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Sample records for alma los informes

  1. Ingenieros del alma: los informes sobre canción popular, ensayo y Ciencias Sociales de los servicios de inteligencia de la dictadura militar argentina sobre América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Funes, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    El artículo se propone reconstruir y analizar los informes de los servicios de inteligencia sobre la producción acerca de América Latina durante la última dictadura militar argentina (1976-1983). Partimos de la hipótesis que el concepto "América Latina" es connotado a priori como "subversivo, "comunista", "revolucionario". Lo anterior podría explicar la profusión de informes de inteligencia sobre las ciencias sociales latinoamericanas de los años sesenta y setenta, así como también los centro...

  2. Ingenieros del alma: los informes sobre canción popular, ensayo y Ciencias Sociales de los servicios de inteligencia de la dictadura militar argentina sobre América Latina Engineers of the soul: reports from the Argentine military dictatorship's intelligence services on Latin American popular song, essays, and the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Funes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone reconstruir y analizar los informes de los servicios de inteligencia sobre la producción acerca de América Latina durante la última dictadura militar argentina (1976-1983. Partimos de la hipótesis que el concepto "América Latina" es connotado a priori como "subversivo, "comunista", "revolucionario". Lo anterior podría explicar la profusión de informes de inteligencia sobre las ciencias sociales latinoamericanas de los años sesenta y setenta, así como también los centros de estudio, las revistas, e incluso la canción popular encontrados en el Archivo de la ex Dirección de Inteligencia de la Policía de la Provincia de Buenos Aires [DIPBA], fondo privilegiado para la reconstrucción sobre las formas y significados de la construcción de la categoría "delincuente subversivo" por parte de los servicios de inteligencia sobre el campo cultural argentino.The paper aims to trace, to reconstruct and to analyze the records of the Intelligence Services regarding the production of Latin-American social sciences in the period 1976-1983. The object "Latin America" is to the services of intelligence a priori associated with and connoting "communist", "revolutionary" or "subversive". All the above led to an exhaustive work of exegesis and research on the production of Latin-American Social Sciences describing a double process: introducing professionalism in politics and political radicalization. The documents found in the Archive of the former Direction of Intelligence of the Police of the Province of Buenos Aires [DIPBA] -(containing reports of other services of intelligence allow to infer the importance and the degree of "danger" that the dictatorships attributed to this production. This research will analyze reports issued by Intelligence Offices on popular music, essays and, particularly, classic works produced by Latin American Social Sciences.

  3. ALMA science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Lars-Åke; Andreani, Paola; Hibbard, John; Okumura, Sachiko K.

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) project is an international collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The ALMA Array Operations Site (AOS) is located at Chajnantor, a plateau at an altitude of 5000 m in the Atacama desert in Chile, and the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF) is located near the AOS at an altitude of 2900 m. ALMA will consist of an array of 66 antennas, with baselines up to 16 km and state-of-the-art receivers that cover all the atmospheric windows up to 1 THz. An important component of ALMA is the compact array of twelwe 7-m and four 12-m antennas (the Atacama Compact Array, ACA), which will greatly enhance ALMA's ability to image extended sources. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2013. Commissioning started in January 2010 and Early Science Operations is expected to start during the second half of 2011. ALMA science operations is provided by the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) in Chile, and the three ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs) located in each ALMA region - Europe, North America and East Asia. ALMA observations will take place 24h per day, interrupted by maintenance periods, and will be done in service observing mode with flexible (dynamic) scheduling. The observations are executed in the form of scheduling blocks (SBs), each of which contains all information necessary to schedule and execute the observations. The default output to the astronomer will be pipeline-reduced images calibrated according to the calibration plan. The JAO is responsible for the data product quality. All science and calibration raw data are captured and archived in the ALMA archive, a distributed system with nodes at the OSF, the Santiago central office and the ARCs. Observation preparation will follow a Phase 1/Phase 2 process. During Phase 1, observation proposals will be created using software tools provided by the JAO and submitted for scientific and

  4. La edición crítica de los "Soliloquios amorosos de una alma a Dios", se Lope de Vega

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En 1627 Lope de Vega entrega a la imprenta la tercera edición de los Soliloquios amorosos de un alma a Dios, publicados por primera vez un año antes. Este artículo es una reflexión sobre lo que supone la edición crítica de una obra poco estudiada, desde la elección de un testimonio base hasta la indagación sobre algunos aspectos de la obra misma. Analizamos en un primer momento las circunstancias que rodean la salida de esta edición de los Soliloquios, en cuyos preliminares Lope se presenta p...

  5. Observaci\\'on de lentes gravitatorias con ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, A; Fuentes, I; Motta, V

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a fundamental tool for cosmology. A recent instrument which will provide more information for models of these objects is ALMA. Our goal is to select lens candidates to observe with ALMA and then model them using GravLens Software. We had selected 12 quadruple images systems from the CASTLES database, which show a high probability of observing extended sources in the submillimetric range. These new data will allow us to improve existing models. Las lentes gravitatorias son una herramienta fundamental para la cosmolog\\'ia. Un nuevo instrumento que nos proporcionar\\'a mayor informaci\\'on para los modelos de estos objetos, es ALMA. Nuestro objetivo es seleccionar lentes candidatas para observar con ALMA y posteriormente modelarlas mediante el programa GravLens. Seleccionamos de la base de datos de CASTLES, 12 sistemas cu\\'adruples, los cuales tienen mayor probabilidad de observar fuentes extendidas en el rango submilim\\'etrico. Estos nuevos datos nos permitir\\'an mejorar los modelos exite...

  6. ALMA Observations of TNOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bryan J.; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    Some of the most fundamental properties of TNOs are still quite poorly constrained, including diameter and density. Observations at long thermal wavelengths, in the millimeter and submillimeter, hold promise for determining these quantities, at least for the largest of these bodies (and notably for those with companions). Knowing this information can then yield clues as to the formation mechanism of these bodies, allowing us to distinguish between pairwise accretion and other formation scenarios.We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe Orcus, Quaoar, Salacia, and 2002 UX25 at wavelengths of 1.3 and 0.8 mm, in order to constrain the sizes of these bodies. We have also used ALMA to make astrometric observations of the Eris-Dysnomia system, in an attempt to measure the wobble of Eris and hence accurately determine its density. Dysnomia should also be directly detectable in those data, separate from Eris (ALMA has sufficient resolution in the configuration in which the observations were made). Results from these observations will be presented and discussed.

  7. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, but also from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born and remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimetre wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. More information The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ESO is the European partner in ALMA. ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising an array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will start scientific observations in 2011. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a

  8. ALMA science data management

    OpenAIRE

    Stoehr, Felix

    2015-01-01

    ALMA has transitioned now from the construction to the operation phase. We review the Science Data Management of ALMA including the concepts of Data Reduction, Quality Assurance as well as of the Science Archive. We also place the Science Data Management of ALMA into the larger context.

  9. ALMA measures Calama earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, R.; Shillue, B.

    2010-04-01

    On 4 March 2010, the ALMA system response to an extraordinarily large disturbance was measured when a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck near Calama, Chile, relatively close to the ALMA site. Figures 1 through 4 demonstrate the remarkable performance of the ALMA system to a huge disturbance that was more than 100 times the specification for correction accuracy.

  10. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  11. First two ALMA antennas successfully linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    a millionth of a second between equipment located many kilometers apart. The extreme environment where the ALMA observatory is located, with its strong winds, high altitude, and wide range of temperatures, just adds to the complexity of the observatory and to the fascinating engineering challenges we face", comments Richard Murowinski, ALMA Project Engineer. The astronomical target in this scientific milestone was the planet Mars. The astronomers measured the distinctive "fringes" -- a regular pattern of alternating strong and weak signals -- detected by the interferometer as the planet moved across the sky. The hardware used in this successful first test included two 12-metre diameter ALMA antennas as well as the complex series of electronic processing components needed to combine the signals. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of imaging systems that enable radio telescopes to deliver pictures that approach or even exceed the resolving power of visible light telescopes. Each antenna is combined electronically with every other antenna to form a multitude of antenna pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed in early in the next decade, ALMA's 66 antennas will provide over a thousand such antenna pairings, with distances between antennas up to 16 kilometres. This will enable ALMA to see with a sharpness surpassing that of the best space telescopes, and to complement ground-based optical interferometers such as the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). "We are on target to do the first interferometry tests at the 5000-metre high-altitude site by the end of this year, and by the end of 2011 we plan to have at least 16 antennas working together as a single giant telescope," said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Notes for editors ALMA is a revolutionary astronomical telescope, comprising an array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre

  12. Las Opiniones sacadas de los más auténticos y antigos philósofos que sobre la alma escrivieron i sus definiciones, de Daniel Arón Afia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Included in a volume published in 1568 in Venice alongside the first Spanish translation of Leon Hebreo’s Diálogos de amor, the Opiniones sacadas de los más auténticos y antigos philósofos que sobre la alma escrivieron y sus difiniciones, were written by Aron Daniel Afia, an important Latin and Philosophy scholar in the Salonika of the second half of the 16th c. Descendant of a Converso family returned to Judaism after settlement in Ottoman lands, his short twelve folio work is a compendium of definitions of the soul proposed by thinkers from Antiquity to Renaissance, being a precious example of the intellectual activity (in Latin, Spanish and Hebrew of the Conversos who chose exile in the Levant. The volume, dedicated to Philip II, shows the attachment of former Conversos to Spanish culture.Las Opiniones sacadas de los más auténticos y antigos philósofos que sobre la alma escrivieron y sus definiciones fueron publicadas en 1568 en Venecia, junto con la primera traducción española de los Diálogos de amor de León Hebreo. Escritas por Daniel Arón Afia, profesor de latín y filosofía establecido en la Salónica de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, este autor de familia conversa vuelta al judaísmo tras su establecimiento en tierras otomanas. El opúsculo de apenas doce folios es un compendio de definiciones del alma propuestas por pensadores, desde la Antigüedad hasta el Renacimiento, muestra de la actividad intelectual desarrollada en hebreo, latín y castellano de los conversos que escogieron la vía del exilio en el Levante mediterráneo. El volumen fue dedicado a Felipe II y muestra el apego de su promotor a la cultura hispánica.

  13. The ALMA Snooping Project Interface (SnooPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevin, Alexandros; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Chavan, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide ALMA users with a comprehensive view of their observing projects, we developed the ALMA Snooping Project Interface (SnooPI) application. The simple and intuitive interface allows scientists to follow the status of their projects, broken down into observing unit sets and scheduling blocks. The application itself contains two separate parts: a Java back-end server and a JavaScript front-end client application. The application interacts with REST interfaces of other ALMA software components to get the necessary project reports, certain details describing the observations and to access statistics of the user's ALMA Helpdesk tickets. All this information allows to successfully trace all stages of observations, processing and delivery of the ALMA science projects.

  14. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  15. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  16. Solar ALMA predictions: tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    I have proposed that long Halpha fibrils are caused by heating events of which the tracks are afterwards outlined by contrails of cooling gas with extraordinary Halpha opacity and yet larger opacity at the ALMA wavelengths. Here I detail the radiative transfer background.

  17. Fideísmo y racionalismo en las tres potencias del alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Calvo Rodríguez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la gnoseología luliana, las tres potencias del alma racional (Voluntad, Memoria y Entendimiento adquieren una especial importancia por ser los instrumentos del alma que permiten el acceso y el conocimiento del amor divino. A este respecto escribe Cruz Hernández: «Las potencias del alma, además, tanto por su naturaleza como por su actividad, reflejan las virtudes divinas; y, de un modo eminente, la Trinidad personal».1 De esta manera, no hay mejor espejo de Dios en el hombre que el alma, donde reside la presencia divina. Por esto, el Libro de amigo y Amado, considerando la reiterativa presencia de las tres potencias del alma que presenta, simplemente propone un viaje errático por el interior del alma humana en busca de Dios y, en definitiva, en busca del propio yo del místico.

  18. Alma Data Mining Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, Marc W.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee; Harris, Robert J.; Xu, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a Python based pipeline toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products, for example: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, and emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection). Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (web browser and command line interface available for this purpose. By analyzing multiple data cubes simultaneously, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions are possible. Users are also able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. We will present some of the salient features of ADMIT and example use cases.

  19. ALMA correlator computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Jim; Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus

    2004-09-01

    We present a design for the computer systems which control, configure, and monitor the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) correlator and process its output. Two distinct computer systems implement this functionality: a rack- mounted PC controls and monitors the correlator, and a cluster of 17 PCs process the correlator output into raw spectral results. The correlator computer systems interface to other ALMA computers via gigabit Ethernet networks utilizing CORBA and raw socket connections. ALMA Common Software provides the software infrastructure for this distributed computer environment. The control computer interfaces to the correlator via multiple CAN busses and the data processing computer cluster interfaces to the correlator via sixteen dedicated high speed data ports. An independent array-wide hardware timing bus connects to the computer systems and the correlator hardware ensuring synchronous behavior and imposing hard deadlines on the control and data processor computers. An aggregate correlator output of 1 gigabyte per second with 16 millisecond periods and computational data rates of approximately 1 billion floating point operations per second define other hard deadlines for the data processing computer cluster.

  20. Microbiological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of informally traded milk in Cruz das Almas county, Bahia Qualidade microbiológica e suscetibilidade antimicrobiana do leite in natura comercializado em Cruz das Almas, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Evangelista Barreto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from raw milk obtained from 25 food stores in Cruz das Almas, Bahia were evaluated. The analysis included counts of mesophilic and psicrotrophic microorganisms, molds and yeast, Staphylococcus spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms (at 35ºC and 45ºC, and the presence of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. The average count for mesophilic and psicrotrophic microorganisms, molds and yeast, and coliforms at 35°C and 45°C were 1.6 x 109 CFU.mL-1, 9.6 x 104 CFU.mL-1, 3.8 x 108 CFU. mL-1, 4.0 x 105 MPN.mL-1 and 3.8 x 105 MPN.mL-1, respectively. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus was found in 44% of the samples (mean value of 7.3 x 105 CFU.mL-1, and E. coli was present in 76% of them. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. E. coli showed resistance (57.9% to tetracycline, to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (10.5%, and cephalotin (5.3%, while coagulase-positive Staphylococcus strains were resistant to amicacin (18% and vancomicin (18%. The raw milk besides to present poor microbiological quality, becoming a health risk of the consumers, it may contribute to the dissemination of resistant bacteria to various antimicrobial agents. Para a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura, bem como a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana das bactérias isoladas, foram analisados 25 estabelecimentos comerciais em Cruz das Almas, Ba. Para isso realizou-se a quantificação de micro-organismos heterotróficos mesófilos e psicrotróficos aeróbios, bolores e leveduras, Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, coliformes (35ºC e 45ºC e presença de Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. A contagem média de micro-organismos heterotróficos mesófilos foi de 1,6 x 109 UFC.mL-1, psicrotróficos 9,6 x 104 UFC. mL-1, bolores e leveduras 3,8 x 108 UFC.mL-1, coliformes a 35°C 4 x 105 NMP.mL-1 e a 45°C 3,8 x 105 NMP.mL-1

  1. Lupus Alma Disk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Megan

    2016-07-01

    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  2. The ALMA software architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Farris, Allen; Sommer, Heiko

    2004-09-01

    The software for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is being developed by many institutes on two continents. The software itself will function in a distributed environment, from the 0.5-14 kmbaselines that separate antennas to the larger distances that separate the array site at the Llano de Chajnantor in Chile from the operations and user support facilities in Chile, North America and Europe. Distributed development demands 1) interfaces that allow separated groups to work with minimal dependence on their counterparts at other locations; and 2) a common architecture to minimize duplication and ensure that developers can always perform similar tasks in a similar way. The Container/Component model provides a blueprint for the separation of functional from technical concerns: application developers concentrate on implementing functionality in Components, which depend on Containers to provide them with services such as access to remote resources, transparent serialization of entity objects to XML, logging, error handling and security. Early system integrations have verified that this architecture is sound and that developers can successfully exploit its features. The Containers and their services are provided by a system-orienteddevelopment team as part of the ALMA Common Software (ACS), middleware that is based on CORBA.

  3. Informe Signos Vitales de los CDC Obesidad infantil - (Childhood Obesity)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de agosto del 2013. La tasa de obesidad entre los niños en edad prescolar de bajos ingresos ha disminuido, pero todavía uno de cada seis niños hispanos es obeso. Este programa habla brevemente sobre lo que se puede hacer.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  4. The ALMA Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz E.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Laporte, Nicolas; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra; Villard, Eric; Kneissl, Ruediger; Kim, Sam; ALMA Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Frontier Fields Legacy Program targets six strong lensing clusters with deep HST and Spitzer imaging to detect and characterize the faint background galaxy population, particularly the first galaxies at z~6-10. We initiated an ALMA survey to produce “shallow” ~2'x2' maps of the Frontier Field cluster fields at 1.1mm to study intrinsically faint dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and place constraints on the star formation from a variety of interesting extragalactic source populations. Five of the six clusters have now been completed, yielding relatively uniform maps that pinpoint cool dust emission from powerful DSFGs at z>1. I will present a census of the detected objects thus far, as well as some stacking constraints on the average emission from undetected source populations.

  5. From Virgil to Alma Mater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Ellen Handler

    2007-01-01

    For a college to become an alma mater in the hearts of its students, it must show, true to the Latin meaning, the wisdom and comfort of a good foster mother. Since "alma mater" is Latin, and since the study of Latin has waned on all educational levels in both pious and secular milieus, the author wonders whether folks who use that term really know…

  6. Catherine Pozzi y Marcelle Sauvageot: escribir la soledad del alma en un cuerpo de escritura

    OpenAIRE

    Peral-Crespo, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    La escritura de Catherine Pozzi y Marcelle Sauvageot está íntimamente ligada a la soledad que ha determinado sus vidas. La relación existente entre la soledad y la escritura como refugio del ser y a su vez como impulso escritural no se puede separar de los conceptos de alma y cuerpo presentes sobre todo en la obra de Catherine Pozzi. ¿Cómo separar el alma del cuerpo, y el cuerpo del alma? se preguntaba Pozzi en Peau d’Âme. ¿No sería acaso como separar la escritura de la soledad que la aliment...

  7. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    . The road ahead The three-year design and development phase of the project is now underway as a collaboration between Europe and the U.S., and Japan may also join in this effort. Assuming the construction phase begins about two years from now, limited operations of the array may begin in 2005 and the full array may become operational by 2009. Notes [1] Press Releases about this event have also been issued by some of the other organisations participating in this project: * CNRS (in French) * MPG (in German) * NOVA (in Dutch) * NRAO * NSF (ASCII and HTML versions) * PPARC [2] "ALMA" means "soul" in Spanish. [3] Additional information about ALMA is available on the web: * Articles in the ESO Messenger - "The Large Southern Array" (March 1998), "European Site Testing at Chajnantor" (December 1998) and "The ALMA Project" (June 1999), cf. http://www.eso.org/gen-fac/pubs/messenger/ * ALMA website at ESO at http://www.eso.org/projects/alma/ * ALMA website at the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) at http://www.mma.nrao.edu/ * ALMA website in The Netherlands about the detectors at http://www.sron.rug.nl/alma/ ALMA/Chajnantor Video Clip and Photos ESO PR Video Clip 03/99 [MPEG-version] ESO PR Video Clip 03/99 (2450 frames/1:38 min) [MPEG Video; 160x120 pix; 2.1Mb] [MPEG Video; 320x240 pix; 10.0Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 700k] [RealMedia; streaming; 2.3M] About ESO Video Clip 03/99 : This video clip about the ALMA project contains two sequences. The first shows a panoramic scan of the Chajnantor plain from approx. north-east to north-west. The Chajnantor mountain passes through the field-of-view and the perfect cone of the Licancabur volcano (5900 m) on the Bolivian border is seen at the end (compare also with ESO PR 24e/99 below. The second is a 52-sec animation with a change of viewing perspective of the array and during which the antennas move in unison. For convenience, the clip is available in four versions: two MPEG files of different sizes and two streamer

  8. O livro da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Tolle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de compreender os pressupostos da filosofia concreta pretendida por Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803 em uma série de textos redigidos durante as décadas de 1760-70. Se, por um lado, Herder demonstra afinidade com a mesma harmonia preestabelecida que está na base de leibnizianos como Gottsched e Baumgarten, por outro, ele aprofunda a discussão sobre a origem do conhecimento humano ao reduzir a importância de juízos de valor universal e acentuar a necessidade de uma aproximação constante das sensações que se agitam obscuramente no fundo da alma. Disso resulta uma concepção inusitada de sabedoria, a qual depende de uma renúncia à posse confortável de conhecimentos abstratos e da aceitação da natureza cambiante e apenas parcialmente perscrutável daquilo que nos move. Se com isso perde-se a certeza, abre-se em contrapartida uma dimensão essencialmente ativa e sensível de realização no mundo.

  9. The ALMA Observation Support Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, I; Williams, C J

    2011-01-01

    The ALMA Observation Support Tool (OST) is an ALMA simulator which is interacted with solely via a standard web browser. It is aimed at users who may or may not be experts in interferometry, or those that do not wish to familarise themselves with the simulation components of a data reduction package. It has been designed to offer full imaging simulation capability for an arbitrary ALMA observation while maintaining the accessibility of other online tools such as the ALMA Sensitivity Calculator. Simulation jobs are defined by selecting and entering options on a standard web form. The user can specify the standard parameters that would need to be considered for an ALMA observation (e.g. pointing direction, frequency set up, duration), and there is also the option to upload arbitrary sky models in FITS format. Once submitted, jobs are sequentially processed by a remote server running a CASA-based back-end system. The user is notified by email when the job is complete, and directed to a standard web page which co...

  10. ALMA Cycle 0 Publication Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Stoehr, Felix; Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha; Uchida, Ayako; Testi, Leonardo; Iono, Daisuke; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Wootten, Al

    2016-01-01

    The scientific impact of a facility is the most important measure of its success. Monitoring and analysing the scientific return can help to modify and optimise operations and adapt to the changing needs of scientific research. The methodology that we have developed to monitor the scientific productivity of the ALMA Observatory, as well as the first results, are described. We focus on the outcome of the first cycle (Cycle 0) of ALMA Early Science operations. Despite the fact that only two years have passed since the completion of Cycle 0 and operations have already changed substantially, this analysisconfirms the effectiveness of the underlying concepts. We find that ALMA is fulfilling its promise as a transformational facility for the observation of the Universe in the submillimetre.

  11. Medidas procesales especiales y proteccíon de los derechos humanos Informe general

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del informe general es realizar un análisis comparativo de los informes nacionales para evidenciar los procesos de transformación de los sistemas nacionales de justicia penal, en particular del proceso penal, en el que se han introducido medidas procesales especiales para hacer frente al

  12. The North American ALMA Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC

    2010-01-01

    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  13. Mejora de la calidad de los informes de los metaanálisis de los ensayos clínicos controlados: el acuerdo QUOROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moher

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La Conferencia sobre Calidad de Elaboración de los Informes de los Metaan&lisis (QUOROM se convocó con el fin de abordar la mejora de la calidad de la elaboraci6n de los informes de los metaan&lisis de ensayos cUnicos controlados @CC. El Grupo QUOROM estuvo integrado por 30 personas, entre epidemiólogos clínicos, estadísticos, editores e investigadores. Durante la conferencia se pidió al grupo que identificase aquellos elementos que, en su opinión, se deberfan incluir en un protocolo de control de calidad por niveles. En la medida de lo posible, la elección de los elementos de dicho protocolo se guió por la evidencia científica, que sugerfa que el incumplimiento del elemento propuesto se podría traducir en resultados sesgados. Se utilizó una técnica Delpti modificada para valorar los elementos seleccionados a priori como parte del protocolo. La conferencia se tradujo en la declaración QUOROM, un protocolo de con&01 de calidad y un diagrama de flujo. El protocolo de control de calidad describe la que creemos es la mejor forma de presentar el resumen, la introducción, los métodos, los resultados y la discusión del informe de un metaan*ilisis. Esti organizada en 21 categorfas y subcategwias relativas a búsquedas, selección, evaluación de la validez, análisis de los datos, características del estudio y sintesis de los datos cuantitativos, y en los resultados con dlujo de pruebas>, caract&ticas del estudio y sintesis de los datos cuantitativos; se identificó la documenta&% de la investigación con 18 elementos. El diagrama de flujo proporciona información tanto sobre el número de ensayos clínicos controlados identificados, incluidos y excluidos, como sobre las razones de su exclusión. Esperamos que este h-abajo genere un mayor grado de reflexión sobre cómo mejorar la calidad de los informes de los metaanálisis de los ensayos clínicos controlados, y que los lectores, revisores, investigadores y editores utilicen la

  14. Mejora de la calidad de los informes de los metaanálisis de los ensayos clínicos controlados: el acuerdo QUOROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moher David

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La Conferencia sobre Calidad de Elaboración de los Informes de los Metaanálisis (QUOROM se convocó con el fin de abordar la mejora de la calidad de la elaboración de los informes de los metaanálisis de los ensayos clínicos controlados (ECC. El Grupo QUOROM estuvo integrado por 30 personas, entre epidemiólogos clínicos, estadísticos, editores e investigadores. Durante la conferencia se pidió al grupo que identificase aquellos elementos que, en su opinión, se deberían incluir en un protocolo de control de calidad por niveles. En la medida de lo posible, la elección de los elementos de dicho protocolo se guió por la evidencia científica, que sugería que el incumplimiento del elemento propuesto se podría traducir en resultados sesgados. Se utilizó una técnica Delphi modificada para valorar los elementos seleccionados a priori como parte del protocolo. La conferencia se tradujo en la declaración QUOROM, un protocolo de control de calidad y un diagrama de flujo. El protocolo de control de calidad describe la que creemos es la mejor forma de presentar el resumen, la introducción, los métodos, los resultados y la discusión del informe de un metaanálisis. Está organizada en 21 categorías y subcategorías relativas a búsquedas, selección, evaluación de la validez, análisis de los datos, características del estudio y síntesis de los datos cuantitativos, y en los resultados de "flujo de pruebas"; se identificó la documentación de la investigación con 18 elementos. El diagrama de flujo proporciona información tanto sobre el número de ensayos clínicos controlados identificados, incluidos y excluidos, como sobre las razones de su exclusión. Esperamos que este trabajo genere un mayor grado de reflexión sobre cómo mejorar la calidad de los informes de los metaanálisis de los ensayos clínicos controlados, y que los lectores, revisores, investigadores y editores utilicen la declaración QUOROM y generen ideas destinadas a

  15. Una Nueva Perspectiva de los Informes Financieros en Contabilidad Pública: Los Indicadores de Gestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Brusca Alijarde

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo alcanzado por los sistemas contables de las administraciones públicas en los últimos años ha sido intenso, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, con el objetivo de que éstos proporcionen la información demandada por los usuarios para la toma de decisiones. Esto ha llevado a la implantación de informes financieros de contenido similar a los del sector empresarial, ampliando así la tradicional información presupuestaria. Ahora bien, una de las novedades más importantes es el interés demostrado para dar respuesta a la necesidad de proporcionar información sobre la economía, eficiencia y eficacia en el contexto de las administraciones públicas, apareciendo los indicadores de gestión como un nuevo componente de los informes financieros. The development reached by public accounting systems over the last few years has been intense, both at the national and international level, with the aim of providing the information demanded by the users for the decision making process. This has led to the introduction of financial reports with similar disclosure to those of the business sector. Thereby extending the traditional budgetary reporting. However, one of the most important new developments is the interest shown in meeting the objective of supplying information about economy, efficiency and effectiveness in public administration context, with performance indicators appearing as a new component of financial reports.

  16. A Look Inside Hurricane Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  17. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  18. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  19. Probing Cometary Chemistry with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Comets are considered to bear the record of the primitive Solar nebula as remnants of planetesimals that formed the outer planets. To date there are just over two dozen known cometary species compared to the >150 known interstellar molecules. This is likely due to the challenges posed when attempting to measure the composition of these small bodies. With the significant improvement in sensitivity, ALMA will likely enable the detection of new molecules to help us gain better understanding of the chemical complexity found in comets. This advancement in sensitivity will also assist in the measurement of isotope ratios in various species. These values are imperative for determining the conditions during cometary formation as well as provide insight into ongoing speculations of parent species, the possible delivery of H2O to Earth, and a direct comparison to protostellar disk chemistry. The high angular resolution obtained with ALMA will be capable of resolving any compact distributions or density enhancements in the more extended distribution that may lead to a better understanding of the formation of these species in the outer coma. By studying comet compositions we gain insight into the composition of the early Solar System as well as their astrobiological implications.

  20. El alma colombiana. Idiosincrasia e identidades culturales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pedro José Díaz Camacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene el propósito de averiguar sobre los rasgos anímicos y temperamentales que se expresan en el modo de ser y en la conducta de los colombianos, según las distintas regiones y grupos socioculturales; es decir, sobre cómo ha llegado a ser en el siglo XXI la índole y el alma del pueblo colombiano. Bajo este panorama, se indaga acerca de algunos factores que intervienen en la configuración y expresión del modo de ser, pensar, sentir, percibir y actuar de los colombianos, junto con la forma diversa como se manifiesta su idiosincrasia y la identidad cultural, según lo expuesto por algunos estudiosos de las cuestiones antropológicas, históricas y sociológicas del pueblo colombiano.

  1. Morphologies of protostellar outflows: An ALMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Seifried, Daniel; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of stars is usually accompanied by the launching of protostellar outflows. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) will soon revolutionalise our understanding of the morphologies and kinematics of these objects. In this paper, we present synthetic ALMA observations of protostellar outflows based on numerical magnetohydrodynamic collapse simulations. We find significant velocity gradients in our outflow models and a very prominent helical structure within the outflows. We speculate that the disk wind found in the ALMA Science Verification Data of HD 163296 presents a first instance of such an observation.

  2. Galicia Clínica. Informe de los editores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monte Secades

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2008, la revista Galicia Clínica retomó su actividad, interrumpida en 1996 después de 65 años de vida editorial. La Sociedad Gallega de Medicina Interna (SOGAMI, en su XXV aniversario, planteó la recuperación de la revista, con la que los internistas habían mantenido una estrecha relación en su prime-ra etapa, a nivel particular como medio de formación continuada, e institucional al servir de vehículo para la publicación de comunicaciones a sus congresos.

  3. ALMA quality assurance: concepts, procedures, and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tanne, S. L.; Akiyama, E.; Kurowski, R.; Randall, S.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Villard, E.

    2016-07-01

    Data produced by ALMA for the community undergoes a rigorous quality assurance (QA) process, from the initial observation ("QA0") to the final science-ready data products ("QA2"), to the QA feedback given by the Principal Investigators (PIs) when they receive the data products ("QA3"). Calibration data is analyzed to measure the performance of the observatory and predict the trend of its evolution ("QA1"). The procedure develops over different steps and involves several actors across all ALMA locations; it is made possible by the support given by dedicated software tools and a complex database of science data, meta-data and operational parameters. The life-cycle of each involved entity is well-defined, and it prevents for instance that "bad" data (that is, data not meeting the minimum quality standards) is ever processed by the ALMA pipeline. This paper describes ALMA's quality assurance concepts and procedures, including the main enabling software components.

  4. Two years of ALMA bibliography - lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha J; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  5. Two years of ALMA bibliography: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meankins, Silvia; Grothkopf, Uta; Bishop, Marsha J.; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  6. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  7. Interstellar Isotopes: Prospects with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are natural environments for the enrichment of interstellar molecules in the heavy isotopes of H, C, N and O. Anomalously fractionated isotopic material is found in many primitive Solar System objects, such as meteorites and comets, that may trace interstellar matter that was incorporated into the Solar Nebula without undergoing significant processing. Models of the fractionation chemistry of H, C, N and O in dense molecular clouds, particularly in cores where substantial freeze-out of molecules on to dust has occurred, make several predictions that can be tested in the near future by molecular line observations. The range of fractionation ratios expected in different interstellar molecules will be discussed and the capabilities of ALMA for testing these models (e.g. in observing doubly-substituted isotopologues) will be outlined.

  8. Informe anual sobre el medio ambiente y los recursos naturales 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    1999-01-01

    Este informe anual sobre medio ambiente y recursos naturales examina la acción del Banco durante 1998. Durante dicho año, el Banco continuó ejecutando el mandato establecido en el Octavo Aumento General de Recursos de 1994 acerca de mejorar la calidad ambiental de sus operaciones y la gestión del medio ambiente y los recursos naturales en la Región. Los créditos otorgados para el medio ambiente y los recursos naturales aumentaron en forma sustancial en 1998 en comparación con los tres años an...

  9. Los alcances de los nuevos programas informáticos para el desarrollo de la econometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Noel Gutiérrez Cárdenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo, es una aproximación de la econometría a la informática, mostrando su origen e importancia para las Ciencias Económicas, pero principalmente para el investigador y analista de datos. Pasando brevemente por su historia y los dilemas que a enfrentado en la economía. Pretende así, ser una guía completa que repasa los principales programas informáticos en econometría con sus respectivos enlaces WEB para que puedan ser descargados conforme al uso que se le quiera dar. Así, esta guía mostrará las ventajas y falencias de cada uno de ellos. Siempre entregando un fundamento de que este tipo de programas son un complemento y no reemplaza a la econometría como técnica fundamental en la investigación científica.

  10. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco, alcohol,…

  11. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco,…

  12. Supporting Student Learning in Computer Science Education via the Adaptive Learning Environment ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gasparinatou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the ALMA environment (Adaptive Learning Models from texts and Activities. ALMA supports the processes of learning and assessment via: (1 texts differing in local and global cohesion for students with low, medium, and high background knowledge; (2 activities corresponding to different levels of comprehension which prompt the student to practically implement different text-reading strategies, with the recommended activity sequence adapted to the student’s learning style; (3 an overall framework for informing, guiding, and supporting students in performing the activities; and; (4 individualized support and guidance according to student specific characteristics. ALMA also, supports students in distance learning or in blended learning in which students are submitted to face-to-face learning supported by computer technology. The adaptive techniques provided via ALMA are: (a adaptive presentation and (b adaptive navigation. Digital learning material, in accordance with the text comprehension model described by Kintsch, was introduced into the ALMA environment. This material can be exploited in either distance or blended learning.

  13. Los problemas de la libertad religiosa en un mundo globalizado. La libertad religiosa a través de los informes internacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino Lozano, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Situación de la libertad religiosa en el mundo a través de los informes internacionales emitidos por organismos públicos y privados, nacionales e internacionales. Características formales de dichos informes.

  14. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on.

  15. Caracterización de los delitos informáticos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Manjarrés Bolaño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEs evidente que los avances tecnológicos demuestran la evolución del hombre, y eso lo podemos comprobar a través de los medios que permiten el almacenamiento, la transmisión y la administración de la información. Avances que han modificado el vivir diario de las personas y de las organizaciones, las cuales reflejan el aumento de transacciones comerciales, comercio electrónico, comunicaciones en línea, los procesos industriales, las investigaciones, la seguridad, la sanidad, etc., pero los sistemas de información que han permitido mejorar ostensiblemente los procesos al interior de las organizaciones, son los que al mismo tiempo han generado una serie de comportamientos ilícitos, que se les denomina “Delitos Informáticos”, y es el tema a abordar en este artículo de investigación, que se enmarca dentro del proyecto interdisciplinar titulado La seguridad en los Delitos informáticos desarrollado por estudiantes y docentes de los programas de Derecho e Ingeniería de Sistemas de la Corporación Universitaria Americana. AbstractIt is clear that technological advances show the evolution of man, and we can check through the means for storage, transmission and information management. Advances that have changed the daily life of individuals and organizations, which reflect increased business transactions, electronic commerce, online communications , industrial processes , research , safety , health, etc. . , But systems information that allowed significantly improve processes within organizations are at the same time have created a series of unlawful conduct, which are called “ Computer Crimes “ and is the subject addressed in this research article, that is part of the interdisciplinary project entitled security in cybercrime developed by students and teachers of law programs and Systems Engineering of the American University Corporation.

  16. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    , family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama

  17. Model-based fault detection and diagnosis in ALMA subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, José; Carrasco, Rodrigo A.

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory, with its 66 individual telescopes and other central equipment, generates a massive set of monitoring data every day, collecting information on the performance of a variety of critical and complex electrical, electronic and mechanical components. This data is crucial for most troubleshooting efforts performed by engineering teams. More than 5 years of accumulated data and expertise allow for a more systematic approach to fault detection and diagnosis. This paper presents model-based fault detection and diagnosis techniques to support corrective and predictive maintenance in a 24/7 minimum-downtime observatory.

  18. Operational logs analysis at ALMA observatory based on ELK stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juan P.; Reveco, Johnny; Shen, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-07-01

    During operations, the ALMA observatory generates a huge amount of logs which contain not only valuable information related to specific failures but also for long term performance analysis. We implemented a big data solution based on Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana. They are configured as decoupled system which causes zero impact on the existent operations. It is able to keep more than six months of operation logs online. In this paper, we'll describe this infrastructure, applications built on top of it, and the problems that we faced during its implementation.

  19. La ciencia del alma en IBN Bayya (Avempace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomba, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la interpretación de del más importante aspecto de la filosofía de Ibn Bayya (Avempace a base de la lectura de su Kitab al nafs, primer comentario del De anima de Aristóteles en Occidente. Este estudio sobre el alma es, para Avempace, constituye la principal ciencia porque sin el análisis de la propia alma es imposible conocer el resto de las ciencias y del mundo. Este autor, en todas sus obras encentra el ideal del filósofo y del hombre sabio, sobre todo, en la progresiva desmaterialización de toda su vida. Este objetivo se obtiene mediante el transcendeer de tres formas de vida, concretamente, las formas materiales, el primer nivel espiritual y, por fin, el segundo nivel espiritual. La culminación de este itinerario es alcanzar el segundo nivel espiritual, concretamente, la unión con el Intelecto Agente mediante un misticismo espiritual o «amor Dei intellectualis». Los materiales básicos de esta filosofía están conteniddos en este comentario al aristotélico al De anima

  20. Business Intelligence Applied to the ALMA Software Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, M.; Recabarren, C.; González, V.; Hoffstadt, A.; Soto, R.; Shen, T.-C.

    2012-09-01

    Software quality assurance and planning of an astronomy project is a complex task, specially if it is a distributed collaborative project such as ALMA, where the development centers are spread across the globe. When you execute a software project there is much valuable information about this process itself that you might be able to collect. One of the ways you can receive this input is via an issue tracking system that will gather the problem reports relative to software bugs captured during the testing of the software, during the integration of the different components or even worst, problems occurred during production time. Usually, there is little time spent on analyzing them but with some multidimensional processing you can extract valuable information from them and it might help you on the long term planning and resources allocation. We present an analysis of the information collected at ALMA from a collection of key unbiased indicators. We describe here the extraction, transformation and load process and how the data was processed. The main goal is to assess a software process and get insights from this information.

  1. Los objetos con alma: legitimidad de la esclavitud en el discurso de Aristóteles y Alonso de Sandoval. Una aproximación desde la construcción del cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ariza Montañez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un estudio comparativo entre las obras de Aristóteles y del jesuita del siglo XVII, Alonso de Sandoval, en especial el Tractatus de Instauranda de Aethiopum Salute (1627, con el fin de comparar la concepción de la esclavitud que tenía este filósofo de la Grecia Antigua y los teólogos españoles del periodo colonial. Se toma como referente la construcción social y cultural del cuerpo, siguiendo las ideas propuestas por David Le Bretón. Se argumenta que desde la Antigüedad la legitimación de la esclavitud se basó en la idea de una inferioridad natural inscrita en los cuerpos de los esclavos. Esta aproximación corporal ayuda a dilucidar las redes de significación que dieron sentido a la esclavitud, permitiendo resaltar las diferencias, semejanzas, correlaciones, superposiciones, contradicciones en la obra de los dos autores.

  2. Common Software for the ALMA project

    CERN Document Server

    Chiozzi, G; Jeram, B; Sivera, P; Plesko, M; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Dovc, J; Kadunc, M; Milcinski, G; Verstovsek, I; Zagar, K

    2001-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, USA and Japan. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range, with baselines up to 10 km. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert[1]. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns in control systems and of components, which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is an object model of controlled devices, called Distributed Objects (DOs), implemented as CORBA network objects. Components such as antenna mount, power supply, etc. are defined by means of DOs. A code generator creates Java Bean components for each DO. Programmers can write Java client applications by connecting those Beans with data-manipulation and visualization Beans using commercial visual development tools or programmatically. ACS i...

  3. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  4. ALMA Polarization Science Verification: 3C 286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Amigano, A.; Vlahakis, C.; Remijan, A.; ALMA Polarization Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA polarization science verification results on 3C 286 are presented. The measured polarization percentage and polarization position angle of the continuum emission at 1.3 mm are about 16% and 39 degrees, respectively. They are quite similar to those at longer wavelength, but seem to increase slightly. Similar trends were also found in the previous measurement using the IRAM 30-m telescope (Agudo et al. 2012). The final image rms on the polarization image is better than 0.1% of the total intensity, demonstrating the very high polarization sensitivity of ALMA.

  5. ALMA Observatory Equipped with its First Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    High in the Atacama region of northern Chile one of the world’s most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is being built by a global partnership whose North American partners are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe, the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high-precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-meter diameter antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-meter and 12-meter antennas. The first 12-meter antenna to be handed over to the observatory was built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. “Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 9 miles. “The handover of the first Japanese antenna is the crowning achievement of the ALMA Project to date,” said Adrian Russell, the North American ALMA Project Director at NRAO. The

  6. Serendipitous ALMA detections of faint submm galaxies in SERVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pallavi; Lacy, Mark; Nyland, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    We present a preliminary ALMA study of faint (ALMA observations. The high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and positional accuracy of ALMA have enabled us to probe the nature of the sub-mJy population by resolving their spatial extents and improving constraints on their SEDS and photometric redshifts. We are building a catalog of sources by searching the ALMA archive for moderate to deep observations in the area covered by SERVS. This study will help us begin to understand the contribution of obscured star formation to the total star formation rate at high redshift and guide future wide-area surveys of submm galaxies with ALMA.

  7. TELCAL: The On-line Calibration Software for ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broguière, D.; Lucas, R.; Pardo, J.; Roche, J.-C.

    2011-07-01

    The ALMA on-line calibration regroups all the operations needed to maintain the ALMA interferometer optimally tuned to successfully execute the planned observations. The results of the calibrations are used in quasi-real time by the ALMA Control System. Since the first ALMA antennas were put into operation in 2009, TELCAL has been used for all the basic calibration operations and is still being improved following the project advancement. We describe here the calibrations done by TELCAL, its relationships with the other ALMA software subsystems and, briefly, the architecture of the software based on CORBA.

  8. La informática en los centros educativos: entre el ideal y la acción

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdá, Ernesto Pedro; Moyetta, Adriana M.; Schwartz, Gladys; Solivellas, Daniela Beatriz; Angeli, Sandra E.; Guazzone, Jorge O.; Ferreira Szpiniak, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo brinda resultados obtenidos en el Proyecto de Investigación “Modelos de aplicación de la informática en los Centros Educativos” (perteneciente a la Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto), en relación a las posturas que poseen los directivos de Centros Educativos de nivel primario en cuanto a la informática en la escuela y a las actividades que los profesionales encargados de los laboratorios de computación llevan a cabo en los mismos. La incorporación de la Informática en ...

  9. First ALMA Transporter Ready for Challenging Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The first of two ALMA transporters -- unique vehicles designed to move high-tech radio-telescope antennas in the harsh, high-altitude environment of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array -- has been completed and passed its initial operational tests. The 130-ton machine moves on 28 wheels and will be able to transport a 115-ton antenna and set it down on a concrete pad within millimeters of a prescribed position. ALMA Transporter The ALMA Transporter on a Test Run CREDIT: ESO Click on image for high-resolution file (244 KB) The ALMA transporter rolled out of its hangar and underwent the tests at the Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik company site near Nuremberg, Germany. The machine is scheduled for delivery at the ALMA site in Chile by the end of 2007, and a second vehicle will follow about three months later. ALMA is a giant, international observatory under construction in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile at an elevation of 16,500 feet. Using at least 66 high-precision antennas, with the possibility of increasing the number in the future, ALMA will provide astronomers with an unprecedented ability to explore the Universe as seen at wavelengths of a few millimeters to less than a millimeter. By moving the antennas from configurations as compact as 150 meters to as wide as 15 kilometers, the system will provide a zoom-lens ability for scientists. "The ability to move antennas to reconfigure the array is vital to fulfilling ALMA's scientific mission. The operations plan calls for moving antennas on a daily basis to provide the flexibility that will be such a big part of ALMA's scientific value. That's why the transporters are so important and why this is such a significant milestone," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. "The ALMA antennas will be assembled and their functionality will be verified at a base camp, located at an altitude of 2900 meters (9500 feet) and the transporters will in a first step bring the telescopes up to the

  10. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  11. Referencias al contrabando en los informes de los «oidores» de la Real Audiencia de Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio MEDINA GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se recogen y se comentan las principales referencias sobre el contrabando tradicional en la frontera de España y Portugal, contenidas en los informes de los «oidores» (1791 y en otras disposiciones de la Real Audiencia de Extremadura. Además de resaltar la importancia que tuvo la instauración de la Real Audiencia de Extremadura en el proceso de consolidación de la Administración central en la región, ponemos de manifiesto el enorme interés de la autoridad real por conocer, para erradicar, los tráficos ilegales; siendo la recién estrenada —Real Audiencia—, un instrumento fundamental para implementar esa política de represión del contrabando en la frontera de Portugal, a finales del siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: In this article the main references on the traditional smuggling in the border between Spain and Portugal, contained in the reports the «oidores» (1791 and in other regulations of the Royal Court of Extremadura are gathered and commented. Besides highlighting the great importance that the establishment of the Royal Court of Extremadura had in the process of consolidation of the state administration in the region, we point out the enormous interest of the Royal Authority in knowing the illegal trafficking to eradicate it. In this sense, the new Royal Court was a fundamental instrument to implement this policy of smuggling repression in the border at the end of 18th century.

  12. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, W.; Cunningham, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a major ground based project for millimeter and submillimeter astronomy to be realized during this decade. It comprises an array of 64 telescopes of 12 meter diameter, each equipped with 10 receivers bands covering the atmospheric windows from 30 GHz to 9

  13. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  14. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  15. «Con llanto en los ojos, / con luto y duelo en el alma»: el moro como forjador identitario en la tradición dramática del levante peninsular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez Raposo, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The festival of Moors and Christians in the town of Caudete (Albacete, one of the oldest known, came into being within a dramatic tradition that goes back to the late Sixteenth Century. As a paradigmatic example of the dramatic creation process based on rewriting, the original play has been adapted to the audience’s ever changing horizons of expectations to constitute Episodios caudetanos, the core of nowadays celebration. History, religion, legend and literature complement each other in order to form a cultural phenomenon that transcends its mere playful essence as a popular festival. Through the archetypical figure of the moor, the identity of a community has been shaped (and, by extension, that of a whole nation from the concept of a polarized universe that historical documentation insists on denying.La fiesta de moros y cristianos de la villa albaceteña de Caudete, una de las más antiguas que se conocen, tiene su origen en una tradición dramática que se remonta a finales del siglo XVI. Ejemplo paradigmático del proceso de creación teatral basado en la reescritura, la obra primigenia se ha ido adaptando a los cambiantes horizontes de expectativas del público hasta conformar los Episodios caudetanos, médula de la actual celebración. Historia, religión, leyenda y literatura se complementan para configurar un fenómeno cultural que trasciende la mera esencia lúdica de un festejo popular. Mediante la figura prototípica del moro se ha moldeado la identidad de una comunidad (y, por extensión, de toda una nación a partir del concepto de un universo polarizado que la documentación histórica se empeña en refutar.

  16. La organización informal en los equipos innovadores: un estudio de caso comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un estudio comparativo, mixto, transversal y descriptivo, que se basa en un modelo multinivel de factores psicosociales para identificar, evaluar y comprender la dinámica de la organización informal en la innovación empresarial. La investigación se hace en el nivel de equipos, mediante la aplicación de los instrumentos del modelo. Para la comparación de los equipos, estos se clasifican como ''innovadores'' y ''no innovadores'', a partir de la práctica de actividades de innovación reconocidas por la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE. Debido a la distribución no paramétrica de las variables, se usa el estadístico U de Mann Whitney para identificar las diferencias. La muestra corresponde a 70 equipos que integran a 563 personas de 21 empresas. El estudio encuentra que sí existen diferencias en los factores de cohesión, potencia y clima de aprendizaje entre aquellos equipos que hacen actividades de innovación y los que no, también en el factor de liderazgo entre aquellos equipos que hacen actividades de investigación y desarrollo y los que realizan otro tipo de actividades de innovación. Para comprender la relación de dichos factores con la innovación, se desarrolla un multicaso comparativo, entre cuatro equipos ''innovadores'' de dos empresas participantes. Los resultados dejan de manifiesto la relación existente entre factores de orden cultural y los factores psicosociales potencia y clima de aprendizaje.

  17. Un informe reservado sobre los trabajos de la expedición botánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1961-06-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la Corte Española conocía por los informes del Arzobispo Virrey, D. Antonio Caballero y Góngora, los motivos de orden patriótico y económico que lo habían movido a fundar en 1783 el glorioso instituto que él había bautizado con el título de Expedición Botánica en el Virreinato de la Nueva Granada, y conocía también de sobra los merecimientos que adornaban la personalidad del Dr. José Celestino Mutis, colocado como Director de la misma con el título de Botánico y Astrónomo de Su Majestad, había alguna preocupación por saber en las altas esferas del Estado cuál era el curso de los trabajos en diez años de ejercicio y si ellos correspondían a los gastos expedidos para sostenerla.

  18. Política regional europea: Análisis de los informes de gestión de los fondos estructurales 2000-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Moreno Enguix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo realiza un estudio de las debilidades/errores detectadospor el Tribunal de Cuentas Europeo (TCE en los informes presentados, durante el periodo de financiación 2000-2006, por quince países de la Unión Europea, relativos a la gestión económico-financiera de los Fondos Estructurales. El objetivo de nuestro estudio se centra en exponer y analizar el número y la naturaleza de los errores/debilidades cometidos por los Estados miembros, realizando un estudio con técnicas estadísticas univariantes y multivariantes, aplicando unmodelo de elección tipo probit y una estimación por mínimos cuadrados. Entreotras conclusiones, este análisis pone de manifiesto que la nueva Reglamentación ha tenido un efecto desigual sobre los distintos países, y que el volumen de errores/ debilidades detectados en los informes de los Estados miembros está en relacióncon el volumen de recursos recibidos por los países miembros para cada Fondo Estructural.

  19. Mejora de la calidad de los informes de los ensayos clínicos aleatorio controlados. Recomendaciones del grupo de trabajo CONSORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begg Colin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo corresponde a la traducción al español de la Colaboración Especial publicada en The Journal of the American Medical Association en agosto de 1996, junto con el editorial How to report Randomized Controlled Trials. The Consort Statement, publicada en el mismo número. En ella se describe la elaboración de las Normas Consolidadas para la elaboración de los Informes de los Ensayos Clínicos Controlados, por un grupo de trabajo formado por los componentes del grupo SORT y del Grupo de Trabajo Asilomar, junto con el director de una revista y el autor del informe de un ensayo clínico. El trabajo se realizó mediante un proceso Delphi y el resultado fue una lista de comprobación (checklist y un diagrama de flujo. La primera está compuesta por 21 puntos que se refieren principalmente a los métodos, resultados y discusión del informe de un ensayo clínico controlado, identificándose la información necesaria para poder evaluar la validez interna y externa del ensayo, valorándose la mejora como positiva, tanto para los pacientes, como para los editores de las revistas y los revisores de las mismas.

  20. Las relaciones entre los sectores formal e informal. Una exploración sobre su naturaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor E. Tokman

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que la OIT adoptó el concepto de sector informal, se han suscitado intrincadas discusiones que sirvieron, al menos, para estimular el debate sobre el subdesarrollo y permitir una mejor comprensión de sus problemas y soluciones. De este modo se procura estudiar el fenómeno limitado, pero decisivo, de las relaciones que mantiene elsector informal con el resto de la economía. El análisis de estas relaciones es un punto de partida muy fructífero pues permite ordenar los distintos puntos de vista teóricos sobre el sector informal. En efecto, estos criterios pueden distinguirse por el tipo de vinculaciones que establecen entre la economía informal y formal. Así, en la primera parte, el autor presenta los enfoques contrapuestosde las relaciones <> y las de explotación, con sus diversas variantes y esboza una perspectiva propia en la que sostiene que aquellas relaciones son de <>. En la segunda parte ensaya una estimación para Chile, de la <> del sector informal en relación con el resto de la economía basado en información procedente de las cuentas nacionales; para culminar, en la tercera parte, con la interpretación de los datos de encuestas realizadas en Santiago sobre las características y desempeño del comercio informal.---Since the ILO adopted the concept of informal sector, intricate discussions have emerged that, at least, gave a stimulus to the debate on development and permitted a better understanding of its problems and solutions. It is then of interest to study the limited but critical phenomenon of the relationships between the informal sector and the rest of the economy. The study of these relations is a very fruitful starting point because it permits to organize different theoretical points of view on the informal sector. In fact, these criteria can be distinguished by the type of relations they establish between the formal and informal economies. Thus, in the

  1. La informática forense y los delitos informáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Canedo Estrada

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo da una mirada general acerca de la informática forense, su definición y su implicaciónen la forma como se trata la información en el mundo. Además, muestra la importancia de lainformática forense y su puesta en práctica de manera efectiva, de la mano con diferentesherramientas tecnológicas. En definitiva, explica su aplicación, así como la legislación existenteen materia de delitos informáticos en nuestro país.Palabras claves: Informática forense, delito informático, auditoría informática, seguridad. AbstractThis paper gives a general look about the forensic computer science, its definition and maincharacteristics. Also, it shows the importance that the forensic computer science is put into practicein an effective way, together with deferent technology tools. Finally, explains the application, aswell the existent legislation for computer science crime in our country. Key Words: Forensic computer science, computer science crime, computer science audit,computer science security, technology and tools.

  2. Medidas procesales especiales y proteccíon de los derechos humanos Informe general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A.E. Vervaele

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del informe general es realizar un análisis comparativo de los informes nacionales para evidenciar los procesos de transformación de los sistemas nacionales de justicia penal, en particular del proceso penal, en el que se han introducido medidas procesales especiales para hacer frente al terrorismo y al crimen organizado, y determinar si esto ha llevado a los países a apartarse de sus propias normas fundamentales, procedimientos, principios y estándares de derechos humanos aplicables. Partiendo de la premisa de que el sistema integrado de derecho penal tiene tres dimensiones – la protección de las personas (la dimensión de escudo, la disposición de instrumentos de aplicación de la ley (la dimensión de la espada y de pesos y contrapesos / trias politica (la dimensión constitucional – el informe ofrece un panorama general de las transformaciones relacionadas entre sí, principalmente en la fase previa al juicio, que han afectado a tales dimensiones como consecuencia de tres oleadas de ‘guerras’ (contra las drogas, el crimen organizado y el terrorismo. En muchos países, las garantías procesales y los principios que protegen frente a violaciones del derecho a un juicio justo son considerados una carga para la eficacia de la persecución de los delitos graves. Estas reformas han dado lugar a una clara expansión del estado punitivo y a que queden difuminadas las distinciones clásicas, y no favorecen al estado de derecho. El actuar centrado en la seguridad pública y en la investigación coactiva preventiva socava el sistema de justicia penal. Con un sistema de justicia penal utilizado crecientemente como instrumento para regular el presente y/o el futuro en lugar de para castigar el comportamiento pasado, y un proceso penal en el que la investigación previa al juicio no se dirige a conocer la verdad en relación con el delito cometido, sino a la construcción y de-construcción de la peligrosidad social, los

  3. Detecting the First Quasars with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2010-05-01

    We show that ALMA is the first telescope that can probe the dust-obscured central region of quasars at z > 5 with a maximum resolution of ~ 30 pc employing the 18 km baseline. We explore the possibility of detecting the first quasars with ALMA (Schleicher, Spaans, & Klessen 2009). For this purpose, we adopt the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as a reference system and calculate the expected fluxes if this galaxy were placed at high redshift. This choice is motivated by the detailed observations available for this system and the absence of any indication for an evolution in metallicity in high-redshift quasars. It is a conservative choice due to the moderate column densities in NGC 1068, leading to moderate fluxes.

  4. CURA MÉDICA DE ALMAS (CMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancisar Restrepo Toro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La «Cura médica de almas» tiene como objetivo señalar otra zona de aplicación de la Logoterapia, el acercamiento al hombre que sufre, al homo patiens, pero no ya a su sufrimiento en sí mismo sino a su humanidad. Si la Logoterapia, en su sentido más estricto, es la terapia indicada para las neurosis noógenas o en otros casos es complementaria de las psicoterapias, en el caso de la «Cura médica de almas» ya no es intervención terapéutica sino, específicamente, ejercicio de la humanidad del terapeuta en contacto con la humanidad de su paciente.

  5. Clasificación de los proyectos informáticos y establecimiento de sus EDT's

    OpenAIRE

    Baulo Velasco, Luis

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del presente proyecto es plasmar una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de proyectos informáticos existentes hoy en día. Presentamos una clasificación basada en algunos criterios diferenciadores para finalmente seleccionar una tipología de proyectos informáticos fuertemente diferenciados entre sí. Posteriormente analizaremos de forma exhaustiva las diferentes etapas y fases de las que se componen, con el fin de conocer las diferentes técnicas de trabajo para la correc...

  6. Application development using the ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, G.; Caproni, A.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Wang, V.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.; Zagar, K.; Fugate, D. W.; Harrington, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.

    2006-06-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides the software infrastructure used by ALMA and by several other telescope projects, thanks also to the choice of adopting the LGPL public license. ACS is a set of application frameworks providing the basic services needed for object oriented distributed computing. Among these are transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location based on a container/component model, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. ACS is based on CORBA and built on top of free CORBA implementations. Free software is extensively used wherever possible. The general architecture of ACS was presented at SPIE 2002. ACS has been under development for 6 years and it is midway through its development life. Many applications have been written using ACS; the ALMA test facility, APEX and other telescopes are running systems based on ACS. This is therefore a good time to look back and see what have been until now the strong and the weak points of ACS in terms of architecture and implementation. In this perspective, it is very important to analyze the applications based on ACS, the feedback received by the users and the impact that this feedback has had on the development of ACS itself, by favoring the development of some features with respect to others. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of this analysis and discuss what we would like to do in order to extend and improve ACS in the coming years, in particular to make application development easier and more efficient.

  7. Alma M. Karlin – in private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šučur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the Slovenian writer and traveler, Alma M. Karlin, from two perspectives—the public and the private. The author begins with a summary of the most well-known facts of Alma Karlin's life: She describes her journey around the world, her motivation for writing literary works and travel logs, she places herself into the linguistic and political milieu and uncovers her contribution to the deconstruction of the role a woman was expected to perform in the early 20th century. In this text, the author exposes the previously secret or intentionally hidden elements of Karlin's privacy, for example her relationships with love and the physical. She also brings to light Karlin's relationships with men. However, the author focuses especially on the relationship between Alma Karlin and Thea Gamelin and the related speculations about Karlin's lesbianism, offering a new insight through the concept of the romantic friendship. The article raises the question whether the researching that ignores all the possible interpretations of Karlin’s life and identity has also become an act of heteronormativity.

  8. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R.; Longmore, Steven N.; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Falcke, Heino

    2016-09-01

    Aims: Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz. This frequency, well into the submillimeter bump where the emission is supposed to become optically thin, allows us to see down to the event horizon. Hence the reported observations contain potentially vital information on black hole properties. We have compared our measurements with previous, lower frequency observations, which provides information in the time domain. Methods: We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz, based on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from the central fields of our ALMA mosaic observations. We used calibration observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan and the observations of Ci line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. Results: The flux density of 3.6 ± 0.72 Jy which we measured during our run is consistent with extrapolations from previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle can be explained by a constant polarization position angle of ~158°± 3°. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14% ± 1.2%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed on the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9% ± 0.9% polarization at position angle PA = 14°± 4.2°. Conclusions: The observed polarization percentage and polarization position angle in the present work appear consistent with those expected from longer wavelength observations in the period of 1999-2005. In particular, the polarization position angle at 492 GHz expected from the previously fitted 167°± 7° intrinsic

  9. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    coordinating consortiums in charge of complex, high-performance ground systems." ALMA is an international astronomy facility. It is a partnership between Europe, North America and Japan, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The European contribution is funded by ESO and Spain, with the construction and operations being managed by ESO. A matching contribution is being made by the USA and Canada, who will also provide 25 antennas. Japan will provide additional antennas, thus making this a truly worldwide endeavour. ALMA will be located on the 5,000m high Llano de Chajnantor site in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. ALMA will consist of a giant array of 12-m antennas separated by baselines of up to 18 km and is expected to start partial operation by 2010-2011. The excellent site, the most sensitive receivers developed so far, and the large number of antennas will allow ALMA to have a sensitivity that is many times better than any other comparable instrument. "ALMA will bring to sub-millimetre astronomy the aperture synthesis techniques of radio astronomy, enabling precision imaging to be done on sub-arcsecond angular scales, and will nicely complement the ESO VLT/VLTI observatory", said Dr. Hans Rykaczewski, the ALMA European Project Manager. Millimetre-wave astronomy is the study of the universe in the spectral region between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared radiation. In this realm, ALMA will study the evolution of galaxies, including very early stages, gather crucial data on the formation of stars, proto-planetary discs, and planets, and provide new insights on the familiar objects of our own solar system. A prototype antenna had already been built by Alcatel Alenia Space and European Industrial Engineering and thoroughly tested along with prototypes antennas from Vertex/LSI and Mitsubishi at the ALMA Antenna Test Facility located at the Very Large Array site in Socorro, New Mexico. For more information on the ALMA project, please go to http://www.eso.org/projects/alma/.

  10. Italian Science Case for ALMA Band 2+3

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, M T; Brand, J; Casasola, V; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Fontani, F; Gregorini, L; Guidi, G; Hunt, L; Liuzzo, E; Marconi, A; Massardi, M; Moscadelli, L; Paladini, R; Podio, L; Prandoni, I; Rygl, K L J; Rivilla, V; .,; Testi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Premiale Project "Science and Technology in Italy for the upgraded ALMA Observatory - iALMA" has the goal of strengthening the scientific, technological and industrial Italian contribution to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the largest ground based international infrastructure for the study of the Universe in the microwave. One of the main objectives of the Science Working Group (SWG) inside iALMA, the Work Package 1, is to develop the Italian contribution to the Science Case for the ALMA Band 2 or Band 2+3 receiver. ALMA Band 2 receiver spans from ~67 GHz (bounded by an opaque line complex of ozone lines) up to 90 GHz which overlaps with the lower frequency end of ALMA Band 3. Receiver technology has advanced since the original definition of the ALMA frequency bands. It is now feasible to produce a single receiver which could cover the whole frequency range from 67 GHz to 116 GHz, encompassing Band 2 and Band 3 in a single receiver cartridge, a so called Band 2+3 system. In addit...

  11. Informe anual sobre el medio ambiente y los recursos naturales 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2004-01-01

    Este informe anual sobre el medio ambiente y los recursos naturales examina la acción del Banco durante 2003. En dicho año, el suceso más significativo en el campo del medio ambiente en el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) fue la adopción en junio de su nueva Estrategia de Medio Ambiente. Por ello parte de reconocer que la calidad del medio ambiente y de la base de recursos naturales constituye el capital natural que sostiene el crecimiento económico y la competitividad en el largo pla...

  12. Los informes de visita ad limina del cardenal Lorenzana en Toledo (1772-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Collado, Ángel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the visits ad limina of the cardinal Lorenzana during the years 1776, 1780, 1784, 1788, 1792 and 1796. It is accomplished with a synthesis of each report, that are included as documental appendix in its original draft language.

    Análisis de las visitas ad limina del cardenal Lorenzana de los años 1776, 1780, 1784, 1788, 1792 y 1796. Se realiza una síntesis de cada informe, que se incluyen como apéndice documental en su lengua de redacción original.

  13. El (reconocimiento de la madre en La mitad del alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. Schumm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La mitad del alma de Carme Riera, en que C rememora a su madre, enfatiza la importancia del reconocimiento de las mujeres en la memoria histórica. Desde el mito griego de Atena, quien ignoraba a su madre Metis, la sociedad patriarcal ha excluido a la madre, lo cual promete que la hija conlleve negación también, según Amber Jacobs en On Matricide. Jacobs observa que en La Oresteia hay crímenes sancionados contra las mujeres, las hijas están deprimidas, existe incesto contra la hija, la reproducción familiar se paraliza, toda la sociedad sufre y la hija se desperdicia también cuando la madre es menospreciada. Jacobs afirma que este desprecio de la madre que transcurría en los mitos griegos continúa en la sociedad y la psicología hoy en día. En esta novela de Riera, la hija protagonista, quien desconoce a su madre, sufre de un estado depresivo, la falta de creatividad y una conexión demasiado fuerte con su padre, semejante a lo que Jacobs observa en los mitos, pero la escritura de C sobre su madre la integrará en la consciencia y mejorará la situación de la hija y, últimamente, la de toda la civilización.Summary: Carme Riera‟s La mitad del alma, in which C recollects her mother, emphasizes the importance of the recognition of women in historic memory. Ever since the Greek myth of Athena, who was ignorant of the existence of her mother, Metis, patriarchal society has excluded the mother, a fact which promises that the daughter will also experience negation, according to Amber Jacobs in On Matricide. Jacobs observes that in La Oresteia there are sanctioned crimes against women, the daughters are depressed, there is incest against the daughter, she is dishonored, family reproduction stops, and all of society suffers when the mother is not appreciated. Jacobs affirms that the distain of the mother that took place in Greek myths continues in society and psychology today. In this novel by Riera, the protagonist/daughter, who

  14. Bartolomé Cairasco de Figueroa y el auto sacramental: La Comedia del Alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez, José Ismael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its title, Comedia del Alma, by Bartolomé Cairasco de Figueroa, is an allegorical religious play. This literary work not only is an inusual testimony of this gender in Canarian Islands; it's also one of the best allegorical religious plays of the Spanish Renaissance. Comedia del Alma alternates between humor and seriousness, abstract ideas and humanization, learned and popular style, verse and prose. However, its principal characteristic concerns the allusions which the characters make to the reality close to the audience and the fierce attack launder on the Canarian society.La Comedia del Alma, de Bartolomé Cairasco de Figueroa, pese a su título, pertenece al género dramático conocido como «auto sacramental». No sólo es uno de los escasos autos sacramentales escritos en las Islas Canarias, sino que además es uno de los mejores del siglo XVI español. La pieza teatral se ajusta en muchos aspectos a las características del género: mezcla lo serio y lo cómico, lo abstracto y la humanización, lo culto y lo popular, la prosa y el verso... Pero quizás la mayor particularidad de la obra sean las referencias a la realidad inmediata de los espectadores que aparecen en ella y las críticas que algunos personajes alegóricos hacen de las costumbres de la sociedad canaria de la época.

  15. Dos revistas similares pero distintas: “El Olivo” y “Alma100”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arbelos

    2006-01-01

    Así aparecen dos revistas similares pero diferentes, si bien ambas se proponen la difusión y divulgación del flamenco, una El Olivo lo hace desde una perspectiva más tradicional y Alma100 lo aborda desde conceptos más ligados a lo que se ha denominado postmodernidad. La otra gran diferencia es que mientras la primera depende económicamente casi exclusivamente de una subvención institucional, la segunda lo hace desde los recursos propios que genera la publicidad que se inserta en la publicación

  16. Debris Disks in Nearby Young Moving Groups in the ALMA Era

    CERN Document Server

    Kóspál, Á

    2015-01-01

    Many members of nearby young moving groups exhibit infrared excess attributed to circumstellar debris dust, formed via erosion of planetesimals. With their proximity and well-dated ages, these groups are excellent laboratories for studying the early evolution of debris dust and of planetesimal belts. ALMA can spatially resolve the disk emission, revealing the location and extent of these belts, putting constraints on planetesimal evolution models, and allowing us to study planet-disk interactions. While the main trends of dust evolution in debris disks are well-known, there is almost no information on the evolution of gas. During the transition from protoplanetary to debris state, even the origin of gas is dubious. Here we review the exciting new results ALMA provided by observing young debris disks, and discuss possible future research directions.

  17. ALMA Nutator Design and Preliminary Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Koch, Patrick M; Ni, Chih-Wen; Chen, Wei-Long; Chen, Ming-Tang; Raffin, Philippe; Ong, Chin-Long; Ho, Paul T P; Symmes, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the past two years of collaboration between the di?erent actors on the ALMA nutator. Building on previous developments, the nutator has seen changes in much of the design. A high-modulus carbon ?fiber structure has been added on the back of the mirror in order to transfer the voice coils forces with less deformation, thus reducing delay problems due to flexing. The controller is now an off?-the-shelf National Instrument NI-cRIO, and the ampli?fier a class D servo drive from Advanced Motion Controls, with high peak power able to drive the coils at 300 Volts DC. The stow mechanism has been totally redesigned to improve on the repeatability and precision of the stow position, which is also the reference for the 26 bits Heidenhain encoders. This also improves on the accuracy of the stow position with wind loading. Finally, the software, written largely with National Instrument's LabView, has been developed. We will discuss these changes and the preliminary performances achieved to date. Keywords: ALMA, ...

  18. "We Just Built It:" Code Enforcement, Local Politics, and the Informal Housing Market in Southeast Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, Jacob Anthony George

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is an exploration of the role of informality in the housing market in southeast Los Angeles County. While informality has long been the subject of scholarship in cases from the Global South, and increasingly in the United States, examinations of housing informality in the US thus far have largely been situated in rural and peri-urban areas. This work seeks to interrogate informality in housing processes unfolding within the very heart of northern North America's leading indu...

  19. Quasi-optical attenuators for ALMA band 10 receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Fujii, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Uzawa, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Simple quasi-optical attenuators based on beam truncation have been designed, fabricated and tried on ALMA band 10 receivers (787-950 GHz) with optimal results. The design is based on physical-optics simulations considering effects of diffraction. The use of these attenuators allows flexibility in the design of the local oscillator (LO) quasi-optical injection scheme depending on the specific performance of components for each of the 73 ALMA band 10 receivers. In particular, they have proven very effective to keep system noise within the stringent ALMA requirements (230 K at 80% of 787-950 GHz band).

  20. ALMA Partners Break Ground on World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from North America, Europe, and Chile broke ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located on the Chajnantor plain of the Chilean Andes in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, 16,500 feet (5,000 meters) above sea level. ALMA's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimeter portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site The Atacama Large Millimeter Array is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. "The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare for a spectacular new instrument," said Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation. "The Atacama Large Millimeter Array will expand our vision of the Universe with "eyes" that pierce the shrouded mantles of

  1. Centralized operations and maintenance planning at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Guniat, Serge; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Since the inauguration of the observatory back in March 2013 there has been a continuous effort to establish solid operations processes for effective and efficient management of technical and administrative tasks on site. Here a key aspect had been the centralized maintenance and operations planning: input is collected from science stakeholders, the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) and from the technical teams spread around the world, then this information is analyzed and consolidated based on the established maintenance strategy, the observatory long-term plan and the short-term priorities definitions. This paper presents the high-level process that has been developed for the planning and scheduling of planned- and unplanned maintenance tasks, and for site operations like the telescope array reconfiguration campaigns. We focus on the centralized planning approach by presenting its genesis, its current implementation for the observatory operations including related planning products, and we explore the necessary next steps in order to fully achieve a comprehensive centralized planning approach for ALMA in steady-state operations.

  2. Testing Wave Propagation Properties in the Solar Chromosphere with ALMA and IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bernard; Straus, Thomas; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Waves and oscillations are interesting not only from the point of view that they can propagate energy into the chromosphere and dissipate that energy to produce non-radiative heating, they also carry information about the structure of the atmosphere in which they propagate. Since the late 80s there is substantial evidence that the chromospheric wave field is dominated by a non-propagating component, presumably resulting from wave reflection at the transition region. Observations of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca II infrared tripet lines, Ca II K, and He 10830 all show vanishing phase lags (i.e. vanishing travel time differences) between the various lines, in particular also for frequencies above the cut-off frequency. Why is the apparent phase speed of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere so high? Are these results misleading because of complex radiation transfer effects in these optically thick lines? ALMA, which acts as a linear thermometer of the solar chromosphere, will provide measurements of the local plasma conditions that should be, at least in principle, much easier to interpret. Multi-wavelength time series of ALMA observations of the temperature fluctuations of inter-network oscillations should allow travel time measurements between different heights as these disturbances propagate through the chromosphere and thus should finally settle the long-standing question about the propagation characteristics of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere. We plan to combine ALMA mm-observations with high resolution IRIS observations in the Mg II h and k lines, and until ALMA observations are available, will study the expected signals using time series of mm-maps from 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations that are being prepared within the framework of the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON).

  3. ALMA Observations of the Sun in Cycle 4 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, S; Battaglia, M; Labrosse, N; Fleishman, G; Hudson, H; Antolin, P; Alissandrakis, C; Ayres, T; Ballester, J; Bastian, T; Black, J; Benz, A; Brajsa, R; Carlsson, M; Costa, J; DePontieu, B; Doyle, G; de Castro, G Gimenez; Gunár, S; Harper, G; Jafarzadeh, S; Loukitcheva, M; Nakariakov, V; Oliver, R; Schmieder, B; Selhorst, C; Shimojo, M; Simões, P; Soler, R; Temmer, M; Tiwari, S; Van Doorsselaere, T; Veronig, A; White, S; Yagoubov, P; Zaqarashvili, T

    2016-01-01

    This document was created by the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON) in preparation of the first regular observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), which are anticipated to start in ALMA Cycle 4 in October 2016. The science cases presented here demonstrate that a large number of scientifically highly interesting observations could be made already with the still limited solar observing modes foreseen for Cycle 4 and that ALMA has the potential to make important contributions to answering long-standing scientific questions in solar physics. With the proposal deadline for ALMA Cycle 4 in April 2016 and the Commissioning and Science Verification campaign in December 2015 in sight, several of the SSALMON Expert Teams composed strategic documents in which they outlined potential solar observations that could be feasible given the anticipated technical capabilities in Cycle 4. These documents have been combined and supplemented w...

  4. El núcleo duro de la informática y los derechos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Vacas, Fernando

    1984-01-01

    El ordenador y su entorno han penetrado en los medios de comunicación social, recibiendo un tratamiento muchas veces impresionista y superficial en temas como los derechos del individuo en la sociedad cibernética.

  5. Probing Sagittarius A* accretion with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchikova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The submm Hydrogen recombination line technique can be used as a probe of the Galactic Center. We present the results of our H30α observations of ionized gas from within 0.015 pc around SgrA*. The observations were obtained on ALMA in cycle 3. The line was not detected, but we were able to set a limit on the mass of the cool gas (T~ 104 K) at 2 × 10-3 M ⊙. This is the unique probe of gas cooler than T ~106 K traced by X-ray emission. The total amount of gas near SgrA* gives us clues to understanding the accretion rate of SgrA*.

  6. Astrochemical Modeling In the ALMA Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Interstellar chemistry provides a natural laboratory for studying exotic species and processes at densities, temperatures, and reaction rates, that are difficult or impractical to address in the laboratory. Thus, many chemical reactions considered too slow by the standards of terrestrial chemistry, can be observed' and modeled. Various proposals concerning the nature and chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Catalytic reactions on grain surfaces can, in principle, lead to a large variety of species and this has motivated many laboratory and theoretical studies. Gas phase processes may also build large species in molecular clouds. Future laboratory data and computational tools needed to construct accurate chemical models of various sources to be observed by ALMA will be outlined.

  7. Artificial calibration source for ALMA radio interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Hills, Richard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Asayama, Shinichiro; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Iguchi, Satoru; Corder, Stuartt A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) radio interferometer has some different types of antennas which have a variation of gain and leakages across the primary beam of an individual antenna. We have been developing an artificial calibration source which is used for compensation of individual difference of antennas. In a high-frequency antenna, using astronomical sources to do calibration measurement would be extremely time consuming, whereas with the artificial calibration source becomes a realistic possibility. Photonic techniques are considered to be superior to conventional techniques based on electronic devices in terms of wide bandwidth and high-frequency signals. Conversion from an optical signal to a millimeter/sub-millimeter wave signal is done by a photo-mixer.

  8. Europe, Japan and North America Prepare for Joint Construction of the Giant Radio Telescope "ALMA" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    our own Galaxy, ALMA will study the morphology, the motions and the chemistry of dust-enshrouded regions where stars and planets are being formed. ALMA will shed light on these optically `dark' celestial regions that carry key information on the origin of the richness of structure in the Universe and clues to the origin of life. ALMA is a merger of three large projects - The Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (LMSA) of Japan - each of which has been endorsed as the top-priority project in their respective astronomical communities. The European and North American projects were merged into ALMA in 1999 and joint design and development of ALMA began at that time. The National Research Council of Canada is participating with the U.S. in the project. With Japan joining the project as a third partner equal with North America and Europe, and with Chile also taking part, ALMA has become one of the first truly global projects in the history of fundamental science. In the agreement signed today, the partners pledge to use their best efforts to obtain full approval and funding for their participation in ALMA. With the schedule planned, the telescope should be in full operation in 2010. Note [1]: This Press Release is issued jointly by ESO for its members plus UK and Spain, by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and by CONICYT in Chile. The embargo period coincides with a Press Conference by the partners in Tokyo (Japan). Links to earlier Press Releases etc. about ALMA are found on the dedicated webpage.

  9. ALMA and RATIR observations of GRB 131030A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuiyun; Urata, Yuji; Takahashi, Satoko; Im, Myungshin; Yu, Po-Chieh; Choi, Changsu; Butler, Nathaniel; Watson, Alan M.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lee, William H.; Klein, Chris; Fox, Ori D.; Littlejohns, Owen; Cucchiara, Nino; Troja, Eleonora; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael G.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Bloom, Josh; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Gehrels, Neil; Moseley, Harvey; Georgiev, Leonid; de Diego, José A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    We report on the first open-use based Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) 345 GHz observation for the late afterglow phase of GRB 131030A. The ALMA observation constrained a deep limit at 17.1 d for the afterglow and host galaxy. We also identified a faint submillimeter source (ALMA J2300-0522) near the GRB 131030A position. The deep limit at 345 GHz and multifrequency observations obtained using Swift and RATIR yielded forward-shock modeling with a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation and described X-ray excess in the afterglow. The excess was inconsistent with the synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from the forward shock. The host galaxy of GRB 131030A and optical counterpart of ALMA J2300-0522 were also identified in the Subaru image. Based on the deep ALMA limit for the host galaxy, the 3σ upper limits of IR luminosity and the star formation rate (SFR) are estimated as LIR ALMA J2300-0522 may be one component of the GRB 131030A host galaxy, according to previous host galaxy cases.

  10. Constraining the orbits of young binary systems with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Natasha; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Akeson, Rachel L.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the orbits of young binary systems can provide the stars' individual stellar masses as well as insight into the dynamical effects they should have on each others' protoplanetary disks. As a byproduct of our ALMA observations of disks in young binary systems, we are able to measure precise relative separations of binaries with separations of 0.22--0.35 arcsec (~ 30--50 AU at the distance of the Taurus star-forming region). Most of these systems were first resolved in the early 1990s, so our epoch 2015 observations add an additional point in the orbit that is 20--25 years after the discovery epoch. While this coverage does not yet yield a definitive orbit, the extended coverage allows improved constraints on the binary orbital parameters. We present updated orbital constraints on a number of young binary systems, including XZ Tau, GH Tau, GN Tau, IS Tau, V955 Tau, and JH 112.This work makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. An ALMA Survey of Planet Forming Disks in Rho Ophiuchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoil Cox, Erin; Looney, Leslie; Harris, Robert J.; Dong, Jiayin; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Tobin, John J.; Sadavoy, Sarah; Li, Zhi-Yun; Dunham, Michael; Perez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Melis, Carl; Chiang, Hsin-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Relatively evolved (~ 1 Myr old) protostars with little residual natal envelope, but massive disks, are commonly assumed to be the sites of ongoing planet formation. Critical to our study of these objects is information about the available mass reservior and dust structure, as they directly tie in to how much mass is available for planets as well as the modes of planet formation that occur (i.e., core-accretion vs. gravitational instability). Millimeter-wave observations provide this critical information as continuum emission is relatively optically thin, allowing for mass estimates, and the availability of high-resolution interferometry, allowing structure constraints. We present high-resolution observations of the population of Class II protostars in the Rho-Ophiuchus cloud (d ~ 130 pc). Our survey observed ~50 of these older protostars at 870µm, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Out of these sources, there are ~10 transition disks, where we see a ring of dust emission surrounding the central protostar -- indicative of ongoing planet formation -- as well as many binary systems. Both of these stages have implications for star and planet formation. We present results from both 1-D and 2-D disk modeling, where we try to understand disk substructure that might indicate on-going planet formation, in particular, transition disk cavities, disk gaps, and asymmetries in the dust emission.

  12. Verificación de los informes de sostenibilidad de las empresas cotizadas en Alemania

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍ PÉREZ, ARANTXA

    2015-01-01

    Tradicionalmente, la información publicada por las empresas se basaba en términos financieros y puramente obligatorios. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se está dando lugar un cambio de estrategia empresarial donde cobra gran importancia el desempeño ético, social y medioambiental. De este modo, en el presente trabajo se analizan los principales motivos a los que se debe esta transformación en el contexto de los negocios. Por un lado, debido a la difícil valoración de los activos intangibl...

  13. Alternativas a los ftalatos en adhesivos y tintas: Informe de vigilancia tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Serrano, Encarnación; Cerezo García, Lidia; Urbina Fraile, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Los plastificantes mejoran la flexibilidad y el procesado de los polímeros. Los más empleados en todo el mundo son los ésteres de ácido ftálico como el DEHP (ftalato de bis(2-etilhexilo)), el DIDP (ftalato de diisodecilo), el DITDP (ftalato de diisotridecilo) y el DINP (ftalato de diisononilo)), existiendo más de 30 tipos diferentes de ftalatos en el mercado. La mayoría de los ftalatos poseen excelentes propiedades plastificantes y adhesivas, por lo que son empleados en la industria química p...

  14. La venta informal de combustible en la frontera Colombia-Venezuela: El papel de los pimpineros como grupo vulnerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Egea Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza las características de la actividad de la venta informal de combustible en la zona fronteriza del departamento Norte de Santander (Colombia y el Estado del Táchira (Venezuela, y en concreto de las personas que ejercen esta actividad, conocidos popularmente como pimpineros. Esta actividad, por su carácter fronterizo, depende en ocasiones de las relaciones comerciales entre Colombia y Venezuela. En estos momentos la actividad de los pimpineros está en un claro proceso de legalización con indudables consecuencias para los mismos y para los que dependen económicamente de ésta actividad. El trabajo se basa en el análisis del contenido de artículos de prensa digital sobre esta actividad y colectivo, y en el Censo de Pimpineros (2009. Los resultados de la investigación plantean como conclusiones tres aspectos importantes que son a su vez tres vetas investigativas: disponer de un registro que permita conocer con detalle esta actividad; el impacto de la legalización de la actividad; y los riesgos sociales a los que se pueden ver expuestos los pimpineros y sus familias por dichos cambios.

  15. Morfología léxica de los derivados en –ar en el dominio de los deportes y la informática

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Santana, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo está centrado en la descripción del léxico del área informática y deportiva obtenido mediante la derivación del sufijo –ar. Se realiza un estudio sincrónico de las dos esferas a partir de las características morfológicas y semánticas, su productividad y la relación con otros sufijos dentro de su familia léxica. La perspectiva teórica con la que abordan los objetivos anteriores es el modelo relacional cuyo principio básico es la asociación formal y semántica en los procesos...

  16. Los físicos en la Facultad de Informática de Barcelona, 1976-1992

    OpenAIRE

    Fornés de Juan, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    En la España de la transición, la profesionalización de la informática y el nacimiento de los primeros estudios reglados universitarios en esta materia ofrecieron nuevas oportunidades a otras disciplinas científicas. Así, mientras los informáticos daban sus primeros pasos en las publicaciones científicas, otro colectivo, el de los físicos, se aproximó a la FIB en busca de técnicas y métodos de computación, de programación paralela, de potencia de cálculo y de puestos académicos. Una consecuen...

  17. Educando el alma psicol??gica

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo retoma aspectos de una exploraci??n de los trabajos de cuatro importantes psic??logos educativos estadounidenses ???Granville Stanley Hall, William James, John Dewey y Edward Thorndike??? para concentrarse en los principios rectores del desarrollo de los ni??os. Los trabajos de estos autores est??n considerados como funciones que psicologizan al ni??o como un proceso de llegar a ser humano, que deba ser educado con fines ??ticos e inteligentes. Dos puntos de p...

  18. The limits of information in the negotiated debates/ Los límites de la información en los debates pactados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Xosé Soengas Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La Academia de Televisión fue el escenario considerado neutral por el PSOE y por el PP para organizar los debates electorales previstos entre los candidatos de ambos partidos con motivo de las elecciones generales del 9-M de 2008, emitidos el 25 de febrero y el 3 de marzo. El análisis de los dos cara a cara que mantuvieron José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero y Mariano Rajoy pretende conocer las circunstancias en las que se fraguaron ambos encuentros, valorar su utilidad y determinar el grado de previsibilidad que ofreció la confrontación dialéctica entre los líderes de los dos partidos políticos mayoritarios, cuyas intervenciones fueron acordadas previamente, tanto los contenidos como la puesta en escena. Nos interesa comprobar hasta qué punto es compatible la libertad de información con los debates pactados y con la imposición de unos moderadores a los que se deja sin atribuciones. Los protagonistas conocían las preguntas que se les iban a formular y tenían la seguridad de que no se plantearían determinadas cuestiones por ninguna de las dos partes porque habían negociado qué temas les convenía abordar y cuáles preferían no comentar. Además del contenido, consideramos muy importante el contexto en el que se desarrollaron los encuentros entre Zapatero y Rajoy porque en España hay una falta de tradición de programas de estas características (el último fue en 1993 entre Felipe González y José María Aznar y se generaron muchas expectativas ante algo extraordinario. Por eso queremos comprobar si el debate estuvo a la altura de las circunstancias.Abstract: The Academy of Television was the allegedly neutral scenario for the organization of the debate between the PSOE and the PP of the Spanish general elections of March the 9th 2008, which were on air in February the 25th and March the 3rd. The analysis of both face to face between candidates José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Mariano Rajoy aims to know the circumstances

  19. The Global ALMA EPO programme: Communicating astronomy with the public at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.; Boffin, H. J.; Garnier, W.; Iono, D.

    2008-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a major 21st century international science research facility that will open new windows on celestial origins. ALMA construction is underway in the high-elevation Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Science operations will begin in 2010, and full science operations will start in 2013. The ALMA Education and Public Outreach (EPO) programme is a global collaboration that seeks to communicate the excitement and value of the ALMA mission, science, and technology to international audiences effectively. The ALMA EPO programme is the responsibility of the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). This contribution provides an overview of the ALMA Project and the global ALMA EPO programme.

  20. Descubrimiento de conocimiento en lecciones aprendidas documentadas en los procesos de cierre de proyectos informáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bárbara Ril Valentín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La documentación de lecciones aprendidas permite visualizar los errores del pasado y mejorar el trabajo futuro. Aprender de la experiencia de proyectos anteriores contribuye a disminuir los riesgos, evitar problemas ya identificados y reutilizar las buenas prácticas para reducir el número de proyectos no exitosos. El objetivo de esta investigación es descubrir conocimiento a partir de la aplicación de árboles de decisión y tablas de contingencia en lecciones aprendidas documentadas en los procesos de cierre de proyectos informáticos, para aumentar el conocimiento respecto a la identificación de buenas prácticas y posibles problemas, así como la asociación entre buenas prácticas y problemas en la ejecución de los proyectos. Finalmente, se exponen los resultados derivados de la aplicación de árboles de decisión y tablas de contingencia a las lecciones aprendidas documentadas en 48 proyectos informáticos en proceso de cierre.

  1. The transition from construction to operations on the ALMA control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Ralph; Hiriart, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a set of 66 millimeter wave antenna in the Andes in Northern Chile. All antennas are connected and operate as an interferometer making ALMA the most powerful millimeter telescope in the world. In 2013 ALMA formally marked the end of construction and the beginning of operations. This paper will focus on the impact, on the ALMA control software, of this transition from construction to operations.

  2. Exploring remote operation for ALMA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Ovando, Nicolás.; Velez, Gaston; Fuica, Soledad; Schemrl, Anton; Robles, Andres; Ibsen, Jorge; Filippi, Giorgio; Pietriga, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. The observatory has another office located in Santiago of Chile, 1600 km from the Chajnantor plain. In the Atacama desert, the wonderful observing conditions imply precarious living conditions and extremely high operation costs: i.e: flight tickets, hospitality, infrastructure, water, electricity, etc. It is clear that a purely remote operational model is impossible, but we believe that a mixture of remote and local operation scheme would be beneficial to the observatory, not only in reducing the cost but also in increasing the observatory overall efficiency. This paper describes the challenges and experience gained in such experimental proof of the concept. The experiment was performed over the existing 100 Mbps bandwidth, which connects both sites through a third party telecommunication infrastructure. During the experiment, all of the existent capacities of the observing software were validated successfully, although room for improvement was clearly detected. Network virtualization, MPLS configuration, L2TPv3 tunneling, NFS adjustment, operational workstations design are part of the experiment.

  3. $\\eta$ Carinae Baby Homunculus Uncovered by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P B

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of $\\eta$ Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280 and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.88" to 0.45" for the lower and higher frequencies respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42$\\alpha$, He42$\\alpha$, H40$\\alpha$, He40$\\alpha$, H50$\\beta$, H28$\\alpha$, He28$\\alpha$, H21$\\alpha$ and He21$\\alpha$ were also detected and their intensities reveal non local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of $\\eta$ Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the hi...

  4. VIDEO AT OSF - Interview to David Rabanus, ESO, on the ALMA OSF site, at 2900 m

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In this interview, recorded on the ALMA OSF (Operations and Support Facilities) site, at 2900 m on the Chajnantor highlands, physicist David Rabanus of ESO/ ALMA takes us inside the heart of the ALMA antennas, to reveal how the antennas detect millimetric and submillimetric radiowaves.

  5. [Alma Ata 30 years on. Evolution and perspectives of primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciocco, G

    2008-01-01

    The Alma Ata Declaration (September 1978) was a turning point in the definition of "Primary Health Care". The traditional bio-medical model was based on a paternalistic approach and on the treatment of the individual episodes of disease. The new bio-psycho-social model was based on prevention, continuity of care, integrated health care teams and on a direct role of patients in managing their health. Thirty years on, this approach is still relevant. Actually, it is the only adequate one to answer effectively to the current challenges: epidemiological changes (increasing prevalence of chronic diseases), social changes (increased social inequalities in health), cultural changes (increased patients demand for information and autonomy).

  6. Los clínicos son de marte y los patólogos de venus. Interpretación clínica de los informes de patología.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara I. Campos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Los informes de especialidades médicas que contienen información crítica, como los de radiología, patología y demás especialidades de interconsulta, deben ser concisos y claros para que no induzcan errores en las decisiones médicas. Desde su entrenamiento, el patólogo hace especial énfasis en brindar al clínico la información diagnóstica completa. Sin embargo, muchas veces ignora si ésta fue bien comprendida. A medida que se amplían las posibilidades de comunicación a distancia, se aumenta la brecha entre clínicos y patólogos, pues se acentúa el problema potencial de comprensión mutua. El objetivo del presente artículo es evaluar la comunicación entre clínicos y patólogos, con base en el informe anatomopatológico en el Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV. Se utilizaron encuestas con preguntas abiertas y cerradas sobre informes comunes en la práctica de las especialidades que consultan más al Departamento de Patología en el HUV, para ser respondidas por residentes y docentes de dichas áreas, con base en los datos clínicos y el informe emitido. Existe una discordancia de 27% entre lo que el patólogo pretende decir a través del informe y lo que los clínicos entienden y aumenta cuando se trata de evaluar preguntas que requieren algún grado de interpretación, por no estar explícita la descripción en el informe. En algunos casos estas discordancias podrían llevar a errores terapéuticos. Es evidente que existen problemas de comunicación entre clínicos y patólogos, y aunque el grado de entrenamiento y la experiencia disminuyen esta brecha, se debe trabajar más para unificar y clarificar el lenguaje con el fin disminuir así las malas interpretaciones y los errores médicos.

  7. The Soul of Lupus with ALMA (SOLA) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; de Gregorio, I.; Team SOLA

    2015-12-01

    The SOLA (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) project is conducting comprehensive studies of the Lupus Molecular Clouds and their star formation processes. Our goal is to exploit ALMA and other facilities over a wide wavelength range to establish a prototypical low-mass star forming scenario based on the Lupus region. We focus mainly on 10-104 au scale physics, kinematics, density, and temperature, together with detailed modelling of radiative transfer. Our unique source catalog so far contains more than 700 sources at various evolutionary stages and we have obtained complementary data with Mopra, APEX, etc. In the poster, we will report the latest status of SOLA and the expected outcome in observing runs in the near future, including ALMA Cycle 3.

  8. A Deep ALMA Image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Although primarily designed as a high-resolution imaging spectrometer at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a vital role to play in producing the key deep, unconfused, submillimetre/millimetre continuum surveys required to bridge the current gap in our understanding of visible and dust-obscured star formation in the young Universe. The first such survey has now been completed, comprising a mosaic of 45 ALMA pointings at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, covering the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). This deep, homogeneous ALMA survey, combined with the wealth of existing data in the HUDF, has already provided new clarity on the nature of dusty star-forming galaxies, and the relative evolution of dust-obscured and unobscured star formation over cosmic time.

  9. HST, ALMA, and revealing the throes of planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, Aaron C.

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, I will highlight some of the synergy between HST and ALMA. In particular, I will focus on the impact of these observatories in shaping our understanding of debris systems and planet-forming discs. Both HST and ALMA can resolve gas and dust distributions at very high resolution, but they each, e.g., probe very different dust grain sizes and gas line transitions. The observatories can thus provide complementary views of the dynamics, composition, and morphologies of discs during planet building and its aftermath. As examples, I will discuss new ALMA results for HD141569 and Fomalhaut, as well as discuss work from other groups on systems such as Beta Pic.

  10. Informe sobre los elementos prefabricados de yeso utilizados hoy día en Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courivaud, I.

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableAunque la fabricación de losetas o placas de yeso no es una industria nueva en Francia, aproximadamente en el año 1920 cuando empiezan a aparecer en el mercado francés los primeros elementos prefabricados de yeso. Por primera vez estos elementos fabricados industrialmente tenían sus dimensiones perfectamente "calibradas y presentaban sus paramentos perfectamente lisos; no requiriendo una vez montados los tradicionales enlucidos para su acabado.

  11. Implementation of Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information guidelines for fixed-site safeguards and security (FSSS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, P.L.

    1995-02-01

    Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information (UCNI) is one type of sensitive information that DOE employees, including computer users, must now identify and protect. Guidelines to identify information as UCNI are gradually being put in place. The publication of Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information Topical Guideline for Fixed-Site Safeguards and Security, TG-FSSS-1, is a major step in the development of UCNI guidelines. This DOE published guide cuts across and addresses many different programmatic areas including automated data processing. Our local guideline, Los Alamos National Laboratory Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information Guideline for Fixed-Site Safeguards and Security, IG-LAFSSS-1, is based on TG-FSSS-1. In this paper, I plan to discuss the background of UCNI, the definition of UCNI, information that qualifies as UCNI, the consequences of information being UCNI, the development of UCNI guidelines, TG-FSSS-1 and IG-LAFSSS-1, the relationship of UCNI to classification, and the implementation of the IG-LAFSSS-1 at Los Alamos.

  12. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: zulema.abraham@iag.usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, R. Arlindo Bettio 1000, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  13. Los determinantes del empleo informal en las ciudades de Barranquilla, Cartagena y Montería. Periodo 2001 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya Campo, Alexander de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    El importante tamaño que ha registrado el empleo informal en la última década en Colombia debería preocupar a los hacedores de política económica porque éste tipo de empleo comúnmente está relacionado con la escasez de acumulación de capital físico y humano, impidiendo un mayor crecimiento económico tanto regional como nacional. Además, también constituye un problema de política debido a que el empleo informal se caracteriza por ser inestable y está exento de mecanismos que permiten a los tra...

  14. Construcción temática y marcas enunciativas en los informes de estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Oyanedel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la construcción discursiva de las figuras de productor y receptor en los informes escritos de estudiantes universitarios de segundo año. Los textos estudiados revelan la representación de un saber complejo, que incluye mecanismos discursivos para la construcción del enunciador –el estudiante– y delreceptor: el profesor que evalúa. A lo largo del artículo se ilustra con ejemplos tomados de informes de Ciencias Biológicas y de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales. Se destaca el empleo de marcas de didacticidad para orientar al receptor como mecanismo específico de estos últimos informes. Se concluye que la variedad e inestabilidad en las estrategias para construir a los actores involucrados en este intercambio académico responden, por una parte, a las diferencias que son propias del campo disciplinar y de la clase de informe y, por otra, al nivel de alfabetización en el que se encuentran los productores. (This paper addresses the discoursive construction of producer and recipient in written research reports made by second-year university students. Texts analysed reveal the representation of a complex kind of knowledge, including discoursive mechanisms for the construction of the writer –the student– and the reader – the evaluating professor. Throughout the article this is illustrated by examples taken from Biological, Human and Social Sciences reports. Didactic resources used to guide the reader are highlighted as a mechanism specific to reports in Social Sciences. The paper concludes that the variety and instability shown by strategies for the construction of actors involved in this academic exchange reflect differences proper to the discipline and report classes, as well to text producers’ literacy level.

  15. Fundamentos Físicos de las Nuevas Tecnologías Informáticas: Enunciados de los problemas

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    1996-01-01

    Fundamentos Físicos de las Nuevas Tecnologías Informáticas: Enunciados de los problemas (óptica geométrica, óptica ondulatoria, óptica de Fourier, holografía, óptica electromagnética, dispositivos electroópticos, dispositivos acustoópticos, fibras ópticas y comunicaciones, computación óptica).

  16. Por mi alma subiré a Dios. El concepto de alma de san Agustín de Hipona

    OpenAIRE

    Saeteros Pérez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende recoger las claves fundamentales de la doctrina sobre el alma de san Agustín de Hipona. Magna natura et magna quaestio est (Hipona De; trad. 1968; 14; 4; 6); puesto que ocupará durante toda su vida el pensamiento y las obras del santo obispo. Buscar su propia alma; adentrarse en su santuario; descubrir la imagen de Dios en ella; su bondad; su grandeza; su vida para volverla luego a Dios; su origen y meta de todos sus esfuerzos. Tal es el itinerario que nos traza...

  17. San Cristóbal de los Ángeles [Madrid]: Informe preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Valdivia, Blanca Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    El presente documento es parte del trabajo desarrollado en el proyecto “Inmigración, vivienda y Ciudad” financiado por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación En esta investigación se trata de establecer una relación entre condiciones residenciales precarias y entorno urbano deficiente. San Cristóbal de los Ángeles, en el distrito de Villaverde en Madrid, es uno de los barrios seleccionados para realizar el análisis sobre las características residenciales y urbanísticas de la población in...

  18. Síntomas en la menopausia y el cuidado de los nietos. Informe preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalinda García Campos; Herlinda Aguilar Zavala; Juan Manuel Malacara H.

    2008-01-01

    Introducción. La menopausia es un proceso restringido al ser humano. La mujer tiene una etapa post-reproductiva prolongada en la que aparecen síntomas que deterioran su calidad de vida. El valor adaptativo de la menopausia se ha atribuido al papel de las abuelas en la crianza de los nietos. También se ha planteado como explicación la teoría del conflicto reproductivo entre generaciones. Es importante definir la posible relación entre los síntomas en la menopausia y su papel en el cuidado de l...

  19. La inmortalidad del alma: historia de un argumento político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saralegui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina una cuestión fundamental y poco estudiada de la teología política: la relación entre la defensa de la inmortalidad del alma y el mantenimiento del orden público. Se realiza un recorrido histórico por autores como Pietro Pomponazzi y Tomás Moro, que aceptan motivos políticos para defenderla, y David Hume, quien considera que no existe ningún motivo político para mantener dicha relación. Por último, se analizan los argumentos esgrimidos para mostrar que su eficacia está condicionada por la situación histórica.

  20. Síntomas en la menopausia y el cuidado de los nietos. Informe preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda García Campos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La menopausia es un proceso restringido al ser humano. La mujer tiene una etapa post-reproductiva prolongada en la que aparecen síntomas que deterioran su calidad de vida. El valor adaptativo de la menopausia se ha atribuido al papel de las abuelas en la crianza de los nietos. También se ha planteado como explicación la teoría del conflicto reproductivo entre generaciones. Es importante definir la posible relación entre los síntomas en la menopausia y su papel en el cuidado de los nietos. Método. Efectuamos un estudio epidemiológico en sección transversal en 386 mujeres post-menopáusicas, con edad de 55 a 75 años. Se colectaron los datos antropométricos,antecedentes gineco-obstétricos, nivel socioeconómico, relaciones con hijos y nietos, y los síntomas: bochornos, sequedad vaginal, pérdida del interés sexual, depresión, ansiedad, síntomas no específicos de depresión y el síndrome del nido vacío. Se midieron glucosa, colesterol, estradiol y FSH en una muestra de sangre en ayuno. Resultados. Las voluntarias tuvieron edad media de 63 años, menopausia a los 47.7 años, 5.6 hijos y 13.1 nietos. Se encontró mayor pérdida del interés sexual en las mujeres que veían con frecuencia a sus hijos y en quienes cuidaban a sus nietos. Las calificaciones más bajas del síndrome del nido vacío, se encontraron en el grupo sin hijos o nietos. El grupo sin nietos tenía además calificaciones más bajas de síntomas no específicos de depresión. En cuanto a los factores asociados con los síntomas, la edad se asoció inversamente a bochornos y ansiedad; la escolaridad tuvo relación inversa con bochornos, depresión, ansiedad y síndrome del nido vacío. El índice de masa corporal se asoció negativamente con sequedad vaginal, pérdida del interés sexual y síntomas no específicos de depresión. FSH se asoció negativamente con la pérdida del interés sexual. Los bochornos se asociaron con el ejercicio. El n

  1. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  2. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  3. The Labour Market Effects of "Alma Mater": Evidence from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Giorgio; Cappellari, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    We use data from a nationally representative survey of Italian graduates to study whether "Alma Mater" matters for employment and earnings 3 years after graduation. We find that the attended college matters, and that there are important college-related differences, both among and within regions of the country. These differences, however,…

  4. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  5. Modeling Protostar Envelopes and Disks Seen With ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, Susan; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Willacy, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Thermal continuum emission from protostars comes from both the envelope and circumstellar disk. The dust emits on a variety of spatial scales, ranging from sub-arcseconds for disks to roughly 10 arcseconds for envelopes for nearby protostars. We present models of what ALMA should detect that incorporate a self-consistent collapse solution, radiative transfer, and realistic dust properties.

  6. ALMA North American Integration Center Front-End Test System

    CERN Document Server

    Ediss, Geoffrey A; Crady, Kirk; Gaines, Erik; McLeod, Morgan; Morris, Greg; Williams, Rick; Perfetto, Antonio; Webber, John; 10.1007/s10762-010-9688-y

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter (ALMA) Array Front End (FE) system is the first element in a complex chain of signal receiving, conversion, processing and recording. 70 Front Ends will be required for the project. The Front End is designed to receive signals in ten different frequency bands. In the initial phase of operations, the antennas will be fully equipped with six bands. These are Band 3 (84-116 GHz), Band 4 (125-163 GHz), Band 6 (211-275 GHz), Band 7 (275-373 GHz), Band 8 (385-500 GHz) and Band 9 (602-720 GHz). It is planned to equip the antennas with the missing bands at a later stage of ALMA operations, with a few Band 5 (163-211 GHz) and Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers in use before the end of the construction project. The ALMA Front End is far superior to any existing receiver systems; spin-offs of the ALMA prototypes are leading to improved sensitivities in existing millimeter and submillimeter observatories. The Front End units are comprised of numerous elements, produced at different...

  7. Los informes contables externos y la legitimidad organizacional con el entorno: estudio de un caso en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gómez Villegas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este documento es una aproximación académica a la contabilidad y a los informes contables externos. Su preocupación es la caracterización y comprensión del papel de la contabilidad en las organizaciones y en la sociedad. Por ello sintetiza la visión económica dominante y algunas de las perspectivas sociales e institucionales sobre el rol de la contabilidad y la información contable financiera. Parte de la pregunta: ¿Aporta la contabilidad al propósito de legitimidad organizacional con el entorno? Así, el objetivo del trabajo es realizar una síntesis de las visiones que explican el papel de los informes contables externos, los estados financieros particularmente, desde la visión dominante y desde una perspectiva neoinstitucional en contabilidad. Para ello el documento recoge un primer estudio de caso, que pretende aportar a la necesaria contrastación empírica para la comprensión del rol de la contabilidad en Colombia. Adoptamos la visión según la cual, ante todo, la información contable desempeña un rol institucional, como mecanismo de legitimación de la organización con su entorno

  8. Los nuevos derechos humanos: gobierno electrónico e informática comunitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bustamante Donas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación entre derechos humanos, tecnología y democracia. En particular, la relaciónentre el uso de Internet, las políticas de inclusión digital y el desarrollo del gobierno electrónico, con referencias alos casos de Brasil y España. Se identifican factores que suponen un cambio real en la definición de los límites de lademocracia y en el concepto de ciudadanía. El movimiento Linux, las comunidades virtuales y la ética de hackersson manifestaciones de una primera generación de usos alternativos de profundo poder transformador. Los conceptosde ciudadanía y de derechos humanos se redefinen en este nuevo entorno a partir de un nuevo conjunto devalores y metáforas, de un nuevo paradigma ético.

  9. El trabajo informal de los vagoneros en el Metro de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Ramírez Cárdenas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo principal de este artículo es presentar un estudio exploratorio a partir de un caso que explica de qué forma las condiciones laborales propias del sector informal pudieran determinar la decisión de los vendedores ambulantes de permane- cer en este en su modalidad de comercio ambulante, específicamente en la venta de artículos apócrifos. La manera en que se operacionalizaron las proposiciones planteadas en la presente investigación fue a través del uso de la observación participante en calidad de compradores y de la aplicación de ocho entrevistas a los vendedores ambulantes mayores de 25 años que se dedi- can a la venta de discos compactos (CD’s piratas dentro de los vagones del Sistema de Transporte Colectivo (STC Metro de la Línea 8 de la Ciudad de México. Los resultados arrojan que el ingreso, las remuneraciones, la jornada de trabajo y la satisfacción que da el trabajar en el sector informal hace que los sujetos de estudio decidan trabajar en el marco de la informalidad. Palabras clave: Comercio ambulante, Sector informal, Precariedad laboral, Vagoneros. Abstract This paper focuses on analysis of the decisions made by peddlers to continue working on the streets, specifically selling apocryphal items. Those decisions are based on the working conditions in the informal sector. To collect data, the participant observation was used, as buyers; 8 interviews with vendors, aged over 25, were conducted. These sellers are engaged in the sale of pirate compact discs (CDs inside the wagons of the Sistema de Transporte Colectivo (STC Metro Line 8 in Mexico City. The results show that economic income, financial compensation, the working day and the satisfaction of working in the informal sector makes those people keep on working within the framework of informality. Key words: Street vendors, Informal sector, Job insecurity, Wagon drivers. Resumo O principal objetivo deste artigo é apresentar um estudo

  10. Observaciones sobre chamanismo y el rito del bautismo entre los Ava-Katu-Ete

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Florencio Centurion Mereles

    2013-01-01

    La cultura Ava-Katu-Ete, los menos estudiados en el Paraguay pero en contraste los que han logrado una mayor compenetración con la sociedad nacional, es una cultura de la palabra. Y como alma y palabra son la misma cosa, al ser producto del contacto con los Dioses, son palabras verdaderas, por eso en el ritual del bautismo es donde el chamán a través de la imposición del nombre del monte que realiza la unión del niño con la naturaleza y, pasa a tener su nombre-alma. En esta cultura centra...

  11. Observaciones sobre chamanismo y el rito del bautismo entre los Ava-Katu-Ete

    OpenAIRE

    Centurion Mereles, Hugo Florencio

    2013-01-01

    La cultura Ava-Katu-Ete, los menos estudiados en el Paraguay pero en contraste los que han logrado una mayor compenetración con la sociedad nacional, es una cultura de la palabra. Y como alma y palabra son la misma cosa, al ser producto del contacto con los Dioses, son palabras verdaderas, por eso en el ritual del bautismo es donde el chamán a través de la imposición del nombre del monte que realiza la unión del niño con la naturaleza y, pasa a tener su nombre-alma.En esta cultura centrada en...

  12. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  13. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and its Complementarity to ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a pre-Formulation Phase study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. In each of these science domains, SPIRIT will yield information complementary to that obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and all three observatories could operate contemporaneously. Here we shall emphasize the SPIRIT science goals (1) and (2) and the mission's complementarity with ALMA.

  14. Atomic carbon as a tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies: perspectives for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, Matteo; Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Ludlow, Aaron D; Papadopoulos, Padelis P

    2014-01-01

    We use a high-resolution simulation that tracks the non-equilibrium abundance of molecular hydrogen, H2, within a massive high-redshift galaxy to produce mock ALMA maps of the fine-structure lines of atomic carbon CI 1-0 and CI 2-1. Inspired by recent observational and theoretical work, we assume that CI is thoroughly mixed in giant molecular clouds and demonstrate that its emission is an excellent proxy for H2. The entire H2 mass of a galaxy at redshift z<4 can be detected using a compact interferometric configuration with a large synthesized beam (that does not resolve the target galaxy) in less than 1 hour of integration time. Low-resolution imaging of the CI lines (in which the target galaxy is resolved into 3-4 beams) will detect nearly 50-60 per cent of the molecular hydrogen in less than 12 hours. In this case, the data cube also provides valuable information regarding the dynamical state of the galaxy. We conclude that ALMA observations of the CI 1-0 and 2-1 emission will widely extend the interval...

  15. A search for pre- and proto-brown dwarfs in the dark cloud Barnard 30 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huélamo, N.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Palau, A.; Barrado, D.; Bayo, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Zapata, L.; Bouy, H.; Morata, O.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Eiroa, C.; Ménard, F.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The origin of brown dwarfs is still under debate. While some models predict a star-like formation scenario, others invoke a substellar mass embryo ejection, a stellar disk fragmentation, or the photo-evaporation of an external core due to the presence of massive stars. Aims: The aim of our work is to characterize the youngest and lowest mass population of the dark cloud Barnard 30, a region within the Lambda Orionis star-forming region. In particular, we aim to identify proto-brown dwarfs and study the mechanism of their formation. Methods: We obtained ALMA continuum observations at 880 μm of 30 sub-mm cores previously identified with APEX/LABOCA at 870 μm. We have complemented part of the ALMA data with sub-mm APEX/SABOCA observations at 350 μm, and with multi-wavelength ancillary observations from the optical to the far-infrared (e.g., Spitzer, CAHA/O2000, WISE, INT/WFC). Results: We report the detection of five (out of 30) spatially unresolved sources with ALMA, with estimated masses between 0.9 and 67 MJup. From these five sources, only two show gas emission. The analysis of multi-wavelength photometry from these two objects, namely B30-LB14 and B30-LB19, is consistent with one Class II- and one Class I low-mass stellar object, respectively. The gas emission is consistent with a rotating disk in the case of B30-LB14, and with an oblate rotating envelope with infall signatures in the case of LB19. The remaining three ALMA detections do not have infrared counterparts and can be classified as either deeply embedded objects or as starless cores if B30 members. In the former case, two of them (LB08 and LB31) show internal luminosity upper limits consistent with Very Low Luminosity objects, while we do not have enough information for LB10. In the starless core scenario, and taking into account the estimated masses from ALMA and the APEX/LABOCA cores, we estimate final masses for the central objects in the substellar domain, so they could be classified as

  16. Una aproximación a la situación de la mujer en los estudios universitarios de informática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritxalar, Montse

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, la baja participación de la mujer y la tendencia al descenso de los porcentajes de alumnas matriculadas en los estudios universitarios de informática ha sido objeto de estudio para investigadoras/es en Estados Unidos, Europa y otros países. Habiendo constatado también en la Facultad de Informática de San Sebastián (FISS de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU dicho descenso, nuestro objetivo ha sido recopilar información estadística para determinar si esta tendencia se ha producido también en otras universidades del Estado español. El estudio incluye, en primer lugar, porcentajes de mujeres inscritas en Ingeniería Informática comparados con los porcentajes en el área técnica en su conjunto. Por otra parte, recoge datos del tercer ciclo y porcentajes de profesoras de los departamentos que imparten docencia en la FISS, comparados con los porcentajes en los mismos departamentos en el conjunto del Estado. Por último, se presentan datos de inserción en el mundo laboral para las promociones 1998-2002 de egresadas/os en la UPV/EHU. Los datos revelan los bajos porcentajes de mujeres que se han matriculado en Ingeniería Informática los últimos años y la tendencia al descenso, las diferencias entre distintas universidades, y que apenas hay sesgo de género en los datos de inserción en el mundo laboral.En los últimos años, la baja participación de la mujer y la tendencia al descenso de los porcentajes de alumnas matriculadas en los estudios universitarios de informática ha sido objeto de estudio para investigadoras/es en Estados Unidos, Europa y otros países. Habiendo constatado también en la Facultad de Informática de San Sebastián (FISS de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU dicho descenso, nuestro objetivo ha sido recopilar información estadística para determinar si esta tendencia se ha producido también en otras universidades del Estado español. El estudio incluye, en primer lugar

  17. Educando el alma psicológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Curtis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo retoma aspectos de una exploración de los trabajos de cuatro importantes psicólogos educativos estadounidenses –Granville Stanley Hall, William James, John Dewey y Edward Thorndike– para concentrarse en los principios rectores del desarrollo de los niños. Los trabajos de estos autores están considerados como funciones que psicologizan al niño como un proceso de llegar a ser humano, que deba ser educado con fines éticos e inteligentes. Dos puntos de partida históricos se abordan en este artículo: (1 explorar la psicología como una formación de la moral del niño y (2 la clasificación y el orden del ser de forma razonada a partir de una psicología que abre el interior del niño a la supervisión y al calculo. Este enfoque explora la psicología educativa como una maquinaria de prácticas discusivas, intelectuales y materiales que invitan al estudiante a ver /ser visto y formar/ser formado de formas particulares. Educar al yo autónomo requería métodos modernos

  18. EL CONTROL DE CALIDAD Y OPORTUNIDAD DE LOS INFORMES DE AUDITORÍA

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Konja, Julio Vicente; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Montes Farro, Eduardo Alberto; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Flores Konja, Adrián Alejandro; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Gutiérrez Huby, Ana María; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Gavelán Izaguirre, Jorge; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Michue Salguedo, Efrén; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Antes de dar inicio al desarrollo de los antecedentes es interesante efectuar una descripción de lo que a nuestro concepto significa una auditoría de calidad. Una de la definiciones clásicas de la auditoría la contempla como el "examen de unos estados financieros realizado por profesionales competentes e independientes, mediante la aplicación de procedimientos con unas normas con el objeto de emitir una opinión sobre la razonabilidad con la cual dichos estados financieros presentan la situac...

  19. El futuro de los recursos humanos en informática. Un estudio empírico con estudiantes secundarios argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Zukerfeld

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El sector de software y servicios informáticos ha tenido un crecimiento notable en la Argentina de la última década, sin embargo los recursos humanos son vistos por los actores del sector como el principal limitante para el desarrollo futuro de este. La pregunta general que fundamenta la investigación es: ¿en qué medida los adolescentes presentan potencialidades para desempeñarse en el futuro cercano, en procesos productivos de software? se preven algunas respuestas a través de tres ejes: tecnológico (cantidad y calidad del uso de tecnologías digitales e internet, subjetivo (la compatibilidad entre los gustos y habilidades de los jóvenes y los que son útiles en los procesos productivos de software e intersubjetivo (representaciones sobre los programadores, el mercado de trabajo y las carreras profesionales. Asimismo, se consideran las divergencias de género y las potencialidades de los jóvenes para, más allá de la producción de software, participar del trabajo informacional. Metodológicamente, su desarrollo se basa en información primaria surgida de una encuesta realizada a 627 estudiantes secundarios. Las conclusiones muestran que las actividades informáticas, en las tres dimensiones, las mujeres presentan una lejanía mayor que los varones. Asimismo, pese a que encontramos algunas habilidades subjetivas promisorias, en la dimensión intersubjetiva emergen fuertes limitaciones para identificarse con un horizonte laboral en informática. Finalmente, se considera que quiénes manifiestan deseos de avanzar en una educación universitaria en informática, no son los alumnos que declaran tener prácticas actuales en esa actividad. Se sugieren algunas líneas de acción respaldadas por políticas públicas.

  20. El trabajo informal de los vagoneros en el Metro de la Ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    Eloísa Ramírez Cárdenas; Gerardo Tunal Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo principal de este artículo es presentar un estudio exploratorio a partir de un caso que explica de qué forma las condiciones laborales propias del sector informal pudieran determinar la decisión de los vendedores ambulantes de permane- cer en este en su modalidad de comercio ambulante, específicamente en la venta de artículos apócrifos. La manera en que se operacionalizaron las proposiciones planteadas en la presente investigación fue a través del uso de la observa...

  1. Comprensión pública de la nanociencia y la nanotecnología. Informe de los resultados de un estudio Delphi

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Según datos de los Eurobarómetros que periódicamente realiza la Comisión Europea y de estudios recientes más específicos, los niveles de cultura científica de la sociedad española se encuentran entre los más bajos de Europa. En el caso de la nanotecnología el desconocimiento es especialmente significativo. El presente informe recoge los principales resultados de una investigación realizada entre expertos sobre comprensión pública de la nanociencia y la nanotecnología. el obj...

  2. Sistema informático para análisis y procesamiento de datos de los computadores de a bordo de la serie AGM-200X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lorenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el auge de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones  y el abaratamiento del uso de los sistemas de navegación asistidos por satélites, cada día son más comunes los sistemas de control de flota y los computadores de a bordo, con el objetivo de elevar la eficiencia en el uso de los recursos técnicos y humanos. Tanto los sistemas de control de flota como los computadores de a bordo precisan de un autómata y un sistema informático que procese los datos registrados por el autómata. El presente artículo versa sobre del Sistema Informático de Recuperación, Análisis y Procesamiento de Datos de los Computadores de a bordo de la serie AGM-200X aplicados en la agricultura, el cual ya ha sido probado exitosamente en empresas de Brasil y Australia. Este sistema fue desarrollado a partir del modelo de Sistema de Análisis de Datos de Ordenadores de a Bordo (SIANDOB. Se detallan los módulos y capas que forman el modelo y las características del software resultante de su aplicación práctica.

  3. La computación en la nube, como solución a los problemas de disponibilidad y continuidad en los servicios informáticos de la aeronáutica civil

    OpenAIRE

    Páez Murcia, Omar Iván

    2012-01-01

    Tener acceso a la información desde cualquier sitio, utilizando dispositivos móviles, ha permitido a los miembros de las organizaciones agilizar sus relaciones comerciales y realizar sus actividades laborales, sin la necesidad de estar presentes en las oficinas de la compañía. Esto se ha logrado gracias a modelos tecnológicos como la computación en la nube, en el cual los servicios informáticos se procesan fuera de los centros de datos propiedad de las empresas y se acceden desde intern...

  4. Los programas de mejora de la ciudad informal, herramientas de lucha contra la pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colavidas, Felipe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a discussion of the chief approachesand objectives of new policies for improving precariousLatin American barrios implemented by multilateral,national and/or municipal organizations. With a census of25 million extremely precarious living quarters, theseneighbourhoods have a combined population of 125million. A precise estimate of the investment required toimprove, enlarge and/or refurbish this sub-standardhousing amounts to US$170 billion. In this vein, therelevance and specific contribution of three programmes(“Chile Barrio”, “Favela Barrio” and “Obras con SaldoPedagógico” are critically reviewed from the standpointof their utility as tools for combating poverty.Se presentan los principales enfoques y objetivos de lasnuevas políticas de mejora de barrios precarios enLatinoamérica emprendidas por organismos multilaterales,nacionales y/o municipales. Barrios, en los que secontabilizan más de 25 millones de soluciones habitacionalesextremadamente precarias, en las que se alojan unos 125millones de habitantes. Se ha estimado de forma precisa, quela inversión necesaria para el mejoramiento, ampliacióny/o dotación de estas infraviviendas supondría unos 170.000millones de $USA. Igualmente, se presenta una síntesiscrítica de tres programas (Chile Barrio, Favela Barrio yObras con Saldo Pedagógico, desde la óptica de supertinencia y aportes concretos como herramientas para lalucha contra la pobreza.

  5. Star and Stellar Cluster Formation: ALMA-SKA Synergies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, G A; Rathborne, J M; Longmore, S; Molinari, S

    2015-01-01

    Over the next decade, observations conducted with ALMA and the SKA will reveal the process of mass assembly and accretion onto young stars and will be revolutionary for studies of star formation. Here we summarise the capabilities of ALMA and discuss recent results from its early science observations. We then review infrared and radio variability observations of both young low-mass and high-mass stars. A time domain SKA radio continuum survey of star forming regions is then outlined. This survey will produce radio light-curves for hundreds of young sources, providing for the first time a systematic survey of radio variability across the full range of stellar masses. These light-curves will probe the magnetospheric interactions of young binary systems, the origins of outflows, trace episodic accretion on the central sources and potentially constrain the rotation rates of embedded sources.

  6. ALMA software releases versus quality management: and the winner is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, Erik; Pasquato, Moreno; Soto, Rubén.

    2016-08-01

    After its inauguration and the formal completion of the construction phase, the software development effort at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) continues at roughly the same level as during construction - gradually adding capabilities as required by and offered to the scientific community. In the run-up to a new yearly Observing Cycle several software releases have to be prepared, incorporating this new functionality. However, the ALMA observatory is used on a daily basis to produce scientific data for the approved projects within the current Observing Cycle, and also by engineering teams to extend existing capabilities or to diagnose and fix problems - so the preparation of new software releases up to their deployment competes for resources with all other activities. Testing a new release and ensuring its quality is of course fundamental, but can on the other hand not monopolize the observatory's resources or jeopardize its commitments to the scientific community.

  7. Data products of the ALMA and NRAO archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Radio astronomy archives present particular challenges due to the complexity of the data processing. New radio telescopes such as the Jansky-VLA and ALMA also have much larger data volumes than the previous generation of instruments, requiring large amounts of storage and processing. Here we describe the approach taken by NRAO towards making the data products of the VLA and ALMA available to our users. This includes traditional approaches of pipelining and imaging, and also on-demand server side processing, visualization and analysis. We discuss how the size of the image products is related to that of the visibility data, and how this places variable demands on the data flow from the telescope and its data center as configurations are changed throughout the year. Finally, we look ahead to the next generation of radio telescopes such as the SKA and ngVLA.

  8. A psicopatologia como uma experiência da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Zanoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teórico apresenta a visão do psicólogo arquetípico James Hillman sobre a psicopatologia. Ele defende que "patologizar" é um movimento da psique válido, necessário e autêntico, que permite um encontro com a alma e com os sentidos e que deve ser compreendido metaforicamente. Sua visão se contrapõe ao modelo médico e nominalista dominante, que tem uma visão literal da psicopatologia e que acaba por afastá-la dos sentidos, da alma e do próprio sujeito. A crítica maior de Hillman é sobre a relação literal da psicologia com as palavras e termos psicopatológicos.

  9. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlop, J S; Biggs, A D; Geach, J E; Michalowski, M J; Ivison, R J; Rujopakarn, W; van Kampen, E; Kirkpatrick, A; Pope, A; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; Targett, T A; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Best, P N; Bruce, V A; Chapin, E L; Charlot, S; Cirasuolo, M; Coppin, K E K; Ellis, R S; Finkelstein, S L; Hayward, C C; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Khochfar, S; Koprowski, M P; Narayanan, D; Papovich, C; Peacock, J A; Robertson, B; Vernstrom, T; van der Werf, P P; Wilson, G W; Yun, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first, deep ALMA imaging covering the full 4.5 sq arcmin of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) as previously imaged with WFC3/IR on HST. Using a mosaic of 45 pointings, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3mm image of the HUDF, achieving an rms sensitivity of 35 microJy, at a resolution of 0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ~50 >3.5sigma peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with flux densities S(1.3) > 120 microJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15), and 12 are also detected at 6GHz in new deep JVLA imaging. Due to the wealth of supporting data in this unique field, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star-formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-z Universe; indeed at z > 2 our ALMA sample contains 7 of the 9 galaxies in the HUDF with M* > 2 x 10^10 Msun and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, re...

  10. Future mmVLBI Research with ALMA: A European vision

    CERN Document Server

    Tilanus, R P J; Zensus, J A; Baudry, A; Bremer, M; Falcke, H; Giovannini, G; Laing, R; van Langevelde, H J; Vlemmings, W; Abraham, Z; Afonso, J; Agudo, I; Alberdi, A; Alcolea, J; Altamirano, D; Asadi, S; Assaf, K; Augusto, P; Baczko, A-K; Boeck, M; Boller, T; Bondi, M; Boone, F; Bourda, G; Brajsa, R; Brand, J; Britzen, S; Bujarrabal, V; Cales, S; Casadio, C; Casasola, V; Castangia, P; Cernicharo, J; Charlot, P; Chemin, L; Clenet, Y; Colomer, F; Combes, F; Cordes, J; Coriat, M; Cross, N; D'Ammando, F; Dallacasa, D; Desmurs, J-F; Eatough, R; Eckart, A; Eisenacher, D; Etoka, S; Felix, M; Fender, R; Ferreira, M; Freeland, E; Frey, S; Fromm, C; Fuhrmann, L; Gabanyi, K; Galvan-Madrid, R; Giroletti, M; Goddi, C; Gomez, J; Gourgoulhon, E; Gray, M; di Gregorio, I; Greimel, R; Grosso, N; Guirado, J; Hada, K; Hanslmeier, A; Henkel, C; Herpin, F; Hess, P; Hodgson, J; Horns, D; Humphreys, E; Kramer, B Hutawarakorn; Ilyushin, V; Impellizzeri, V; Ivanov, V; Julião, M; Kadler, M; Kerins, E; Klaassen, P; Klooster, K van 't; Kording, E; Kozlov, M; Kramer, M; Kreikenbohm, A; Kurtanidze, O; Lazio, J; Leite, A; Leitzinger, M; Lepine, J; Levshakov, S; Lico, R; Lindqvist, M; Liuzzo, E; Lobanov, A; Lucas, P; Mannheim, K; Marcaide, J; Markoff, S; Martí-Vidal, I; Martins, C; Masetti, N; Massardi, M; Menten, K; Messias, H; Migliari, S; Mignano, A; Miller-Jones, J; Minniti, D; Molaro, P; Molina, S; Monteiro, A; Moscadelli, L; Mueller, C; Müller, A; Muller, S; Niederhofer, F; Odert, P; Olofsson, H; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Panessa, F; Paragi, Z; Paumard, T; Pedrosa, P; Pérez-Torres, M; Perrin, G; Perucho, M; Porquet, D; Prandoni, I; Ransom, S; Reimers, D; Rejkuba, M; Rezzolla, L; Richards, A; Ros, E; Roy, A; Rushton, A; Savolainen, T; Schulz, R; Silva, M; Sivakoff, G; Soria-Ruiz, R; Soria, R; Spaans, M; Spencer, R; Stappers, B; Surcis, G; Tarchi, A; Temmer, M; Thompson, M; Torrelles, J; Truestedt, J; Tudose, V; Venturi, T; Verbiest, J; Vieira, J; Vielzeuf, P; Vincent, F; Wex, N; Wiik, K; Wiklind, T; Wilms, J; Zackrisson, E; Zechlin, H

    2014-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imagin...

  11. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  12. First ALMA Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first ALMA measurement of a galaxy cluster merger shock, observed at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at redshift z 0.9. Located at about half the current age of the Universe, this is also the most distant example of a directly measured astrophysical shock. ALMA Band 3 was utilised to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature that confirms a small-scale change in pressure as expected from the passage of a shock in the intracluster medium. The results support a previous radio-based estimate of the shock Mach number and display similarities, and also some mild tensions, with the X-ray based results. Most importantly, these results show the potential of ALMA to detect galaxy cluster shocks, observations that will advance our knowledge of cluster formation, non-thermal particle acceleration and amplification of magnetic fields across the entire observable Universe where such relic shocks can be found.

  13. ALMA Binary Data Transport Mechanism using VOTable Headers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicenec, A.; Meuss, H.; Pisano, J.

    2006-07-01

    ALMA will produce very large data rates and volumes. In full operation the correlator will generate up to 60 MB/s of visibility data. These data have to be transported from the correlator on the high site (5000 m) to the ALMA archive, the telescope calibration and the quick-look subsystems, which are all located at the low site (2500 m) some 40 km away. A dedicated fiber connection between the sites is under construction and the interfaces between the subsystems are under development. The actual transport format produced by the correlator has been defined and implemented and is described in this paper in more detail. The format is derived from the SOAP with attachments [1], but instead of the SOAP XML envelope it is using a slightly modified VOTable [2] to keep the description of the binary data. The VOTable uses content ID pointers (CID, RFC2111 [3]) to refer to the binary parts contained in the same Multipart/Related (RFC2387 [4]) container. Such Multipart/Related containers are constructed for each ALMA integration and sent through a multimedia streaming connection implemented in CORBA (TAO[5, 6]).

  14. Experience with the operation of the European ALMA antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Laing, Robert; Rossi, Silvio; Wild, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The 25 European antennas of ALMA were delivered by ESO to the ALMA project in Chile between April 2011 and September 2013. Their combined time of operation is already significant and allows us to draw conclusions regarding their ability to fulfil the original specification, in terms of both scientific performance and operational availability. In this paper, we will summarize the experience gained during the past five years of operation. We will characterize the performance of the antennas in routine operation and compare with the data obtained during acceptance testing. We will also describe the few technical issues experienced while operating at 5000m and the way in which these were treated during these first years of operation. We will evaluate the effective reliability obtained in service based on field data and draw some conclusions as to the way in which reliability and maintainability aspects were covered during the process which led to the final design of the antenna. We will discuss the smart use of software to handle redundancy in a flexible way and to exclude failed components without affecting overall antenna operability. The use of low-level diagnostics enabled by remote access allows us to shorten the trouble-shooting cycle and to optimise physical interventions on the antennas. Finally, the paper will cover Antenna maintenance manuals edited using an industrial interactive standard. It will be explained why this advanced and innovative concept has not achieved the success that was expected, and why the traditional form is preferred at the ALMA Observatory.

  15. EL TRABAJO INFORMAL DE LOS VAGONEROS EN EL METRO DE LA CIUDAD DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Ramírez Cárdenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on analysis of the decisions made by peddlers to continue working on the streets, specifically selling apocryphal items. Those decisions are based on the working conditions in the informal sector. To collect data, the participant observation was used, as buyers; 8 interviews with vendors, aged over 25, were conducted. These sellers are engaged in the sale of pirate compact discs (CDs inside the wagons of the Sistema de Transporte Colectivo (STC Metro Line 8 in Mexico City. The results show that economic income, financial compensation, the working day and the satisfaction of working in the informal sector makes those people keep on working within the framework of informality.

  16. Informática I (Fundamentos de la informática para los nuevos estudiantes de Grado) (2009/2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaldo Moreno, Francisco; Giménez Sánchez, Juan Vicente; Navalón Martínez, José Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Esta asignatura cubre los fundamentos de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC), la arquitectura de los computadores y los conceptos generales de los algoritmos. Además, introduce los sistemas operativos y las redes de comunicación, junto con una formación avanzada con paquetes de ofimática.

  17. La Informática Médica y los Sistemas de Información

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    La informática médica hace relación a la lógica de la atención en salud, aunque la primera imagen que nos viene a la mente es la de un ordenador con sus programas de agenda medica, historia clínica, consulta de bibliografía mediante textos o de guías de práctica clínica, en esta ocasión el interés se centra en el manejo de la información como insumo fundamental en la practica medica. El término informática esta vinculado fuertemente a la tecnología de la computación, pero ante el acelerado g...

  18. Geographic Information System (GIS) Emergency Support for the May 2000 Cerro Grande Wildfire, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R.Mynard; G.N.Keating; P.M.Rich; D.R. Bleakly

    2003-05-01

    In May 2000 the Cerro Grande wildfire swept through Los Alamos, New Mexico, burning approximately 17,400 ha (43,000 acres) and causing evacuation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the communities of Los Alamos and White Rock. An integral part of emergency response during the fire was the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology, which continues to be used in support of post-fire restoration and environmental monitoring. During the fire Laboratory GIS staff and volunteers from other organizations worked to produce maps and provide support for emergency managers, including at an emergency GIS facility in Santa Fe. Subsequent to the fire, Laboratory GIS teams supported the multiagency Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) team to provide GIS data and maps for planning mitigation efforts. The GIS teams continue to help researchers, operations personnel, and managers deal with the tremendous changes caused by the fire. Much of the work is under the auspices of the Cerro Grande Rehabilitation Project (CGRP) to promote recovery from fire damage, improve information exchange, enhance emergency management, and conduct mitigation activities. GIS efforts during the fire provided important lessons about institutional matters, working relationships, and emergency preparedness. These lessons include the importance of (1) an integrated framework for assessing natural and human hazards in a landscape context; (2) a strong GIS capability for emergency response; (3) coordinated emergency plans for GIS operations; (4) a method for employees to report their whereabouts and receive authoritative information during an evacuation; (5) GIS data that are complete, backed-up, and available during an emergency; (6) adaptation of GIS to the circumstances of the emergency; (7) better coordination in the GIS community; (8) better integration of GIS into LANL operations; and (9) a central data warehouse for data and metadata. These lessons are important for planning

  19. Dense Cloud Cores revealed by ALMA CO observations in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M.; Elmegreen, B.; Hunter, D.; Cortes, J.; Brinks, E.; Cigan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations, they are molecular with H2 the dominant species and CO the best available. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared to hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it cannot accumulate inside dense clouds. Then we lose our ability to trace the gas in regions of star formation and we lose critical information on the temperatures, densities, and velocities of the material that collapses. I will report on high resolution observations with ALMA of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13% of the solar value and 50% lower than the previous CO detection threshold and the properties derived of very small dense CO clouds mapped..

  20. La traducción de textos publicitarios. Los anuncios de productos informáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz García, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Programa de doctorado: Filología moderna [ES]La presente tesis versa sobre la traducción de anuncios publicitarios de productos informáticos impresos en revistas especializadas en este campo. La finalidad fundamental es la de demostrar la importancia que adquiere en la traducción de este tipo de textos el criterio tipo de producto para determinar las estrategias traslativas y la formación del traductor que se enfrente a dicha tarea. Hemos recopilado, por una pa...

  1. LEARNIG TO BE INFORMED ON THE INTERNET: ¿ARE STUDENTS EFFECTIVE IN SEEKING AND SELECTING ONLINE INFORMATION? APRENDER A INFORMARSE EN LA RED: ¿SON LOS ESTUDIANTES EFICIENTES BUSCANDO Y SELECCIONANDO INFORMACIÓN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernández Serrano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available From an educational perspective, taking the Internet as an informational resource for education, the article analyzes the scope of the new information skills in regard to the concepts of literacy and information competence. This brief description of skills leads to the question of how students perform in their searching and selecting practices with online information. The main conclusions abstracted from the recent author’s research are brought to debate in order to respond questions raised about the skills needed to being effective in accessing and managing online information. Finally, since the new ways to locate and operate with the information contributes to the reorganization of both the traditional models of teaching/learning and the roles of the educational stakeholders, we understand that preparing students to meet the informational demands requires of teachers as mediators or facilitators of the informational process; thus, in the final section of the article, a proposal for teaching strategies in searching and selecting online information is explored, by describing several useful activities.Desde una óptica educativa, tomando la Red como recurso de información para la educación, el artículo analiza qué suponen las nuevas habilidades informativas, en lo que respecta a los conceptos de alfabetización y competencia informacional. Esta breve descripción y recapitulación de habilidades nos lleva a preguntarnos, en la práctica, por cómo los estudiantes realizan los procesos de búsqueda y selección de información en línea. Traemos a debate las principales conclusiones abstraídas de los resultados de algunas de las investigaciones más relevantes de las autoras, que dan respuesta a los interrogantes planteados en torno a las habilidades necesarias para acceder y manejar eficazmente la información digital. Finalmente, y puesto que los nuevos modos para localizar y operar con la información precisan reorganizaciones tanto de

  2. Design and development of a 600-720 GHz receiver for ALMA Band 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Jackson, B. D.; Adema, J.; Schaeffer, H.; Barkhof, J.; Wild, W.; Candotti, M.; Lodewijk, C.; Loudkov, D.; Zijlstra, T.; Noroozian, 0.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the ALMA Band 9 receiver cartridges. The ALMA project is a collaboration between Europe, North America, and Japan to build an aperture synthesis telescope consisting of at least 64 12-m antennas located at 5000 m altitude in Chile. In its full confi

  3. Nivel de dependencia de los estudiantes de una facultad de odontología a las funciones informáticas de “copiar y pegar”

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Vílchez, Rosa; Garay Argandoña, Rafael Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar los niveles de dependencia de los estudiantes de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de San Marín de Porres a las funciones informáticas de copiar y pegar. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal y retrospectivo en una muestra representativa de estudiantes comprendidos en los diez ciclos de la carrera odontológica, a quienes se solicitó elaborar una breve monografía acerca del “cerebro humano”, recurriendo...

  4. As vivências do cuidador informal do idoso dependente Las experiencias de los cuidadores informales de ancianos dependientes The experiences of informal caregivers of dependent elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dídia Carolina Miranda Cruz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Numa sociedade cada vez mais envelhecida, onde se verifica um aumento significativo das necessidades em saúde dos idosos, emerge como foco de atenção o cuidado informal à pessoa idosa dependente, cuja responsabilidade cabe prioritariamente à família. Cuidar de quem cuida é uma responsabilidade e deverá ser uma preocupação de todos os profissionais de saúde, em especial dos Enfermeiros, devendo ser a sua intervenção centrada no equilíbrio da dinâmica cuidador/idoso. Este equilíbrio é facilmente perturbado pelo cuidado informal ao idoso dependente, motivo pelo qual elaborámos o presente artigo com o objectivo de descrever as vivências sentidas pelo cuidador informal, encontradas na produção científica disponível. A pesquisa foi realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: CINAHL, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal; The Cochrane Library, DynaMed; SciELO; e Google Scholar, conduzindo a uma amostra de 17 estudos primários e uma revisão sistemática da literatura. Os principais resultados encontrados evidenciam alguns eixos, em torno dos quais se constroem as vivências do cuidador informal do idoso dependente, nomeadamente: os motivos de aceitação do papel; as dificuldades; as estratégias de coping; os factores relacionados com a sobrecarga e as fontes de satisfação que advêm do acto de cuidar.En una sociedad cada vez más envejecida, donde hay un aumento significativo de las necesidades de salud de las personas mayores, surge como un foco de atención informal a la persona mayor dependiente, cuya responsabilidad corresponde principalmente a la familia. El cuidado del cuidador es una responsabilidad y debe ser una preocupación para todos los profesionales de la salud, especialmente las enfermeras, su intervención debe centrarse en el equilibrio dinámico del cuidador / anciano. Este equilibrio se altera fácilmente por el cuidado

  5. The ALMA common software: dispatch from the trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J.; Sommer, H.; Jeram, B.; Sekoranja, M.; Chiozzi, G.; Grimstrup, A.; Caproni, A.; Paredes, C.; Allaert, E.; Harrington, S.; Turolla, S.; Cirami, R.

    2008-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides both an application framework and CORBA-based middleware for the distributed software system of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. Building upon open-source tools such as the JacORB, TAO and OmniORB ORBs, ACS supports the development of component-based software in any of three languages: Java, C++ and Python. Now in its seventh major release, ACS has matured, both in its feature set as well as in its reliability and performance. However, it is only recently that the ALMA observatory's hardware and application software has reached a level at which it can exploit and challenge the infrastructure that ACS provides. In particular, the availability of an Antenna Test Facility(ATF) at the site of the Very Large Array in New Mexico has enabled us to exercise and test the still evolving end-to-end ALMA software under realistic conditions. The major focus of ACS, consequently, has shifted from the development of new features to consideration of how best to use those that already exist. Configuration details which could be neglected for the purpose of running unit tests or skeletal end-to-end simulations have turned out to be sensitive levers for achieving satisfactory performance in a real-world environment. Surprising behavior in some open-source tools has required us to choose between patching code that we did not write or addressing its deficiencies by implementing workarounds in our own software. We will discuss these and other aspects of our recent experience at the ATF and in simulation.

  6. The evolution of the simulation environment in the ALMA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Saez, Norman; Velez, Gaston; Staig, Tomas; Sepulveda, Jorge; Saez, Alejandro; Ovando, Nicolas; Ibsen, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) has entered into operation phase since 2013. This transition changed the priorities within the observatory, in which, most of the available time will be dedicated to science observations at the expense of technical time. Therefore, it was planned to design and implement a new simulation environment, which must be comparable - or at least- be representative of the production environment. Concepts of model in the loop and hardware in the loop were explored. In this paper we review experiences gained and lessons learnt during the design and implementation of the new simulation environment.

  7. Propiedades mecánicas de vigas “I” con alas laminadas encoladas en bambú y alma de melina en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Paniagua, Viviana; Moya,Roger

    2014-01-01

    ResumenEn la búsqueda de elementos estructurales versátiles y eficientes se genera el interés de construir vigas laminadas con plywood de melina (Gmelina arborea) y alas de bambú (Guada angustifolia) laminado encolado, para utilizarlas principalmente en vivienda. En este estudio se analizaron vigas de sección I con alas de bambú laminado encolado y alma de plywood de melina con un peralte de 18,5 cm de altura. Las vigas fueron ensayadas en tamaño natural en flexión estática y cortante. Los re...

  8. Evaluation of Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma (ALMA): a pilot promotora intervention focused on stress and coping among immigrant Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh N; Ornelas, India J; Perez, Georgina; Green, Melissa A; Lyn, Michelle; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-04-01

    Recent immigrant Latinas are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. This study evaluated Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a promotora intervention to reduce stress and promote health and coping among recent immigrant Latinas. Using a pre- and post-test design, we evaluated mental health outcomes, specifically, in promotoras. Promotoras' knowledge levels related to role of promotora and stress management increased, depressive symptoms and stress levels decreased, and coping responses and perceived social support increased as well. Results suggest that promotora programs may be an effective way to improve mental health in recent immigrant Latinas.

  9. Inclusión social de los vendedores que ejercen actividades laborales del sector informal en el centro histórico de Barranquilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Rosa Morales Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio permitió evaluar, desde el enfoque de derechos, la gestión de la política de inclusión social que se desarrolla en el contexto de los vendedores que laboran de manera informal en el Centro Histórico del distrito de Barranquilla (Colombia. Para la recolección de la información, se utilizaron técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Las unidades de análisis fueron dos: los vendedores estacionarios ubicados en el sector informal y los directivos/administrativos de la Alcaldía Distrital. En conclusión, se estableció que a pesar de que la Alcaldía enmarca su plan de gobierno en el enfoque social de derechos, los vendedores no participan en todos los programas, por ello, se amerita la inclusión de este grupo mediante el diseño de una política social que en realidad los haga partícipes de estos derechos. Abstract This study provides an assessment of the politics involved in the inclusion of street vendors as having the right to be considered part of an informal labor force in the downtown area of Barranquilla. Quantitative and qualitative methods were applied to evaluate the collected data. The areas of analysis were as follows: informal stationary vendors located in the comercial sector and Barranquilla’s labor policies and directives regarding such labor. In conclusion, despite the local government’s approach to include informal street vendors as part of the labor force with their corresponding labor and political social rights, many of these do not take part in any of the programs earmarked as benefits of such due to lack of awareness of such programs.

  10. Actitudes y opiniones políticas de los informales en América Latina Political attitudes and opinions of the informally employed in Latina America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín TEMKIN YEDWAB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que la informalidad laboral ha sido identificada desde hace años como un asunto central para la política pública de todos los países de América Latina, es aún muy escasa la información sobre las características del empleo informal en diferentes esferas. El objetivo central de este trabajo es identificar las opiniones y actitudes políticas de los trabajadores informales en América Latina y compararlas con las de sus contrapartes formales. A través de una variable ‹‹proxi›› para identificar a los participantes informales en la fuerza de trabajo, en dos encuestas de opinión que se aplican a un conjunto amplio de países en la región, fue posible comprobar que los informales latinoamericanos constituyen un grupo social con opiniones y actitudes políticas significativamente contrastantes con las de los participantes formales en la fuerza de trabajo.Although labor informality has been identified for years as a central issue for Latin American countries’ public policy, there is still scant information about the characteristics of informal employment in different spheres. The main objective of this study is to identify the views and political attitudes of informal workers in Latin America, and compare them to those held by their formal counterparts. Through a ‹‹proxy›› variable used to identify informal participants in the labor force in two opinion polls that apply to a broad set of countries in the region, it was possible to show that Latin American informals constitute a social group with political opinions and attitudes significantly contrasting with formal participants in the workforce.

  11. UNVEILING THE DUST NUCLEATION ZONE OF IRC+10216 WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Goicoechea, J. R. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Castro-Carrizo, A.; Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406, Saint Martin dHères (France); Agundez, M. [Univ. Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Marcelino, N. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Joblin, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-12-01

    We report the detection in IRC+10216 of lines of HNC J = 3 – 2 pertaining to nine excited vibrational states with energies up to ∼5300 K. The spectrum, observed with ALMA, also shows a surprising large number of narrow, unidentified lines that arise in the vicinity of the star. The HNC data are interpreted through a 1D-spherical non-local radiative transfer model, coupled to a chemical model that includes chemistry at thermochemical equilibrium for the innermost regions and reaction kinetics for the external envelope. Although unresolved by the current early ALMA data, the radius inferred for the emitting region is ∼0.''06 (i.e., ≅ 3 stellar radii), similar to the size of the dusty clumps reported by IR studies of the innermost region (r < 0.''3). The derived abundance of HNC relative to H{sub 2} is 10{sup –8} < χ(HNC) <10{sup –6}, and drops quickly where the gas density decreases and the gas chemistry is dominated by reaction kinetics. Merging HNC data with that of molecular species present throughout the inner envelope, such as vibrationally excited HCN, SiS, CS, or SiO, should allow us to characterize the physical and chemical conditions in the dust formation zone.

  12. Unveiling the dust nucleation zone of IRC+10216 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Cernicharo, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Agundez, M; Marcelino, N; Joblin, C; Goicoechea, J R; Guélin, M

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection in IRC+10216 of lines of HNC $J$=3-2 pertaining to 9 excited vibrational states with energies up to $\\sim$5300 K. The spectrum, observed with ALMA, also shows a surprising large number of narrow, unidentified lines that arise in the vicinity of the star. The HNC data are interpreted through a 1D--spherical non--local radiative transfer model, coupled to a chemical model that includes chemistry at thermochemical equilibrium for the innermost regions and reaction kinetics for the external envelope. Although unresolved by the present early ALMA data, the radius inferred for the emitting region is $\\sim$0.06'' (i.e., $\\simeq$ 3 stellar radii), similar to the size of the dusty clumps reported by IR studies of the innermost region ($r <$ 0.3''). The derived abundance of HNC relative to H$_2$ is $10^{-8} <$ $\\chi$(HNC) $< 10^{-6}$, and drops quickly where the gas density decreases and the gas chemistry is dominated by reaction kinetics. Merging HNC data with that of molecular species...

  13. ALMA Band 8 Continuum Emission from Orion Source I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A.; Honma, Mareki

    2016-12-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  14. ALMA Observations of HD141569's Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    White, J A; Hughes, A M; Flaherty, K M; Ford, E; Wilner, D; Corder, S; Payne, M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA band 7 (345 GHz) continuum and $^{12}$CO(J = 3-2) observations of the circumstellar disk surrounding HD141569. At an age of about 5 Myr, the disk has a complex morphology that may be best interpreted as a nascent debris system with gas. Our $870\\rm~\\mu m$ ALMA continuum observations resolve a dust disk out to approximately $ 56 ~\\rm au$ from the star (assuming a distance of 116 pc) with $0."38$ resolution and $0.07 ~ \\rm mJy~beam^{-1}$ sensitivity. We measure a continuum flux density for this inner material of $3.8 \\pm 0.4 ~ \\rm mJy$ (including calibration uncertainties). The $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas is resolved kinematically and spatially from about 30 to 210 au. The integrated $^{12}$CO(3-2) line flux density is $15.7 \\pm 1.6~\\rm Jy~km~s^{-1}$. We estimate the mass of the millimeter debris and $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas to be $\\gtrsim0.04~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$ and $\\sim2\\times 10^{-3}~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$, respectively. If the millimeter grains are part of a collisional cascade, then we infer that the inner disk ($&...

  15. An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Caproni, A.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Harrington, S.; Zagar, K.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. On top of this it provides an application architecture based on the Component/Container paradigm that fosters sharing and reusing of software components. Although developed for the ALMA project, ACS is now used by several other projects worldwide, among which the Italian Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). Besides, there is an active community that shares ideas, concepts and actual software components. Major drivers for this diffusion were the choice of adopting the LGPL public license and the adoption of CORBA, a free but reliable and widely used middleware software. In this paper we present an overview of the main features of ACS, emphasizing in particular the role of INAF-OAT in this project.

  16. Container-component model and XML in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zagar, Klemen; Voelter, Markus

    2004-09-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. To meet the challenges of developing distributed software in distributed teams, ACS offers a container/component model that integrates the use of XML transfer objects. ACS containers are built on top of CORBA and are available for C++, Java, and Python, so that ALMA software can be written as components in any of these languages. The containers perform technical aspects of the software system, while components can focus on the implementation of functional requirements. Like Web services, components can use XML to exchange structured data by value. For Java components, the container seamlessly integrates the use of XML binding classes, which are Java classes that encapsulate access to XML data through type-safe methods. Binding classes are generated from XML schemas, allowing the Java compiler to enforce compliance of application code with the XML schemas. This presentation will explain the capabilities of the ACS container/component model, and how it relates to other middleware technologies that are popular in industry.

  17. A CORBA event system for ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, David W.

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software notification channel framework provides developers with an easy to use, high-performance, event-driven system supported across multiple programming languages and operating systems. It sits on top of the CORBA notification service and hides nearly all CORBA from developers. The system is based on a push event channel model where suppliers push events onto the channel and consumers process these asynchronously. This is a many-to-many publishing model whereby multiple suppliers send events to multiple consumers on the same channel. Furthermore, these event suppliers and consumers can be coded in C++, Java, or Python on any platform supported by ACS. There are only two classes developers need to be concerned with: SimpleSupplier and Consumer. SimpleSupplier was designed so that ALMA events (defined as IDL structures) could be published in the simplest manner possible without exposing any CORBA to the developer. Essentially all that needs to be known is the channel's name and the IDL structure being published. The API takes care of everything else. With the Consumer class, the developer is responsible for providing the channel's name as well as associating event types with functions that will handle them.

  18. Testing particle trapping in transition disks with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, P; Pérez, L M; van Dishoeck, E F; Andrews, S; Birnstiel, T; Herczeg, G; Pontoppidan, K M; van Kempen, T

    2015-01-01

    We present new ALMA continuum observations at 336 GHz of two transition disks, SR 21 and HD 135344B. In combination with previous ALMA observations from Cycle 0 at 689 GHz, we compare the visibility profiles at the two frequencies and calculate the spectral index ($\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}$). The observations of SR 21 show a clear shift in the visibility nulls, indicating radial variations of the inner edge of the cavity at the two wavelengths. Notable radial variations of the spectral index are also detected for SR 21 with values of $\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}\\sim3.8-4.2$ in the inner region ($r\\lesssim35$ AU) and $\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}\\sim2.6-3.0$ outside. An axisymmetric ring ("ring model") or a ring with the addition of an azimuthal Gaussian profile, for mimicking a vortex structure ("vortex model"), is assumed for fitting the disk morphology. For SR 21, the ring model better fits the emission at 336 GHz, conversely the vortex model better fits the 689 GHz emission. For HD 135344B, neither a significant shift in the null of the...

  19. Possibility of Terahertz Observations at the ALMA site

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Satoki

    2011-01-01

    Observational rates under terahertz (THz) opacities less than 3.0 and 2.0 at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) site have been calculated using the 225 GHz tipping radiometer monitoring data and the opacity correlation between 225 GHz and THz opacities. The observational rate with THz opacity condition less than 3.0 is 12.4% in a year, and in winter (November - April) it is about twice higher than in summer (May - October). This observational rate shows a large sinusoidal annual variation, and it seems to have relation with the El Ni\\~no and La Ni\\~na phenomena; the La Ni\\~na years tend to have high observational rates, but the El Ni\\~no years show low rates. On the other hand, the observational rate with the THz opacity condition less than 2.0 is only 1.9%, and no obvious annual and seasonal variations are observed. This indicates that THz observations under low opacity condition of less than 2.0 at the ALMA site are very difficult to be performed.

  20. ALMA Observations of Asteroid 3 Juno at 60 Kilometer Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Kneissl, R; Moullet, A; Brogan, C L; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Dent, W R F; Hills, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Perez, L M; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Hales, A S; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Mangum, J; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Randall, S; van kempen, T; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum images of the asteroid 3 Juno obtained with an angular resolution of 0.042 arcseconds (60 km at 1.97 AU). The data were obtained over a single 4.4 hr interval, which covers 60% of the 7.2 hr rotation period, approximately centered on local transit. A sequence of ten consecutive images reveals continuous changes in the asteroid's profile and apparent shape, in good agreement with the sky projection of the three-dimensional model of the Database of Asteroid Models from Inversion Techniques. We measure a geometric mean diameter of 259pm4 km, in good agreement with past estimates from a variety of techniques and wavelengths. Due to the viewing angle and inclination of the rotational pole, the southern hemisphere dominates all of the images. The median peak brightness temperature is 215pm13 K, while the median over the whole surface is 197pm15 K. With the unprecedented resolution of ALMA, we find that the brightness temperature varies ...

  1. Measuring protoplanetary disk gas surface density profiles with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Jonathan P Williams Conor

    2016-01-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best (2014) to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, Mgas = 0.048 solar masse, and accretion disk characteristic size Rc = 213au and gradient gamma = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2--1 image and indicates an abundance ratio [13CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2--1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 Jupiter masses at 150pc, ALMA observations with a resolutio...

  2. ALMA band 8 continuum emission from Orion Source I

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A; Honma, Mareki

    2016-01-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.1". The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au times 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelength. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick black-body spectral energy distribution (SED), and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright (2016), in which the continuum emission have been proposed to arise from the edge-on circum...

  3. Aplicación de la teoría general de sistemas al análisis de los sistemas informáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Zubenko, Yuriy; Cataldi, Zulma; Lage, Fernando Javier

    2001-01-01

    Utilizando la metodología del análisis de sistemas y la teoría general de sistemas se pueden resolver tres tareas pertinentes a los sistemas informáticos en estadíos diferentes: el análisis de sistema de computación (en forma estática), el análisis de los sistemas de programación (en estática y dinámica) y el pronóstico de la evolución de los sistemas de computación (evolución cíclica). Para ello, se usa el esquema o modelo general del sistema informático para representar cada tarea del siste...

  4. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  5. IV Informe del Estado de los Derechos de la Niñez y la Adolescencia de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Universidad de Costa Rica, Vicerrectoría de Acción Social, Extensión Docente. 2008. Para mayor información puede escribir a Uno de los mandatos centrales que establece el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia (CNA) para la institucionalidad y la ciudadanía y, concretamente, al Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y la Adolescencia (CNNyA), es el establecimiento de un estado del arte anual en materia del cumplimiento de los derechos de los niños, las niñas y los y las...

  6. Os sete graus de atividade da alma humana no De quantitate animae de Santo Agostinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ricardo Strefling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A alma é, sem dúvida, um dos problemas que mais interessou a Santo Agostinho; ele a define como uma substância partícipe da razão adequada ao governo de um corpo. A alma não tem quantidade corporal, contudo, é uma coisa grande. Este estudo pretende refletir sobre os sete graus de atividade da alma, os quais o autor apresenta na sua obra De quantitate animae. São eles: a animação, a sensação, a arte, a virtude, a tranquilidade, o ingresso e a contemplação.

  7. The Science Case for ALMA Band 2 and Band 2+3

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, G A; Beltran, M; Casasola, V; Caselli, P; Cicone, C; Costagliola, F; De Breuck, C; Hunt, L; Jimenez-Serra, I; Laing, R; Longmore, S; Massardi, M; Paladino, R; Ramstedt, S; Richards, A; Testi, L; Vergani, D; Viti, S; Wagg, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the science drivers for ALMA Band 2 which spans the frequency range from 67 to 90 GHz. The key science in this frequency range are the study of the deuterated molecules in cold, dense, quiescent gas and the study of redshifted emission from galaxies in CO and other species. However, Band 2 has a range of other applications which are also presented. The science enabled by a single receiver system which would combine ALMA Bands 2 and 3 covering the frequency range 67 to 116 GHz, as well as the possible doubling of the IF bandwidth of ALMA to 16 GHz, are also considered.

  8. La regulación de los daños informáticos en el código penal italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Salvadori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza la regulación de los delitos de daños informáticos introducidos en el Código penal italiano por la Ley nº. 48, de 18 de marzo de 2008, que ratifica y da ejecución al Convenio Cibercrimen del Consejo de Europa. El objetivo es averiguar si la legislación penal italiana en materia de daños informáticos cumple con las recomendaciones internacionales y en particular si se adecua a las técnicas de protección adoptadas por otros legisladores europeos. En primer lugar se analizarán los tipos delictivos de daños a datos y a sistemas informáticos “privados” (art. 635-bis y 635-quater c.p. y de daños a datos y a sistemas informáticos de carácter “publico” (art. 635-ter y 635-quinquies c.p.. Se pasará luego a estudiar su peculiar estructura típica y se determinarán los bienes jurídicos protegidos por los mencionados delitos. Por último, se formularán algunas consideraciones críticas en perspectiva de lege ferenda.

  9. Políticas de austeridad y cambios en las pautas de uso de los servicios sanitarios. Informe SESPAS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Urbanos Garrido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los principales cambios en los patrones de utilización sanitaria que se están produciendo en España como consecuencia de la crisis y de las medidas adoptadas frente a ella. Se examina el impacto de la reforma en el diseño del copago farmacéutico, que ofrece como resultado una importante reducción en el número de recetas dispensadas en las oficinas de farmacia, si bien sus efectos sobre la adherencia al tratamiento, el acceso a tratamientos necesarios y efectivos, y en última instancia la salud, aún se desconocen. Asimismo, el artículo constata que en los años más recientes de la crisis se han producido aumentos en los tiempos y listas de espera de intervenciones quirúrgicas, y en la insatisfacción que los ciudadanos muestran hacia la sanidad pública. Del análisis de los datos de las Encuestas Nacionales de Salud 2006 y 2011/12 se concluye que, en lo que respecta a los servicios no cubiertos –en particular las visitas al dentista–, la crisis está teniendo un efecto disuasorio en la utilización sanitaria de las capas sociales más desfavorecidas. Se recomienda definir mejor el papel que deben tener las aportaciones de los usuarios dentro del ámbito del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y prestar atención y medios a quienes más lo necesitan, para evitar que los colectivos con mejor situación socioeconómica capturen los servicios que quedan disponibles tras los recortes de fondos públicos.

  10. Relación entre la Expansión de los Informes Publicados por las Empresas y la Calidad de las Decisiones de los Usuarios. El Problema de la Sobrecarga de Información.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Flora Muíño Vázquez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El énfasis en la provisión de toda aquella información relevante para los procesos de decisión de los usuarios está dando lugar a la presentación de informes tan amplios que pueden sobrecargar al individuo y deteriorar sus procesos de decisión. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar con detalle la investigación realizada hasta el momento con la finalidad de valorar la posibilidad de que en el entorno financiero se pueda presentar un problema de sobrecarga de información. A pesar de las notables diferencias existentes en el planteamiento de los trabajos revisados, a partir de sus resultados se puede concluir que, al aumentar la carga de información mejora la calidad de las decisiones de los usuarios hasta que se alcanza un determinado nivel a partir del cual el volumen de datos presentados resulta excesivo y la relación se invierte. The emphasis on providing all relevant information for users' decision making processes is leading to the publication of reports so expansive as to be in danger of overloading the individual and harming their decision making processes. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of up-to-date research in order to assess the possibility that a problem of information overload could exist in the financial environment. Despite important differences in the design of the reviewed studies, from their results we can conclude that the quality of users' decisions improves as information load increases up to a point beyond which data load becomes excessive and the direction of the relationship between these variables reverses.

  11. La elaboración del informe científico: los artículos científicos como referencia para la elaboración de informes de prácticas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El análisis, elaboración y presentación de resultados tanto experimentales como teóricos es una parte extremadamente importante en la investigación científica. Según nuestra experiencia docente, existe una notable carencia entre los estudiantes en su capacidad para la preparación de informes a partir de los trabajos experimentales realizados en el laboratorio. A veces esa carencia se agrava por no disponer de unos criterios claros de lo que debe aparecer en un informe científico. Por tanto, e...

  12. Informe sobre la Situación Patológica de los Cacaotales en los Departamentos de Valle y Cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés O. Carlos

    1941-06-01

    Full Text Available Tengo a honor informar al señor Ministro de Economía Nacional sobre el resultado de la Comisión que se me confirió para estudiar las enfermedades del cacao en los Departamentos del Valle y del Cauca. Es natural que por el relativo corto tiempo de que dispuse, el reconocimiento de las enfermedades dichas no sea completo, pero sí es base para algunas importantes observaciones que espero sirvan para dar a conocer en parte la lamentable situación en que se encuentra un cultivo que debe ser todo un programa del desarrollo agrícola del país.

  13. Palynology of the Rupelian to Burdigalian (Oligocene to Lower Miocene) interval of the Alma-1X well, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schioeler, P.

    2003-07-01

    A palynological study of cuttings samples from the North Sea well Alma-1X documents for the first time the dinoflagellae cyst and acritarch assemblage in the Oligocene to Lower Miocene interval of the Central North Sea. The interval is characterised by a poor foraminifera assemblage yielding a relatively low stratigraphic resolution, whereas the palynomorph assemblage is rich. Two hundred and three microplankton taxa were encountered in the study interval. The distribution of dinoflagellates and acritarchs in the well suggests a subdivision of the Oligocene to Lower Miocene interval into 24 zones based on first downhole occurrence of key taxa. The subdivsion lends support from unpublished consultancy report data from several other wells in the Danish North Sea. However, as the the subdivion builds on published data from one well only, it is considered informal until more documentatin is at hand. Four new species and on e new subspecies are described from the study interval: Amphorosphaeridium almae Schioeler sp. nov., Dalella rota Schioeler sp. nov., Filisphaera pachyderma Schioeler sp. nov., Pentadinium corium Schioeler sp. nov. and Spiniferites pseudofurcatus verrucosus Schioeler ssp., nov. Pseudospiniferites manumii Lund, 2002 is emended and transferred to the genus Spiniferites. (au)

  14. Informe sobre el conjunto de grabados rupestres al aire libre de la «Braña de los Pastores», Cabrojo (Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de BALBÍN BEHRMANN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El conjunto de grabados rupestres al aire libre a que hace referencia este informe, es conocido en la bibliografía desde los años veinte, merced a las publicaciones de su descubridor, J. Carballo 1. Falto de un estudio de detalle y prácticamente perdida su ubicación, ha sido objeto de la atención de este Departamento, ante el interés de estas manifestaciones en relación con los nuevos hallazgos arqueológicos de la región.

  15. Investigación en Progreso: Estudio Comparativo de la Incidencia de los Lenguajes de Programación en la Productividad Informática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R. Dávila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe una gran diversidad de lenguajes de programación y a menudo esto dificulta la tarea de seleccionar el lenguaje adecuado para desarrollar una solución determinada. Este estudio se centrara en analizar uno de los factores que afecta la productividad, el referido al lenguaje de programación, siendo el objetivo de la investigación elaborar un procedimiento que permita realizar estudios comparativos sobre la incidencia de los lenguajes de programación en la productividad informática.

  16. Control de calidad en los cursos en línea de un programa en Ingeniería Informática

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo explica la experiencia obtenida, mediante el Programa Ingeniería informática de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia (Costa Rica), en la implementación de un proceso de control de calidad para evaluar y dar seguimiento a la mediación docente, el soporte técnico y al apoyo en los cursos en línea, que se ofrecen en los niveles de diplomado, bachillerato y licenciatura. Como elemento significativo del documento se pretende introducir modelos, estándares y mejores prácticas que ofrece...

  17. Clasificación del Contenido de los Informes de Sostenibilidad de Empresas Premiadas por sus Prácticas de Responsabilidad Socioambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Inglês da Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dada la importancia del informe de sostenibilidad – instrumento de gestión y de divulgación de informaciones acerca de la interacción de la empresa con el medio en que actúa –, el presente estudio tiene por objetivo analizar el contenido de la divulgación de informaciones acerca de las dimensiones de la sostenibilidad empresarial – económica, social y ambiental – en los informes de empresas premiadas por sus prácticas de responsabilidad socioambiental. Se trata de estudio descriptivo, de naturaleza cualitativa, haciendo uso de la pesquisa documental y del Análisis de Contenido. Los resultados apuntan la preponderancia de la dimensión social, especialmente de ámbito externo, y del disclosure cuantitativo no-monetario. Sugieren asimismo el efecto de la actividad en el medio ambiente y la estructura de propiedad del capital como factores indicativos de los niveles de evidenciación en los informes de sostenibilidad de las empresas pesquisadas, de entre aquellas premiadas por sus prácticas de responsabilidad socioambiental.

  18. Oskar Kokoschka and Alma Mahler: art as diary and as therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2011-01-01

    The Austrian artist, Oskar Kokoschka, had an affair with Alma Mahler, widow of the composer Gustav Mahler, 1912-1914. This affair profoundly influenced his life and art. His palette at first brightened, with thick brush strokes and flashes of light and dark, indicating his psychological and emotional lability. Painting what he did not or could not express in words, his art of this period can be understood as an intimate visual diary of the vicissitudes of his relationship with Alma Mahler. For Kokoschka his work became a form of art therapy, following the crushing loss of Alma Mahler and near fatal physical injuries sustained in World War I. His gradual recovery was associated with his extraordinary attachment to and destruction of a lifelike effigy of Alma Mahler, thereby working through childhood trauma.

  19. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jonathan B; Jackson, James M; Longmore, Steve N; Whitaker, Scott; Hoq, Sadia

    2013-01-01

    ALMA will revolutionize our understanding of star formation within our galaxy, but before we can use ALMA we need to know where to look. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey is a large international project to map the molecular line emission of over 2,000 dense clumps in the Galactic plane. MALT90 serves as a pathfinder for ALMA, providing a large public database of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. In this proceedings, we describe the survey parameters and share early science highlights from the survey, including (1) a comparison between galactic and extragalactic star formation relations, (2) chemical trends in MALT90 clumps, (3) the distribution of high-mass star formation in the Milky Way, and (4) a discussion of the Brick, the target of successful ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 proposals.

  20. ALMA Reveals the Molecular Medium Fueling the Nearest Nuclear Starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Walter, Fabian; Warren, Steven R.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Hodge, Jacqueline; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Veilleux, Sylvain; Zwaan, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We use ALMA observations to derive mass, length, and time scales associated with NGC 253's nuclear starburst. This region forms ~2 M ⊙ yr-1 of stars and resembles other starbursts in ratios of gas, dense gas, and star formation tracers, with star formation consuming the gas reservoir at a normalized rate 10 times higher than in normal galaxy disks. We present new ~35 pc resolution observations of bulk gas tracers (CO), high critical density transitions (HCN, HCO+, and CS), and their isotopologues. The starburst is fueled by a highly inclined distribution of dense gas with vertical extent factor implied by our cloud calculations is approximately Galactic, contrasting with results showing a low value for the whole starburst region. The contrast provides resolved support for the idea of mixed molecular ISM phases in starburst galaxies.

  1. ALMA Explores How Supermassive Black Holes Talk to Their Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    We believe that supermassive black holes evolve in tandem with their host galaxies but how do the two communicate? Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have revealed new clues about how a monster black hole talks to its galaxy.A Hubble image of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster. [Adapted from Russell et al. 2017]Observing FeedbackActive galactic nuclei (AGN), the highly luminous centers of some galaxies, are thought to radiate due to active accretion onto the supermassive black hole at their center.Its long been suspected that the radiation and outflowing material which often takes the form of enormous bipolar radio jets emitted into the surroundings influence the AGNs host galaxy, affecting star formation rates and the evolution of the galaxy. This AGN feedback has been alternately suggested to trigger star formation, quench it, and truncate the growth of massive galaxies.The details of this feedback process, however, have yet to be thoroughly understood in part because its difficult to obtain detailed observations of how AGN outflows interact with the galactic gas surrounding them. Now, a team of scientists led by Helen Russell (Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, UK) has published the results of a new, high-resolution look at the gas in a massive galaxy in the center of the Phoenix cluster.Many Uses for FuelThe Phoenix cluster, a nearby (z = 0.596) group of star-forming galaxies, is the most luminous X-ray cluster known. The central galaxy in the cluster is especially active: it hosts a starburst of 500800 solar masses per year, the largest starburst found in any galaxy below a redshift of z= 1.The star formation in this galaxy is sustained by an enormous reservoir of cold molecular gas roughly 20 billion solar masses worth. This reservoir also powers the galaxys central black hole, fueling powerful radio jets that extend into the hot atmosphere of the galaxy and blow a giant bubble into the hot gas at each pole.ALMA

  2. The ALMA Front-end Archive Setup and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicenec, A.; Chen, A.; Checcucci, A.; Jeram, B.; Meuss, H.; Persson, A.; Burgos, P.; Cirami, R.

    2010-12-01

    The ALMA front-end archive system has to capture up to 64 MB/s for a period of several days plus the data of about 100,000 monitor points from all 66 antennas and the correlators. The main science data is delivered through corba based audio/video streams and finally stored on SATA disk arrays hosted on 6 computers and controlled by 12 daemons. All data is collected by software components running on computers in the antennas and then sent through dedicated fiber links to the Array Operations Site at 5000 m and from there to the Operations Support Facility (OSF) at 3000 m elevation. The various hardware and software components have been tuned and tested to be able to meet the performance requirements. This paper describes the setup and the various components in more detail and gives results of various test runs.

  3. La música de los números: descubrimiento y aplicación de las proporciones sonoras

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    La conferencia se plantea remontarse a los orígenes de la relación entre la música y los números, aunque previamente se acerca a los más antiguos mitos griegos relacionados con el arte de los sonidos (Orfeo, Dionisos, Marsias, Sirenas). A continuación se muestra cómo los pitagóricos nos revelaron la naturaleza musical del cosmos y, a través de ella, la naturaleza relacional y procesual de la realidad. A su vez, fueron ellos los descubridores del alma, y los que definieron a ésta y a la música...

  4. 67-116 GHz optics development for ALMA band 2-3 receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubov, Pavel; Gonzalez, A.; Tapia, V.; Reyes, N.; Mena, F. P.; Nesti, R.; Cuttaia, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Villa, F.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report the first results of the optical components development and the overall optical design for a wideband receiver to simultaneously cover ALMA bands 2 and 3. Two types of feed horns and OMTs have been designed to couple to the ALMA telescope beam using a modified Fresnel lens. Both types of hardware have been manufactured and tested in a near field beam scanner. The measured beam patterns and optical efficiencies are in good agreement with simulations.

  5. ALMA / porten til det kolde, støvede og fjerne univers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vørnle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    I det nordlige Chile er det enorme ALMA-teleskop ved at tage form, men allerede nu giver det enestående astronomiske øje os et helt nyt syn på universet.......I det nordlige Chile er det enorme ALMA-teleskop ved at tage form, men allerede nu giver det enestående astronomiske øje os et helt nyt syn på universet....

  6. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira ($o$ Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, K T; Menten, K M; Wyrowski, F

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical Mira variable, $o$ Cet (Mira), has been observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign with a longest baseline of 15 km. ALMA clearly resolves the images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. We image the data of the $^{28}$SiO v=0, 2 $J$=5-4 and H$_2$O $\

  7. JCMT in the Post-Herschel ERA of Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2013-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), with a 15m dish, is the largest single-dish astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-mm wavelength regime. The JCMT is located close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. The most recent addition to the JCMT's suite of instruments is the 10,000 bolometer sub-mm continuum instrument: SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 operates simultaneously with 7' x7' foot print sub-arrays at both 450 and 850-microns. SCUBA-2's wide field surveying potential, combined with a 65% shared view of the sky from both sites, makes it the ideal instrument to provide complementary data for the ALMA Project. Furthermore, the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre wavelength coverage and angular resolution complement existing Herschel observations. A set of comprehensive surveys of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using SCUBA-2 and HARP, a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of seven survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighbourhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. In addition to the JLS, the COHR survey is imaging the Galactic plane in CO (3-2) and a JAC Staff-led project is using SCUBA-2 to survey the Galactic Centre. This poster highlights the significant survey capabilities of SCUBA-2 and HARP and reveals the continuing importance of the JCMT in a post-Herschel, ALMA world.

  8. ALMA 1.3 mm observations of the Fomalhaut System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew John; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.89 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  9. El rol de los actores con poder de veto informal en la determinación del gasto social en la Argentina post-neoliberal (2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la importancia de los actores con poder de veto informal para la determinación de algunas políticas públicas en Argentina luego de la crisis del modelo neoliberal. En particular, se realiza una relectura de los modelos estándar de actores con poder de veto para incorporar a los movimientos de desocupados que surgieron en Argentina en el período de consolidación y crisis del neoliberalismo. Asimismo, se analiza empíricamente la capacidad de estas nuevas organizaciones para modificar el statu quo de las políticas de gasto público social.

  10. Información sobre las secuelas y futuros riesgos para los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma Information on late effects and future risks for retinoblastoma survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schwartz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de sobrevida de los pacientes con cáncer en la infancia han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Se observan secuelas como consecuencia de esta enfermedad y su tratamiento. Los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma presentan efectos adversos como consecuencia de la cirugía, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia. Las formas bilaterales irradiadas presentan un riesgo aumentado de desarrollar un segundo cáncer. Tanto los casos que presentaron retinoblastoma unilateral o bilateral pueden transmitir esta enfermedad a su descendencia. El diagnóstico de este tumor es excepcional después de los 4 años de edad y no se sabe claramente qué conocimiento tienen estos sobrevivientes del diagnóstico, del tratamiento y de los futuros riesgos. El consentimiento informado y el posterior resumen de historia clínica no aclaran demasiado a los padres. Los pacientes curados de retinoblastoma se verían beneficiados con un seguimiento prolongado en las instituciones en que fueron tratados, ya que les permitiría recibir información acerca de lo padecido, del tratamiento, de los riesgos y se podrían identificar las consecuencias posteriores de la enfermedad y su tratamiento.The survival rates of childhood cancer have increased in the past few decades. Late consequences related to the cancer and the treatment are observed. The late effects in retinoblastoma survivors are related to the surgery, the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy. Patients with irradiated bilateral retinoblastoma are at high risk to develop a second cancer. Survivors of bilateral or unilateral forms could transmit this disease to their offspring. The diagnosis of retinoblastoma is exceptional after 4 years of age, and it is not clear whether these survivors have knowledge of their diagnosis, treatment and future risks. The informed consent and the summary of the clinical histories do not help to clarify the situation. It will be of great benefit for the patients cured of retinoblastoma

  11. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: Source Catalog and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Umehata, Hideki; Kohno, Kotaro; Ivison, R J; Smail, Ian; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kato, Yuta; Ikarashi, Soh; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Seiji; Iono, Daisuke; Lee, Minju; Steidel, Charles C; Saito, Tomoki; Alexander, D M; Yun, Min S; Kubo, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a deep 2'x3' (comoving scale of 3.7 Mpc x 5.5 Mpc at z=3) survey at 1.1 mm taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the SSA22 field. We observe the core region of a z = 3.09 protocluster, achieving a typical rms sensitivity of 60 micro-Jy/beam at a spatial resolution of 0".7. We detect 18 robust ALMA sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 5. Comparison between the ALMA map and a 1.1 mm map taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) indicates that three submillimeter sources discovered by the AzTEC/ASTE survey are resolved into eight individual submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) by ALMA. At least ten of our 18 ALMA SMGs have spectroscopic redshifts of z = 3.09, placing them in the protocluster. This shows that a number of dusty starburst galaxies are forming simultaneously in the core of the protocluster. The nine brightest ALMA SMGs with SNR > 10 have a median intrinsic angular size of 0".32+0".13-0".06 (2.4+1.0-0.4 ...

  12. Software Development for ALMA in Chile: The ACS-UTFSM Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brand, H. H.

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a common software framework for ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile. ACS is a collection of well-documented patterns for controlling systems and a set of components written to those patterns. In its core, ACS is a distributed, object-oriented system, written on top of CORBA. The ACS-UTFSM Group started as some students of informatics did summer jobs at the La Silla Observatory of ESO, where they became acquainted with ACS. Their interest led them to continue working on ACS on their own, and they eventually became official developers of the package. Now the group is being funded by project ALMA-CONICYT 31060008 ``Software Development for ALMA: Building Up Expertise to Meet ALMA Software Requirements within a Chilean University''. Several members of the original group are now working for ALMA, which fullfills one of the goals of the project. Some parts of ACS developed by the ACS-UTFSM Group include H3E (Hardware End-to-End Example), a Lego model of a telescope and its controlling software for training and demonstration purposes; and CDBChecker, a tool to verify the consistency of the configuration database for a ACS deployment. Currently we are working towards a general framework for telescope control using ACS, in order to simplify the deployment of new instruments; and repackaging ACS so it is easier to install and use. A master's thesis is exploring the real-time requirements of ACS.

  13. Porting the ALMA Correlator Data Processor from hard real-time to plain Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus; Saez, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA correlator back-end consists of a cluster of 16 computing nodes and a master collector/packager node. The mission of the cluster is to process time domain lags into auto-correlations and complex visibilities, integrate them for some configurable amount of time and package them into a workable data product. Computers in the cluster are organized such that individual workloads per node are kept within achievable levels for different observing modes and antennas in the array. Over the course of an observation the master node transmits enough state information to each involved computing node to specify exactly how to process each set of lags received from the correlator. For that distributed mechanism to work, it is necessary to unequivocally identify each individual lag set arriving at each computing node. The original approach was based on a custom hardware interface to each node in the cluster plus a realtime version of the Linux Operating System. A modification recently introduced in the ALMA correlator consists of tagging each lag set with a time stamp before delivering them to the cluster. The time stamp identifies a precise 16- millisecond window during which that specific data set was streamed to the computing cluster. From the time stamp value a node is able to identify a centroid (in absolute time units), base-lines, and correlator mode during that hardware integration. That is, enough information to let the digital signal processing pipeline in each node to process time domain lags into frequency domain auto-correlations per antenna and visibilities per base-line. The scheme also means that a good degree of concurrency can be achieved in each node by having individual CPU cores process individual lag sets at the same time, thus rendering enough processing power to cope with a maximum 1 GiB/sec output from the correlator. The present paper describes how we time stamp lag sets within the correlator hardware, the implications to their on

  14. Demonstrating A New Census of INfrared Galaxies with ALMA (DANCING-ALMA). I. FIR Size and Luminosity Relation at z = 0-6

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We present the large statistics of the galaxy effective radius in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) wavelength Re(FIR) obtained from 1258 deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1-mm band maps that are open for public by 2016 December. Our ALMA sample consists of 736 sources at z=0-6 that typically have the star-formation rate of ~50-1000 M$_{\\odot}$/yr and the stellar mass of ~10$^{10}$-10$^{11.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$. We homogeneously derive Re(FIR) and FIR luminosity L_FIR of our ...

  15. Revelation of the voluntary information about Human Capital in the Annual Reports Revelación de la información voluntaria sobre el capital humano en los informes anuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Villacorta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Financial Accounting impedes the registration on behalf of the information on the intangible of the different companies. To attenuate this situation, many companies offer voluntary data on them in the accounting documentation. This work analyzes the voluntary information of the Spanish companies about the intangible, impacting in the place that they occupy inside the Annual Report. The main conclusion of the investigation is that the companies offer the voluntary information that more it interests them for their own motivations and, however, the users of the Financial Accounting need a wider and more comparable information on the Human Capital.La normalización contable actual impide el registro de parte de la información sobre los intangibles de las diferentes empresas. Para atenuar esta situación, muchas empresas ofrecen datos voluntarios sobre ellos en la documentación contable que ofrecen a terceros. Este trabajo analiza la información voluntaria que exponen las empresas españolas cotizadas sobre los intangibles no reconocidos en el Balance, incidiendo en el lugar que ocupan dentro del Informe Anual. La principal conclusión de la investigación es que las empresas ofrecen la información voluntaria que más les interesa para sus propias motivaciones y, sin embargo, los usuarios de la Contabilidad Financiera necesitan una información más amplia y comparable sobre el Capital Humano.

  16. Subcontrataciones en sectores conocimiento-intensivos: el caso de los trabajos informático y bio-informático

    OpenAIRE

    Miguez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    La subcontratación en sectores conocimiento-incentivos tiene efectos similares a los de todo proceso de tercerización con el agregado de que la naturaleza del producto muchas veces habilita su realización por razones técnicas y no necesariamente responde o esta ligado a trabajos de baja calificación. En estos proceso de trabajo complejos la subcontratación esta a la orden del día - cualquiera sea el tipo de producto que se realice- y genera los mismos problemas que en el sector industrial....

  17. Informes realizados en 1760 para llevar a cabo los reparos de la iglesia parroquial de San Miguel en Peñaranda de Bracamonte (Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz González, María Jesús

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the advice offered by four members of the Royal Academy of San Fernando in the eighteenth century upon being consulted concerning the restoration of the church of Peñaranda de Bracamonte (Salamanca, in a impending ruinous state. Through the reports submitted by Ventura Rodriguez, Alejandro González Velazquez, Jaime Marquet and Francisco Sabatini related to the plan, and the official report from the Dominican Friar Marcos de Santa Rosa, it is possible to discern the different approaches of the period to the restoration of old buildings.

    Este artículo trata de los informes que plantean cuatro miembros de la Real Academia de San Fernando en el siglo XVIII al ser consultados para dar su opinión sobre la restauración de la iglesia parroquial de Peñaranda de Bracamonte (Salamanca que amenazaba ruina. A través de los informes realizados por Ventura Rodríguez, Alejandro González Velázquez, Jaime Marquet y Francisco Sabatini sobre el plano e informe oficial del dominico Fray Marcos de Santa Rosa, podemos ver los distintos planteamientos que en la época se tenían sobre las restauraciones de edificios antiguos.

  18. Clasificación del Contenido de los Informes de Sostenibilidad de Empresas Premiadas por sus Prácticas de Responsabilidad Socioambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Inglês da Costa; Luciana Silva Torres; Alessandra Carvalho de Vasconcelos; Márcia Martins Mendes de Luca

    2013-01-01

    Dada la importancia del informe de sostenibilidad – instrumento de gestión y de divulgación de informaciones acerca de la interacción de la empresa con el medio en que actúa –, el presente estudio tiene por objetivo analizar el contenido de la divulgación de informaciones acerca de las dimensiones de la sostenibilidad empresarial – económica, social y ambiental – en los informes de empresas premiadas por sus prácticas de responsabilidad socioambiental. Se trata de estudio descriptivo, de natu...

  19. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Timothy S.

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.In this paper we describe recent efforts to ensure that ALMA can be usefully exploited by the scientific community to address outstanding questions in solar physics. We summarize activities by the ALMA solar development team comprised of scientists from the East Asia, North America, and Europe. These activities include instrument testing, development of calibration and imaging strategies, software requirements development, and science simulations. Opportunities for the wider community to contribute to these efforts will be highlighted.

  20. Reflexiones acerca de los sistemas de informacion universitarios ante los desafios y cambios generados por los procesos de evaluacion y acreditacion Some reflexions about informations systems for universities in the presence of challenges and changes produced by evaluation and acreditation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago José Barcos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de la relevancia de los Sistemas de Información para universidades. Tales sistemas son esenciales para la gestión, para lograr enriquecer los resultados de la adopción de decisión y también para informar las acciones de las universidades a la sociedad. El artículo contiene algunas reflexiones respecto de los Sistemas de Informaciones en los Procesos de Evaluación y Acreditación y muestra los defectos detectados en Universidades Europeas y Latinoamericanas. Asimismo, se plantean requerimientos y funciones de este importante recurso y un especial énfasis en desarrollarlos adecuadamente para optimizar el funcionamiento y para impulsar la integración entre Instituciones Educativas en el contexto global.This article explains about the relevance that the Informations Systems have for universities, which are essential for management, to rich decision-making results, and also to report their actions to society. It contains some reflections about the necessity of Informations Systems in the Evaluation and Accreditation Processes, and expresses the faults detected in European and Latin American universities. Lastly, there is an enunciation of requirements and functions of this important resource, and a special emphasis on developing them properly to improve the integration between the Education Institutions in the global context.

  1. The Mysterious Morphology of MRC0943-242 as Revealed by ALMA and MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D; Vernet, Joel; Bacon, Roland; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Galametz, Audrey; Ivison, Rob; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Richard, Johan; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    We present a pilot study of the z=2.923 radio galaxy MRC0943-242, where we for the first time combine information from ALMA and MUSE data cubes. Even with modest integration times, we disentangle an AGN and a starburst dominated set of components. These data reveal a highly complex morphology, as the AGN, starburst, and molecular gas components show up as widely separated sources in dust continuum, optical continuum and CO line emission observations. CO(1-0) and CO(8-7) line emission suggest that there is a molecular gas reservoir offset from both the dust and the optical continuum that is located ~90kpc from the AGN. The UV line emission has a complex structure in emission and absorption. The line emission is mostly due to i) a large scale ionisation cone energised by the AGN, ii) a Ly-alpha emitting bridge of gas between the radio galaxy and a heavily star-forming set of components. Strangely, the ionisation cone has no Ly-alpha emission. We find this is due to an optically thick layer of neutral gas with u...

  2. GRB 110715A: The peculiar multiwavelength evolution of the first afterglow detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Jóhannesson, G; Murphy, Tara; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Gorosabel, J; Kann, D A; Krühler, T; Oates, S R; Japelj, J; Thöne, C C; Lundgren, A; Perley, D A; Malesani, D; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio; Castro-Tirado, A J; D'Elia, V; Fynbo, J P U; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hu, Y -D; Jelínek, M; Jeong, S; Kamble, A; Klose, S; Kuin, N P M; Llorente, A; Martín, S; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Rossi, A; Schady, P; Sparre, M; Sudilovsky, V; Tello, J C; Updike, A; Wiersema, K; Zhang, B -B

    2016-01-01

    We present the extensive follow-up campaign on the afterglow of GRB 110715A at 17 different wavelengths, from X-ray to radio bands, starting 81 seconds after the burst and extending up to 74 days later. We performed for the first time a GRB afterglow observation with the ALMA observatory. We find that the afterglow of GRB 110715A is very bright at optical and radio wavelengths. We use optical and near infrared spectroscopy to provide further information about the progenitor's environment and its host galaxy. The spectrum shows weak absorption features at a redshift $z$ = 0.8225, which reveal a host galaxy environment with low ionization, column density and dynamical activity. Late deep imaging shows a very faint galaxy, consistent with the spectroscopic results. The broadband afterglow emission is modelled with synchrotron radiation using a numerical algorithm and we determine the best fit parameters using Bayesian inference in order to constrain the physical parameters of the jet and the medium in which the ...

  3. GRB 110715A: the peculiar multiwavelength evolution of the first afterglow detected by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Hancock, P. J.; Jóhannesson, G.; Murphy, Tara; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Kann, D. A.; Krühler, T.; Oates, S. R.; Japelj, J.; Thöne, C. C.; Lundgren, A.; Perley, D. A.; Malesani, D.; de Gregorio Monsalvo, I.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; D'Elia, V.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hu, Y.-D.; Jelínek, M.; Jeong, S.; Kamble, A.; Klose, S.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Llorente, A.; Martín, S.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Rossi, A.; Schady, P.; Sparre, M.; Sudilovsky, V.; Tello, J. C.; Updike, A.; Wiersema, K.; Zhang, B.-B.

    2017-02-01

    We present the extensive follow-up campaign on the afterglow of GRB 110715A at 17 different wavelengths, from X-ray to radio bands, starting 81 s after the burst and extending up to 74 d later. We performed for the first time a GRB afterglow observation with the ALMA observatory. We find that the afterglow of GRB 110715A is very bright at optical and radio wavelengths. We use the optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to provide further information about the progenitor's environment and its host galaxy. The spectrum shows weak absorption features at a redshift z = 0.8225, which reveal a host-galaxy environment with low ionization, column density, and dynamical activity. Late deep imaging shows a very faint galaxy, consistent with the spectroscopic results. The broad-band afterglow emission is modelled with synchrotron radiation using a numerical algorithm and we determine the best-fitting parameters using Bayesian inference in order to constrain the physical parameters of the jet and the medium in which the relativistic shock propagates. We fitted our data with a variety of models, including different density profiles and energy injections. Although the general behaviour can be roughly described by these models, none of them are able to fully explain all data points simultaneously. GRB 110715A shows the complexity of reproducing extensive multiwavelength broad-band afterglow observations, and the need of good sampling in wavelength and time and more complex models to accurately constrain the physics of GRB afterglows.

  4. La incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial entre 1840 y 1925, según los informes consulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Maiguashca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece una reinterpretación del proceso de incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial, entre 1840 y 1925. Esta revisión se realiza a partir de los conceptos desarrollados por el economista italiano Giovanni Arrighi: incorporación nominal, incorporación periférica e incorporación no-periférica. Por medio de estos, el ensayo analiza la variedad de enlaces que se desarrollaron entre el centro y la periferia, y dentro la periferia misma. Se estudian especialmente dos momentos de este proceso: 1840-1890 y 1890-1910. El análisis de las articulaciones externas e internas que se dieron en cada una de estas fases y los factores de producción que los sustentaron permiten caracterizar al primer momento como ‘incorporación nominal’ y al segundo como ‘periférica’. Esta distinción permite una mejor comprensión del auge cacaotero ecuatoriano en el largo siglo XIX. El trabajo se basa en los informes consulares extranjeros, un tipo de documentación que no ha sido suficientemente estudiada todavía.

  5. Sistema informático para la gestión de los planes de ingreso a la educación media y superior en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Acosta Ortíz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es presentar un sistema de gestión de los planes de ingreso a la educación media y superior en Cuba, el cual automatiza los procesos de recopilación de información, así como los algoritmos de asignación del ingreso que se desarrolla en el Departamento de Fuerza de Trabajo Calificada del Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Este departamento se encarga de gestionar los procesos de formación y empleo de la fuerza de trabajo calificada en el país; forma parte del Sistema Unificado de Gestión de Fuerza de Trabajo Calificada (GeForza, iniciado en 2009 en la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas (UCI, concebido a partir de la estrategia de actualizar el Estudio Integral para la Formación y Empleo de la Fuerza de Trabajo Calificada en Cuba. Para el desarrollo de la aplicación web se usó el marco de trabajo Sauxe, el lenguaje de programación PHP y la integración de otros marcos de trabajo como Zend Framework, Doctrine y ExtJS. Es una aplicación totalmente funcional que se encuentra en fase de despliegue.

  6. Amigas Latinas Motivando el ALMA (ALMA): Development and Pilot Implementation of a Stress Reduction Promotora Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa A; Perez, Georgina; Ornelas, India J; Tran, Anh N; Blumenthal, Connie; Lyn, Michelle; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2012-08-01

    Use of mental health care services for psychological distress is limited among Latino immigrants. In geographic areas where migration has been rapid, mental health systems possess limited capacity to provide bilingual and bicultural assistance. The development of a bilingual and bicultural workforce is a necessary yet long-term solution. More immediate strategies, however, are needed to meet the needs of immigrant Latinos. This paper describes the development of a stress-reduction focused, lay health advisor training that targets individual behavior change among Latina immigrants. The theoretical foundation, curriculum components, and pilot implementation of the training are discussed. As natural leaders, Latina promotoras disseminated learned strategies and resources within their communities. The lay health advisor model is a salient method for disseminating information regarding mental health and stress reduction among Latinas.

  7. A code generation framework for the ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Nicolás; von Brand, Horst H.; Ibsen, Jorge; Mora, Matias; Gonzalez, Victor; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Zamora, Gabriel; Tejeda, Alexis

    2010-07-01

    Code generation helps in smoothing the learning curve of a complex application framework and in reducing the number of Lines Of Code (LOC) that a developer needs to craft. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) has adopted code generation in specific areas, but we are now exploiting the more comprehensive approach of Model Driven code generation to transform directly an UML Model into a full implementation in the ACS framework. This approach makes it easier for newcomers to grasp the principles of the framework. Moreover, a lower handcrafted LOC reduces the error rate. Additional benefits achieved by model driven code generation are: software reuse, implicit application of design patterns and automatic tests generation. A model driven approach to design makes it also possible using the same model with different frameworks, by generating for different targets. The generation framework presented in this paper uses openArchitectureWare1 as the model to text translator. OpenArchitectureWare provides a powerful functional language that makes this easier to implement the correct mapping of data types, the main difficulty encountered in the translation process. The output is an ACS application readily usable by the developer, including the necessary deployment configuration, thus minimizing any configuration burden during testing. The specific application code is implemented by extending generated classes. Therefore, generated and manually crafted code are kept apart, simplifying the code generation process and aiding the developers by keeping a clean logical separation between the two. Our first results show that code generation improves dramatically the code productivity.

  8. ALMA observations of the kinematics and chemistry of disc formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, Johan E; Brinch, Christian; Haugbølle, Troels; Bergin, Edwin A; Harsono, Daniel; Persson, Magnus V; Visser, Ruud; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Context: The R CrA cloud hosts a handful of Class 0/I low-mass young stellar objects. The chemistry and physics at scales $>500$ AU in this cloud are dominated by the irradiation from the nearby Herbig Be star R CrA. The luminous large-scale emission makes it necessary to use high-resolution spectral imaging to study the chemistry and dynamics of the inner envelopes and discs of the protostars. Aims: We aim to better understand the structure of the inner regions of these protostars and in particular the interplay between the chemistry and the presence of discs. Methods: Using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) high-resolution spectral imaging interferometry observations, we study the molecular line and dust continuum emission at submillimetre wavelengths. Results: We detect dust continuum emission from four circumstellar discs around Class 0/I objects within the R CrA cloud. Towards IRS7B we detect C$^{17}$O emission showing a rotation curve consistent with a Keplerian disc with a well-define...

  9. ALMA Finds Dew Drops in the Dusty Spider's Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gullberg, B; De Breuck, C; Branchu, S; Dannerbauer, H; Drouant, G; Emonts, B; Guillard, P; Hatch, N; Nesvadba, N P H; Omont, A; Seymour, N; Vernet, J

    2016-01-01

    We present 0."5 resolution ALMA detections of the observed 246GHz continuum, [CI]^3P_2-^3P_1 fine structure line ([CI]2-1), CO(7-6) and H2O lines in the z=2.161 radio galaxy MRC1138-262, the 'Spiderweb Galaxy'. We detect strong [CI]2-1 emission both at the position of the radio core, and in a second component ~4kpc away from it. The 1100km/s broad [CI]2-1 line in this latter component, combined with its H2 mass of 1.6x10^10Msun implies this emission must come from a compact region <60pc, possibly containing a second AGN. The combined H2 mass derived for both objects using the [CI]2-1 emission is 3.3x10^10Msun. The total CO(7-6)/[CI]2-1 line flux ratio of 0.2 suggests a low excitation molecular gas reservoir and/or enhanced atomic carbon in cosmic-ray dominated regions. We detect spatially-resolved H2O 2_{11}-2_{02} emission - for the first time in a high-z un-lensed galaxy - near the outer radio lobe to the east, and near the bend of the radio jet to the west of the radio galaxy. No underlying 246GHz conti...

  10. Overall performance of the ALMA antenna during solar observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatta, A.; Brunelli, A.; Rampini, F.; Marchiori, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) consists of a large number of 12m diameter antennas that will operate up to 950GHz. The antenna must meet all primary operational performances also during solar observation. When the antenna is pointing directly the sun or when the sun is close to the boresight axis, the solar power concentrated by the mirrors cannot damage any part of the antenna. When the antenna is pointing toward the sun, the power absorbed by a black body positioned in the secondary focal area shall not exceed 0.3 W/cm2. To achieve these requirements, the primary surface of the antenna has a suitable surface scattering treatment. The same thing was done for the surface of the subreflector. Specific tests were performed on the panels surface and secondary mirror during the prototype and production phase in order to optimize the best behaviour. A particular care must be applied in the control of the secondary area, where the entire solar power spectrum, from the UV to the infrared, reflected by the primary mirror, can contribute to overheat reflecting areas support structures. In this report we provide a series of analysis and results obtained during the solar observation.

  11. ALMA - The March to Early Science and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Alwyn

    2011-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is rapidly proceeding through its commissioning stages in Chile. Tests at the atmospherically superb 5050m Array Operations Site and readiness reviews held during the Fall of 2010 will result in a decision to issue a call for proposals to use the instrument during its 'Early Science' phase. At the beginning of Early Science, projected for later in 2011, 16 antennas of the final 66 will stand ready to produce the deepest integrations ever achieved in the cool thermal spectral region. The array will be equipped with at least three of its eventual complement of ten receivers operating over a decade of bandwidth from 3.6mm to 0.42mm. At this point, its sensitivity will be on the order of 0.5mJy in a minute's integration. Operating at this stage baselines of at least .25km, ALMA will provide a beam as small as 0".3 on the little-explored southern skies from its Chilean site near the Tropic of Capricorn. By one year later, the array will have grown to more than fifty antennas; at the second call for proposals the array will reach 0.2 mJy in a minute and baselines will extend to the full set of array configurations, effectively about 14 km. Observations which will be made possible by these transformative capabilities will be presented.

  12. ALMA: The March to Early Science and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al

    2010-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is rapidly proceeding through its commissioning stages in Chile. Within a short time, equipment from all over the world will be installed at the 5050m altitude Array Operations Site and a call will go out for proposals to use the instrument during its 'Early Science' phase. At the beginning of Early Science, a little over a year from now, 16 antennas of the final 66 will stand ready to produce the deepest images ever achieved in the cool thermal spectral region. The array will be equipped with at least three of its eventual complement of ten receivers; even now operating over a decade of bandwidth from 3.6mm to 0.42mm. At this point, its sensitivity will be on the order of 0.5mJy in a minute's integration. Operating at this stage baselines of at least .25km, ALMA will provide a beam as small as 0".3 on the little-explored southern skies from its Chilean site near the Tropic of Capricorn. By one year later, the array will have grown to more than fifty antennas; at the second call for proposals the array will reach 0.2 mJy in a minute and baselines will extend to the full set of array configurations, effectively about 14 km. Illustrative examples of observations which will be made possible by these transformative capabilities will be presented.

  13. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Bout, Paul Vanden; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well-resolved for the first time.In the more luminous West nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends to 0.2\\arcsec radius (80 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ($\\tau_{\\rm 2.6mm} \\sim1$) at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm with a dust emission brightness temperature $\\sim120$ K. The column of ISM at this nucleus is $\\rm N_{H2} \\geq 2\\times10^{26}$ cm$^{-2}$, corresponding to A$_V = 10^6$ mag and 1000 gr cm$^{-2}$. The East nucleus is somewhat more elongated with radial extent 0.3\\arcsec or $\\sim120$ pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles sampled every 50 mas, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves and velocity dispersio...

  14. Exploring No-SQL alternatives for ALMA monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Merino, Patricio; Peña, Leonel; Bartsch, Marcelo; Aguirre, Alvaro; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. This paper describes the experience gained after several years working with the monitoring system, which has a strong requirement of collecting and storing up to 150K variables with a highest sampling rate of 20.8 kHz. The original design was built on top of a cluster of relational database server and network attached storage with fiber channel interface. As the number of monitoring points increases with the number of antennas included in the array, the current monitoring system demonstrated to be able to handle the increased data rate in the collection and storage area (only one month of data), but the data query interface showed serious performance degradation. A solution based on no-SQL platform was explored as an alternative to the current long-term storage system. Among several alternatives, mongoDB has been selected. In the data flow, intermediate cache servers based on Redis were introduced to allow faster streaming of the most recently acquired data to web based charts and applications for online data analysis.

  15. Water around IRAS15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerkeli, P; Bergin, E A; Frimann, S; Harsono, D; Jacobsen, S K; Lindberg, J E; Persson, M; Sakai, N; van Dishoeck, E F; Visser, R; Yamamoto, S

    2016-01-01

    How protostars accrete mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging and they only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Previous observations of H13CO+ towards the low-mass protostar IRAS15398-3359 showed a depression in the abundance. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. IRAS15398 was observed using ALMA at 0.5" resolution. Maps of HDO(101-000) and H218O(414-321) were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS(8-7) and N2H+(5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calcula...

  16. Detection of Infall in the Protostar B335 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Neal J; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Jørgensen, Jes K; Choi, Minho; Myers, Philip C; Mardones, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the isolated globule B335 with ALMA have yielded absorption features against the continuum that are redshifted from the systemic velocity in both HCN and HCO$^+$ lines. These features provide unambiguous evidence for infall toward a central luminosity source. Previously developed models of inside-out collapse can match the observed line profiles of HCN and HCO$^+$ averaged over the central 50 AU. At the new distance of 100 pc, the inferred infall radius is 0.012 pc, the mass infall rate is $3 \\times 10^{-6}$ solar masses per year, the age is 50,000 years, and the accumulated mass in the central zone is 0.15 solar masses, most of which must be in the star or in parts of a disk that are opaque at 0.8 mm. The continuum detection indicates an optically thin mass (gas and dust) of only $7.5\\times 10^{-4}$ solar masses in the central region, consistent with only a very small disk mass.

  17. Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto's atmosphere with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Lellouch, E; Butler, B; Fouchet, T; Lavvas, P; Strobel, D F; Sicardy, B; Moullet, A; Moreno, R; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Young, L; Lis, D; Stansberry, J; Stern, A; Weaver, H; Young, E; Zhu, X; Boissier, J

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the Pluto-Charon system, acquired with the ALMA interferometer on June 12-13, 2015, have yielded a detection of the CO(3-2) and HCN(4-3) rotational transitions from Pluto, providing a strong confirmation of the presence of CO, and the first observation of HCN, in Pluto's atmosphere. The CO and HCN lines probe Pluto's atmosphere up to ~450 km and ~900 km altitude, respectively. The CO detection yields (i) a much improved determination of the CO mole fraction, as 515+/-40 ppm for a 12 ubar surface pressure (ii) clear evidence for a well-marked temperature decrease (i.e., mesosphere) above the 30-50 km stratopause and a best-determined temperature of 70+/-2 K at 300 km, in agreement with recent inferences from New Horizons / Alice solar occultation data. The HCN line shape implies a high abundance of this species in the upper atmosphere, with a mole fraction >1.5x10-5 above 450 km and a value of 4x10-5 near 800 km. The large HCN abundance and the cold upper atmosphere imply supersaturation of HCN...

  18. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  19. Fast single-dish scans of the Sun using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Neil; Bastian, Tim; Hudson, Hugh; Marson, Ralph; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We have implemented control and data-taking software that makes it possible to scan the beams of individual ALMA antennas to perform quite complex patterns while recording the signals at high rates. We conducted test observations of the Sun in September and December, 2014. The data returned have excellent quality; in particular they allow us to characterize the noise and signal fluctuations present in this kind of observation. The fast-scan experiments included both Lissajous patterns covering rectangular areas, and double-circle patterns of the whole disk of the Sun and smaller repeated maps of specific disk-shaped targets. With the latter we find that we can achieve roughly Nyquist sampling of the Band~6 (230~GHz) beam in 60~s over a region 300$"$ in diameter. These maps show a peak-to-peak brightness-temperature range of up to 1000~K, while the time-series variability at any given point appears to be of order 0.5 percent RMS over times of a few minutes. We thus expect to be able to separate the noise contr...

  20. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle

    CERN Document Server

    Bujarrabal, V; Alcolea, J; Santander-Garcia, M; Van Winckel, H; Contreras, C Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    We present new high-quality ALMA observations of the Red Rectangle (a well known post-AGB object) in C17O J=6-5 and H13CN J=4-3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published 13CO J=3-2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, including previous maps and single-dish spectra, was performed using a sophisticated code. These observations and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties in the model fitting. We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~ 0.01 Mo, and that of the CO-rich outflow is ~ 10 times smaller. High temperatures of ~ 100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes o...

  1. ALMA and VLA Observations of Proplyd Candidates near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Cotton, William D.; Royster, Marc; Kunneriath, Devaky; Wardle, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, Al; Schoedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows. To confirm this interpretation, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We determine the mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  2. ALMA Reveals the Molecular Medium Fueling the Nearest Nuclear Starburst

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Adam K; Ostriker, Eve C; Rosolowsky, Erik; Walter, Fabian; Warren, Steven R; Meyer, Jennifer Donovan; Hodge, Jacqueline; Meier, David S; Ott, Jürgen; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Veilleux, Sylvain; Zwaan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use ALMA to derive the mass, length, and time scales associated with the nuclear starburst in NGC 253. This region forms ~2 M_sun/yr of stars and resembles other starbursts in scaling relations, with star formation consuming the gas reservoir 10 times faster than in galaxy disks. We present observations of CO, the high effective density transitions HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), and their isotopologues. We identify ten clouds that appear as peaks in line emission and enhancements in the HCN-to-CO ratio. These clouds are massive (~10^7 M_sun) structures with sizes (~30 pc) similar to GMCs in other systems. Compared to disk galaxy GMCs, they show high line widths (~20-40 km/s) given their size, with implied Mach numbers ~90. The clouds also show high surface (~6,000 M_sun/pc^2) and volume densities (n_H2~2,000 cm^-3). Given these, self-gravity can explain the line widths. This short free fall time (~0.7 Myr) helps explain the more efficient star formation in NGC 253. We also consider the starburst region as a...

  3. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Requena-Torres, Miguel A; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R; Longmore, Steven N; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Falcke, Heino

    2016-01-01

    We report linearly polarized continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We used the observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan, and the observations of C\\textsc{i} line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. The Stokes I flux of 3.6$\\pm$0.72 Jy during our run is consistent with extrapolations from the previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle may be explained by a constant polarization position angle of $\\sim$158$^{\\circ}$$\\pm$3$^{\\circ}$. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14\\%$\\pm$1.2\\%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed at the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9\\%$\\pm$0.9\\% polariz...

  4. ALMA Observations of HCN and its Isotopologues on Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Molter, Edward M; Cordiner, Martin A; Serigano, Joseph; Irwin, Patrick G J; Teanby, Nicholas A; Charnley, Steven B; Lindberg, Johan E

    2016-01-01

    We present sub-millimeter spectra of HCN isotopologues on Titan, derived from publicly available ALMA flux calibration observations of Titan taken in early 2014. We report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H$^{13}$C$^{15}$, and confirm an earlier report of detection of DCN. We model high signal-to-noise observations of HCN, H$^{13}$CN, HC$^{15}$N, DCN, and H$^{13}$C$^{15}$ to derive abundances and infer the following isotopic ratios: $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C = 89.8 $\\pm$ 2.8, $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N = 72.3 $\\pm$ 2.2, D/H = (2.5 $\\pm$ 0.2)$\\times$10$^{-4}$, and HCN/H$^{13}$C$^{15}$ = 5800 $\\pm$ 270 (1$\\sigma$ errors). The carbon and nitrogen ratios are consistent with and improve on the precision of previous results, confirming a factor of $\\sim$2.3 elevation in $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N in HCN compared to N$_2$ and a lack of fractionation in $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C from the protosolar value. This is the first published measurement of D/H in a nitrile species on Titan, and we find evidence for a factor of $\\sim$2 deuteri...

  5. ALMA Measurements of Circumstellar Material in the GQ Lup System

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M; Dai, Y Sophia; Herczeg, Gregory J; Kratter, Kaitlin M; Kraus, Adam L; Ricci, Luca; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar mass companion in a wide-separation orbit. These observations of 870 $\\mu$m continuum and CO J=3-2 line emission with beam size $\\sim0.3''$ ($\\sim45$ AU) resolve the disk of dust and gas surrounding the primary star, GQ Lup A, and provide deep limits on any circumplanetary disk surrounding the companion, GQ Lup b. The circumprimary dust disk is compact with a FWHM of $59\\pm12$ AU, while the gas has a larger extent with a characteristic radius of $46.5\\pm1.8$ AU. By forward-modeling the velocity field of the circumprimary disk based on the CO emission, we constrain the mass of GQ Lup A to be $M_* = (1.03\\pm0.05)*(d/156\\text{ pc})$ $M_\\odot$, where $d$ is a known distance, and determine that we view the disk at an inclination angle of $60.5^\\circ\\pm0.5^\\circ$ and a position angle of $346^\\circ \\pm1^\\circ$. The $3\\sigma$ upper limit on the 870 $\\mu$m flux density of any circumplanetary disk associated with GQ Lup b of $<...

  6. Signs of Early-Stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars, Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398-3559, and IRAS 16253-2429 at resolutions of ~100 AU. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 AU Keplerian disk around a 0.3 Msun protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 AU Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398-3559 and IRAS 16253-2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 AU) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398-3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253-2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 Msun and 20 AU in IRAS 15398-3559, and 0.03 Msun and 6 AU in IRAS 16253-2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 to 100 AU in 8 Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventio...

  7. Measuring Turbulence in TW Hya with ALMA: Methods and Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, Richard; Semenov, Dmitry; Henning, Thomas; Dutrey, Anne; Pietu, Vincent; Birnstiel, Tilman; Chapillon, Edwige; Hollenbach, David; Gorti, Uma

    2016-01-01

    We obtain high spatial and spectral resolution images of the CO J=2-1, CN N=2-1 and CS J=5-4 emission with ALMA in Cycle~2. The radial distribution of the turbulent broadening is derived with three approaches: two `direct' and one modelling. The first requires a single transition and derives \\Tex{} directly from the line profile, yielding a \\vturb{}. The second assumes two different molecules are co-spatial thus their relative linewidths allow for a calculation of \\Tkin{} and \\vturb{}. Finally we fit a parametric disk model where physical properties of the disk are described by power laws, to compare our `direct' methods with previous values. The two direct methods were limited to the outer $r > 40$~au disk due to beam smear. The direct method found \\vturb{} ranging from $\\approx$~\\vel{130} at 40~au, dropping to $\\approx$~\\vel{50} in the outer disk, qualitatively recovered with the parametric model fitting. This corresponds to roughly $0.2 - 0.4~c_s$. CN was found to exhibit strong non-LTE effects outside $r ...

  8. Primary health care: making Alma-Ata a reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, John; Lawn, Joy E; Tinker, Anne; de Francisco, Andres; Chopra, Mickey; Rudan, Igor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert E

    2008-09-13

    The principles agreed at Alma-Ata 30 years ago apply just as much now as they did then. "Health for all" by the year 2000 was not achieved, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015 will not be met in most low-income countries without substantial acceleration of primary health care. Factors have included insufficient political prioritisation of health, structural adjustment policies, poor governance, population growth, inadequate health systems, and scarce research and assessment on primary health care. We propose the following priorities for revitalising primary health care. Health-service infrastructure, including human resources and essential drugs, needs strengthening, and user fees should be removed for primary health-care services to improve use. A continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health services, including family planning, is needed. Evidence-based, integrated packages of community and primary curative and preventive care should be adapted to country contexts, assessed, and scaled up. Community participation and community health workers linked to strengthened primary-care facilities and first-referral services are needed. Furthermore, intersectoral action linking health and development is necessary, including that for better water, sanitation, nutrition, food security, and HIV control. Chronic diseases, mental health, and child development should be addressed. Progress should be measured and accountability assured. We prioritise research questions and suggest actions and measures for stakeholders both locally and globally, which are required to revitalise primary health care.

  9. The ALMA View of Dense Molecular Gas in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal L.; Hunter, Todd R.; Leroy, Adam

    2017-01-01

    At a distance of 50 kpc, the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts several sites of star formation including R136, a starburst region home to dozens of evolved O stars. The intense radiation from R136 creates an extreme environment for nearby star formation in such a low-metallicity, low mass galaxy. We have targeted a star-forming region ~15 pc away from R136 within 30 Doradus using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to map the molecular gas to study the sites of star formation. We are conducting a clump-by-clump analysis of the intensities and line ratios of dense gas (HCO+, HCN, CS, H13CO+, H13CN) and diffuse gas (CO, 13CO, C18O) tracers at sub-parsec resolution. We identify and characterize ~100 molecular clumps within the region. With the observed molecular species, we aim to determine the physical conditions of each clump (e.g. size, internal turbulence, molecular abundance). We compare the intensities and line ratios to non-LTE Radex model grids of the excitation temperature, molecular column density, and volume density of the H2 collider to determine the physical excitation conditions within the clumps. We compare these properties of each clump to both associated and embedded star formation properties to quantify the relative importance of internal feedback from the star formation itself versus external feedback processes from R136 and determine which process dominates in this region.

  10. New architectures support for ALMA common software: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menay, Camilo E.; Zamora, Gabriel A.; Tobar, Rodrigo J.; Avarias, Jorge A.; Dahl-skog, Kevin R.; von Brand, Horst H.; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a distributed control framework based on CORBA that provides communication between distributed pieces of software. Because of its size and complexity it provides its own compilation system, a mix of several technologies. The current ACS compilation process depends on specific tools, compilers, code generation, and a strict dependency model induced by the large number of software components. This document presents a summary of several porting and compatibility attempts at using ACS on platforms other than the officially supported one. A porting of ACS to the Microsoft Windows Platform and to the ARM processor architecture were attempted, with different grades of success. Also, support for LINUX-PREEMPT (a set of real-time patches for the Linux kernel) using a new design for real-time services was implemented. These efforts were integrated with the ACS building and compilation system, while others were included in its design. Lessons learned in this process are presented, and a general approach is extracted from them.

  11. ALMA Observations of the HH 46/47 Molecular Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, Hector G; Corder, Stuartt; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29-point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3", detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model may describe the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the integrated intensity map. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence tha...

  12. ALMA reveals VYCMa's sub-mm maser and dust distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, A M S; Humphreys, E M; Vlahakis, C; Vlemmings, W; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Etoka, S; Gray, M D; Harper, G M; Hunter, T R; Kervella, P; Kerschbaum, F; McDonald, I; Melnick, G; Muller, S; Neufeld, D; O'Gorman, E; Parfenov, S Yu; Peck, A B; Shinnaga, H; Sobolev, A M; Testi, L; Uscanga, L; Wootten, A; Yates, J A; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    Cool, evolved stars have copious, enriched winds. The structure of these winds and the way they are accelerated is not well known. We need to improve our understanding by studying the dynamics from the pulsating stellar surface to about 10 stellar radii, where radiation pressure on dust is fully effective. Some red supergiants have highly asymmetric nebulae, implicating additional forces. We retrieved ALMA Science Verification data providing images of sub-mm line and continuum emission from VY CMa. This enables us to locate water masers with milli-arcsec precision and resolve the dusty continuum. The 658-, 321- and 325-GHz masers lie in irregular, thick shells at increasing distances from the centre of expansion. For the first time this is confirmed as the stellar position, coinciding with a compact peak offset to the NW of the brightest continuum emission. The maser shells (and dust formation zone) overlap but avoid each other on tens-au scales. Their distribution is broadly consistent with excitation models...

  13. The Database for Astronomical Spectroscopy - Updates, Additions and Plans for Splatalogue for Alma Full Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, Anthony; Seifert, Nathan A.; McGuire, Brett A.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 10 years, Splatalogue has been constantly updated, modified and enhanced in order to make molecular spectroscopy data readily available to the astronomical community. Splatalogue is fully integrated into the ALMA Observing Tool, the ALMA data reduction and analysis package (CASA) and several enhanced tools being developed through the ALMA development program including the next generation CASA viewer (CARTA) and the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit (ADMIT). In anticipation for ALMA full science operations, a number of improvements have taken place over the past year to the Splatalogue database including, but not limited too, additions to Splatalogue from the JPL and CDMS line lists, improvements and reconciliation of the Lovas/NIST Catalog assigning NRAO recommended rest frequencies to every astronomically detected transition, including recent astronomical surveys to the list of transitions detected in space and finally, improved search and display features as requested by the astronomical community. Splatalogue is planning for the next 10 years of development and welcomes any and all contributions to improving the data integrity and availability to the scientific community.

  14. The Science Cases for Building a Band 1 Receiver Suite for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Di Francesco, J; Matthews, B C; Bartel, N; Bronfman, L; Casassus, S; Chitsazzadeh, S; Cunningham, M; Duchene, G; Geisbuesch, J; Hales, A; Ho, P T P; Houde, M; Iono, D; Kemper, F; Kepley, A; Koch, P M; Kohno, K; Kothes, R; Lai, S -P; Lin, K Y; Liu, S -Y; Mason, B; Maccarone, T J; Mizuno, N; Morata, O; Schieven, G; Scaife, A M M; Scott, D; Shang, H; Shimojo, M; Takakuwa, S; Wagg, J; Wootten, A; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2013-01-01

    We present the various science cases for building Band 1 receivers as part of ALMA's ongoing Development Program. We describe the new frequency range for Band 1 of 35-52 GHz, a range chosen to maximize the receiver suite's scientific impact. We first describe two key science drivers: 1) the evolution of grains in protoplanetary disks and debris disks, and 2) molecular gas in galaxies during the era of re-ionization. Studies of these topics with Band 1 receivers will significantly expand ALMA's Level 1 Science Goals. In addition, we describe a host of other exciting continuum and line science cases that require ALMA's high sensitivity and angular resolution. For example, ALMA Band 1 continuum data will probe the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in galactic clusters, Very Small Grains and spinning dust, ionized jets from young stars, spatial and flaring studies of Sgr A*, the acceleration sites of solar flares, pulsar wind nebulae, radio supernovae, and X-ray binaries. Furthermore, ALMA Band 1 line data will probe che...

  15. Errores algebraicos más comunes en los estudiantes de primer ingreso de las carreras de Informática, Administración y Turismo del Centro Universitario de los Valles de la Universidad de Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ramírez Mora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se analizan los errores algebraicos más comunes que cometen los estudiantes de primer ingreso de las licenciaturas de Informática, Administración y Turismo. La acotación del estudio a errores algebraicos se debe a que los conocimientos algebraicos básicos constituyen un conocimiento deseable antes de cursar las asignaturas de Matemáticas I y Precálculo. El test se aplicó a un total de 198 estudiantes, el cual consta de 15 reactivos de opción múltiple y se tiene un 51.31% de respuestas incorrectas, un 5.08% de respuestas sin contestar. El promedio general de los 198 estudiantes es de 43.60. Un estudiante no obtuvo ninguna respuesta correcta, así como ninguno los 15 reactivos correctamente. El error más común fue para el reactivo número 15 con el 69.19% de respuestas incorrectas; este reactivo serefiere a encontrar la solución de una ecuación cuadrática.  SummaryIn this research the most common algebraic errors committed by first semester students of Informatics, Administration and Tourism programs are analyzed. The idea of studying algebraic errors is due to the fact that basic algebraic knowledge constitutes a desirable knowledge before studying the subjects of Math I and Precalculus. The test was applied to 198 students. This test is formed by 15 reagents of multiple option and it had a 51,31% of incorrect answers, and 5,08% of noanswered questions. The general average of the 198 students is 43,60. A student did not obtain any correct answer, as well as none got the 15 reagents correctly. The most common error was for the reagent number 15 with the 69,19% of incorrect answers; this point refers to find the solution of a quadratic equation.

  16. Sistema de clasificación del método en los informes de investigación en Psicología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Montero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisa y amplía un sistema de clasificación de las metodologías de investigación en Psicología previamente publicado por los autores en esta misma revista en el año 2002. Se argumentan las ventajas de su utilización y se advierte sobre los posibles inconvenientes. El sistema está basado en la clasificación del tipo de plan de investigación que se utiliza en cada caso. En un primer nivel, se compone de nueve grandes categorías: 1 estudios teóricos, 2 estudios descriptivos mediante observación, 3 estudios descriptivos mediante encuesta, 4 estudios cualitativos, 5 experimentos, 6 cuasi experimentos, 7 estudios «ex post facto», 8 experimentos de caso único y 9 estudios instrumentales. Se presentan las características más importantes de cada tipo de estudio y, dentro de cada tipo, las claves que permiten identificar cada una de sus posibles variantes –que constituyen las subcategorías del sistema de clasificación- ilustrando con investigaciones publicadas cada uno de los subtipos de investigación a los que da lugar el sistema. El sistema de clasificación aquí propuesto se utilizará como modelo para los informes de investigación que se envíen a esta revista.

  17. EL CAMINO HACIA LA REVELACIÓN: EVOLUCIÓN DE LOS INFORMES DE RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL EN COLOMBIA (2006-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFRÉN DANILO ARIZA BUENAVENTURA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que indagó sobre aquellas empresas que generan informes de responsabilidad social teniendo como punto de referencia el grado de cumplimiento de revelación de la norma GRI, versión 3 de 2006. Su atención se centró en las características de la información, el grado de revelación alcanzado, la forma como se presenta la empresa y la manera como se da el reconocimiento de los grupos de interés -stakeholder- en 91 informes generados por 42 empresas colombianas en los cuatro años de observación. La metodología de investigación fue de orden documental-cualitativa, ejecutándose análisis documental y entrevistas de apoyo, que permitieron identificar algunas consideraciones de casos específicos. El artículo concluye que el proceso de generación de informes de responsabilidad social en Colombia es aún una práctica en construcción, en la que las organizaciones implicadas identifican su situación y juegan diversas estrategias de producción y revelación de información. Así, la generación de informes se constituye en un largo camino en el que la demanda informativa por parte de la sociedad civil es una quimera.

  18. The Cultural Implications of Primary Health Care and the Declaration of Alma-Ata: The Health District of Kedougou, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanas, Demetri A.

    2008-01-01

    In 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the international health community convoked a conference in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, to address global inequalities in health. The conference resulted in the publication of the "Declaration of Alma-Ata," which made the ambitious call "for urgent action by all governments, all health and…

  19. High-Angular-Resolution and High-Sensitivity Science Enabled by Beamformed ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Vincent; Anderson, James; Asada, Keiichi; Baudry, Alain; Broderick, Avery; Carilli, Chris; Colomer, Francisco; Conway, John; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd; Eatough, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Frey, Sándor; Gabányi, Krisztina; Gálvan-Madrid, Roberto; Gammie, Charles; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gómez, Jose L; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael; Honma, Mareki; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Impellizzeri, Violette; Johannsen, Tim; Jorstad, Svetlana; Kino, Motoki; Körding, Elmar; Kramer, Michael; Krichbaum, Thomas; Kudryavtseva, Nadia; Laing, Robert; Lazio, Joseph; Loeb, Abraham; Lu, Ru-Sen; Maccarone, Thomas; Marscher, Alan; Mart'ı-Vidal, Iván; Martins, Carlos; Matthews, Lynn; Menten, Karl; Miller, Jon; Miller-Jones, James; Mirabel, Félix; Muller, Sebastien; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil; Nakamura, Masanori; Paragi, Zsolt; Pradel, Nicolas; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ransom, Scott; Rodr'\\iguez, Luis; Rottmann, Helge; Rushton, Anthony; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Smith, David; Stappers, Benjamin; Takahashi, Rohta; Tarchi, Andrea; Tilanus, Remo; Verbiest, Joris; Vlemmings, Wouter; Walker, R Craig; Wardle, John; Wiik, Kaj; Zackrisson, Erik; Zensus, J Anton

    2013-01-01

    An international consortium is presently constructing a beamformer for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile that will be available as a facility instrument. The beamformer will aggregate the entire collecting area of the array into a single, very large aperture. The extraordinary sensitivity of phased ALMA, combined with the extremely fine angular resolution available on baselines to the Northern Hemisphere, will enable transformational new very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations in Bands 6 and 7 (1.3 and 0.8 mm) and provide substantial improvements to existing VLBI arrays in Bands 1 and 3 (7 and 3 mm). The ALMA beamformer will have impact on a variety of scientific topics, including accretion and outflow processes around black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN), tests of general relativity near black holes, jet launch and collimation from AGN and microquasars, pulsar and magnetar emission processes, the chemical history of the universe and the evolution of fundame...

  20. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Andreani, Paola; Barta, Miroslav; Bertoldi, Frank; Brand, Jan; Gueth, Frederique; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Maercker, Matthias; Massardi, Marcella; Muehle, Stefanie; Muxlow, Thomas; Richards, Anita; Schilke, Peter; Tilanus, Remo; Vlemmings, Wouter; Afonso, Jose; Messias, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  1. ALMA service data analysis and level 2 quality assurance with CASA

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, Dirk; Villard, Eric; Komugi, Shinya; Schnee, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Atacama Large mm and sub-mm Array (ALMA) radio observatory is one of the world's largest astronomical projects. After the very successful conclusion of the first observation cycles Early Science Cycles 0 and 1, the ALMA project can report many successes and lessons learned. The science data taken interleaved with commissioning tests for the still continuing addition of new capabilities has already resulted in numerous publications in high-profile journals. The increasing data volume and complexity are challenging but under control. The radio-astronomical data analysis package "Common Astronomy Software Applications" (CASA) has played a crucial role in this effort. This article describes the implementation of the ALMA data quality assurance system, in particular the level 2 which is based on CASA, and the lessons learned.

  2. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.

  3. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary discs: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrang, G. H.-M.; Flock, M.; Wolf, S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary discs and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary discs, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high-angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disc regions.

  4. Observing Turbulent Fragmentation In Simulations: Through the Looking Glass of CARMA and ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Stella; Capodilupo, J.; Schnee, S.; Goodman, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use the CASA software package to synthetically observe binaries forming as a result of turbulent fragmentation in a radiation-hydrodynamic simulation of a collapsing molecular cloud. By following the evolution of such pairs beginning in the prestellar core stage, we are able to make predictions about the feasibility of observing such fragmentation using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We find that while intermediate ALMA configurations may potentially resolve structure with one fourth the integration time of CARMA, both instruments only marginally resolve sub-structure within 25 kyr of the onset of gravitational collapse. In addition, interferometric spatial filtering significantly reduces traces of filamentary gas morphology on < 0.1 pc scales. Thus, even with the improved sub-arcsecond resolution of ALMA, constraining stellar multiplicity at the earliest stages of star formation will be challenging.

  5. EL EMPLEO INFORMAL EN COSTA RICA: CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LOS OCUPADOS Y SUS PUESTOS DE TRABAJO

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Francisco Delgado

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to estimate which characteristics of workers have incidence on the probability of informal employment, using a model for binary dependent variables. It analyzes labor market dynamics through Quarterly Labor Surveys. It was determined that informal employment has a growing trend in the last quarters of the studied period. A higher level of informality is associated with nonpermanent jobs and occasional activities. Moreover, the estimated logit model suggests that women, not h...

  6. Los Sistemas de Información Geográfica en salud ambiental The Goegraphic Information Systems in environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Malpica Velasco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta ponencia se presenta una breve introducción a los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (GIS, Geographic Information System y sus aplicaciones en el área de Salud Ambiental (SA. Se inicia con una exposición conceptual para mostrar el potencial de los GIS como analizadores espacio-temporales, y como ayudas a la toma de decisiones. Se analizan algunos casos concretos, que han resultado un éxito, en la aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías en SA. También se hace una breve revisión del software más popular para un GIS, comercial y libre, y su conexión con otro software estadístico y especializado para construir herramientas informáticas apropiadas con las que trabajar en SA. Finalmente, se ofrecen algunas estrategias para logra una mayor utilización de los GIS en SA.This paper gives a brief introduction to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS and its applications to the field of Environmental Health (EH. It starts with a conceptual exposition in order to show the potential of GIS’s as an space temporal analysers, and as an aids to take decisions. Some specific cases are analysed, these cases represent success applications of new technology to EH. A brief survey of the more popular software for GIS, free and commercial, is presented. It is also shown the connexion of this software with statistical software and other kind of specialize software in order to build computer tools for working in EH. Finally, some strategies are given for a deepen involvement of GIS in EH.

  7. Protoplanetary disks in Taurus: Probing the role of multiplicity with ALMA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laos, Stefan; Akeson, Rachel L.; Jensen, Eric L. N.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an ALMA survey of single and multiple young systems in Taurus designed to probe how protoplanetary disk mass depends on both stellar mass and multiplicity. In observations taken in Cycles 0 and 2, we detect over 25 new disks. These detections include disks around stars in both single and multiple systems and are predominantly around lower mass stars with spectral types from M0 to M6. Combined with previous detections, these observations reveal a wide range of disk mass around both primary and companion stars, and allow us to test if the relation previously seen between disk and stellar mass continues at lower stellar masses. We find that within multiple systems the ratio of primary to secondary stellar mass is not correlated with the ratio of primary to secondary disk mass. In some cases, the secondary star hosts the more massive disk, contrary to theoretical predictions. We will discuss the implications of these results for the process of planet formation in multiple systems.This work makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: Source Catalog and Number Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehata, Hideki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kato, Yuta; Ikarashi, Soh; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Seiji; Iono, Daisuke; Lee, Minju; Steidel, Charles C.; Saito, Tomoki; Alexander, D. M.; Yun, Min S.; Kubo, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    We present results from a deep 2‧ × 3‧ (comoving scale of 3.7 Mpc × 5.5 Mpc at z = 3) survey at 1.1 mm, taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the SSA22 field. We observe the core region of a z = 3.09 protocluster, achieving a typical rms sensitivity of 60 μJy beam‑1 at a spatial resolution of 0.″7. We detect 18 robust ALMA sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 5. Comparison between the ALMA map and a 1.1 mm map, taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), indicates that three submillimeter sources discovered by the AzTEC/ASTE survey are resolved into eight individual submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) by ALMA. At least 10 of our 18 ALMA SMGs have spectroscopic redshifts of z ≃ 3.09, placing them in the protocluster. This shows that a number of dusty starburst galaxies are forming simultaneously in the core of the protocluster. The nine brightest ALMA SMGs with S/N > 10 have a median intrinsic angular size of 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} {32}-0.06+0.13 ({2.4}-0.4+1.0 physical kpc at z = 3.09), which is consistent with previous size measurements of SMGs in other fields. As expected, the source counts show a possible excess compared to the counts in the general fields at S1.1mm ≥ 1.0 mJy, due to the protocluster. Our contiguous mm mapping highlights the importance of large-scale structures on the formation of dusty starburst galaxies.

  9. H-alpha features with hot onsets III. Fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by a dense canopy of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the large opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe the H-alpha fibril canopy, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if this canopy were transparent.

  10. Primary health care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: from Alma-Ata to Doha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, S

    2012-12-04

    The celebration in Doha of the 30th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration at the International Conference on Primary Health Care renewed the commitment of the Eastern Mediterranean Region to primary health care as the tool for better health. The principles agreed at Alma-Ata in 1978 apply as much now as they did before. The event provided an opportunity for the Eastern Mediterranean countries to define future directions to steer the health systems to integrate primary health care and harness the intersectoral approach.

  11. O impossível regime das paixões da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende analisar o lugar das paixões da alma no ideal de saúde conforme a obra Âncora medicinal para conservar a vida em saúde (1721 do português Francisco da Fonseca Henriques, médico do rei D. João V. As paixões da alma eram consideradas um dos aspectos determinantes do regime de saúde. Elas eram relacionadas ao excesso, aos limites extremos do corpo e à morte.

  12. LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL FORMAL EN EL CONTEXTO SOCIAL DE LA EDUCACIÓN INFORMAL Y DE LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Quintanar Medina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la contradicción que hay entre la educación ambiental formal y los medios de comunicación potenciados actualmente por las tecnologías de información y comunicación, reflejo de la contradicción entre lo que debe promover este tipo de educación y lo que propugna la ideología dominante en gran parte de los países de América Latina. Lo anterior se fundamenta en la naturaleza política de la educación en general y de la educación ambiental en particular. Se muestra que la educación ambiental, sobre todo la formal, se ve fuertemente afectada por los medios de comunicación a través de la cada vez más importante fuente de socialización: la educación informal.

  13. Exploring Parenting: Information Sheets for Parents = Explorando El Arte de Ser Padres: Hojas informativas para los padres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This document, provided here in separate English and Spanish versions, is a collection of informational and instructional sheets for parents of young children, divided into 20 thematic sections. Each of the sections includes information on the topic area, some learning activities, and questions for discussion. The sessions are: (1) "Getting…

  14. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Nick; Murchikova, Lena; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Vanden Bout, Paul; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C.; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at λ =2.6 {mm}. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well resolved for the first time. In the west nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends out to 0.″2 radius (74 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor of 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ({τ }2.6{mm}∼ 1) at λ =2.6 {mm} with a dust brightness temperature of ∼147 K. The column of interstellar matter at this nucleus is {N}{{H}2}≥slant 2× {10}26 cm‑2, corresponding to ∼900 gr cm‑2. The east nucleus is more elongated with radial extent 0.″3 or ∼111 pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves, and velocity dispersions. In the west nucleus, there is evidence of a central Keplerian component requiring a central mass of 8 × 108 {M}ȯ . The intrinsic widths of the emission lines are {{Δ }}v({FWHM})=250 (west) and 120 (east) km s‑1. Given the very short dissipation timescales for turbulence (≲105 years), we suggest that the line widths may be due to semicoherent motions within the nuclear disks. The symmetry of the nuclear disk structures is impressive, implying the merger timescale is significantly longer than the rotation period of the disks.

  15. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398‑3559, and IRAS 16253‑2429 at resolutions of ∼100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398‑3559 and IRAS 16253‑2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398‑3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253‑2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398‑3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253‑2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  16. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Corder, Stuartt A. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Raga, Alejandro C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-09-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion.

  17. The ALMA View of the OMC1 Explosion in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Arce, Hector; Eisner, Josh; Youngblood, Allison; Zapata, Luis; Zinnecker, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Most massive stars form in dense clusters where gravitational interactions with other stars may be common. The two nearest forming massive stars, the BN object and Source I, located behind the Orion Nebula, were ejected with velocities of ∼29 and ∼13 km s‑1 about 500 years ago by such interactions. This event generated an explosion in the gas. New ALMA observations show in unprecedented detail, a roughly spherically symmetric distribution of over a hundred 12CO J = 2‑1 streamers with velocities extending from V LSR = ‑150 to +145 km s‑1. The streamer radial velocities increase (or decrease) linearly with projected distance from the explosion center, forming a “Hubble Flow” confined to within 50″ of the explosion center. They point toward the high proper-motion, shock-excited H2 and [Fe ii] “fingertips” and lower-velocity CO in the H2 wakes comprising Orion's “fingers.” In some directions, the H2 “fingers” extend more than a factor of two farther from the ejection center than the CO streamers. Such deviations from spherical symmetry may be caused by ejecta running into dense gas or the dynamics of the N-body interaction that ejected the stars and produced the explosion. This ∼1048 erg event may have been powered by the release of gravitational potential energy associated with the formation of a compact binary or a protostellar merger. Orion may be the prototype for a new class of stellar explosiozn responsible for luminous infrared transients in nearby galaxies.

  18. Hacia la definición de modelos de aplicación de la informática en los centros educativos

    OpenAIRE

    Moyetta, Adriana M.; Solivellas, Daniela Beatriz; Cerdá, Ernesto Pedro; Schwartz, Gladys; Guazzone, Jorge O.; Angeli, Sandra E.; Ferreira Szpiniak, Ariel

    2005-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una línea de investigación en relación a la inserción de la informática en los centros educativos de nivel primario, iniciada en el año 2003 en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Modelos de Aplicación de la Informática en Centros Educativos”, aprobado y subsidiado por la Secretaría de Ciencia y Técnica de la UNRC, resolución nro.077/03. A su vez se describen actividades realizadas en el marco del proyecto con sus resultados y las perspectivas futuras de trabajo en r...

  19. Los volcanes y los hombres

    OpenAIRE

    García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Desde las entrañas de la tierra, los volcanes han creado la atmósfera, el agua de los océanos, y esculpido los relieves del planeta: son, pues, los zahoríes de la vida. Existen volcanes que los hombres explotan o cultivan, y otros sobre los cuales se han construido observatorios en los que se llevan a cabo avanzadas investigaciones científicas.

  20. Spectators of Mockumentaries: Mockumentaries in the Information Society Espectadores de Falsos Documentales: Los falsos documentales en la Sociedad de la Información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Diaz Gandasegui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The existence of a significant number of documentaries which are not intended to represent reality but to (recreate it has allowed that mockumentaries to become a subgenre halfway between reality and fiction. Mockdocumentaries aim to play with the status acquired over the years by the spectators of documentaries, parodying the conventions of the genre and criticizing certain cultural or social codes. Simultaneously, mockumentaries are a very useful tool to analyse the current social and cultural context of the image and the media in the society of information. Mockumentaries are therefore a significant product of the confusion between reality and unreality at a time when digital technology is able to simulate reality with absolute veracity.

    La existencia de un gran número de documentales que no tienen como objetivo representar la realidad sino (recrearla ha hecho que los falsos documentales se conviertan en un subgénero que se encuentra a medio camino entre la realidad y la ficción. Los falsos documentales pretenden jugar con el estatus adquirido durante años por el espectador de documentales, parodiar las convenciones existentes en el género o realizar una crítica de ciertos códigos culturales. La confusión entre realidad e irrealidad se encuentra pues en la base de los falsos documentales, pero debido a la amplitud que abarcan consiguen reflexionar, utilizando el humor, la sorpresa, el engaño o el terror, sobre aspectos de gran relevancia para analizar el actual contexto social, cultural y de los medios de comunicación en la sociedad de la información. Los falsos documentales son por lo tanto un producto significativo de una forma de jugar con la confusión que crean las imágenes en un momento en que la tecnología digital es capaz de simular la realidad con total veracidad.


  1. Sobre el alma: matrimonio, confesión y casuística en torno a El Burlador de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Rio Parra, Elena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Along its critical interpretations, El burlador de Sevilla has given ground to a series of disquisitions that have to do with the concept of «effective» and «sufficient grace» for a sinner to be forgiven. The present article widens the links between the drama and theological writings of its time, especially confessional and matrimonial casuistry, in order to approach a new theory of the donjuanesque soul, which puts it in a context of insurmountable irremissionA lo largo de su interpretación crítica El burlador de Sevilla ha dado lugar a una serie de disquisiciones concernientes a la «gracia efectiva» y «gracia suficiente» para la salvación del pecador. Este artículo amplía los vínculos entre esta comedia y la literatura teológica de su época, concretamente la casuística confesional y matrimonial, para aproximarse a una nueva teoría del alma donjuanesca que la enclava en un contexto de irremisión insalvable

  2. Uso de información electrónica por los académicos de la Universidad de la República (Uruguay Electronic information as used by the academia at the State University in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Pérez Giffoni

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de un proyecto de investigación en la línea de los Estudios de Usuarios de la Información, se analiza el modo en el que los avances tecnológicos, materializados en redes de información electrónica, afectan el comportamiento de comunicación académica formal e informal, la búsqueda, el uso de la información y la generación de conocimiento de los investigadores universitarios. Mediante un estudio comprensivo de tratamiento básicamente cualitativo, se entrevistó a una muestra de 151 docentes investigadores, cubriendo todas las áreas y servicios que conforman la estructura de la Universidad de la República, se discutieron los resultados a la luz de los contextos reales y se visualizaron los posibles escenarios futuros.In a research project dealing with the study of information users, the way technological advances in the form of networks of electronic information is analyzed, as far as these advances affect behavior of formal and informal academic communication, search, use of information and the generation of knowledge by university researchers. Through an understanding study of a basically qualitative treatment, a sample of 151 research instructors were interviewed covering all fields and services within the structure of the State University (Universidad de la República, results on a real context basis were discussed and eventual future settings were viewed.

  3. Gender-Related Systematics in the NRAO and ALMA Proposal Review Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, Carol J; Hunt, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    A study has been made of the evidence for gender-related systematics in the proposal review processes for the four facilities operated by NRAO: the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; hereafter VLA), the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile which is operated by NRAO/AUI in partnership with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Astronomical Observatories of Japan (NAOJ), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. A significant gender-related effect is found in the proposal rankings in favor of men over women in the ALMA Proposal Review Processes (PRP) for ALMA Cycles 2-4, with reliability of 99.998% that the underlying rank distributions for male and female PIs are not the same. The effect is largest and most significant for ALMA Cycle 3. A similar overall result is found for the other three NRAO telescopes over proposal Semesters 2012A-2017A, but with lower reliability level overall (98.3%), and with ...

  4. SÓCRATES E O CUIDADO DE SI OU A TERAPÊUTICA DA ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Araújo dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo pretende ser uma abordagem simples, na verdade, um resumo, recolhido dostextos de Platão sobre o auto-conhecimento e o cuidado de si. Esses são os elementos queconstituem a base do saber ético iniciado por Sócrates e o ponto de partida do que chamamosterapêutica da alma.

  5. Equilibrium chemical reaction of supersonic hydrogen-air jets (the ALMA computer program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghobashi, S.

    1977-01-01

    The ALMA (axi-symmetrical lateral momentum analyzer) program is concerned with the computation of two dimensional coaxial jets with large lateral pressure gradients. The jets may be free or confined, laminar or turbulent, reacting or non-reacting. Reaction chemistry is equilibrium.

  6. ALMA imaging of the CO snowline of the HD 163296 disk with DCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathews, G. S.; Klaassen, P. D.; Juhasz, A.; Harsono, D.; Chapillon, E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Espada, D.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Hales, A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Mottram, J. C.; Rawlings, M. G.; Takahashi, S.; Testi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The high spatial resolution and line sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) opens the possibility of resolving emission from molecules in large samples of circumstellar disks. With an understanding of the conditions under which these molecules can have high a

  7. Constraint on dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at $z>6$ detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -C; Hou, K -C

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at $z>6$. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals, and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at $z>6$ by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta ($f_{\\mathrm{in}} \\ga 0.5$), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby g...

  8. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Fialkov, A; Scudder, J; Hayward, C C; Cowley, W I; Bock, J; Calanog, J; Chapman, S C; Cooray, A; De Bernardis, F; Farrah, D; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R; Hopwood, R; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M; Lacey, C; Loeb, A; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A J; Vieira, J D; Wang, L; Wardlow, J

    2015-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for...

  9. Generic Abstraction of Hardware Control Based on the ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeram, B.; Chiozzi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Cirami, R.; Pokorny, M.; Muders, D.; Wischolek, D.

    2004-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a CORBA-based framework that provides a common and homogeneous infrastructure for the whole ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control (Schwarz et al., 2004). This paper focuses on ACS support for the development of Control System applications. In this domain, ACS provides a generic abstraction of hardware control and monitor points that is independent of the software underneath. This abstraction layer is coupled to the hardware using the DevIO (Device Input/Output) interface, based on the Bridge design pattern. Application developers have to implement DevIO classes that handle the details of the communication with the hardware. ACS itself provides a default DevIO implementation which simply writes and reads into/from a memory location. Currently there are two other major DevIO implementations available: a CAN bus communication, used by ALMA, and a socket based implementation used by the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) project. In spite of using different hardware and control electronics, the DevIO abstraction allows the ALMA and APEX projects to have the same device architecture down to the level of the DevIO implementation.

  10. Kan strategien for primaer sundhedstjeneste genoplives 30 år efter Alma-Ata?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Probst, Helene Bilsted; Bygbjerg, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years ago the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health care was developed. Implementation has been compounded by inadequate financing, changing disease patterns and immature health systems, and there is an ongoing discussion between selective and comprehensive primary health care supporters...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA Frontier Fields Survey. I. (Gonzalez-Lopez+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Bauer, F. E.; Romero-Canizales, C.; Kneissl, R.; Villard, E.; Carvajal, R.; Kim, S.; Laporte, N.; Anguita, T.; Aravena, M.; Bouwens, R. J.; Bradley, L.; Carrasco, M.; Demarco, R.; Ford, H.; Ibar, E.; Infante, L.; Messias, H.; Munoz Arancibia, A. M.; Nagar, N.; Padilla, N.; Treister, E.; Troncoso, P.; Zitrin, A.

    2016-10-01

    Tables presenting detection properties of mm sources behind the 3 Frontier Fields Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403 and MACSJ1149.5+2223. We present the properties of the detected sources in the ALMA observations. We also present the intrinsic properties of the sources in the image plane as well as the separations to the optical counterpart. (6 data files).

  12. MILLIMETER EMISSION STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST ALMA IMAGE OF THE AU Mic DEBRIS DISK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A. Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, similar to 10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0 ''.6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU an

  13. Planet gaps in the dust layer of 3D protoplanetary disks. II. Observability with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, J -F; Maddison, S T; Ménard, F; Fouchet, L

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] Aims: We provide predictions for ALMA observations of planet gaps that account for the specific spatial distribution of dust that results from consistent gas+dust dynamics. Methods: In a previous work, we ran full 3D, two-fluid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a planet embedded in a gas+dust T Tauri disk for different planet masses and grain sizes. In this work, the resulting dust distributions are passed to the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MCFOST to construct synthetic images in the ALMA wavebands. We then use the ALMA simulator to produce images that include thermal and phase noise for a range of angular resolutions, wavelengths, and integration times, as well as for different inclinations, declinations and distances. We also produce images which assume that gas and dust are well mixed with a gas-to-dust ratio of 100 to compare with previous ALMA predictions, all made under this hypothesis. Results: Our findings clearly demonstrate the importance of correctly incorporat...

  14. What's New in CASA: 'tclean' and the Cycle 4 ALMA Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; CASA Development Team; ALMA Pipeline Working Group; NAASC Software Support Team

    2017-01-01

    CASA, the Common Astronomy Software Applications package, undergoes continuous development to support calibration and imaging of astronomical data at radio wavelengths for both single dish and interferometric telescopes. It is largely focused on supporting the post-processing needs of the next generation of radio telescopes such as ALMA and the JVLA. The most recent release of CASA, version 4.7, includes major upgrades in its imaging capabilities via the implementation of a task called 'tclean', which will eventually replace the current imaging task 'clean'. It has a new, more straightforward interface, allows more combinations of imaging algorithms, has a more flexible outlier approach, and includes algorithms for autoboxing. Further, the new 'tclean' task has been implemented in the Cycle 4 ALMA Interferometric Pipeline with great success; this pipeline software can be obtained bundled with CASA 4.7 at https://casa.nrao.edu/. A major goal of the ALMA project [and the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO)] is to provide Science-Ready Data Products to our user community, and the ALMA Cycle 4 Pipeline is a major step forward in that direction.

  15. Improved design for low noise Nb SIS devices for Band 9 of ALMA (600 - 720 GHz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Kroug, M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Mena, F. P.; Baryshev, A. M.; Wild, W.

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting-insulating-superconducting mixers incorporating a novel design were fabricated and evaluated for heterodyne detection in the frequency range of 600 to 720 GHz (ALMA Band 9). The improved design consists in tapering the corners of the RF transformer and a careful optimization of the d

  16. The Impact of Two Los Angeles County Teen Courts on Youth Recidivism: Comparing Two Informal Probation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171

  17. ALMA finds dew drops in the dusty spider's web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D.; De Breuck, Carlos; Branchu, Steve; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Guillard, Pierre; Hatch, Nina; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Omont, Alain; Seymour, Nick; Vernet, Joël

    2016-06-01

    We present 0.̋5 resolution ALMA detections of the observed 246 GHz continuum, [CI] 3P2→3P1 fine structure line ([CI]2-1), CO(7-6), and H2O lines in the z = 2.161 radio galaxy MRC1138-262, the so-called Spiderweb galaxy. We detect strong [CI]2-1 emission both at the position of the radio core, and in a second component ~4 kpc away from it. The 1100 km s-1 broad [CI]2-1 line in this latter component, combined with its H2 mass of 1.6 × 1010 M⊙, implies that this emission must come from a compact region <60 pc, possibly containing a second active galactic nucleus (AGN). The combined H2 mass derived for both objects, using the [CI]2-1 emission, is 3.3 × 1010 M⊙. The total CO(7-6)/[CI]2-1 line flux ratio of 0.2 suggests a low excitation molecular gas reservoir and/or enhanced atomic carbon in cosmic ray dominated regions. We detect spatially-resolved H2O 211-202 emission - for the first time in a high-z unlensed galaxy - near the outer radio lobe to the east, and near the bend of the radio jet to the west of the radio galaxy. No underlying 246 GHz continuum emission is seen at either position. We suggest that the H2O emission is excited in the cooling region behind slow (10-40 km s-1) shocks in dense molecular gas (103-5 cm-3). The extended water emission is likely evidence of the radio jet's impact on cooling and forming molecules in the post-shocked gas in the halo and inter-cluster gas, similar to what is seen in low-z clusters and other high-z radio galaxies. These observations imply that the passage of the radio jet in the interstellar and inter-cluster medium not only heats gas to high temperatures, as is commonly assumed or found in simulations, but also induces cooling and dissipation, which can lead to substantial amounts of cold dense molecular gas. The formation of molecules and strong dissipation in the halo gas of MRC1138-262 may explain both the extended diffuse molecular gas and the young stars observed around MRC1138-262. The reduced data cubes

  18. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.; Santander-García, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Sánchez Contreras, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We aim to study the rotating and expanding gas in the Red Rectangle, which is a well known object that recently left the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. We analyze the properties of both components and the relation between them. Rotating disks have been very elusive in post-AGB nebulae, in which gas is almost always found to be in expansion. Methods We present new high-quality ALMA observations of C17O J=6−5 and H13CN J=4−3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published 13CO J=3−2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, including previous maps and single-dish observations of lines of CO, CII, and CI, was performed using a sophisticated code that includes an accurate nonlocal treatment of radiative transfer in 2D. These observations (of low- and high-opacity lines requiring various degrees of excitation) and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties, particularly in the determination of the boundaries of the CO-rich gas and some properties of the outflow. Results We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~ 0.01 M⊙, and that of the CO-rich outflow is around ten times smaller. High temperatures of ≳ 100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes of disks around post-AGB stars typically range between 5000 and more than 20000 yr. The angular momentum of the disk is found to be high, ~ 9 M⊙ AU km s−1, which is comparable to that of the stellar system at present. Our observations of H13CN show a particularly wide velocity dispersion and indicate that this molecule is only abundant in the inner Keplerian disk, at

  19. Water around IRAS 15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Bergin, E. A.; Frimann, S.; Harsono, D.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Lindberg, J. E.; Persson, M.; Sakai, N.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Understanding how protostars accrete their mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High dust column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging. Moreover, direct observations only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Aims: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of gaseous water towards the low-mass embedded protostar IRAS 15398-3359. Previous observations of H13CO+ showed a depression in the abundance towards IRAS 15398-3359. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. Methods: IRAS 15398-3359 was observed using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 0.5″ resolution in two setups at 390 and 460 GHz. Maps of HDO (101-000) and were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS (8-7) and N2H+ (5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calculations of the protostellar infalling envelope with an outflow cavity. Results: HDO is clearly detected and extended over the scales of the H13CO+ depression, although it is displaced by 500 AU in the direction of the outflow. HO is tentatively detected towards the red-shifted outflow lobe, but otherwise it is absent from the mapped region, which suggests that temperatures are low. Although we cannot entirely exclude a shock origin, this indicates that another process is responsible for the water emission. Conclusions: Based on the temperature structure obtained from dust radiative transfer models, we conclude that the water was most likely released from the grains in an extended hour-glass configuration during a

  20. Measuring turbulence in TW Hydrae with ALMA: methods and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, R.; Guilloteau, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dutrey, A.; Piétu, V.; Birnstiel, T.; Chapillon, E.; Hollenbach, D.; Gorti, U.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We aim to obtain a spatially resolved measurement of velocity dispersions in the disk of TW Hya. Methods: We obtained images with high spatial and spectral resolution of the CO J = 2-1, CN N = 2-1 and CS J = 5-4 emission with ALMA in Cycle 2. The radial distribution of the turbulent broadening was derived with two direct methods and one modelling approach. The first method requires a single transition and derives Tex directly from the line profile, yielding a vturb. The second method assumes that two different molecules are co-spatial, which allows using their relative line widths for calculating Tkin and vturb. Finally we fitted a parametric disk model in which the physical properties of the disk are described by power laws, to compare our direct methods with previous values. Results: The two direct methods were limited to the outer r > 40 au disk because of beam smear. The direct method found vturb to range from ≈130 m s-1 at 40 au, and to drop to ≈50 m s-1 in the outer disk, which is qualitatively recovered with the parametric model fitting. This corresponds to roughly 0.2-0.4 cs. CN was found to exhibit strong non-local thermal equilibrium effects outside r ≈ 140 au, so that vturb was limited to within this radius. The assumption that CN and CS are co-spatial is consistent with observed line widths only within r ≲ 100 au, within which vturb was found to drop from 100 m s-1 (≈0.4 cs) to zero at 100 au. The parametric model yielded a nearly constant 50 m s-1 for CS (0.2-0.4 cs). We demonstrate that absolute flux calibration is and will be the limiting factor in all studies of turbulence using a single molecule. Conclusions: The magnitude of the dispersion is comparable with or below that predicted by the magneto-rotational instability theory. A more precise comparison would require reaching an absolute calibration precision of about 3%, or finding a suitable combination of light and heavy molecules that are co-located in the disk. The reduced

  1. Multimolecule ALMA observations toward the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Kohno, K.; Izumi, T.; Krips, M.; Meier, D. S.; Aladro, R.; Matsushita, S.; Takano, S.; Turner, J. L.; Espada, D.; Nakajima, T.; Terashima, Y.; Fathi, K.; Hsieh, P.-Y.; Imanishi, M.; Lundgren, A.; Nakai, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Wiklind, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The nearby Sy 1 galaxy NGC 1097 represents an ideal laboratory for exploring the molecular chemistry in the surroundings of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: Exploring the distribution of different molecular species allows us to understand the physical processes affecting the interstellar medium both in the AGN vicinity and in the outer star forming molecular ring. Methods: We carried out 3 mm ALMA observations that include seven different molecular species, namely HCN, HCO+, CCH, CS, HNCO, SiO, HC3N, and SO, as well as the 13C isotopologues of the first two. Spectra were extracted from selected positions and all species were imaged over the central 2 kpc (~30'') of the galaxy at a resolution of ~2.2'' × 1.5'' (150 pc × 100 pc). Results: HCO+ and CS appear to be slightly enhanced in the star forming ring. CCH shows the largest variations across NGC 1097 and is suggested to be a good tracer of both obscured and early stage star formation. HNCO, SiO, and HC3N are significantly enhanced in the inner circumnuclear disk surrounding the AGN. Conclusions: Differences in the molecular abundances are observed between the star forming ring and the inner circumnuclear disk. We conclude that the HCN/HCO+ and HCN/CS differences observed between AGN-dominated and starburst (SB) galaxies are not due to a HCN enhancement due to X-rays, but rather this enhancement is produced by shocked material at distances of 200 pc from the AGN. Additionally, we claim that lower HCN/CS is a combination of a small underabundance of CS in AGNs, together with excitation effects, where a high density gas component (~106 cm-3) may be more prominent in SB galaxies. However, the most promising are the differences found among the dense gas tracers that, at our modest spatial resolution, seem to outline the physical structure of the molecular disk around the AGN. In this picture, HNCO probes the well-shielded gas in the disk, surrounding the dense material moderately exposed to the X

  2. Información del conocimiento organizacional a través de los informes anuales publicados en las páginas web de las empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejedo Romero, Francisca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a means of communication and transmission of information that has led companies to develop their business activities in knowledge-based economies. Knowledge has become the most important resource for creating competitive advantages, specifically the knowledge incorporated by companies into their processes, systems, culture, R&D, i.e., their organizational knowledge (Structural Capital. Therefore, Structural Capital disclosures by companies can improve their reputation. Thus, the objective of our work has focused on analysing the information on organizational knowledge supplied by companies in annual reports posted on their websites, as well as on its evolution over the years studied.Internet es un medio de comunicación y transmisión de información que ha dado lugar a que las empresas desarrollen su actividad en economías basadas en el conocimiento. El conocimiento se ha convertido en el recurso más importante para la creación de ventajas competitivas, en particular el conocimiento que las empresas han incorporado en sus procesos, sistemas, cultura, I+D, es decir, su conocimiento organizacional (Capital Estructural. Por ello, la publicación de información por parte de las empresas sobre su Capital Estructural puede mejorar la reputación de las mismas. Así, el objetivo de este trabajo se ha centrado en analizar la cantidad de información sobre el conocimiento organizacional que suministran las empresas en los informes anuales obtenidos de sus páginas web, así como la evolución sufrida en los años objeto de estudio.

  3. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  4. Bulk data transfer distributer: a high performance multicast model in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.

    2006-06-01

    A high performance multicast model for the bulk data transfer mechanism in the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Common Software (ACS) is presented. The ALMA astronomical interferometer will consist of at least 50 12-m antennas operating at millimeter wavelength. The whole software infrastructure for ALMA is based on ACS, which is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. To cope with the very strong requirements for the amount of data that needs to be transported by the software communication channels of the ALMA subsystems (a typical output data rate expected from the Correlator is of the order of 64 MB per second) and with the potential CORBA bottleneck due to parameter marshalling/de-marshalling, usage of IIOP protocol, etc., a transfer mechanism based on the ACE/TAO CORBA Audio/Video (A/V) Streaming Service has been developed. The ACS Bulk Data Transfer architecture bypasses the CORBA protocol with an out-of-bound connection for the data streams (transmitting data directly in TCP or UDP format), using at the same time CORBA for handshaking and leveraging the benefits of ACS middleware. Such a mechanism has proven to be capable of high performances, of the order of 800 Mbits per second on a 1Gbit Ethernet network. Besides a point-to-point communication model, the ACS Bulk Data Transfer provides a multicast model. Since the TCP protocol does not support multicasting and all the data must be correctly delivered to all ALMA subsystems, a distributer mechanism has been developed. This paper focuses on the ACS Bulk Data Distributer, which mimics a multicast behaviour managing data dispatching to all receivers willing to get data from the same sender.

  5. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzawa, Y., E-mail: y.uzawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z. [National Institute of Information and Telecommunications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Iwaoka-cho, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Asayama, S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The ALMA Band 10 (787–950 GHz) SIS receivers have been developed. •The complex conductivity of NbTiN was measured by a THz-TDS for the mixer design. •Tens of Band 10 receivers have been produced and their performance was quite well. •The best achieved receiver noise temperature was 125 K corresponding to 3hf/k{sub B}. •Band 10 receiver installed in the ALMA antenna captured astronomical signals. -- Abstract: The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787–950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO{sub 2}/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/k{sub B}T{sub C} ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/k{sub B} for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  6. Dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at z > 6 detected by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chen; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hou, Kuan-Chou

    2017-03-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at z > 6. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at z > 6 by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high-condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta (fin ≳ 0.5), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby galaxies. If we assume a condensation efficiency expected from theoretical calculations (fin ≲ 0.1), strong dust growth (even stronger than assumed for nearby galaxies if they are metal-poor galaxies) is required. These results indicate that the normal galaxies detected by ALMA at z > 6 are biased to objects (i) with high dust condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta, (ii) with strong dust growth in very dense molecular clouds or (iii) with efficient dust growth because of fast metal enrichment up to solar metallicity. A measurement of metallicity is crucial to distinguish among these possibilities.

  7. The ALMA common software: a developer-friendly CORBA-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Caproni, Alessandro; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Zagar, Klemen; Fugate, David W.; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. It provides a common software infrastructure to all partners in the ALMA collaboration. The usage of ACS extends from high-level applications such as the Observation Preparation Tool [7] that will run on the desk of astronomers, down to the Control Software [6] domain. The purpose of ACS is twofold: from a system perspective, it provides the implementation of a coherent set of design patterns and services that will make the whole ALMA software [1] uniform and maintainable; from the perspective of an ALMA developer, it provides a friendly programming environment in which the complexity of the CORBA middleware and other libraries is hidden and coding is drastically reduced. The evolution of ACS is driven by a long term development plan, however on the 6-months release cycle the plan is adjusted based on incoming requests from ALMA subsystem development teams. ACS was presented at SPIE 2002[2]. In the two years since then, the core services provided by ACS have been extended, while the coverage of the application framework has been increased to satisfy the needs of high-level and data flow applications. ACS is available under the LGPL public license. The patterns implemented and the services provided can be of use also outside the astronomical community; several projects have already shown their interest in ACS. This paper presents the status of ACS and the progress over the last two years. Emphasis is placed on showing how requests from ACS users have driven the selection of new features.

  8. INFORME SOBRE LA SITUACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS Y EL DERECHO INTERNACIONAL HUMANITARIO EN EL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesa de derechos humanos y protección humanitaria del Oriente Antioqueño

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente informe sobre la situación de Derechos Humanos y Derecho Internacional Humanitario en el Oriente del Departamento de Antioquia (Colombia es el producto del trabajo de la Mesa de Derechos Humanos y Protección Humanitaria del Oriente Antioqueño. Acompañados en la fundamentación y presentación por el equipo de profesionales de los proyectos Unidad Móvil de Derechos Humanos y Observatorio de Paz del Oriente Antioqueño, como apoyo técnico y en terreno a su labor. Se promueve como evidencia del compromiso de la Mesa en la defensa y promoción de los Derechos Humanos y de su fortalecimiento como escenario de articulación interinstitucional. Confluyen en ella organismos de carácter gubernamental y ciudadano de orden local, departamental e internacional querealizan el seguimiento a una de las crisis humanitarias de mayor dimensión en la geografía nacional a través de actividades como sesiones permanentes de observación y análisis a la situación social y política de la región, jornadas de acompañamiento a comunidades vulneradas o en riesgo, seguimiento en situaciones de emergencia mediante misiones a terreno, asesoría jurídica a las víctimas y fortalecimiento a la institucionalidad pública.

  9. Los Estándares Laborales Internacionales de la OIT- ELIs, y su aplicación al trabajo informal

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This paper stress the relationship between informal economy (travail de noir) and the international labour standars-ILS, as much as they had been fixed by the International Labour Organization. Based on field research, done in Dakar, last July, I´ll show how the urban working class in Dakar, through out three different cases, has been able to build up its owns social security systems, in spite of all the hurdles that an extremely hostile environment due to the Government , Formal Trade Unions...

  10. ALMA's view of the Sun's nearest neighbours: The submm/mm SEDs of the alpha Centauri binary and a new source

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; O'Gorman, E; Bertone, E; Chavez, M; Tapia, F

    2016-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that provide the non-radiative energy for heating the chromosphere and the corona of the Sun and other stars are at the focus of intense contemporary research. Observations at submm/mm wavelengths are particularly useful to obtain information about the run of the temperature in the upper atmosphere of Sun-like stars. We used ALMA to study the chromospheric emission of the aCen binary system in all six available frequency bands during Cycle2 in 2014/15. Since ALMA is an interferometer, the multi-telescope array is particularly suited for the observation of point sources. With its large collecting area, the sensitivity is high enough to allow the observation of nearby main-sequence stars at submm/mm wavelengths for the first time. The comparison of the observed spectral energy distributions with theoretical model computations provides the chromospheric structure in terms of temperature and density above the stellar photosphere and the quantitative understanding of the primary emission pro...

  11. Diversity of flavin-binding monooxygenase genes (almA) in marine bacteria capable of degradation long-chain alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2012-06-01

    Many bacteria have been reported as degraders of long-chain (LC) n-alkanes, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Flavin-binding monooxygenase (AlmA) was recently found to be involved in LC-alkane degradation in bacteria of the Acinetobacter and Alcanivorax genera. However, the diversity of this gene and the role it plays in other bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we surveyed the diversity of almA in marine bacteria and in bacteria found in oil-enrichment communities. To identify the presence of this gene, a pair of degenerate PCR primers were was designed based on conserved motifs of the almA gene sequences in public databases. Using this approach, we identified diverse almA genes in the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and in bacterial communities from the surface seawater of the Xiamen coastal area, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, almA was positively detected in 35 isolates belonging to four genera, and a total of 39 different almA sequences were obtained. Five isolates were confirmed to harbor two to three almA genes. From the Xiamen coastal area and the Atlantic Ocean oil-enrichment communities, a total of 60 different almA sequences were obtained. These sequences mainly formed two clusters in the phylogenetic tree, named Class I and Class II, and these shared 45-56% identity at the amino acid level. Class I contained 11 sequences from bacteria represented by the Salinisphaera and Parvibaculum genera. Class II was larger and more diverse, and it was composed of 88 sequences from Proteobacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the enriched bacterial communities. These communities were represented by the Alcanivorax and Marinobacter genera, which are the two most popular genera hosting the almA gene. AlmA was also detected across a wide geographical range, as determined by the origin of the bacterial host. Our results demonstrate the diversity of almA and confirm its high rate of occurrence in hydrocarbon

  12. ¿Es posible comparar el empleo informal en los países de América del Sur? Análisis de su definición, clasificación y medición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol E. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Conclusiones: Una definición precisa y adecuada de empleo informal permitirá contemplar los matices que incluye el concepto, lo que hará posible visibilizar las carencias que afrontan la mayoría de los trabajadores informales. La necesidad de incorporar indicadores comunes entre los sistemas de información es un aspecto clave para efectuar comparaciones válidas entre países, así como para determinar el impacto sobre la salud pública que sufre la población empleada informalmente.

  13. Cerebro y emociones: en busca de las mariposas del alma

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Berrocal, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    La ciencia ha demostrado que es posible gestionar de forma inteligente reacciones como el miedo o la vergüenza. Respuestas heredadas de la evolución y aprendidas de nuestro entorno, que saben adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos y aportan muchos beneficios en la vida diaria.

  14. La basura en clave de lucha, relaciones de poder en el proceso de cierre de una descarga clandestina en José León Suarez : El circuito informal de los residuos. Los basurales a cielo abierto, Cinthia Shammah, Espacio Editorial, Año 2009. Buenos Aires.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    ¿Por qué proliferan los basurales clandestinos? ¿Qué causas operan sobre ellos que no pueden llegar a cerrarse? Estas preguntas que desde el sentido común puede hacerse cualquier lector, son magistralmente respondidas por Cinthia Shammah, con un profundo sentido crítico, y sobre la base de una pormenorizada investigación de campo. El libro El circuito informal de los residuos. Los basurales a cielo abierto analiza el caso de la descarga clandestina del barrio Ceballos, en José León Suárez,...

  15. Los aportes de la tecnología informática a la educación especial. El caso de la escuela Nº 9 Keoken de Río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Laura Alaniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación da cuenta de los factores que facilitan o dificultan el aprendizaje con Tecnología Informática en una escuela de Educación Especial, considerando el abordaje de las necesidades educativas de un grupo de alumnos con: ceguera, disminución visual, sordera e hipoacusia. Se exponen, además, los conflictos que se presentan en este proceso y una forma de afrontar este recorte de la realidad mediante la elaboración de un plan estratégico. Nos interesa conocer los aportes de la tecnología informática que permitan la integración global de las personas, con la finalidad de posibilitar un mayor desarrollo de su capacidades intelectuales y tratar de concientizar a los profesionales del campo educativo sobre la necesidad e importancia de introducir la informática en su tarea docente, desde un enfoque inclusivo e integrador, buscando un camino hacia una mayor autonomía del individuo, no sólo como una herramienta útil, sino porque permite la construcción de los conocimientos y puesta en práctica de los valores involucrados en el proceso.

  16. The ALMA Band 9 receiver. Design, construction, characterization, and first light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B. D.; Adema, J.; Gerlofsma, G. J.; Bekema, M. E.; Barkhof, J.; de Haan-Stijkel, L. H. R.; van den Bemt, M.; Koops, A.; Keizer, K.; Pieters, C.; Koops van het Jagt, J.; Schaeffer, H. H. A.; Zijlstra, T.; Kroug, M.; Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Wielinga, K.; Boland, W.; de Graauw, M. W. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jager, H.; Wild, W.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We describe the design, construction, and characterization of the Band 9 heterodyne receivers (600-720 GHz) for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). First-light Band 9 data, obtained during ALMA commissioning and science verification phases, are presented as well. Methods: The ALMA Band 9 receiver units (so-called "cartridges"), which are installed in the telescope's front end, have been designed to detect and down-convert two orthogonal linear polarization components of the light collected by the ALMA antennas. The light entering the front end is refocused with a compact arrangement of mirrors, which is fully contained within the cartridge. The arrangement contains a grid to separate the polarizations and two beam splitters to combine each resulting beam with a local oscillator signal. The combined beams are fed into independent double-sideband mixers, each with a corrugated feedhorn coupling the radiation by way of a waveguide with backshort cavity into an impedance-tuned superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction that performs the heterodyne down-conversion. Finally, the generated intermediate frequency (IF) signals are amplified by cryogenic and room-temperature HEMT amplifiers and exported to the telescope's IF back end for further processing and, finally, correlation. Results: The receivers have been constructed and tested in the laboratory and they show an excellent performance, complying with ALMA requirements. Performance statistics on all 73 Band 9 receivers are reported. Importantly, two different tunnel-barrier technologies (necessitating different tuning circuits) for the SIS junctions have been used, namely conventional AlOx barriers and the more recent high-current-density AlN barriers. On-sky characterization and tests of the performance of the Band 9 cartridges are presented using commissioning data. Continuum and line images of the low-mass protobinary IRAS 16293-2422 are presented which were obtained as part

  17. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA resolves the bright-end of the sub-millimeter number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, James; Swinbank, Mark; Chapman, Scott; Geach, James; Ivison, Rob; Thomson, Alasdair; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Cowley, Will; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, Kristen; Dunlop, Jim; Edge, Alastair; Farrah, Duncan; Ibar, Edo; Karim, Alex; Knudsen, Kirsten; Meijerink, Rowin; Michalowski, Michal; Scott, Douglas; Spanns, Marco; van der Werf, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution 870-um ALMA continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1-square degrees 850-um maps from the SCUBA--2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SCUBA2 flux S_850=8.7+/-0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4-sigma significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61+/-17% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of >=2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra--Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with L_IR>10^12 Lo. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80+/-4% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing >=2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25+/-3% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S_870>7.5mJy, and by 60% at S_870>12mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the cou...

  18. La microempresarialidad informal en México durante los años noventa: un análisis de la dinámica de flujos laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Aguilar Barceló

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con datos de la Encuesta nacional de empleo urbano se calculan aproximaciones a las probabilidades de transición entre las categorías ocupacionales relacionadas con la microempresarialidad en México, para el periodo 1987- 1999. Según una visión dualista, se encuentra que mucha de la microempresarialidad informal podría considerarse involuntaria, al surgir del desempleo y la inactividad. No obstante, un subconjunto pequeño de este grupo muestra un comportamiento inverso al optar por la empresarialidad, cuando la demanda del mercado de trabajo era alta, y se toma como voluntaria y afín con la visión legalista y de economía neoclásica. La vía para llegar a ser patrón formal fue el autoempleo informal. Durante los gobiernos de Carlos Salinas y Ernesto Zedillo el flujo hacia la formalización microempresarial fue bajo, en parte debido a las dificultades que para este sector provocaron las políticas de ajuste macroeconómico.

  19. El protestantismo en la España de la II República a la luz de los informes del Archivo Secreto Vaticano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Figueiredo, José Ramón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On the eve of the Second Republic, an important worry of the Catholic Church is the condition and development of the Protestantism in Spain. Such worry comes directly from the Pope Pio XI that through the Minister asks the Nuncio Tedeschini an exact and complete report about the different Christian confessions in the Iberican Peninsula. About it, there are abundant unpublished information that comes from all the Spanish dioceses.

    En vísperas de la Segunda República, una preocupación importante de la Iglesia es el estado y desarrollo del protestantismo en España. Tal preocupación procede directamente del Papa Pío XI que por medio del Secretario de Estado pide al Nuncio Tedeschini un informe exacto y completo de las diversas confesiones cristianas en la Península. Al respecto, son abundantes los datos inéditos que proceden de todas las diócesis españolas.

  20. Desvelando o cotidiano dos cuidadores informais de idosos Revelando el cotidiano de los cuidadores informales de ancianos Unveiling the routine of informal caregivers for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Patrick Fonseca Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou descrever como os cuidadores informais de idosos interpretam e constroem o seu cotidiano. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo-exploratório, tendo como orientação teórico-metodológica, a dialética. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi a entrevista individual, com cinco cuidadores de idosos dependentes em domicílios de um Programa Saúde da Família, em Montes Claros Minas Gerais. Resultados evidenciaram situações adversas enfrentadas pelos cuidadores relacionadas ao sofrimento e sacrifícios na prestação dos cuidados e a falta de assistência para atender as necessidades do ser cuidado e do ser cuidador. Porém, exercem o cuidar com amor, carinho e dedicação, utilizando a fé e a espiritualidade como busca do equilíbrio biopsicossocial. Recomenda-se que esses profissionais tenham um olhar respeitoso e cooperativo ao trabalho desses cuidadores.El propósito del presente artículo ha sido describir cómo los cuidadores informales de ancianos interpretan y construyen su rutina. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, con orientación teórico-metodológica. La recogida de datos se realizó mediante entrevistas individuales a cinco cuidadores de personas mayores dependientes que viven en domicilios incluidos en un Programa de Salud de la Familia de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais. Los resultados revelan que los cuidadores enfrentan situaciones hostiles que tienen que ver con sufrimiento y sacrificios en la prestación de los cuidados y con la falta de asistencia para atender a las necesidades del anciano y del cuidador. Pero, ejercen su tarea con amor, cariño y dedicación y, a través de la fe y de la espiritualidad, buscan su equilibrio biopsicosocial. Se aconseja que el trabajo de estos profesionales sea considerado com respecto y cooperación.This article intends to describe how the informal caregivers interpret and build their daily routine. It is a qualitative study using dialectics

  1. Preferencias de los pacientes sobre la información de su enfermedad Patients' preferences for information in health care decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A Borracci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a pacientes que concurrían a servicios de cardiología para conocer cómo preferían ser informados sobre su estado de salud, y las características sociodemográficas asociadas con estas preferencias, considerando los siguientes ítems: conocimiento sobre la enfermedad, información sobre opciones terapéuticas y toma de decisiones. De 770 encuestados, 738 (95.8% respondieron completamente el formulario. Se observó una tendencia a confiar sólo en el médico para obtener información (81.7%, a querer conocer las opciones de tratamiento y poder opinar (85.9% y en menor medida, a la participación de la familia en las decisiones (63.2%. El 9.6% deseaba recibir la información mínima necesaria o "no saber nada" sobre una presunta enfermedad grave. Los varones fueron menos proclives a solicitar opciones y dar opinión (OR: 0.64, dando menos libertad a la participación familiar (OR: 1.31. Los de menor nivel socioeconómico reclamaron menos opciones (OR: 0.48 y dieron menor participación familiar (OR: 1.79. Los provenientes de otros países de Sudamérica tuvieron una menor tendencia a reclamar opciones y manifestar opinión (OR: 0.60; y los de menor nivel educativo confiaron menos en el conocimiento del médico (OR: 1.81, exigieron menos opciones (OR: 0.45 y prefirieron no conocer la gravedad de la enfermedad (OR: 0.56. El análisis de las variables demográficas permitió definir distintas preferencias de información asociadas a la edad, sexo, procedencia, educación, religión y estado de salud. Se concluye que, aunque es imperativo promover la autonomía del paciente, se deben conocer las preferencias individuales antes de informar y comprometer al paciente en el proceso de toma de decisiones sobre su enfermedad.A survey was carried out among patients who concurred to cardiologic services to know how patients preferred to be informed about their health status, and the demographic characteristics associated to these

  2. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  3. ALMA observations of alpha Centauri: First detection of main-sequence stars at 3mm wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; Bayo, A; Bertone, E; Black, J H; del Burgo, C; Chavez, M; Danchi, W; De la Luz, V; Eiroa, C; Ertel, S; Fridlund, M C W; Justtanont, K; Krivov, A; Marshall, J P; Mora, A; Montesinos, B; Nyman, L -A; Olofsson, G; Sanz-Forcada, J; Thebault, P; White, G J

    2014-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that provide the non-radiative energy for heating the chromosphere and the corona of the Sun and those of other stars constitute an active field of research. By studying stellar chromospheres one aims at identifying the relevant physical processes. Defining the permittable extent of the parameter space can also serve as a template for the Sun-as-a-star. Earlier observations with Herschel and APEX have revealed the temperature minimum of alpha Cen, but these were unable to spatially resolve the binary into individual components. With the data reported here, we aim at remedying this shortcoming. Furthermore, these earlier data were limited to the wavelength region between 100 and 870mu. In the present context, we intend to extend the spectral mapping to longer wavelengths, where the contrast between stellar photospheric and chromospheric emission becomes increasingly evident. ALMA is particularly suited to point sources, such as unresolved stars. ALMA provides the means to achieve our obj...

  4. Transparent XML Binding using the ALMA Common Software (ACS) Container/Component Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H.; Chiozzi, G.; Fugate, D.; Sekoranja, M.

    2004-07-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. The common architecture and infrastructure used for the whole ALMA software is presented at this conference in (Schwarz, Farris, & Sommer 2004). ACS offers a CORBA-based container/component model and supports the exchange and persistence of XML data. For the Java programming language, the container integrates transparently the use of type-safe Java binding classes to let applications conveniently work with XML transfer objects without having to parse or serialize them. This paper will show how the ACS container/component architecture serves to pass complex data structures, such as observation meta-data, between heterogeneous applications.

  5. The Declaration of Alma Ata on its 30th anniversary: relevance for family medicine today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Allen L; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2008-09-01

    The Declaration of Alma Ata, issued on September 12, 1978, provides a moral vision for primary care that remains valuable today at a time of transformation of the specialty of family medicine. The Declaration asserts a comprehensive definition of health that recognizes health as a fundamental human right, argues persuasively that gross inequalities in health status are politically, socially, and economically unacceptable, and identifies primary health care as the key to improving health and reducing health status inequalities. The values of Alma Ata can guide the specialty of family medicine to lead positive health system change through renewed collaboration, addressing inequalities, efficient use of resources and appropriate technology, and advocacy in the spirit of social justice.

  6. Development of the ALMA-North America Sideband-Separating SIS Mixers

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, Anthony R; Claude, Stéphane M X; Dindo, Philip; Lichtenberger, Arthur W; Lauria, Eugene F

    2013-01-01

    As the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) nears completion, 73 dual-polarization receivers have been delivered for each of Bands 3 (84-116 GHz) and 6 (211-275 GHz). The receivers use sideband-separating superconducting Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel-junction (SIS) mixers, developed for ALMA to suppress atmospheric noise in the image band. The mixers were designed taking into account dynamic range, input return loss, and signal-to-image conversion (which can be significant in SIS mixers). Typical SSB receiver noise temperatures in Bands 3 and 6 are 30 K and 60 K, resp., and the image rejection is typically 15 dB.

  7. The Impacts of ALMA Primary Variables on Profitability An Empirical Study of Indonesian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto Jumono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of liquidity on BEP and ROE in Indonesian banking industry. The supporting theory in this study is ALMA theory. Based on annual data for the period 2001-2014 and following purposive sampling technique, the acquired amount of sample study is 97 banks. The data is analyzed using panel data regression of GMM Arrelano Bond, as a novelty in data processing, therefore the speed of adjustment can be known. The ALMA variables such as LAR, capital, leverage, operating expenses, interest income, and CAR sensitivity have a significant effect on BEP and ROE. Meanwhile LDR, NPL, the FBI have no impact on profitability. The implication of this study is the fact that banking performance in Indonesia can be leveled up through the reduction in mortgage interest rates and increment of credit volume and FBI.

  8. Compact Starbursts in z ∼ 3–6 Submillimeter Galaxies Revealed by ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at {z}{phot}∼ 3–6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are {L}{IR}∼ 2–6× {10}12 {L}ȯ and ∼200–600 {M}ȯ yr‑1, respectively.

  9. Detection of Lensing Substructure Using ALMA Observations of the Dusty Galaxy SDP.81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Dalal, Neal; Marrone, Daniel P.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D.; Carlstrom, John E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J.; Murray, Norman; Perreault Levasseur, Laurence; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-05-01

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 108.96±0.12 M ⊙ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ˜ 2 × 107 M ⊙, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

  10. Poster 9: Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serigano, Joseph; Nixion, Conor A.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Teanby, Nick A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Lindberg, Johan E.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided a new and powerful facility for probing the atmospheres of solar system targets at long wavelengths (84-720 GHz) where the rotational lines of small, polar molecules are prominent. In the complex atmosphere of Titan, photochemical processes dissociate and ionize molecular nitrogen and methane in the upper atmosphere, creating a complex inventory of trace hydrocarbons and nitriles. Additionally, the existence of oxygen on Titan facilitates the synthesis of molecules of potential astrobiological importance. Utilization of ground-based submillimeter observations of Titan has proven to be a powerful tool to complement results from spacecraft observations. ALMA provides the ability to probe this region in greater detail with unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution at high sensitivity, allowing for the derivation of vertical mixing profiles, molecular detections, and observations of latitudinal and seasonal variations. Recent ALMA studies of Titan have presented spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC3N emission (Cordiner et al. 2014), as well as the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan's atmosphere (Cordiner et al. 2015). This poster will focus on ALMA observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues 13CO, C18O, and C 17O in Titan's atmosphere. Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code (Irwin et al. 2008). This study reports the first spectroscopic detection of 17O in the outer solar system with C17O detected at >8σ confidence. The abundances of these molecules and isotopic ratios of 12C/13C, 16O/18O, and 16O/17O will be presented. General implications for the history of Titan from these measurements will be discussed.

  11. A dor da alma nas reflexões sobre a vaidade de Matias Aires (1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as relações entre a vaidade e o sofrimento conforme a obra Reflexões sobre a vaidade dos homens, do filósofo paulista Matias Aires Ramos da Silva de Eça (1705-1763. Discutem-se algumas fontes de seu pensamento e conclui-se que o autor faz uma fina e ainda atual análise da alma humana.

  12. Malaria control in the African Region: perceptions and viewspoints on proceedings of the Africa Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009 a total of 153,408 malaria deaths were reported in Africa. Eleven countries showed a reduction of more than 50% in either confirmed malaria cases or malaria admissions and deaths in recent years. However, many African countries are not on track to achieve the malaria component of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 6. The African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA working session at the 15th African Union Summit discussed the bottlenecks to achieving MDG 6 (specifically halting and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015, success factors, and what countries needed to do to accelerate achievement of the MDG. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the ALMA working session. Methods Working methods of the session included speeches and statements by invited speakers and high-level panel discussions. Discussion The main bottlenecks identified related to the capacity of the health systems to deliver quality care and accessibility issues; need for strong, decentralized malaria-control programmes with linkages with other health and development sectors, the civil society and private sector entities; benefits of co-implementation of malaria control programmes with child survival or other public health interventions; systematic application of integrated promotive, preventive, diagnostic and case management interventions with full community participation; adapting approaches to local political, socio-cultural and administrative environments. The following prerequisites for success were identified: a clear vision and effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; high level political commitment to ensure adequate capacity in expertise, skill mix and number of managers, technicians and service providers; national ownership, intersectoral collaboration and accountability, as well as strong civil society and private sector involvement; functional epidemiological surveillance systems

  13. ALMA observations of Lyman-alpha Blob 1: halo sub-structure illuminated from within

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, J E; Matsuda, Y; Hayes, M; Mas-Ribas, Ll; Dijkstra, M; Steidel, C C; Chapman, S C; Feldmann, R; Avison, A; Agertz, O; Ao, Y; Birkinshaw, M; Bremer, M N; Clements, D L; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Harrison, C M; Hine, N K; Kubo, M; Michalowski, M J; Scott, Douglas; Smith, D J B; Spaans, M; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Taniguchi, Y; van Kampen, E; van der Werf, P; Verma, A; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850um continuum observations of the original Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z=3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with total flux density S_850 = 1.68+/-0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star formation rate of ~150 M_sun/yr. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint (m~27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) clear filter imaging (~5850A). One of these companions is spectroscopically confirmed with Keck MOSFIRE to lie within 20 projected kpc and 250 km/s of one of the ALMA components. We postulate that some of these STIS sources represent a population of low-mass star-forming satellites surrounding the central submillimeter sources, potentially contributing to their growth and activity through accretion. Using a high resolution cosmological zoom simulation of a 10^13 M_sun halo at z...

  14. ALMA resolves the torus of NGC 1068: continuum and molecular line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Burillo, S; Almeida, C Ramos; Usero, A; Krips, M; Alonso-Herrero, A; Aalto, S; Casasola, V; Hunt, L K; Martin, S; Viti, S; Colina, L; Costagliola, F; Eckart, A; Fuente, A; Henkel, C; Marquez, I; Neri, R; Schinnerer, E; Tacconi, L J; van der Werf, P P

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 {\\mu}m continuum emission from the 300 pc-sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of ~4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and image, for the first time, the dust emission and the molecular gas distribution and kinematics from a 7-10 pc-diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: Mgas_torus=(1+-0.3)x10^5 Msun and Rtorus=3.5+-0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on the rotating pattern of the disk. The kinematic major axis of the CO torus...

  15. Blade Runner -What kind objects are there in the JVO ALMA Archive?-

    CERN Document Server

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Zapart, Christopher; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Wataru; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kosugi, George

    2015-01-01

    The JVO ALMA Archive provides users one of the easiest ways to access the ALMA archival data. The users can have a quick look at a 3 or 4-dimensional data cube without downloading multiple huge tarballs from a science portal of ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs). Since we just synchronize all datasets with those of ARCs, the metadata are identical to the upstream, including ``target name'' for each dataset. The name is not necessarily a common one like NGC numbers, but sometimes one of sequential numbers assigned in an observation proposal. Compilation of these artificial names into astronomical ones could provide users more flexible and powerful search interfaces; for instance, with the knowledge of the redshift for each source, the users can easily find the datasets which observed their interested emission/absorption lines at not the observer frame but the rest frame, fitting well with theoretical studies. To implement this functionality, cross-identification of all the sources in our archive with those in some o...

  16. Detection of lensing substructure using ALMA observations of the dusty galaxy SDP.81

    CERN Document Server

    Hezaveh, Yashar D; Marrone, Daniel P; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D; Carlstrom, John E; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Holder, Gilbert P; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J; Murray, Norman; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vieira, Joaquin D; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations, we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a $M=10^{8.96\\pm 0.12} M_{\\odot}$ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of $6.9\\sigma$ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter subhalos down to $M\\sim 2\\times 10^7 M_{\\odot}$, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies...

  17. ALMA imaging of the CO snowline of the HD 163296 disk with DCO+

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, G S; Juhasz, A; Harsono, D; Chapillon, E; van Dishoeck, E F; Espada, D; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Hales, A; Hogerheijde, M R; Mottram, J C; Rawlings, M G; Takahashi, S; Testi, L

    2013-01-01

    The high spatial and line sensitivity of ALMA opens the possibility of resolving emission from molecules in circumstellar disks. With an understanding of physical conditions under which molecules have high abundance, they can be used as direct tracers of distinct physical regions. In particular, DCO+ is expected to have an enhanced abundance within a few Kelvin of the CO freezeout temperature of 19 K, making it a useful probe of the cold disk midplane. We compare ALMA line observations of HD 163296 to a grid of models. We vary the upper- and lower-limit temperatures of the region in which DCO+ is present as well as the abundance of DCO+ in order to fit channel maps of the DCO+ J=5-4 line. To determine the abundance enhancement compared to the general interstellar medium, we carry out similar fitting to HCO+ J=4-3 and H13CO+ J=4-3 observations. ALMA images show centrally peaked extended emission from HCO+ and H13CO+. DCO+ emission lies in a resolved ring from ~110 to 160 AU. The outer radius approximately corr...

  18. ALMA observations of the debris disk around the young Solar Analog HD 107146

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, L; Fu, B; Hughes, A M; Corder, S; Isella, A

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA continuum observations at a wavelength of 1.25 mm of the debris disk surrounding the $\\sim$ 100 Myr old solar analog HD 107146. The continuum emission extends from about 30 to 150 AU from the central star with a decrease in the surface brightness at intermediate radii. We analyze the ALMA interferometric visibilities using debris disk models with radial profiles for the dust surface density parametrized as i) a single power-law, ii) a single power-law with a gap, and iii) a double power-law. We find that models with a gap of radial width $\\sim 8$ AU at a distance of $\\sim 80$ AU from the central star, as well as double power-law models with a dip in the dust surface density at $\\sim 70$ AU provide significantly better fits to the ALMA data than single power-law models. We discuss possible scenarios for the origin of the HD 107146 debris disk using models of planetesimal belts in which the formation of Pluto-sized objects trigger disruptive collisions of large bodies, as well as models which co...

  19. ALMA-resolved salt emission traces the chemical footprint and inner wind morphology of VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L; Millar, T J; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Homan, W; Smith, N; Van de Sande, M; Walsh, C

    2016-01-01

    (abreviated) We aim to study the inner-wind structure (R<250 Rstar) of the well-known red supergiant VY CMa. We analyse high spatial resolution (~0".24x0".13) ALMA Science Verification (SV) data in band 7 in which four thermal emission lines of gaseous sodium chloride (NaCl) are present at high signal-to-noise ratio. For the first time, the NaCl emission in the inner wind region of VY CMa is spatially resolved. The ALMA observations reveal the contribution of up to four different spatial regions. The NaCl emission pattern is different compared to the dust continuum and TiO2 emission already analysed from the ALMA SV data. The emission can be reconciled with an axisymmetric geometry, where the lower density polar/rotation axis has a position angle of ~50 degrees measured from north to east. However, this picture can not capture the full morphological diversity, and discrete mass ejection events need to be invoked to explain localized higher-density regions. The velocity traced by the gaseous NaCl line profi...

  20. The ALMA archive and its place in the astronomy of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Stoehr, Felix; Leon, Stéphane; Muller, Erik; Manning, Alisdair; Moins, Christophe; Jenkins, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, is the largest astronomical project in existence. While ALMA's capabilities are ramping up, Early Science observations have started. The ALMA Archive is at the center of the operations of the telescope array and is designed to manage the 200 TB of data that will be taken each year, once the observatory is in full operations. We briefly describe design principles. The second part of this paper focuses on how astronomy is likely to evolve as the amount and complexity of data taken grows. We argue that in the future observatories will compete for astronomers to work with their data, that observatories will have to reorient themselves to from providing good data only to providing an excellent end-to-end user-experience with all its implications, that science-grade data-reduction pipelines will become an integral part of the design of a new observat...

  1. ALMA continuum observations of a 30 Myr old gaseous debris disk around HD 21997

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kóspál, Á; Ábrahám, P; Apai, D; Csengeri, T; Grady, C; Henning, Th; Hughes, A M; Kiss, Cs; Pascucci, I; Schmalzl, M; Gabányi, K

    2013-01-01

    Circumstellar disks around stars older than 10 Myr are expected to be gas-poor. There are, however, two examples of old (30-40 Myr) debris-like disks containing a detectable amount of cold CO gas. Here we present ALMA and Herschel Space Observatory observations of one of these disks, around HD 21997, and study the distribution and origin of the dust and its connection to the gas. Our ALMA continuum images at 886um clearly resolve a broad ring of emission within a diameter of ~4.5 arcsec, adding HD 21997 to the dozen debris disks resolved at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. Modeling the morphology of the ALMA image with a radiative transfer code suggests inner and outer radii of ~55 and ~150 AU, and a dust mass of 0.09 M_Earth. Our data and modeling hints at an extended cold outskirt of the ring. Comparison with the morphology of the CO gas in the disk reveals an inner dust-free hole where gas nevertheless can be detected. Based on dust grain lifetimes, we propose that the dust content of this gaseous disk is of s...

  2. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin$^2$ deep survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, K; Tamura, Y; Tadaki, K; Hatsukade, B; Ikarashi, S; Caputi, K I; Rujopakarn, W; Ivison, R J; Dunlop, J S; Motohara, K; Umehata, H; Yabe, K; Wang, W -H; Kodama, T; Koyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Matsuda, Y; Hughes, D; Aretxaga, I; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Ohta, K; Akiyama, M; Kawabe, R; Iono, D; Nakanishi, K; Lee, M; Makiya, R

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous $105'' \\times 50''$ or 1.5 arcmin$^2$ window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5$\\sigma$ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, providing a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with $L_{\\rm IR} \\sim6\\times10^{11}$ $L_\\odot$ (for $T_{\\rm dust}$ =40K) up to $z\\sim10$ thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N$>$6) and 18 low-significance sources (5$>$S/N$>$4; these may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources ($S_{\\rm 1.1mm} = 0.84 \\pm 0.09$ mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey is able to uncover a faint dust-obscured population that is invisible in deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We found a possible [CII]-line emitter at $z=5.955$ or a low-$z$ CO emitting galaxy within the field, which may allow us to constrain the [CII] and/or the CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.

  3. Primary health care and England: the coming of age of Alma Ata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew; Ross, Duncan; Mirzoev, Tolib

    2007-01-01

    The Alma Ata Declaration is now 28 years old. This article uses its framework to assess the changes that have occurred in recent years in the English health system. It summarises the health reform changes that have occurred internationally and those in the English health system in two eras, pre- and post-1997 - when the Labour Party came to power. It concludes that linked forces of managerialism and consumerism have had an impact on the health system which has undergone a number of structural changes in recent years. It suggests that the original Alma Ata focus on equity is being modified by the concept of choice. The tensions between central priorities, often reflected in targets, and local accountability and needs are explored. There appears to be a greater interest in seeking genuine health (rather than solely health care) change, with attendant public health and partnership policies, however the gap between policy and practice still needs to be bridged, and questions as to the appropriate locus and leadership for health promotion activities addressed. However there have been numerous institutional changes which carry the danger of distracting from the purpose of achieving health change, and which continue to raise questions as to the appropriateness of a market model for health. Finally the paper argues that the PHC framework of Alma Ata remains a useful framework for assessing health systems, but needs to be tailored to, and prioritised within, a political dynamic.

  4. Prototype Implementation of Web and Desktop Applications for ALMA Science Verification Data and the Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Shirasaki, Yuji; Komiya, Yutaka; Kosugi, George; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    ALMA is estimated to generate TB scale data during only one observation; astronomers manage to identify which part of the data they are really interested in. Now we have been developing new GUI software for this purpose utilizing the VO interface: ALMA Web Quick Look System (ALMAWebQL) and ALMA Desktop Application (Vissage). The former is written in JavaScript and HTML5 generated from Java codes by Google Web Toolkit, and the latter is in pure Java. An essential point of our approach is how to reduce network traffic: we prepare, in advance, "compressed" FITS files of 2x2x1 (horizontal, vertical, and spectral directions, respectively) binning, 2x2x2 binning, 4x4x2 binning data, and so on. These files are hidden from users, and Web QL automatically choose proper one by each user operation. Through this work, we find that network traffic in our system is still a bottleneck towards TB scale data distribution. Hence we have to develop alternative data containers for much faster data processing. In this paper, I in...

  5. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A.; Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Asayama, S.

    2013-11-01

    The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787-950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO2/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/kBTC ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/kB for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  6. A detailed view of the gas shell around R Sculptoris with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Maercker, M; Brunner, M; De Beck, E; Humphreys, E M; Kerschbaum, F; Lindqvist, M; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pulses are fundamental to the chemical evolution of AGB stars and their circumstellar envelopes. A further consequence of thermal pulses is the formation of detached shells of gas and dust around the star. We aim to determine the physical properties of the detached gas shell around R Sculptoris, in particular the shell mass and temperature, and to constrain the evolution of the mass-loss rate during and after a thermal pulse. We analyse CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2) emission, observed by. The spatial resolution of the ALMA data allows us to separate the detached shell emission from the extended emission inside the shell. We perform radiative transfer modelling of both components to determine the shell properties and the post-pulse mass-loss properties. The ALMA data show a gas shell with a radius of 19.5" expanding at 14.3km/s. The different scales probed by the ALMA Cycle 0 array show that the shell must be entirely filled with gas, contrary to the idea of a detached shell. The comparison to single-d...

  7. La educación informal de los medios de comunicación y la protección de los menores de la violencia en televisión: historia de un fracaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Liceras Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios muestran una preocupante complacencia de los niños y jóvenes con el uso de la violencia como práctica para obtener sus deseos. Salvando el debate y desacuerdo entre los investigadores sobre la naturaleza de la influencia de la televisión, asumimos la perspectiva de que, en todo caso, el tema de las repercusiones y el tratamiento de los contenidos televisivos es una cuestión cívica, no meramente científica. Sin duda la televisión, con sus formidables recursos pedagógicos, resulta un poderoso agente educativo, y los niños y adolescentes son grandes consumidores de este medio. Junto a esto, una trayectoria de reiteradas y persistentes vulneraciones por parte de las televisiones de sus autocompromisos y de la normativa vigente en materia de comunicación y protección de los menores respecto a la emisión de contenidos inapropiados para su formación en los horarios de protección infantil son factores que no parecen ajenos a este panorama. Una violencia televisiva que se presenta ausente de dolor y consecuencias, justificable y con rasgos atractivos favorece su imitación e influencia. Son viejas denuncias de cuestiones de enorme importancia formativa y social que no parecen merecer la necesaria atención de los agentes con responsabilidades en la protección y educación de los niños y adolescentes. Profesores, padres, asociaciones de telespectadores, empresas audiovisuales, poderes públicos y sociedad en general deben afrontar su compromiso desde sus parcelas de competencia.

  8. El empleo informal en la frontera norte de México y el caso de Sonora: un análisis de expectativas en los ingresos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huesca Reynoso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento se muestra la distribución de los ingresos para trabajadores formales e informales en la frontera norte y en Sonora; se observó más participación de los jornaleros agrícolas informales y de quienes trabajan por cuenta propia. Con la base de datos de la Encuesta nacional de ocupación y empleo de 2006, se calculó un escenario contrafactual con la asunción de lo que pasaría con la distribución de los salarios si los informales se desempeñaran como empleados formales. Los resultados indican que los informales asalariados y por cuenta propia están en mejor situación, y es menos favorable la expectativa para los segundos en Sonora, así como para los jornaleros agrícolas en ambos lugares. Los informales por cuenta propia no cambian sustancialmente sus ingresos, si se ubican en la parte alta de la distribución en Sonora, y hay una polarización de las percepciones en los asalariados en la frontera.

  9. Pobres y pobreza en los testamentos (Reino de Chile, 1585-1641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analiza a los pobres y la pobreza en testamentos de Santiago de Chile entre fines del siglo XVI y el primer tercio del XVII, a partir de un corpus documental de 300 testamentos. Se considera que el temor, las actitudes y las prácticas realizadas respecto a la pobreza y los pobres en este período, se relacionan con la muerte próxima y el juicio de Dios. Por eso es que los pobres aparecen como la oportunidad de practicar las enseñanzas cristianas, acumular méritos, y mejorar el futuro de las propias almas. El desafío consiste, entonces, en examinar los testamentos santiaguinos para identificar la presencia de los pobres y la pobreza, atendiendo a comprender el sentido de esos conceptos en la mentalidad de los testadores.

  10. Métricas de riesgos para los proyectos productivos de la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas. Risk Metrics for the Productive Projects at the University of Informatics Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neysis Hernández Díaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se proponen métricas para disminuir el impacto negativo de los riesgos en los proyectos productivos de la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas, basado en el modelo CMMI. Las métricas pueden medir el avance del proyecto, así como contribuir a la prevención de los riesgos y en caso de ocurrir un riesgo, permite a los líderes tomar decisiones correctas ante los problemas presentados. Múltiples factores influyen en el desarrollo de software con calidad: los recursos humanos y materiales, uso adecuado de técnicas y metodologías, la selección correcta de la tecnología, la planificación del tiempo y los costos. Mediante este análisis se obtienen un conjunto de métricas que permiten determinar el impacto de los riesgos en los proyecto productivos de la Universidad.The present work proposes metrics to decrease the negative impact of risks in productive projects from the University of Informatics Sciences, based on the CMMI model. Metrics can measure the development of the project, as well as contribute to prevent risks, and in case it happens, they allow leaders to make the right decisions for the problems presented. Multiple factors influence on the development of the software with quality: human and material resources, correct use of techniques and methodologies, appropriate selection of technology, time planning and costs. However, it is important to make a detailed study of risks and apply rules and quality standards proposed worldwide, which consider, as an important area, risk management. Through this analysis it is obtained a set of metrics that allow determining the impact of risks in the productive projects of the University.

  11. Risk Metrics for the Productive Projects at the University of Informatics Sciences Métricas de riesgos para los proyectos productivos de la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Rachel Seijó

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes metrics to decrease the negative impact of risks in productive projects from the University of Informatics Sciences, based on the CMMI model. Metrics can measure the development of the project, as well as contribute to prevent risks, and in case it happens, they allow leaders to make the right decisions for the problems presented. Multiple factors influence on the development of the software with quality: human and material resources, correct use of techniques and methodologies, appropriate selection of technology, time planning and costs. However, it is important to make a detailed study of risks and apply rules and quality standards proposed worldwide, which consider, as an important area, risk management. Through this analysis it is obtained a set of metrics that allow determining the impact of risks in the productive projects of the University. En el presente trabajo se proponen métricas para disminuir el impacto negativo de los riesgos en los proyectos productivos de la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas, basado en el modelo CMMI. Las métricas pueden medir el avance del proyecto, así como contribuir a la prevención de los riesgos y en caso de ocurrir un riesgo, permite a los líderes tomar decisiones correctas ante los problemas presentados. Múltiples factores influyen en el desarrollo de software con calidad: los recursos humanos y materiales, uso adecuado de técnicas y metodologías, la selección correcta de la tecnología, la planificación del tiempo y los costos. Mediante este análisis se obtienen un conjunto de métricas que permiten determinar el impacto de los riesgos en los proyecto productivos de la Universidad.

  12. An ALMA Early Science survey of molecular absorption lines toward PKS1830-211 -- Analysis of the absorption profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Guelin, M; Gerin, M; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Black, J H; Curran, S J; Darling, J; Dinh-V-Trung,; Garcia-Burillo, S; Henkel, C; Horellou, C; Martin, S; Marti-Vidal, I; Menten, K M; Murphy, M T; Ott, J; Wiklind, T; Zwaan, M A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an ALMA spectral survey of strong absorption lines for common interstellar species in the z=0.89 molecular absorber toward the lensed blazar PKS1830-211. The dataset brings essential information on the structure and composition of the absorbing gas in the foreground galaxy. In particular, we find absorption over large velocity intervals (gtrsim 100 km/s) toward both lensed images of the blazar. This suggests either that the galaxy inclination is intermediate and that we sample velocity gradients or streaming motions in the disk plane, that the molecular gas has a large vertical distribution or extraplanar components, or that the absorber is not a simple spiral galaxy but might be a merger system. The number of detected species is now reaching a total of 42 different species plus 14 different rare isotopologues toward the SW image, and 14 species toward the NE line-of-sight. The abundances of CH, H2O, HCO+, HCN, and NH3 relative to H2 are found to be comparable to those in the G...

  13. Deep ALMA imaging of the merger NGC1614 - Is CO tracing a massive inflow of non-starforming gas?

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Muller, S; Gallagher, J S; Beswick, R J; Xu, C K; Evans, A

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the molecular gas over scales of ~0.5 to several kpc provide crucial information on how the gas moves through galaxies, especially in mergers and interacting systems, where it ultimately reaches the galaxy center, accumulates and feeds nuclear activity. To understand the processes involved in gas transport is one of the important steps forward to understand galaxy evolution. 12CO and 13CO1-0 high-sensitivity ALMA observations are used to assess properties of the large-scale molecular gas reservoir and its connection to the circumnuclear molecular ring in NGC1614. The role of excitation and abundances are studied in this context. Spatial distributions of the 12CO and 13CO 1-0 emission show significant differences. 12CO is tracing large-scale molecular gas reservoir associated with a dust lane associated with infalling gas and extends into the southern tidal tails. 13CO emission peaks at the connection between the dust lane and the circumnuclear molecular ring found in previous observations and ...

  14. Herschel-ATLAS and ALMA: HATLAS J142935.3-002836, a lensed major merger at redshift 1.027

    CERN Document Server

    Messias, Hugo; Nagar, Neil; Orellana, Gustavo; Bussmann, R Shane; Calanog, Jae; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Fu, Hai; Ibar, Edo; Inohara, Andrew; Ivison, R J; Negrello, Mattia; Riechers, Dominik A; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Amber, Simon; Birkinshaw, Mark; Bourne, Nathan; Clements, Dave L; Cooray, Asantha; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Demarco, Ricardo; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Stephen; Fleuren, Simone; Lupu, Roxana E; Maddox, Steve J; Michalowski, Michal J; Omont, Alain; Rowlands, Kate; Smith, Dan; Smith, Matt; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Aims: This work focuses on one lensed system, HATLAS J142935.3-002836 (H1429-0028), selected in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Gathering a rich, multi-wavelength dataset, we aim to confirm the lensing hypothesis and model the background source's morphology and dynamics, as well as to provide a full physical characterisation. Methods: Multi-wavelength high-resolution data is utilised to assess the nature of the system. A lensing-analysis algorithm which simultaneously fits different wavebands is adopted to characterise the lens. The background galaxy dynamical information is studied by reconstructing the 3-D source-plane of the ALMA CO(J:4-3) transition. Near-IR imaging from HST and Keck-AO allows to constrain rest-frame optical photometry independently for the foreground and background systems. Physical parameters (such as stellar and dust masses) are estimated via modelling of the spectral energy distribution taking into account source blending, foreground obscuration, and differential magnification. R...

  15. ALMA's view of the nearest neighbors to the Sun. The submm/mm SEDs of the α Centauri binary and a new source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liseau, R.; De la Luz, V.; O'Gorman, E.; Bertone, E.; Chavez, M.; Tapia, F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The precise mechanisms that provide the nonradiative energy for heating the chromosphere and corona of the Sun and other stars are at the focus of intense contemporary research. Aims: Observations at submm and mm wavelengths are particularly useful to obtain information about the run of the temperature in the upper atmosphere of Sun-like stars. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study the chromospheric emission of the α Centauri binary system in all six available frequency bands during Cycle 2 in 2014-2015. Methods: Since ALMA is an interferometer, the multitelescope array is particularly suited for the observation of point sources. With its large collecting area, the sensitivity is high enough to allow the observation of nearby main-sequence stars at submm/mm wavelengths for the first time. The comparison of the observed spectral energy distributions with theoretical model computations provides the chromospheric structure in terms of temperature and density above the stellar photosphere and the quantitative understanding of the primary emission processes. Results: Both stars in the α Centauri binary system were detected and resolved at all ALMA frequencies. For both α Cen A and B, the existence and location of the temperature minima, first detected from space with Herschel, are well reproduced by the theoretical models of this paper. The temperature minimum for α Cen B is lower than for A and occurs at a lower height in the atmosphere, but for both stars, Tmin/Teff is consistently lower than what is derived from optical and UV data. In addition, and as a completely different matter, a third point source was detected in Band 8 (405 GHz, 740 μm) in 2015. With only one epoch and only one detection, we are left with little information regarding that object's nature, but we conjecture that it might be a distant solar system object. Conclusions: The submm/mm emission of the α Cen stars is indeed very well reproduced by

  16. Definición del objeto de trabajo y conceptualización de los Sistemas de Información Audiovisual de la Televisión Defining the object of work and conceptualizing TV Audiovisual Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés-Carmen Póveda-López

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se define el objeto de trabajo documental en los sistemas de información audiovisual de la televisión, partiendo de las distintas definiciones aportadas por los principales autores e instituciones sobre los conceptos de audiovisual, imagen en movimiento, sonido, documentación audiovisual, información audiovisual y documento audiovisual. Se llega así, por medio de la cuantificación y el análisis de las ideas y conceptos más repetidos en las definiciones analizadas, a definir un "Documento televisivo de imagen en movimiento".The object of documentary work in visual information systems on TV is defined on the basis of the various ideas provided by leading authors and institutions about the concepts of audiovisual, moving image, sound, audiovisual documentation, audiovisual information and audiovisual document. This takes us through quantification and analysis of the most recurrent ideas and concepts discussed in the studied definitions.

  17. Envidia, carcoma del alma: escorzo psico-literario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA SÁNCHEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde Aristóteles hasta Castilla del Pino, desde Covarrubias hasta María Zambrano, desde el clasicismo grecolatino a la modernidad de los Simposiums de Psicología y Psicoanálisis, el tema de la envidia ha sido objeto de análisis. Tan sutiles matices provienen de la filosofía como de la psicología, de la literatura como de la clínica. La envidia es sometida a la mirada benevolente que exige su rango de emoción universal humana, derivada de la alteridad, la comparación y la autovaloración negativa, así como de la deficiente instalación narcisística y el anhelo de suplantación del otro idealizado. La envidia es antesala del odio y de un cortejo de expresiones interpersonales y sociales muy variadas y sibilinas. Anida, incluso, tras el choque de civilizaciones generador de los más atroces y destructivos episodios de fanatismo terrorista recientemente padecidos en nuestro mundo.

  18. Información sobre las secuelas y futuros riesgos para los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma Information on late effects and future risks for retinoblastoma survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    Los índices de sobrevida de los pacientes con cáncer en la infancia han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Se observan secuelas como consecuencia de esta enfermedad y su tratamiento. Los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma presentan efectos adversos como consecuencia de la cirugía, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia. Las formas bilaterales irradiadas presentan un riesgo aumentado de desarrollar un segundo cáncer. Tanto los casos que presentaron retinoblastoma unilateral o bilateral pueden transmi...

  19. INFORME DEL ANÁLISIS DE COSTES REALIZADO SOBRE LOS ENSAYOS REALIZADOS EN LABORATORIOS DE CONTROL DE EDIFICACIÓN SOBRE HORMIGÓN Y ACERO.

    OpenAIRE

    ARAGÓN IZQUIERDO, PATRICIA

    2013-01-01

    El presente Trabajo Final de Carrera analiza en profundidad el proceso de elaboración de los ensayos de Hormigón y Acero realizados en los Laboratorios de Control de Edificación. Al analizar el proceso de elaboración se han determinado los costes a los que se enfrentan estos Laboratorios en cada una de las etapas del proceso que determina la normativa, siendo el estudio de dichos costes el objeto principal del proyecto. Así pues una de las tareas principales para poder realizar este anális...

  20. Sistema informático para la gestión de los planes de ingreso a la educación media y superior en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Ernesto Acosta Ortíz; Daylenis Sánchez Delgado

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es presentar un sistema de gestión de los planes de ingreso a la educación media y superior en Cuba, el cual automatiza los procesos de recopilación de información, así como los algoritmos de asignación del ingreso que se desarrolla en el Departamento de Fuerza de Trabajo Calificada del Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Este departamento se encarga de gestionar los procesos de formación y empleo de la fuerza de trabajo calificada en el país; forma parte del Sis...

  1. Los adolescentes y los estigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Janin, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se desarrolla el tema de los diagnósticos tempranos en los que se rotula a un niño como deficitario y de las dificultades de los adolescentes que llegan a esa etapa crítica de la vida portando algún “cartel" que los señala como un “sindrome" o un “trastorno de...". Este estigma suele dificultarles el rearmado narcisista, la relación con el grupo de pares y la salida exogámica. Se habla de la crisis adolescente y de los avatares particulares de la sexualidad en estos casos. ...

  2. Observaciones sobre chamanismo y el rito del bautismo entre los Ava-Katu-Ete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Florencio Centurion Mereles

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La cultura Ava-Katu-Ete, los menos estudiados en el Paraguay pero en contraste los que han logrado una mayor compenetración con la sociedad nacional, es una cultura de la palabra. Y como alma y palabra son la misma cosa, al ser producto del contacto con los Dioses, son palabras verdaderas, por eso en el ritual del bautismo es donde el chamán a través de la imposición del nombre del monte que realiza la unión del niño con la naturaleza y, pasa a tener su nombre-alma. En esta cultura centrada en la palabra, el chamán cumple un papel fundamental, al ser los elegidos por los Dioses para a través de los sueños recibir las palabras sagradas que indican el camino verdadero, el camino de la perfección, aspiración última Ava-Katu-Ete

  3. Clásicos colombianos: Historia de una alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Caparroso

    1960-12-01

    Full Text Available El doctor José María Samper (1828-1888 fue uno de nuestros más fecundos y múltiples escritores de la pasada centuria. Hombre de intensa y dramática acción política, y literato en el sentido más amplio de la palabra, representa algo así como un símbolo muy cabal de lo que fueron nuestros antepasados ilustres de la segunda generación de la República, la mayor parte de los cuales solían manejar, alternativamente, la espada del guerrero, la pluma del letrado y el verbo encendido ele la elocuencia tribunicia.

  4. LOS SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA (SIG, UNA GRAN HERRAMIENTA PARA LA SILVICULTURA URBANA GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS, A GREAT TOOL FOR URBAN SYLVICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodán Andrés Otaya Burbano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Como una fase piloto, para adquirir experiencia, definir metodologías y determinar las ventajas de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG al ser aplicados en la Silvicultura Urbana, se realizó el inventario, diagnóstico, propuesta de manejo y valoración económica del Bosque Urbano del barrio La Magnolia del Municipio de Envigado, Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Para el manejo y análisis de los registros recolectados en campo, se diseñó una base de datos en el software Microsoft Access®. Se ubicaron las especies inventariadas en mapas digitales y se analizó la condición de las mismas por medio de algunas herramientas y extensiones de la arquitectura tecnológica ArcGISÒ 8.3 en cuanto a: características, tratamientos silviculturales requeridos y conflictos con el entorno. Como resultado se determinó que el SIG del Bosque Urbano realizado para un barrio en particular se convierte en una herramienta que le permite a las autoridades ambientales y a investigadores interesados, tener acceso fácil y ágil de la información almacenada en él; permite realizar la programación de las actividades silviculturales requeridas, tener una visión general del Bosque Urbano de acuerdo a la infraestructura del barrio, apoyada con las fotografías del sector, para una mayor ilustración; permite además la inclusión o eliminación de información de una manera rápida y sencilla, facilitando así la toma de decisiones con relación al manejo del arbolado urbano y a la comparación con otros estudios similares.As a pilot phase, to acquire experience, define methodologies, and determine the advantages of Geographical Information Systems (GIS for applying to Urban Silviculture, an inventory, diagnosis, management plan and economic appraisal were made for the Urban Forest in the Magnolia neighborhood of the Envigado Municipality, Department of Antioquia, Colombia. For the management and analysis of the data collected in field, a database

  5. The ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S): I. The massive end of the z=4 main sequence of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, C; Leiton, R; Elbaz, D; Wang, T; Okumura, K; Labbé, I

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S), a systematic ALMA survey of all the known galaxies with stellar mass (M*) larger than 5e10 Msun at 3.5ALMA at 890um (180um rest-frame) with an on-source integration time of 1.3 min per galaxy. We detect 32% of the sample at more than 3 sigma significance. Using the stacked ALMA and Herschel photometry, we derive an average dust temperature of 40+/-2 K for the whole sample, and extrapolate the Lir and SFR for all our galaxies based on their ALMA flux. We then use a forward modeling approach to estimate their intrinsic sSFR distribution, deconvolved of measurement errors and selection effects: we find a linear relation between SFR and M*, with a median sSFR=2.8+/-0.8 Gyr and a dispersion around that relation of 0.28+/-0.13 dex. This latter value is consistent with that measured at lower redshifts, which is proof that the main ...

  6. Quiescent Prominences in the Era of ALMA: Simulated Observations Using the 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Mackay, Duncan H.; Anzer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence-corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  7. Informática, Derecho y Documentación. Experiencias y posibilidades de aplicación de los lenguajes de marcado de texto (SGML, HTML y XML) a los documentos jurídicos

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales Flores, Tomás; Martín Galán, Bonifacio; Arellano Pardo, María del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Los lenguajes de marcado de texto pueden ser contemplados como una tecnología complementaria o alternativa a las bases de datos documentales convencionales, presentando ventajas notables sobre éstas para la gestión de colecciones de documentos extensos, con estructura compleja y variable y abundantes referencias cruzadas, como es el caso de los documentos jurídicos. Se exponen experiencias de tratamiento y difusión de documentación jurídica en diversos países, haciendo uso de leng...

  8. The Alma-Bacon County Story: A Model for Rural America. Committee Print, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session, July 24, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Robert E.

    Designed to illustrate the revitalization process of a small rural community via use of the Model Cities Program, this case study of Alma-Bacon County, Georgia traces Alma-Bacon's: (1) historical background; (2) community development beginnings; (3) political development; (4) outstanding problems; and (5) development plans and accomplishments…

  9. Avaliação de modelos de estimativa da radiação solar incidente em Cruz das Almas, Bahia Evaluating models for estimation of incoming solar radiation in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria P. Borges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos agroambientais a radiação solar incidente (Rs é uma das mais importantes variáveis meteorológicas. Na ausência de dados observados de Rs é possível estimá-los mediante modelos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar modelos baseados na temperatura do ar para estimativa diária de Rs nas condições do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia. Utilizaram-se dados de Rs do período de 2004 a 2006, medidos por uma estação meteorológica automática pertencente ao INMET, instalada em Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Como etapa preliminar, verificou-se a qualidade dos dados de Rs tomando-se como referência curvas de radiação esperada em dias claros. Os seguintes modelos foram avaliados: Hargreaves-Samani para regiões interiores e regiões costeiras, Thornton-Running e o de Weiss. O desempenho de cada método foi avaliado através dos seguintes indicadores: coeficiente de determinção (R², razão média (RM, erro absoluto médio (EAM, raiz quadrada do quadrado médio do erro (RQME e índice de concordância de Wilmott (dW. Os resultados obtidos recomendam o modelo de Hargreaves-Samani para regiões costeiras por apresentar o valor de RM mais próximo de 1 (1,01, menor EAM (2,54 MJ m-2 d-1, menor RQME (3,13 MJ m-2 d-1 e o maior dW (0,90.Solar radiation at the earth's surface (Rs is one of the essential weather variables for several agro-environmental studies. In the absence of measured Rs, it's possible to simulate them by models. Using three years of daily Rs data (2004-2006 collected by an INMET (Brazilian Meteorological Service automatic weather station installed in the municipality of Cruz das Almas, BA, three air temperature-based Rs simulation models were evaluated. As a preliminary step, data quality was investigated and, when needed, adjustments were made based on clear sky solar radiation envelopes. The following models were evaluated: Hargreaves-Samani for both interior and coastal regions, Thornton-Running, and the Weiss model. Linear

  10. La evaluación de software educativo en el escenario de la evolución de los paradigmas informáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles MARTÍNEZ RUIZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Progresivamente se incrementa el número de paquetes de software educativo disponibles y en las revistas se anuncia courseware para todas las áreas de conocimiento del ámbito educativo. El coste económico de los programas puede ser considerable por lo que la optimización de la toma de decisiones en las adquisiciones es uno de los nudos clave en el mundo de la enseñanza basada o asistida con ordenador. El problema con que se enfrentan los profesores en la selección del software no viene solucionado por las referencias, más o menos, subjetivas que aparecen en diversas revistas, es por ello que el diseño de un modelo de definición y evaluación de courseware responde a la necesidad de objetivización de las decisiones de elección de los programas informáticos más adecuados al contexto educativo. El objeto de este artículo es la propuesta de un modelo de definición y evaluación de software educativo que permita la comparación de paquetes y dé respuesta a las actuales necesidades del aula. El modelo incluye unas amplias categorías, que posteriormente se subdividen en apartados más concretos. Las áreas básicas se refieren a las características técnicas del material informático, al contexto, al diseño instruccional, a la tipología de la relación interactiva y a la configuración de la evaluación.ABSTRACT: The number of software packets available is increasing progressively and in journals courseware is announced for all áreas of knowledge in the educational range. The economic cost of the programs can be considerable; thus optimizing decision- making on acquisitions is one of the key problems in the world of computer based or assisted teaching. The problem teachers are faced with when selecting software is not solved by the more or less subjective references that appear in different  journals, henee the designing of a model for the definition and evaluation of courseware answers the need to objectify the decisions

  11. Informe de Amnesty Internacional. La pena de muerte en los Estados Unidos de América Una cuestión que atañe a los profesionales de la salud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Amnesty Internacional

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available En los primeros nueve meses de 1986 fueron ejecutados dieciséis hombres en los EE.UU. Más de 1.700 reclusos están a la espera de la ejecución en 33 de los 37 Estados cuya legislación prevé la pena de muerte; algunos llevan hasta doce años en esta situación. A partir de la década de 1930, en que se dio la máxima frecuencia de la aplicación de la pena capital', hubo un descenso gradual de la misma hasta 1967, en que entró en vigor una moratoria para las ejecuciones, después de que se argumentara jurídicamente que la pena de muerte era una «pena cruel y excepcional» y, por tanto, inconstitucional. En 1972, el Tribunal Supremo de los EE.UU. declaró, por cinco votos a favor y cuatro en contra, la inconstitucionalidad de la pena de muerte en tres recursos interpuestos ante el mismo.

  12. Productividad y Visibilidad Científica de los Profesores Funcionarios de las Universidades Públicas Españolas en el Área de Tecnologías Informáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Ibañez, Alfonso; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga Múgica, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Este informe describe y analiza de una manera estructurada, la productividad y visibilidad científica internacional de los profesores (Catedrático de Universidad (CU), Titular de Universidad (TU), Catedrático de Escuela Universitaria (CEU) y Titular de Escuela Universitaria (TEU)) de las universidades públicas españolas adscritos a las áreas de conocimiento de Arquitectura y Tecnología de los Computadores (ATC), Ciencia de la Computación e Inteligencia Artificial (CCIA), y Lenguajes y Sistema...

  13. Factores que influyen, en la implementación de las recomendaciones de los informes de control en las municipalidades de los distritos de Cañaris, Incahuasi y Pueblo Nuevo, de la provincia de Ferreñafe, departamento de Lambayeque, 2008-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Mundaca, Jony Alduvar

    2016-01-01

    De mi experiencia laboral, encuentro que la gestión pública en general y la gestión municipal en particular, vienen mostrando debilidades en la implementación de las recomendaciones formuladas en los informes de auditoría de los órganos del Sistema Nacional de Control; por lo que la presente investigación tiene como objetivo identificar aquellos factores que influyen -facilitan o limitan, favorecen o desfavorecen- en hacer efectiva la referida adopción de medidas; que para el caso se ha c...

  14. 甲码(Alma)全力抢滩中国造船市场%Alma full ahead in the China Shipbuilding market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    二十五年来,以生产切割、套料、排序软件著称的甲码(Alma)始终活跃于国际造船市场。早在八十年代初期,“海洋君主号”远洋客轮就已开始使用上述软件。多年的发展,甲码(Alma)迅速成为业内知名企业,并在造船和近海作业平台等领域屡有斩获,从而一举奠定了欧洲市场的领先地位。甲码中国(AlmaChina)作为Alma于2007年在中国上海设立的子公司,

  15. Thirty years of Alma Ata pledges: is devolution in Pakistan an opportunity for rekindling primary health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Babar T; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Pappas, Gregory

    2007-05-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata Conference presented the manifesto to attain global health for the next century by providing basic health care aimed at the urban and rural poor of the developing world. While the goals of Alma Ata were noble, they were untenable. Today, developing countries face serious issues of equity in health care delivery and fairness in health care management with even a greater need to transform the management systems and practice. Primary health care remains a cornerstone of building the capacity of health systems. Devolution in health sector in Pakistan seems like a chance to re-exert Alma Ata agenda. To achieve the millennium development goals by 2015, revitalization and effective implementation of primary health care will be a vital reform.

  16. The Impacts of ALMA Primary Variables on Profitability An Empirical Study of Indonesian Banking (13-32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto Jumono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of liquidity on BEP and ROE in Indonesian banking industry. The supporting theory in this study is ALMA theory. Based on annual data for the period 2001-2014 and following purposive sampling technique, the acquired amount of sample study is 97 banks. The data is analyzed using panel data regression of GMM Arrelano Bond, as a novelty in data processing, therefore the speed of adjustment can be known. The ALMA variables such as LAR, capital, leverage, operating expenses, interest income, and CAR sensitivity have a significant effect on BEP and ROE. Meanwhile LDR, NPL, the FBI have no impact on profitability. The implication of this study is the fact that banking performance in Indonesia can be leveled up through the reduction in mortgage interest rates and increment of credit volume and FBI. Keywords: Bank,ALMA,BEP,ROE,LAR,LDR,NPL,Capital

  17. Los insomnios

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi Tan, Yuri; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    Los insomnios/El sueño normal/Otros trastornos de sueño que producen insomnio pero también hipersomnio (excesiva somnolencia diurna)/Manejo y tratamiento de los insomnios/Higiene del sueño/Instrucciones para la higiene del sueño/Técnicas conductuales/Terapia farmacológica.

  18. Probing turbulent, magnetized star formation with ALMA observations and next-generation AREPO simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley K.; Miquel Girart, Josep; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Cortes, Paulo; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The first polarization data from ALMA have been delivered, and are both expanding and confounding our understanding of the role of magnetic fields in low-mass star formation. Here I will show the highest resolution and highest sensitivity polarization images ever made of a Class 0 protostellar source. These new ALMA observations of the source, known as Ser-emb 8, achieve 140 AU resolution, allowing us to probe polarization -- and thus magnetic field orientation -- in the innermost regions surrounding the protostar. The collapse of strongly magnetized dense gas is predicted to pinch the magnetic field into an hourglass shape that persists down to scales <100 AU. However, in contrast with more than 50 years of theory, the ALMA data definitively rule out an hourglass morphology and instead reveal a chaotic magnetic field that has not been inherited from the field in the interstellar medium surrounding the source. We have simulated the star formation process with cutting-edge, moving-mesh AREPO simulations on scales from a million AU (5 pc) down to 60 AU. We find that only in the case of a very strong magnetic field (~100 microgauss on 5 pc scales) is the field direction preserved from cloud to disk scales. When the field is weak, turbulence in the interstellar gas shapes the field on large scales, and the forming star system re-shapes the field again on small scales, divorcing the field from its history on larger scales. We conclude that this is what has happened in Ser-emb 8. The main distinction from the strong-field star formation model is that in the weak-field case it is turbulence -- not the magnetic field -- that shapes the material that forms the protostar.

  19. ALMA Resolves the Torus of NGC 1068: Continuum and Molecular Line Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Usero, A.; Krips, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Aalto, S.; Casasola, V.; Hunt, L. K.; Martín, S.; Viti, S.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Márquez, I.; Neri, R.; Schinnerer, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2016-05-01

    We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 μm continuum emission from the 300 pc sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of ˜4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and, for the first time, image the dust emission, the molecular gas distribution, and the kinematics from a 7-10 pc diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near- and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY torus models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: {M}{{gas}}{{torus}}=(1+/- 0.3)× {10}5 {M}⊙ and R torus = 3.5 ± 0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show strong non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on a surprisingly slow rotation pattern of the disk. By contrast with the nearly edge-on orientation of the H2O megamaser disk, we found evidence suggesting that the molecular torus is less inclined (i = 34°-66°) at larger radii. The lopsided morphology and complex kinematics of the torus could be the signature of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability, long predicted to likely drive the dynamical evolution of active galactic nuclei tori.

  20. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF SPT-DISCOVERED, STRONGLY LENSED, DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezaveh, Y. D. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Bothwell, M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vieira, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aravena, M.; De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 {mu}m imaging of four high-redshift (z = 2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.''5 resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1''-3'', consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z = 5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} and star formation surface density of 4200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, with lens Einstein radii of 1.''1-2.''0 and Einstein enclosed masses of 1.6-7.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. These observations confirm the lensing origin of these objects, allow us to measure their intrinsic sizes and luminosities, and demonstrate the important role that ALMA will play in the interpretation of lensed submillimeter sources.

  1. Alma-Ata 30 years on: revolutionary, relevant, and time to revitalise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Rohde, Jon; Rifkin, Susan; Were, Miriam; Paul, Vinod K; Chopra, Mickey

    2008-09-13

    In this paper, we revisit the revolutionary principles-equity, social justice, and health for all; community participation; health promotion; appropriate use of resources; and intersectoral action-raised by the 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration, a historic event for health and primary health care. Old health challenges remain and new priorities have emerged (eg, HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases, and mental health), ensuring that the tenets of Alma-Ata remain relevant. We examine 30 years of changes in global policy to identify the lessons learned that are of relevance today, particularly for accelerated scale-up of primary health-care services necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the modern iteration of the "health for all" goals. Health has moved from under-investment, to single disease focus, and now to increased funding and multiple new initiatives. For primary health care, the debate of the past two decades focused on selective (or vertical) versus comprehensive (horizontal) delivery, but is now shifting towards combining the strengths of both approaches in health systems. Debates of community versus facility-based health care are starting to shift towards building integrated health systems. Achievement of high and equitable coverage of integrated primary health-care services requires consistent political and financial commitment, incremental implementation based on local epidemiology, use of data to direct priorities and assess progress, especially at district level, and effective linkages with communities and non-health sectors. Community participation and intersectoral engagement seem to be the weakest strands in primary health care. Burgeoning task lists for primary health-care workers require long-term human resource planning and better training and supportive supervision. Essential drugs policies have made an important contribution to primary health care, but other appropriate technology lags behind. Revitalisng Alma-Ata and learning from three

  2. ALMA IMAGING OF MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM EMISSION IN ORION KL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181–8588 (Japan); Kim, Mi Kyoung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong 61-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We have carried out high-resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) of continuum emission from the Orion Kleinmann–Low (KL) region. We identify 11 compact sources at ALMA band 6 (245 GHz) and band 7 (339 GHz), including the Hot Core, Compact Ridge, SMA1, IRc4, IRc7, and a radio source I (Source I). A spectral energy distribution (SED) of each source is determined by using previous 3 mm continuum emission data. Physical properties such as size, mass, hydrogen number density, and column density are discussed based on the dust graybody SED. Among 11 identified sources, Source I, a massive protostar candidate, is a dominant energy source in Orion KL. We extensively investigate its SED from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths. The SED of Source I can be fitted with a single power-law index of 1.97, suggesting an optically thick emission. We employ the H{sup −} free–free emission as an opacity source of this optically thick emission. The temperature, density, and mass of the circumstellar disk associated with Source I are constrained by the SED of H{sup −} free–free emission. Still, the fitting result shows a significant deviation from the observed flux densities. Combined with the thermal dust graybody SED to explain excess emission at higher frequency, a smaller power-law index of 1.60 for the H{sup −} free–free emission is obtained in the SED fitting. The power-law index smaller than two would suggest a compact source size or a clumpy structure unresolved with the present study. Future higher resolution observations with ALMA are essential to reveal more detailed spatial structure and physical properties of Source I.

  3. Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欣; 傅丽清; 樊秋晓; 曾莲蓉; 麦慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛的临床效果.方法 对157例患者采用Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛仪进行脱毛治疗,波长810 nm,脉冲宽度400 ms,光斑大小10 mm×12 mm,能量密度10 J/cm2(冰点模式),频率10 Hz,统计不同部位的累计能量、治疗间隔、治疗次数,观察治疗中患者的疼痛感、不良反应、再生毛发的情况,治疗终结半年后观察最终效果.结果 157例患者经过4~10次的治疗,治愈151例,显效6例.每次治疗后再生的毛发均变细、变稀疏、颜色变浅.治疗操作的时间短,治疗中患者的疼痛感不明显,未观察到明显并发症.结论 Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛安全、有效,操作时间短,患者疼痛感轻,无明显并发症.

  4. Examen de los informes presentados por los estados partes de conformidad con el artículo 19 de la Convención: segundos informes periódicos que los Estados Partes debían presentar en 1992 Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONU Comité Contra la Tortura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: La aplicación directa de la Convención en derecho interno.  Ausencia de un tipo delictual independiente nominado tortura. Medidas legislativas proyectadas para evitar la ocurrencia de tortura en los centros de detención. Medidas administrativas encaminadas a prevenir la tortura. Medidas impulsadas por sectores no gubernamentales. La eximiente de obediencia debida en el derecho uruguayo. La definición de tortura. La represión actual de las conductas que implican tortura. Severidad de la pena. La iniciativa del Estado en materia de educación. La ética médica. Período de detención administrativa. Internación carcelaria. El motín de 1993

  5. Evaluación de la práctica clínica del Consentimiento Informado en los ensayos clínicos Evaluation of the clinical practice of Informed Consent in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gost

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de las publicaciones existentes parece lícito suponer que en un ensayo clínico (EC, las dificultades inherentes al proceso de comunicación investigador-participante son en la práctica mayores que las deseadas. Se asume asimismo la hipótesis de que existen deficiencias en la legibilidad formal de los documentos de consentimiento informado. Se presentan los resultados de un estudio transversal realizado en una muestra aleatoria (n= 160 de los EC aprobados por el CEIC de Navarra durante los años 1995-1999. Los resultados encontrados (en el 69,7% de los casos el investigador archiva la documentación correspondiente al EC, el CI aparece firmado por el investigador en el 56,6% de los EC, y en más del 83% de los casos la información escrita presenta una deficiente legibilidad confirman la bondad de la hipótesis y detectan áreas de mejora a desarrollar.On the basis of existing publications it would seem legitimate to assume that in a clinical test (CT the difficulties inherent in the process of researcher-participant communication are in practice greater than desired. Similarly, the hypothesis is adopted that difficulties exist in the formal legibility of the documents of Informed Consent. We present the results of a transversal study made of a random sample (n=160 of the CTs approved by the Ethical Committee of Clinical Research (CEIC of Navarra during the years 1995-1999. The results found were: in 69.7% of the cases the researcher filed the documents corresponding to the CT, the Informed Consent appears signed by the researcher in 56.6% of the CTs, and in more than 83% of the cases the written information shows shortcomings in legibility, which confirms the correctness of the hypothesis and permits the detection of areas where improvements need to be developed.

  6. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Request for Information from industrial entities that desire to commercialize Laboratory-developed Extremely Low Resource Optical Identifier (ELROI) tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Michael Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) is the manager and operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LANS is a mission-centric Federally Funded Research and Development Center focused on solving the most critical national security challenges through science and engineering for both government and private customers.

  7. Revealing H2D+ depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.;

    2014-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H2D+ 110-111 emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within...... hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H2D+) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ~ 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless...

  8. Del ENIAC, hasta los andares

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Si bien los computadores actuales, en todas sus variantes —portátiles, tabletas, teléfonos inteligentes—, resultan más pequeños, baratos y rápidos que los precedentes, no es menos cierto que el estudio minucioso de las viejas glorias de la historia de la informática nos puede facilitar la comprensión, no solo de algunos de los aspectos de la tecnología informática de aquel momento e incluso de la actual, sino también de los rasgos socioculturales propios del entorno científico y huma...

  9. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  10. AlmaViva Teatro: clásicos desde el compromiso

    OpenAIRE

    Olivas Fuentes, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la trayectoria de la compañía AlmaViva Teatro y su trabajo con la puesta en escena del teatro aurisecular. Estos montajes están basados no solo en la reivindicación de la actualidad del propio texto o el mensaje de compromiso social que pueda transmitir al espectador del siglo xxi con respecto a su propio contexto, sino también en la apuesta por espacios escénicos no convencionales que resignifican el texto y lo conectan aún más con la concepción colectiva del Teatro. Pal...

  11. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira (o Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. T.; Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High angular resolution (sub)millimetre observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, now possible with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), allow direct imaging of these objects' photospheres. The physical properties of the molecular material around these regions, which until now has only been studied by imaging of maser emission and spatially unresolved absorption spectroscopy, can be probed with radiative transfer modelling and compared to hydrodynamical model predictions. The prototypical Mira variable, o Cet (Mira), was observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, offering the first opportunity to study these physical conditions in detail. Aims: With the longest baseline of 15 km, ALMA produces clearly resolved images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. Models are constructed for Mira's extended atmosphere to investigate the physics and molecular abundances therein. Methods: We imaged the data of 28SiO ν= 0, 2J = 5-4 and H2O v2 = 1JKa,Kc = 55,0-64,3 transitions and extracted spectra from various lines of sight towards Mira's extended atmosphere. In the course of imaging the emission/absorption, we encountered ambiguities in the resulting images and spectra that appear to be related to the performance of the CLEAN algorithm when applied to a combination of extended emission, and compact emission and absorption. We addressed these issues by a series of tests and simulations. We derived the gas density, kinetic temperature, molecular abundance, and outflow/infall velocities in Mira's extended atmosphere by modelling the SiO and H2O lines. Results: We resolve Mira's millimetre continuum emission and our data are consistent with a radio photosphere with a brightness temperature of 2611 ± 51 K. In agreement with recent results obtained with the Very Large Array, we do not confirm the existence of a compact region (codex, can

  12. [Can strategy for primary health care be revitalized 30 years after Alma-Ata?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Stine; Probst, Helene Bilsted; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-12-06

    Thirty years ago the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health care was developed. Implementation has been compounded by inadequate financing, changing disease patterns and immature health systems, and there is an ongoing discussion between selective and comprehensive primary health care supporters. Globally, child mortality for under-five-year-olds has been reduced by 50%, but there are still large regional differences. This year the WHO development report is about revitalisation of the primary health care strategy. Recognition of this strategy may be the best instrument to improve health globally.

  13. ALMA view of the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Kenta; Tsuboi, Masato; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of filament-finding in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.

  14. ALMA view of the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Uehara, Kenta; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of "filament-finding" in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.

  15. Cross-polarization in quasi-optical receivers: ALMA band 4 and 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.

    2012-09-01

    A careful study about the influence of individual optical components on receiver cross-polarization has been performed. The basic mechanisms of generation of cross-polarization in ellipsoidal mirrors and dielectrics have been reviewed and characterized in terms of higher-order Gaussian beam modes. A simple model considering the phase differences of different Gaussian beam modes is proposed in order to calculate the final system cross-polarization pattern. This model has been successfully used to characterize the total cross-polarization in two cryogenically-cooled receivers for astronomy: ALMA band 4 and band 10.

  16. ALMA Observations of Orion Source I at 350 and 660 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Plambeck, R L

    2016-01-01

    Orion Source I ('SrcI') is the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann-Low Nebula. ALMA observations of SrcI at 350 and 660 GHz failed to detect the H26$\\alpha$ and H21$\\alpha$ recombination lines, ruling out the possibility that SrcI is a hypercompact HII region. The deconvolved size of the continuum source is approximately 0.23 x 0.05" (100 x 20 AU); it is interpreted as a disk viewed almost edge-on. The continuum flux density is proportional to $\

  17. A dor de amor na medicina da alma da primeira modernidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o problema da dor de amor nos diferentes campos do saber que compunham a medicina da alma da primeira modernidade. Deu-se especial destaque às reflexões do médico francês Jacques Ferrand (1575-1623 sobre o caráter instável, ilusório e faltoso do amor. Conclui-se que a dor de amor exige pensar as relações entre os afetos e o corpo, além de desafiar as próprias categorias diagnósticas e os tratamentos tradicionais.

  18. Contrafuegos o el resurgimiento de los núcleos agrarios. (Reflexiones a propósito del V informe de Gobierno - Región Valle de Bravo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zamorano Camiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La precarización de la vida campesina en los núcleos agrarios de la región Valle de Bravo puede ser remontada reactivando su estructura legal de organización. Esta constituye un importante activo de los actores colectivos que ha sido olvidado por los gobiernos y que debe ser movilizado como capital social para fomentar el desarrollo local. El núcleo agrario de Bosencheve, en el municipio de Villa de Allende fue la sede elegida por el Lic. Arturo Montiel Rojas para informar de los efectos de su gestión gubernamental en la región Valle de Bravo, que comprende a los municipios de Amanalco, Donato Guerra, Ixtapan del Oro, Otzoloapan, Santo Tomás, Valle de Bravo, Villa de Allende, Villa Victoria y Zacazonapan. Esta elección singular de la sede (un núcleo agrario, relacionada con el dato de COESPO-INEGI (2000 acerca del elevado grado de marginación (1.35 que padecen los habitantes de la región Valle de Bravo nos sugiere hacer con nuestros lectores las reflexiones que siguen.

  19. Los Cactos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Paredes Antonio

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available El Cacto Cactus es uno de los géneros de plantas de la familia de las Cacteas Nopaleas que contiene muchas especies y variedades todas de formas extrañas, propias de la América intertropical y que habitan en los climas fríos y templados, en terrenos secos y estériles, desde el norte de Méjico hasta la Patagonia. Algunos cactos se cultivan por sus frutos que son sanosy sabrosos, otros como plantas ornamentales en los parques y jardines, otros como auxiliares para la industria, como los nopales en los que se cría la Cochinilla, insecto de la familia de los Hemípteros que produce la laca o carmín, materia colorante indispensable en la pintura al óleo y la acuarela, y por último, hoy están en moda y se cultivan con esmero una gran variedad de diminutos cactos exóticosque se mantienen sobre arena húmeda en pequeñas maceteras de porcelana, en los lugares más visibles de las habitaciones.

  20. Informed consent document in gastrointestinal endoscopy: understanding and acceptance by patients Estudio del grado de entendimiento y aceptación por nuestros pacientes de los consentimientos informados utilizados para endoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vila

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: we wanted to know if patients read and understand the informed consent (IC document used for endoscopic procedures, and to evaluate the readability of IC. Method: during two months we gave patients studied in our endoscopy unit an anonymous questionnaire with different items concerning reading degree, knowledge of the technique, complications, sedation used, and information received. We evaluated IC readability using the Flesch index. Results: 309 patients were included (mean age: 53 years, 55% males, 86% outpatients, 50% with basic education; 85% of patients read the IC, 96% considered they understood the exploration technique, 22% were not aware of severe complications, and 82% knew which kind of sedation would be used; 88% of patients received additional information from their doctors. Outpatients read the IC in a greater percentage versus inpatients (p Objetivo: conocer si los pacientes estudiados en nuestra unidad de endoscopia leen y comprenden el documento de consentimiento informado. Conocer la legibilidad de dichos consentimientos informados. Método: entregamos a los pacientes estudiados endoscopicamente en nuestra unidad un cuestionario acerca del grado de lectura del consentimiento informado, conocimiento de la técnica endoscópica, complicaciones, sedación utilizada e información recibida. Valoramos la legibilidad de nuestros consentimientos informados mediante el índice de Flesch. Resultados: 309 pacientes fueron incluidos (edad media: 53 años, 55% varones. El 85% de los pacientes se había leído el consentimiento informado, el 96% conocían la técnica endoscópica, 15,2% no conocían el riesgo de complicaciones graves durante la exploración. El 82% sabía qué tipo de sedación iba a recibir. El 88% recibieron información adicional por sus médicos. Los pacientes con estudios básicos tendieron a desconocer la posibilidad de complicaciones (p < 0,05. Los médicos aportaron más información a los pacientes de

  1. Uso de los sistemas de información documental en la educación superior: estado del arte Use of the Documental Information Systems in Higher Education: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Naranjo Vélez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que los Sistemas de Información Documental (SID cumplen un papel mediador en los procesos de enseñanza y de aprendizaje en la educación superior, se presenta el estado del arte que da cuenta de la necesidad de abordar este tema a partir de la relación entre la didáctica y la bibliotecología, para encontrar fuentes bibliográficas que permitan sustentar teóricamente una estrategia didáctica para enseñar a usar los SID a los profesores, y así estos los utilicen y puedan enseñar datos e información generando conocimiento, superando la memorización y repetición en los estudiantes. A partir de un enfoque hermenéutico que posibilita mostrar el avance y las tendencias del tema en diferentes países, se acude al proceso de búsqueda, recuperación, selección y evaluación de los documentos disponibles en bases de datos, bibliotecas, sitios Web, buscadores y repositorios, etc. Con los documentos seleccionados, se realiza el análisis, comprensión, interpretación y una posterior síntesis, que se presenta en este artículo, de manera concreta resaltando la metodología empleada y los resultados obtenidos; pues se comprueba que los SID con la connotación que se le da en este escrito, apenas comienzan a ser tratados como medios y espacio didáctico, ya que en gran parte al aludir al uso de la información, se centran en las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación -TIC- con énfasis en Internet y los buscadores.Taking into account that the Documental Information Systems (DIS have a role of mediator in the teaching and learning processes in higher education, a state of the art that shows the need to talk about this topic is presented here starting from the relation between the didactics and the library science in order to find bibliographic sources that allow to theoretically support an strategy to teach professors how to use the DIS, so that they can effectively use them and teach data and information, generating

  2. El tráfico norteamericano en Tenerife a finales del siglo XVIII a través de los informes consulares franceses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Santana Pérez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende hacer un estudio de la navegación de Tenerofe a finales del siglo XVIII, en concreto durante las décadas de los 80 v 90 de esa centuria, centrado en uno de sus aspectos: los tratos que mantenía esta isla con Norteamérica. Para ello hemos manejado fundamentalmente las fuentes consulares francesas que hoy en día se encuentran en los Archivos Nacionales Franceses. Es por eso que analizamos las entradas de embarcaciones de esta nacionalidad, comparándolas con las de otros Estados, cuáles eran las mercancías que se traían y cuáles las que se exportaba, su importancia como transportistas, los puertos con los que se comerciaba, el valor de las mercancías, la tipología y el tonelaje de las naves, etc. En definitiva, la pretensión de este artículo, es ayudar a un mejor conocimiento de unos de los principales mercados canarios a final del siglo XVIII: los Estados Unidos.In this article we have tried to study the navigation of the island of Tenerife at the end of the eighteenth century; to be precise during the decades of the eighties and nineties. We concentrate on the trade between this island and North America, including Canada, and especially with the United States, after its recent independence. With this aim, we have consulted the National French Archives, and the news of their consuls at the Canary Islands. For this reason we study the ships' arrivals, tonnage, typology, merchandise transported and their value, the role of their maritime calls, what were their exports, the ports with which they traded, and their importance as intermediaries with other regions. Finally, we want to have more knowledge about one of the principal Canarian markets at the end of the eighteenth century.

  3. Necesidades de información de los usuarios de Atención Primaria desde la perspectiva de los profesionales sanitarios: Un estudio Delphi Information needs of patients in primary care from the perspective of health professionals: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Maderuelo-Fernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer las necesidades de información de los usuarios en relación a la oferta de servicios de Atención Primaria desde la perspectiva de los profesionales sanitarios. Métodos: Se ha utilizado la técnica Delphi como método de consenso. Se solicitó la participación de 70 expertos: 35 médicos de familia, 32 enfermeras y tres pediatras de centros de salud urbanos y rurales del Área de Salud de Salamanca, entre mayo y diciembre de 2006. Los cuestionarios estaban estructurados en seis apartados: conocimientos sobre su salud, oferta de su centro de salud, aspectos administrativos, medios de difusión, expectativas sobre información y barreras en la comunicación. Las respuestas priorizadas en el tercer cuestionario se puntuaron según una escala que otorga cinco puntos a la sentencia más importante y un punto a la seleccionada en quinto lugar. Resultados: Contestaron los tres cuestionarios 44 (62,8% expertos. Las necesidades de información más puntuadas fueron la información sobre su enfermedad (4,0 puntos, los aspectos relacionados con la responsabilidad sobre su salud (3,8 y los consejos preventivos (3,6, seguidos de aspectos relativos a la accesibilidad (4,2, urgencias (3,4, oferta de servicios de médico/a y enfermera/o (3,6 y sitios donde dirigirse para obtener información (4,0. La falta de coordinación entre niveles (4,1 y la burocratización (3,5 se consideraron barreras en la comunicación y la información. Conclusiones: Los factores identificados se centran en contenidos que permitan a los pacientes implicarse en su propio proceso y participar en la toma de decisiones que les incumben. También destacaron la información sobre los servicios y el acceso a éstos.Objective: To determine the information needed by patients in relation to the supply of primary care services from the perspective of health professionals. Methods: The Delphi technique was used as a consensus method. Seventy experts were asked to

  4. ¿Es posible comparar el empleo informal en los países de América del Sur? Análisis de su definición, clasificación y medición

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol E. Ruiz; Gemma Tarafa Orpinell; Pere Jódar Martínez; Joan Benach

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar y analizar la situación del empleo informal respecto a su definición, medición y clasificación, en los países de América del Sur. Métodos: A través de una scoping review se realizó una revisión bibliográfica a partir de cuatro bases de datos y de literatura gris, considerando informes de organismos internacionales de los 12 países de América del Sur. Se analizó la información, valorando su contenido y se establecieron similitudes entre países. Resultados: A partir...

  5. The corporative information systems and their application in the SICORP of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Los sistemas de informacion corporativa y su aplicacion en el SICORP de la Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia Lavalle, Manuel; Gonzalez Sustaeta, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Miranda Miranda, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    To be well informed sometimes is a difficult goal to reach, mainly when the companies are developed and grown at the present times rate. It is from this necessity that the Corporative Information Systems (SIC) arise. In this article a real application of a SIC in the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented, in whose conceptualization and implementation, personnel of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is participating. [Spanish] Estar bien informado a veces resulta una meta dificil de alcanzar, sobre todo cuando las empresas se desarrollan y crecen al ritmo de los tiempos actuales. Es a partir de esta necesidad que surgen los Sistemas de Informacion Corporativa (SIC). En este articulo se presenta una aplicacion real de un SIC en la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), en cuya conceptualizacion e implantacion esta participando personal del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  6. los aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Pérez Rivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se presentan algunos resultados, obtenidos hasta el momento, de un estudio sobre las prácticas de evaluación de profesores universitarios. El propósito del estudio es participar en la búsqueda de las relaciones existentes entre los conceptos y las prácticas educativas, en este caso de evaluación. Se identifican las principales tendencias en cuanto a la concepción de la evaluación del aprendizaje y las funciones que se le otorgan, los propósitos con los que se evalúa, los objetos o contenidos a evaluar, las formas en que se lleva a cabo la evaluación y el uso que se da a los resultados. Identificar cuáles son las tendencias de las prácticas de evaluación en nuestras aulas universitarias representa un paso que puede ayudar a cuidar que este proceso tan importante recobre su papel formativo para todos aquellos quienes participamos en los procesos educativos; además, representa la posibilidad de construir formas para lograr mejorar nuestra labor docente en general, y en particular, nuestra práctica evaluativa.

  7. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  8. Selection of new drill sites using a Geographic Information System (GIS) at Los Azufres, Mexico; Seleccion de nuevos sitios de perforacion empleando un Sistema de Informacion Geografica (SIG) en Los Azufres, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Estrada, G.H [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: gerardo.garcia04@cfe.gob.mx; Lopez-Hernandez, A [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Quijano Leon, J.L Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    GIS technology is used to study the effects of distance between producing wells and superficial-thermal features and faults. It is used to interpret topographic lineaments and linear-resistivity interfaces at depth to identify hidden faults. Finally, a geothermal interpretation is conducted by applying a Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method (MCE) on a comprehensive data set, including geology, geophysics, and well production data. Visual comparisons of exploratory and drilling-data maps, with thermal discharge measured from wells, were used to select variables and data ranges that could be more directly associated with energy-production levels. Relative weights assigned by visual inspection are used to extend this knowledge to the whole exploration area. Criteria are compared to calculate a geothermal index representing the geothermal-production suitability for each cell into which the study area is divided. Considering the geometry of fault planes at depths from 700 to 2000 m below the surface, and a 250 m exclusion zone around productive wells, we choose areas from the normalized-geothermal index to propose new drill sites with different levels of risk, ranging from production (low risk) to exploration (high risk) boreholes. [Spanish] Se empleo la tecnologia de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica (SIG) para estudiar el efecto de la distancia de los pozos productores a las manifestaciones termales superficiales y a las fallas, y para interpretar los lineamientos topograficos y las interfaces lineales de resistividad a profundidad para identificar fallas ocultas. Finalmente, se realizo una interpretacion geotermica aplicando un Metodo Multi-Criterio de Evaluacion (MCE) a un conjunto completo de datos que incluye geologia, geofisica y datos de produccion de pozos. Se utilizo una comparacion visual de mapas de datos de exploracion y perforacion con descargas termicas medidas en pozos, a fin de seleccionar variables y rangos de datos que podrian asociarse mas directamente

  9. An ALMA Search for Substructure, Fragmentation, and Hidden Protostars in Starless Cores in Chamaeleon I

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Pineda, Jaime E; Bourke, Tyler L; Tobin, John J; Arce, Héctor G; Chen, Xuepeng; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Lee, Katherine I; Myers, Philip C; Price, Daniel; Sadavoy, Sarah I; Schnee, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 106 GHz (Band 3) continuum survey of the complete population of dense cores in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. We detect a total of 24 continuum sources in 19 different target fields. All previously known Class 0 and Class I protostars in Chamaeleon I are detected, whereas all of the 56 starless cores in our sample are undetected. We show that the Spitzer+Herschel census of protostars in Chamaeleon I is complete, with the rate at which protostellar cores have been misclassified as starless cores calculated as <1/56, or < 2%. We use synthetic observations to show that starless cores collapsing following the turbulent fragmentation scenario are detectable by our ALMA observations when their central densities exceed ~10^8 cm^-3, with the exact density dependent on the viewing geometry. Bonnor-Ebert spheres, on the other hand, remain undetected to central densities at least as high as 10^10 cm^-3. Our starless core non-detections are used t...

  10. ALMA reveals the feeding of the Seyfert 1 nucleus in NGC 1566

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F; Casasola, V; Hunt, L; Krips, M; Baker, A J; Boone, F; Eckart, A; Marquez, I; Neri, R; Schinnerer, E; Tacconi, L J

    2014-01-01

    We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1566, at a spatial resolution of 25 pc. Our aim is to investigate the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc, and to probe nuclear fueling and feedback phenomena. NGC 1566 has a nuclear bar of 1.7 kpc radius and a conspicuous grand design spiral starting from this radius. The ALMA field of view, of diameter 0.9 kpc, lies well inside the nuclear bar and reveals a molecular trailing spiral structure of \\sim 100 pc in size, which is possibly fueling the nucleus. The spiral starts with a large pitch angle from the center and then winds up in a pseudo-ring at the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) of the nuclear bar. This is the first time that a trailing spiral structure is clearly seen driving the gas inwards inside the ILR ring of the nuclear bar. This phenomenon shows that the massive central black hole has a significant dynamical influence on the gas, triggering its fueling. The gaseous spiral is well correlated with th...

  11. ALMA observations of cool dust in a low-metallicity starburst, SBS0335-052

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Casasola, V; Garcia-Burillo, S; Combes, F; Nikutta, R; Caselli, P; Henkel, C; Maiolino, R; Menten, K M; Sauvage, M; Weiss, A

    2013-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 Band 7 observations of an extremely metal-poor dwarf starburst galaxy in the Local Universe, SBS0335-052 (12+log(O/H)~7.2). With these observations, dust is detected at 870micron (ALMA Band 7), but 87% of the flux in this band is due to free-free emission from the starburst. We have compiled a spectral energy distribution (SED) of SBS0335-052 that spans almost 6 orders of magnitude in wavelength and fit it with a spherical dust shell heated by a single-age stellar population; the best-fit model gives a dust mass of (3.8+/-0.6)x10^4 Msun. We have also constructed a SED including Herschel archival data for IZw18, another low-metallicity dwarf starburst (12+log(O/H)=7.17), and fit it with a similar model to obtain a dust mass of (3.4+/-1.0)x10^2 Msun. Compared with their atomic gas mass, the dust mass of SBS0335-052 far exceeds the prediction of a linear trend of dust-to-gas mass ratio with metallicity, while IZw18 falls far below. We use gas...

  12. Molecular Gas in the X-ray Bright Group NGC 5044 as Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    David, Laurence P; Forman, William; Vrtilek, Jan; Combes, Francoise; Salome, Philippe; Edge, Alastair; Jones, Christine; Sun, Ming; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Gastaldello, Fabio; Temi, Pasquale; Schmitt, Henrique; Ohyama, Youichi; Hamer, Stephen; Mathews, William; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Giacintucci, Simona; Bardelli, Sandro; Trung, Dinh-V

    2014-01-01

    A short 30 minute ALMA observation of the early-type galaxy NGC 5044, which resides at the center of an X-ray bright group with a moderate cooling flow, has detected 24 molecular structures within the central 2.5 kpc. The masses of the molecular structures vary from 3e5 to 1e7 Mo3 and the CO(2-1) linewidths vary from 15 to 65 km/s. Given the large CO(2-1) linewidths, the observed structures are likely giant molecular associations (GMAs) and not individual molecular clouds (GMCs). Only a few of the GMAs are spatially resolved with the cycle 0 ALMA beam and the average density of these GMAs yields a GMC volume filling factor of about 15%. The observed masses of the resolved GMAs are insufficient for them to be gravitationally bound, however, the most massive GMA does contain a less massive component with a linewidth of 5.5 km/s (typical of an individual virialized GMC). We also show that the GMAs cannot be pressure confined by the hot gas. Given the observed CO(2-1) linewidths of the GMAs (i.e., the velocity di...

  13. Resolving the stellar activity of the Mira AB binary with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; O'Gorman, E; Humphreys, E M L; Wittkowski, M; Baudry, A; Karovska, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the size, shape and flux densities at millimeter continuum wavelengths, based on ALMA science verification observations in Band 3 (~94.6 GHz) and Band 6 (~228.7 GHz), from the binary Mira A (o Ceti) and Mira B. The Mira AB system has been observed with ALMA at a spatial resolution of down to ~25 mas. The extended atmosphere of Mira A and the wind around Mira B sources are resolved and we derive the size of Mira A and of the ionized region around Mira B. The spectral indices within Band 3 (between 89-100 GHz) and between Band 3 and Band 6 are also derived. The spectral index of Mira A is found to change from 1.71+-0.05 within Band 3 to 1.54+-0.04 between Band 3 and 6. The spectral index of Mira B is 1.3+-0.2 in Band 3, in good agreement with measurements at longer wavelengths. However it rises to 1.72+-0.11 between the bands. For the first time the extended atmosphere of a star is resolved at these frequencies and for Mira A the diameter is ~3.7x2.9 AU in Band 3 (with brightness temperature Tb~6000 ...

  14. ALMA and Herschel Observations of the Prototype Dusty and Polluted White Dwarf G29-38

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Greaves, J S; Bonsor, A; Sibthorpe, B; Panić, O

    2014-01-01

    ALMA Cycle 0 and Herschel PACS observations are reported for the prototype, nearest, and brightest example of a dusty and polluted white dwarf, G29-38. These long wavelength programs attempted to detect an outlying, parent population of bodies at 1-100 AU, from which originates the disrupted planetesimal debris that is observed within 0.01 AU and which exhibits L_IR/L = 0.039. No associated emission sources were detected in any of the data down to L_IR/L ~ 1e-4, generally ruling out cold dust masses greater than 1e24 - 1e25 g for reasonable grain sizes and properties in orbital regions corresponding to evolved versions of both asteroid and Kuiper belt analogs. Overall, these null detections are consistent with models of long-term collisional evolution in planetesimal disks, and the source regions for the disrupted parent bodies at stars like G29-38 may only be salient in exceptional circumstances, such as a recent instability. A larger sample of polluted white dwarfs, targeted with the full ALMA array, has th...

  15. ALMA Science Verification Data: Millimeter Continuum Polarimetry of the Bright Radio Quasar 3C 286

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, H; Paladino, R; Hull, C L H; Cortes, P; Moellenbrock, G; Fomalont, E; Asada, K; Hada, K

    2016-01-01

    We present full-polarization observations of the compact, steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C~286 made with the ALMA at 1.3~mm. These are the first full-polarization ALMA observations, which were obtained in the framework of Science Verification. A bright core and a south-west component are detected in the total intensity image, similar to previous centimeter images. Polarized emission is also detected toward both components. The fractional polarization of the core is about 17\\%, this is higher than the fractional polarization at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the magnetic field is even more ordered in the millimeter radio core than it is further downstream in the jet. The observed polarization position angle (or EVPA) in the core is $\\sim$\\,$39^{\\circ}$, which confirms the trend that the EVPA slowly increases from centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. With the aid of multi-frequency VLBI observations, we argue that this EVPA change is associated with the frequency-dependent core position. We also report ...

  16. ALMA Observations of SPT-Discovered, Strongly Lensed, Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hezaveh, Y D; Fassnacht, C D; Spilker, J S; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bothwell, M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; De Breuck, C; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Fomalont, E B; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Hunter, T R; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Murphy, E J; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Sharon, K; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Weiß, A; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 micrometer imaging of four high-redshift (z=2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.5 arcsec resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1-3 arcsec, consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z=5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 X 10^13 L_sun and star formation surface density of 4200 M_sun yr^-1 kpc^-2. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, w...

  17. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FROM SOURCE I IN THE ORION-KL REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Curiel, Salvador [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-07-20

    In this Letter, we present sensitive millimeter SiO (J = 5-4; {nu} = 0) line observations of the outflow arising from the enigmatic object Orion Source I made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observations reveal that at scales of a few thousand AU, the outflow has a marked 'butterfly' morphology along a northeast-southwest axis. However, contrary to what is found in the SiO and H{sub 2}O maser observations at scales of tens of AU, the blueshifted radial velocities of the moving gas are found to the northwest, while the redshifted velocities are in the southeast. The ALMA observations are complemented with SiO (J = 8-7; {nu} = 0) maps (with a similar spatial resolution) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. These observations also show a similar morphology and velocity structure in this outflow. We discuss some possibilities to explain these differences at small and large scales across the flow.

  18. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA: evidence for truncated dust disks in Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, L; Scholz, A; Tazzari, M; Ricci, L; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    The study of the properties of disks around young brown dwarfs can provide important clues on the formation of these very low mass objects and on the possibility of forming planetary systems around them. The presence of warm dusty disks around brown dwarfs is well known, based on near- and mid-infrared studies. High angular resolution observations of the cold outer disk are limited, we used ALMA to attempt a first survey of young brown dwarfs in the rho-Ophiuchi star forming region with ALMA. All 17 young brown dwarfs in our sample were observed at 890 um in the continuum at ~0.5" angular resolution. The sensitivity of our observations was chosen to detect ~0.5 MEarth of dust. We detect continuum emission in 11 disks (65% of the total), the estimated mass of dust in the detected disks ranges from ~0.5 to ~6 MEarth. These disk masses imply that planet formation around brown dwarfs may be relatively rare and that the supra-Jupiter mass companions found around some brown dwarfs are probably the result of a binar...

  19. Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Submillimeter Continuum Emission of Sgr A* Constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Ho, Paul T P; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Martín, Sergio; Falcke, Heino; Matsushita, Satoki; Martí-Vidal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at $\\sim$100 (3.0 mm), $\\sim$230 (1.3 mm), $\\sim$345 (0.87 mm), $\\sim$500 (0.6 mm), and $\\sim$700 GHz (0.43 mm). We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at the above frequency bands, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from ALMA single pointing and mosaic observations. We performed sinusoidal fittings to the observed (XX-YY)/I intensity ratios, to derive the polarization position angles and polarization percentages. We successfully detect polarized continuum emission from all observed frequency bands. We observed lower Stokes I intensity at $\\sim$700 GHz than that at $\\sim$500 GHz, which suggests that emission at $\\gtrsim$500 GHz is from optically thin part of a synchrotron emission spectrum. Both the Stokes I intensity and the polarization position angle at our highest observin...

  20. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Survey Description

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present the rationale for and the observational description of ASPECS: The ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF), the cosmological deep field that has the deepest multi-wavelength data available. Our overarching goal is to obtain an unbiased census of molecular gas and dust continuum emission in high-redshift (z$>$0.5) galaxies. The $\\sim$1$'$ region covered within the UDF was chosen to overlap with the deepest available imaging from HST. Our ALMA observations consist of full frequency scans in band 3 (84-115 GHz) and band 6 (212-272 GHz) at approximately uniform line sensitivity ($L'_{\\rm CO}\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$), and continuum noise levels of 3.8 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ and 12.7 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$, respectively. The molecular surveys cover the different rotational transitions of the CO molecule, leading to essentially full redshift coverage. The [CII] emission line is also covered at redshifts $6.0

  1. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin$^2$ Deep Survey: 1.1-mm Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Caputi, Karina I; Dunlop, James S; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ich; Tamura, Yoichi; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S

    2016-01-01

    We report 1.1 mm number counts revealed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF). The advent of ALMA enables us to reveal millimeter-wavelength number counts down to the faint end without source confusion. However, previous studies are based on the ensemble of serendipitously-detected sources in fields originally targeting different sources and could be biased due to the clustering of sources around the targets. We derive number counts in the flux range of 0.2-2 mJy by using 23 (>=4sigma) sources detected in a continuous 2.0 arcmin$^2$ area of the SXDF. The number counts are consistent with previous results within errors, suggesting that the counts derived from serendipitously-detected sources are not significantly biased, although there could be field-to-field variation due to the small survey area. By using the best-fit function of the number counts, we find that ~40% of the extragalactic background light at 1.1 mm is resolved at S(1.1mm)...

  2. Dust properties across the CO snowline in the HD 163296 disk from ALMA and VLA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, G; Testi, L; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Chandler, C J; Pérez, L; Isella, A; Natta, A; Ortolani, S; Hennings, Th; Corder, S; Linz, H; Andrews, S; Wilner, D; Ricci, L; Carpenter, J; Sargent, A; Mundy, L; Storm, S; Calvet, N; Dullemond, C; Greaves, J; Lazio, J; Deller, A; Kwon, W

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms of planet formation it is crucial to investigate the properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks around young stars, where the initial conditions for the growth of planets are set. Our goal is to study grain growth in the disk of the young, intermediate mass star HD163296 where dust processing has already been observed, and to look for evidence of growth by ice condensation across the CO snowline, already identified in this disk with ALMA. Under the hypothesis of optically thin emission we compare images at different wavelengths from ALMA and VLA to measure the opacity spectral index across the disk and thus the maximum grain size. We also use a Bayesian tool based on a two-layer disk model to fit the observations and constrain the dust surface density. The measurements of the opacity spectral index indicate the presence of large grains and pebbles ($\\geq$1 cm) in the inner regions of the disk (inside $\\sim$50 AU) and smaller grains, consistent with ISM sizes, in the outer ...

  3. An ALMA Constraint on the GSC 6214-210 B Circum-Substellar Accretion Disk Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Kraus, Adam L; Ireland, Michael J; Herczeg, Gregory; Ricci, Luca; Carpenter, John; Brown, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of GSC 6214-210 A and B, a solar-mass member of the 5-10 Myr Upper Scorpius association with a 15 $\\pm$ 2 Mjup companion orbiting at $\\approx$330 AU (2.2"). Previous photometry and spectroscopy spanning 0.3-5 $\\mu$m revealed optical and thermal excess as well as strong H$\\alpha$ and Pa~$\\beta$ emission originating from a circum-substellar accretion disk around GSC 6214-210 B, making it the lowest mass companion with unambiguous evidence of a subdisk. Despite ALMA's unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, neither component was detected in our 880 $\\mu$m (341 GHz) continuum observations down to a 3-$\\sigma$ limit of 0.22 mJy/beam. The corresponding constraints on the dust mass and total mass are <0.15 Mearth and <0.05 Mjup, respectively, or <0.003% and <0.3% of the mass of GSC 6214-210 B itself assuming a 100:1 gas-to-dust ratio and characteristic dust temperature of 10-20 K. If the host star possesses a putative c...

  4. The Inner Mass Distribution of the Gravitational Lens SDP.81 from ALMA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kenneth C; Matsushita, Satoki

    2015-01-01

    The central image of a strongly lensed background source places constraints on the foreground lens galaxy's inner mass profile slope, core radius and mass of its nuclear supermassive black hole. Using high-resolution long-baseline Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations and archival $Hubble~Space~Telescope$ ($HST$) imaging, we model the gravitational lens H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (also known as SDP.81) and search for the demagnified central image. There is central continuum emission from the lens galaxy's active galactic nucleus (AGN) but no evidence of the central lensed image in any molecular line. We use the CO $J$=5-4 map to determine the flux limit of the central image excluding the AGN continuum. We predict the flux density of the central image and use the limits from the ALMA data to constrain the inner mass distribution of the lens. For the core radius of $0.15"$ measured from $HST$ photometry of the lens galaxy assuming that the central flux is completely attributed to the AG...

  5. A Measurement of the Black-Hole Mass in NGC 1097 using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Onishi, Kyoko; Sheth, Kartik; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy \\object{NGC 1097} using Atacamma Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of dense gas kinematics. Dense molecular gas dynamics are traced with ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$ and ${\\rm HCO^{+}} (J=1-0)$ emission lines. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of $46^{\\circ}$, we derive a SMBH mass, $M_{\\rm BH}=1.40^{+0.27}_{-0.32} \\times 10^{8}M_{\\odot}$, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be $5.14^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$, using ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$. The estimated parameters are consistent between the two emission lines. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA's potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole (BH) and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growt...

  6. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Mann, Rita K.; Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Bally, John, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO{sup +} 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  7. ALMA Observations of the Coldest Place in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R; Huggins, P J; Nyman, L-A; Gonidakis, I

    2013-01-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, and an extreme member of the class of Pre-Planetary Nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the AGB and Planetary Nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J=1-0) observations (with a 45 arcsec beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang with ALMA in the CO J=2-1 and J=1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with HST and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter ...

  8. Development of the control system for the 40m OAN radiotelescope with the Alma Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, P.; Bolaño, R.; Barbas, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) is building a 40m radiotelescope in its facilities in Yebes (Spain) which will be delivered in summer 2006. The radiotelescope is an instrument composed of antenna, receivers, backends, and auxiliary equipment connected through a Local Area Network (LAN). The control system has to deal with a distributed environment which needs to be remotely controlled and monitored from external heterogeneous users (astronomers and engineers) and requires multiple processes simultaneously working and being synchronized. We have chosen the Alma Common Software (ACS) framework for the development of the control system. ACS provides an implementation of the component/container paradigm via Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and also provides general purpose utility libraries, hiding the complexity of CORBA to the developer. ACS is supported by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Radioastronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) with a lifetime similar to our radiotelescope. This is an important guarantee for the OAN with a very reduced software team. We present an overview of the planned software architecture of the radiotelescope and the current status of the development of the components.

  9. Millimeter Emission Structure in the first ALMA Image of the AU Mic Debris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Rosenfeld, Katherine A; Andrews, Sean M; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    We present 1.3 millimeter ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, ~10 Myr-old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0.6 arcsec (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU, and (2) a newly recognized central peak that remains unresolved. The cold dust belt of mass about 1 lunar mass is resolved in the radial direction with a rising emission profile that peaks sharply at the location of the outer edge of the "birth ring" of planetesimals hypothesized to explain the midplane scattered light gradients. No significant asymmetries are discerned in the structure or position of this dust belt. The central peak identified in the ALMA image is ~6 times brighter than the stellar photosphere, which indicates an additional emission process in the inner regions of the system. Emission from a stellar corona or activity may contribute, but the observations show no signs of temporal variations chara...

  10. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-06-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  11. ON THE NATURE OF THE TERTIARY COMPANION TO FW TAU: ALMA CO OBSERVATIONS AND SED MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Claudio; Hardy, Adam; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Cánovas, Héctor [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, 2360102 Valparaíso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 763-0355 Santiago (Chile); Pinte, Christophe [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ménard, Francois [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, UMI 3386 (France); Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 19001 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-20

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FW Tau system. We present here ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak {sup 12}CO (2–1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with either a brown dwarf embedded in an edge-on disk or a planet embedded in a low inclination disk, which is externally irradiated by the binary companion. Further observations with ALMA, aiming for high SNR detections of non-contaminated gas lines, are required to conclusively unveil the nature of the third object in FW Tau.

  12. The End of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: An ALMA Survey of Upper Scorpius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the mass of solids in circumstellar disks is a key factor in determining how planets form. Infrared observations have established that the dust in primordial disks vanishes around the majority of stars by an age of 5-10 Myr. However, how this disappearance proceeds is poorly constrained. Only with longer wavelength observations, where the dust emission is optically thin, is it possible to measure disk dust mass and how it varies as a function of age. To this end, we have obtained ALMA 0.88 mm observations of over 100 sources with suspected circumstellar disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association (Upper Sco). The 5-11 Myr age of Upper Sco suggests that any such disks will be quite evolved, making this association an ideal target to compare to systems of younger disks in order to study evolution. With ALMA, we achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over previous (sub)millimeter surveys of Upper Sco and detect 58 disks in the continuum. We calculate the total dust masses of these disks and compare their masses to those of younger disks in Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon. We find strong evidence for a decline in disk dust mass between these 1-3 Myr old systems and the 5-11 Myr old Upper Sco. Our results represent the first definitive measurement of a decline in disk dust mass with age.

  13. Travessias discursivas: intertextualidade e interdisciplinaridade no romance Netto perde sua alma, de Tabajara Ruas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Duarte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma leitura crítica das relações intertextuais promovidas por Netto perde sua alma pretende-se analisar o romance, de Tabajara Ruas, não só em seu diálogo interdisciplinar com a historiografia, mas também nas relações que a obra suscita com outros textos literários. Nesse caminho, percebe-se que a historiografia tradicionalmente trata os homens que participaram de guerras como semideuses, configurando-os apenas por suas ações e participações heroicas em conflitos políticos. Enquanto o romance Netto perde sua alma, sem deixar de incorporar ações heroicas de seu protagonista, privilegia a configuração de uma dimensão humana e humanizadora de sua personagem histórica, pois a faz refletir e questionar profundamente sobre tais ações.  Dessa forma, destacamos nessa leitura o processo de humanização que o romance de Tabajara Ruas promove de um personagem relevante da história do Rio Grande do Sul, o General Antonio de Souza Netto.

  14. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  15. ALMA and VLA observations of the outflows in IRAS 16293-2422

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F; Pech, Gerardo; Chandler, Claire J; Brogan, Crystal L; Wilner, David J; Ho, Paul T P; Parise, Berengere; Hartmann, Lee W; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    We present ALMA and VLA observations of the molecular and ionized gas at 0.1-0.3 arcsec resolution in the Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293-2422. These data clarify the origins of the protostellar outflows from the deeply embedded sources in this complex region. Source A2 is confirmed to be at the origin of the well known large scale north-east--south-west flow. The most recent VLA observations reveal a new ejection from that protostar, demonstrating that it drives an episodic jet. The central compact part of the other known large scale flow in the system, oriented roughly east-west, is well delineated by the CO(6-5) emission imaged with ALMA and is confirmed to be driven from within component A. Finally, a one-sided blueshifted bubble-like outflow structure is detected here for the first time from source B to the north-west of the system. Its very short dynamical timescale (~ 200 yr), low velocity, and moderate collimation support the idea that source B is the youngest object in the system, and possibly...

  16. ALMA observations of massive molecular gas filaments encasing radio bubbles in the Phoenix cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; McNamara, B R; Fabian, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Bayliss, M B; Benson, B A; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Edge, A C; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Marrone, D P; Reichardt, C L; Vieira, J D

    2016-01-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the $2.7\\pm0.4\\times10^{10}\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}$ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fuelling a vigorous starburst at a rate of $500-800\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}\\rm\\; yr^{-1}$ and powerful black hole activity in the form of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each $10-20\\rm\\; kpc$ long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities ...

  17. Scientific and technological Challenges in the development of astronomical instrumentation: E-ELT & ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, David; Gallego, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    The answers to the present astrophysical questions require the development of highly sophisticated instrumentation, which needs long-term scheduling and large assets of human and material resources, managed by consortia of several institutions. Spain has carried in the last years serious efforts in this direction (GTC, ESO, ESA), but there is still a notable offset between astronomical research at the theoretical and observational levels and the development of instrumentation. Now, the incorporation of new countries to ESO (in particular Spain) to ESO and several future big projects (ALMA, E-ELT, Cosmic Vision), raise the level of exigency. The goal of this workshop is to gather the scientific teams and the industries of the sector to expose their needs and projects, and share experiences. The workshop is aimed as well at serving as an echo to convince financing agencies and the astronomical community in general of the need to promote with decision the development of astrophysical instrumentation and the tools for the analysis of related data. The formation and acknowledgement of instrumentation astronomers will be a key factor for Spain to meet the requirements of its position in Astronomy in the next decades. Here, we present the contributions most closely related to the development of E-ELT, ALMA and ESA missions.

  18. Alma Observations of Massive Molecular Gas Filaments Encasing Radio Bubbles in the Phoenix Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McDonald, M.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Bayliss, M. B.; Benson, B. A.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Edge, A. C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marrone, D. P.; Reichardt, C. L.; Vieira, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the 2.1+/- 0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fueling a vigorous starburst at a rate of 500{--}800 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and powerful black hole activity in the forms of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each 10{--}20 {kpc} long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities induced in low-entropy gas lifted in the updraft of the bubbles. These new data provide compelling evidence for close coupling between the radio bubbles and the cold gas, which is essential to explain the self-regulation of feedback. The very feedback mechanism that heats hot atmospheres and suppresses star formation may also paradoxically stimulate production of the cold gas required to sustain feedback in massive galaxies.

  19. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    CERN Document Server

    Santander-García, M; Alcolea, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Sánchez-Contreras, C; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Corradi, R L M; Neri, R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich equatorial regions of post-AGB stars can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms at work. We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. The high spatial resolution of the $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO J=3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the SHAPEMOL plug-in. We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much grea...

  20. Informe: Los hospitales de día intramuros para enfermos mentales en Francia Day-care hospitals for mental patients in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Martínez

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hospitales de día intramuros ocupan un lugar predominante en el abanico de la asistencia psiquiátrica en Francia.
    Fueron concebidos como estructuras intermedias encaminadas a favorecer la desactivación de ese proceso inexorable, que es la cronificación de los pacientes en psiquiatría.
    Su misión primordial es la de preparar y favorecer la reinserción de los pacientes psiquiátricos procedentes del hospital, sin olvidar la dependencia adquirida por el enfermo respecto a la institución durante sus, a menudo, largas estancias en el medio psiquiátrico.

  1. Programas e intervenciones de apoyo a los cuidadores informales en España Supporting programs and interventions for informal care providers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Pilar Torres Egea

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuidar a personas con dependencia es una responsabilidad que implica a los familiares más directos. El cuidado individualizado suele recaer en una persona a quien se identifica como el cuidador principal. La sobrecarga que genera el cuidado continuado hace preciso que este cuidador reciba un soporte de los profesionales del ámbito sanitario y/o social. Desde el sector formal se realizan diversos programas e intervenciones, individuales o grupales, para dar soporte a los cuidadores de personas con dependencia. El presente trabajo analiza las publicaciones científicas, aparecidas en los últimos diez años, que tratan sobre diferentes programas e intervenciones de soporte a los cuidadores informales, y que surgen de la preocupación de diferentes profesionales por la calidad de vida y la salud de los cuidadores.Taking care of dependent people is a task the performance of which involves the family members. Individualized care burden is normally borne on only one person, who is identified as the main caregiver. The burden that these care activities generate makes necessary that care provider receives professional assistance from healthcare and social experts. From the formal area some programs and interventions, from both individuals and groups, are conducted to support care providers for dependent people. This work analyzes scientific publications, appeared in the last ten years, which focus on some programs and interventions to support non-professional caregivers and which arise out of some professionals worries for care providers health and quality of life.

  2. El mercado del suelo informal en favelas y la movilidad residencial de los pobres en las grandes metrópolis: un objeto de estudio para América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Abramo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un gran vacío en los estudios urbanos, en particular de economía urbana, sobre el mercado informal de terrenos en las ciudades. La importancia actual de ese mercado y las perspectivas de su crecimiento futuro relacionadas con la evidente reducción de la ocupación (invasión de tierras urbanas, imponen la urgencia de plantearlo como un objeto de estudio prioritario. El primer esfuerzo de investigación debe ser la construcción de bancos de datos e informaciones dinámicas sobre el mercado informal de tierras y de la movilidad residencial de los pobres. La pregunta que se debe formular sobre este mercado tiene que ver con sus similitudes y diferencias con respecto al mercado formal. Nuestra respuesta a este desafío se da en dos planos. El primero, a partir de un levantamiento empírico en las favelas de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro; el segundo tomando el mercado informal de tierras y la movilidad de los pobres urbanos como un objeto conceptual que permita re-problematizar temas tradicionales de la economía urbana ortodoxa (neoclásica.

  3. Entre Napoleón y Jesucristo: las peripecias del “alma rusa” en la obra de Dostoievski / Between Napoleon and Jesus Christ: The adventures of the "Russian soul" in Dostoevsky's work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bubnova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Dos componentes del “alma rusa” que se destacan en la obra de Dostoievski – el napoleonismo y la cristología — resultan de la interacción de la cultura rusa con la historia y la civilización occidental. Paradójicamente, la evolución de las dos líneas en las novelas del gran escritor ruso conduce a una determinada, en algunos aspectos, de los dos tipos, en particular, en El idiota. La revisión del manoseado tópico del “alma rusa” a la luz de las recientes investigaciones de los especialistas rusos pone de manifiesto nuevasintertextualidades y abre la obra a un diálogo renovado acerca de la identidad. El trabajo se inspira en la antropología filosófica y la filosofía del lenguaje de M. M. Bajtín. ABSTRACT: This is an analysis of the two components of the “Russian soul” highlighted in the Dostoevsky’s novels: Napoleonism and Christology. The origins of both of them can be found in the Western history and civilization. There is a certain paradox in the fact that the evolution of these two lines in the oeuvre of the great Russian writer arrives to an approachof the two types, the Napoleonic one and that of the follower of Christ, especially in The Idiot. A revision of the “Russian soul” under the light of the most recent interpretations of Russian critics discovers new intertexts and opens Dostoevsky’s text to a renewed identity dialogue. This paper is influenced by Bakhtin’s philosophical anthropology and philosophy of language.

  4. Mejorar las recomendaciones contenidas en los informes elaborados por consultores. La optimización del discurso (To improve the embedded recommendations from the consultants' detailed reports. The discourse and its enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Montolío Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se plantea cuatro objetivos: (i caracterizar desde el punto de vista lingüístico y pragmático el género textual del informe que elaboran los profesionales de la Consultoría, género que se encuentra en pleno proceso de transformación; (ii describir las fases de las que se compone el proceso de asesoramiento de un lingüista en la optimización de este tipo de informe; (iii analizar algunos mecanismos lingüísticos y discursivos característicos de este género, así como la dificultad de su elaboración para los profesionales, y (iv reivindicar la necesidad de una línea de investigación lingüística que se imbrique con los resultados empíricos de la mejora de los intercambios comunicativos producidos en los contextos profesionales (estudios de optimización del discurso. (The present study has four principal aims. First, to offer a linguistic and pragmatic characterization of a genre under a transformation process: consultancy report. Second, to describe phases of the counseling process that linguists provide to optimize this kind of report. Third, to analyze some linguistic and discourse mechanisms, distinctive of this gender, as well as the difficulty of its elaboration for professionals. Finally, to argue for the need of a linguistic research line overlapped with the empirical results of the improvement of the communicative exchanges produced in professional settings (studies of discourse optimization.

  5. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  6. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A.M.S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G.M.; Humphreys, E.M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These

  7. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA. II. The chemistry of the dense molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viti, S.; García-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Usero, A.; Henkel, C.; Eckart, A.; Martin, S.; Spaans, M.; Muller, S.; Combes, F.; Krips, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Casasola, V.; Costagliola, F.; Marquez, I.; Planesas, P.; van der Werf, P. P.; Aalto, S.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present a detailed analysis of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Bands 7 and 9 data of CO, HCO+, HCN, and CS, augmented with Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) data of the ~200 pc circumnuclear disc (CND) and the ~1.3 kpc starburst ring (SB ring) of NGC 1068, a nearby (

  8. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: High resolution 870um source counts

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Alexander; Hodge, Jackie; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Biggs, Andy; Simpson, James; Danielson, Alice; Alexander, David; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Edge, Alastair; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiß, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We report the first counts of faint submillimetre galaxies (SMG) in the 870-um band derived from arcsecond resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We have used ALMA to map a sample of 122 870-um-selected submillimetre sources drawn from the (0.5x0.5)deg^2 LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Submillimetre Survey (LESS). These ALMA maps have an average depth of sigma(870um)~0.4mJy, some ~3x deeper than the original LABOCA survey and critically the angular resolution is more than an order of magnitude higher, FWHM of ~1.5" compared to ~19" for the LABOCA discovery map. This combination of sensitivity and resolution allows us to precisely pin-point the SMGs contributing to the submillimetre sources from the LABOCA map, free from the effects of confusion. We show that our ALMA-derived SMG counts broadly agree with the submillimetre source counts from previous, lower-resolution single-dish surveys, demonstrating that the bulk of the submillimetre sources are not caused by blendi...

  9. Kan strategien for primær sundhedstjeneste genoplives 30 år efter Alma-Ata?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Probst, Helene Bilsted; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years ago the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health care was developed. Implementation has been compounded by inadequate financing, changing disease patterns and immature health systems, and there is an ongoing discussion between selective and comprehensive primary health care supporters...

  10. Desresponsabilización mediante la ‘responsabilidad social’: una evaluación retórica a las ‘cartas de los presidentes’ presentes en tres informes de responsabilidad social empresarial en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Quinche-Martín, Fabián Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Las prácticas de responsabilidad social empresarial(RSE) incluyen la publicación de informes de sostenibilidado de RSE, instrumento de rendición de cuentasdel desempeño ambiental, social y económico de las empresas.En Colombia, aún, los informes de RSE son elaboradospor pocas empresas, pero han empezado a mostrarsecomo elementos importantes para el fortalecimiento de lalegitimidad de las empresas en el país. Desde un análisisretórico, se busca mostrar las estrategias que utilizan algunasempre...

  11. Análisis del Informe de la Comisión Bicameral Investigadora de las Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos en la provincia de Tucumán (1974-1983)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Kotler

    2007-01-01

    El informe de la CONADEP sostiene que a "la provincia de Tucumán le cupo el siniestro privilegio de haber inaugurado la institución centro clandestino de detención.". El presente trabajo se propone analizar el Informe elaborado por la Comisión Bicameral Investigadora de las Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos en la provincia de Tucumán, que da cuenta de cómo la represión ilegal en el "Jardín de la República" comenzó mucho antes de producirse el golpe de Estado el 24 de marzo de 1976. Un infor...

  12. Informe: Taller de descripción de las diferencias entre Aynokas y parcela privada y muestreo preliminar de suelos para caracterizar los tipos de suelos

    OpenAIRE

    Baylon, C.; Cóndor, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como objetivos diferenciar los tipos de suelos según su manejo (parcela privada y aynokas) utilizando indicadores mas relevantes y muestrear suelos de la aynoka más representa de la comunidad. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  13. Evolución de los riesgos ambientales en el contexto de la crisis económica. Informe SESPAS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ballester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo es analizar el impacto de la crisis económica-financiera en los determinantes ambientales de la salud. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que entre un 13% y un 27% de la carga de enfermedad de los países podría prevenirse mejorando el medio ambiente. Los efectos son de mayor magnitud en poblaciones más vulnerables, en especial entre los más pobres. En la última década, la contaminación atmosférica exterior (el riesgo ambiental más relevante, en términos de salud, para la mayoría de los países europeos se ha reducido moderadamente, sobre todo por las políticas europeas de reducción de emisiones y por la disminución de la actividad con la crisis económica. En los últimos años esta mejora de la calidad del aire ha sido simultánea a una reducción en las inversiones en protección ambiental, por lo que, a medio plazo, podría verse contrarrestada. La tendencia al incremento de las temperaturas en España y Europa no se ha visto reducida con la crisis económica, ya que el cambio climático es un fenómeno global que no se relaciona directamente con las emisiones locales. Para reducir el riesgo de un incremento del impacto sobre la salud de los factores ambientales existen aspectos fundamentales que deben ser considerados, como la necesidad de mantener o desarrollar sistemas de vigilancia y control adecuados y la oportunidad de aplicar políticas que ayuden a mejorar la calidad ambiental y a reducir la vulnerabilidad de diferentes grupos de la población, en un marco de trabajo intersectorial, de transparencia y de participación de la ciudadanía.

  14. Oferta sanitaria y crisis: financiamos los bienes y servicios según su valor o caemos en la insolvencia. Informe SESPAS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal-Delgado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La reacción de la política sanitaria a la crisis financiera ha puesto excesivo énfasis en medidas orientadas a disminuir precios unitarios, aumentar barreras (lista de espera o cerrar dispositivos. Aún es pronto para saber con fundamento científico si estos cambios en la oferta tienen correlato en la equidad de acceso o en la calidad y la seguridad de los servicios, y a la postre en la salud de los pacientes y la población. En cualquier caso, la urgencia en conseguir la estabilización fiscal ha movido el foco hacia la resolución de los problemas de liquidez presupuestaria, y ha relegado a un segundo plano medidas de mayor calado orientadas a decidir, con trazo fino, qué debe financiarse y cómo. En este trabajo se aboga por una política fundamentada en la financiación selectiva de las prestaciones sobre la base de su valor. Las experiencias de otros países pueden servirnos de orientación: métodos robustos para identificar tecnologías (o sus usos de valor cuestionable, criterios de priorización y una cuidadosa consideración de las limitaciones asociadas a la eliminación de una cierta prestación, en especial si afecta a los valores esenciales del sistema. España cuenta con los mimbres necesarios: regulación, legislación y organismos con capacidad técnica para identificar tecnologías de bajo valor, guiar las decisiones y evaluar oportunamente los efectos de estas últimas. Los obstáculos son numerosos, pero mantener el statu quo es la peor opción, dado el coste de oportunidad en pérdidas de efectividad y seguridad, equidad y eficiencia económica del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y su eventual traducción en el empeoramiento del estado de salud de la población.

  15. Diagnóstico del grado de alfabetización informacional en los profesionales del Centro Tecnologías para la Formación de la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo-Rueda, Deymis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in information curren tly available as a result of the evolution of the Internet has brought about socio-cultural phenomena such as the «infoxication» of informational service users. So much information on any single subject, together with the ease of publishing even further on the same topic, makes it confusing, and even diffi cult, to know what to look for and what is best suited to the information need in question. One way to address this phenomenon is through information literacy, thus providing mechanisms, strategies and criteria for searching and retrieving information available on the web. The mission statements of some information institutions emphasize the importance of offering information literacy programs for the benefi t of their users. From this premise the Information and Knowledge Management Group (GIC of the Technologies Training Center (FORTES at the University of Informatics Sciences (UCI, which researches and develops software products related to educational technologies, has developed products and services for improving information literacy among its users. The group has carried out the current research in order to diagnose the state of information literacy among the GIC’s users at FORTES.

    El auge informacional disponible en la actualidad a partir de la evolución de Internet, ha traído consigo fenómenos socioculturales, como la denominada infoxicación de los usuarios de los servicios informacionales. Existe tanta información sobre un mismo tema, y la posibilidad además de publicar otras sobre la misma problemática, que ya resulta confuso y hasta complejo saber qué buscar y qué es lo más idóneo para la necesidad informativa en cuestión. Una de las vías para resolver este fenómeno, es la Alfabetización Informacional, capaz de brindar mecanismos, estrategias y criterios de búsqueda y recuperación de la información disponible en la web. Algunas instituciones de información incluyen

  16. ¿Cómo manejan información los estudiantes de educación superior?: El caso de la Universidad de La Sabana, Colombia How Students of Higher Education Handle Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jaramillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación identificó las competencias en manejo de información (CMI de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios con miras a mejorar los programas de formación. Como referente teórico y de análisis se tomó el estándar propuesto por Association of College and Research Libraries. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario constituido por tres partes, la primera da cuenta de la percepción de los estudiantes sobre sus CMI, la segunda plantea un ejercicio que requiere poner en práctica estas competencias y tiene como resultado la producción de un texto y la tercera es la reflexión de los estudiantes sobre su desempeño en el ejercicio. Los textos fueron parte de los datos de investigación. Adicionalmente se realizaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas para profundizar en el proceso de manejo de información. Los hallazgos dan cuenta de que los participantes tienen bajo nivel de CMI, por lo que se proponen algunos lineamientos para intervenir con mayor fuerza en el fomento de estas competencias, que pueden ser considerados en otros contextos.This study identified the Information Management Competencies (CMI of university students to enhance those skills in training programs. As a theoretical reference we took the standard proposed by the Association of College and Research Libraries. For data collection we used a questionnaire consisting of three parts. The first part is related to the perception of the students about their CMI, the second part has an exercise that requires to put into practice those skills and its result is a text production, and the third part is the reflection of the students on its performance in the exercise. The texts produced were part of the research data. In addition, semi-structured interviews were done to deepen in the process of information handling. Findings shows that participants have a low CMI level, so some guidelines to strengthen the promotion of that competency are provided and can be

  17. Los ocho pasos de la muerte del alma: la inquisición en Cartagena de Indias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Uribe

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available A mediados del año 1632, se descubrió en la villa de Tolú, jurisdicción del Tribunal del Santo Oficio de Cartagena de Indias, una secta de brujas, a las cuales algunos testigos afirmaban "haberlas visto en sus juntas, bailando alrededor de un cabrón y besarle en el trasero y volar por el aire dando balidos como chivatos, con candelillas en las manos".

  18. Los compadres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñoz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available De lejos parecen ser personas muy silenciosas y cuando hablan lo hacen con una entonación diferente. Comienza un día hermoso en el que vamos a visitarlos y el humor es la disculpa más agradable para hacer alianzas. La señora va y viene del cuarto oscuro donde se encuentra el fogón, interviniendo a veces, con su presencia viva en la charla, aunque no lo parece. Un café, una taza de leche y roscones, un vaso de guarapo, una y otra vez. No sé como llamarlos; si cuenteros, poetas, hombres hablando. Los percibo como portadores de una tradición oral, compartiendo con nosotros sus pensamientos y creencias más profundos, en tomo a todos los matices de su realidad social. En la tradición oral se piensa el mundo de una manera integral mientras la cotidianidad está cada vez más condicionada por un mundo segmentado y especializado. Los cuentos innumerables que conocen han sido escuchados y modificados por niños, hombres y mujeres de todas las edades. Cualquier actividad diaria es buena para contar. Las noches en la caza de Luis son acogedoras, la señora Angelita prepara una sopa de maíz y tomamos hasta dos platos llenos para calentamos. La única esperma que ilumina la penumbra de la conversación se consume poco a poco. Los primeros días de mi visita sentí lo que llamaría miedos culturales, como mi obsesión por los insectos que imaginaba dentro de la casa, la cual se fue disipando en la medida en que afirmábamos nuestros lazos. Noches de tertulia, de diálogo, de cuentos. Generalmente Luis pasa esas horas escribiendo o leyendo, dedicado a su mayor afición que es la literatura, conversando con doña Angelita y escuchando cuando ella relata cuentos y anécdotas. Al joven escritor autodidacta lo cautivan las vivencias y fantasías humanas. Escribe sobre su gente y está interesado en las tradiciones literarias de la región. Trabaja como jornalero en fincas o haciendas, realizando varios oficios como la carpintería, la agricultura, la

  19. The ALMA high speed optical communication link is here: an essential component for reliable present and future operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, S.; Liello, F.; Ovando, N.; Astudillo, A.; Parra, J.; Saldias, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Announced in 2012, started in 2013 and completed in 2015, the ALMA high bandwidth communication system has become a key factor to achieve the operational and scientific goals of ALMA. This paper summarizes the technical, organizational, and operational goals of the ALMA Optical Link Project, focused in the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Operations Support Facility and Array Operations Site, both located in the Atacama Desert in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence of REUNA in Antofagasta, about 400km away, and from there to the Santiago Central Office in the Chilean capital through the optical infrastructure created by the EC-funded EVALSO project and now an integral part of the REUNA backbone. This new infrastructure completed in 2014 and now operated on behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, uses state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. The paper also reports on the results obtained during the first year and a half testing and operation period, where different operational set ups have been experienced for data transfer, remote collaboration, etc. Finally, the authors will present a forward look of the impact of it to both the future scientific development of the Chajnantor Plateau, where many installations area are (and will be) located, as well as the potential Chilean scientific backbone long term development.

  20. The ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S). I. The massive end of the z = 4 main sequence of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Pannella, M.; Leiton, R.; Elbaz, D.; Wang, T.; Okumura, K.; Labbé, I.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce the ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S), a systematic ALMA survey of all the known galaxies with stellar mass (M∗) larger than 5 × 1010M⊙ at 3.5 frame) with an on-source integration time of 1.3 min per galaxy. We detected 32% of the sample at more than 3σ significance. Using the stacked ALMA and Herschel photometry, we derived an average dust temperature of 40 ± 2 K for the whole sample, and extrapolate the LIR and SFR for all our galaxies based on their ALMA flux. We then used a forward modeling approach to estimate their intrinsic sSFR distribution, deconvolved of measurement errors and selection effects: we find a linear relation between SFR and M∗, with a median sSFR = 2.8 ± 0.8 Gyr and a dispersion around that relation of 0.28 ± 0.13 dex. This latter value is consistent with that measured at lower redshifts, which is proof that the main sequence of star-forming galaxies was already in place at z = 4, at least among massive galaxies. These new constraints on the properties of the main sequence are in good agreement with the latest predictions from numerical simulations, and suggest that the bulk of star formation in galaxies is driven by the same mechanism from z = 4 to the present day, that is, over at least 90% of the cosmic history. We also discuss the consequences of our results on the population of early quiescent galaxies. This paper is part of a series that will employ these new ALMA observations to explore the star formation and dust properties of the massive end of the z = 4 galaxy population.

  1. Some considerations on professional ethics in information and bibliotecology Algunas reflexiones sobre la ética de los profesionales de la información y la bibliotecología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanay Collado Almeida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops some considerations on ethics, moral and professional ethics particularly in reference to the ethics of Bibliotecology , the sciences of information and their relation with the impetuous advances in the development of Communication and Information Technology. Thus the paper defines the application of the ethical principles in the development the functions, decision taking, actions, prestige and competence in the social environment of the services of the Health Information Management. Ethics is analyzed from the standpoint of behavior, which is an essential aspect for the optimum practice of the profession in any institution of information in which the professionals of this field work. A group of professional ethic codes for Information and Bibliotecology are approached and the guidelines for each of them are also identified in this search.En este artículo se realizan algunas reflexiones sobre ética, moral y ética profesional, en particular se hace referencia a la ética en la bibliotecología, las ciencias de la información y su relación con el desarrollo impetuoso de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones. Se define la aplicación de los principios éticos en el desempeño de las funciones, la toma de decisiones, acciones, prestigio y competencia en el contexto social de los servicios de gestión de información en salud. Se analiza la ética desde el punto de vista del comportamiento, el cual es un aspecto esencial para el adecuado ejercicio de la profesión en cualquier institución de información en la que se labora. Se aborda un conjunto de códigos de ética del profesional de la información y la bibliotecología y se identifican los lineamientos contemplados en cada uno de ellos.

  2. La conversión de los cuerpos. Singularidades de las identificaciones religiosas indígenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pitarch Ramón

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Me intereso aquí por ciertos aspectos de las conversiones a nuevas religiones de indígenas de México y Guatemala. En particular, llama mi atención la preocupación indígena por modificar, no el alma, sino el cuerpo. En términos cristianos, la preocupación moral fundamental concierne al alma puesto que el fin transcendente de un buen cristiano es alcanzar la salvación eterna. En cambio, según trato de mostrar aquí, el interés indígena por las nuevas filiaciones religiosas reside más bien en lo que éstas puedan ofrecer para evitar el mal mediante una modificación parcial de los procedimientos de fabricación y mantenimiento del cuerpo.

  3. La noción de persona y el concepto de ixtlamatki en la visión del mundo de los nahuas de la Sierra Negra de Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En la cosmovisión de los nahuas de San Sebastián Tlacotepec, municipio perteneciente a la Sierra Negra de Puebla, la noción de persona es uno de los ejes vertebrales para entender la forma en que es concebido el ixtlamatki, el que sabe ver, especialista ritual encargado de los problemas de salud originados por la pérdida del alma, el daño al animal compañero y la brujería. A partir del análisis de los atributos otorgados al ixtlamatki, mismos que lo definen como un ser humano “especial”, pode...

  4. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K; Coutens, A; Lykke, J M; Müller, H S P; van Dishoeck, E F; Calcutt, H; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, "Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)" of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The survey covers the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) with additional targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. More than 10,000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary. Glycolaldehyde, its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid, and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the ISM. The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center, these two species...

  5. TRINCO: una estrategia para la transformación de la información en conocimiento con el uso de los SID TRINCO: A Strategy for the Transformation of Knowledge Information with the Use of the SID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Naranjo Vélez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una estrategia didáctica, fundamentada teórica y metodológicamente que permita a los profesores como usuarios de la información acercarse a los sistemas de información documental, para que sean ellos quienes enseñen a los estudiantes de la educación superior a utilizarlos a fin de que les faciliten resolver sus necesidades de información y transformar la información en conocimiento, es el objetivo central de la tesis doctoral denominada Los sistemas de información documental -SID- como medios didácticos: de la información al conocimiento, de la cual se socializan algunos de sus resultados en este artículo. Este se organiza a partir de una serie de preguntas que se responden desde la reflexión teórica, como qué es una estrategia didáctica y la metodología empleada para el diseño de la misma; se explica la estructura de la estrategia didáctica TRINCO que se diseñó desde la reflexión metodológica, y se presentan además las consideraciones finales que surgen luego de esta labor investigativa.This article presents an instructional strategy theoretically and methodologically founded in order to allow professors, as users of the information, to approach to the documental information systems to teach their higher education students how to use those systems, making easier for them to solve their information needs and transform the information into knowledge. This is the main objective of the Ph.D. dissertation, The Documental Information Systems -DIS- as instructional media: from information to knowledge, and some of its results are shared in this article as well. It is organized from a set of questions answered from the theoretical reflection as what an instructional strategy is and the methodology used for its design; the structure of the instructional strategy TRINCO designed from the methodological reflection is also explained, and final considerations arising after this research work are presented.

  6. Sistema de clasificación del método en los informes de investigación en Psicología

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Montero; Orfelio G. León

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se revisa y amplía un sistema de clasificación de las metodologías de investigación en Psicología previamente publicado por los autores en esta misma revista en el año 2002. Se argumentan las ventajas de su utilización y se advierte sobre los posibles inconvenientes. El sistema está basado en la clasificación del tipo de plan de investigación que se utiliza en cada caso. En un primer nivel, se compone de nueve grandes categorías: 1) estudios teóricos, 2) estudio...

  7. LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL FORMAL EN EL CONTEXTO SOCIAL DE LA EDUCACIÓN INFORMAL Y DE LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Quintanar Medina

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza la contradicción que hay entre la educación ambiental formal y los medios de comunicación potenciados actualmente por las tecnologías de información y comunicación, reflejo de la contradicción entre lo que debe promover este tipo de educación y lo que propugna la ideología dominante en gran parte de los países de América Latina. Lo anterior se fundamenta en la naturaleza política de la educación en general y de la educación ambiental en particular. Se muestra que la...

  8. Probing the jet base of the blazar PKS1830-211 from the chromatic variability of its lensed images. Serendipitous ALMA observations of a strong gamma-ray flare

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Combes, F; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Darling, J; Guelin, M; Henkel, C; Horellou, C; Marcaide, J M; Martin, S; Menten, K M; Dinh-V-Trung,; Zwaan, M

    2013-01-01

    The launching mechanism of the jets of active galactic nuclei is observationally poorly constrained, due to the large distances to these objects and the very small scales (sub-parsec) involved. In order to better constrain theoretical models, it is especially important to get information from the region close to the physical base of the jet, where the plasma acceleration takes place. In this paper, we report multi-epoch and multi-frequency continuum observations of the z=2.5 blazar PKS1830-211 with ALMA, serendipitously coincident with a strong $\\gamma$-ray flare reported by Fermi-LAT. The blazar is lensed by a foreground z=0.89 galaxy, with two bright images of the compact core separated by 1". Our ALMA observations individually resolve these two images (although not any of their substructures), and we study the change of their relative flux ratio with time (four epochs spread over nearly three times the time delay between the two lensed images) and frequency (between 350 and 1050 GHz, rest-frame of the blaz...

  9. El acceso a la información de la administración pública en los Estados Unidos Mexicanos: la regulación del principio de libre información Access to Public Administration Information in Mexico: regulation of the Free Information Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro Luis García López

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de la Ley de Acceso a la Información Pública del Estado de Sinaloa y la Ley Federal de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública Gubernamental en el marco de la sociedad del conocimiento, el desarrollo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, la lucha contra la corrupción y el desarrollo de la administración y el gobierno electrónicos en México. Se analizan los principios generales de derecho que son de aplicación (derecho de acceso a la información pública, privacidad de los datos personales y protección de la información privada y confidencial, se define información pública y documento, se establecen criterios para clasificar la información, se detallan los organismos afectados, se especifican criterios para establecer costos de acceso y se especifican distintos procedimientos para el desarrollo de las leyes. Se hace un estudio del posterior desarrollo normativo y la creación de organismos para cumplir los preceptos legislativos. Se concluye señalando las limitaciones que se observan en el desarrollo del libre acceso a la información y el desinterés de muchos ciudadanos, y se plantean los retos del nuevo marco para los profesionales de la documentación.The Law of Access to Public Information in the State of Sinaloa, and the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to Public Governmental Information are analysed within the framework of the knowledge society, the development of information and communication technologies, the fight against corruption and the development of e-Government and e-Administration in Mexico. General principles of law such as the right of access to public information, privacy of personal data and protection of private and confidential data are analysed; "public information" and "public document" are defined; criteria for the classification of information are established; the government bodies affected are specified, and also the criteria for establishing the cost of

  10. LOS SISTEMAS DE INFORMACIÓN GEOGRÁFICA COMO HERRAMIENTA DE APOYO EN LOS ESTUDIOS HIDROGEOLÓGICOS DOS CASOS DE ESTUDIO EN AMÉRICA LATINA: TWO CASE STUDIES IN LATIN AMERICA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS A SUPPORTING TOOL IN HYDRO-GEOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Quiroz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios de aguas subterráneas, se genera y recopila gran cantidad de datos, que necesariamente deben ser procesados y analizados de manera conjunta, buscando encontrar relaciones y/o patrones con los que se definen modelos conceptuales y numéricos adecuados para explicar de forma coherente el funcionamiento hidrogeológico de una zona específica. Acorde con lo anterior, los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG, se plantean como una de las herramientas básicas del hidrogeólogo, ya que permiten de una manera fácil y dinámica, almacenar, analizar y visualizar datos e información, así como el análisis de su comportamiento en las dimensiones espacial y temporal. No obstante, la utilización de los SIG en los proyectos hidrogeológicos se ha limitado, en muchos casos, a la elaboración de la cartografía de las diferentes unidades hidrogeológicas incluidas dentro del área de estudio y la ubicación de diferentes mediciones y parámetros relacionados con el recurso hídrico subterráneo, en detrimento de sus capacidades para el análisis de fenómenos espaciales complejos en los cuales intervienen múltiples variables. El presente trabajo presenta dos ejemplos de aplicación en Latinoamérica en los que los sistemas de información geográfica han ayudado en la modelación y preprocesamiento de los fenómenos y variables involucradas, además de la tradicional identificación de las características esenciales de los acuíferos.In underground water studies, a big amount of data is generated and compiled: these data should be jointly processed, correlated, and analyzed in order to look for relations and /or patterns through which appropriate conceptual and numerical models are defined for explaining, in a coherent way, hydro-geological functioning in a specific zone. Geographic Information Systems (GIS must be considered as one of the basic tools of hydro-geologists, because they allow storing, analyzing, and visualizing data

  11. Adecuación del tercer curso de los estudios de informática al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Puente Méndez, Santiago Timoteo; Compañ Rosique, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    En la presente memoria se muestra el trabajo realizado en las guías docentes para tercer curso de las Titulaciones de Informática de la Escuela Politécnica Superior de la Universidad de Alicante durante el curso 2006-2007. En este proyecto se han realizado las guías docentes de 17 asignaturas troncales y obligatorias entre las tres titulaciones de informática impartidas: Ingeniero en Informática, Ingeniero Técnico en Informática de Sistemas e Ingeniero Técnico en Informática de Gestión. Inici...

  12. Platão e a cidade justa: poetas ilusionistas e potências da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gazolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A censura que Platão faz à poesia na República apresenta dois ângulos que serão investigados neste texto: de um lado, a relação com a mímesis, considerada como necessária para o conhecimento pela via da phantasía; de outro, a relação do gênero epithymético da alma, com a crítica mais específica exposta no livro X.The censorship Plato directs against poetry in the Republic is investigated from two points of view in this article: on one hand, the perspective of mimesis, which is seen as necessary to achieve knowledge, through phantasía; on the other, the issue of the epithymetic genre of soul, which is part of the more specific criticism developed in book X.

  13. From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italian Global Health Watch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Global Funds are like stars in the sky, you can see them, admire them, appreciate their abundance… but fail to touch them.” - Ministry of Health Official, Malawi Abstract The paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

  14. ALMA resolves turbulent, rotating [CII] emission in a young starburst galaxy at z=4.8

    CERN Document Server

    De Breuck, Carlos; Swinbank, Mark; Caselli, Paola; Coppin, Kristen; Davis, Timothy A; Maiolino, Roberto; Nagao, Tohru; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Weiss, Axel; Zwaan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present spatially resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [CII] observations of the z=4.7555 submillimetre galaxy, ALESS 73.1. Our 0.5" FWHM map resolves the [CII] emitting gas which is centred close to the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The gas kinematics are dominated by rotation but with high turbulence, v_rot/sigma_int~3.1, and a Toomre Q parameter ~0.4. The diameter of the dust continuum emission is 80 Gyr^{-1}, especially since there are no clear indications of recent merger activity. Finally, our high signal-to-noise [CII] measurement revises the observed [NII]/[CII] ratio, which suggests a close to solar metallicity, unless the [CII] flux contains significant contributions from HII regions. Our observations suggest that ALESS73.1 is a nascent galaxy undergoing its first major burst of star formation, embedded within an unstable but metal-rich gas disk.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA survey of Lupus protoplanetary disks. I. (Ansdell+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-11-01

    Our ALMA Cycle 2 observations (Project ID: 2013.1.00220.S) were obtained on 2015 June 14 (AGK-type sources and unknown spectral types) and 2015 June 15 (M-type sources). The continuum spectral windows were centered on 328.3, 340.0, and 341.8GHz with bandwidths of 1.875, 0.938, and 1.875 GHz and channel widths of 15.625, 0.244, and 0.977MHz, respectively. The bandwidth-weighted mean continuum frequency was 335.8GHz (890um). The spectral setup included two windows covering the 13CO and C18O 3-2 transitions; these spectral windows were centered on 330.6 and 329.3GHz, respectively, with bandwidths of 58.594MHz, channel widths of 0.122MHz, and velocity resolutions of 0.11km/s. (3 data files).

  16. Local instability signatures in ALMA observations of dense gas in NGC7469

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Kambiz; Romeo, Alessandro B; Martín, Sergio; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Aalto, Susanne; Espada, Daniel; Kohno, Kotaro; Krips, Melanie; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S; Nakai, Naomasa; Terashima, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We present an unprecedented measurement of the disc stability and local instability scales in the luminous infrared Seyfert 1 host, NGC7469, based on ALMA observations of dense gas tracers and with a synthesized beam of 165 x 132 pc. While we confirm that non-circular motions are not significant in redistributing the dense interstellar gas in this galaxy, we find compelling evidence that the dense gas is a suitable tracer for studying the origin of its intensely high-mass star forming ring-like structure. Our derived disc stability parameter accounts for a thick disc structure and its value falls below unity at the radii in which intense star formation is found. Furthermore, we derive the characteristic instability scale and find a striking agreement between our measured scale of ~ 180 pc, and the typical sizes of individual complexes of young and massive star clusters seen in high-resolution images.

  17. Healthcare for the poor and dispossessed: from Alma-Ata to the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S R

    2011-07-01

    Healthcare models which recognize the equity principle have had to confront the challenge of providing healthcare for the poor and dispossessed. Healthcare premised on "human rights" strives to remove/ reduce barriers to access by a complete waiver of all fees in the public sector or various other subsidies to make healthcare more affordable. Social welfare programmes are held hostage to the vagaries of the economy and resource scarcity. The Alma-Ata's primary healthcare is inherently a health development strategy which embraces a wholistic approach to health and wellness. This strategy, by refocussing on the Millennium Development Goals, can therefore accommodate the innovations required to overcome the challenges posed by technological, financial, cultural and geographical factors to provide a better quality of life for all, but moreso for the poor and dispossessed.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA observations of GKM stars in Upper Sco (Barenfeld+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, S. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Ricci, L.; Isella, A.

    2016-11-01

    ALMA observations were obtained in Cycle 0 and Cycle 2 using the 12m array. Twenty sources were observed in Cycle 0 between 2012 August and 2012 December. Eighty-seven sources were observed in 2014 June and 2014 July. All observations used band 7 with the correlator configured to record dual polarization. Spectral windows for Cycle 2 were centered at 334.2, 336.1, 346.2, and 348.1GHz for a mean frequency of 341.1GHz (0.88mm). The bandwidth of each window is 1.875GHz. Cycle 0 observations used between 17 and 28 antennas with maximum baselines of ~400m, for an angular resolution of ~0.55". Cycle 2 observations used between 34 and 36 antennas with baselines extending out to 650m, corresponding to an angular resolution of 0.34". (3 data files).

  19. La organización social en los barrios bajos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Foote Whyte

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Por mucho tiempo, los sociólogos han estudiado los barrios bajos en términos de desorganización social. El interés en los mismos parece provenir de dos fuentes: una urgencia por promover reformas sociales y un esfuerzo para comprender el proceso de urbanización. Observando el quiebre de los controles del grupo primario en la vida de ciudad, algunos sociólogos han considerado analizar la situación resultante en términos del concepto de desorganización social. Los barrios bajos han sido caracterizados por ciertos sociólogos, como áreas de almas perdidas y misiones, áreas donde individuos y familias viven en intimidad forzada con personas a las cuales normalmente rechazan y evitan; áreas donde no se aprecian estándares de decencia o buena conducta excepto los impuestos por una autoridad externa. Según la opinión de otros sociólogos, los barrios bajos son un área de libertad e individualismo. Harvey Zorbaugh dice que la política en el distrito bajo no es como la política en el distrito de clase media. Como no se ajusta a los estándares de la clase media, no es más que un juego. Más aún, la preocupación con el estudio de la desorganización familiar ha conducido a algunos sociólogos a subestimar cualquier grado de organización que se pueda encontrar en los barrios bajos. 

  20. Quistes de los maxilares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Alberto Manotas Arevalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Grandes Quistes de los Maxilares han estado vinculados siempre a la humanidad, desde tiempos remotos, pues han sido halladas en restos de especimenes fosiles, han llamado la atencion de los clínicos, en torno a su etiologia, en la que se ha introducido la participacion de la genetica, (demostrada en el desarrollo de los queratoquistes maxilares, la fisiopatologia, caracteristicas histologicas (inmunohistoquimica, posibilidades diagnosticas por la imagen, (como la tomografia computarizada y la resonancia nuclear magnetica y otras pruebas. Además llaman la atención al estudio, por sus alternativas de manejo especialmente las formas radicales, y el analisis de asociaciones a otras patolo-gias benignas y malignas, y de la recurrencia muy alto de algunas de estas lesiones. Mucho se ha desarrollado para elucidar su naturaleza real, estadificar adecuadamente la lesion descartando asocia-ciones patologicas sindromicas, indicar un tratamiento apropiado, y realizar seguimientos a largo plazo. Este articulo pretende recaudar una information general que de parametros para abordar el estudio de los quistes maxilares a partir de la presentacion de un caso clinico.