscometer. A non Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour was observed in the 45 semen samples evaluated. Rheological parameters were determined obtaining the following results (mean ± SD): apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1): 46.71 ± 26.8 cpoise and at 115 s(-1): 12.61 ± 4.1 cpoise; structural viscosity (K) (dyne s cm(-2)): 2.18 ± 1.4 and coefficient of consistency (n): 0.45 ± 0.1. Statistical differences were found between different ejaculates of the same male for structural viscosity and apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1) (P viscosity at 115 s(-1) were found between samples incubated with and without collagenase (P < 0.05). PMID:21729143

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Immediate and Sustained Release Cephalexin Administered by Different Routes to Llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreil, Verónica; Ambros, Luis; Prados, Ana Paula; Tarragona, Lisa; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Bramuglia, Guillermo; Rebuelto, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pharmacokinetics of two different cephalexin formulations administered to llamas by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) routes, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cephalexin against some Escherichia coli and staphylococci isolated from llamas, and we apply the PK/PD modelling approach, so that effective dosage recommendations for this species could be made. Six llamas received immediate (10 mg/kg, IV, IM, and SC) and sustained (8 mg/kg IM, SC) release cephalexin. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental approach. Immediate release SC administration produced a significantly longer elimination half-life as compared with the IV and IM administration (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 h, resp.) and higher mean absorption time as compared with the IM administration (1.7 ± 0.5 versus 0.6 ± 0.4 h). Absolute bioavailability was in the range of 72-89% for both formulations and routes of administration. Cephalexin MIC90 values against staphylococci and E. coli were 1.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Our results show that the immediate release formulation (10 mg/kg) would be effective for treating staphylococcal infections administered every 8 h (IM) or 12 h (SC), whereas the sustained release formulation (8 mg/kg) would require the IM or SC administration every 12 or 24 h, respectively. PMID:27051418

  17. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan Urea Di Bulk Storage Terhadap Kadar Ammoniak Bebas Pada PT. Pupuk Iskandar Muda

    OpenAIRE

    Agustia, Delvi

    2011-01-01

    Free ammonia is the ammonia that is not perfect react with carbon dioxide during the process of manufacture of urea in the synthesis unit. Free ammonia is not bonded directly to urea but attached to the grain. Free ammonia would be toxic to plants at certain concentrations. Therefore the content of free ammonia in the urea granules have a reference quality Indonesian National Standard (SNI-2801-1992) and Organitation International Standards (ISO), ie, 150 ppm. From the results of my research ...

  18. Randomized Clinical Trial of Laparoscopic Versus Open Repair of the Perforated Peptic Ulcer: The LAMA Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.E. Bertleff; J.A. Halm; W.A. Bemelman; A.C. van der Ham; E. van der Harst; H.I. Oei; J.F. Smulders; E.W. Steyerberg; J.F. Lange

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become popular during the last decade, mainly because it is associated with fewer postoperative complications than the conventional open approach. It remains unclear, however, if this benefit is observed after laparoscopic correction of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). The goa

  19. Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open repair of the perforated peptic ulcer: The LAMA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.E. Bertleff (Marietta); J.A. Halm (Jens); W.A. Bemelman (Willem); A.C. van der Ham (Arie); E. van der Harst (Erwin); H.I. Oei (Hok); J.F. Smulders; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Laparoscopic surgery has become popular during the last decade, mainly because it is associated with fewer postoperative complications than the conventional open approach. It remains unclear, however, if this benefit is observed after laparoscopic correction of perforated pep

  20. Karakter Visual dan Gaya Ilustrasi Naskah Lama di Jawa Periode 1800-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Yanti Damayanti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of illustrated writing and drawing was found in the old manuscripts of Indonesia. Some parts of those old manuscripts show unique illustrations depicting local identity of Nusantara. It is thought that the manuscript reflects societal culture of thinking as well as aesthetic achievement of visual art. The illustrations of those old Javanese manuscripts were well documented and represented in various visual styles, drawing methods, themes, and visualized objects; even though their visual concepts practically resembles to each other.  The presented paper discusses the visual character and styles of illustrations found in the old manuscripts of Java within the year of 1800-1920. The illustration in those old Javanese manuscripts shows continuous correlation to the visual style of the past era and the present. Thus, it emboldens the characteristics of Indonesian visual states. It reflects structured illustration and visual style as well as expressive symbols of the Javanese society. Illustration of the old Javanese manuscript in the year 1800-1920 showed some changes and uniqueness in its visuals, comprising interaction between animism in the Pre-Hinduism era, cultural paradigm of Hinduism-Budhism, Islamic beliefs, and Colonialism. Having observed the visual illustration in the old Javanese manuscripts, it can be deduced that their styles are characterized as decorative, naturalistic, realistic, simple, and deformed.

  1. Pengaruh Kecepatan dan Lama Sentrifugasi Terhadap Rendemen dan Beberapa Parameter Kualitas Minyak Kelapa Murni.

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Inggrid

    2012-01-01

    Production virgin coconut oil can be produced in various ways, among others with low temperature, the way of fishing and centrifugation means. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variations in the centrifugation speed and duration of centrifugation on the quality of virgin coconut oil. Old brown coconuts obtained directly from the coconut trees from Desa Wonosari Pasar I Dusun XVI Tanjung Morawa. Coconut meat grated, pressed, drawn coconut milk and then ...

  2. Uso de lamas e cinzas da indústria da celulose em clínquer

    OpenAIRE

    Buruberri, Leire Hernando

    2014-01-01

    O destino final dos resíduos gerados no fabrico da pasta de papel em Portugal é uma das preocupações crescentes deste setor, já que as normativas europeias são cada vez mais restritas no que respeita à sua deposição em aterro. Impulsionados por este facto o grupo Portucel/Soporcel (gPS) procura soluções mais sustentáveis, como a valorização dos resíduos gerados no seu processo de fabrico em outros setores industriais. O fabrico da pasta de papel pelo método Kraft utilizado pelo gPS, origin...

  3. Paul G. Hackett, Theos Bernard, The White Lama. Tibet, Yoga and American Religious Life

    OpenAIRE

    Padoux, André

    2015-01-01

    Theos Bernard (1908-1947) fut un des pionniers de la présence puis de la diffusion du tantrisme aux États-Unis – mais d’un tantrisme à l’américaine qui est une trahison complète de la réalité tantrique indienne. Hugh Urban à qui l’on doit l’étude la meilleure et la plus pénétrante sur les formes modernes et contemporaines du tantrisme, Tantra, Sex, Secrecy, Politics and Power in the Study of Religion (Berkeley, 2005), n’intitule pas pour rien le chapitre qu’il y consacre au tantrisme américai...

  4. PEMBERIAN KOLKHISIN DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN BERBEDA PADA INDUKSI POLIPLOIDI TANAMAN PACAR AIR (IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sastriyani Wiendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to induce polyploidy on Impatiens balsamina L. Seedlings of I. balsamina was immersed in 0,01% colchicines solution for 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Chromosome of I. balsamina was visualized using squash method stained with aceto-orcein. Morphological observations were conducted on plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and width, number of branches flowering time and size of flower. The result revealed that 0,01% solution of colchicine was able to induce polyploidy on I. balsamina. Obsevation on morphological characteristic showed that colchicine treatment increased plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and number of branches. Colchicine treatment induced earlier flowering time, but flower size was unaffected. Twelve chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12 were observed in the diploid seedlings while 25 chromosomes were observed in the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 24 seedlings.

  5. Analisis Kadar Bioetanol Dari Glukosa Hasil Hidrolisis Sabut Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera) Dengan Variasi Lama Fermentasi

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Ahmad Ridhoan

    2016-01-01

    Have been done by research concerning Analysis Bioethanol content of Hidrolylisis Cellulose result fiber coconut with time Fermentation Variation. coconut fiber equal to 14,23 of 75 gram coconut fiber and with same actions produced 8,24 gram celullusa of 35 gram Coconut Fiber %. Isolated Celluose of fiber coconut which then is hydrolysis with HCl 1% glucose which was later then analysed with method Of Luff Schroll and discount sugar rate which was equal to 8,38 % with 3 days time Fermentation...

  6. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Xanthan Gum Dan Lama Penyimpanan Terhadap Mutu Sirup Asam Jawa (Tamarindus indica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Palti

    2012-01-01

    The vary of concentration of xanthan gum and the prolonged storage time had been applied to the asam jawa syrup. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the xanthan gum concentration and storage time on the quality of asam jawa syrup. The research had been performed using Factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors, i.e. Xanthan Gum Concentration (K) : 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% and Storage Time (W) : 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Parameters analysed were...

  7. Noninvasive monitoring of PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation and minimal access surgery in adults: End-tidal versus transcutaneous techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Paul; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) may be inaccurate during one-lung ventilation (OLV). This study was performed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive monitoring of PCO2 using transcutaneous CO2 (TC-CO2) with ET-CO2 in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) during OLV. Materials and Methods: In adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgical procedures, PCO2 was simultaneously measured with TC-CO2 and ET-CO2 devices and compa...

  8. Fistulación y canulación permanente del compartimento 1 (Rumen en Llamas (Lama glama Permanent fistulation and cannulation of compartment 1 (Rumen of the Llama (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar estudios de evaluación nutricional de recursos alimentarios potencialmente utilizables por la Llama y relacionarlos con características ruminales de estos animales, hemos practicado fistulaciones permanentes del compartimento 1 (rumen. Cuatro llamas hembras de un peso promedio de 65 kg, fueron fistuladas usando la técnica quirúrgica descrita por Cabrera y col. (1980, 1997. Los animales se mantuvieron sin alimento por 72 h, se atropinizaron, y anestesiaron con Ketamina (Ketostop® i.m. 10 mg/k de peso y se infiltraron localmente con lidocaína al 2%. Se removió un trozo circular de piel de diez cm de diámetro de la fosa lumbar izquierda y los planos musculares subyacentes se separaron usando disección obtusa. El peritoneo fue abierto y la pared ruminal fijada al borde de la piel usando puntos en "U", cuidando de mantener siempre el peritoneo entre las dos capas. Finalmente, el circulo de pared ruminal comprendido entre las suturas, fue removido y la zona fue tratada con Qemispray®. La fístula, fue inmediatamente cerrada con una cánula de goma tipo 10 C (Bar Diamond,Inc., Parma, Idaho, U.S.A. Durante cinco días los animales fueron tratados con antibióticos (I.M. y las suturas fueron removidas al séptimo día. Los animales soportaron muy bien el procedimiento quirúrgico y se adaptaron adecuadamente a la cánula. Actualmente los animales han completado 24 meses de operados sin que hubieran presentado ningún problema derivado de ello, excepto por pequeñas fugas de contenido ruminal en algunas de las cánulas, de escasa trascendenciaTo carry out nutritional evaluation of potentially useful feedstuffs and related ruminal metabolic studies in Llama, we have performed permanent fistulations of compartment 1 (rumen in this specie. Four adult female llamas with a mean weight of 100 kg were fistulated using the surgical technique described by Cabrera et al. (1980, 1997. They were kept without food for 72 hr., atropinized and anaesthetized with Ketamine (Ketostop® i.m. 10 mg/k of body weight. Lidocaine (2% was used for local blockage. A piece of skin 10 cm in diameter of the left upper lumbar fossa was removed and the subjacent muscular layers were separated by blunt dissection. The peritoneum was opened and the ruminal wall was sutured to the edge of the skin using "U" stitches, maintaining the peritoneum between the two layers. Finally, the part of ruminal wall limited by de suture was cut away and all the surgical zone area was disinfected with Quemispray®. The resulting opening was closed immediately with a natural rubber cannula (Bar Diamond, Inc., Parma, Idaho, U.S.A.. Antibiotics (i.m. were used for five days and sutures were removed at the 7th day after surgery. All of the animals, except one, withstood quite well the surgical procedure and adapted well to the cannula. At present, the animals have completed 24 months after surgery without mayor problems. Some of the cannulas showed a minor leak, which is frequent in these procedures

  9. 九世班禅与十三世达赖失和原因探析%The Analysis of the Contradiction between the 9th Panchen Lama and the 13th Dalai Lama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雷

    2006-01-01

    达赖、班禅两大活佛系统,同领藏传佛教格鲁派.清中叶以前的历辈达赖、班禅均能彼此相安,和好相处,各执领地.然而到了清朝末年,在多方因素的制约下,双方产生矛盾并不断升级,最终九世班禅与十三世达赖关系破裂.其矛盾演变结果,对近代西藏地方的发展和中央与西藏地方的关系产生了一定影响.

  10. Fistulación y canulación permanente del compartimento 1 (Rumen) en Llamas (Lama glama) Permanent fistulation and cannulation of compartment 1 (Rumen) of the Llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, R.; LÓPEZ, A; Morales, S.; Salazar, H.; Fuentes, A.M. (Ángela M.)

    2000-01-01

    Para realizar estudios de evaluación nutricional de recursos alimentarios potencialmente utilizables por la Llama y relacionarlos con características ruminales de estos animales, hemos practicado fistulaciones permanentes del compartimento 1 (rumen). Cuatro llamas hembras de un peso promedio de 65 kg, fueron fistuladas usando la técnica quirúrgica descrita por Cabrera y col. (1980, 1997). Los animales se mantuvieron sin alimento por 72 h, se atropinizaron, y anestesiaron con Ketamina (Ketosto...

  11. Kohn, Michael, Lama of the Gobi. The Life and Time of Danzan Rabjaa, Mongolia’s Greatest Mystical Poet

    OpenAIRE

    Charleux, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Michael Kohn, journaliste américain, auteur du Lonely Planet sur la Mongolie et éditeur au Mongol Messenger, nous livre ici un ouvrage portant sur le célèbre Danzan Rabjaa (cyr. Danzan Ravžaa, 1803/4-1856), personnage haut en couleur de l’histoire religieuse, littéraire et artistique de la Mongolie. Connu comme étant le poète mongol le plus fécond du xixe siècle, c’était également une importante personnalité religieuse, qui passa la plus grande partie de sa vie à enseigner et à fonder des mon...

  12. Pengaruh Dosis, Lama Pengendapan Dan Ukuran Partikel Koagulan Serbuk Biji Kelor Sebagai Alternatif Pengolahan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Rudi Anas

    2015-01-01

    Soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of many complex organic compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats and oils. Based on the results of Balai Perindustrian Medan research on soyabean industrial wastewater characteristics in Medan, it found that soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of BOD (4583 mg/l), COD (7050 mg/l), TSS (4743 mg/l ) and oil or fat (26 mg/l ) at pH 6.1. Therefore wastewater treatment is needed to reduce the contaminants contained in ...

  13. Single domain antibodies with VH hallmarks are positively selected during panning of llama (Lama glama) naïve libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monegal, Ana; Olichon, Aurelien; Bery, Nicolas; Filleron, Thomas; Favre, Gilles; de Marco, Ario

    2012-01-01

    Independent variable domains with VH hallmarks have been repeatedly identified in immune and pre-immune VHH libraries. In some cases, stable independent VH domains have been also isolated in mouse and human recombinant antibody repertoires. However, we have come to realize that VHs were selected with a higher efficiency than VHHs during biopanning of a pre-immune (VHH) library. The biochemical and biophysical comparison did not indicate a presence of any feature that would favor the VH binders during the selection process. In contrast, selected VHHs seemed to be more stable than the VHs, ruling out the existence of a thermodynamically - favored VH sub-class. Therefore, we reasoned that a certain degree of thermodynamic instability may be beneficial for both displaying and expression of VH(H)s when the Sec-pathway is used for their secretion to avoid the cytoplasmic trapping of fast-folding polypeptides. Indeed, VHHs, but not VHs, were accumulated at higher concentrations when expressed fused to the dsbA leader peptide, a sequence that drives the linked polypeptides to the co-translational SRP secretion machinery. These data suggest that the thermodynamically favored VHHs can be lost during biopanning, as previously observed for DARPins and in contrast to the recombinant antibodies in scFv format.

  14. Hubungan Lama Rawatan Dengan Status Gizi Pada Balita Penderita Diare Di RSIA Badrul Aini Medan Tahun 2009-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabalok, Hotmauli

    2012-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is one of major health problems of Indonesian society that is more common in toddlers. In the city of Medan, proportion of infants with diarrhea outpatient by 5,8% (45.141) of the 780.706 under-five patients with other diseases. The proportion of infants with diarrhea in the hospital the mother and child Badrul Aini Medan in 2008 was 19,8% (90 people), and increased 3,3% from a year earlier. Toddler diarrhea patients experiencing changes in nutritional status is good with an...

  15. PENGARUH DOSIS DAN LAMA PERLAKUAN EKSTRAK DAUN KALIANDRA MERAH (Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn. TERHADAP STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI GINJAL MENCIT (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Assiam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of red calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsusMeissn. leaf extrac on the histological structure of the kidney of mice (Mus musculus L..Treatment was administered orally with varying doses. This research used a CompletelyRandomized Design in factorial pattern of two factors, doses (0 or control, 2, 4, and 6 mg/kgBW and length of treatment (7, 14, and 21 days, so there are 12 combination groups with 3replications of each. Organ was collected on days 8, 15, and 22 to observe histologicalstructure of the kidney. Renal histological observation of edema, Bowman’s spaceconstriction, and protein deposition, showed no correlation between both factors, but a veryreal correlation occurs in the damage of fatty degeneration, hemorrhage, and nucleuspyknotic. Histological observation of glomerular congestion and infiltration of inflammatorycells did not show any correlation between dose and duration of treatment.Keywords: red calliandra, histopathology of kidney, male mice

  16. First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals. PMID:24933287

  17. Fresh Fruit of Tibetan Studies—Compillation of Chronology of the Dalai Lamas and the Panchen Erdenis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    CHANGYUANQheCentralUniversityPublishingHouserecentlypublishedtheChronologyoftheDalaiLamasandthePanchenErdenis,compiledunderDa...

  18. The fifth Dalai Lama and Tibetan Culture%五世达赖对藏族文化的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    番人

    2005-01-01

    五世达赖喇嘛是藏传佛教史中的重要人物。名叫阿旺洛桑嘉措(ngag—dbang—blo—bzang—rgya—mtsho,1617—1682),其生于1617年10月21日。按藏历说就是火蛇年的九月廿三日。五世达赖是西藏山南地区雅隆河谷的琼结县人。作为四世达赖的三个转世灵童之一。

  19. The Third Dalai Lama So nam Gya tso%三世达赖喇嘛索南加措

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达宝次仁

    2003-01-01

    16世纪是格鲁派在西藏发展相对艰难的一个时期.在与藏巴汗斗争并处于不利地位的关键时刻,三世达赖应邀去蒙古传法,把格鲁派的势力推广至蒙古,为格鲁派的发展赢得了强大的后盾.三世达赖在蒙古地区的传法活动,客观上为民族团结、社会安定及祖国统一也起了积极的作用.

  20. Hubungan Usia Menarche, Lama Menstruasi, dan Riwayat Keluarga dengan Kejadian Dismenore pada Siswi SMK Negeri 8 Medan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Fadhilah Ulima

    2016-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a pain felt during menstruation, usually with cramp and concentrated in the lower abdomen. It was reported as the most common gynecological disorder found in woman of productive age, especially in adolescent. In Indonesia, dysmenorrhea prevalence insidence reach 65%, therefore there is a need to look at the factors associated with the incidence of dysmenorrhoea. This study aims to determine the Relationship between Menarche Age, Menstrual Period, and Family History with Dys...

  1. Hubungan Lama Menstruasi dengan Tingkat Keparahan Dismenore Primer pada Mahasiswi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sumatera Utara Angkatan 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Hizkia Rheinhard

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of menstrual disorders that often occur in women. The primary dysmenorrhead is the pain sensation of lower abdomen during menstruation. Primary dysmenorrhea is influenced by increase in the production of prostaglandins, in addition leukotrienes, and vasopressin is known to also play a role in the primary dysmenorrhea. How much release of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and vasopressin also affects the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dys...

  2. Kualitas Fisik dan Mikroba Daging Sapi yang Ditambah Jahe (Zingiber officinale Roscoe pada Konsentrasi dan Lama Penyimpanan yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komariah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ginger addition in pasta form with different concentration and time of storages on meat tenderness, total microbe, and pH value. The semimembranosus of 2 to 3 years old Brahman Cross muscle from Bogor slaughter house was used for this research. This research was executed at Laboratory of Large Ruminant, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. This research used a completely randomized design with factorial pattern 3 x 4 with 3 replications. First factor was concentration of ginger addition consist of 0, 6, and 8% of meat weight and the second factor was time of storage, consisted 0, 3, 6, and 9 days. The result showed that there was no significant difference of ginger concentration on pH value, in contrast there was a significant difference (P < 0.01 of storage time and interaction between factors. The decreasing pH value influenced tenderness and total microbes. Time of storage and interaction between factors showed a significant effect (P < 0.05 on meat tenderness. Interaction occurred on 6 days of meat storage with shear value 4.43 kg/cm3. The highest tenderness value was obtained on 9 days of meat storage for ginger concentration of, 6% and 8%, i.e. 4.02 kg/cm3 and 3.76 kg/ cm3 respectively. Both factors and their interaction showed a significant difference (P < 0.01 on total microbes. The decrease of total microbes occurred on treated samples but in control total microbe increased until 9 days of meat storage. Six percent ginger addition decreased total microbes until 9 days of meat storage that was 1.5 x 106 cfu/g. In 9 days of meat storage the result showed that 6% and 8% ginger addition had total microbes 3.3 x 107 cfu/g and 2.1 x 107 cfu/g respectively. Antimicrobial activity increased as ginger concentration addition increased.

  3. Perspektif Budaya Jawa dalam Melakukan Perawatan Ibu Nifas di Desa Rawang Lama Kecamatan Rawang Panca Arga Kabupaten Asahan Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Jahriani, Nani

    2015-01-01

    The period of confinement (puerperium) is the period when the placenta begins to come out and ends when the womb restores. Taking care of confinement mothers in the Javanese culture from generation to generation has positive and negative effects on the health of mothers and their children. Therefore, this research was very important to be known by health care providers to make them easier in providing health care. The research used qualitative phenomenological method which was aimed to ide...

  4. PENGARUH NAUNGAN DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN STEK PADA PERTUMBUHAN JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L. DAN JARAK MERAH (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Husein Wawo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two species of Jatropha in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, i.e. physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. and red jatropha or cotton leaved physic nut (1. gossypilfolia L. Both species possess potency as traditional medicine. Propagating jatropha by seeds could not be conducted throughout the year because the seeds were produced on certain time only. On dry season in 2005, a research had conducted in Teun Village, Belu Regency, NTT for studying the effect of shading and cutting storage on the growth of the two jatropha species. This research had 12 treatments with two replications and employed Factorial Experimental Design. The data were processed by SAS (Statistic Analysis System program. The result of this research showed that the growth of physic nut better than that of red jatropha. Light shading stimulated the growth of buds, leaves and roots of cutting of jatropha on 60 days after planting. No significant was found in the growth of buds, leaves and roots of cutting of jatropha that were directly planted and stored for four days. Cutting of both species that stored for four days and placed under light shading (with 70% of light intensity produced higher bud growth and root length than those placed under dense shading (with 30% of light intensity.

  5. Sequential extraction applied to Peruibe black mud, SP, Brazil; Extracao sequencial aplicada a lama negra de Peruibe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson Koyaishi

    2014-07-01

    The Peruibe Black mud is used in therapeutic treatments such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne and seborrhoea, as well as in the treatment of myalgia, arthritis, rheumatism and non-articular processes. Likewise other medicinal clays, it may not be free from possible adverse health effects due to possible hazardous minerals leading to respiratory system occurrences and other effects, caused by the presence of toxic elements. Once used for therapeutic purposes, any given material should be fully characterized and thus samples of Peruibe black mud were analyzed to determine physical and chemical properties: moisture content, organic matter and loss on ignition; pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity and swelling index. The elemental composition was determined by Neutron Activation Analysis, Atomic Absorption Graphite Furnace and X-ray fluorescence; the mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Another tool widely used to evaluate the behavior of trace elements, in various environmental matrices, is the sequential extraction. Thus, a sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate the mud in specific geochemical forms and verify how and how much of the elements may be contained in it. Considering the several sequential extraction procedures, BCR-701 method (Community Bureau of Reference) was used since it is considered the most reproducible among them. A simple extraction with an artificial sweat was, also, applied in order to verify which components are potentially available for absorption by the patient skin during the topical treatment. The results indicated that the mud is basically composed by a silty-clay material, rich in organic matter and with good cation exchange capacity. There were no significant variations in mineralogy and elemental composition of both, in natura and mature mud forms. The analysis by sequential extraction and by simple extraction indicated that the elements possibly available in larger quantities to be absorbed by the skin during treatment are Ca, Mg, Mn and Na. (author)

  6. Konsorsiyumlarda elektronik kitap sağlama modelleri ve Türkiye örneği: eBrary

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Asuman; Akyuz, Asuman; Akbaytürk Çanak, Tuba; Akbayturk Canak, Tuba

    2009-01-01

    Bu bildiride e-kitap dünyasında uygulanan konsorsiyum modelleri ve bir uygulama örneği olarak 2003 yılından itibaren devam eden "ANKOS-Ebrary Konsorsiyumu" ve bu konsorsiyum sonucunda, e-kitap kullanım alışkanlıklarının Türkiye'deki durumu irdelenmektedir.

  7. Efeito hiperbárico na hidrólise enzimática das lamas primárias

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Sónia Ribeiro Veiga de

    2012-01-01

    During the active search for the profitability of solid waste from the production stages of pulp and paper, there is the prospect for energy recovery from the cellulosic fraction of primary sludge, in order to produce second generation biofuels. Indeed, this work intended to study the performance of the enzymatic hydrolysis in the primary sludge and, applying a high pressure pre-treatment, ascertain its real influence through the assessment of determined parameters. It was u...

  8. Expression of the Structure Gene (Pro)collagen of Alpaca Skin%羊驼皮肤结构基因(原)胶原的表达特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞文; 杜红阳; 刘一飞; 董常生

    2009-01-01

    为了揭示羊驼皮肤胶原蛋白(Collagen)在皮肤结构发生中的分子机制,本研究通过构建羊驼皮肤cD-NA文库并进行大规模测序分析,结果表明:在羊驼皮肤内发现只有纤维类胶原表达,即type Ⅰ,type Ⅲ,type Ⅴ collagen,其中type Ⅰ表达最高,type Ⅲ和type Ⅴ表达低;然而,在羊驼皮肤内未发现各类collagen相对应的原胶原(proeollagen),其成员procollagen type Ⅰ,typeⅢ,type Ⅳ,type Ⅵ,typeⅦ,typeⅤⅧ在表达,且type Ⅰ远远高于其他家族成员的表达,由此推断collagen和procollagen type Ⅰ在羊驼皮肤结构发生中起主要作用,羊驼皮肤内的蛋白水解机制可能使procollagen产生不同类型的collagen.

  9. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  10. Generation of a phage-display library of single-domain camelid VH H antibodies directed against Chlamydomonas reinhardtii antigens, and characterization of VH Hs binding cell-surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Rosenberg, Julian N; Wauchope, Akelia D; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Weeks, Donald P; Oyler, George A

    2013-11-01

    Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are powerful tools for the detection, quantification, purification and subcellular localization of proteins of interest in biological research. We have generated camelid (Lama pacos) heavy chain-only variable VH domain (VH H) libraries against antigens in total cell lysates from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The sdAbs in the sera from immunized animals and VH H antibody domains isolated from the library show specificity to C. reinhardtii and lack of reactivity to antigens from four other algae: Chlorella variabilis, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antibodies were produced against a diverse representation of antigens as evidenced by sera ELISA and protein-blot analyses. A phage-display library consisting of the VH H region contained at least 10(6) individual transformants, and thus should represent a wide range of C. reinhardtii antigens. The utility of the phage library was demonstrated by using live C. reinhardtii cells to pan for VH H clones with specific recognition of cell-surface epitopes. The lead candidate VH H clones (designated B11 and H10) bound to C. reinhardtii with EC50 values ≤ 0.5 nm. Treatment of cells with VH H B11 fused to the mCherry or green fluorescent proteins allowed brilliant and specific staining of the C. reinhardtii cell wall and analysis of cell-wall genesis during cell division. Such high-complexity VH H antibody libraries for algae will be valuable tools for algal researchers and biotechnologists.

  11. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llama Lama glama Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Lama_glama_L.png Lam...a_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lam...a+glama&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  13. HUBUNGAN LAMA KERJA DAN POSISI KERJA DENGAN KELUHAN OTOT RANGKA LEHER DAN EKTREMITAS ATAS PADA PEKERJA GARMEN PEREMPUAN DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints are the common symptoms in occupational diseases that can cause workers disability and absenteeism. Objectives: to evaluate the percentage of neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and its relation with occupational and individual factors (socioeconomic, smoking habit, blood sugar level, and body mass index. Methods: a cross sectional study among 778female garment workers in North Jakarta in 2005. Samples were selected purposively with inclusion criteria (age 18—55 years old, minimal 1 year working period. Results: The percentage of neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptom was 75.7 % (in detail 59.9 % on hands, 32 % on neck, 11.8% on shoulders, 11.1 % on back, and 9.6 % on elbow. The symptoms were weariness 81.2 %, hyperesthesia 50.6 %, pain 16.1 %, parasthesia 12.4 %, and weakness 11 %. The factors significantly related to neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were working period and work position. The musculoskeletal symptoms in persons who had 1—10 years working period was higher than 11—25 years working period (OR 1.78 95 %CI 1.15-2.76 p=0.01, and working in sitting position was higher than standing position (OR 1.44 95 %CI 1.02-2.05p=0.038. Intervention through workplace modification such as the table or the chair height can protect workers from neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms.   Keyword : neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms, female workers, garment

  14. Structural Analysis of Connecting Rod Using FEA / Sonlu Elemanlar Analizi ile Rod Bağlama Yapısal Analizi

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Puran; Pramanik, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    In this research connecting rod is one of the most important part in engine assembly which transfers energy from piston to crankshaft and convert the linear, reciprocating motion of a piston into the rotary motion of a crankshaft. The connecting rod primarily undergoes tensile and compressive loading under engine cyclic process. The forces acting on connecting rod are:- forces due to maximum combustion pressure and force due to inertia of connecting rod and reciprocating mass. From the viewpo...

  15. Perbandingan antara Kombinasi Bupivakain 0,125% dan Dexmedetomidin 1 µg/Kgbb dengan Bupivakain 0,125% Melalui Blok Kaudal Terhadap Lama Analgesi Pascaoperasi Hipospadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Caudal blockage is the most frequently used regional anestesia technique in pediatric surgery. Various local anesthetic agents have been frequently used in this technique. Bupivacaine is one of the most used local anesthetics due to its long duration of action. Dexmedetomidin is an α2agonist that is used as adjuvant in lengthening bupivacaine duration when it is administered via caudal blockage. In increasing its effectiveness, the combination of bupivacaine with dexmedetomidin in low concentrationd and low dose can be given. This study was performed to assess the postoperative analgesia duration using caudal blockage between the combined 0.125% bupivacaine-1µg/Kg BW dexmedetomidin and 0.125% bupivacaine solely in pediatric patients having hypospadic surgery. The study was applied to 30 pediatric patients with ASA I and II physical status, and aged 1-6 years that received hypospadic surgery with general anesthesia, to whom caudal blockage applied postoperatively. The patients were divided into two groups. One group (BD group was treated using the combined 0.125% bupivacaine-1 µg/Kg BW dexmedetomidin (0.5 cc/kg BW, the other group (B group was treated with 0.125% bupivacaine (0.5 cc/kb BW as control group. Postoperative analgesia duration was recorded. The data of the study results were assessed using Mann-Whitney test. Postoperative analgesia duration of BD group (863.0 [36.34] minutes was very significantly (p<0.001 longer than that in B group (378.08 [37.87] minutes. The conclusion of this study indicated that the use of combined 0.125% bupivacaine-1 µg/Kg BW dexmedetomidin for caudal blockage as analgetic agent after hypospadic surgery resulted longer analgesia duration than that of 0.125% bupivacaine solely

  16. Treatment of water contaminated with gasoline using red mud as adsorbents; Tratamento de aguas contaminadas com gasolina utilizando lama vermelha como adsorvente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Ernesto B. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Engenharia Ambiental e da Qualidade; Silva, Paula T.S. e [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Campos, Ronaldo J.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Cromatografia Instrumental; Schuler, Alexandre R.P.; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio A. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The underground or superficial water contamination for oil derivatives, mainly gasoline, has attracted the attention, of the civil society and scientific community in function of the great risks that represent for the environment and the health human. On the other hand, the metallurgical industry has special interest in researches that look for applications commonly for the residue of the improvement of known aluminum as 'red mud'. Such element represents an environmental liability, generating considerable costs for treatment and final disposition adapted. The red mud has characteristics adsorbents thankfully. This work seeks to evaluate the potential of application of the red mud as adsorbent for the separation process between water and oil. In this sense the percentile oil removal was evaluated in a polluted water with gasoline, as well as the effects of the following variables: time of contact (t), amount of used red mud (M), concentration of present oil in the water (Ci) and amount of used polluted water (V) through a planning complete factorial type 24. The results presented here are not conclusive. However one argues which the reasons so that the objectives completely were not reached and if it considers solutions. (author)

  17. Perbandingan Kebutuhan Propofol dan Lama Bangun antara Kombinasi Propofol-Ketamin dan Propofol-Fentanil pada Pasien yang Dilakukan Kuretase yang Diukur dengan Bispectral Index (BIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirawan Anggorotomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate administration of safe, easy-to-obtain, and constantly available sedatives and analgesia, is needed for pain reduction throughout curettage procedures. The goal of this study was to examine differences in propofol requirements and emergence time between propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations in patients undergoing curettage. A single-blind randomized controlled trial study was performed on 60 patients who underwent curettage procedures. The patients were divided into two groups: propofol-ketamine (PK and propofol-fentanyl (PF. Blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, and oxygen saturation and BIS data were analysed using a t-test and Mann-Whitney test. This study showed that propofol requirements differ significantly (p<0.001 between the two groups where in PK group where 4/30 subjects received additional propofol, compared to PF group 14/30 subjects received additional propofol. The wake up time for PK group was 25.75±2.47 minutes compared to 21.08±2.52 minutes for the PF group. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. The conclusions of this study are propofol requirements for PK group is less compared to PF group and the emergence time for PK group is longer compared to PF group.

  18. Mevsimsel mizaç bozukluğunda tek uçlu ve iki uçlu farkı: Deksametazon baskılama testi

    OpenAIRE

    Kesebir, Sermin; Yacı, Hale; Gençer, Ali Görkem; Bilici, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is any difference in Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) between unipolar and bipolar cases with seasonal course. Methods: Cases with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (exhibiting seasonal course during SCID-I diagnostic interview, which is a longitudinal course determinant according to DSM-IV) that filled the informed consent form during their recovery period were taken into this study consecutively, during their cli...

  19. Combining somatic mutations present in different in vivo affinity-matured antibodies isolated from immunized Lama glama yields ultra-potent antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, Alex; Blanchetot, Christophe; Schragel, Georg; Sadi, Ava S; Ongenae, Nico; Hemrika, Wieger; Wijdenes, John; Spinelli, Silvia; Desmyter, Aline; Cambillau, Christian; Hultberg, Anna; Kretz-Rommel, Anke; Dreier, Torsten; De Haard, Hans J W; Roovers, Rob C

    2016-04-01

    Highly potent human antibodies are required to therapeutically neutralize cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is involved in many inflammatory diseases and malignancies. Although a number of mutagenesis approaches exist to perform antibody affinity maturation, these may cause antibody instability and production issues. Thus, a robust and easy antibody affinity maturation strategy to increase antibody potency remains highly desirable. By immunizing llama, cloning the 'immune' antibody repertoire and using phage display, we selected a diverse set of IL-6 antagonistic Fabs. Heavy chain shuffling was performed on the Fab with lowest off-rate, resulting in a panel of variants with even lower off-rate. Structural analysis of the Fab:IL-6 complex suggests that the increased affinity was partly due to a serine to tyrosine switch in HCDR2. This translated into neutralizing capacity in an in vivo model of IL-6 induced SAA production. Finally, a novel Fab library was designed, encoding all variations found in the natural repertoire of VH genes identified after heavy chain shuffling. High stringency selections resulted in identification of a Fab with 250-fold increased potency when re-formatted into IgG1. Compared with a heavily engineered anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody currently in clinical development, this IgG was at least equally potent, showing the engineering process to have had led to a highly potent anti-IL-6 antibody. PMID:26945588

  20. Uus töölpeinguseadus : nagu Soomes lama ajal? Ei, veel karmim / Maret Maripuu, Tarmo Kriis, Peep Peterson ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Vestlusringis on sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu, Eesti tööandjate keskliidu juhataja Tarmo Kriis ja transpordi ametiühingu juhatuse esimees Peep Peterson. Lisatud: mida eelnõu muudab? ; ametiühingute keskliidu juhi Harri Taliga kommentaar: dzhungliseaduste tagasitulek? ; Helmes ASi nõukogu esimehe Jaan Pillesaare kommentaar: praegune seadus on tobe

  1. Do cortisol and corticosterone play the same role in coping with stressors? Measuring glucocorticoid serum in free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Ramiro; Novillo, Agustina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Mosca-Torres, Maria E; Cuello, Pablo; Gregório, Pablo; Jahn, Graciela; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Habitat can constrain and shape successful ecological and physiological strategies, thus providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits. However, unpredictable challenges, such as storms, natural disasters, and human activities can also have great effects on stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones that play an important role in how vertebrates cope with these predictable and unpredictable environmental challenges. Although assessing GCs levels can have many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals, with or without capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific complete validation (analytical and biological) before its use. In this work, our aim was to: (a) validate a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring GCs levels in L. guanicoe serum; (b) assess cortisol and corticosterone levels (if present) in serum of wild L. guanicoe individuals; and (c) compare the response to acute stressors (handling, shearing, and release). Our results successfully: (a) validated RIA for asses GCs levels in wild ungulates; (b) confirmed the presence for cortisol and corticosterone and showed that both GCs are differently affected by environmental stimuli in L. guanicoe; and (c) showed that GCs exhibit different patterns in the field and in response to acute stressors, making these camelids an interesting endocrinological model when seeking the adaptive functions of a given variation and further emphasizing the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals. PMID:24115389

  2. Inside story on association between Mao Zedong and Dalai Lama%毛泽东和达赖交往内幕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹固强

    2005-01-01

    一个是开国领袖毛泽东,一个是西藏领袖达赖。建国初期,为了共同的政治利益,两个不同信仰的人走在一起,在近十年的合作中,他们演绎出怎样的政治风云?

  3. 清代达赖喇嘛奏事权探析%A probe into Dalai Lama' s right of presenting memorial directly to the emperor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽楣

    2007-01-01

    清末,十三世达赖喇嘛土登嘉措趁入京觐见的机会向中央政府提出直接向皇帝奏事权的请求,清朝政府依照惯例未予同意.本文据所掌握的历史档案史料,对这一问题的处理过程进行简要分析研究.

  4. Pengaruh Audit Fee, Non-Audit Service, Profil Kap, Dan Hubungan Audit Yang Lama Antara Kap Dan Klien Terhadap Independensi Auditor Dalam Kantor Akuntan Publik Di Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Singarimbun, Adryan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to test empirically the factors that influence the independence of public accountant both partially and simultaneously. The factors cover Audit Fee, Non-Audit Services, the KAP profile, and Audit Tenure. The population in this study was the auditors who worked in the 19 public accountant firms in Medan on 2013. The samples used by purposive sampling of 59 samples. Questionnaire distributed to respondents were 59 and the number of questionnaires that can be a...

  5. fek Penambahan Deksametason 5 mg pada Bupivakain 0,5% terhadap Mula dan Lama Kerja Blokade Sensorik Anestesia Epidural untuk Operasi Ortopedi Ekstremitas Bawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity orthopedic surgery performed with regional epidural anesthesia was still have weakness which is long onset of time. This study was conducted to determine the onset time and duration time of sensory blockade epidural anesthesia between the use of dexamethasone 5 mg addition to 0.5% bupivacaine for lower limb orthophedic surgery. The study was using randomized controlled blind method on 32 ASA I–II patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery under epidural anesthesia. Consecutive sampling and random allocation of block of permutation groups was applied. In group I, dexamethasone 5 mg was added to bupivacaine 0.5% 15 mL while in group II NaCl 1 mL was added to bupivacaine 0.5% 15 mL. The results were statistically tested using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. It was shown that the onset time of sensory blockade was not significantly faster when dexamethasone was added in bupivacaine 0.5%, 13.56 minutes versus 14.31 minutes (p=0.27. The duration time of sensory blockade in dexamethasone in bupivacaine 0.5% group was longer 399.81 minutes, compared to the bupivacaine 0.5% group, 227.43 minutes (p=0.00. In conclusions, the addition of dexamethasone 5 mg to bupivacaine 0.5% 15 mL does not produced faster onset time. However, the duration sensory blockade time is longer than bupivacaine 0,5% 15 mL is used.

  6. A note on the effects of pre-slaughter operations of llamas (Lama glama on the concentrations of some blood constituents related to stress and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Mamani-Linares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of pre-slaughter operations in llamas on physiological (concentrations of some blood constituents and carcass quality (pH and bruises indicators under commercial conditions. Thirty llamas raised on pasture, 18-24 months old and average live weight of 54.2±6.4 kg were transported on a single 3 h journey in one batch to the slaughterhouse. Blood samples were taken on farm one hour before loading, after unloading, after lairage (18 h and during exsanguination to measure the concentrations of various stress-related variables. Mean values for the blood variables showed a significant rise (P < 0.05 in the concentration of cortisol immediately after transport (16.9 ng/mL, as well as CK activity after lairage (528.4 UI/L; β-hydroxybutyrate concentration showed similar mean values for the different sampling times. A total of 19 bruises were found on 9 of the carcasses. The backs (loin of carcasses had more bruises (57.89%, followed by thorax (21.05%. Irregularly shaped bruises were the most frequent (81.25%, followed by circular bruises (18.75%. It was concluded that pre-slaughter handling of llamas under these commercial conditions produced physiological changes similar to those in other species, which fall within acceptable limits for their welfare; however stress could be reduced and adverse effects like bruises could be minimized by designing proper facilities, by following OIE recommendations on the welfare of animals during stunning and by training of personnel handling llamas all along the Bolivian meat chain.

  7. Oestrogen and Progesterone Receptors and COX-2 Expression in Endometrial Biopsy Samples During Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, C P; Meikle, A; Benavente, M A; Álvarez, M A; Trasorras, V L; Miragaya, M H; Rodríguez, E; Aba, M A

    2015-12-01

    Endometrial expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) was evaluated in non-pregnant and pregnant llamas during the period when luteolysis/maternal recognition of pregnancy is expected to occur. Females (n = 28) were divided into two groups: non-pregnant llamas were induced to ovulate with a Buserelin injection, and endometrial biopsies were obtained on day 8 (n = 5) or 12 (n = 5) post-induction of ovulation. Animals of the pregnant group (n = 18) were mated with a fertile male. Pregnancy was confirmed by the visualization of the embryo collected by transcervical flushing in 5 of 9 animals on day 8 post-mating and by progesterone profile on day 12 post-mating in 4 of 9 animals, when endometrial biopsies were obtained. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate receptors population and COX-2 expression. Pregnant llamas showed a higher percentage of positive cells and stronger intensity for ERα than for non-pregnant llamas in stroma on day 8 and in the luminal epithelium on day 12 post-induction of ovulation, while a deep decrease in endometrial PR population was reported in pregnant llamas on that day in luminal and glandular epithelia and stroma. In the luminal epithelium, COX-2 expression was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant animals. Briefly, the increase of ERα in pregnant llamas gives further support to the hypothesis that oestrogens are involved in the mechanism of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Endometrial PR decrease in pregnant llamas might be a necessary event to allow the expression of proteins involved in conceptus attachment, a mechanism widely accepted in other species. Moreover, embryo seems to attenuate maternal PGF(2α) secretion during early pregnancy by decreasing the endometrial expression of COX-2 in the luminal epithelium of pregnant llamas. PMID:26446171

  8. El constructivismo en la política exterior argentina: el caso Pascua Lama en relación al caso Pasteras

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, María del Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Uno de los principales condicionantes de la política ambiental en la Argentina, es que tanto la política exterior como la política doméstica han estado desvinculadas desde la misma incorporación de la temática a la agenda pública. El análisis de los cada vez más recientes conflictos por los recursos naturales en el país, abona a la hipótesis de que la obstinación de la elite política para abrir los procesos decisorios ambientales, ha redundado en acciones cada vez más extremas donde la esc...

  9. Exon array analysis of head and neck cancers identifies a hypoxia related splice variant of LAMA3 associated with a poor prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moller-Levet, Carla S.; Guy N J Betts; Harris, Adrian L; Homer, Jarrod J.; West, Catharine M. L.; Miller, Crispin J.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of alternatively spliced transcript variants specific to particular biological processes in tumours should increase our understanding of cancer. Hypoxia is an important factor in cancer biology, and associated splice variants may present new markers to help with planning treatment. A method was developed to analyse alternative splicing in exon array data, using probeset multiplicity to identify genes with changes in expression across their loci, and a combination of the spl...

  10. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Natrium Klorida (NaCl) dan Lama Perendaman Buffer Fosfat Terhadap Perolehan Crude Papain Dari Daun Papain (Carica Papaya, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Pinta Rizki Mala

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the fruits of commodities internationally, either in the form of fresh fruit or as processed products. The leaves are green still not fully utilized. In papaya enzyme papain which allegedly contained can be used as a meat tenderizer. Papain is a protease enzyme contained in papaya latex, whether in fruit, stems and leaves, as an enzyme capable of solving the protein molecules, current papain into products that are beneficial to human life, either at home or...

  11. Electron microscopy study of red mud after seawater neutralisation; Estudo por microscopia eletronica de transmissao de lama vermelha tratada com agua do mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, S.P.; Kiyohara, P.K. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/LME/USP), SP (Brazil); Antunes, M.L.P., E-mail: malu@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Frost, Ray [Queensland University of Technology (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Red Mud, residue of Bayer process for extracting alumina from bauxite, is produced in large quantity. This residue is very alkaline and can cause damage to health and the environment. One way to minimize the environmental impact of this residue is neutralization by sea water. The Brazilian Red Mud was treated with sea water. It appears that the initial pH of the samples is reduced to 8. The analysis by x-ray diffraction allows to identify the formation of hydrotalcite and aragonite. The transmission electron microscopy images show that this consists of particles with dimensions between 0.02 to 2 μm. It was possible to identify by EDS/MET particles of magnesium, confirming the formation of hydrotalcite. (author)

  12. Stratifying type 2 diabetes cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R.B. Perry (John); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); L. Yengo (Loic); N. Amin (Najaf); J. Dupuis (Josée); M. Ganser (Martha); H. Grallert (Harald); P. Navarro (Pau); M. Li (Man); L. Qi (Lu); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.A. Scott (Robert); P. Almgren (Peter); D.E. Arking (Dan); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B. Balkau (Beverley); R. Benediktsson (Rafn); R.N. Bergman (Richard); E. Boerwinkle (Eric); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); N.P. Burtt (Noël); H. Campbell (Harry); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); F.S. Collins (Francis); C. Gieger (Christian); T. Green (Todd); S. Hadjadj (Samy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); C. Herder (Christian); A. Hofman (Albert); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A. Köttgen (Anna); P. Kraft (Peter); Y. Labrune (Yann); C. Langenberg (Claudia); A.K. Manning (Alisa); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); A.P. Morris (Andrew); B.A. Oostra (Ben); J.S. Pankow (James); A.K. Petersen; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I. Prokopenko (Inga); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); M. Roden (Michael); I. Rudan (Igor); D. Rybin (Denis); L.J. Scott (Laura); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); R. Sladek (Rob); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Vivequin (Sidonie); M.N. Weedon (Michael); A.F. Wright (Alan); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J.B. Meigs (James); J.F. Wilson (James); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D. Altshuler (David); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); P. Froguel (Philippe); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.J. Wareham (Nick); L. Groop (Leif); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); S. Cauchi (Stephane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCommon diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI<25 Kg/m2) compared

  13. Stratifying Type 2 Diabetes Cases by BMI Identifies Genetic Risk Variants in LAMA1 and Enrichment for Risk Variants in Lean Compared to Obese Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, John R. B.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Yengo, Loic; Amin, Najaf; Dupuis, Josee; Ganser, Martha; Grallert, Harald; Navarro, Pau; Li, Man; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Scott, Robert A.; Almgren, Peter; Arking, Dan E.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori; Burtt, Noel P.; Campbell, Harry; Charpentier, Guillaume; Collins, Francis S.; Gieger, Christian; Green, Todd; Hadjadj, Samy; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Johnson, Andrew D.; Kottgen, Anna; Kraft, Peter; Labrune, Yann; Langenberg, Claudia; Manning, Alisa K.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Oostra, Ben; Pankow, James; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, William; Roden, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Scott, Laura J.; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sladek, Rob; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vivequin, Sidonie; Weedon, Michael N.; Wright, Alan F.; Hu, Frank B.; Illig, Thomas; Kao, Linda; Meigs, James B.; Wilson, James F.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia; Altschuler, David; Morris, Andrew D.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Groop, Leif; Frayling, Timothy M.; Cauchi, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Common diseases such as type 2 diabetes are phenotypically heterogeneous. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but patients vary appreciably in body mass index. We hypothesized that the genetic predisposition to the disease may be different in lean (BMI= 30 Kg/m(2)). We performed two

  14. Difteri-Tetanoz-Tam Hücreli Boğmaca ve Poliyo Aşılamasından Sonra Miyokardit: Vaka Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurt, Cemşit; KOÇAK, Gülendam; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Elkıran, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Myocarditis is a process characterized by inflammatory infiltrate of the myocardium with necrosis and degeneration of myocytes. Although most cases of myocarditis are related to viral infections such as coxsakievirus B and echoviruses, immunization (vaccination) may induce myocarditis. Cardiac complications after routine vaccination such as myocarditis, pericarditis are rarely seen. Myocarditis associated with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis and polio vaccination is extremely rare...

  15. Characteristic and Mechanism of CO2 Laser-Induced Melting to PA%CO2激光诱导聚酰胺的融化特征与机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文胜; 周建忠; 黄舒; 樊玉杰

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the melting mechanism between CO2 laser and Polyamide materials,the melting experiment of PA 12 was carried out by low-power CO2 laser with static or scanning way under room temperature,and the morphology of melted samples have been examined by means of light microscopy,scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD),meanwhile,the effect of laser irradiation method and process parameters to melting samples was analyzed.It can be seen that the melting of sample was not obvious with beam 2 mm and power < 1 W,while experimental samples were got pyrogenic ablation with laser power >3 W during irradiating,so power intensity 0.32 W/mm2 is the sample melting threshold.The surface of samples can be melted by static irradiation,while melting depth of samples will increase with the increased laser power and scanning times,and the crystalline of melted samples have obviously improved after irradiation.The results of experiment were in good agreement with theoretical research,which will provide guidance for Polyamide materials micro-processing by CO2 laser.%为了探索CO2激光对聚酰胺材料的热效应融化机理,在常温下,利用低功率CO2激光对聚酰胺PA12进行定位和扫描辐照融化实验,通过光学显微镜和扫描电镜(SEM)观察形貌特征,以及X射线衍射仪(XRD)分析微观结构,研究激光参数和辐照方式对融化特征的影响.实验发现,在光斑直径2 mm时,激光功率<1W试样融化不明显,激光功率>3W热分解显著,激光功率密度0.32 W/mm2是试样融化阈值;激光定位辐照获得固体试样的浅表层融化,当激光扫描辐照时,试样融化深度随激光功率和扫描次数的增大而加深直至完全融化;试样融化后的结晶度有明显提高.实验结果和理论研究相吻合,这对于利用CO2激光进行聚酰胺材料的微成型加工有指导意义.

  16. Montagem e caracterização elétrica de pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS Assembly and electrical characterization of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosane Aparecida Tarôco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a review of the design features and the electrochemistry characterization of anode-supported planar SOFC. Studies and results of metallic alloy interconnectors and recovery for protection against corrosion and for contact layer are showed. Moreover a discussion of examples of measurements of impedance spectrometry, according to the literature and our experimental results are made. For the anode supported fuel cells the power density varies from 0.1 to 0.5 Wcm², according to results in the literature (showed in this paper. For electrolyte supported fuel cell the power density can be 10 Wcm-2 for high temperatures. An English-Portuguese glossary of most used terms in SOFC stack is given for greater clarity and to introduce new terms to the reader.

  17. 论十四世达赖喇嘛的历史观——兼评托马斯·莱尔德《西藏的历史:达赖喇嘛访谈录》%On the 14th Dalai Lama's concept of history-also a comment on The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama by Thomas Laird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁俊艳

    2009-01-01

    文章利用笔者所译托马斯·莱尔德一书中的资料,对十四世达赖喇嘛在该书中所反映的历史观进行了系统、深入和较为全面的探讨,十四世达赖喇嘛的历史观是他在1959年流亡印度、建立"流亡政府",从事"西藏独立"活动的过程中逐渐形成的,主要包括三方面的内容:宗教神学史观、分裂史观、主观主义史观.研究十四世达赖喇嘛的历史观,对于深刻认识其言行及思想本质,揭露其分裂阴谋具有重要的意义.

  18. Çeşitli Islatma ve Haşlama İşlemlerinin Kuru Baklagillerin Çinko, Demir ve Kalsiyum Değerlerine Etkisi-II: Haşlama İşlemleri Sırasında Oluşan Mineral Kayıpları

    OpenAIRE

    Akgün, Bengül; Yücecan, Sevinç; Kayakırılmaz, Kadriye

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the amount of zinc, iron and calcium that leaches to the boiling water for severally dry legumes. The zinc, iron and calcium loss of dry legumes are observed during the process of boiling. These losses of minerals are caused by the leaching of minerals to the boiling water. According to the results of research, mineral losses to the boiling water through leaching for zinc are between 5.75-16.33%, for iron are between 4.02-11.56%, for calcium are be...

  19. Turbocharger Lubrication - Lubricant Behavior and Factors That Cause Turbocharger Failure / Turboşarj Yağlama - Yağlama Davranışı ve Turboşarj Arızasına Neden Olan Faktörler

    OpenAIRE

    Dellis, Polychronis; Retzios, Evaggelos; Geralis, Alcibiades; Gasparakis, Elias; Pesiridis, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of the turbocharger lubrication system and at the same time an attempt to point out and analyze the factors responsible for turbocharger wear, damage and failures. In particular, the conditions under which the lubricant works are presented, from its entrance up to its exit from the turbocharger bearing housing. Additionally, the consequences of failure to comply with the instructions for appropriate turbocharger operation, are provided by the various manufacturers....

  20. Contemporary Tibetan's View of Tulkus(sprul-sku)%当代藏族人的活佛观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嘎·达哇才仁

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction This article relies on a combination of questionnaires and interviews in an attempt to understand contemporary Tibetans' basic opinions of and attitudes towards incarnate lamas.The incarnate lama is the highest religious practitioner in Tibetan Buddhism.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LOC syndrome is caused by mutations in the LAMA3 gene, which provides instructions for making one part ( ... three subunits, called alpha, beta, and gamma. The LAMA3 gene carries instructions for the alpha subunit; the ...

  2. The analysis of different clinical features between asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients%慢性阻塞性肺疾病-哮喘重叠综合征和COPD患者临床特征的差异性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓梅; 贺云鹏; 许元文

    2016-01-01

    ACOS and 80 patients with COPD from 2013 to 2015 in our hospital in 30%≤FEV1<80% in the stable phase. The common data of the enrolled patients included the age,sex,smoking, and allergic rhinitis or other allergic diseases in family. We analyzed laboratory index including PaO2,PaCO2,CRP,white blood cells,IgE of serums and compared the proportion of antibiotics,system used of glucocorticoid and noninvasive ventilation in hospitalization of acute exacerbation and followed up exacerbating frequency after using ICS united LABA/LAMA. Results The age and smoking index in the ACOS group were lower than the COPD group (P < 0.05). The allergic rhinitis or other familial allergic diseases,lower age of 60,the high IgE in serum were risk factor, in ACOS. In acute exacerbation, the PaCO2,IgE and WBC in serum were higher than that of the COPD group(P <0.05). The midian length of stay in hosipital was 12 days in the ACOS group and 8 days in the COPD group. The proportion of antibiotics,systemic administration of glucocorticoid and noninvasive ventilation in hospitalization of acute exacerbation in the ACOS group were higher than that of the COPD group (P < 0.05). The exacerbating frequency was decreased after using ICS united LABA/LAMA(1.2±0.6 vs 3.8±1.3,P < 0.05)in both ACOS and COPD groups. Conclusions The allergic diseases may participate in ACOS, in which it has familial tendency. In acute exacerbation, ACOS patients had even more inflammation and faster course than COPD patients. Using ICS united LABA/LAMA can reduce exacerbating frequency in ACOS.

  3. The Effect of TGF-β3 on the Melanocyte Cultured in vitro of Alpaca%TGF-β3对体外培养的羊驼黑色素细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彧; 石占全; 姬凯元; 杨姗姗; 范瑞文

    2015-01-01

    为了研究转化生长因子β3(Transforming growth factor beta3,TGF-β3)对体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞表型的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度TGF-β3(6.25、12.5、25、50 ng·mL-1),通过实时监测和检测细胞增殖、毛色相关基因小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)、酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)和酪氨酸酶相关蛋白2(Tyrosinase related protein 2,TYRP2)表达以及黑色素产量的变化.结果表明:(1)在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加50 ng·mL-1浓度的TGF-β3后,在前30 h内对细胞增殖有抑制效果,30 h后对细胞增殖有明显的长时程维持细胞数量作用,但对TGF-β3添加的剂量没有依赖性;(2)添加TGF-β3后,黑色素细胞内MITF、TYR和TYRP2的表达量均被下调,而且黑色素细胞产生黑色素的量也被下调,主要以添加50 ng·mL-1时下调最为显著.结果揭示,TGF-β3通过对羊驼黑色素细胞内MITF、TYR和TYRP2的表达的影响,并调控黑色素的产生,对黑色素细胞的生物学功能具有重要的影响.

  4. AcEST: DK945480 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =3 SV=1 40 0.005 sp|Q8C3L1|CC032_MOUSE Uncharacterized protein C3orf32 homolog OS... 37 0.030 sp|Q61789|LAMA3...----KAKQPRRCHLCSGSGRRRCSTCS 231 >sp|Q61789|LAMA3_MOUSE Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Mus musculus GN=Lama3 PE=1

  5. Comparison of resource use by COPD patients on inhaled therapies with long-acting bronchodilators: a database study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Chris M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this analysis was to compare health care costs and utilization among COPD patients who had long-acting beta-2 agonist (LABA OR long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA; LABA AND LAMA; or LABA, LAMA, AND inhaled corticosteroid (ICS prescription claims. Methods This was a 12 month pre-post, retrospective analysis using COPD patients in a national administrative insurance database. Propensity score and exact matching were used to match patients 1:1:1 between the LABA or LAMA (formoterol, salmeterol, or tiotropium, LABA and LAMA (tiotropium/formoterol or tiotropium/salmeterol, and LABA, LAMA and ICS (bronchodilators plus steroid groups. Post-period comparisons were evaluated with analysis of covariance. Costs were evaluated from a commercial payer perspective. Results A total of 523 patients were matched using 29 pre-period variables (e.g., demographics, medication exposure. Post-match assessments indicated balance among the cohorts. COPD-related costs differed among groups (LABA or LAMA $2,051 SE = 91; LABA and LAMA $2,823 SE = 62; LABA, LAMA and ICS $3,546 SE = 89; all p Conclusions Significant cost differences driven mainly by pharmaceuticals were observed among LABA or LAMA, LABA and LAMA and LABA, LAMA and ICS therapies. A COPD-related cost offset was observed from single bronchodilator to two bronchodilators. Addition of an ICS with two bronchodilators resulted in higher treatment costs without reduction in other COPD-related costs compared with two bronchodilators.

  6. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2014-01-01

    , urgentness and resource usage over a dense-time model. The semantic interpretation of PACoR is defined in the form of a timed transition system expressing the timed behavior and dynamic creation of processes. We define a translation of PACoR systems to Parameterized Stopwatch Automata (PSA). The translation...... preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification.......This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness...

  7. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control ani...

  8. The Politics of Livestock Sector Policy and the Rural Poor in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fairfield, Tasha

    2006-01-01

    This working paper explores public policies that would advance pro-poor development in the livestock sector, with special attention to organized actors, their interests, and the political feasibility of state initiatives. It focuses on two sub-sectors that involve large numbers of small producers: the dairy sector and the alpaca sector. Emphasis is placed on the latter, since there is a greater potential role for Peru's weak, neo-liberal state in promoting pro-poor development in the alpaca s...

  9. Production and characterization of red mud based on glasses for the immobilization of nuclear wastes; Obtencao e caracterizacao de vidros a base de lama vermelha visando a imobilizacao de rejeitos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Heveline

    2015-07-01

    Glasses based on red mud, a residual material from bauxite processing, were developed and characterized in this work. In order to promote its use, a minimum 60 wt% of red mud was used in the production of the glasses. According to XRD results, materials containing considerable amorphous phases were produced when using red mud as raw material. These amorphous phases were observed even though crystalline phases associated to Fe coming from the red mud itself were present. The material denominated 60L40S, which has a nominal composition of 60 wt% red mud showed the best properties comparing with the others compositions studied. However, these materials presented a high melting temperature. Changes in the composition of this material were made with the objective of lowering this temperature. Results indicated that the changes made to the material were successful in the reduction of the melting temperature. However, a reduction in the chemical properties of the resulting material was observed. Elements usually found in the chemical composition of nuclear wastes were added to the glasses produced. It was done with the objective of determining the effect of these elements on the chemical and physical properties of the red mud based glasses obtained. It was found that it was possible to add up to 15 wt% of these elements to the materials produced. The addition of these simulant materials promoted a reduction in the melting temperature of the resulting material. Above 15 wt%, the added elements precipitate in the structure of the resulting material. Even though the reduction in the chemical durability of the 60L40S material when simulant elements were added, it was observed that this material contained the simulant elements confined in its structure when in contact with water. This is a promising result, since it indicates that the 60L40S has the potential to immobilize elements from nuclear wastes . (author)

  10. Estudo sobre a utilização da lama vermelha para a remoção de corantes em efluentes têxteis Study on the use of red mud for removal of dyes from textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Batista da Silva Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud is the principal residue of the alumina (Al2O3 industry. Generated during the Bayer process, it is characterized by strong alkalinity and ion exchange. Iron oxides are the principal component (30 to 60%. Annually millions of tons of red mud are generated in the world. Red mud disposal is responsible for a large part of the cost of alumina production. On the other hand, textile industry wastewaters containing dyes have a great impact on the environment and on human health. In this paper the possibility of applying red mud for the removal of dyes was investigated by two processes: adsorption and degradation by the Fenton reagent.

  11. Studies on Chinese Translation and Publication of Love Songs of the Sixth Dalai Lama Tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho in Recent Years%仓央嘉措情歌汉语译介出版研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武江

    2011-01-01

    近年来,仓央嘉措情歌的汉语译介出版达到了一个前所未有的高潮.从翻译出版学的角度,分析仓央嘉措情歌汉语译介出版的不同阶段、译介出版传播的形式、存在的问题将给人们以思考与启迪.

  12. The Biography of the 5th Dalai Lama and the studies of the history of China's norhwest nationalities%《五世达赖喇嘛传》与西北民族史研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正寅

    2004-01-01

    《五世达赖喇嘛》中有许多反映蒙古和西藏政治、文化、宗教情况的资料,是研究西藏地方史、清朝断代史、宗教史和民族史的重要著述.本文简要论述了这部自传的史料价值.

  13. A Brief Introduction to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Ngawang Losang Thubten Gyatso%十三世达赖喇嘛阿旺洛桑土登嘉措浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    多杰才旦

    2004-01-01

    本文以多种渠道获得的访谈及文献资料为基础,从多种角度对十三世达赖喇嘛阿旺洛桑土登嘉措的一生进行了个性化的概括和评述,并试图通过对其间发生的重大历史事件的剖析,真实地反映出这一历史时期西藏地方与中央政府关系的本来面貌.

  14. Research on the Fifth Dalai Lama and the Event Rebelled against the Qing Dynasty by Wu Sangui%五世达赖喇嘛与吴三桂反清叛乱事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林

    2005-01-01

    本文应用全新的史料,全面分析、考察了五世达赖喇嘛在吴三桂反清叛乱事件中的所作所为,对以往研究者在这一问题上所持的两种截然不同的观点进行了甄别.

  15. The Eighth Dalai Lama and to Put down the Kuoerka to Harass Tibet%八世达赖剌嘛与平定廓尔喀侵扰西藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    星全成

    2005-01-01

    18世纪末,廓尔喀先后两次入侵西藏,损害了包括西藏人民在内的整个中华民族的尊严.清王朝及时发兵西藏,在达赖喇嘛和西藏人民的协持下,迅速驱逐廓尔喀,从而保卫了西藏,巩固了边防,解除了西藏人民的灾难,增强西藏地方政府和全体民众的向心力.

  16. The Cultural Interpretation of the Thirteen Codes Established in the Period of Fifth Dalai Lama%五世达赖时期制定的十三法典的文化解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄全毅

    2011-01-01

    五世达赖时期制定的,是藏族文化发展史上具有代表性的一部法典,它是古代西藏成文法的集大成者.立法严谨、内容丰富,为清代西藏稳定与发展发挥了重要作用.

  17. 1906-1908年日本当局与十三世达赖喇嘛的接触%Japanese Government's Contact with the 13th Dalai Lama during 1903-1908

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永章

    2005-01-01

    本文主要利用日文资料,探析了1906-1908年期间日本当局与流亡内地的十三世达赖喇嘛的种种接触,披露了许多鲜为人知的史实.指出日本政府从其"大陆政策"出发,利用各种手段接近和拉拢达赖喇嘛,并大肆灌输"亲日"及"联日"思想,怂恿西藏独立,企图实现"日藏邦交",使西藏成为其附庸,这充分暴露了20世纪初日本当局企图染指我国西藏的险恶用心.

  18. On "Sarkozy Meeting with Dalai Lama"——Based on "Theoretical Model of Face and Favor"%"萨达会"事件析论——以"人情-面子"理论模型为分析依据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛长振; 朱中博; 张芸

    2009-01-01

    用黄光国的"人情-面子"理论来看"萨达会".①[1]事件,可认为中法友谊是一种朋友问的"混合性关系".在这种关系中,相互间应按"人情法则"办事,讲"人情"和"面子",照顾对方面的核心利益.而法方反反复复在中国最关注的西藏问题上撒盐插刀,使中方大失"面子".因此,中方做出了强烈反应是合情合理的.

  19. Produção de biogás a partir da co-digestão anaeróbica de lamas de suinicultura com farinhas animais

    OpenAIRE

    Pratas, Ricardo Silva, 1986-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 A digestão anaeróbia apresenta-se como uma tecnologia promissora, com a capacidade de integrar a gestão ambiental de resíduos com a produção de energia renovável e a redução da emissão de gases com efeito estufa. Apesar da produção de energia a partir do biogás serem baseadas em tecnologias de combustão convencionais, existe uma conversão de CH4 em CO2, o qu...

  20. Perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik heat cured akibat kelembaban dan lama penyimpanan (Changes in glass transition temperature and heat cured acrylic resin mass due to moisture and storage time)

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acrylic resins, especially poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was introduced in 1937. Acrylic resin has favorable properties, among others, aesthetic, color and texture similar to that of the gingival aesthetic in the mouth, relatively low water absorption and dimensional changes. However, some studies suggest that the duration of storage of acrylic resin will affect the changes in the glass transition temperature and the mass of acrylic resin. Purpose: The objective of this research...

  1. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars; Avaliacao da lama vermelha como material pozolanico em substituicao ao cimento para producao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C., E-mail: elizmanfroi@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: malik@valores.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of cerebral oxygen during assisted ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Erin A.; Dukatz, Christopher; Sood, Beena G.; Wider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Changes in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) has a direct though transient effect on the cerebral vasculature and cerebral circulation. Decreased PaCO2 levels lead to vasoconstriction and can result in dangerously low levels of cerebral perfusion that resolve in 4–6 h. It is currently believed that perfusion abnormalities contribute to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in the neonate. PaCO2-induced vasoconstriction may contribute t...

  3. Cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in normotensive and hypertensive man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tominaga, S; Strandgaard, S; Uemura, K;

    1976-01-01

    curve suggested a decrease in reactivity below a PaCO2 of 30 to 35 mm Hg in both groups. Above a PaCO2 of 35 mm Hg, exponential regression analysis yielded a mean reactivity of 6 +/- 2%, whereas below a PaCO2 of 30 mm Hg it was about 2%. The rise in CBF during CO2 inhalation was not influenced...

  4. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  5. AcEST: DK948106 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rio GN=... 34 0.84 sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMAN Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN... 34 0.84 sp|Q49YU4|GAT...FC C GFY + ++ A CKPC Sbjct: 819 DPNAVGNCNRESGECLKCIYNTAGVFCDRCKQGFYGDARAANVADKCKPC 868 >sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMA...N Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LAMA3 PE=2 SV=2 Length = 3333 Score = 33.9 bits (76), Expect =

  6. NEW BOOKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    4th Dalai Lama Yundain GyamcoAuthored by 5th Dalai Lama and translated by Chen Qingying and Ma Lianlong, the book tells the life of the 4th Dalai Lama who was the only non-Tibetan among the various generations of the Dalai Lama.As he was the first reincarnated Mongolian Living Buddha of the Gelug Sect, he held an important position in the history of the Gelug Sect. His period was a period filled with social changes, and little historical materials are found to cover his period. Publication of the book, published by the Tapei All Buddhist Cultural Undertakings Co. Ltd., is obviously a must-read book.

  7. High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation Combined with Volume Guarantee in a Neonatal Animal Model of Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess volume guarantee (VG ventilation combined with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV strategy on PaCO2 regulation in an experimental model of neonatal distress syndrome. Methods. Six 2-day-old piglets weighing  kg were used for this interventional experimental study. Animals were ventilated during physiologic lung conditions and after depletion of lung surfactant by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. The effect of HFOV combined with VG on PaCO2 was evaluated at different high-frequency expired tidal volume (VThf at constant frequency ( and mean airway pressure (mPaw. Fluctuations of the pressure (ΔPhf around the mPaw and PaCO2 were analyzed before and after lung surfactant depletion. Results. PaCO2 levels were inversely proportional to VThf. In the physiological lung condition, an increase in VThf caused a significant decrease in PaCO2 and an increase in ΔPhf. After BAL, PaCO2 did not change as compared with pre-BAL situation as the VThf remained constant by the ventilator. Conclusions. In this animal model, using HFOV combined with VG, changes in the VThf settings induced significant modifications in PaCO2. After changing the lung condition by depletion of surfactant, PaCO2 remained unchanged, as the VThf setting was maintained constant by modifications in the ΔPhf done by the ventilator.

  8. Probing Brain Oxygenation with Near Infrared spectroscopy, the Role of Carbon Dioxide and Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. A simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2 is presented. It can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. It enable the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. Controlled breathing can change the PaCO2. Experiments on human subjects relating the PaCO2 to rSO2, measured with brain oximeters, are presented. A simple model relating the mean blood pressure to CBF is worked out.

  9. Four of the south americans working at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Peruvian Jose Lamas Valverde (at back), and Brazilians (clockwise from right) Miriam Gandelman, Erica Polycarpo and Leandro de Paula Le peruvien Jose Lamas Valverde (au fond) et (dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre, a partir du centre) les bresiliens Miriam Gandelman, Erica Polycarpo et Leandro de Paula

  10. Genetics Home Reference: junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Junctional epidermolysis bullosa results from mutations in the LAMA3 , LAMB3 , LAMC2 , and COL17A1 genes. Mutations in each ... of all cases of junctional epidermolysis bullosa . The LAMA3 , LAMB3 , and LAMC2 genes each provide instructions for ...

  11. A Mandala's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A Tibetan Buddhist monk, Lama Tenzin, spent a week at the Manhattan private school where the author of this article was the middle school director. Lama Tenzin did not come to introduce students to Buddhism or to explain the plight of the Tibetan people. Instead, he came to create a piece of art that is a specialty of his and his brother monks': a…

  12. Potala Palace Reappears with Splendor and Spectacle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangCongbiao

    2003-01-01

    The original Potala Palace, built in the 7th century for the meditation by King Songtsen Gampo, was ruined in natural disasters and human wars in ensuring centuries and little had remained. The current structure was rebuilt by the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century and became the Winter Palace of Dalai Lamas from that time.

  13. The application of transcutaneous CO2 pressure monitoring in the anesthesia of obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiang Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the correlation and accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PTCCO2 with regard to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Twenty-one patients with BMI>35 kg/m(2 were enrolled in our study. Their PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2, as well as PTCCO2 values were measured at before pneumoperitoneum and 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after pneumoperitoneum respectively. Then the differences between each pair of values (PetCO2-PaCO2 and. (PTCCO2-PaCO2 were calculated. Bland-Altman method, correlation and regression analysis, as well as exact probability method and two way contingency table were employed for the data analysis. 21 adults (aged 19-54 yr, mean 29, SD 9 yr; weight 86-160 kg, mean 119.3, SD 22.1 kg; BMI 35.3-51.1 kg/m(2, mean 42.1,SD 5.4 kg/m(2 were finally included in this study. One patient was eliminated due to the use of vaso-excitor material phenylephrine during anesthesia induction. Eighty-four sample sets were obtained. The average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference was 0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (mean ± SD. And the average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference was 10.3 ± 2.3 mmHg (mean ± SD. The linear regression equation of PaCO2-PetCO2 is PetCO2 = 11.58+0.57 × PaCO2 (r(2 = 0.64, P<0.01, whereas the one of PaCO2-PTCCO2 is PTCCO2 = 0.60 + 0.97 × PaCO2 (r(2 = 0.89. The LOA (limits of agreement of 95% average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference is 10.3 ± 4.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD, while the LOA of 95% average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference is 0.9 ± 2.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD. In conclusion, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring provides a better estimate of PaCO2 than PetCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

  14. Effect of α-MSH on Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Skin Melanocytes in vitro%α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖和黑素生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志慧; 白瑞; 范瑞文; 杨刚; 董彦君; 贺俊平; 董常生

    2010-01-01

    旨在研究α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone,α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞(Melano-cyte,MC)增殖和黑素合成的影响.体外培养正常羊驼皮肤黑素细胞,观察不同浓度α-MSH(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol·L-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、黑素含量、表皮黑皮素-1受体(Melanocortin 1 receptor,MC1R)基因、小眼畸形相关转录因(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)基因表达量的影响.结果表明,α-MSH处理羊驼皮肤黑索细胞3 d后,羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增多,黑素含量、MC1R和TYR基因表达量都明显增加(P<0.05),以10-8mol·L-1组最为显著,MITF基因表达量也明显增加(P<0.05),以10-7mol·L-1组最为显著.α-MSH能诱导羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、树突增长、黑素合成增加、MC1R、MITF和TYR基因表达量增高.

  15. Safety of long acting muscarinic antagonists: are all these drugs always and equally safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Andrea S; Sestini, Piersante

    2016-05-01

    Inhaled bronchodilators - such as long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) - are central to the pharmacological management of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. LAMAs are considered to be safe drugs at recommended dosages. In the present issue of the Journal safety of umeclidinium, a recently marketed LAMA, at twice the recommended dosage, has been evaluated with good results in a Japanese, COPD population. However, because muscarinic receptors are expressed not only in the lungs but also at the level of heart, digestive and urinary apparatus, the potential exists for LAMAs to cause adverse events related to stimulation of receptors in these organs. Head-to-head and post-marketing vigilance studies are required to determine the profile risk of these drugs, ultimately, and whether differences exist between currently available LAMAs. PMID:26789695

  16. AcEST: DK958629 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 82|FBLN1_DANRE Fibulin-1 OS=Danio rerio GN=fbln1 PE=2 SV=1 34 0.57 sp|Q61789|LAMA3_MOUSE Laminin subunit alp...ha-3 OS=Mus musculus GN... 33 1.3 sp|Q148I1|PAAF1_BOVIN Proteasomal ATPase-associated factor 1 OS=... 33 1.7 sp|Q16787|LAMA3... LA +GR C Sbjct: 474 HNTPGSFH-CTCPASGYTLAANGRSC 498 >sp|Q61789|LAMA3_MOUSE Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Mus mu...KEDTSLPCV 272 +ED L C+ Sbjct: 254 LLLAREDKKLQCL 266 >sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMAN Lamini...n subunit alpha-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LAMA3 PE=2 SV=2 Length = 3333 Score = 32.3 bits (72), Expect = 2.2 Iden

  17. AcEST: DK945084 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q16787 Definition sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMAN Laminin subunit a... Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMAN Laminin subunit alph...ase subtilisin/kexin typ... 29 6.5 >sp|Q16787|LAMA3_HUMAN Laminin subunit alpha-3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LAMA3 P...AN Laminin alpha 3 splice variant b2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=LAMA3 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 3277 Score = 33.1 bits (74)...++ Sbjct: 480 GPRCDTCRSGFYSF--PICQACWCSALGSYQMPCSSV 514 >tr|B0YJ32|B0YJ32_HUMAN Laminin alpha-3 chain varian

  18. Carbon dioxide monitoring during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery in severely obese patients: transcutaneous versus end-tidal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Joanna M; McKee, Chris; Tobias, Joseph D; Herz, Daniel; Sohner, Paul; Teich, Steven; Michalsky, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Various factors including severe obesity or increases in intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy can lead to inaccuracies in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) monitoring. The current study prospectively compares ET and transcutaneous (TC) CO2 monitoring in severely obese adolescents and young adults during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery. Carbon dioxide was measured with both ET and TC devices during insufflation and laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The differences between each measure (PETCO2 and TC-CO2) and the PaCO2 were compared using a non-paired t test, Fisher's exact test, and a Bland-Altman analysis. The study cohort included 25 adolescents with a mean body mass index of 50.2 kg/m2 undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. There was no difference in the absolute difference between the TC-CO2 and PaCO2 (3.2±3.0 mmHg) and the absolute difference between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 (3.7±2.5 mmHg). The bias and precision were 0.3 and 4.3 mmHg for TC monitoring versus PaCO2 and 3.2 and 3.2 mmHg for ET monitoring versus PaCO2. In the young severely obese population both TC and PETCO2 monitoring can be used to effectively estimate PaCO2. The correlation of PaCO2 to TC-CO2 is good, and similar to the correlation of PaCO2 to PETCO2. In this population, both of these non-invasive measures of PaCO2 can be used to monitor ventilation and minimize arterial blood gas sampling.

  19. Alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen measured by a helium washout technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordanoglou, J.; Tatsis, G; Danos, J; Gougoulakis, S; Orfanidou, D; Gaga, M

    1990-01-01

    A non-invasive technique was developed for measuring alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tension during tidal breathing. This was achieved by solving the Bohr equations for mean alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tensions (PACO2, PAO2) from known values of the dead-space:tidal volume ratio measured by helium washout, and from the mixed expired partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The derived values of wPACO2 and wPAO2 were compared with PaCO2 obtained from arterial gas analysis and P...

  20. Plaadid / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Nelly "Da Derrty Versions The reinvention", Zero 7 "When It Falls", Ilya "They Died For Beauty", Paco De Lucia "Costas Buenas", Murphy Lee "Da Skool Boy Presents", To Rococo Rot "Hotel Morgen"

  1. Moemärke Hispaaniast / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Kuulsad Hispaania moekunstnikud Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Cristobal Balenciaga, Agatha Ruiz de la Prada (sünd. 1960), Oscar de la Renta (1932), Paloma Picasso (1949). Rõivapoodide ketid Zara, Mango ja El Corte Ingles

  2. Linnagaleriis avatakse eramunäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" Viljandi Linnagaleriis. Tutvuda saab 21. sajandi esimestel aastatel Eestis valminud huvitavamate väikemajadega. Kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco Ulman

  3. Täiskasvanute lõbustuspark vee peal / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arhitekt Paco Ulmani fotonäitus "Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 7. augustini 2011. Eksponeeritud fotoseeria kujutab Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm liinidel sõitvate laevade tühje interjööre

  4. Kahe näoga maja / Mark Soosaar, Leele Välja, Tarmo Teedumäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tervisekeskus ja hotell "Hedon" Pärnu ajaloolises mudaravilahoones ja selle juurdeehituses. Arhitektuur: Inga Raukas, Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman (arhitektuuriagentuur Allianss Arhitektid). Sisearhitektuur: Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio). Valmimisaasta: 2014

  5. One-Block CYRCA: an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Singer, Alice; Bronfeld, Hagit; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    One-Block CYRCA is an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries (). It is based on the LAMA and CYRCA block-to-block alignment methods. The procedure identifies whether the query blocks can form new multiple-block alignments (block sets) with blocks from a database or join pre-existing database block sets. Using pre-computed LAMA block alignments and CYRCA sets from the Blocks database reduces the computation time. LAMA and CYRCA are highly sensit...

  6. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer... of the normal business operation of the eligible livestock producer, as determined by the Secretary... cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and (17) Swine. (c) Livestock that are not...

  7. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  8. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU, but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values of clinically stable children on mechanical ventilation were recorded. Children with extra-pulmonary ventriculoatrial shunts were excluded. The P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 difference and its variability and reproducibility were studied. Results: A total of 624 concurrent readings were obtained from 105 children (mean age [SD] 5.53 [5.43] years requiring invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the PICU. All had continuous P ET CO 2 monitoring and an arterial line for blood gas measurement. The mean (SD number of concurrent readings obtained from each child, 4-6 h apart was 6.0 (4.05. The P ET CO 2 values were higher than PaCO 2 in 142 observations (22.7%. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual admission specific (ANOVA, P < 0.001. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference correlated positively with the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension [P(A-aO 2 ] difference (ρ = 0.381 P < 0.0001. There was a fixed bias between the P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 measuring methods, difference +0.66 KPa (95% confidence interval: +0.57 to +0.76. Conclusions: The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual specific. It was not affected by the primary disorder leading to the ventilation.

  9. Eksperimendid ruumis / Toomas Tammis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammis, Toomas, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuriteaduskonnas tehakse erialaprojekti kõrval väga erinevaid ruumilisi harjutusi. Esitletud on valik väiksemate töötubade ja kursuste töid: Kineetilise arhitektuuri töötuba "Volditav, klapitav, rullitav, pakitav", 2014 (juhendaja Renee Puusepp); Parameetrilise disaini valikaine, 2011 (juhendaja Raul Kalvo, assistent Kristjan Männigo); Maketistuudio, 2014 (juhendaja Paco Ulman); Eksperimentaalse arhitektuuri problemaatika, 2014 (juhendajad Martin Melioranski ja Paco Ulman)

  10. Cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation changes induced by inner and heard speech: a study combining functional near-infrared spectroscopy and capnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Klein, Sabine D.; Gerber, Ursina; Wolf, Martin; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inner and heard speech on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and to test whether potential effects were caused by alterations in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2). Twenty-nine healthy adult volunteers performed six different tasks of inner and heard speech according to a randomized crossover design. During the tasks, we generally found a decrease in PaCO (only for inner speech), tissue oxygen saturation (StO), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentration and an increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]). Furthermore, we found significant relations between changes in [OHb], [HHb], [tHb], or StO and the participants' age, the baseline PETCO2, or certain speech tasks. We conclude that changes in breathing during the tasks led to lower PaCO (hypocapnia) for inner speech. During heard speech, no significant changes in PaCO occurred, but the decreases in StO, [OHb], and [tHb] suggest that changes in PaCO were also involved here. Different verse types (hexameter and alliteration) led to different changes in [tHb], implying different brain activations. In conclusion, StO, [OHb], [HHb], and [tHb] are affected by interplay of both PaCO reactivity and functional brain activity.

  11. LAND EVALUATION FOR COTTON CULTIVATION IN THE SOUTH AL_JEZIRA IRRIGATION PROJECT - IRAQ BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Uzaktan Algılama ve Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri Kullanılarak Güney Cezire Sulama Projesi’nde Pamuk Üretimi için

    OpenAIRE

    JAMAL AL-YAAQUBY, SALEEM YAWUZ

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe research aims to assess the suitability of cotton cultivation in South Al_Jezira Irrigation Project Nineveh - Iraq at the actual and in the potential after major improvements possible. By using remote sensing to classify land use and land cover, also using geographic information systems for input and storing the data to building data bank of land resources and land characteristics relate to the land evaluation, also the requirements and limitations for the cultivation of cotton in...

  12. A Historical Analysis of Secret American Instigation of Dalai Lama to Flee the Country around the Signing of "Seventeen-Article Agreement"%"十七条协议"签订前后美国秘密策动达赖出逃历史探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程早霞

    2007-01-01

    "十七条协议"签订前后美国国务院及美驻印度使馆出台了一系列促动达赖出逃的行动计划、方案与建议.文章分析了美国秘密插手中国西藏事务的鲜为人知的历史,揭示了冷战初期美国秘密利用西藏问题阻止中国统一的图谋.

  13. 十三世达赖对"坚塞"的扶植及"坚塞"在施政过程中的作用%On the Thirteenth Dalai Lama Fostering "sPyan bSal" and the Later's Function on Implementing Plitical Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达瓦

    2003-01-01

    十三世达赖喇嘛在他执政后期前所未有地扶植一批"坚塞",并通过他们推行了一系列施政措施.这是特殊时代的特殊历史现象.本文把这一现象放在大的历史背景下作了分析.

  14. William Wordsworth's 'Double Awareness' of Memory in Virginia Woolf's Mrs Dalloway = William Wordsworth'un 'Hatıranın Çift Yönlü Algılaması' Kavramının Virgina Woolf'un Mrs Dalloway Adlı Romanındaki Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali GÜNEŞ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Romanticism in modernist British writer Virginia Woolf's novel, Mrs Dalloway. Although her works are experimental and new, they are part of a wider and developing perspective in the historical process of literary tradition, so that they cannot be viewed as completely breaking away from literary tradition, but rather as a reworking and redevelopment in its evolution. In her reworking of the traditional novel, this paper may suggest that Woolf made it "new" by returning to the Romantics, particularly to Wordsworth. By this claim, this paper does not mean that Woolf copied Wordsworth exactly, but was profoundly and pervasively influenced by his aesthetic views, especially in relation to her understanding of life as "consciousness". By returning to the Romantics, Woolf develops her sense of "reality" as both fragmented and whole, and of the "self" as fragmented but desiring and imagining unity. Hence she not only strove to construct a poetical or lyrical novel to express that contradictory view but also used her fiction to explore the mystery of the subjective consciousness as the dominant modernist view. In order to express her perception of modernist identity, Woolf used memory as a device in Mrs Dalloway and thus developed a new way of narration as well as a new view of human identity. By means of this new method, she left the objective narration of the traditional novel, and thus meaning or the view of identity in Woolf's late fiction is not static but undecided, unfinished and mysterious.

  15. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil "Atrapado en el fango": ecoidioma del sufrimiento con enfermedades respiratorias infantiles en un manglar urbano del Nordeste de Brasil "Atolado na lama": ecoidioma de sofrimento com doenças respiratórias infantis em um manguezal urbano do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn Nations; Ana Paula Soares Gondim

    2013-01-01

    Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Hig...

  16. Orman Kaynaklarının Konumsal ve Zamansal Değişiminin Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri ve Uzaktan Algılama Teknikleri İle İrdelenmesi: İnayet ve Yenice Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İhsan KADIOĞULLARI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Orman ekosistemlerinin sürdürülebilir planlaması ve isletilmesi için, geçmisteki durumlarıyla birlikte orman kaynaklarının zamansal degisimlerinin ve buna etki eden faktörlerin anlasılması oldukça önemlidir. İnayet ve Yenice Orman İşletme Seflikleri'nde (32 660 ha, orman kaynaklarının degisimi zamansal ve konumsal olarak incelenmistir. Çalısma kapsamında, alanın 1987-2001 yılı Landsat uydu görüntüleri sınıflandırılmıs ve 1972, 1993, 2004 yılı mescere tipleri haritaları Cografi Bilgi Sistemleri (CBS ile sayısallastırılarak konumsal analizleri yapılmıstır. Ayrıca, orman kaynaklarının konumsal yapısındaki (orman parçalarının sayı ve konumsal dagılımları değişimi FRAGSTATSTM programı ile belirlenmistir. Ormanlık alanlarda amenajman planları mescere haritasına göre 1972 ve 1993 yılları arasında %3.61; 1987 ve 2001 yılları arasında da %4.74, 1993 ve 2004 yılları arasında %3.37; 1972 ve 2004 yılları arasında %7.10 oranında artış olmustur. Ormanlık alanların kapalılıgı artması nedeniyle kalitesi artmıs ve “c, cd” çag sınıfındaki alan artısı sebebiyle ise orta yaslı bir yapıya dogru ilerlemistir. Konumsal yapı bakımından incelendiginde; dogal gençlestirme, agaçlandırma çalısmaları, yogun orman kullanımı, yasadısı kullanım, yerlesim alanlarının artması ve düz alanlardaki altyapısal gelismeler nedeniyle ortalama orman parça alanı (MPS ve en büyük parça indeksi (LPI azalmıs, parça sayısı (NP ve ormanların parçalılıgı genel olarak artmıstır. Ayrıca, 1972 ve 2001 döneminde arazi kullanımı demografik dinamiklere ragmen ve uygun ormancılık faaliyetlerine baglı olarak ormancılık lehine gelisme göstermistir. Demografik hareketliliginin genelde ilçe merkezinde olması, köy merkezlerinde (kırsal kesimde nüfusun fazla degismemesi nedeniyle orman yapısının degisiminde kısmen etkili oldugu belirlenmistir. Sonuçta; orman kaynaklarının etkin ve sürdürülebilir planlanması için zamansal degisimin özellikle miktar, kalite ve konumsal yapı itibariyle ortaya konulması ve degisime etkili faktörlerin belirlenmesi gerekmektedir.

  17. Okul öncesi dönemine yönelik Görsel Algılama Ölçeği’nin (GAÖ) geliştirilmesi: geçerlilik ve güvenirlik çalışması

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkan, Abdullah; Arslan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool designed to determine visual perception levels of preschool children (age 4-5-6). Construct validity of the scale has been identified through explanatory factor analysis (EFA) while expert opinion has been employed for the content and face validity of the scale. The reliability of the scale has been calculated through checking the significance of Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient, corrected item-total c...

  18. Granulation tissue in the eyelid margin and conjunctiva in junctional epidermolysis bullosa with features of laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Edwin C; Crotty, Anne; Challinor, Christopher J; Coroneo, Minas T; Murrell, Dedee F

    2007-03-01

    Eye and adnexal involvement in epidermolysis bullosa can range from symptoms of mild irritation resulting from conjunctival involvement to severe cicatrization of the ocular surface and adnexa. We describe a unique case of granulation tissue in the eyelid margin and conjunctiva in a patient with junctional epidermolysis bullosa. The eyelid granulation tissue resembled granulomas that seen in laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in an isoform of the LAMA3 gene, LAMA3a. On investigation, our patient had a combination of a unique mutation in LAMA3 and the mutation I17N in LAMA3a, providing further evidence that laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome is a variant of junctional EB. PMID:17362460

  19. Esperanto-Movado en Japanio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOI IEKO

    1996-01-01

    OKA Asajiroo,lama zoologo,estis unuajapano,kiu lernis Esperanton en Germanio en1891.Tamen ne estis li,sed franca pastro,Alphonse Mistler,kiu enkondukis Esperantonen Japanion en 1902.Li instruis Esperanton al

  20. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Maraca " Tremende Rumba", Dynamite Vikings "Vikingology", Tom Jones "Greatest Hits", Melanie C "Reason", Dallas "Delay Lama", Daredevil "The Album", The Stone Roses "The Very Best Of The...", "Providence"

  1. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dear Editor, Ref.To our tele talk to day,I have the honour to write you as you claimed that"Rarely do journalist challenge the Dalai Lama". Dalai Lama is an hypocrite who used to systematically fool people and his principle of peace are too bogus,he must be stopped in the frame work of peace as his fol-lowers are sluggish and kept themself burried under ignorance.

  2. How could it be possible to only follow one s Inclination in choosing the reincarnation of the living Buddhas?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    For over ten years (particularly in re- cent times),the 14~(th) Dalai Lama has from time to time been addressing is- sues concerning his reincarnation.He has frequently said,on various occasions,that if he passed away in India,his suc- cessor-the 15~(th) Dalai Lama,would definitely follow in his political mission.He claimed that the re-

  3. Self-immolation and the exchange of self and others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    On the recent self-immolations as a form of Tibetan protest, the Dalai Lama's statement on it, and its relation to some doctrinal aspects such as karma and the bodhisattvas' ability to exchange of Self and other.......On the recent self-immolations as a form of Tibetan protest, the Dalai Lama's statement on it, and its relation to some doctrinal aspects such as karma and the bodhisattvas' ability to exchange of Self and other....

  4. NEW BOOKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Qing Dynasty Archives On the Dalai lamasThe Dalai Lama was one of the two leaders of the Gelug (Yellow) Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. It won the honorific title of the Dalai lama in 1653 from Qing Emperor Shunzhi, and the Living Buddha had since been following the reincarnation system under the supervision of the Central Government. His soul boy was not legal until he won the confirmation of the Central Government. Whenever there is the need not to go through the set system, Central Government permission is a must.The Dalai Lama also did his best to seek authorization of the Central Government which would therefore issue him certificate of authority and seal of power.All these were recorded in archives, part of which are contained in the book. Its major chapters contain 154 pieces of archives related with certification of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni under the reign of Qing Emperor Shunzhi, the demise of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni, efforts made to look for their soul boys, selection of th

  5. Corrosion of lanthanum magnesium hexaaluminate as plasma-sprayed coating and as bulk material when exposed to molten V2O5-containing salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion behavior of LaMgAl11O19 bulk and plasma sprayed coating has been compared. • Degradation mechanism is investigated based on LaMgAl11O19’s crystal chemistry. • LaMgAl11O19 coating displays inferior corrosion resistance to well crystallized bulk. - Abstract: Corrosion of LaMgAl11O19 (LaMA) bulk and plasma sprayed coating was studied in molten V2O5-containing salt at 710–1050 °C in air. Results indicate that the well crystallized LaMA bulk exhibited prior corrosion resistance to the plasma sprayed LaMA coating with amorphous phase and reduced chemical bond strength in its crystal structure. La–O chemical bonds with the lowest bond energies were the easiest bonds in the LaMA crystal to be broken by molten V2O5-containing salt attack to form LaVO4 at each temperature level for both LaMA bulk and coating. Corrosion products of the LaMA coating were much different at temperature below 900 °C

  6. Heterogeneity of cerebral vasoreactivity in preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of cerebral blood flow to acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and mean arterial blood pressure was determined in 57 preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation (mean gestational age 30.1 weeks) during the first 48 hours of life. All infants had normal brain sonograms at the time of the investigation. In each infant, global cerebral blood flow was determined by xenon-133 clearance two to five times within a few hours at different levels of PaCO2. Changes in PaCO2 followed adjustments of the ventilator settings. Arterial oxygen pressure was intended to be kept constant, and mean arterial blood pressure fluctuated spontaneously between measurements. The data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression, with changes in global cerebral blood flow, PaCO2, mean arterial blood pressure, and postnatal age or intracranial hemorrhage used as variables. In infants with persistently normal brain sonograms, the global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity was markedly lower during the first day of life (mean 11.2% to 11.8%/kPa PaCO2) compared with the second day of life (mean 32.6/kPa PaCO2), and pressure-flow autoregulation was preserved. Similarly, global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity and pressure-flow autoregulation were present in infants in whom mild intracranial hemorrhage developed after the study. In contrast, global cerebral blood flow reactivity to changes in PaCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure was absent in infants in whom ultrasonographic signs of severe intracranial hemorrhage subsequently developed. These infants also had about 20% lower global cerebral blood flow before hemorrhage, in comparison with infants whose sonograms were normal, a finding that suggests functional disturbances of cerebral blood flow regulation

  7. The influence of oxygenotherapy on the hypercapnia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxygen therapy is a necessary therapeutic method in treatment of severe chronic respiratory failure (CRF, especially in phases of acute worsening. Risks which are to be taken into consideration during this therapy are: unpredictable increase of carbon dioxide in blood, carbonarcosis, respiratory acidosis and coma. The aim of this study was to show the influence of oxygen therapy on changes of arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure. Methods. The study included 93 patients in 104 admittances to the hospital due to acute exacerbation of CFR. The majority of the patients (89.4% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, while other causes of respiratory failure were less common. The effect of oxygenation was controlled through measurement of PaO2 and PaCO2 in arterial blood samples. To analyze the influence of oxygen therapy on levels of carbon dioxide, greatest values of change of PaO2 and PaCO2 values from these measurements, including corresponding PaO2 values from the same blood analysis were taken. Results. The obtained results show that oxygen therapy led to the increase of PaO2 but also to the increase of PaCO2. The average increase of PaO2 for the whole group of patients was 2.42 kPa, and the average increase of PaCO2 was 1.69 kPa. There was no correlation between the initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 and changes of PaCO2 during the oxygen therapy. Also, no correlation between the produced increase in PaO2 and change in PaCO2 during this therapy was found. Conclusion. Controlled oxygen therapy in patients with severe respiratory failure greatly reduces the risk of unwanted increase of PaCO2, but does not exclude it completely. The initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 are not reliable parameters which could predict the response to oxygen therapy.

  8. Monitoring of the ventilatory status of anesthetized birds of prey by using end-tidal carbon dioxide measured with a microstream capnometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Rondenay, Yves; Fitzgerald, Guy; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-03-01

    The relationship between end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and blood pH in isoflurane-anesthetized raptors was evaluated. PaCO2 and pH were determined in serial arterial samples from isoflurane anesthetized birds and compared with concurrent end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured with a Microstream sidestream capnograph. Forty-eight paired samples, taken from 11 birds of prey (weighing 416-2,062 g), were used to determine correlations coefficients between PaCO2 and PETCO2, and between PETCO2 and pH. Limits of agreement between PaCO2 and PETCO2 also were calculated. Strong correlations were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (r = 0.94; P capnograph used provided a sufficiently accurate estimation of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide for birds weighing > 400 g and receiving manual positive ventilation with a Bain system. In our study, the linear relationship observed between the pH and the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide suggested that the monitoring of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide also can be useful to prevent respiratory acidosis. PMID:17469268

  9. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds.

  10. A Broad Set of Different Llama Antibodies Specific for a 16 kDa Heat Shock Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Trilling, Anke K.; Hans de Ronde; Linda Noteboom; Adèle van Houwelingen; Margriet Roelse; Saurabh K Srivastava; Willem Haasnoot; Maarten A Jongsma; Arend Kolk; Han Zuilhof; Jules Beekwilder

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) binding to M. tuberculosis an...

  11. Culicoides fauna and bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in South American camelid herds in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-born infectious disease caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). From 2006 to 2010, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) spread throughout Europe, causing severe disease in domestic and some wild ruminant species and in an alpaca. Compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals was the most effective strategy to control and eradicate the BTV-8 epizootic in Europe. However, South American camelids (SAC) were not included in the BTV-8 vaccination programmes in Europe. The presented...

  12. «El irracional es el otro»: Los mecanismos de la interpretación en Antropología

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Ricard Lanata

    2005-01-01

    This article examines two dialogues between the anthropologist and alpaca shepherds of the Ausangate mountains (Cusco region, province of Canchis). Parting from the description and analysis of the concrete interpretation mechanisms used in the anthropological discipline (establishment of a lexicon, logical inferences, etc.), and of its consequences (in particular, the attribution of a pre-rational or irrational mentality, on behalf of the anthropologist, to his farmer-indigent interpreters), ...

  13. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  14. Peculiarities of Brain's Blood Flow : Role of Carbon Dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. This research resulted in a simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy manner, directly from the experimental data. With this model earlier experimental data sets of Rhesus monkeys and rats were well fitted. Human data were also fitted with this model. Exact formulae were found, which can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. The merit of this transformation is that it enable us the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. This transformation makes possible the use of experimental animal data instead of human ones.

  15. Evaluation of the Extension of the Cerebral Blood Flow and its Main Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, A

    1999-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF) - cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), cerebral metabolism, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and cardiac output, the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in being independent of autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and it allows to explore the full range of the CBF. We have developed a simple physical model, and have derived a simple four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy way, directly from the experimental data. With this model five experimental data sets of human, rats, baboons and dogs were well fitted. The same type of parametrization was also used successfully for fitting experimental data of PaO2 of dogs. We have also looked on the dependence of the parameters on other factors and were able to evaluate their dependence on the mean arterial blood pressure.

  16. Involvement of Ca2+ Signaling in the Synergistic Effects between Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists and β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Airway Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kentaro; Kume, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tetsuya; Shigemori, Wataru; Tohda, Yuji; Ogawa, Emiko; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and short-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (SABAs) play important roles in remedy for COPD. To propel a translational research for development of bronchodilator therapy, synergistic effects between SABAs with LAMAs were examined focused on Ca2+ signaling using simultaneous records of isometric tension and F340/F380 in fura-2-loaded tracheal smooth muscle. Glycopyrronium (3 nM), a LAMA, modestly reduced methacholine (1 μM)-induced contraction. When procaterol, salbutamol and SABAs were applied in the presence of glycopyrronium, relaxant effects of these SABAs are markedly enhanced, and percent inhibition of tension was much greater than the sum of those for each agent and those expected from the BI theory. In contrast, percent inhibition of F340/F380 was not greater than those values. Bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), significantly increased the relaxant effect of LAMA without reducing F340/F380. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, significantly suppressed the effects of these combined agents with reducing F340/F380. In conclusion, combination of SABAs with LAMAs synergistically enhances inhibition of muscarinic contraction via decreasing both Ca2+ sensitization mediated by PKC and Ca2+ dynamics mediated by KCa channels. PKC and KCa channels may be molecular targets for cross talk between β2-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors. PMID:27657061

  17. Involvement of Ca2+ Signaling in the Synergistic Effects between Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists and β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Fukunaga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs and short-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (SABAs play important roles in remedy for COPD. To propel a translational research for development of bronchodilator therapy, synergistic effects between SABAs with LAMAs were examined focused on Ca2+ signaling using simultaneous records of isometric tension and F340/F380 in fura-2-loaded tracheal smooth muscle. Glycopyrronium (3 nM, a LAMA, modestly reduced methacholine (1 μM-induced contraction. When procaterol, salbutamol and SABAs were applied in the presence of glycopyrronium, relaxant effects of these SABAs are markedly enhanced, and percent inhibition of tension was much greater than the sum of those for each agent and those expected from the BI theory. In contrast, percent inhibition of F340/F380 was not greater than those values. Bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, significantly increased the relaxant effect of LAMA without reducing F340/F380. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa channels, significantly suppressed the effects of these combined agents with reducing F340/F380. In conclusion, combination of SABAs with LAMAs synergistically enhances inhibition of muscarinic contraction via decreasing both Ca2+ sensitization mediated by PKC and Ca2+ dynamics mediated by KCa channels. PKC and KCa channels may be molecular targets for cross talk between β2-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors.

  18. The complete cDNA sequence of laminin alpha 4 and its relationship to the other human laminin alpha chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A; Al-Imara, L; Pope, F M

    1996-06-15

    We previously localised the gene (LAMA4) encoding a novel laminin alpha 4 chain to chromosome 6q21. In this study, we describe the complete coding sequence and compare the protein with the other three known human laminin alpha chains. Although closely linked to LAMA2, the LAMA4 product most closely resembles laminin alpha 3, a constituent of laminin 5. Like laminin alpha 3A, the alpha 4 chain is a truncated version of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains, with a much reduced short arm. While the alpha 4 molecule is most similar to alpha 3, it shares some features of the C-terminal domains G4 and G5 in common with alpha 2. Unlike the LAMA3 gene, LAMA4 appears to encode only a single transcript, as determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA sequence encodes 1816 amino acids, which include a 24-residue signal peptide. The gene is expressed in skin, placenta, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. We have also shown that the mRNA can be readily reverse transcribed and amplified from cultured dermal fibroblasts. PMID:8706685

  19. The relationship between oxygenator exhaust P(CO2) and arterial P(CO2) during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J M; Gibbs, N M; Weightman, W M; Sheminant, M R

    2005-08-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in oxygenator arterial blood (P(a)CO2) can be estimated from the partial pressure of gas exhausting from the oxygenator (P(E)CO2). Our hypothesis is that P(E)CO2 may be used to estimate P(a)CO2 with limits of agreement within 7 mmHg above and below the bias. (This is the reported relationship between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide during positive pressure ventilation in supine patients.) During hypothermic (28-32 degrees C) cardiopulmonary bypass using a Terumo Capiox SX membrane oxygenator, 80 oxygenator arterial blood samples were collected from 32 patients during cooling, stable hypothermia, and rewarming as per our usual clinical care. The P(a)CO2 of oxygenator arterial blood at actual patient blood temperature was estimated by temperature correction of the oxygenator arterial blood sample measured in the laboratory at 37 degrees C. P(E)CO2 was measured by connecting a capnograph end-to-side to the oxygenator exhaust outlet. We used an alpha-stat approach to cardiopulmonary bypass management. The mean difference between P(E)CO2 and P(a)CO2 was 0.6 mmHg, with limits of agreement (+/-2 SD) between -5 to +6 mmHg. P(E)CO2 tended to underestimate P(a)CO2 at low arterial temperatures, and overestimate at high arterial temperatures. We have demonstrated that P(E)CO2 can be used to estimate P(a)CO2 during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass using a Terumo Capiox SX oxygenator with a degree of accuracy similar to that associated with the use of end-tidal carbon dioxide measurement during positive pressure ventilation in anaesthetized, supine patients. PMID:16119486

  20. Electroencephalogram investigations of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate and acetate dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during acetate and bicarbonate dialysis in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms was found only during the course of bicarbonate dialysis. However, in acetate dialysis, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2), we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing, dysrhythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during acetate dialysis was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called 'disequilibrium' causing a cessation of dialysis in three patients.

  1. [Electro-encephalographic study of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate dialysis and acetate dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during AHD and BHD in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms could be found only during the course of BHD. However, in AHD, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing down, dysrythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during AHD was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called "disequilibrium" causing a cessation of dialysis in 3 patients.

  2. Correlation of end tidal and arterial carbon dioxide levels in critically Ill neonates and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 monitoring is considered to reflect real-time estimation of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO 2 noninvasively. However, knowledge about its relationship with PaCO 2 in critically ill pediatric and neonatal patients is limited. The primary objective was to evaluate predictive capability of end tidal carbon dioxide monitoring and secondary objective was to determine the influence of severity of lung disease on EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 relationship. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive enrollment study carried out in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a tertiary care children hospital. It was conducted in 66 neonates and 35 children receiving mechanical ventilation. Severity of lung disease was estimated by ventilation index and PaO 2 /FiO 2 (P/F ratio. Simultaneous recording of EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 levels was done and data were analyzed for correlation and agreement. Results: In neonates, 150 EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 pairs were recorded. The mean weight ± SD of patients was 2.1 ± 0.63 kg. PaCO 2 had a positive correlation with EtCO 2 (r = 0.836, 95% CI = 0.78-0.88. P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. In infants and children, 96 pairs were recorded. Mean age ± SD of patients was 4.20 ± 4.92 years and mean weight ± SD was 13.1 ± 9.49 kg. PaCO 2 had an excellent correlation with EtCO 2 (r = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.87 and 0.94. P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. Conclusion: EtCO 2 monitoring displayed a good validity to predict PaCO 2 . Correlation was affected by low P/F ratio (<200; hence, it is recommended that blood gases be measured in these patients until such time that a good relation can be established between end tidal and arterial CO 2 values.

  3. Oxygenator Exhaust Capnography for Prediction of Arterial Carbon Dioxide Tension During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka, Anis; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Muallem, Eva; Jamal, Salim; Haroun-Bizri, Sania; Aouad, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Continuous monitoring and control of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is essential. A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive system is not currently available. This study was undertaken to assess whether the continuous monitoring of oxygenator exhaust carbon dioxide tension (PexCO2) can be used to reflect PaCO2 during CPB. A total of 33 patients undergoing CPB for cardiac surgery were included in the study. During normothermia (37°C) and stable hypother...

  4. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.;

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head......-up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central...

  5. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2......). Carbon dioxide in the blood and cerebral tissue has great influence on vasoactivity and thereby blood volume of the brain. We have found no studies on the correlation between P(ET)CO(2) or P(TC)CO(2), and P(a)CO(2) during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)....

  6. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera; Alison Goodwin; Yanzhong Wang; James Goodman; Akash Deep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 ) is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 ) as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values o...

  7. Aclidinium bromide inhalation powder for the long-term, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Alfano, Roberto; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Aclidinium is a twice-daily long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) with an interesting pharmacological profile. Recent evidence indicates that this LAMA, in addition to causing a significant improvement in lung function and other important supportive outcomes, such as health related quality of life, dyspnea and nighttime/early morning symptoms in patients suffering from COPD, is also able to significantly reduce the rate of exacerbations of any severity, is extremely effective in controlling the COPD symptoms, is able to reduce lung hyperinflation, and has an excellent cardiovascular safety profile. Consequently, aclidinium should be considered a first-line approach at least for the symptomatic treatment of COPD although there are still few head-to-head studies comparing this LAMA with other bronchodilators. In any case, aclidinium can be taken into account in the treatment of different COPD phenotypes (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, exacerbators and patients with overlap COPD asthma). PMID:26998725

  8. Valorização de resíduos industriais como fonte alternativa mineral: composições cerâmicas e cimentíceas

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Fabiano Raupp

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho detalha estudos de valorização de resíduos como matérias-primas alternativas. Diferentes resíduos industriais baseados no sistema SiO2-Al2O3-CaO e classificados como não perigosos foram seleccionados: lamas geradas em processos de anodização de alumínio, lamas de estações de tratamento de água potável, lamas de corte de rochas ornamentais e areia de moldação da indústria de fundição. A caracterização completa destes resíduos é apresentada, incluindo parâm...

  9. Laminin gene LAMB4 is somatically mutated and expressionally altered in gastric and colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Ryoung; An, Chang Hyeok; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are important in tumor invasion and metastasis as well as in maintenance of normal epithelial cell structures. However, mutation status of laminin chain-encoding genes remains unknown in cancers. Aim of this study was to explore whether laminin chain genes are mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that laminin chain genes LAMA1, LAMA3, LAMB1 and LAMB4 had mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences that might be mutation targets in the cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the genes in 88 GC and 139 CRC [high MSI (MSI-H) or stable MSI/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L)] by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. In the present study, we found LAMB4 (11.8% of GC and 7.6% of CRC with MSI-H), LAMA3 (2.9% of GC and 2.5 of CRC with MSI-H), LAMA1 (5.9% of GC with MSI-H) and LAMB1 frameshift mutations (1.3% of CRC with MSI-H). These mutations were not found in MSS/MSI-L (0/114). We also analyzed LAMB4 expression in GC and CRC by immunohistochemistry. Loss of LAMB4 expression was identified in 17-32% of the GC and CRC. Of note, the loss expression was more common in the cancers with LAMB4 mutation or those with MSI-H. Our data show that frameshift mutations of LAMA1, LAMA3, LAMB1 and LAMB4, and loss of LAMB4 may be features of GC and CRC with MSI-H. PMID:25257191

  10. New combinations in the treatment of COPD: rationale for aclidinium–formoterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorvaia C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cristoforo Incorvaia,1 Marcello Montagni,2 Elena Makri,1 Erminia Ridolo21Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento Hospital, Milan, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyAbstract: The current guidelines on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD recommend the prominent use of bronchodilators, including long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs, while inhaled corticosteroids are recommended only in patients with severe disease or frequent exacerbations. LABA–LAMA combinations are indicated when single bronchodilators are insufficient to control COPD. A number of LABA–LAMA combinations are available, based on twice-daily or once-daily administration according to the 12- or 24-hour duration of action, respectively. The aclidinium–formoterol combination is based on the new LAMA aclidinium bromide, which has a high selectivity for M3 muscarinic receptors and a fast onset of action, and the well-known LABA formoterol. Both drugs require twice-daily administration. The fixed-dose combination of aclidinium 400 µg/formoterol 12 µg has shown in randomized controlled trials fast and sustained bronchodilation that was greater than either monotherapy and provided clinically significant improvements in dyspnea and health status compared with placebo, also reducing the use of rescue medications. The overall incidence of adverse events was low and comparable to placebo. These data define the aclidinium–formoterol fixed-dose combination as a new treatment option for patients with COPD. The need for twice-daily administration could be an apparent disadvantage compared to the available once-daily LABA–LAMA combinations, but the immediately perceived benefit in reducing dyspnea due to the fast onset of action, as well as reported correct patient use and satisfaction with the Genuair inhaler might prove useful in favoring adherence

  11. Rise of the dormant: Simulated disturbance improves culturable abundance, diversity, and functions of deep-sea bacteria of Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.

    are formed in response to biotic stress (Burgeot et al. 1996; Gonzalez-Lama and Diez-del-Pino 1996; Angel et al. 1999) as it defends the cell against oxidation that ultimately leads to cytotoxicity. In the present study, an increase in organic content would... eutrophic lake. Archives of Hydrobiology 128(1). Gonzalez-lama, Z. and A. Diez-del-Pino. 1996. Super oxide dismutase and catalase in marine bioluminescent bacteria. Boletin del Instito Espanol del Oceanografia 12(2): 131–137. Gordon, D. A. and S. J...

  12. Ethnic Museum of the Central University for Nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    THE Central University for Nationalities Ethnic Museum houses over 20,000 cultural relics relating to China’s 56 ethnic groups. The majority of these are traditional costumes and ornaments that examplify expertise on the part of ethnic minorities in weaving, dying, embroidery and tannage. Some are decades, and others centuries old. Exhibits such as the gifts to Chairman Mao Zedong and the central government in the early days of the People’s Republic from the Panchen Lama, Dalai Lama, and ethnic minorities across China are of great political and historical significance.

  13. Peripheral nerve pathology, including aberrant Schwann cell differentiation, is ameliorated by doxycycline in a laminin-α2-deficient mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Sachiko; Beermann, Mary Lou; Miller, Jeffrey Boone

    2011-01-01

    The most common form of childhood congenital muscular dystrophy, Type 1A (MDC1A), is caused by mutations in the human LAMA2 gene that encodes the laminin-α2 subunit. In addition to skeletal muscle deficits, MDC1A patients typically show a loss of peripheral nerve function. To identify the mechanisms underlying this loss of nerve function, we have examined pathology and cell differentiation in sciatic nerves and ventral roots of the laminin-α2-deficient (Lama2−/−) mice, which are models for MD...

  14. Lung-specific loss of the laminin α3 subunit confers resistance to mechanical injury

    OpenAIRE

    Urich, Daniela; Eisenberg, Jessica L.; Hamill, Kevin J.; Takawira, Desire; Chiarella, Sergio E.; Soberanes, Saul; Gonzalez, Angel; Koentgen, Frank; Manghi, Tomas; Hopkinson, Susan B.; Misharin, Alexander V.; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Jonathan C.R. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix that are secreted by epithelial cells and which are crucial for the normal structure and function of the basement membrane. We have generated a mouse harboring a conditional knockout of α3 laminin (Lama3fl/fl), one of the main laminin subunits in the lung basement membrane. At 60 days after intratracheal treatment of adult Lama3fl/fl mice with an adenovirus encoding Cre recombinase (Ad-Cre), the protein abundance of α3 lami...

  15. Sera Monastery's Home for the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊侬格·林班巴拉

    2007-01-01

    @@ Xirao Jiangcan, a 78-year-old lama, is sunbathing in front of a scripture-chanting hall in Sera Monastery in Lhasa, Tibet. He feels comfortable in the warmth of the sun. A native of Deqin County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yun-nan, Xirao came to Lhasa at the age of 26. He has lived in Sera Monastery for 52 years. Currently he resides in the monastery's Old People's Home. Many other old lamas also live in the old people's home.

  16. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B;

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF...

  17. Laser Doppler flowmetry is valid for measurement of cerebral blood flow autoregulation lower limit in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, Jan; Pryds, Anders; Larsen, Erik Hviid;

    2005-01-01

    was challenged by controlled systemic haemorrhage, or (2) cerebral blood flow was varied by manipulating the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2). LDF slightly overestimated CBF under conditions of haemorrhagic shock and haemodilution caused by controlled haemorrhage (paired t test, P

  18. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  19. Heliox in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, R.; Lynch, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if breathing helium oxygen mixtures in addition to conventional therapy in non-intubated adult chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD) patients reduces the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) more than conventional treatment alone, and confers an advantage in terms of the odds of intubation in the acute setting.

  20. Anneteparaad / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia arhitektuuri eriala magistri- ja bakalaureuseõppe lõputööd: 1. Koit Ojaliivi kompleks vaimupuuetega inimestele; 2.Katrin Tääkeri "Eakate Kodu" Seewaldis; 3. Hermas Lilleoru sümbioos kirikust ja kontserdimajast; 4. Paco Ulmani nägemus Lasnamäe seni väljaehitamata osa hoonestamiseks

  1. Skoone linnakämping

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamise ideekonkursist, premeeritud töödest. I preemia - Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (AB Salto), II - Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru (AB Suburb), III - Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman (AB Kosmos)

  2. Tehniline ilu ja Norra maastik / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti arhitektid Toomas Tammis ja Paco Ernest Ulman (Allianss Arhitektid) saavutasid Norra elektrifirma Statnett uue kõrgepingemasti kavandi rahvusvahelisel võistlusel kolmanda koha. Tööd kommenteerib Toomas Tammis. 1. koha pälvinud peegelmastist (Bystrup Arkitekter, Taani) ja 2. koha pälvinud tööst (Lalaland Studio, Norra)

  3. Fotograafi inspireerisid reisilaevade interjöörid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Paco Ulmani fotonäitus "Tallinn-Helsingi-Stockholm" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 20. juulist 2011. Pildistatud on Tallinn-Helsingi-Stockholmi liinidel sõitvate laevade interjööre ajal, mil need on rahvast tühjenenud ja paljastanud oma kommertslikkuse

  4. 10. X avati Sakala keskuses...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Avati Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" ning premeeriti 2004/2005. aasta parimaid eramuid ning Eesti arhitektuurielu positiivselt mõjutanud tellijat, ehitajat ja kriitikut. Näituse kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco-Ernest Ulman

  5. Bastion kak kemping

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamise ideekonkursist, premeeritud töödest. I preemia - Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (AB Salto), II - Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru (AB Suburb), III - Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman (AB Kosmos)

  6. Noored filmimeistrid võistlesid Tartu festivalil / Kai Väärtnõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väärtnõu, Kai

    2005-01-01

    6.-8. jaanuarini 2005 toimus teist korda Tartus noorte amatöörfilmifestival (NAFF). Peapreemia andis žürii (esimees Ilmar Raag) filmile "Kahekümnes" (autorid Andris Feldmanis, Rein Jakobson, Björn Piibur, Paco Ulman). Lisatud osalenud huvitavamate filmide ja võitjate nimekiri

  7. Alates 24. IX on Rotermanni soolalao galeriil...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Narva kolledzhi uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutööde näitus. I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla

  8. Pildid räägivad lugusid, vorstid samuti / Andry Ervald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ervald, Andry

    2006-01-01

    Koomiksinäitus Rakvere galeriis. Osa võtavad Peeter Krosmann (1971), Kristel Maamägi (1986), Lilli-Krõõt Repnau (1982), Elina Sildre (1980), Joonas Sildre (1980), Veiko Tammjärv (1967), Paco Ulman (1980), Edvin Aedma ja rühmitus Endorfin Fractured Communications. Kristel Maamägi oma töödest

  9. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: Role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Grüne (Frank); S. Kazmaier (Stephan); R.J. Stolker (Robert J.); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk); A. Weyland (Andreas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2 -induced changes in CBF, CVR,

  10. Cerebrovascular response to acute metabolic acidosis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Kersten, B.T.P.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the cerebrovascular response (delta CBV/delta PaCO2) during baseline metabolic conditions and acute metabolic acidosis. METHODS: 15 healthy subjects, 5 m, 10 f, 56 +/- 10 yrs were investigated. For acidification, NH4Cl was given orally. CBV was measured using Near Infrared

  11. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  12. Disainikaart : Baskimaa / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Baskimaa skulptoritest, moekunstnikest, disaineritest, arhitektidest, kunstnikest. Edouardo Chillida (1924-2002), Cristóbal Balenciaga (1895-1972), Koldo Barroso, Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Iñaki Aspiazu (sünd. 1955), Nisa Goiburu (sünd. 1946), Jose Maria González Castillo (1927-2003), Itziar Okariz (sünd. 1965)

  13. The effect of PCO2 on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, W H; Kay, J C; Fisher, J A

    1981-09-01

    Lung areas with a low V/Q ratio cause hypoxaemia. The low alveolar oxygen concentration may cause local hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) which reduces perfusion, raises the V/Q ratio, and hence reduces the tendency to a low PaO2. By changing PCO2, the HPV response can be altered. We examined this relationship in anaesthetized dogs by using a tracheal divider to separate hypoxic (nitrogen ventilated) from oxygenated (100 per cent oxygen ventilated) lung. Relative perfusion was assessed from total 133Xe exhaled from each lung area after intravenous infusions. When PaCO2 was changed by changing ventilation, we found that an increasing PaCO2 increased HPV and also PaO2. At a PaCO2 of 3.3 kPa, HPV was abolished and PaO2 fell. We also changed PaCO2 by altering PICO2 to one or both lung areas while ventilation remained constant throughout the experiment. Again as PaCO2 increased, HPV and PaCO2 increased. When PaCO2 fell and end tidal carbon dioxide in the hypoxic lung (PETCO2) remained elevated by maintaining PICO2 in the hypoxic lung and removing CO2 from the oxygenated lung) HPV was maintained. Thus it is the alveolar concentration of CO2 in the hypoxic lung which is important in modifying HPV. We conclude that in this model a low PETCO2 (3.3 kPa) in hypoxic lung will reduce HPV, and will result in more severe hypoxaemia. This may have relevance in both anaesthetized and intensive care unit patients when a higher PaO2 may be obtained by increasing hypoxic lung PETCO2. The effect of PETCO2 on PaO2 will be influenced by other variables, but when hypoventilated or hypoxic exist, increasing PETCO2 may reinforce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and thus may increase PaO2. PMID:6793220

  14. Advances in sarcocystiosis diagnosis in South American camelids in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sarcocystiosis in south-American camelids has a high prevalence, about 94% and affects alpacas and llamas by producing cysts either in skeletal muscle or heart muscle and is caused aucheniae and S. lamacanis. The approach of this investigation was to identify the species involves their pathogenicity, protein structure and the antibody kinetics of animals raised under field conditions, in isolation and under experimental infection and immunization by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Also a PCR assay was developed for diagnosis of the disease in live animals, because so far this parasitic disease is diagnosed at the post mortem examination in the slaughterhouse. PCR product was sequenced and registered in the GeneBank for S. lamacanis. To learn about antibody kinetics under field conditions a group of 30 alpacas and their offspring raised in the Andean region of Huancavelica was sampled. Blood samples were collected and assayed by ELISA for 6 months after lambing. Similarly, a group of alpaca crias kept in isolation in Lima was monitored for antibodies. A group of 20 pregnant alpacas raised in the Andean region of Puno was transferred to our station in Lima and raised in sarcocystis-free pens. These alpacas were monitored for antibody to sarcocystis by ELISA and blood parasitemia by PCR for 2 years. A group of alpaca crias was immunized using a bradyzoite protein suspension, and blood samples were collected for monitoring antibody by ELISA and western blot. In order to identify genes coding surface antigens, bradkyzoites of S. aucheniae were collected for total RNA and mRNA isolation. From this mRNA a cDNA library will be constructed, using ligation, transformation and sequencing. Alpacas from Huancavelica assayed by ELISA showed antibody (93.3%) up to 4 months after parturition, and then 100% of them were positive. This result indicates the high rate of the infection in field conditions. A 30% of their offspring showed antibody up to 2 months of age being

  15. [Use of microstream capnography and alveolar recruitment during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suborov, E V; Postnikova, E A; Kapinos, A A; Kuz'kov, V V; Smetkin, A A; Kirov, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate changes in EtCO2 and its correlation with PaCO2, and cardiac function during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) and to evaluate whether the recruitment maneuver was effective in improving gas exchange after OPCAB. Twenty adult patients scheduled for elective OPCAB were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Anesthesia was maintained with midazolam, propofol, and fentanyl. After OPCAB the patients were randomized to a control group receiving conventional ventilation (n=10) or to a RM group (n=10) having ventilation and RM. RM was performed at min 15 after transfer to an ICU, by increasing airway pressure to 40 cm H2O for 40 sec subsequently adjusting PEEP to a level of 2 cm H2O above the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve. The measurements included hemodynamics, microstream capnography, respiratory parameters, and blood gasses. The baseline EtCO2 correlated with PaCO2 and cardiac index in both group (r = 0.7 and 0.81, respectively; p recruitment, EtCO, increased transiently whereas PaO2/FiO2 return to the baseline level. There was a moderate correlation between EtCO2 and PaCO2 before and after RM (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively; p < 0.05). The Bland-Altman analysis has shown that the difference between PaCO2 an EtCO2 was 1.9 +/- 11.4 mm Hg (M +/- 2SD). Thus, during OPCAB, EtCO2 measured by microstream capnography cor related well with PaCO2 and cardiac function. The use of RM after OPCAB increases CO2 elimination and improve arterial oxygenation. PMID:19824412

  16. Qutan Temple: "A Miniature Forbidden City"in a Mountain Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYan

    2004-01-01

    Qutan Temple, located in a mountain valley near the capital city of Qinghai Province, was first constructed in the early Ming Dynasty. This grand Chinese-style Tibetan Lama temple was built against the background that the Ming Dynasty supported Tibetan Lamaism to better rule the Tibetan area. As Qutan is the

  17. PENILAIAN STATUS GIZI DENGAN PENYINARAN TELAPAK TANGAN DAN PERBANDINGAN DENGAN PENGUKURAN TINGGI BADAN

    OpenAIRE

    Basuki Budiman; Edwi Saraswati; Syarifudin Latinulu

    2012-01-01

    Radiografi telah lama digunakan untuk penilaian umur kronologis, pengukuran densitas tulang, penelitian genetika dan patologi osteoporosis. Perkembangan teknologi elektronika memungkinkan dibuat alat radiografi yang portable dan sangat aman dari efek radiasinya. Dengan menggunakan alat ini, dilakukan penilaian status energi protein dan membandingkannya dengan penelitian secara antropometris yang telah dikenal luas terutama tinggi badan. Penelitian ini melibatkan 161 anak usia 6-30 bulan yang ...

  18. News in Brief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    President Xi Met with the 11th Panchen Lama President Xi Jinping met the11th Panchen Choskyi Gyalpo on June 10th in Beijing.The president expected the 11th Panchen Choskyi Gyalpo to grow into a Tibetan Buddhist leader with great religious achievement,deeply loved by the monks and secular followers.

  19. Hubungan Stress Dengan Penyakit Dan Perawatan Periodontal

    OpenAIRE

    Der, William

    2009-01-01

    Stress adalah istilah yang mendefenisikan reaksi psiko-fisiologis tubuh terhadap berbagai rangsangan emosional atau fisik yang mengganggu homeostasis, dan ditemukan dapat mengeksaserbasi hasil dari penyakit infeksi bakteri dan virus pada model hewan dan manusia. Stres telah lama dinyatakan sebagai suatu faktor predisposisi yang penting untuk Gingivitis Ulseratif Nekrotik Akut (GUNA). Banyak penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa stres psikologis atau kondisi psikosomatik mendorong terjadinya peru...

  20. Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Kiani, Ali; Tejada, Einstein;

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to test whether the digestive and metabolic characteristics of pseudo ruminants provide superior ability to utilise low-quality diets compared to true ruminants. A total of 18 mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating female animals, including six llamas (Lama glama), six Danish Landra...

  1. 77 FR 35021 - Kwan Bo Jin, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ..., at 14-16; \\1\\ which is contrary to agency precedent.\\2\\ See Linda Sue Cheek, 76 FR 66972, 66973 (2011); Mark De La Lama, 76 FR 20011, 20020 n.20 (2011); Bienvenido Tan, 76 FR 17673, 17694 n.58 (2011); Gregory D. Owens, 74 FR 36571, 36757 & n.22 (2009). Nonetheless, my rejection of the ALJ's discussion...

  2. Implementasi Sistem Step By Step Switching Menggunakan Komponen Terintegrasi

    OpenAIRE

    Suherman

    2009-01-01

    Sentral yang menggunakan sistem step by step switching telah lama ditinggalkan. Teknologi telah beralih ke sistem switching digital common control, bahkan berbasis packet switching khususnya penggunaan IP based Network. Namun demikian, teknologi switching step by step yang dahulu berbasis sistem mekanis masih dapat diperbaharui dengan memanfaatkan komponen terintegrasi (integrates cicuit, IC). Sistem switching step by step dengan komponen terintegrasi ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk membentuk...

  3. My Recent Visit to Lhasa Prison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUQIAN

    2005-01-01

    AUTHOR'S NOTE: IfI had not been given the assignment to write about Lhasa Prison, I would never have gone to see iL This was where,in the olden times, human beings were skinned or had their intestines taken out for what the Dalai Lama says were Buddhist rituals.

  4. Tibet Policies Enrich Region's Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    During an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel published on March 26,the 14th Dalai Lama attacked the Chinese government as"dividing Tibet by letting other provinces govern parts of Tibet".He also claimed that Tibet was"suffering cultural homicide".

  5. Facts Speak Louder Than Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Is the Western world ignoring the real truth about Tibet?In order to separate Tibet from China, the Dalai Lama has always severely criticized China’s Tibet policy and his words have been echoed by some Western media and politicians. But facts prove that these criticisms are totally groundless.

  6. Tibetan Medicine Master Zekang Qamba Tuwang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Zekang Qamba Tuwang was a well-known person around the turn of the 20th century,and once served as the first chief of the Lhasa Calendaring Center(called Moinzekang in Tibetan) and as the private medical doctor of the 13th Dalai Lama.

  7. The 14th Dalai Lama's ‘Middle Way'Ridiculous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUELI

    2003-01-01

    On September 21, 1987, the 14th Dalai Lama delivered a speech at the Human Rights Committee of the US Congress House of Representatives, putting forth the so-called “five-point plan for peace” for “solution of the Tibetanissue.”

  8. What Is the Real Intention of The United States?-On US Presidential Report on “Tibetan Issue”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAZI

    2003-01-01

    On May 8, 2003, US President Bush submitted a report on the so-called “Tibetan issue” to Congressin accordance with Foreign Relations Authorization Act, 2003. The report US recognition of Tibet as part of China, but declared support for the 14th Dalai Lama in his pursuit of

  9. Emperor Qianlong's Policy for Rule Over Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUOWenqing

    2004-01-01

    In 1751,when Qing troops had quelled the rebelion staged by Zholmet Namozhale ,the Qing court promulgated the 13-Article Ordinance for the Governing of Tibet,Which established the system of rule over Tibet by the Dalai Lama and Qing High Commissioners.

  10. Old cultures never die? Cultural genocide in international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Donders

    2012-01-01

    In March 2008, the Dalai Lama made a statement on the situation in Tibet, arguing that "whether intentionally or unintentionally, some kind of cultural genocide is taking place", because "the ancient nation of Tibet with its ancient cultural heritage is dying". He made this statement in relation to

  11. Who Has Benefited Most in Tibet?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    For many years the 14th Dalai Lama and his "government-inexile" have been distorting the policy for Tibet followed by the Central Government. They went so far as to discuss the subject as to "who is the most benefited in Tibet" during the ongoing economic development.

  12. On Dalai Lama's “Greater Tibet”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYOURCOMMENTATOR

    2004-01-01

    Referring to the point of the “middle road” made by the 14th Dalai Lama, there is a concept of “Greater Tibet” which covers the existing Tibet Autonomous Region, the entire area of Qinghai Province, one-fifth of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, two-thirds of Gansu Province, two-thirds of Sichuan Province and half of Yunnan Province.

  13. Tibet under Unstoppable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANTIAGO CASTILLO

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Tibetan people, who used to live a hard life, have now merged into China's economic development and look at development as the best way to raise their standard of living. They have left behind the era of the Dalai Lama's development-hampering feudal serfdom.In the past, Tibet's development seen today was almost unthinkable.

  14. Deconstructing the Master Narrative on Tibet: Lessons for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianlong

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I touch upon the complex and largely ignored controversy surrounding the Tibet question. Casting a critical eye on the "official" or dominant stature of the Dalai Lama in the West, I examine the socio-cultural construction of the common view of him. Specifically, I explore the question: what social discourses have contributed to…

  15. Arts-Based Leadership: Theatrical Tributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumerai, Eve Nussbaum; Mazer, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this article describes how, as an independent educator, Eve Nussbaum Soumerai developed numerous theatrical tributes to inspirational historical figures (Anne Frank, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Dalai Lama, for example). By participating in these productions, young people learned about the lives of these figures and shared…

  16. Two homologous Agr-like quorum-sensing systems cooperatively control adherence, cell morphology, and cell viability properties in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, T.; Ingham, C.J.; Nakayama, J.; Beerthuyzen, M.M.; Kunuki, R.; Molenaar, D.; Sturme, M.H.J.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A two-component regulatory system of Lactobacillus plantarum, encoded by genes designated lamK and lamR (hpk10 and rrp10), was studied. The lamK and lamR genes encode proteins which are highly homologous to the quorum-sensing histidine kinase LamC and the response regulator LamA, respectively. Trans

  17. ANALISIS GANGGUAN DENSITAS MASSA TULANG PENDERITA EPILEPSI YANG MENDAPAT PENGOBATAN FENITOIN DAN ATAU FENOBARBITAL DENGAN MORFOMETRI METAKARPAL

    OpenAIRE

    dr. Jumraini T, S.Ked.

    2004-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis gangguan densitas massa tulang (DMT) penderita epilepsi yang mendapat pengobatan fenitoin dan atau fenobarbital jangka panjang dan hubungannya dengan umur, jenis kelamin, dan lama pengobatan. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif analisis Cross Sectional Styudy yang dilakukan ter-hadap 60 sampel. Penilaian DMT dengan morfometri metakarpal dilakukan setelah mengeksklusi penyakit yang dapat menimbulkan gangguan DMT. Untuk melihat hubungan digunakan ...

  18. A Northeast Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Bum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tsering Bum (b. 1985 describes his early life in Amdo in terms of dreams, herding, punishment from a lama, schooling experiences, attending a Kalachakra teaching, a lhatzi gathering, irrigation, his grandfather, archery, and other important moments and influences.

  19. Clinical, neuroradiological and molecular characterization of cerebellar dysplasia with cysts (Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Marta; Ginevrino, Monia; Mazza, Tommaso; Aiello, Chiara; Zanni, Ginevra; Baumgartner, Bastian; Borgatti, Renato; Brockmann, Knut; Camacho, Ana; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Haeusler, Martin; Hikel, Christiane; Klein, Andrea; Mandrile, Giorgia; Mercuri, Eugenio; Rating, Dietz; Romaniello, Romina; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Schimmel, Mareike; Spaccini, Luigina; Teber, Serap; von Moers, Arpad; Wente, Sarah; Ziegler, Andreas; Zonta, Andrea; Bertini, Enrico; Boltshauser, Eugen; Valente, Enza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar dysplasia with cysts and abnormal shape of the fourth ventricle, in the absence of significant supratentorial anomalies and of muscular involvement, defines recessively inherited Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome (PBS). Clinical features comprise non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability of variable degree, language impairment, ocular motor apraxia and frequent occurrence of myopia or retinopathy. Recently, loss-of-function variants in the LAMA1 gene were identified in six probands with PBS. Here we report the detailed clinical, neuroimaging and genetic characterization of 18 PBS patients from 15 unrelated families. Biallelic LAMA1 variants were identified in 14 families (93%). The only non-mutated proband presented atypical clinical and neuroimaging features, challenging the diagnosis of PBS. Sixteen distinct variants were identified, which were all novel. In particular, the frameshift variant c.[2935delA] recurred in six unrelated families on a shared haplotype, suggesting a founder effect. No LAMA1 variants could be detected in 27 probands with different cerebellar dysplasias or non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, confirming the strong correlate between LAMA1 variants and PBS. PMID:26932191

  20. Reactividad química de los productos naturales bioactivos toquinólida B y diligustílida : determinación de la configuración absoluta de algunos derivados /

    OpenAIRE

    León Cabrera, Martha Alejandra

    2011-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Químicas, presenta Martha Alejandra León Cabrera ; asesor Eduardo Guillermo Delgado Lamas. 196 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Químicas UNAM, Facultad de Química, 2011