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Sample records for allura red ac

  1. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quicker degradation of Allura Red AC in the order EO-H2O2 < EF < PEF with Pt or BDD anode. • Almost total mineralization achieved by the most powerful PEF process with BDD. • Similar decolorization and mineralization rate in SO42−, ClO4− and NO3− media. • In Cl− medium, only slightly larger decolorization rate but strong inhibition of mineralization. • Identification of aromatic products, carboxylic acids and released NH4+, NO3− and SO42− ions. - Abstract: The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L−1 of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H2O2. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between H2O2 and added Fe2+. The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H2O2 < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO42−, ClO4− and NO3− media, whereas in Cl− medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC–MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO42− medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl− solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH4+, NO3− and SO42− ions were released during the mineralization

  2. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José A.; Rodríguez, Rosa M.; Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Quicker degradation of Allura Red AC in the order EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < EF < PEF with Pt or BDD anode. • Almost total mineralization achieved by the most powerful PEF process with BDD. • Similar decolorization and mineralization rate in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} media. • In Cl{sup −} medium, only slightly larger decolorization rate but strong inhibition of mineralization. • Identification of aromatic products, carboxylic acids and released NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions. - Abstract: The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L{sup −1} of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and added Fe{sup 2+}. The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} media, whereas in Cl{sup −} medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC–MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl{sup −} solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH{sub 4

  3. Statement on Allura Red AC and other sulphonated mono azo dyes authorised as food and feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ANS Panel has been asked by EFSA to assess the new scientific information that has become available since the adoption of the opinion on the re-evaluation of the food colouring agent Allura Red AC in 2009, in particular the positive findings from an in vivo comet assay in mice. The findings from this study have been interpreted in conjunction with all the available relevant data from genotoxicity testing, metabolism and carcinogenicity, and in consideration of possible species differences between mouse and rat. These new data have been considered in the context of the overall relevant data available not only for Allura Red AC but also for a number of other structurally related sulphonated mono azo dyes authorised as food additives, namely: Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazine and Azorubine/Carmoisine. The Panel concluded that the new data by themselves were insufficient at this time to change the conclusions of the 2009 opinion on the safety of Allura Red AC and that there is currently no reason to revise the ADI. The read-across exercise has highlighted a shared pattern of effects for this class of substances that would warrant further investigation The Panel therefore recommended a repetition of the in vivo comet assay in mice, to be performed in compliance with the most recent and internationally validated experimental protocol, using whole cells and examining a wide range of tissues. These recommendations apply to all the sulphonated mono azo dyes included in this review.

  4. Genotoxicity assessment of amaranth and allura red using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Hafiza Sumara; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Mahmood, Shahid; Anwer, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129), very important food azo dyes used in food, drug, paper, cosmetic and textile industries, were assessed for their genotoxic potential through comet assay in yeast cells. Comet assay was standardized by with different concentration of H(2)O(2). Concentrations of Amaranth and Allura red were maintained in sorbitol buffer starting from 9.76 to 5,000 μg/mL and 1 × 10(4) cells were incubated at two different incubation temperatures 28 and 37°C. Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129) were found to exhibit their genotoxic effect directly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant genotoxic activity was observed for Amaranth and Allura red at 28°C but at 37°C direct relation of Amaranth concentration with comet tail was significant and no positive relation was seen with time exposure factor. At 37°C the minimum concentration of Amaranth and Allura red at which significant DNA damage observed through comet assay was 1,250 μg/mL in 2nd h post exposure time. The results indicated that food colors should be carefully used in baking products as heavy concentration of food colors could affect the fermentation process of baking.

  5. Non-target screening of Allura Red AC photodegradation products in a beverage through ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Calabrese, Giorgio; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio

    2013-01-15

    The study deals with the identification of the degradation products formed by simulated sunlight photoirradiation in a commercial beverage that contains Allura Red AC dye. An UHPLC-MS/MS method, that makes use of hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap, was developed. In the identification step the software tool information dependent acquisition (IDA) was used to automatically obtain information about the species present and to build a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method with the MS/MS fragmentation pattern of the species considered. The results indicate that the identified degradation products are formed from side-reactions and/or interactions among the dye and other ingredients present in the beverage (ascorbic acid, citric acid, sucrose, aromas, strawberry juice, and extract of chamomile flowers). The presence of aromatic amine or amide functionalities in the chemical structures proposed for the degradation products might suggest potential hazards to consumer health.

  6. Reactividad Química de los Azo Colorantes Amarillo Anaranjado y Rojo Allura mediante Descriptores Globales y la Función de Fukui Chemical Reactivity of the Azo dyes Sunset Yellow and Allura Red by Global Descriptors and the Fukui Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo E Ensuncho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se calcularon descriptores globales y locales de la reactividad para los colorantes amarillo anaranjado y rojo allura con el fin de analizar su reactividad química intrínseca. Los cálculos computacionales se llevaron a cabo tanto en vacio como en la fase acuosa, la cual se representó por medio de una constante dieléctrica de 78.5 e introducida por el modelo de solvente del continuo polarizado. Los resultados mostraron que el colorante rojo allura es menos susceptible a la adición nucleofílica que el amarillo anaranjado, ya que los sustituyentes electrodonadores metilo y metoxilo disminuyen la capacidad del grupo azo para aceptar electrones. El análisis de la función condensada de Fukui para el ataque nucleofílico e índice de electrofilicidad local, mostraron que el sitio preferido de ataque del agente reductor (ión bisulfito fue C4, lo cual estuvo en concordancia con los reportes experimentales.In the present work local and global descriptors of the reactivity were calculated for sunset yellow and allura red to analyze its intrinsic reactivity. The computational calculations were carried out in vacuum and aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is represented by a dielectric constant of 78.5, introduced by polarizable continuum model. The results show that allura red is less susceptible to nucleophilic addition than sunset yellow, because the electrodonor substituents methyl and methoxy decrease the capability of the azo group to accept electrons. The analysis of condensed Fukui function for a nucleophilic attack and local electrophilicity index showed that the preferred direction of attack the reducing agent (bisulfite ion occurs on C4, which was in good agreement with experimental reports.

  7. Estudio Computacional de la Cinética y Mecanismos de Reducción del Colorante Rojo Allura por Bisulfito de Sodio en Fase Acuosa Computational Study of the Kinetics and Mechanism of the Reduction of Allura Red Dye by Sodium Bisulfite in Aqueous Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo E Ensuncho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la cinética de la reducción del colorante rojo allura (E-129, C.I. 16035 por bisulfito de sodio al nivel B3LYP/6-31G(d en solución acuosa. Esto con el fin de evaluar una ruta mecanística plausible para la reacción de reducción de este importante azo colorante usado en la industria de alimentos. Las constantes de velocidad predichas para la etapa de sulfonación (kSulf estuvieron en buen acuerdo con respecto a las constantes de velocidad experimentales reportadas para algunos colorantes de estructura química similar a rojo allura. Se localizaron cinco puntos estacionarios sobre la superficie de energía potencial B3LYP. Los estados de transición para la primera y segunda etapa de la reacción de reducción son presentados por primera vez y caracterizados mediante cálculos de la coordenada intrínseca de reacción y frecuencias vibracionales. Los parámetros termodinámicos de activación indicaron que la reacción fue estable, endotérmica y no espontánea.The reduction kinetics of allura red dye (E-129, C.I. 16035 by sodium bisulfite at level B3LYP/6-31G(d in aqueous phase was determined. This was done to evaluate a plausible mechanistic path for the reduction reaction of this important azo dye used in the food industry. The predicted rate constants (kSulf for the sulfonation step were in good agreement with respect to experimental rate constants reported for some dyes of chemical structure similar to Allura red. On the B3LYP potential energy surface, were located five stationary points corresponding to reactants, transition states and products. The transition states for the first and second step of the reduction reaction are presented for the first time and characterized by calculations of intrinsic reaction coordinate and vibrational frequencies. The activation thermodynamic parameters indicated than the reaction was stable, endothermic and non-spontaneous.

  8. Assessment of the exposure to Allura red colour from the consumption of red juice-based and red soft drinks in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fallico, Biagio; Chiappara, Elena; Elena, Arena; Gabriele, Ballistreri

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports on a survey and an exposure study, based on a probabilistic approach, concerning red juice-based and red soft drink products in Italy. This study highlighted that the estimations, both of consumption rates and colorant intakes, are related to the hypotheses of scenarios. In fact, the study estimated that, on the average, consumers of red soft drinks consume 53.1 litres per year, ranging from 39.1 litres to 70.7 litres of soft drink products under a scena...

  9. Degradation products of the artificial azo dye, Allura red, inhibit esterase activity of carbonic anhydrase II: A basic in vitro study on the food safety of the colorant in terms of enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Sajjad; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Khaledian, Koestan; Adibi, Hadi; Rouhani, Shohre; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-12-15

    Allura red is a widely used food colorant, but there is debate on its potential security risk. In the present study, we found that degradation products of the dye were more potent agents with higher carbonic anhydrase inhibitory action than the parent dye. The mechanism by which the compounds inhibit the enzyme activity has been determined as competitive mode. In addition, the enzyme binding properties of the compounds were investigated employing different spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking. The analyses of fluorescence quenching data revealed the existence of the same binding site for the compounds on the enzyme molecule. The thermodynamic parameters of ligand binding were not similar, which indicates that different interactions are responsible in binding of the parent dye and degradation products to the enzyme. It appears that enzyme inhibition should be considered, more seriously, as a new opened dimension in food safety. PMID:27451209

  10. PENENTUAN KUANTITATIF ZAT WARNA KARMOSIN,PONCEAU 4R DAN MERAH ALURA YANG DITAMBAHKAN DALAM MINUMAN AGREM (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn [Quantitative Determination of Carmoisine, Ponceau 4R and Allura Red Colouring Agents Added Into Softdrink Containing the Aqueous Extract of (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embit Kartadarma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic food-colouring agent is stiil commonly used in soft drink to enhance the colour of the food and to make foods more attractive, particularly for the drink containing natural colour. Addition of colour is legally permitted by the govermment, however, the product sometime contain the substance more than the permissible maximum dosage, and it may possibly cause iillhealth to the consumer. Preparation of soft drink containing the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa fruits gave less intense colour due to the colour. The quantity of the synthetic food colour in soft drink must be determined quantitatively for food safety and the presence of natural colour in the products may affect the results. Determination of three synthetic colouring agents, carmoisine, ponceau 4R and allura red added into soft drink containing the aqueous extract of hisbicus sabdariffa was carried out. Result showed that the determination of such colouring agents can only be achivied after adjusting the pH up to 4.5 and the recovery of carmoisine, ponceau 4R and allura red were 99.8: 100.2 and 100.0%, with the accuracy of 0.1;0.3 and 0.1% and the precission of 0.1; 0.3 and 0.1% respectively.

  11. Peltier ac calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, D. H.; Moon, I. K.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new ac calorimeter, utilizing the Peltier effect of a thermocouple junction as an ac power source, is described. This Peltier ac calorimeter allows to measure the absolute value of heat capacity of small solid samples with sub-milligrams of mass. The calorimeter can also be used as a dynamic one with a dynamic range of several decades at low frequencies.

  12. Consideration of fluorescence properties for the direct determination of erythrosine in saffron in the presence of other synthetic dyes

    OpenAIRE

    ORDOUDI, Stella A; TSIMIDOU, Maria Z

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Direct selective detection of erythrosine in saffron in the presence of other synthetic dyes considers its fluorescence at 532 nm excitation / 548 nm emission. Saffron pretreatment was according to the ISO 3632-2 trade standard test methods. On account of calculated quantum yield values none of the yellow dyes is expected to interfere. Among red ones, reservations about allura red AC, azorubine and red 2G were not verified by experimentation signifying excellent method spe...

  13. ACAC Converters for UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusalin Lucian R. Păun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a new control technique forsingle – phase ACAC converters used for a on-line UPSwith a good dynamic response, a reduced-partscomponents, a good output characteristic, a good powerfactorcorrection(PFC. This converter no needs anisolation transformer. A power factor correction rectifierand an inverter with the proposed control scheme has beendesigned and simulated using Caspoc2007, validating theconcept.

  14. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  15. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  16. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  17. AC1 Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian DOBRE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The AC1 wing replaces the old wing of the wind tunnel model AEROTAXI, which has been made at scale 1:9. The new wing is part of CESAR program and improves the aerodynamic characteristics of the old one. The geometry of the whole wing was given by FOI Sweden and position of AC1 wing must coincide with the structure of the AEROTAXI model.

  18. AC1 Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian DOBRE

    2010-01-01

    The AC1 wing replaces the old wing of the wind tunnel model AEROTAXI, which has been made at scale 1:9. The new wing is part of CESAR program and improves the aerodynamic characteristics of the old one. The geometry of the whole wing was given by FOI Sweden and position of AC1 wing must coincide with the structure of the AEROTAXI model.

  19. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  20. Security analysis of interconnected AC/DC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses N-1 security in an interconnected ac/dc transmission system using power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). In the case of a dc converter outage the power needs to be redistributed among the remaining converter to maintain power balance and operation of the dc grid. The red...

  1. Adubação da cana-de-acúcar: XIV. Adubação NPK em latossolo roxo NPK fertilizer experiments of sugar cane on dusky red latosol soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Alvarez

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de dezenove ensaios de adubação de cana-de-açúcar, efetuados em latossolo roxo, em diferentes regiões paulistas. Adotou-se um delineamento fatorial 3³ para N, P e K, procurando-se avaliar a reação da cultura a esses nutrientes em áreas exploradas havia alguns anos com cana e em outras em início de exploração. A variedade utilizada foi a CB 41/76, plantando-se de janeiro a março de 1958. Foram aplicados 0,90 e 180kg/ha de N; 0,80 e 160kg/ha de P2O5 e 0,100 e 200kg/ha de K2O. Houve respostas significativas a nitrogênio em dez casos, a fósforo em nove e a potássio em dezesseis. A produção média sem adubo, em todos os ensaios, foi de 82,9t/ha. As doses máximas dos adubos proporcionaram aumentos médios de 15,2t/ha para nitrogênio, de 10,0t/ha para fósforo e de 21,3t/ha para potássio. O ajuste de funções de respostas aos resultados permitiu a verificação de que combinações mais econômicas dos nutrientes estão muito acima das recomendações correntes. As respostas da cultura à adubação estiveram diretamente relacionadas com a produtividade máxima econômica (r = 0,773**. Foi possível identificar relação direta entre respostas a N e produtividade (r = 0,695**, de respostas a N com o teor de matéria orgânica no solo (r = 0,677** e de fósforo com o teor de P no solo, determinado pelo método da resina trocadora de íons (r = 0,709**.Nineteen 3³ NPK factorial experiments with sugar cane were carried out in 1958/59 on dusky red latosol soils of various sugar plant owned lands, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The amounts of nutrients applied corresponded to: 0, 90 and 180 kg/ha of N; 0, 80 and 160kg/ha of P(20(5; and 0, 100 and 200kg/ha of K2O. The experiments were separated in two types of areas, based on former soil use: one group in areas where sugar cane was cultivated over ten years, and the other group in areas where which sugar cane had never been cultivated

  2. AC-3 audio coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  3. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  4. Red Sirius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changes its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries

  5. Hermetisk AC-Krets

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Carl; Smirnoff, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Under sex månader våren 2007 har ett samarbete mellan Volvo Lastvagnar och två studenter från KTH, inriktning Integrerad produktutveckling vid institutionen för maskinkonstruktion, pågått i form av ett examensarbete på 20 poäng. Dagens AC-system i Volvos lastbilar avger 20-40 g/år av köldmediet R134a som är en kraftfull växthusgas. Detta sker främst genom diffusion via slangar och tätningsmaterial. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ta fram förslag på tekniska lösningar på ett nytt AC-syst...

  6. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity

  7. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.

  8. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.……

  9. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  10. AC Optimal Power Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-04

    In this work, we have implemented and developed the simulation software to implement the mathematical model of an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of generation subject to constraints of node power balance (both real and reactive) and line power flow limits (MW, MVAr, and MVA). We have currently implemented the polar coordinate version of the problem. In the present work, we have used the optimization solver, Knitro (proprietary and not included in this software) to solve the problem and we have kept option for both the native numerical derivative evaluation (working satisfactorily now) as well as for analytical formulas corresponding to the derivatives being provided to Knitro (currently, in the debugging stage). Since the AC OPF is a highly non-convex optimization problem, we have also kept the option for a multistart solution. All of these can be decided by the user during run-time in an interactive manner. The software has been developed in C++ programming language, running with GCC compiler on a Linux machine. We have tested for satisfactory results against Matpower for the IEEE 14 bus system.

  11. Single-Phase Direct AC-AC Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCANU, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a single-phase direct AC-AC boost converter. The circuit of the converter is simple and it has good performances, irrespective of the load nature. The adequate functioning and high performance of the circuit (the efficiency and waveform of the absorbed input current were tested both by simulation and experimentally.

  12. Ac Hybrid Charge Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini S. Durgam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems with lower carbon footprint levels. The purpose of this work is the development of a hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energy in sun and electricity to generate electricity. The working model can able to run on dual mode- solar and electricity. It can also be driven independently either by solar or electricity. The battery can be charge from solar panel (40W or by power supply. The household single phase A.C. power supply of 230V is converted into 12V D.C. using step down transformer and rectifying circuit. The working model can achieve energy saving, low carbon emission, environmental protection for the upcoming future of human life.

  13. Seeing Red

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io. New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see. The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos

  14. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  15. ACS CCD Stability Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman

    2012-10-01

    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.

  16. AC drives for industrial plants. Plant kudoyo AC drive sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    Features and product series of AC drives for industrial plants were outlined. Configurations and features of various types of AC drives were briefly discussed which are put into market to meet various requirements for industrial plants and wide ranges of output voltage and capacity. The following product series were outlined; the power bipolar transistor inverter for 3.5-600 kVA in output capacity, IGBT inverter for AC 400 V in output voltage and 1,000 kVA or less, GTO inverter for AC 600 V and 700-2,000 kVA, and cycloconverter for AC 1,000-3,000 V and 1,000 kW-20 MW. The following subjects were outlined as current technical trends of AC drives for industrial plants; increasing in capacity of voltage-source PWM inverters, downsizing of converters through highly efficient cooling and highly dense mounting, spreading of sensorless vector controls, and development of high-voltage large-capacity PWM inverters. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Partial AC-coupling minigrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moix, Pierre-Olivier; Ruchet, Claude [Studer Innotec, Sion (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Partial AC-coupling: - It is feasible to make AC-coupling of some compatible elements without V/f droops. Standard elements available on the market were tested. - Optimum design for efficiency is a share of the solar modules between DC-coupling with a solar charger and AC-coupling with a grid inverter according to the load profile. - Partial AC-coupling is better in term of robustness; it is more reliable to have at least a part of the solar production connected directly to DC, or even only DC coupling. The presented concepts are not only theoretical but were implemented and tested on real products available on the market. Many tests have been done to find out the limits and problems that can occur with the use of grid connected and stand alone inverter together. Many combinations were tested and it was found robust enough to be used in the field with the precautions mentioned about microcycling. (orig.)

  18. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne eHoogstrate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2 and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits.

  19. AcEST: DK948638 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fragment)... 35 0.35 sp|P35930|POL2_RCMV RNA1 polyprotein OS=Red clover mottle virus ... 33 1.0 sp|Q9STX0|WR...RSSELLKLL 347 >sp|P35930|POL2_RCMV RNA1 polyprotein OS=Red clover mottle virus PE=3 SV=1 Length = 1864 Score

  20. WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

  1. Hopping models and ac universality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA) is the h......Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA......) is the harmonic (fracton) dimension of the diffusion cluster. The temperature scaling of the dimensionless frequency entering into the DCA is discussed. Finally, some open problems regarding ac universality are listed....

  2. Speed Control of DC Motor using AC/AC/DC Converter Based on Intelligent Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakan Kh Antar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available    This paper describes the application of ac/ac/dc and ac/dc converters to control the speed of a separately excited DC motor. Artificial neural network and PI controller are trained to select the desired values of firing angles for triggering thyristors of the ac/ac/dc and ac/dc bridge converters in order to control the speed of the dc motor at a desired value with constant and different load torques in order to obtain the best speed response. Simulation results show that the rising time for ac/dc and ac/ac/dc converters at 250rpm are reduced about 79% and 89% respectively, while delay time it reduced about 69% and 64% respectively. Therefore, speed response of the dc motor is more efficient for closed loop system compared with open loop also the response of ac/ac/dc converter is better than ac/dc converter.

  3. AcEST: DK943932 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rella paten... 145 2e-33 tr|B6T2L2|B6T2L2_MAIZE Sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase ...EAL++SHVCK+AC Sbjct: 67 ATACVNTFGDEQLAVDMLADKLLFEALRHSHVCKYAC 103 >tr|B6T2L2|B6T2L2_MAIZE Sedoheptulose-1,7-

  4. AcEST: DK961189 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=A... 127 7e-29 sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine protease 1 OS... 125 2e-28 sp|P00785|AC...IRNSWGLNWGDSGYVKLQRNIDDPFGKCGIAMMPSYP 347 >sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine protease 1 OS=

  5. AcEST: DK962562 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se OS=Archaeoglobus fulgid... 32 2.0 sp|P13561|VGNM_RCMV RNA2 polyprotein OS=Red clover mottle virus ... 31 ...+ VF+P Sbjct: 50 KKYTTQRKEVDRVEILSGVFEGLTTATPISMVVWNVDADSSAY---ESLKTVFRP 101 >sp|P13561|VGNM_RCMV RNA2 polyprotein OS=Red clover mott...le virus PE=3 SV=1 Length = 996 Score = 30.8 bits (68), Expect = 4.5 Identities = 1

  6. Microwave-induced crystallization of AC/TiO{sub 2} for improving the performance of rhodamine B dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Fei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Wu, Zhansheng, E-mail: wuzhans@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Chen, Qiuyu; Yan, Yujun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Cravotto, Giancarlo; Wu, Zhilin [Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Torino 10125 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mixed phase titania coated with AC was obtained by microwave irradiation method. • The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were spherical and well distributed on the surface of AC. • The light absorption edges of AC/TiO{sub 2} showed red-shift compared to the pure TiO{sub 2}. • Higher surface and TiO{sub 2} content of AC/TiO{sub 2} could improve photocatalytic efficiency. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) deposition on activated carbon (AC) is widely used for pollutant photodegradation. In this study, a simple and efficient method for preparing AC/TiO{sub 2} composites under microwave irradiation was developed for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV light. Results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are anatase and rutile, with a spherical shape and a particle size of 20–50 nm and are well distributed on the AC surface. The UV–vis spectrum of TiO{sub 2} coated on AC showed an evident red-shift and exhibited stronger optical absorption capacity than pure TiO{sub 2}. The AC/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared at a microwave power of 700 W for 15 min exhibited 98% efficiency in removing RhB dye under UV irradiation for 30 min. The high photocatalytic activity of AC/TiO{sub 2}-700 W could be mainly attributed to the high sorption capacity of the mesoporous carbon material and high TiO{sub 2} content, which could produce higher quantity of ·OH. This study provides a rapid synthesis technique to prepare AC/TiO{sub 2} and a novel method to improve photocatalytic efficiency via synergistic effect for other catalytic systems.

  7. SSTI Clark ACS Technology Demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Freesland, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    SSTI Clark, one of two spacecraft built under NASA's Small Satellite Technology Initiative, includes seven ACS technology demonstrations. The technologies redefine the performance cost envelope, providing improved sensor and actuator performance at reduced costs. Six sensing technologies are being flown consisting of both hardware and algorithmic demonstrations: autonomous star tracker, hemispherical resonating gyro, GPS attitude determination, miniature horizon sensors, low cost course sun s...

  8. Apuntes de Acústica

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Domingo, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Esta publicacion contiene unos apuntes para la parte de Acústica de las asignaturas de la ETSAM, junto con cierta cantidad de material adicional que excede el ámbito del curso. Aunque está lejos de ser completa y de estar libre de errores, el autor espera sea útil.

  9. Energy saving in ac generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit cuts no-load losses, without sacrificing full-load power. Phase-contro circuit includes gate-controlled semiconductor switch that cuts off applied voltage for most of ac cycle if generator idling. Switch "on" time increases when generator is in operation.

  10. American Red Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Help Sand Fire Evacuees » 90% of the Red Cross Workforce are Volunteers Learn More. Search for ... Volunteer» Digital Advocates» SEARCH FOR OPENINGS Shop the Red Cross Store Be Prepared and Ready to Respond ...

  11. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  12. Red Wine Over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  13. AcEST: DK943965 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FKBP-type OS=Cya... 55 2e-06 tr|B8EIG1|B8EIG1_METSI Peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP-type OS=Met... 53 9e-06 t... type OS=Ac... 51 4e-05 tr|B8I9L2|B8I9L2_METNO Peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP-type OS=Met.

  14. AC dynamometer; Koryu dinamo meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., developed an AC dynamometer for testing automobiles, and the product was delivered to Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College via Safety Automobile Company. The device is used for testing 1,300cc-class automobiles. It is similar to the conventional type in that its force of reaction to an imposed load is measured by load cells. It is a variable speed motor driven by an inverter (FRENIC5000VG5), whose specifications and features are mentioned below. It is a totally-enclosed self-cooled oscillating AC dynamometer that outputs 75kW, revolves at 1500/2868rpm, and operates for 30min. Since it is rated for a short time operation, the external fan is dispensed with, and this reduces noise. A number of parts for the standard type (R90 series) are utilized for reduction in the cost, and the time required for its delivery was short. (NEDO)

  15. Instalación para vivienda multifamiliar de ACS en Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fanego, María

    2009-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto consiste en el diseño y propuesta de una instalación solar térmica para producción de agua caliente sanitaria (ACS) en una vivienda multifamiliar situada en Madrid. Para ello se van a estudiar las necesidades térmicas de ACS en función de las características constructivas del edificio y analizando los datos climatológicos y de temperatura de red de agua fría propios del emplazamiento. Con ello se llevará a cabo un estudio energético teniendo en cue...

  16. AcEST: BP916353 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|P32791|FRE1_YEAST Ferric/cupric red...uctase transmembrane compo... 30 3.8 >sp|P32791|FRE1_YEAST Ferric/cupric reductas

  17. AcEST: DK952315 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase OS=Andrographis paniculata Align length 76 Score (bit) 67.8...utaryl-coenzyme A red... 64 8e-09 >tr|Q84MM0|Q84MM0_ANDPA 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase OS=Andrographis

  18. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  19. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  20. AcEST: DK954735 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q7TMD5 Definition sp|Q7TMD5...ng significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q7TMD5|ZC3HE_RAT Zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein 1... ...tein pstB ... 30 5.8 sp|Q2S081|PSTB_SALRD Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB O... 30 7.6 >sp|Q7TMD5

  1. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  2. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  3. The photochemistry of [Fe(III)N3(cyclam-ac)]PF6 at 266 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Alacan, Joel; Krahe, Oliver; Filippou, Alexander C; Neese, Frank; Schwarzer, Dirk; Vöhringer, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The photochemistry of iron azido complexes is quite challenging and poorly understood. For example, the photochemical decomposition of [Fe(III)N(3)(cyclam-ac)]PF(6) ([1]PF(6)), where cyclam-ac represents the 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1-acetate ligand, has been shown to be wavelength-dependent, leading either to the rare high-valent iron(V) nitrido complex [Fe(V)N(cyclam-ac)]PF(6) ([3]PF(6)) after cleavage of the azide N(α)-N(β) bond, or to a photoreduced Fe(II) species after Fe-N(azide) bond homolysis. The mechanistic details of this intriguing reactivity have never been studied in detail. Here, the photochemistry of 1 in acetonitrile solution at room temperature has been investigated using step-scan and rapid-scan time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy following a 266 nm, 10 ns pulsed laser excitation. Using carbon monoxide as a quencher for the primary iron-containing photochemical product, it is shown that 266 nm excitation of 1 results exclusively in the cleavage of the Fe-N(azide) bond, as was suspected from earlier steady-state irradiation studies. In argon-purged solutions of [1]PF(6), the solvent-stabilized complex cation [Fe(II)(CH(3)CN)(cyclam-ac)](+) (2red) together with the azide radical (N(3)(.)) is formed with a relative yield of 80%, as evidenced by the appearance of their characteristic vibrational resonances. Strikingly, step-scan experiments with a higher time resolution reveal the formation of azide anions (N(3)(-)) during the first 500 ns after photolysis, with a yield of 20%. These azide ions can subsequently react thermally with 2red to form [Fe(II)N(3)(cyclam-ac)] (1red) as a secondary product of the photochemical decomposition of 1. Molecular oxygen was further used to quench 1red and 2red to form what seems to be the elusive complex [Fe(O(2))(cyclam-ac)](+) (6).

  4. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual non......-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally, model predictions...

  5. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    non-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally......The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual...

  6. ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo

    2005-11-22

    Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310

  7. Control of grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the configuration of future electrical power system. This paper gives a brief review of grid interactive ac microgrid configurations. Control methods for power electronics interfaced DER units in grid interactive ac microgrids are discussed. In addition......, microgrid controls and power management strategies are presented. Future trends of microgrid are discussed pointing out how this concept can be a key to achieve a more intelligent and flexible AC grid....

  8. Red Sandalwood Treasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2003-01-01

    HAVE you ever come across red sandalwood, a timber so rare as to render it precious? In ancient Asia it was regarded as equal to old and jade. Only the Emperor of China and members of his family had furniture made from red sandalwood, and 10-inch long panels of this material decorated Napoleon's coffin.

  9. AcEST: DK959751 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 72 3e-12 sp|Q6PFQ7|RASL2_MOU...SE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 72 4e-12 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended...ivating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 65 3e-10 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropi... 1 OS=Homo s... 61 6e-09 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 61 6e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended... synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 60 1e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended

  10. AcEST: BP920842 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ta... 59 6e-09 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 59 7e-09 sp|Q9ZT47|PP16A_...CUCMA 16 kDa phloem protein 1 OS=Cucurbita maxim... 57 2e-08 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 ... domain-conta... 56 6e-08 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 55 8e-08 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 55 1e-07 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synap...totagmin-3 OS=Mus musculus G... 54 2e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptota

  11. Short term dynamic aperture with AC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Mönig, Saskia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal, Jaime; Langner, Andy; Tomas, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic aperture of an accelerator is determined by its non-linear components and errors. Control of the dynamic aperture is important for a good understanding and operation of the accelerator. The AC dipole, installed in the LHC for the diagnostic of linear and non-linear optics, could serve as a tool for the determination of the dynamic aperture. However, since the AC dipole itself modifies the non-linear dynamics, the dynamic aperture with and without AC dipole are expected to differ. The effect of the AC dipole on the dynamic aperture is studied within this note.

  12. AC-tabsmodeller for superledende kabelledere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Holm (fratrådt), Jesper; Understrup (fratrådt), Henriette;

    1996-01-01

    I denne rapport opstilles tre modeller for beregning af AC-tab (vekselstrømstab) i superledende kabelledere. Beregning af tabenes størrelse er væsentlig i forbindelse med vurdering af superlederteknologiens anvendelighed til AC-applikationer. Viden om tabenes natur giver desuden et vigtigt...

  13. Inteligencia de red

    OpenAIRE

    Barba Martí, Antonio; Hesselbach Serra, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Bibliografia Actualmente existe una necesidad cada vez mayor de ofrecer servicios de red avanzados, que proporcionen un alto valor añadido al cliente. Eso es ya posible gracias a las nuevas capacidades de computación añadidas a los nodos de red, que proporcionan inteligencia y facilitan la gestión de red a los operadores y proveedores de servicios. En este texto, se presentan las nuevas redes inteligentes basadas en señalización número 7, los nuevos servicios sobre Internet (voz sobre IP, ...

  14. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  15. ACS sampling system: design, implementation, and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2004-09-01

    By means of ACS (ALMA Common Software) framework we designed and implemented a sampling system which allows sampling of every Characteristic Component Property with a specific, user-defined, sustained frequency limited only by the hardware. Collected data are sent to various clients (one or more Java plotting widgets, a dedicated GUI or a COTS application) using the ACS/CORBA Notification Channel. The data transport is optimized: samples are cached locally and sent in packets with a lower and user-defined frequency to keep network load under control. Simultaneous sampling of the Properties of different Components is also possible. Together with the design and implementation issues we present the performance of the sampling system evaluated on two different platforms: on a VME based system using VxWorks RTOS (currently adopted by ALMA) and on a PC/104+ embedded platform using Red Hat 9 Linux operating system. The PC/104+ solution offers, as an alternative, a low cost PC compatible hardware environment with free and open operating system.

  16. Abnormal red cell features associated with hereditary neurodegenerative disorders: the neuroacanthocytosis syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschi, L. De; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Mohandas, N.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the mechanisms involved in the generation of thorny red blood cells (RBCs), known as acanthocytes, in patients with neuroacanthocytosis, a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative hereditary disorders that include chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and McLeod syndro

  17. Alterations of red cell membrane properties in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Siegl

    Full Text Available Neuroacanthocytosis (NA refers to a group of heterogenous, rare genetic disorders, namely chorea acanthocytosis (ChAc, McLeod syndrome (MLS, Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2 and pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN, that mainly affect the basal ganglia and are associated with similar neurological symptoms. PKAN is also assigned to a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases, known as NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, associated with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and progressive movement disorder. Acanthocytosis, the occurrence of misshaped erythrocytes with thorny protrusions, is frequently observed in ChAc and MLS patients but less prevalent in PKAN (about 10% and HDL2 patients. The pathological factors that lead to the formation of the acanthocytic red blood cell shape are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NA/NBIA acanthocytes differ in their functionality from normal erythrocytes. Several flow-cytometry-based assays were applied to test the physiological responses of the plasma membrane, namely drug-induced endocytosis, phosphatidylserine exposure and calcium uptake upon treatment with lysophosphatidic acid. ChAc red cell samples clearly showed a reduced response in drug-induced endovesiculation, lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and calcium uptake. Impaired responses were also observed in acanthocyte-positive NBIA (PKAN red cells but not in patient cells without shape abnormalities. These data suggest an "acanthocytic state" of the red cell where alterations in functional and interdependent membrane properties arise together with an acanthocytic cell shape. Further elucidation of the aberrant molecular mechanisms that cause this acanthocytic state may possibly help to evaluate the pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration.

  18. Characterization of AcMNPV with a deletion of ac69 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhao Ke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ORF69 (Ac69 of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV is conserved in some baculovirus genomes. Although it has been shown that Ac69 has cap 0-dependent methyltransferase activity and is not required for budded virus production in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells, its role in occlusion-derived virus synthesis and virus oral infectivity is not known. This paper describes generation of an ac69 knockout AcMNPV bacmid mutant and analyses of the influence of ac69 deletion on the viral infectivity in Sf-9 cells and Trichoplusia ni larvae so as to investigate the role of ac69 in the viral life cycle. Results indicated that ac69 deletion has little effect on the production rates and morphogenesis of budded virus and occlusion-derived virus in Sf-9 cells. In addition, animal experiment revealed that the deletion mutant did not affect AcMNPV infectivity for Trichoplusia ni larvae in LD50 and LT50 bioassay when administered orally. These results suggest that ac69 may be dispensable for viral infectivity both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  20. PENENTUAN KUANTITATIF ZAT WARNA KARMOSIN,PONCEAU 4R DAN MERAH ALURA YANG DITAMBAHKAN DALAM MINUMAN AGREM (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn) [Quantitative Determination of Carmoisine, Ponceau 4R and Allura Red Colouring Agents Added Into Softdrink Containing the Aqueous Extract of (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Embit Kartadarma2); As’ari Nawawi; Halida

    2007-01-01

    The synthetic food-colouring agent is stiil commonly used in soft drink to enhance the colour of the food and to make foods more attractive, particularly for the drink containing natural colour. Addition of colour is legally permitted by the govermment, however, the product sometime contain the substance more than the permissible maximum dosage, and it may possibly cause iillhealth to the consumer. Preparation of soft drink containing the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa fruits gave l...

  1. Red cell enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniker, N V

    1975-03-01

    As compared to other cells of the body, the mammalian red cell has one of the simplest structural organizations. As a result, this cell has been extensively used in studies involving the structure, function, and integrity of cell membranes as well as cytoplasmic events. Additionally, the metabolic activities of the red blood cell are also relatively simple. During the past quarter century or so, an ocean of knowledge has been gathered on various aspects of red cell metabolism and function. The fields of enzymes, hemoglobin, membrane, and metabolic products comprise the major portion of this knowledge. These advances have made valuable contributions to biochemistry and medicine. Despite these favorable aspects of this simple, anucleated cell, it must be conceded that our knowledge about the red cell is far from complete. We are still in the dark concerning the mechanism involved in several aspects of its membrane, hemoglobin, enzymes, and a large number of other constituents. For example, a large number of enzymes with known catalytic activity but with unknown function have eluded investigators despite active pursuit. This review will be a consolidation of our present knowledge of human red cell enzymes, with particular reference to their usefulness in the diagnosis and therapy of disease. Owing to the multitude of publications by prominent investigators on each of the approximately 50 enzymes discussed in this review, it was impossible to cite a majority of them.

  2. Rapidly rotating red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  3. Red giant seismology: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosser B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars, the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

  4. DC-Modulated PFC Buck-Type AC/AC Converter for Light Dimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗方林; 叶虹

    2007-01-01

    Dimmers are very widely applied in theatres, cinemas, dancing-parties, auditoriums and signal systems. They are usually supplied by single-stage AC/AC converters in the past with voltage regulation technique with the disadvantages of high total harmonic distortion, low power factor and poor power transfer efficiency. This paper introduces a novel method-DC-modulation that implements DC/DC conversion technology into AC/AC converters. The DC-modulated single-stage PFC AC/AC converters effectively improved the power factor up to 0.999 and the power transfer efficiency up to 97.8 %. The experimental results verified our design and calculation. This technique will be widely used in light dimming and other industrial applications.

  5. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  6. Cooperative Frequency Control for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    Distributed secondary control strategies have been recently studied for frequency regulation in droop-based AC Microgrids. Unlike centralized secondary control, the distributed one might fail to provide frequency synchronization and proportional active power sharing simultaneously, due to having...... not require measuring the system frequency as compared to the other presented methods. An ac Microgrid with four sources is used to verify the performance of the proposed control methodology....

  7. 马士基将重组AC-2和AC-3航线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕翔(整理)

    2014-01-01

    马士基航运将重组其远东-墨西哥-中美洲-南美洲西海岸航线“AC-2”线和“AC-3”线。“AC-2”线将延伸至华北和韩国,同时不再挂靠华南,在亚洲,该航线将加挂青岛和釜山,

  8. Red light regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and gravitropism in etiolated pea stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, C. L.; Taylor, L. K.; Harrison, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    During gravitropism, the accumulation of auxin in the lower side of the stem causes increased growth and the subsequent curvature, while the gaseous hormone ethylene plays a modulating role in regulating the kinetics of growth asymmetries. Light also contributes to the control of gravitropic curvature, potentially through its interaction with ethylene biosynthesis. In this study, red-light pulse treatment of etiolated pea epicotyls was evaluated for its effect on ethylene biosynthesis during gravitropic curvature. Ethylene biosynthesis analysis included measurements of ethylene; the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC); malonyl-conjugated ACC (MACC); and expression levels of pea ACC oxidase (Ps-ACO1) and ACC synthase (Ps-ACS1, Ps-ACS2) genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Red-pulsed seedlings were given a 6 min pulse of 11 micromoles m-2 s-1 red-light 15 h prior to horizontal reorientation for consistency with the timeline of red-light inhibition of ethylene production. Red-pulse treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and MACC levels in epicotyl tissue. However, there was no effect of red-pulse treatment on ACC level, or expression of ACS or ACO genes. During gravitropic curvature, ethylene production increased from 60 to 120 min after horizontal placement in both control and red-pulsed epicotyls. In red-pulsed tissues, ACC levels increased by 120 min after horizontal reorientation, accompanied by decreased MACC levels in the lower portion of the epicotyl. Overall, our results demonstrate that ethylene production in etiolated epicotyls increases after the initiation of curvature. This ethylene increase may inhibit cell growth in the lower portion of the epicotyl and contribute to tip straightening and reduced overall curvature observed after the initial 60 min of curvature in etiolated pea epicotyls.

  9. A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System

    OpenAIRE

    Marian GAICEANU; Emil ROSU

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller) 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP), were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation ...

  10. Aluminum extractability in red soils as influenced by land use patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶兰军; 谢正苗; 黄昌勇; 徐建明

    2002-01-01

    This study on the effect of land use on soil quality in relation to forms and toxicity of aluminum in red soils (Ultisol) in southeast China showed that in general, the extractable order for soil active aluminum by four extractants was: NaOH 0.5 mol/L > HCl 1 mol/L > NH4Ac 1 mol/L > KCl 1 mol/L . Different uses of the red soils, developed from Quarternary red clay with the similar hydrogeological environment, greatly affected the amount of active aluminum, especially the exchangeable Al3+. The order of exchangeable Al3+ (Al mg/kg) in the red soils with different land uses was: barren land (740) > tea garden (663) > peach garden (432) > citrus garden (234) > paddy soil (127). The content of water soluble aluminum in the red soils was highly sensitive to soil acidity.

  11. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1850 AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. (a) Identification. An AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope is an AC-powered device that is...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  13. 21 CFR 888.1240 - AC-powered dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered dynamometer. 888.1240 Section 888.1240...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 888.1240 AC-powered dynamometer. (a) Identification. An AC-powered dynamometer is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes to...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1630 AC-powered photostimulator. (a) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  15. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission...''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b)(2) of the..., owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing...

  16. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  17. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented.

  18. Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Na; Mi, Lan; Liu, Xiaojun; Pan, Shuo; Xu, Jiaojiao; Xia, Dongyu; Liu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Yong; Xiang, Yu; Yuan, Zuyi; Guan, Gongchang; Wang, Junkui

    2015-01-01

    Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months,...

  19. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...

  20. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift c

  1. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-12-01

    N-Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, whereas N atoms occupied the O atom sites and interstitial sites in the TiO2 lattice, which changed the electric and band-gap structures of the photocatalyst. N or Cu monodoping of AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 from 2.86 eV to 2.81 or 2.61 eV, respectively. In (N, Cu)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Cu were incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrowed the band gap of TiO2 to 2.47 eV, causing a large red shift and enhancing visible-light utilization efficiency. Photocatalytic activities were further examined by formaldehyde degradation under visible-light irradiation. N-Cu-AC/TiO2 was found to have the highest activity (ca. 94.4 % formaldehyde degradation efficiency) and to be easily recyclable. These results show an important and innovative method of improving AC/TiO2 activity by modifying the nonmetallic and metallic species.

  2. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-12-01

    N-Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, whereas N atoms occupied the O atom sites and interstitial sites in the TiO2 lattice, which changed the electric and band-gap structures of the photocatalyst. N or Cu monodoping of AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 from 2.86 eV to 2.81 or 2.61 eV, respectively. In (N, Cu)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Cu were incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrowed the band gap of TiO2 to 2.47 eV, causing a large red shift and enhancing visible-light utilization efficiency. Photocatalytic activities were further examined by formaldehyde degradation under visible-light irradiation. N-Cu-AC/TiO2 was found to have the highest activity (ca. 94.4 % formaldehyde degradation efficiency) and to be easily recyclable. These results show an important and innovative method of improving AC/TiO2 activity by modifying the nonmetallic and metallic species. PMID:27295260

  3. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-06-01

    N-Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, whereas N atoms occupied the O atom sites and interstitial sites in the TiO2 lattice, which changed the electric and band-gap structures of the photocatalyst. N or Cu monodoping of AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 from 2.86 eV to 2.81 or 2.61 eV, respectively. In (N, Cu)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Cu were incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrowed the band gap of TiO2 to 2.47 eV, causing a large red shift and enhancing visible-light utilization efficiency. Photocatalytic activities were further examined by formaldehyde degradation under visible-light irradiation. N-Cu-AC/TiO2 was found to have the highest activity (ca. 94.4 % formaldehyde degradation efficiency) and to be easily recyclable. These results show an important and innovative method of improving AC/TiO2 activity by modifying the nonmetallic and metallic species.

  4. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  5. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  6. AC/DC and DC/AC Converty Circuits in Power Supply Equipment%电源设备中AC/DC和DC/AC变换电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨碧石

    2001-01-01

    电源设备中根据电路变换功能来看,可分为四种类型:AC/DC、DC/AC、DC/DC、AC/AC,本文对AC/DC、DC/AC这两种变换的工作原理进行分析阐述并讨论每种电路的应用领域.

  7. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta

    2014-02-01

    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  8. Control of Power Converters in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocabert, Joan; Luna, Alvaro; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2012-01-01

    The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability of the ele......The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability...

  9. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Rosema, Keith; Skillman, Evan D; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Karachentsev, Igor D; Olsen, Knut; Weisz, Daniel; Christensen, Charlotte; Freeman, Ken; Gilbert, Karoline; Gallart, Carme; Harris, Jason; Hodge, Paul; de Jong, Roelof S; Karachentseva, Valentina; Mateo, Mario; Stetson, Peter B; Tavarez, Maritza; Zaritsky, Dennis; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both t he ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  10. The Effective AC Response of Nonlinear Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI En-Bo; GU Guo-Qing

    2001-01-01

    A perturbative approach is used to study the AC response of nonlinear composite media, which obey a current-field relation of the form J = σ E + χ|E|2 E with components having nonlinear response at finite frequencies. For a sinusoidal applied field, we extend the local potential in terms of sinusoidal components at fundamental frequency and high-order harmonic frequencies to treat the nonlinear composites. For nonlinear composite media vith a low concentrations of spherical inclusions, we give the formulae of the nonlinear effective AC susceptibility χ*3ω at the third harmonic frequency.

  11. Extraction of scandium from red mud by modified activated carbon and kinetics study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hualei; LI Dongyan; TIAN Yajun; CHEN Yunfa

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was modified by tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) for selectively extracting scandium from red mud and characterized by BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area. The modified AC had a preferential adsorption to scandium. The influences of adsorbent dosage, adsorption temperature, and time on adsorption capacity and selectivity to scandium were examined. An optimum adsorbent dosage (~6.25g/L), adsorption temperature (308K), and adsorption time (40min) were figured out. A pseudo-second-order kinetics model was employed for describing the adsorption process of scandium.

  12. Brazilian Angiostrongylus cantonensis haplotypes, ac8 and ac9, have two different biological and morphological profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá CC Monte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Cases have been recorded in many parts of the world, including Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the biology and morphology of two different Brazilian haplotypes of A. : ac8 and ac9. A significantly larger number of L1 larvae eliminated in the faeces of rodents at the beginning of the patent period was observed for ac9 haplotype and compared to the total of L1 larvae eliminated, there was a significant difference between the two haplotypes. The ac9 haplotype showed a significant difference in the proportion of female and male specimens (0.6:1, but the same was not observed for ac8 (1.2:1. The morphometric analysis showed that male and female specimens isolated from ac8 haplotype were significantly larger with respect to body length, oesophagus length, spicule length (male and distance from the anus to the rear end (female compared to specimens from ac9. The morphological analysis by light microscopy showed little variation in the level of bifurcations at the lateral rays in the right lobe of the copulatory bursa between the two haplotypes. The biological, morphological and morphometric variations observed between the two haplotypes agree with the observed variation at the molecular level using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I marker and reinforce the possible influence of geographical isolation on the development of these haplotypes.

  13. Preparation of low cost activated carbon from Myrtus communis and pomegranate and their efficient application for removal of Congo red from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Tavallali, Hossein; Sharifi, Mahdi; Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri; Asghari, Alireza

    2012-02-01

    In this research, the potential applicability of activated carbon prepared from Myrtus communis (AC-MC) and pomegranate (AC-PG) as useful adsorbents for the removal of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions in batch method was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time, agitation time and amount of adsorbents on removal percentage of Congo red on both adsorbents were examined. Increase in pH up to 6 for AC-MC and pH 7 for AC-PG increase the adsorption percentage (capacity) and reach equilibrium within 30 min of contact time. Fitting the experimental data to conventional isotherm models like Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich show that the experimental data fitted very well to the Freundlich isotherm for AC-MC and Langmuir isotherm for AC-PG. Fitting the experimental data to different kinetic models such as pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion mechanism showed the applicability of a pseudo second-order with involvement of intraparticle diffusion model for interpretation of experimental data for both adsorbents. The adsorption capacity of AC-PG and AC-MC for the removal of CR was found to be 19.231 and 10 mg g -1. These results clearly indicate the efficiency of adsorbents as a low cost adsorbent for treatment of wastewater containing CR.

  14. SINGLE PHASE HIGH FREQUENCY AC CONVERTER FOR INDUCTION HEATING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A INAYATHULLAAH,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed topology reduces the total harmonic distortion (THD of a high frequency AC/AC Converter well below the acceptable limit. This paper deals with a novel single phase AC/DC/AC soft switching utility frequency AC to high frequency AC converter. In this paper a single phase full bridge inverter with Vienna rectifier as front end is used instead of conventional diode bridge rectifier to provide continuous sinusoidal input current with nearly unity power factor at the source side with extremely low distortion.. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective high frequency (HF consumer induction heating applications.

  15. YBCO thin films in ac and dc films

    CERN Document Server

    Shahzada, S

    2001-01-01

    We report studies on the dc magnetization of YBCO thin films in simultaneously applied dc and ac fields. The effect of the ac fields is to decrease the irreversible magnetization drastically leading to complete collapse of the hysteresis loops for relatively small ac fields (250e). The magnitude of the decrease depends on the component of the ac field parallel to the c-axis. The decrease is non-linear with ac amplitude and is explained in the framework of the critical state response of ultra thin films in perpendicular geometry. The ac fields increase the relaxation rapidly at short times while the long time response appears unaffected. (author)

  16. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx.

  17. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  18. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  19. A dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Starkloff, M.; Peiselt, K.; Anders, S.; Knipper, R.; Lee, J.; Behr, R.; Palafox, L.; Böck, A. C.; Schaidhammer, L.; Fleischmann, P. M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper describes a dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter system operated up to kilohertz frequencies and 7 V rms. A 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) array was installed on a pulse tube cooler (PTC) driven with a 4 kW air-cooled compressor. The operating margins at 70 GHz frequencies were investigated in detail and found to exceed 1 mA Shapiro step width. A key factor for the successful chip operation was the low on-chip power consumption of 65 mW in total. A thermal interface between PJVS chip and PTC cold stage was used to avoid a significant chip overheating. By installing the cryocooled PJVS array into an AC quantum voltmeter setup, several calibration measurements of dc standards and calibrator ac voltages up to 2 kHz frequencies were carried out to demonstrate the full functionality. The results are discussed and compared to systems with standard liquid helium cooling. For dc voltages, a direct comparison measurement between the dry-cooled AC quantum voltmeter and a liquid-helium based 10 V PJVS shows an agreement better than 1 part in 1010.

  20. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  1. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...

  2. Protection of AC and DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beheshtaein, Siavash; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    In future, distributed energy resources (RESs) will be utilized at consumption points. As a consequence, power flow and fault current would be bidirectional and topologydependent; and hence the conventional protection strategies would be inefficient. This paper categorizes the main challenges in AC...

  3. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Marijn Pieter

    2000-01-01

    The present study discusses the AC loss in high-temperature superconductors. Superconducting materials with a relatively high critical temperature were discovered in 1986. They are presently developed for use in large-scale power-engineering devices such as power-transmission cables, transformers an

  4. Thermal Simulation of AC Electromagnetic Contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIUChun-ping; CHENDe-gui; ZHANGJing-shu; LIXing-wen

    2005-01-01

    Transient magnetic circuit method is adopted to calculate the power loss in winding and shading coil. Based on the analysis of heat transfer process in AC contactor, a thermal model is proposed and the temperature field distribution is simulated with 3-D FEM of ANSYS.Comparison of simulation results with measurements shows that the proposed method is effective.

  5. 76 FR 65633 - RIN 1904-AC43

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... 1904-AC43. Comments may be submitted using any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal... and avoid the use of special characters or any form of encryption. Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U... FR 56678 (September 14, 2011) to make available and invite comments on the framework document...

  6. AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

    1998-09-13

    Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

  7. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal

  8. Big Red Telephone, Gone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toni Piech

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese big red telephones looked exactly as Iimagined the ones servicing the direct emergen line between the Kreml and the White House duing the cold-war era would have look like. But here in China, every kio seemed to have such a device in t1990s, and anyone could use it for ju 0.2 yuan. The government did not juinstall public phones on street corner but they let small-business owners pa ticipate in telecommunication. Supply and demand were juggled by a kind of Hutong capitalism.

  9. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  10. Alaistaitokartoitus, Red Events Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Latva, Mariikka

    2013-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksellisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa tapahtuma-alan yrityksen Red Events Oy:n vuokratyöntekijöiden mielipiteitä heidän omista alaistaidoistaan. Työn tavoitteena oli saada kartoituksen tulosten pohjalta mahdollisia kehittämisehdotuksia. Opinnäytetyön tietoperusta muodostui alaistaidoista ja psykologisesta sopimuksesta. Psykologisen sopimuksen osa-alueista esiteltiin työn kannalta merkittävimmät, joita olivat vuorovaikutus, palautteen antaminen ja vastaanottam...

  11. Red de sensores SIPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Gustavo; Ortiz Uriburu, Gisela; Diedrichs, Ana; Borgo, Roberto; Gonzalez Antivilo, Francisco; Tromer, Sebastián; Ledezma, Nicolás; Aguirre, Matías; Panella, Cristian; Tabacchi, Germán; Martí, Juan; Grünwaldt, Guillermo; Rigoni, Ignacio; Antón, Gabriel; Chamorro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en el análisis, implementación y evaluación de una red de sensores inalámbricos basada en la norma IEEE 802.15.4, aplicada al entorno agropecuario en el ámbito de agricultura de precisión, con participación de tanto ingenieros electrónicos e informáticos como de ingenieros e investigadores agrónomos, Se propone entonces el estudio de estas tecnologías en el contexto de un grupo de investigaciones que permita: • La colaboración interinstitucional e interdisciplinaria en...

  12. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Document Server

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  13. A Comparison Between Two Average Modelling Techniques of AC-AC Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Szczesniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative evaluation of two modelling tools for switching AC-AC power converters is presented. Both of them are based on average modelling techniques. The first approach is based on the circuit averaging technique and consists in the topological manipulations, applied to a converters states. The second approach makes use of state-space averaged model of the converter and is based on analytical manipulations using the different state representations of a converter. The two modelling techniques are applied to a same AC-AC converter called matrix-reactance frequency converter based on buck-boost topology. These techniques are compared on the basis of their rapidity, quantity of calculations and transformations and its limitations.

  14. Implementation and Control of an AC/DC/AC Converter for Double Wound Flywheel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-electric driveline based on a double wound flywheel, connected in series between main energy storage and a wheel motor, is presented. The flywheel works as a power buffer, allowing the battery to deliver optimized power. It also separates electrically the system in two sides, with the battery connected to the low voltage side and the wheel motor connected to the high voltage side. This paper presents the implementation and control of the AC/DC/AC converter, used to connect the flywheel high voltage windings to the wheel motor. The converter general operation and the adopted control strategy are discussed. The implementation of the AC/DC/AC converter has been described from a practical perspective. Results from experimental tests performed in the full-system prototype are presented. The prototype system is running with satisfactory stability during acceleration mode. Good efficiency and unity power factor could be achieved, based on vector control and space vector modulation.

  15. Digital model for harmonic interactions in AC/DC/AC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarini, A.P.; Rangel, R.D.; Pilotto, L.A.S.; Pinto, R.J.; Passos Junior, R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The main purpose of this paper is to present a model for calculation of HVdc converter harmonics taking into account the influence of the harmonic interactions between the ac systems in dc link transmissions. The ideas and methodologies used in the model development take into account the dc current ripple and ac voltage distortion in the ac systems. The theory of switching functions is applied to contemplate for the frequency conversions between the ac and dc sides, in an iterative process. It is possible then to obtain, even in balanced situations, non-characteristic harmonics that are produced by frequencies originated in the other terminal, which can be significant in a strongly coupled system, such as back-to-back configuration. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs.

  16. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  17. Analysis of RED ONE Digital Cinema Camera and RED Workflow

    OpenAIRE

    Foroughi Mobarakeh, Taraneh

    2009-01-01

    RED Digital Cinema is a rather new company that has developed a camera that has shaken the world of the film industry, the RED One camera. RED One is a digital cinema camera with the characteristics of a 35mm film camera. With a custom made 12 megapixel CMOS sensor it offers images with a filmic look that cannot be achieved with many other digital cinema cameras. With a new camera comes a new set of media files to work with, which brings new software applications supporting them. RED Digital ...

  18. Design of Three Phase Matrix Converter AC-AC Utility Power Supply using SPWM Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar.S.Pawar; Prakash.T.Patil

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the control analysis and design of an three phase matrix AC-AC utility power supply .The SPWM modulation techniques is used to control the desired output voltage and gives the control output voltage and reduced input harmonic distortions .In this Matrix converter Input is directly connected to output no DC link components is required. Simulation had been done using mat lab simulink and Simulated results are observed

  19. Design of Three Phase Matrix Converter AC-AC Utility Power Supply using SPWM Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar. S. Pawar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the control analysis and design of an three phase matrix AC-AC utility power supply .The SPWM modulation techniques is used to control the desired output voltage and gives the control output voltage and reduced input harmonic distortions .In this Matrix converter Input is directly connected to output no DC link components is required. Simulation had been done using mat lab simulink and Simulated results are observed

  20. AcEST Contig - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...contig.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/acest/LATEST/acestcontig....zip File size: 1.34MB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/archive_acestcontig#en Da...Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us AcEST Contig - AcEST | LSDB Archive ...

  1. A new class of hybrid AC/AC direct power converters

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpner, Christian; Wijekoon, Thiwanka; Wheeler, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Variable voltage and variable frequency conversion of electrical energy from an AC source to an AC load is done in traditional power converters via a DC-link where an energy storage element (electrolytic capacitors) is situated. Despite its well-known benefits, it has the disadvantage of being bulky and to limit the converter lifetime. On the other hand, Direct Power Conversion (DPC) is an attractive concept, which doesn’t need an energy storage buffer, but has two main disadvantages: reduced...

  2. A Comparison Between Two Average Modelling Techniques of AC-AC Power Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Szczesniak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative evaluation of two modelling tools for switching AC-AC power converters is presented. Both of them are based on average modelling techniques. The first approach is based on the circuit averaging technique and consists in the topological manipulations, applied to a converters states. The second approach makes use of state-space averaged model of the converter and is based on analytical manipulations using the different state representations of a converter. The two m...

  3. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  4. AC losses in a HTS coil carrying DC current in AC external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We electrically measured AC losses in a Bi2223/Ag-sheathed pancake coil excited by a DC current in AC external magnetic field. Losses in the coil contain two kinds of loss components that are the magnetization losses and dynamic resistance losses. In the measurement, current leads to supply a current to the coil were specially arranged to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the coil current and the AC external magnetic field. A double pick-up coils method was used to suppress a large inductive voltage component contained in voltage signal for measuring the magnetization losses. It was observed that the magnetization losses were dependent on the coil current and that a peak of a curve of the loss factor vs. amplitude of the AC external magnetic field shifted to lower amplitude of the AC magnetic field as the coil current increased. This result suggests the full penetration magnetic field of the coil tape decreases as the coil current increases. The dynamic resistance losses were measured by measuring a DC voltage appearing between the coil terminals. It was observed that the DC voltage appearing in the coil subject to the AC external magnetic field was much larger than that in the coil subject to DC magnetic field

  5. Morphological studies of the galaxy populations in distant "Butcher-Oemler" clusters with HST. II. AC103, AC118 and AC114 at z=0.31

    CERN Document Server

    Couch, W J; Smail, I; Ellis, Richard S; Sharples, R M

    1997-01-01

    We present new results of a program to study the detailed morphologies of galaxies in intermediate redshift clusters and hence understand the physical origin of the enhanced star formation in these environments at earlier epochs. Deep, high resolution imagery has been obtained of 3 rich clusters, AC103,AC118 & AC114 at z=0.31, using the WFPC2 on HST. For AC103 & AC118, single pointings covering a central 0.5x0.5Mpc have been obtained; for AC114, 4 pointings covering a 1.2x0.7Mpc area have been obtained, allowing the more outer regions of a distant cluster to be studied. Hubble types plus evidence for dynamical interactions and/or structural abnormalities have been determined visually for all galaxies down to R=22.25 in AC103 & AC118 and R=23.0 in AC114.We find the numbers of spirals (Sa-Sdm) in our clusters to be up to 4x higher than that seen in present-day clusters; only in the virialised core of our most massive regular cluster, AC114, do we see morphological fractions approaching those of the ...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  7. Methods for Addressing Missing Data with Applications from ACS Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriet, Alexandra; Holme, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ACS Examinations Institute (ACS-EI) national norming process, student performance data sets are collected from professors at colleges and universities from around the United States. Because the data sets are collected on a volunteer basis, the ACS-EI often receives data sets with only students' total scores and without the students'…

  8. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  9. AC LED的研究现状与发展%Current research and development of AC LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满瑞; 李秋俊

    2012-01-01

    介绍了AC LED的特征及其工作原理,分析了AC LED相比于DC LED的优缺点,概述了AC LED在国内外的研究进展及其应用现状,讨论了AC LED技术发展过程中面临的挑战,并展望了其发展趋势.%The characteristics and operation principles of AC LED were presented.The advantages and disadvantages of AC LED compared with the DC LED were analyzed.The development and the latest application of AC LED were described.The challenges of the competition with the traditional light source were discussed,as well as the development trend of AC LED.

  10. The SLUGGS Survey: HST/ACS Mosaic Imaging of the NGC 3115 Globular Cluster System

    CERN Document Server

    Jennings, Zachary G; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Brodie, Jean P; Arnold, Jacob A; Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Wong, Ka-Wah

    2014-01-01

    We present HST/ACS $g$ and $z$ photometry and half-light radii $R_{\\rm h}$ measurements of 360 globular cluster (GC) candidates around the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 3115. We also include Subaru/Suprime-Cam $g$, $r$, and $i$ photometry of 421 additional candidates. The well-established color bimodality of the GC system is obvious in the HST/ACS photometry. We find evidence for a "blue tilt" in the blue GCs, wherein the blue GCs get redder as luminosity increases, indicative of a mass-metallicity relationship. We find a color gradient in both the red and blue subpopulations, with each group of clusters becoming bluer at larger distances from NGC 3115. The gradient is of similar strength in both subpopulations, but is monotonic and more significant for the blue clusters. On average, the blue clusters have ~10% larger $R_{\\rm h}$ than the red clusters. This average difference is less than is typically observed for early-type galaxies but does match that measured in the literature for M104, suggesting that morphology a...

  11. Fade to Red

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight. In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars. The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob. Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons. Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The contribution from starlight has been

  12. 猕猴桃花青素合成途径基因AcCHS和AcLDOX的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression of Anthocyanin Pathway Genes,AcCHS and AcLDOX,in Actinidia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 满玉萍; 姜正旺; 王彦昌

    2012-01-01

    Based on the highly conserved sequences of other plants,counterpart sequences of CHS(chalcone synthase,CHS)and LDOX(leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase,LDOX)of Actinida chinesis,‘Hongyang’were obtained using the special primers. Full-length cDNAs encoding CHS and LDOX were cloned respectively from fruit of‘Hongyang’by RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The AcCHS was 1501 bp in length,encoding 389 amino acids. AcLDOX was 1381 bp in length and encoded 355 amino acids. Amino acids sequence of AcCHS exhibited over 95% homology with CHS of Abelmoschus manihot,Camellia japonica and Gossypium hirsutum. It also shared 94% and 93% homology with Vitis vinifera and Malus × domestica respectively. AcLDOX showed 94% and 93% identity with Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera respectively at amino acids level. The expression of AcCHS and AcLDOX in the inner pericarp of three kiwifruit cultivars with red,green and yellow color was analyzed by Real-time PCR. AcCHS expressed highly in flesh of‘Hongyang’at 65 DAF(days after flower). Expression of the gene in yellow-fleshed‘Jinnong’decreased permanently after flowering. Expression of AcLDOX increased during the early developmental stage in‘Hongyang’,but dropped quickly after 65 DAF. Interestingly,expression of AcLDOX raised markedly in the late developmental stages of green-fleshed‘Jinkui’,which was the highest among three cultivars. AcLDOX in‘Jinnong’also deregulated after flowering.%根据物种水平上蛋白保守序列设计特异引物,扩增获得‘红阳’猕猴桃花青素合成途径中查尔酮合成酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)和无色花青素双加氧酶(leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase,LDOX)基因的特异片段,用RACE(rapid-amplification of cDNA ends)技术克隆出这两个基因的cDNA全长,长度分别为1501 bp(AcCHS)和1381 bp(AcLDOX),分别编码389个和355个氨基酸。通过比对发现AcCHS与棉花(Gossypium hirsutum

  13. AC plasma anemometer—characteristics and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Curtis; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics and design of a high-bandwidth flow sensor that uses an AC glow discharge (plasma) as the sensing element is presented. The plasma forms in the air gap between two protruding low profile electrodes attached to a probe body. The output from the anemometer is an amplitude modulated version of the AC voltage input that contains information about the mean and fluctuating velocity components. The anemometer circuitry includes resistance and capacitance elements that simulate a dielectric-barrier to maintain a diffuse plasma, and a constant-current feedback control that maintains operation within the desired glow discharge regime over an extended range of air velocities. Mean velocity calibrations are demonstrated over a range from 0 to 140 m s-1. Over this velocity range, the mean output voltage varied linearly with air velocity, providing a constant static sensitivity. The effect of the electrode gap and input AC carrier frequency on the anemometer static sensitivity and dynamic response are investigated. Experiments are performed to compare measurements obtained with a plasma sensor operating at two AC carrier frequencies against that of a constant-temperature hot-wire. All three sensors were calibrated against the same known velocity reference. An uncertainty based on the standard deviation of the velocity calibration fit was applied to the mean and fluctuating velocity measurements of the three sensors. The motivation is not to replace hot-wires as a general measurement tool, but rather as an alternative to hot-wires in harsh environments or at high Mach numbers where they either have difficulty in surviving or lack the necessary frequency response.

  14. Entropy production in ac-calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Garden, Jean-Luc; Richard, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    In calorimetry and particularly in heat capacity measurements, different characteristic relaxation time constants may perturb the experiment which cannot be considered at thermodynamic equilibrium. In this case, thermodynamics of irreversible processes has to be taken into account and the calorimetric measurements must be considered as dynamic. In a temperature modulated experiment, such as ac-calorimetry, these non-equilibrium experiments give rise to the notion of frequency dependent comple...

  15. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Systems (78 FR 34935-34958) (Docket No.: FAA-2013-0485; Notice No. 1209). AC 90-106A, Enhanced Flight... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Federal Aviation Administration Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-...

  16. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC08 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC08 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15080-1 FCL-AC08P ...(Link to Original site) FCL-AC08F 616 FCL-AC08Z 291 FCL-AC08P 907 - - Show FCL-AC08 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-...-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC08Q....Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC08P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC08 (FCL-AC08Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-...ignificant alignments: (bits) Value FCL-AC08 (FCL-AC08Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC08Q.Seq.d/ 1322 0.0 SFA226 (S

  17. 单相直接AC-AC变换器的实现与分析%The Implementation and Analysis of Simple Phase Direct AC-AC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万衡; 喻嬿; 黄道

    2002-01-01

    针对传统AC-DC-AC变换存在的缺陷,采用高频调制直接AC-AC变换技术,实现了两种不同结构的单相AC-AC直接变换器,对其特点和仿真结果进行了分析,并探讨了应用前景.

  18. Red lantern Streets- Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2005-01-01

    WHEN speaking of ""red lantern streets,""what's the first thing that comes to mind?Sordid alleys, haunted by ladies of the night? While ""red lantern districts"" both in the East and the West have something in common, pleasures here in China are purely gastronomical in nature.

  19. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  20. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  1. Molecular biology of maize Ac/Ds elements: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarow, Katina; Doll, My-Linh; Kunze, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Maize Activator (Ac) is one of the prototype transposable elements of the hAT transposon superfamily, members of which were identified in plants, fungi, and animals. The autonomous Ac and nonautonomous Dissociation (Ds) elements are mobilized by the single transposase protein encoded by Ac. To date Ac/Ds transposons were shown to be functional in approximately 20 plant species and have become the most widely used transposable elements for gene tagging and functional genomics approaches in plants. In this chapter we review the biology, regulation, and transposition mechanism of Ac/Ds elements in maize and heterologous plants. We discuss the parameters that are known to influence the functionality and transposition efficiency of Ac/Ds transposons and need to be considered when designing Ac transposase expression constructs and Ds elements for application in heterologous plant species.

  2. Preparation of TiO2/activated carbon with Fe ions doping photocatalyst and its application to photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YouJi; LI Jing; MA MingYuan; OUYANG YuZhu; YAN WenBin

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide coated on activated carbon(AC)with Fe ions doping(Fe-TiO2/AC)composite was prepared by an improved sol-gel method.The photocatalytic activities were tested by photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G in solution.The results show that in comparison with the agglomeration of pure TiO2,the TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in the AC matrix,of which sizes are decreased with Fe ions doping.Additionally,the iron species on TiO2 of composite are Fe2O3 and FeO,which do not affect the crystalline structures of TiO2 nanopanicles.The AC matrix and iron doping content influence the fluorescence intensity of composite due to their effects on recombination prob ability of hole-electron paire.Compared with TiO2,0.3%Fe-TiO2,TiO2/AC,0.5% Fe-TiO2/AC and 0.1% Fe-TiO2/AC,the 0.3%Fe-TiO2/AC shows the highest photoactivity with the complete mineralization of K2G for finite time due to the optimum Fe ions content and AC matrix.Furthermore,the kinetic constant(K=0.0229 min-1)of 0.3% Fe-TiO2/AC composite is more than the sum of both TiO2/AC(0.0154 min-1)and 0.3% Fe-TiO2(0.0057 min-1)because coexistence of the AC end Fe ions has an enlarging effect on improving the photoactivity of TiO2.

  3. Preparation of TiO2/activated carbon with Fe ions doping photocatalyst and its application to photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide coated on activated carbon(AC) with Fe ions doping(Fe-TiO2/AC) composite was prepared by an improved sol-gel method.The photocatalytic activities were tested by photocatalytic degradation of reactive brilliant red K2G in solution.The results show that in comparison with the agglomeration of pure TiO2,the TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in the AC matrix,of which sizes are decreased with Fe ions doping.Additionally,the iron species on TiO2 of composite are Fe2O3 and FeO,which do not affect the crystalline structures of TiO2 nanoparticles.The AC matrix and iron doping content influence the fluorescence intensity of composite due to their effects on recombination probability of hole-electron pairs.Compared with TiO2,0.3% Fe-TiO2,TiO2/AC,0.5% Fe-TiO2/AC and 0.1% Fe-TiO2/AC,the 0.3% Fe-TiO2/AC shows the highest photoactivity with the complete mineralization of K2G for finite time due to the optimum Fe ions content and AC matrix.Furthermore,the kinetic constant(k=0.0229 min-1) of 0.3% Fe-TiO2/AC composite is more than the sum of both TiO2/AC(0.0154 min-1) and 0.3% Fe-TiO2(0.0057 min-1) because coexistence of the AC and Fe ions has an enlarging effect on improving the photoactivity of TiO2.

  4. 隔离式SEPIC三电平AC-AC变换器的研究%Research of Isolated SEPIC Three-level AC - AC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振军; 李磊

    2011-01-01

    电力电子装置已在电力系统中得到了越来越广泛的应用,代表之一就是交流调压稳压装置.但是目前的交流调压稳压器多数采用AC-DC-AC的变换方式,这种调压稳压器不仅体积大、噪音大,而且开关管的电压应力大、输出电压波形质量低.提出了一种新型的隔离式交-交变换器,它是在sepic变换器(单端初级电感转换器)的基础上引入了推挽式变压器实现电气隔离.分析了工作原理,给出了控制策略,并通过仿真论证了变换器开关管电压应力小、输出电压波形质量高等特点.%Power electronics have been more widely used in power systems. One representative of power electronics is AC voltage regulator. But the AC - DC - AC conversion type is widely used for voltage regulator now. These AC voltage regulator not only have big bulk and high noise,but also with high power switch voltage stress and low quality of output waveform. To solve these problems)an isolated three-level AC - AC direct converter was proposed. It joined the push-pull transformer to achieve electrical isolation based on sepic AC -AC converter. Its operation principle and control strategies of the converter were investigated. By modeling and simulation,the performances of the AC - AC converter were verified, such as low switch voltage stress, high quality of output waveform and so on.

  5. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng; Tan, Pee-Chin;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low-cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled......-second average at its output, while simultaneously achieving inductive voltage boosting by shooting through either an appropriately selected inverter phase-leg or two phase-legs being commanded simultaneously. More interestingly, these performance features are achieved with no increase in the number...

  6. Realization of a Direct Soft Switching AC/AC Converter for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorsalo, Simo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, realization and testing of a three-phase to one-phase direct AC/AC converter, also known as the matrix converter. The switching is using the soft-switching strategy which is also known in the literature as the Zero Current Switching strategy. To achieve ZCS, the circuit needs resonant behavior which is achieved by the transmitter primary side that is an LC circuit. This circuit acts as a tank circuit and the switching frequency is the resonant frequency of th...

  7. Implementation of Low Frequency Ac to High Frequency Ac with Single Stage Zvs-Pwm Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arumugam S. Ramareddy M. Sridhar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel soft-switching pulse width modulation (PWM utility frequency AC to high frequency (HF AC power conversion circuit incorporating boost-active clamp single stage inverter topology. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective HF consumer induction heating applications. Its operating principle is presented. The operating performances of this high frequency inverter using the latest insulated gate bipolar transistors are illustrated, which includes HFAC power regulation ranges and actual efficiency characteristics based on zero voltage soft switching operation ranges.. The simulation circuits are models are developed and they are simulated using ORCAD.

  8. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng; Tan, Pee-Chin;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled...... a low cost alternative to sensitive applications that need to ride-through frequent input voltage sags. For confirming the converter performance, experimental testing using a constructed laboratory prototype is performed with its captured results presented in a later section of the paper....

  9. Red Clump Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Léo

    2016-09-01

    Low-mass stars in their core-helium-burning stage define the sharpest feature present in the color-magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxy systems: the red clump (RC). This feature has given rise to a series of methods aimed at measuring the distributions of stellar distances and extinctions, especially in the Magellanic Clouds and Milky Way Bulge. Because the RC is easily recognizable within the data of large spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys, it is a useful probe of stellar densities, kinematics, and chemical abundances across the Milky Way disk; it can be applied up to larger distances than that allowed by dwarfs; and it has better accuracy than is possible with other kinds of giants. Here, we discuss the reasons for the RC narrowness in several sets of observational data, its fine structure, and the presence of systematic changes in the RC properties as regards age, metallicity, and the observed passband. These factors set the limits on the validity and accuracy of several RC methods defined in the literature.

  10. Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bindary, Ashraf A; Diab, Mostafa A; Hussien, Mostafa A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Eessa, Ahmed M

    2014-04-24

    The adsorption of Acid Red 57 (AR57) onto Polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon (PAN/AC) composite was investigated in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH and temperature. Physical characteristics of (PAN/AC) composite such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) composite. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that (PAN/AC) composite could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from textile effluents. PMID:24463242

  11. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF AC ELECTRIC POINT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to ensure reliability, security, and the most important the continuity of the transportation process, it is necessary to develop, implement, and then improve the automated methods of diagnostic mechanisms, devices and rail transport systems. Only systems that operate in real time mode and transmit data on the instantaneous state of the control objects can timely detect any faults and thus provide additional time for their correction by railway employees. Turnouts are one of the most important and responsible components, and therefore require the development and implementation of such diagnostics system.Methodology. Achieving the goal of monitoring and control of railway automation objects in real time is possible only with the use of an automated process of the objects state diagnosing. For this we need to know the diagnostic features of a control object, which determine its state at any given time. The most rational way of remote diagnostics is the shape and current spectrum analysis that flows in the power circuits of railway automatics. Turnouts include electric motors, which are powered by electric circuits, and the shape of the current curve depends on both the condition of the electric motor, and the conditions of the turnout maintenance. Findings. For the research and analysis of AC electric point motor it was developed its mathematical model. The calculation of parameters and interdependencies between the main factors affecting the operation of the asynchronous machine was conducted. The results of the model operation in the form of time dependences of the waveform curves of current on the load on engine shaft were obtained. Originality. During simulation the model of AC electric point motor, which satisfies the conditions of adequacy was built. Practical value. On the basis of the constructed model we can study the AC motor in various mode of operation, record and analyze current curve, as a response to various changes

  13. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  14. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  15. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  16. An ac biased superconducting flux transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupled motion of the vortex lattice of two electrically insulated, superimposed, superconducting thin films (primary and secondary) in a perpendicular magnetic field, is predicted to exhibit a Josephson-like behavior. For a dc applied current flowing in the primary film, the voltage difference between the time-averaged primary and secondary flux flow voltages obeys the equations of a resistively shunted junction model. If an ac current is superimposed on the dc current. Shapiro-type steps are predicted in the current-voltage characteristic. In contrast to the conventional Josephson effect, the voltage positions of these steps can be tuned by the applied magnetic field. (orig.)

  17. Mapa acústico parcial de Benetusser

    OpenAIRE

    MORILLA CASTELLANOS, EMILIO

    2012-01-01

    Se establece el mapa de ruido del municipio de Benetússer para evaluar y conocer su exposición al ruido ambiental y así poder dar cumplimiento a la Directiva Europea sobre Gestión y Evaluación de Ruido Ambiental (2002/49/CE) y a la Ley nacional 37/2003 del Ruido. Los mapas estratégicos de ruido nos aportan la información fundamental para diagnosticar la situación acústica y para la gestión del ruido ambiental.

  18. The Analysis of A Red,Red Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬丽霞

    2009-01-01

    A Red, Red Rose was written by the great farmer poet of Scotland, Robert Burns. This love poem has been recited by people for more than two centuries. The poet praised his lover's beauty and expressed his love to her with enthusiasm. This paper will analyze this immortal love song from the points of phonological patterns, figure of speech and cohesion to help readers know it better.

  19. Extended Star Clusters in NGC 1023 from HST/ACS Mosaic Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan; Spitler, Lee; Pota, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Faint fuzzies are a relatively new class of star cluster, first found in the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 1023 by Larsen & Brodie using WFPC2 images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we investigate the star cluster system of NGC 1023 using an eight pointing mosaic of ACS images from HST. We identify blue and red normal globular clusters (two of which are particularly luminous and dense) and two ultra compact dwarf objects (with effective radius ~10 pc). With our more complete spatial coverage, we also find 81 red and 27 blue faint fuzzies (FFs). We confirm the association of the red FFs with the disk of NGC 1023, consistent with them being long-lived open clusters. Half of the blue FFs appear to be associated with the dwarf satellite galaxy NGC 1023A (which was largely absent from the original HST/WFPC2 coverage), while the remainder are spatially coincident with the densest HI gas that surrounds NGC 1023. The blue FFs have colours that are consistent with young (few 100 Myr old) star clusters that form...

  20. POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT IN THREE PHASE AC-AC CONVERTER THROUGH MODIFIED SPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.VASUKI,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new generation of ac-ac single-phase and three-phase power converters with more commutations per half cycle has been proposed for ac power due to the increasing availability and power capability of high frequency controlled-on and off power emiconductor switching devices. This paper presents three phase ac-acconverter whose control strategy is based on modified sinusoidal ulse-width modulation switching technique. As majority of the industrial loads are being inductive, the power factor is less. To improve the power factor, the delayed current is shifted to the input voltage, through a modification of the classical sinusoidal pulse width modulation switching technique. In this way, the decrease in the phase angle between the input current and voltage is feasible, and consequently, high cost compensation capacitors can be avoided. The improvement of power factor through this switching technique on the proposed converter is investigated and verified via simulation using the software Matlab/Simulink.

  1. Less red tape; Weniger Bremskloetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristau, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Since July 2009, the PV Legal initiative funded by the European Commission has brought greater transparency and less red tape to photovoltaic projects in Europe. The remaining obstacles will be resolved by the new initiative, PV Grid.

  2. Proyecto de red para ONG

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz López, David

    2013-01-01

    Proyecto de una red de comunicaciones para una ONG en la Comunidad de Madrid. Projecte d'una xarxa de comunicacions per a una ONG a la Comunidad de Madrid. Bachelor thesis for the Telecommunication Technologies program on Telematics.

  3. The Gaia-ESO survey: Hydrogen lines in red giants directly trace stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria; Schoenrich, Ralph; Ruchti, Greg; Korn, Andreas; Hekker, Saskia; Kovalev, Mikhail; Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Gilmore, Gerry; Randich, Sofia; Asplund, Martin; Rix, Hans-Walter; Casey, Andrew R; Jofre, Paula; Pancino, Elena; Recio-Blanco, Alejandra; de Laverny, Patrick; Smiljanic, Rodolfo; Tautvaisiene, Grazina; Bayo, Amelia; Lewis, Jim; Koposov, Sergey; Hourihane, Anna; Worley, Clare; Morbidelli, Lorenzo; Franciosini, Elena; Sacco, Germano; Magrini, Laura; Damiani, Francesco; Bestenlehner, Joachim M

    2016-01-01

    Red giant stars are perhaps the most important type of stars for Galactic and extra-galactic archaeology: they are luminous, occur in all stellar populations, and their surface temperatures allow precise abundance determinations for many different chemical elements. Yet, the full star formation and enrichment history of a galaxy can be traced directly only if two key observables can be determined for large stellar samples - age and chemical composition. While spectroscopy is a powerful method to analyse the detailed abundances of stars, stellar ages are the "missing link in the chain", since they are not a direct observable. However, spectroscopy should be able to estimate stellar masses, which for red giants directly infer ages provided their chemical composition is known. Here we establish a new empirical relation between the shape of the hydrogen line in the observed spectra of red giants and stellar mass determined from asteroseismology. The relation allows to determine stellar masses and ages with the ac...

  4. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  5. Levantamiento del campo acústico de una fuente sonora subacuática en el tanque hidroacústico del Instituto de Acústica

    OpenAIRE

    Ranz Guerra, Carlos; Cobo, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    6 pp.-- PACS nrs.: 43.30.Jx, 43.30.Sf.-- Comunicación presentada en los siguientes congresos: Acústica 2000, II Congreso Iberoamericano de Acústica. XXXI Congreso Nacional de Acústica: TecniAcústica 2000. II Congreso Ibérico de Acústica. II Jornadas Iberoamericanas de Acústica. EAA Symposium on Architectural Acoustics.

  6. Red supergiants and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ekström, Sylvia; Meynet, Georges; Groh, Jose; Granada, Anahí

    2013-01-01

    We review the significant role played by red supergiants (RSGs) in stellar populations, and some challenges and questions they raise for theoretical stellar evolution. We present how metallicity and rotation modify the way stars go to the red part of the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram or come back from it, and how RSGs might keep a trace of their main-sequence evolution. We compare theoretical popu- lation ratios with observed ones.

  7. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  8. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC03 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC03 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16477-1 FCL-AC03P ...(Link to Original site) FCL-AC03F 538 FCL-AC03Z 570 FCL-AC03P 1108 - - Show FCL-AC03 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-...7-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC03Q....Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC03P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC03 (FCL-AC03Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-...AC/FCL-AC03Q.Seq.d/ AATTTTTAAAAAAAAAAGAAAATAAAAAAAAAAATAATATTTTATTAGTCATTATAAAAT TGTGAAT

  9. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC20 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC20 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15117-1 FCL-AC20Z ...(Link to Original site) - - FCL-AC20Z 600 - - - - Show FCL-AC20 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-A... http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC20Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-...AC20Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC20 (FCL-AC20Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-...Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FCL-AC20 (FCL-AC20Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-

  10. Autonomous Operation of Hybrid Microgrid With AC and DC Subgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang Loh, Poh; Li, Ding; Kang Chai, Yi;

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates on power-sharing issues of an autonomous hybrid microgrid. Unlike existing microgrids which are purely ac, the hybrid microgrid studied here comprises dc and ac subgrids interconnected by power electronic interfaces. The main challenge here is to manage power flows among all...... sources distributed throughout the two types of subgrids, which is certainly tougher than previous efforts developed for only ac or dc microgrid. This wider scope of control has not yet been investigated, and would certainly rely on the coordinated operation of dc sources, ac sources, and interlinking...

  11. Estudio acústico del Conservatorio de Piles

    OpenAIRE

    VILLA MORANT, SARA

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es realizar un estudio acústico general de la "Casa de la Cultura" de Piles, sobre todo de los recintos que más lo requieren, como la sala principal de música. El edificio, al tratarse de una construcción antigua, no reúne las especificaciones acústicas establecidas en el Código Técnico vigente en la actualidad. En primer lugar, se realiza el estudio del acondicionamiento acústico de la sala principal, entendiéndose como acondicionamiento acústico la definición de...

  12. Control of high-frequency AC link electronic transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaswami, H; Ramanarayanan, V.

    2005-01-01

    An isolated high-frequency link AC/AC converter is termed an electronic transformer.The electronic transformer has size and cost advantages over a conventional transformer because of high-frequency operation of the magnetic core. Of the various topologies of electronic transformer, the high-frequency AC link electronic transformer achieves high-frequency AC power transformation without a DC link. The circuit uses the standard H-bridge, one on either side of the high-frequency transformer. A n...

  13. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  14. AC Own Motion Percentage of Randomly Sampled Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Appeals Council (AC) own motion review actions taken on un-appealed favorable hearing level decisions...

  15. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m(-1) was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain

  16. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m(-1) was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain

  17. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m-1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain ratio

  18. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  19. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  20. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  1. A Non-linear Controller for Single-Phase AC-AC Power Converter to meet UPS Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafid Ait Elmahjoub

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on AC-AC power converter that can be used for uninterruptible power supply (UPS. The converter is built on two stages: a AC-DC input stage and a DC-AC output stage. The two blocks are connected by an intermediate DC bus. The aim of control is threefold: i power factor correction ii regulation of DC bus iii generating a sinusoidal voltage at the output. The synthesis of controllers has been achieved through the technique of nonlinear backstepping control. A detailed analysis of the stability control system is presented. The performances of regulators have been validated by numerical simulation in MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  2. An ac bridge readout for bolometric detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, F. M.; Lange, A. E.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a bolometer readout circuit which greatly improves the low-frequency stability of bolometric detectors. The circuit uses an ac bias voltage and two matched bolometers and allows stable dc bolometer operation for integration times greater than 10 s. In astronomical applications the readout allows for qualitatively different observation modes (e.g. staring or slow-drift scanning) which are particularly well suited for space observations and for the use of arrays. In many applications the readout can increase sensitivity. The authors present noise spectra for 4He temperature bolometers with no excess noise at frequencies greater than 0.1 Hz. The measured optical responsivity of a bolometer operated with the present readout is the same as that of a bolometer operated with a conventional readout.

  3. Effective ac response in weakly nonlinear composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Enbo [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang Zidong [College of Power Engineering, University of Shanghai Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Gu Guoqing [Information College of Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2004-01-07

    The perturbation method is developed to deal with the problem of determining the effective nonlinear conductivity of Kerr-like nonlinear media under an external ac electric field. As an example, we have considered the cylindrical inclusion embedded in a host under the sinusoidal external field E{sub 1} sin (<{omega}t) + E{sub 3} sin (3<{omega}t) with frequencies{omega} and 3{omega}. The potentials of composites at higher harmonics are derived in both local inclusion particle and host regions. The effective responses of bulk nonlinear composites at basic frequency and harmonics are given for cylindrical composites in the dilute limit. Moreover, the relationships between the nonlinear effective responses at the basic frequency and the third harmonics are derived.

  4. AC Dielectrophoresis Using Elliptic Electrode Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Rezaul Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents negative AC dielectrophoretic investigations using elliptic electrode geometry. Simulations of the electric field gradient variation using various ratios of the semimajor and the semiminor axis were carried out to determine the optimum elliptic geometry for the dielectrophoretic electrokinetics of specimen in an assay with laminar (low Reynolds number fluid flow. Experimental setup of the elliptic electrode assembly using PCB fabrication and electrokinetic accumulation of specimen in a dielectrophoretic cage is also being reported. Using an actuating signal between 1 kHz and 1 MHz, successful trapping of 45 μm polystyrene beads suspended in distilled water was demonstrated due to negative dielectrophoresis near 100 kHz using the novel elliptic electrode.

  5. Josephson arrays for dc and ac metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large series arrays of underdamped SIS tunnel junctions are the basic element of the primary dc voltage standards used at present. The development of versatile quantum voltmeters for dc and ac metrology requires the preparation of large and perfect series arrays of overdamped Josephson junctions. Overdamped junctions can be realized by externally shunted SIS junctions or by internally shunted SNS or SINIS junctions. Arrays of up to 8000 SINIS junctions or 30000 SNS junctions were successfully operated at the 1 V dc level. In addition to being used in large arrays for voltage metrology and oscillators, the described junction types may become very useful for the preparation of highly integrated single-flux-quantum digital devices. (author)

  6. The AC and DC Conductivity of Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. McLachlan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of binary (conductor-insulator composites, containing nanoparticles, will usually have one of two basic structures. The first is the matrix structure where the nanoparticles (granules are embedded in and always coated by the matrix material and there are no particle-particle contacts. The AC and DC conductivity of this microstructure is usually described by the Maxwell-Wagner/Hashin-Shtrikman or Bricklayer model. The second is a percolation structure, which can be thought to be made up by randomly packing the two types of granules (not necessarily the same size together. In percolation systems, there exits a critical volume fraction below which the electrical properties are dominated by the insulating component and above which the conducting component dominates. Such percolation systems are best analyzed using the two-exponent phenomenological percolation equation (TEPPE. This paper discusses all of the above and addresses the problem of how to distinguish among the microstructures using electrical measurements.

  7. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC29 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC29 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15392-1 FCL-AC29P ...(Link to Original site) FCL-AC29F 104 FCL-AC29Z 591 FCL-AC29P 695 - - Show FCL-AC29 Library FCL (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-...-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-AC29Q....Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC29P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-AC29 (FCL-AC29Q) /CSM/FCL/FCL-...roducing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSC293 (VSC293Q) /CSM/VS/VSC2-D/VSC293Q.Seq.d/ 1063 0.0 FCL-AC29 (FCL-

  8. Control del convertidor boost DC-AC por moldeo de energía

    OpenAIRE

    Albea-Sanchez, Carolina; Gordillo, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    National audience En este artículo se aplica a un convertidor boost dc-ac no lineal una estrategia de control para la generación de corriente alterna sin emplear señal de referencia alguna. Como la técnica propuesta no alcanza la sincronización deseada entre las dos partes del circuito, se añade un Phase-Locked Loop a la ley de control. Se muestra además que esta idea es válida para la sincronización con la red. Mediante simulación se comprueba la bondad de las leyes de control resultantes...

  9. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  10. Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian

    . With the proposed new active power decoupling method, the ripple power in the converter can be compensated in a more efficient and more compact way. Then, Chapter 5 changes the scope of the thesis to three-phase converters, and the nine-switch converter, as a reduced switch version of two three-phase full......-bridges connected back-to-back, is studied. Application criteria of the nine-switch converter are investigated for reducing the relatively high stress introduced by the less number of switches. In Chapter 6 a rotating speed controller design method is proposed for improving the thermal loading of the three...... to users. Their performances including cost, efficiency, reliability, and so on, therefore are more important concerns than they were. The objective of this thesis is to study and propose advanced design methods for robust ac-dc-ac converters, which are widely used interfaces in energy conversion system...

  11. Scaling and universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    Recent scaling results for the ac conductivity of ionic glasses by Roling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2160 (1997)] and Sidebottom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3653 (1999)] are discussed. We prove that Sidebottom's version of scaling is completely general. A new approximation to the universal ac...

  12. Operation of AC Adapters Visualized Using Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regester, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    A bridge rectifier is a diamond-shaped configuration of diodes that serves to convert alternating current(AC) into direct current (DC). In our world of AC outlets and DC electronics, they are ubiquitous. Of course, most bridge rectifiers are built with regular diodes, not the light-emitting variety, because LEDs have a number of disadvantages. For…

  13. Equivalent circuit models for ac impedance data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    A least-squares fitting routine has been developed for the analysis of ac impedance data. It has been determined that the checking of the derived equations for a particular circuit with a commercially available electronics circuit program is essential. As a result of the investigation described, three equivalent circuit models were selected for use in the analysis of ac impedance data.

  14. Considerations for an Ac Dipole for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, M; Fischer, W; Oddo, P; Schmickler, Hermann; Serrano, J; Jansson, A; Syphers, M; Kopp, S; Miyamoto, R

    2007-01-01

    Following successful experience at the BNL AGS, FNAL Tevatron, and CERN SPS, an AC Dipole will be adopted at the LHC for rapid measurements of ring optics. This paper describes some of the parameters of the AC dipole for the LHC, scaling from performance of the FNAL and BNL devices.

  15. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær;

    2012-01-01

    concentration in the same organ with and without AC revealed an overall attenuation recovery of 9–21% for MAP reconstructed images, i.e., SUV without AC could underestimate the true activity at this level. For subcutaneous tumors, the attenuation was 13 ± 4% (9–17%), for kidneys 20 ± 1% (19...

  16. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  17. AC loss in large-scale superconducting cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.B.J.

    1993-01-01

    A review is given of recent work on ac losses, carried out at our institute. The emphasis is on large-scale conductors for fusion applications, such as the `cable-in-conduit¿ prototype conductors to be used for NET. Calculation methods for the ac losses are presented together with some experimental

  18. A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP, were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this way a small DC link capacitor is required to handle the dc voltage error control. The feed-forward (Sul and Lipo, 1990 current component provides fast correction of the reference control to load power variation. In order to obtain the feed-forward current component, the load power must to be known. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a dc load current estimator. In this way the author overcomes the use of the serial communication between control boards (Gaiceanu, 2004 in order to deliver the load power information from the inverter side. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the load current of the supply converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feed-forward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through simulation and experimental results the performances of the proposed load current estimator scheme are demonstrated.

  19. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  20. Sustainable AC/AC hybrid electrochemical capacitors in aqueous electrolyte approaching the performance of organic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qamar; Babuchowska, Paulina; Frąckowiak, Elżbieta; Béguin, François

    2016-09-01

    A high energy hybrid AC/AC electrochemical capacitor has been realized in aqueous Li2SO4+KI electrolyte mixture. Owing to the redox processes associated with the 2I-/I2 system, the positive electrode operates in narrow potential range and displays high capacity. During prolonged potentiostatic floating at 1.6 V, the hybrid cell demonstrates remarkably stable capacitance and resistance. Analyses by temperature programmed desorption after floating at 1.6 V proved that oxidation of the positive AC electrode is prevented by the use of Li2SO4+KI, which enables the maximum potential of this electrode to be shifted below the water oxidation potential. When charged at 0.2 A g-1 up to U = 1.6 V, the hybrid cell displays a high capacitance of 75 F g-1 (300 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) compared to 47 F g-1 (188 F g-1 per mass of one electrode) for a symmetric cell in Li2SO4. At 0.2 A g-1 up to 1.6 V, the hybrid capacitor in Li2SO4+KI displays an energy density of 26 Wh kg-1 which approaches the energy density of 30.9 Wh kg-1 measured when the same carbon is implemented in a capacitor using TEABF4/ACN electrolyte and charged up to 2.5 V.

  1. 单相电压型Z源AC/AC变流器电路%Single-Phase Voltage-Fed Z-Source AC/AC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房绪鹏

    2006-01-01

    提出了一种新型AC/AC变流器电路--单相电压型Z源AC/AC变流器;介绍了其电路拓扑、工作原理、控制方法等;给出了相应的仿真和实验结果.仿真和实验证实了该电路拓扑的合理性和优越性.

  2. Ac response of a coupled double quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jie; W.Z. Shangguan; Zhan Shi-Chang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phase-breaking process on the ac response of a coupled double quantum dot is studied in this paper based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism. A general expression is derived for the ac current in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The ac conductance is numerically computed and the results are compared with those in [Anatram M P and Datts S 1995 Phys. Rev. B 51 7632]. Our results reveal that the inter-dot electron tunnelling interplays with that between dots and electron reservoirs, and contributes prominently to the ac current when inter-dot tunnelling coupling is much larger than the tunnelling coupling between dots and electron reservoirs. In addition, the phase-breaking process is found to have a significant effect on the ac transport through the coupled double dot.

  3. Determination for β-delayed fission probability of 230Ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁双贵; 杨维凡; 徐岩冰; 肖永厚; 罗亦孝

    2002-01-01

    The 230Ra has been produced via 232Th-2p reaction induced by 60 MeV/u 18O ion irradia-tion of natural thorium. The radium was radiochemically separated from the mixture of thorium andreaction products. Thin Ra sources in which 230Ac was got through 230Ra β- → 230Ac were pre-pared for observing fission fragments from β-delayed fission of 230Ac. The sources were exposedto the mica fission track detectors and measured by the HPGe γ detector. The precursor 230Ac wasidentified by means of observed two fission events as well as γ spectra, and the β-delayed fissionprobability of 230Ac was obtained to be (1.19±0.85) × 10-8.

  4. Estimation of the Thurstonian model for the 2-AC protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Lee, Hye-Seong; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2012-01-01

    The 2-AC protocol is a 2-AFC protocol with a “no-difference” option and is technically identical to the paired preference test with a “no-preference” option. The Thurstonian model for the 2-AC protocol is parameterized by δ and a decision parameter τ, the estimates of which can be obtained...... by fairly simple well-known methods. In this paper we describe how standard errors of the parameters can be obtained and how exact power computations can be performed. We also show how the Thurstonian model for the 2-AC protocol is closely related to a statistical model known as a cumulative probit model....... This relationship makes it possible to extract estimates and standard errors of δ and τ from general statistical software, and furthermore, it makes it possible to combine standard regression modelling with the Thurstonian model for the 2-AC protocol. A model for replicated 2-AC data is proposed using cumulative...

  5. sujetos a Efectos de Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Arroyo Barrigüete

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar una de las principales características de la Economía Digital: las Externalidades de Red. Dichas Externalidades inducen en los mercados una realimentación positiva que lleva en muchos casos a situaciones prácticamente monopolísticas. Se identificarán aquellas capacidades internas de las empresas que resultan críticas para lograr el éxito en presencia de Efectos de Red así como las principales estrategias que es posible desarrollar en este contexto.

  6. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.

  7. 40 CFR 86.162-00 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures § 86.162-00 Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations and descriptions of AC1 and AC2. The alternative air conditioning test procedures AC1 and AC2 are approved by the Administrator... requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and meet the requirements of § 86.163-00. Air conditioning...

  8. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach...

  9. La acústica submarina y su desarrollo desde la creación del Instituto de Acústica

    OpenAIRE

    Ranz Guerra, Carlos; Cobo, Pedro; Carbó, Rafael; Santiago Páez, José Salvador; Soler, A. M.; Briones, J. M.; Jimeno, I.; Muñoz, N; Camarasa, M.; Recuero López, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    PACS: 43.30.Xm; 43.30.Yj; 43.30.Vh; 43.30.Nb; 43.30.Ma.-- Publicado en el Vol. XXXI, núm. 3-4, tercer y cuarto trimestre 2000 de la Revista de Acústica: Número especial dedicado al XXV Aniversario del Instituto de Acústica del C.S.I.C.

  10. The Temperatures of Red Supergiants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Plez, Bertrand; Trager, Scott; Lançon, Ariane; Gazak, Zach; Bergemann, Maria; Evans, Chris; Chiavassa, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the sp

  11. The Temperatures of Red Supergiants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Plez, Bertrand; Trager, Scott; Lancon, Ariane; Gazak, Zach; Bergemann, Maria; Evans, Chris; Chiavassa, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of Red Supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the sp

  12. Advances in Red VCSEL Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Red VCSELs offer the benefits of improved performance and lower power consumption for medical and industrial sensing, faster printing and scanning, and lower cost, higher speed interconnects based upon plastic optical fiber (POF. However, materials challenges make it more difficult to achieve the desired performance than at the well-developed wavelength of 850 nm. This paper will describe the state of the art of red VCSEL performance and the results of development efforts to achieve improved output power and a broader temperature range of operation. It will also provide examples of the applications of red VCSELs and the benefits they offer. In addition, the packaging flexibility offered by VCSELs, and some examples of non-Hermetic package demonstrations will be discussed. Some of the red VCSEL performance demonstrations include output power of 14 mW CW at room temperature, a record maximum temperature of 115∘C for CW operation at an emission wavelength of 689 nm, time to 1% failure at room temperature of approximately 200,000 hours, lifetime in a 50∘C, 85% humidity environment in excess of 3500 hours, digital data rate of 3 Gbps, and peak pulsed array power of greater than 100 mW.

  13. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population ca...

  14. White Wedding and Red Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦遥

    2010-01-01

    @@ The most obvious difference between western wedding and Chinese wedding tradition lies in the main color of the ceremony.Western wedding is known as the white wedding in some sense,for its main color is white from bride's gown(礼服)to the decoration of the wedding hall.While,traditional Chinese wedding ceremony is full of the color of red.

  15. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC for Small Animal PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. El Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a correction for annihilation photon attenuation in small objects such as mice is necessary. The attenuation recovery for specific organs and subcutaneous tumors was investigated. A comparison between different attenuation correction methods was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II. CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity concentration in the same organ with and without AC revealed an overall attenuation recovery of 9–21% for MAP reconstructed images, i.e., SUV without AC could underestimate the true activity at this level. For subcutaneous tumors, the attenuation was 13 ± 4% (9–17%, for kidneys 20 ± 1% (19–21%, and for bladder 18 ± 3% (15–21%. The FBP reconstructed images showed almost the same attenuation levels as the MAP reconstructed images for all organs. Conclusions: The annihilation photons are suffering attenuation even in small subjects. Both PET-based and CT-based are adequate as AC methods. The amplitude of the AC recovery could be overestimated using the uniform map. Therefore, application of a global attenuation factor on PET data might not be accurate for attenuation correction.

  16. Neurinoma central do nervo acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pinto Pupo

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta o caso de uma paciente com 45 anos, com hipertensão arterial, queixando-se de tonturas e surdez progressiva à esquerda que, ao exame neurológico, apresentava síndrome protuberancial, com hemi-anestesia táctil e dolorosa à direita respeitando a face, hemiparesia direita, ataxia de tipo sensitivo nos membros da direita, paralisia facial de tipo periférico, hipoacusia, paresia de motor ocular externo à esquerda, síndrome vertiginosa e nistagmo horizontal ao olhar para a direita. À necrópsia foi encontrado um tumor na hemicalota protuberancial esquerda e foco malácico adjacente, secundário a distúrbio circulatório. O tumor, intimamente dependente das raízes intraprotuberanciais do nervo acústico, se apresentava com as características histológicas dos neurinomas. Além dessas particularidades, a lesão do feixe central da calota e conseqüente degeneração "hipertrófica" da oliva bulbar constituem outro aspecto de grande interêsse dêste caso.

  17. AC Impedance Behaviour of Black Diamond Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao YE; Olivier GAUDIN; Richard B.JACKMAN

    2005-01-01

    The first measurement of impedance on free-standing diamond films from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz up to 300℃ were reported. A wide range of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) materials were investigated, but here we concentrate are well fitted to a RC parallel circuit model and the equivalent resistance and capacitance for the diamond films have been estimated using the Zview curve fitting. The results show only one single semicircle response at each temperature measured. It was found that the resistance decreases from 62 MΩ at room temperature to 4 kΩ at300℃, with an activation energy around 0.51 eV. The equivalent capacitance is maintained at the level of 100 pF up to 300℃ suggesting that the diamond grain boundaries are dominating the conduction. At 400℃, the impedance at low frequencies shows a linear tail, which can be explained that the AC polarization of diamond/Au interface occurs.

  18. Faint Galaxies in deep ACS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez, N; Bouwens, R; Menanteau, F; Blakeslee, J P; Gronwall, C; Illingworth, G D; Meurer, G; Broadhurst, T J; Clampin, M; Franx, M; Hartig, G F; Magee, D; Sirianni, M; Ardila, D R; Bartko, F; Brown, R A; Burrows, C J; Cheng, E S; Cross, N J G; Feldman, P D; Golimowski, D A; Infante, L; Kimble, R A; Krist, J E; Lesser, M P; Levay, Z G; Martel, A R; Miley, G K; Postman, M; Rosati, P; Sparks, W B; Tran, H D; Tsvetanov, Z I; Zheng, R L

    2003-01-01

    We present the analysis of the faint galaxy population in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Early Release Observation fields VV 29 (UGC 10214) and NGC 4676. Here we attempt to thoroughly consider all aspects relevant for faint galaxy counting and photometry, developing methods which are based on public software and that are easily reproducible by other astronomers. Using simulations we determine the best SExtractor parameters for the detection of faint galaxies in deep HST observations, paying special attention to the issue of deblending, which significantly affects the normalization and shape of the number count distribution. We confirm, as claimed by Bernstein, Freedman and Madore (2002), that Kron-like magnitudes, such as the ones generated by SExtractor, can miss more than half of the light of faint galaxies, what dramatically affects the slope of the number counts. We present catalogs for the VV 29 and NGC 4676 fields with photometry in the g,V and I bands. We also show that combining the bayesian so...

  19. Volumetric measurement of human red blood cells by MOSFET-based microfluidic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhong; Ai, Ye; Cheng, Yuanbing; Li, Chang Ming; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a MOSFET-based (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) microfluidic gate to characterize the translocation of red blood cells (RBCs) through a gate. In the microfluidic system, the bias voltage modulated by the particles or biological cells is connected to the gate of MOSFET. The particles or cells can be detected by monitoring the MOSFET drain current instead of DC/AC-gating method across the electronic gate. Polystyrene particles with various standard sizes are utilized to calibrate the proposed device. Furthermore, RBCs from both adults and newborn blood sample are used to characterize the performance of the device in distinguishing the two types of RBCs. As compared to conventional DC/AC current modulation method, the proposed device demonstrates a higher sensitivity and is capable of being a promising platform for bioassay analysis. PMID:25349117

  20. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury I. The Star Formation History of the M81 Outer Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel; Dolphin, Andrew; Skillman, Evan; Harris, Jason; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Leo; de Jong, Roelof S; Olsen, Knut; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Mateo, Mario; Rosema, Keith; Stetson, Peter B; Quinn, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a large Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) treasury program to obtain resolved stellar photometry for a volume-limited sample of galaxies out to 4 Mpc. As part of this program, we have obtained deep ACS imaging of a field in the outer disk of the large spiral galaxy M81. The field contains the outskirts of a spiral arm as well as an area containing no current star formation. Our imaging results in a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaching to F814W = 28.8 and F606W = 29.5, one magnitude fainter than the red clump. Through detailed modeling of the full CMD, we quantify the age and metallicity distribution of the stellar populations contained in the field. The mean metallicity in the field is -1~100 Myr. We discuss the measured evolution of the M81 disk in the context of surveys of high-redshift disk galaxies and deep stellar photometry of other nearby galaxies. All of these indicate that massive spiral disks are mostly formed by z~1 and...

  1. An electrochemical study of corrosion protection by primer-topcoat systems on 4130 steel with ac impedance and dc methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrek, M. J.; Higgins, R. H.; Danford, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate metal surface corrosion and the breakdown of metal protective coatings, the ac impedance method is applied to six systems of primer coated and primer topcoated 4130 steel. Two primers were used: a zinc-rich epoxy primer and a red lead oxide epoxy primer. The epoxy-polyamine topcoat was used in four of the systems. The EG and G-PARC Model 368 ac impedance measurement system, along with dc measurements with the same system using the polarization resistance method, were used to monitor changing properties of coated 4230 steel disks immersed in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions buffered at pH 5.4 over periods of 40 to 60 days. The corrosion system can be represented by an electronic analog called an equivalent circuit consisting of resistors and capacitors in specific arrangements. This equivalent circuit parallels the impedance behavior of the corrosion system during a frequency scan. Values for the resistors and capacitors, that can be assigned in the equivalent circuit following a least-squares analysis of the data, describe changes that occur on the corroding metal surface and in the protective coatings. Two equivalent circuits have been determined that predict the correct Bode phase and magnitude of the experimental sample at different immersion times. The dc corrosion current density data are related to equivalent circuit element parameters. Methods for determining corrosion rate with ac impedance parameters are verified by the dc method.

  2. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  3. Advanced DC/AC inverters applications in renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2013-01-01

    DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors,

  4. DC and AC biasing of a transition edge sensor microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing AC-biased transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for use in large arrays with frequency-domain multiplexing. Using DC bias, we have achieved a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 2.6 keV with a decay time of 90 μs and an effective detector diameter of 300 μm. We have successfully measured thermal pulses with a TES microcalorimeter operated with an AC bias. We present here preliminary results from a single pixel detector operated under DC and AC bias conditions

  5. Study on radioimmunoassay of Bt Cry1Ac protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bt Cry1Ac protein was extracted from incubation of Bacillus thuringiensis HD-73, and cutting into more specific protein segment with high insect-resistance. High-affinity multi-colonial antibodies of Bt Cry1 Ac protein were obtained after injected it into New Zealand rabbits. By 125I labeling of Bt Cry1 Ac protein, a RIA kit was established. In this method, centrifuge for separation was not necessary due to the use of magnetic micro-particle and the specifications of the kit were found equal to those of imported ELISA. (authors)

  6. An Improved AC-BM Algorithm for Monitoring Watch List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Yiwen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the expanding of database of the watch list of anti-money laundering, improving the speed in matching between the watch list and the database of account holders and clients’ transaction is especially important. This paper proposes an improved AC-BM Algorithm, a matching algorithm of subsection, to improve the speed of matching. Experiment results show the time performance of the improved algorithm is better than traditional BM algorithm, AC algorithm and the AC-BM algorithm. It can improve the efficiency of on-line monitoring of anti-money laundering.  

  7. Cyclotron production of Ac-225 for targeted alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolidis, C; Molinet, R; McGinley, J; Abbas, K; Möllenbeck, J; Morgenstern, A

    2005-03-01

    The feasibility of producing Ac-225 by proton irradiation of Ra-226 in a cyclotron through the reaction Ra-226(p,2n)Ac-225 has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Proton energies were varied from 8.8 to 24.8 MeV and cross-sections were determined by radiochemical analysis of reaction yields. Maximum yields were reached at incident proton energies of 16.8 MeV. Radiochemical separation of Ac-225 from the irradiated target yielded a product suitable for targeted alpha therapy of cancer.

  8. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 10) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin2. The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described in

  9. Single-Phase Four Switch Z-Source AC-AC Converters%单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤雨; 谢少军; 张超华

    2007-01-01

    提出了一种单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器,它包括电压型与电流型两类.与传统脉宽调制AC-AC变换器相比,它具有如下特点:输出电压范围宽且可升可降,输出电压与输入电压可同相或反相,冲击和谐波电流小,可靠性高.针对AC-AC变换器中固有的开关管换流问题,提出了一种适用于单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器的换流方案,无需外加缓冲吸收电路即可实现开关管的安全换流.以电压型单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器为例,对其进行了理论分析、仿真和原理试验研究.实验结果证实了Z源变换器的特性及换流方案的可行性.

  10. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland... protect persons and vessels from safety hazards associated with flooding occurring on the Red River....

  11. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  12. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC22 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC22 (Link to dictyBase) - G03266 DDB0186811 Contig-U14995-1 FCL-...AC22P (Link to Original site) FCL-AC22F 430 FCL-AC22Z 521 FCL-AC22P 951 - - Show FCL-AC22 Library FC...L (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-AC22 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G03266 dictyBase ID DDB0186811 ...Link to Contig Contig-U14995-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-...AC22Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC22P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-

  15. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC23 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FCL (Link to library) FCL-AC23 (Link to dictyBase) - G01760 DDB0186002 Contig-U16043-1 FCL-...AC23P (Link to Original site) FCL-AC23F 132 FCL-AC23Z 582 FCL-AC23P 714 - - Show FCL-AC23 Library FC...L (Link to library) Clone ID FCL-AC23 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01760 dictyBase ID DDB0186002 ...Link to Contig Contig-U16043-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FCL/FCL-AC/FCL-...AC23Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FCL-AC23P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FCL-

  16. PROSPECTS OF MULTIFILAMENTARY SUPERCONDUCTOR AC 50 Hz APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Hlásnik, I.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that parameters of modern multifilamentary superconductors and their possible improvements allow their application to AC 50 Hz windings working at Bm of about 1 T and giving energy and total cost savings.

  17. Dc to ac converter operates efficiently at low input voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Self-oscillating dc to ac converter with transistor switching to produce a square wave output is used for low and high voltage power sources. The converter has a high efficiency throughout a wide range of loads.

  18. American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...

  19. AC susceptibility of polycrystalline (Bi-Pb 2223 superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salamati

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available   The temperature dependence of ac susceptibility of (Bi-Pb2223 polycrystalline samples was measured as a function of frequency and ac field amplitude. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the AC susceptibility near the transition temperature (Tc has been done employing Bean’s critical state model. The observed variation of intergranular critical current densities (Jc with temperature indicates that the weak links are superconductor- normal metal-superconductor (SNS type for this sample. The frequency effect on AC susceptibility was also measured. As the frequency increases, (TP shifts to higher temperatures. This effect can be interpreted in terms of flux creep. The temperature T, and field, , dependence of activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot for the frequency ( f and ( TP , can be described as: U(Hac,T=U0(1-T/TCHac-0.18

  20. A precursor of β-delayed fission:230Ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 230Ra has been produced via multinucleon transfer and dissipativefragmentation of heavy target in the 60 MeV/u 18O ion reaction with natural thorium.The radium was radiochemically separated from irradiated thorium targets. 230Acwas obtained by 230Ra β-→ 230Ac. Thin Ra sources were prepared for observing fissionfragments from β-delayed fission of 230Ac. The sources were exposed to the micafission track detectors and measured by a HPGe γ detector. The two fission eventswere obtained and could been assigned to theβ-delayed fission of 230Ac. The β-delayedfission probability of 230Ac was determined to be (1.19+0.85) × 10-8.

  1. A Switched Capacitor Based AC/DC Resonant Converter for High Frequency AC Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuidong Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A switched capacitor based AC-DC resonant power converter is proposed for high frequency power generation output conversion. This converter is suitable for small scale, high frequency wind power generation. It has a high conversion ratio to provide a step down from high voltage to low voltage for easy use. The voltage conversion ratio of conventional switched capacitor power converters is fixed to n, 1/n or −1/n (n is the switched capacitor cell. In this paper, A circuit which can provide n, 1/n and 2n/m of the voltage conversion ratio is presented (n is stepping up the switched capacitor cell, m is stepping down the switching capacitor cell. The conversion ratio can be changed greatly by using only two switches. A resonant tank is used to assist in zero current switching, and hence the current spike, which usually exists in a classical switching switched capacitor converter, can be eliminated. Both easy operation and efficiency are possible. Principles of operation, computer simulations and experimental results of the proposed circuit are presented. General analysis and design methods are given. The experimental result verifies the theoretical analysis of high frequency AC power generation.

  2. Simulation of the Relaxation Potential Profile of an ac-dc-ac Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry N. Allahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relaxation period of the accelerated ac-dc-ac test for coatings is associated with the transient electrochemistry that occurs when the immersed coated system is allowed to return to a stable open-circuit condition after being subjected to a cathodic potential. A mathematical model of the transient electrochemistry that occurs during this relaxation period is presented for coated aluminum. Expressions for the corrosion potential and corrosion current as functions of the local pH at the metal-coating interface were developed using reported experimental results. These expressions enabled the simulation of the transient electrochemistry under the constraint of balanced anodic and cathodic current densities. Regression of the transient relaxation potential profiles to exponential decay functions provided time-constant characterization of the profiles. Simulated results are presented that demonstrate the influences of the coating's porosity and thickness, the applied dc potential and the metal-coating interface condition on the time-constants associated with the relaxation profile. Interpretation of experimentally reported relaxation potential profiles supported the analysis of the simulated results.

  3. Yellow Wine and Red Wine: the Primary Prevention in Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-fang YANG; Hang-yuan GUO; Ju-fang CHI; Yong SUN; Chao XU

    2009-01-01

    To review the cardiac protective effects of wine intake and recommend moderate wine consumption as a primary prevention strategy for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Systematically review former studies on the wine con-sumption (red wine and yellow wine) by searching the Medline database and other related citations, and investigate possible protective pathways. Regular moderate wine intake can benefit heart from acute coronary symptom (ACS) at-tacking; reduce the relative risk of morbidity and mortality from CAD. It might not be imperative to ask people to stop drinking; inversely, we suggest moderate wine consumption as a preventive strategy in CAD for its guarding contribu-tion.

  4. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is... entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn...

  5. Red nodule on the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Colucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola.

  6. Development of the Field of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Theoretical and technological development of large capacity power electronics and flexible AC transmission systems are one of the most important projects developed by Tsinghua University. The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology which uses power electronics to improve the efficiency and quality of the electrical generation, transmission and distribution system is considered to be one of the most significant technological innovations for power systems in the 20th century. The advanced static var generator (ASVG) is a key FACTS device.

  7. Muc5ac mucin expression during rat skin development

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ferretti; Á. Segal-Eiras; Barbeito, C.G.; Croce, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days...

  8. Dynamics of a nanowire superlattice in an ac electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Aizhen; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan; M. Willatzen

    2005-01-01

    With a one-band envelope function theory, we investigate the dynamics of a finite nanowire superlattice driven by an ac electric field by solving numerically the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We find that for an ac electric field resonant with two energy levels located in two different minibands, the coherent dynamics in nanowire superlattices is much more complex as compared to the standard two-level description. Depending on the energy levels involved in the transitions, the coheren...

  9. Theory of the ac spin-valve effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kochan, Denis; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    The spin-valve complex magnetoimpedance of symmetric ferromagnet/normal metal/ferromagnet junctions is investigated within the drift-diffusion (standard) model of spin injection. The ac magnetoresistance---the real part difference of the impedances of the parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations---exhibits an overall damped oscillatory behavior, as an interplay of the diffusion and spin relaxation times. In wide junctions the ac magnetoresistance oscillates between positive and ...

  10. Fractal AC circuits and propagating waves on fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Akkermans, Eric; Dunne, Gerald; Rogers, Luke G; Teplyaev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We extend Feynman's analysis of the infinite ladder AC circuit to fractal AC circuits. We show that the characteristic impedances can have positive real part even though all the individual impedances inside the circuit are purely imaginary. This provides a physical setting for analyzing wave propagation of signals on fractals, by analogy with the Telegrapher's Equation, and generalizes the real resistance metric on a fractal, which provides a measure of distance on a fractal, to complex impedances.

  11. AC resistivity of d-wave ceramic superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mai Suan; Dominguez, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We model d-wave ceramic superconductors with a three-dimensional lattice of randomly distributed $\\pi$ Josephson junctions with finite self-inductance. The linear and nonlinear ac resistivity of the d-wave ceramic superconductors is obtained as function of temperature by solving the corresponding Langevin dynamical equations. We find that the linear ac resistivity remains finite at the temperature $T_p$ where the third harmonics of resistivity has a peak. The current amplitude dependence of t...

  12. Ordering in red abalone nacre

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Abrecht, Mike; Coppersmith, Susan N.; P.U.P.A. Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Red abalone nacre is an intensely studied biomineral, and yet its formation mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report quantitative measurements probing the degree of order of the aragonite tablets in nacre, and show that order develops over a distance of about 50 microns. These observations indicate that the orientational order of aragonite tablets in nacre is established gradually and dynamically, and we show that a model of controlled assembly based on suppression of the crystal g...

  13. Update on bedside ultrasound (US) diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (AC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenobii, Maria Francesca; Accogli, Esterita; Domanico, Andrea; Arienti, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) represents a principal cause of morbidity worldwide and is one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization due to gastroenteric tract diseases. AC should be suspected in presence of clinical signs and of gallstones on an imaging study. Upper abdominal US represents the first diagnostic imaging step in the case of suspected AC. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast (IV) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast and technetium hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (Tc-HIDA) can be employed to exclude complications. US examination should be performed with right subcostal oblique, with longitudinal and intercostal scans. Normal gallbladder US findings and AC major and minor US signs are described. Polyps, sludge and gallbladder wall thickening represent the more frequent pitfalls and they must be differentiated from stones, duodenal artifacts and many other non-inflammatory conditions that cause wall thickening, respectively. By means of bedside ultrasound, the finding of gallstones in combination with acute pain, when the clinician presses the gallbladder with the US probe (the sonographic Murphy's sign), has a 92.2 % positive predictive value for AC. In our preliminary experience, bedside US-performed by echoscopy (ES) and/or point-of-care US (POCUS) demonstrated good reliability in detecting signs of AC, and was always integrated with physical examination and performed by a skilled operator.

  14. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials.

  15. Temperature integration at the AC thermosensory neurons in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Platt, Michael D; Lagnese, Christopher M; Leslie, Jennifer R; Hamada, Fumika N

    2013-01-16

    Temperature sensation has a strong impact on animal behavior and is necessary for animals to avoid exposure to harmful temperatures. It is now well known that thermoTRP (transient receptor potential) channels in thermosensory neurons detect a variable range of temperature stimuli. However, little is known about how a range of temperature information is relayed and integrated in the neural circuits. Here, we show novel temperature integration between two warm inputs via Drosophila TRPA channels, TRPA1 and Pyrexia (Pyx). The internal AC (anterior cell) thermosensory neurons, which express TRPA1, detect warm temperatures and mediate temperature preference behavior. We found that the AC neurons were activated twice when subjected to increasing temperatures. The first response was at ∼25°C via TRPA1 channel, which is expressed in the AC neurons. The second response was at ∼27°C via the second antennal segments, indicating that the second antennal segments are involved in the detection of warm temperatures. Further analysis reveals that pyx-Gal4-expressing neurons have synapses on the AC neurons and that mutation of pyx eliminates the second response of the AC neurons. These data suggest that AC neurons integrate both their own TRPA1-dependent temperature responses and a Pyx-dependent temperature response from the second antennal segments. Our data reveal the first identification of temperature integration, which combines warm temperature information from peripheral to central neurons and provides the possibility that temperature integration is involved in the plasticity of behavioral outputs.

  16. A Novel High Performance Bridgeless Ac-Dc Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.AshrafulAlam Mohon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new single phase high performance bridgeless AC-DC Boost converter is proposed. The converter is made bridgeless by the use of two unidirectional switches and two diodes at the input ac side for power conversion for both positive and negative half cycle. Because of the high frequency switching, the power factor of the circuit is inherently corrected and it requires a small filter to make the input current near sinusoidal with limited THD. The significant improvement in THD makes the circuit a good choice in applications needing AC-DC conversion with power conditioning. The circuit exhibits such better performances than conventional AC-DC boost converter with variable loads at constant frequency switching with no additional control circuits. The efficiency of the circuit is also satisfactory. Analysis and simulation results of the circuit are obtained by using software simulation. The main advantage of this new AC-DC converter is its superior power quality over conventional AC-DC boost converter

  17. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  18. Extremely Red Quasars in BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D; Greene, Jenny E; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual "wingless" line profiles, large NV/Lya, NV/CIV, SiIV/CIV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [OIII] 5007. Here we present a new catalog of CIV and NV emission-line data for 216,188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR color, secondarily on REW(CIV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a "core" sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 > 4.6 (AB) and REW(CIV) > 100 A at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity log L (ergs/s) ~ 47.1, sk...

  19. Controlo de um conversor AC-DC-AC para turbinas eólicas baseadas no PMSG

    OpenAIRE

    Bulhosa, João Paulo Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    A dissertação teve como objectivo o estudo e implementação do controlo de um conversor AC-DC-AC, constituído por um conversor DC/DC elevador e um inversor de tensão monofásico, para efectuar a ligação à rede de turbinas eólicas baseadas no gerador síncrono de ímanes permanentes. O controlo global do conversor AC-DC-AC seguiu uma estratégia na qual o controlo do conversor elevador e do inversor de tensão monofásico é implementado de modo independente. O primeiro visa maximizar a potência ex...

  20. Study on AC/A ratio in myopia%近视患者AC/A率的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖婉莉; 孙建宁

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨AC/A率在近视发生发展中的作用及机制.方法:选择30名正视眼者(正视眼组)及90名近视眼者.对近视眼者根据屈光程度分为轻、中、高度近视眼3组;根据平时戴镜情况,分为从未戴镜、间断戴镜和持续戴镜组.采用同视机法测量AC/A率并进行分析和比较.结果:轻度近视眼组AC/A率平均值为(3.22±1.51)Δ/D,中度(3.46±1.00)Δ/D,高度(3.97±1.36)Δ/D,均高于正视眼组(P<0.05).从未戴镜组AC/A率高于间断戴镜及持续戴镜组(P<0.05).结论:近视患者高AC/A率是调节与辐辏功能不协调的一种表现,高AC/A率可导致眼球近视性改变.近视患者应进行矫正,恢复调节与辐辏的平衡.%Objective: To assess the difterence of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio in myopia and emmetropia, then evaluate the relationship between AC/A ratio and myopia. Methods: Thirty emmetropia and 90 myopia cases were included in this study. The myopia cases were divided into mild myopia,moderate myopia and high myopia. The AC/A ratios were measured with a synoptophore, and the results were analyzed. Results: Average values of mild myopia group, moderate myopia group and high myopia group were (3.22 ± 1.51 ) Δ/D, (3.46 ± 1.00) Δ/D, (3.46 ± 1.00) Δ/D, a significant difference was found between each group and emmetropia group ( P < 0.05 ). The AC/A ratio of non- wearing glasses group was higher than that of discontinuous wearing and continued wearing glasses group. Conclusion: The increased AC/A ratio represents the incoordination of accommodations and convergences, which can lead to an aggravation of myopia, which should be readjusted.

  1. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach it is not required to do any measurements, thus making it more reliable. Initial testing made on the prototype prove the feasibility of the approach. (au)

  2. Monoclonal antibodies AC-43 and AC-29 disrupt Plasmodium vivax development in the Indian malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: culicidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Chugh; B R Gulati; S K Gakhar

    2010-03-01

    A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated against the midgut proteins of Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. The mAbs AC-43 and AC-29 significantly inhibited Plasmodium vivax development inside the mosquito midgut. The number of oocysts that developed was reduced by 78.6% when mosquitoes ingested a combination of these two mAbs along with the blood meal. AC-43 mAb binds to the epitope common in 97, 80 and 43 kDa polypeptides from the midgut protein extract, as indicated by western blot analysis. Similarly, the mAb AC-29 recognized 52, 44, 40 and 29 kDa polypeptides. These female midgut-specific polypeptides are shared between An. culicifacies and An. stephensi, two major vectors of malaria in India. Deglycosylation assays revealed that -linked carbohydrates are the major components in epitopes corresponding to AC-43 and AC-29. Gold particle labelling revealed that both these mAbs preferentially bind to glycoproteins at the apical microvilli and the microvillus-associated network present inside transverse sections of the gut epithelium. These regions are particularly known to have receptors for ookinetes, which enable them to cross this epithelial barrier and provide them with certain necessary chemicals or components for further development into oocysts. Therefore, these glycoproteins appear to be potential candidates for a vectordirected transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV).

  3. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631614

  4. 21 CFR 880.6320 - AC-powered medical examination light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered medical examination light. 880.6320... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6320 AC-powered medical examination light. (a) Identification. An AC-powered medical examination light is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes that is used to illuminate...

  5. Characteristics and phylogeny of light-harvesting complex gene encoded proteins from marine red alga Griffithsia japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chenlin; HUANG Xiaohang; LEE Yookyung; LEE Hongkum; LI Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Six genes encoding light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein have been characterized in the multicellular red alga Griffithsia japonica EST analysis. Three of them were full sequences while others were partial sequences with 3'-UTRs. The cleavage sites between signal peptide and mature LHC protein were analyzed on these three full sequences. The sequence characteristics, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) values and hydrophobieity of the mature proteins were deduced and analyzed. Comparing the LHC sequences of G. japonica with higher plant, Chlorophyta, chromophytes and other red algae, the high conservation of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding site among chromophytes and red algae were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis on LHC proteins from higher plant, green algae, euglena, brown algae, diatom, cryptomonad, Raphidophyte and red algae reveals that (1) there are two distinct groups of Chl a/b and Chl a/c -binding LHC; (2) Chl a binding proteins of red algae share greater similarities with the Chl a/c-binding proteins of the chromophytes and dinoflagellate than with the Chl a/b - binding proteins of the green algae and higher plants; (3) chromophyte' s LHC is supposed to be evolved from red algae LHC.

  6. An AC/AC Direct Power Conversion Topology Having Multiple Power Grid Connections with Adjustable Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    these fraction power will be a necessary feature on a deregulated energy market. This paper presents a new topology of a power converter based on the Direct Power Conversion concept, which is able to connect to multiple grids and provide complete decoupling between without circulating power between the......Normally, a power converter has one supply port to connect to the power grid and one or multiple output ports to connect to AC loads that require variable voltage and variable frequency. As the trend on the energy market is towards deregulation, new converter topologies are needed to allow...... to minimize the overall energy cost or in case of special applications, to improve the system redundancy. Also, having a generator that can simultaneously feed fractions of its power into multiple grids which are not coupled (different voltage, frequency, displacement angle) and continuously adjust...

  7. Behaviour analysis of AC-600 passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southwest Center of Reactor Engineering Research and Design has finished the first step conceptual design of 600 mwe advanced PWR (AC-600). The main research emphases of AC-600 conceptual design include the advanced reactor core, the passive safety systems and the simplification. The passive safety systems of AC-600 consist of two reactor make up water tanks, two accumulators, two emergency feedwater tanks, two emergency natural draft air condensers, a containment water jacket and an enhanced primary cycle natural circulation flow system. 25% of the rated reactor power can be removed by the natural circulation cooling. The full pressure reactor make up water tanks are able to provide enough borated water which would be injected into the reactor coolant system during small LOCA. The coolant natural circulations can be established in the primary system and the passive secondary emergency feedwater system, removing residual heat from the reactor core to the atmosphere when station blackout occurs. It is indicated from analysis that the containment diameter of AC-600 is about 35 m. The large tanks and the large vertical distances between the tanks and reactor core are the main reason of using the big containment. It is also indicated from analysis that the low head safety injection pumps are required in AC-600 design to assure the recirculation system operation when large LOCA occurs. The reliability of AC-600 engineered safety systems is increased because the function of the passive safety systems is conducted through the immutable natural laws. The paper discusses the natural circulation ability and safety behavior of the passive safety systems during LOCA or station blackout for AC-600. The passive limits to excess reactivity and thermal hydraulic transients are also preliminarily discussed. Figs and tabs

  8. Association of MC3R gene polymorphisms with body weight in the red fox and comparative gene organization in four canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorczyk, A; Flisikowski, K; Szydlowski, M; Cieslak, J; Fries, R; Switonski, M

    2011-02-01

    There are five genes encoding melanocortin receptors. Among canids, the genes have mainly been studied in the dog (MC1R, MC2R and MC4R). The MC4R gene has also been analysed in the red fox. In this report, we present a study of chromosome localization, comparative sequence analysis and polymorphism of the MC3R gene in the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. The gene was localized by FISH to the following chromosome: 24q24-25 in the dog, 14p16 in the red fox, 18q13 in the arctic fox and NPP4p15 in the Chinese raccoon dog. A high identity level of the MC3R gene sequences was observed among the species, ranging from 96.0% (red fox--Chinese raccoon dog) to 99.5% (red fox--arctic fox). Altogether, eight polymorphic sites were found in the red fox, six in the Chinese raccoon dog and two in the dog, while the arctic fox appeared to be monomorphic. In addition, association of several polymorphisms with body weight was analysed in red foxes (the number of genotyped animals ranged from 319 to 379). Two polymorphisms in the red fox, i.e. a silent substitution c.957A>C and c.*185C>T in the 3'-flanking sequence, showed a significant association (P < 0.01) with body weight.

  9. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  10. Analysis of AC loss in superconducting power devices calculated from short sample data

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbers, J.J.; Haken, ten, Bennie; Kate, ten, F.J.W.

    2003-01-01

    A method to calculate the AC loss of superconducting power devices from the measured AC loss of a short sample is developed. In coils and cables the magnetic field varies spatially. The position dependent field vector is calculated assuming a homogeneous current distribution. From this field profile and the transport current, the local AC loss is calculated. Integration over the conductor length yields the AC loss of the device. The total AC loss of the device is split up in different compone...

  11. Temas de Física para Ingeniería: Acústica

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    Acústica, fluidos y termodinámica: "Acústica". Ondas sonoras, propagación. Sonidos puros, sonidos complejos y ruidos. Velocidad de propagación del sonido. Intensidad del sonido y potencia acústica. Impedancia acústica y transmisión del sonido. Medición del campo acústico: niveles. Audición. Interferencia de ondas sonoras y pulsaciones. Tubos sonoros. Efecto Doppler.

  12. Bibliotecas y marketing en red

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández-Villavicencio, Nieves

    2009-01-01

    Objetivos . Realizar una aproximación teórica sobre el concepto de marketing y su aplicación en bibliotecas a la luz de las transformaciones tecnológicas y sociales protagonizadas por los medios sociales y las aplicaciones de la web social y elaborar unas pautas para el diseño de un plan de marketing 2.0 en bibliotecas. Metodología . Análisis de la bibliografía y de los comportamientos observados en las bibliotecas en relación a las políticas y planes de marketing en red,...

  13. 一种简单新型拓扑Cuk AC/AC变换器及其仿真研究%A New Simple Topology of Cuk AC/AC Converter and Its Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈溪; 刘韬; 谭光慧; 纪延超

    2006-01-01

    由Cuk DC/DC变换器的拓扑结构导出一种只具有两个开关的PWM AC/AC变换器的简单新型拓扑--Cuk AC/AC变换器.给出单相和三相Cuk AC/AC变换器的拓扑结构,分析Cuk AC/AC变换器的外特性及小信号特性.仿真结果验证了所提的Cuk AC/AC变换器的合理性和可行性.

  14. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  15. Design and synthesis of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, Michael R.; Ma, Dangshe; Simon, Jim; Frank, R. Keith; Scheinberg, David A. E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org

    2002-12-01

    The alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides {sup 213}Bi, {sup 211}At, {sup 224}Ra are under investigation for the treatment of leukemias, gliomas, and ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. {sup 213}Bi and {sup 211}At were attached to monoclonal antibodies and used as targeted immunotherapeutic agents while unconjugated {sup 224}Ra chloride selectively seeks bone. {sup 225}Ac possesses favorable physical properties for radioimmunotherapy (10 d half-life and 4 net alpha particles), but has a history of unfavorable radiolabeling chemistry and poor metal-chelate stability. We selected functionalized derivatives of DOTA as the most promising to pursue from out of a group of potential {sup 225}Ac chelate compounds. A two-step synthetic process employing either MeO-DOTA-NCS or 2B-DOTA-NCS as the chelating moiety was developed to attach {sup 225}Ac to monoclonal antibodies. This method was tested using several different IgG systems. The chelation reaction yield in the first step was 93{+-}8% radiochemically pure (n=26). The second step yielded {sup 225}Ac-DOTA-IgG constructs that were 95{+-}5% radiochemically pure (n=27) and the mean percent immunoreactivity ranged from 25% to 81%, depending on the antibody used. This process has yielded several potential novel targeted {sup 225}Ac-labeled immunotherapeutic agents that may now be evaluated in appropriate model systems and ultimately in humans.

  16. AC losses in circular arrangements of parallel superconducting tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Däumling, Manfred;

    1998-01-01

    The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two arrangem......The DC and AC properties of superconducting tapes connected in parellel and arranged in a single closed layer on two tubes (correspondig to power cable models with infinite pitch) with different diameters are compared. We find that the DC properties, i.e. the critical currents of the two...... arrangements, scale with the number of tapes and hence appear to be independent of the diameter.However, the AC loss per tape (for a given current per tape) appears to decrease with increasing diameter of the circular arrangement. Compared to a model for the AC loss in a continuous superconducting layer...... (Monoblock model) the measured values are about half an order of magnitude higher than expected for the small diameter arrangement. When compared to the AC loss calculated for N individual superconducting tapes using a well known model ( Norris elliptical) the difference is slightly smaller....

  17. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  18. Impedance, AC conductivity and dielectric behavior Adeninium Trichloromercurate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersi, M. Amine; Chaabane, I.; Gargouri, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we report the measurements impedance spectroscopy technique for the organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C5H6N5) HgCl3, 11/2H2O measured in the 209 Hz-5 MHz frequency range from 378 to 428 K. Besides, the Cole-Cole (Z″ versus Z‧) plots were well fitted to an equivalent circuit built up by a parallel combination of resistance (R), fractal capacitance (CPE) and capacitance (C). Furthermore, the AC conductivity was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency in the same range. The experiment results indicated that AC conductivity (σac) was proportional to σdc + A ωS . The obtained results are discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. An agreement between the experimental and theoretical results suggests that the AC conductivity behavior of Adeninium Trichloromercurate (II) can be successfully explained by CBH model. The contribution of single polaron hopping to AC conductivity in a present alloy was also studied.

  19. COMPARISON OF BACTERIAL ADSORPTION AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES BETWEEN AC AND AC(Ag)%AC及AC(Ag)对细菌的吸附及灭菌功能的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万怡灶; 王玉林; 董向红; 周福刚; 成国祥; 温廷益; 韩森

    2000-01-01

    测定了活性碳(AC)及载银活性碳(AC(Ag))的比表面积和孔径分布曲线,对比研究了AC及AC(Ag))对大肠杆菌的吸附能力和灭菌性能.结果表明,载银后,虽然AC(Ag)的比表面积下降,但由于银的存在,使其吸附的大肠杆菌数量高于AC,而吸附速率低于AC.灭菌试验表明,AC对大肠杆菌没有杀灭能力,而AC(Ag)对大肠杆菌有较好的灭菌功能.

  20. Red blood cell PK deficiency: An update of PK-LR gene mutation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Giulia; De Bonis, Maria; Minucci, Angelo; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is known as being the most common cause of chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA). Clinical PK deficiency is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, that can segregate neither in homozygous or in a compound heterozygous modality, respectively. Two PK genes are present in mammals: the pyruvate kinase liver and red blood cells (PK-LR) and the pyruvate kinase muscle (PK-M), of which only the first encodes for the isoenzymes normally expressed in the red blood cells (R-type) and in the liver (L-type). Several reports have been published describing a large variety of genetic defects in PK-LR gene associated to CNSHA. Herein, we present a review of about 250 published mutations and six polymorphisms in PK-LR gene with the corresponding clinical and molecular data. We consulted the PubMed website for searching mutations and papers, along with two main databases: the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD, https://grenada.lumc.nl/LOVD2/mendelian_genes/home.php?select_db=PKLR) and Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD, http://www.hgmd.cf.ac.uk/ac/gene.php?gene=PKLR) for selecting, reviewing and listing the annotated PK-LR gene mutations present in literature. This paper is aimed to provide useful information to clinicians and laboratory professionals regarding overall reported PK-LR gene mutations, also giving the opportunity to harmonize data regarding PK-deficient individuals. PMID:26832193

  1. Variable transposition of eight maize activator (ac) elements located on the short arm of chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, William F

    2011-09-01

    Eight Activator (Ac) transposable elements mapped to the maize chromosome arm 1S were assessed for Ac transposition rates. For each of the Ac stocks, plants homozygous for the single Ac element and the Ds reporter r1-sc:m3 on chromosome 10 were crossed as females by a homozygous r1-sc:m3 tester color-converted W22 line. The resulting ears produced mostly coarsely spotted kernels and a low frequency of either near-colorless fine-spotted kernels or nonspotted kernels. The relative frequency of these two types of near-colorless kernels differed among the eight Ac stocks. The extent to which increased Ac dosage results in nonspotted kernels may be Ac-specific. Although all of the Ac elements are in near-isogenic inbred W22 lines, they varied to a large extent in their transposition frequency. These differences might possibly result from structural differences among the Ac elements. Because one pair of Ac elements derived from Ac33 on chromosome arm 5S differed about 13-fold in transposition frequency and a second pair of Ac elements derived from Ac12 on chromosome arm 1S differed about 3-fold in transposition frequency, this is not a likely explanation for all eight Ac elements. The data presented here support the notion that the differences in transposition frequency of the eight Ac elements may be a reflection of variability in Ac transcription or accessibility of the transposase to the Ac element, resulting from differences in the chromatin environments wherein the Ac elements are located. This is the first report of variability in transposition rates among different Ac donor lines.

  2. Neural network based PWM AC chopper fed induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Jamuna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Simulink model for a neural network controlled PWM AC chopper fed single phase induction motor is proposed. Closed loop speed control is achieved using a neural network controller. To maintain a constant fluid flow with a variation in pressure head, drives like fan and pump are operated with closed loop speed control. The need to improve the quality and reliability of the drive circuit has increased because of the growing demand for improving the performance of motor drives. With the increased availability of MOSFET's and IGBT's, PWM converters can be used efficiently in low and medium power applications. From the simulation studies, it is seen that the PWM AC chopper has a better harmonic spectrum and lesser copper loss than the Phase controlled AC chopper. It is observed that the drive system with the proposed model produces better dynamic performance, reduced overshoot and fast transient response. .

  3. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bazant, Martin Z.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider the simplest possible model of a symmetric binary electrolyte confined between parallel-plate blocking electrodes...... in the electrolyte near the electrodes and, at very large voltage, the breakdown of the quasiequilibrium structure of the double layers. The former leads to the prediction of “ac capacitive desalination” since there is a time-averaged transfer of salt from the bulk to the double layers, via oscillating diffusion...... nonlinear responses to large ac voltages, such as Faradaic reactions, electro-osmotic instabilities, and induced-charge electrokinetic phenomena....

  4. The minimization of ac phase noise in interferometric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Ignacy; Gordon, R A

    1994-01-01

    A simple step-by-step procedure, including several novel techniques discussed in the Appendices, is given for minimizing ac phase noise in typical interferometric systems such as two-beam interferometers, holographic setups, four-wave mixers, etc. Special attention is given to index of refraction...... fluctuations, direct mechanical coupling, and acoustic coupling, whose importance in determining ac phase noise in interferometric systems has not been adequately treated. The minimization procedure must be carried out while continuously monitoring the phase noise which can be done very simply by using....... Such a change will lead to a reduction of both low-frequency and high-frequency ac phase noise by more than an order of magnitude and can be carried out for all interferometers with the exception of multiple pass optical systems and high-resolution FFT spectrometers. It is pointed out that most homemade air...

  5. On the Application of TLS Techniques to AC Electrical Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cirrincione

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of a new neuron, the TLS EXIN neuron, to AC induction motor drives. In particular, it addresses two important subjects of AC induction motor drives: the on-line estimation of the electrical parameters of the machine and the speed estimation in sensorless drives. On this basis, this work summarizes the parameter estimation and sensorless techniques already developed by the authors over these last few years, all based on the TLS EXIN. With regard to sensorless, two techniques are proposed: one based on the MRAS and the other based on the full-order Luenberger observer. The work show some of the most significant results obtained by the authors in these fields and stresses the important potentiality of this new neural technique in AC induction machine drives.

  6. Offshore windfarm connection with low frequency AC transmission technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Xu, Zhao; You, Shi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using the low frequency AC transmission (LFAC) system, e.g. fraction of 50 Hz or 60 Hz, for connecting the large offshore wind farm to the grid by modelling and simulation. The LFAC system improves the transmission capacity and distance compared to the c......This paper investigates the feasibility of using the low frequency AC transmission (LFAC) system, e.g. fraction of 50 Hz or 60 Hz, for connecting the large offshore wind farm to the grid by modelling and simulation. The LFAC system improves the transmission capacity and distance compared...... to the conventional AC solution at the nominal frequency, e.g. 50 Hz or 60 Hz. and reduces the investment cost compared to the HVDC solution. It is estimated that the LFAC system is competitive in the transmission distance of about 30-150 km. The simulation model of the wind integration using the LFAC system has been...

  7. Experiments on Corona Discharge Under AC and DC Composite Voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhengyi; LI Ruihai; WANG Guoli; CHEN Can; JIA Zhidong; GUAN Zhicheng

    2012-01-01

    Converter transformers are one of the most important electrical apparatuses in the ultra high voltage(UHV) DC transmission systems.The valve side and the low voltage(LV) bushing are stressed by long-term AC and DC composite voltage leading to significant partial discharge(PD) and posing great danger to the insulation system.In this paper AC and DC composite voltage is applied on a metal needle-plate model to produce PD signal sequences,and then the pulse waveshape and frequency spectrum are analyzed and compared with PD signals under conventional AC or DC voltage.In the end,the phase-resolved distribution is analyzed to depict the new characteristics of PD under this composite voltage.

  8. Harmonic-free line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villablanca, Miguel E. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Santiago, P.O. Box 10233, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper both a method and apparatus are applied to different configurations of line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers to reduce the distortion of currents flowing from the ac supply. The load may be either inductive or capacitive. The technology involves an accurate shaping of the dc current by using two self-commutated switches. This dc-current shaping is reflected back into the shaping of the ac input currents, which become pure sine waves. Thyristor-based rectifying operation is possible with a simple control circuit, which is able to deal with both rapid load variations and failures in the self-commutated switches. Furthermore, the overlap conduction of bridge thyristors is eliminated completely. Experimental verification is provided from a 400-V 30-kVA 50-Hz laboratory prototype. (author)

  9. Theory of the ac spin-valve effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Denis; Gmitra, Martin; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2011-10-21

    The spin-valve complex magnetoimpedance of symmetric ferromagnet-normal-metal-ferromagnet junctions is investigated within the drift-diffusion (standard) model of spin injection. The ac magnetoresistance-the real part difference of the impedances of the parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations-exhibits an overall damped oscillatory behavior, as an interplay of the diffusion and spin relaxation times. In wide junctions the ac magnetoresistance oscillates between positive and negative values, reflecting resonant amplification and depletion of the spin accumulation, while the line shape for thin tunnel junctions is predicted to be purely Lorentzian. The ac spin-valve effect could be a technique to extract spin transport and spin relaxation parameters in the absence of a magnetic field and for a fixed sample size. PMID:22107552

  10. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red ...

  11. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the ...

  12. European red list of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Abeli, Th.; Acevedo Rodríguez, A.; Aguiar, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The European Red List is a review of the conservation status of c. 6,000 European species (mammals, reptiles, amphibians, dragonflies, butterflies, freshwater fishes, and selected groups of beetles, molluscs, and vascular plants) according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This Red List public...

  13. Woman Village Leader and The Red Peppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    YU Hua, 28, deputy head of Sanduan Village is very proud of her village. As she welcomes visitors, she is sure to let them know: "Our red peppers were reported in the Chinese Population News." Red peppers grown in Sanduan Village are distinctive for their good quality, bright color, and pure hot taste Traders came to the village to buy red peppers. Thus their reputation grew quickly and the village head was even invited to Beijing to take part in a

  14. Experience of dose reduction in interventional X-ray equipment from Philips Allura; Experiencia de reduccion de dosis en equipos intervencionistas de rayos X allura de Philips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Monedero, M.; Garayoa Roca, J.; Ruiz Martin, J.; Barros Candelero, J. M.; Pifarre Martinez, X.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents an example of the type 3 teams bow interventionist, with adjustments on ways to fluoroscopy and acquisition parameters, which have allowed in all cases significant dose reductions.

  15. Introducing high performance distributed logging service for ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarias, Jorge A.; López, Joao S.; Maureira, Cristián; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a software framework that provides the infrastructure for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other projects. ACS, based on CORBA, offers basic services and common design patterns for distributed software. Every properly built system needs to be able to log status and error information. Logging in a single computer scenario can be as easy as using fprintf statements. However, in a distributed system, it must provide a way to centralize all logging data in a single place without overloading the network nor complicating the applications. ACS provides a complete logging service infrastructure in which every log has an associated priority and timestamp, allowing filtering at different levels of the system (application, service and clients). Currently the ACS logging service uses an implementation of the CORBA Telecom Log Service in a customized way, using only a minimal subset of the features provided by the standard. The most relevant feature used by ACS is the ability to treat the logs as event data that gets distributed over the network in a publisher-subscriber paradigm. For this purpose the CORBA Notification Service, which is resource intensive, is used. On the other hand, the Data Distribution Service (DDS) provides an alternative standard for publisher-subscriber communication for real-time systems, offering better performance and featuring decentralized message processing. The current document describes how the new high performance logging service of ACS has been modeled and developed using DDS, replacing the Telecom Log Service. Benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. A benchmark is presented comparing the differences between the implementations.

  16. Red Sesbania Distribution - lines [ds81

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer conatains line data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  17. Red Sesbania Distribution - points [ds80

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer contains point data for the red sesbania (Sesbania punicea) database. The database represents historic and current observations by various individuals of...

  18. Aligned Immobilization of Proteins Using AC Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Eva-Maria; Knigge, Xenia; Bier, Frank F; Wenger, Christian; Hölzel, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Protein molecules are aligned and immobilized from solution by AC electric fields. In a single-step experiment, the enhanced green fluorescent proteins are immobilized on the surface as well as at the edges of planar nanoelectrodes. Alignment is found to follow the molecules' geometrical shape with their longitudinal axes parallel to the electric field. Simultaneous dielectrophoretic attraction and AC electroosmotic flow are identified as the dominant forces causing protein movement and alignment. Molecular orientation is determined by fluorescence microscopy based on polarized excitation of the proteins' chromophores. The chromophores' orientation with respect to the whole molecule supports X-ray crystal data. PMID:26779699

  19. Droop-free Distributed Control for AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasirian, Vahidreza; Shafiee, Qobad; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2016-01-01

    A cooperative distributed secondary/primary control paradigm for AC microgrids is proposed. This solution replaces the centralized secondary control and the primary-level droop mechanism of each inverter with three separate regulators: voltage, reactive power, and active power regulators. A sparse...... guidelines are provided. Steady-state performance analysis shows that the proposed controller can accurately handle the global voltage regulation and proportional load sharing. An AC microgrid prototype is set up, where the controller performance, plug-and-play capability, and resiliency to the failure...

  20. AC and Phase Sensing of Nanowires for Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Marco; Rossi, Michele; Ashburn, Peter; Lombardini, Marta; Sangiorgi, Enrico; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Silicon nanowires are label-free sensors that allow real-time measurements. They are economical and pave the road for point-of-care applications but require complex readout and skilled personnel. We propose a new model and technique for sensing nanowire sensors using alternating currents (AC) to capture both magnitude and phase information from the sensor. This approach combines the advantages of complex impedance spectroscopy with the noise reduction performances of lock-in techniques. Experimental results show how modifications of the sensors with different surface chemistries lead to the same direct-current (DC) response but can be discerned using the AC approach.

  1. Active Power Regulation based on Droop for AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane A. A.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two different control strategies are proposed to address the active power regulation issue in AC microgrids. The principle of power regulation in the droop controller is firstly introduced. Frequency scheduling and droop gain scheduling on top of droop control is proposed to succes......In this paper, two different control strategies are proposed to address the active power regulation issue in AC microgrids. The principle of power regulation in the droop controller is firstly introduced. Frequency scheduling and droop gain scheduling on top of droop control is proposed...

  2. Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in Low Voltage Residential AC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Douglass, Philip; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling. The vol......This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling...

  3. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become

  4. Advanced Sensors for Accurate, Broadband AC Voltage Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, Thomas E.; Kinard, Joseph R.; Novotny, Donald B.; Sims, June E.

    2013-06-01

    We report on advances in ac voltage metrology made possible by a new generation of Multijunction Thermal Converters (MJTCs). Although intended for use primarily in high-frequency (1 MHz to 100 MHz) metrology, their exceptional low-frequency qualities, combined with a large dynamic range, makes these MJTCs excellent devices for the frequency range 10 Hz to 100 MHz at voltages from 1 V to 20 V, depending on the design. We anticipate that these devices will form the future basis for ac voltage metrology at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  5. AC transport in graphene-based Fabry-Perot devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Claudia G; Torres, Luis E. F. Foa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2009-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the effects of time-dependent fields on electronic transport through graphene nanoribbon devices. The Fabry-P\\'{e}rot interference pattern is modified by an ac gating in a way that depends strongly on the shape of the graphene edges. While for armchair edges the patterns are found to be regular and can be controlled very efficiently by tuning the ac field, samples with zigzag edges exhibit a much more complex interference pattern due to their peculiar elect...

  6. Interlayer thermal conductivity of rubrene measured by ac-calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Brill, J. W.

    2013-07-01

    We have measured the interlayer thermal conductivity of crystals of the organic semiconductor rubrene, using ac-calorimetry. Since ac-calorimetry is most commonly used for measurements of the heat capacity, we include a discussion of its extension for measurements of the transverse thermal conductivity of thin crystals of poor thermal conductors, including the limitations of the technique. For rubrene, we find that the interlayer thermal conductivity, ≈0.7 mW/cm . K, is several times smaller than the (previously measured) in-layer value, but its temperature dependence indicates that the interlayer mean free path is at least a few layers.

  7. A.C. losses in current-carrying superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of superconductors for alternating current use depends on successful reduction of losses. Moreover, the demand for large field amplitudes is a stimulation for investigating the nature of a.c. losses (e.g. in the set of poloidal coils in a TOKAMAK). In this thesis, measurements are performed at a.c. superconductivity. Attention is given to various external field conditions as well as to self-field instability. Measurements are performed on different types of wires. A type of wire is searched for with both low losses and a good stabilization under self-field conditions. (G.J.P.)

  8. EHV AC undergrounding electrical power performance and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Benato, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    EHV AC Undergrounding Electrical Power discusses methods of analysis for cable performance and for the behaviour of cable, mixed and overhead lines. The authors discuss the undergrounding of electrical power and develop procedures based on the standard equations of transmission lines. They also provide technical and economical comparisons of a variety of cables and analysis methods, in order to examine the performance of AC power transmission systems. A range of topics are covered, including: energization and de-energization phenomena of transmission lines; power quality; and cable safety cons

  9. Interplay between electron overheating and ac Josephson effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, A.; Le Calvez, K.; Sacépé, B.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

    2016-05-01

    We study the response of high-critical-current proximity Josephson junctions to a microwave excitation. Electron overheating in such devices is known to create hysteretic dc voltage-current characteristics. Here we demonstrate that it also strongly influences the ac response. The interplay of electron overheating and ac Josephson dynamics is revealed by the evolution of the Shapiro steps with the microwave drive amplitude. Extending the resistively shunted Josephson junction model by including a thermal balance for the electronic bath coupled to phonons, a strong electron overheating is obtained.

  10. Comportamiento acústico de espacios cubiertos con estructuras textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Simoes, Flavio

    2000-01-01

    En el presente trabajo estudiamos el comportamiento acústico de espacios cubiertos con textiles. Presentamos una reseña histórica de usos de textiles en la arquitectura, de la prehistoria hasta hoy. Realizamos una búsqueda bibliográfica y presentamos los resultados encontrados. Presentamos la metodología actual de análisis acústico que se utiliza en ensayos de laboratorio, simulaciones y mediciones. Estudiamos la absorción sonora de los materiales de las cubiertas textiles, en ensayos de labo...

  11. Study of AC/RF properties of SRF ingot niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Tsindlekht, Menachem I; Genkin, Valery M; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to correlate the performance of superconducting radiofrequency cavities made of niobium with the superconducting properties, we present the results of the magnetization and ac susceptibility of the niobium used in the superconducting radiofrequency cavity fabrication. The samples were subjected to buffer chemical polishing (BCP) surface and high temperature heat treatments, typically applied to the cavities fabrications. The analysis of the results show the different surface and bulk ac conductivity for the samples subjected to BCP and heat treatment. Furthermore, the RF surface impedance is measured on the sample using a TE011 microwave cavity for a comparison to the low frequency measurements.

  12. Programmable Power Supply for AC Switching Magnet of Proton Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Seong-Hun; Kang Heung Sik; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Hong-Gi; Park, Ki-Hyeon; Ryu, Chun-Kil; Sik Han, Hong; Suck Suh, Hyung

    2005-01-01

    The 100-MeV PEFP proton linac has two proton beam extraction lines for user' experiment. Each extraction line has 5 beamlines and has 5 Hz operating frequency. An AC switching magnet is used to distribute the proton beam to the 5 beamlines, An AC switching magnet is powered by PWM-controlled bipolar switching-mode converters. This converter is designed to operate at ±350A, 5 Hz programmable step output. The power supply is employed IGBT module and has controlled by a DSP (Digital Signal Process). This paper describes the design and test results of the power supply.

  13. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  14. Effect of electron beam irradiation on polymer electrolytes: Change in morphology, crystallinity, dielectric constant and AC conductivity with dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer electrolyte (PEO:Li2SO4) films were exposed to 8 MeV electron beam (EB) with various doses to investigate the radiation effect on dielectric permittivity (real and imaginary) and AC conductivity by using PC based Impedance Analyzer in the frequency range of 40–1 MHz at different temperatures. The change in chemical interaction, morphology, and thermal properties was analyzed with the help of Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) techniques respectively for before and after irradiation. The chemical change was confirmed from the FT-IR result which showed that peak intensities corresponding to C–H, C=C, and –C–O–C– bonds decrease with increase in EB dose clearly indicating that the degradation of polymer chain or segments (i.e., –CH2–CH2–). The DSC result showed that the melting temperature of unirradiated film is 69.42 °C which reduced to 67.55 °C for 30 kGy dose suggesting an exothermic behaviour. The SEM images give that surface roughness and crack depths increase with increasing dose. The XRD result reveals a decreased ∼30% crystallite size for 30 kGy dose compared with unirradiated film. Further, it is seen that dielectric permittivity and frequency dependent conductivity were found to increase with increasing irradiation dose. The maximum AC conductivity was observed to be 1.88×10−4 s/cm for 30 kGy and the estimated change in charge carrier concentration also showed high for 30 kGy dose. The AC conductivity obeys Power's law. The frequency exponent (s) parameter shows temperature dependent behaviour which decreases after irradiation. - Highlights: • 8 MeV EB irradiation effect on dielectric constant and AC conductivity of polymer electrolyte films was observed. • Occurrence of chain scission due to breaking of bonds was confirmed by FT-IR analysis. • AC conductivity increases with dose due to more number of free charges involved in

  15. Modulation schemes with enhanced switch thermal distribution for single-phase AC-DC-AC reduced-switch converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    ulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a power converter in steady state, and they have been extensively studied, but mostly directed to three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac systems, are less widely pursued, even...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances and hence verifying the idea....

  16. Impacts on Power Factor of AC Voltage Controllers Under Non-Sinusoidal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtiar Ahmed Mahar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AC-AC conversion is obtained with the help of Cyclo-converters, DC Link converters and AC Voltage Controllers. AC voltage controllers are also referred to as voltage regulators. Main issue concerned to these converters is that they generate harmonics due to periodic variable structure system. The generated harmonics create disturbances and degrade the performance of converter. The power factor of supply side is affected due to these harmonics. This paper focuses on source side power factor of ac voltage controllers under nonsinusoidal conditions. In order to observe the power factor, measurement tool of power factor and simulation model of ac voltage controller is also developed in MATLAB software.

  17. Two very long chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase genes, acs-20 and acs-22, have roles in the cuticle surface barrier in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, the surface barrier is essential for maintaining the internal environment. In mammals, the barrier is the stratum corneum. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 is a key factor involved in forming the stratum corneum barrier. Mice lacking Fatp4 display early neonatal lethality with features such as tight, thick, and shiny skin, and a defective skin barrier. These symptoms are strikingly similar to those of a human skin disease called restrictive dermopathy. FATP4 is a member of the FATP family that possesses acyl-CoA synthetase activity for very long chain fatty acids. How Fatp4 contributes to skin barrier function, however, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized two Caenorhabditis elegans genes, acs-20 and acs-22, that are homologous to mammalian FATPs. Animals with mutant acs-20 exhibited defects in the cuticle barrier, which normally prevents the penetration of small molecules. acs-20 mutant animals also exhibited abnormalities in the cuticle structure, but not in epidermal cell fate or cell integrity. The acs-22 mutants rarely showed a barrier defect, whereas acs-20;acs-22 double mutants had severely disrupted barrier function. Moreover, the barrier defects of acs-20 and acs-20;acs-22 mutants were rescued by acs-20, acs-22, or human Fatp4 transgenes. We further demonstrated that the incorporation of exogenous very long chain fatty acids into sphingomyelin was reduced in acs-20 and acs-22 mutants. These findings indicate that C. elegans Fatp4 homologue(s have a crucial role in the surface barrier function and this model might be useful for studying the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying human skin barrier and relevant diseases.

  18. Red nuggets grow inside-out: evidence from gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Lindsay; Fassnacht, Chris; Treu, Tommaso; Brewer, Brendon J; Koopmans, L V E; Lagattuta, David; Marshall, Philip; McKean, John; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    We present a new sample of strong gravitational lens systems where both the foreground lenses and background sources are early-type galaxies. Using imaging from HST/ACS and Keck/NIRC2, we model the surface brightness distributions and show that the sources form a distinct population of massive, compact galaxies at redshifts $0.4 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 0.7$, lying systematically below the size-mass relation of the global elliptical galaxy population at those redshifts. These may therefore represent relics of high-redshift red nuggets or their partly-evolved descendants. We exploit the magnifying effect of lensing to investigate the structural properties, stellar masses and stellar populations of these objects with a view to understanding their evolution. We model these objects parametrically and find that they generally require two S\\'ersic components to properly describe their light profiles, with one more spheroidal component alongside a more envelope-like component, which is slightly more extended though still...

  19. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip The hazardous child labor network (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.In the world, approximately 351.7 millions children between 5 and 17 years old work. Of them, 170,5 millions (48.5% work at the hazardous child labor forms. A high percentage is in agriculture, others in mines, manufactures, brick makers, predominantly in informal economy. The 138 Convention of ILO and the 182 Convention, define as hazardous child labor activities that can affect the health, safety and morality of the children. Studies on the children at work point out their particular susceptibility to some occupational risks, increasing the danger for their normal development and growth. "They are not little adults". The occupational health

  20. Red River Basin Mapping 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This LiDAR data covers the Red River Basin with portions of ND, MN, SD and flows into Canada. The US Red River Basin boudnary covers 40,860 sqmi,with the additional...

  1. Red eye emergencies in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Anthony

    2015-12-12

    Severe red eye conditions can be the result of intraocular inflammation, corneal insults or inflammation, and acute glaucoma. These pathologies require the knowledge and assessment tools of an ophthalmologist. This article will discuss red eye emergencies that the NP should promptly recognize and refer to ophthalmology. PMID:26545092

  2. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  3. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  4. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how these...... concepts manifest within the tool using a small motivating example bigraphical model developed in Big Red....

  5. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  6. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  7. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  8. Red autofluorescence of dental plaque bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. H.; Thomas, R. Z.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; de Soet, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Red autofluorescence of plaque and its relation to fluorescence of a single species in the biofilm was studied. Fluorescence images of non-disclosed and disclosed plaque of 28 first-year students were captured. The plaque samples were assessed by culture methods and studied for red autofluorescence.

  9. Internal rotation of red giants by asteroseismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an asteroseismic approach to study the dynamics of the stellar interior in red giant stars by asteroseismic inversion of the splittings induced by the stellar rotation on the oscillation frequencies. We show preliminary results obtained for the red giant KIC4448777 observed by the space mission Kepler.

  10. Distributed energy resources in grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep; Chen, Zhe;

    2010-01-01

    of future electrical power system. This paper gives an overview of DER units in the grid interactive ac microgrid. The options in structures and control methods of power electronics interfaced DER units are described. Instantaneous load sharing strategies among DER units in the islanded microgrid operations...

  11. Team-oriented Adaptive Droop Control for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Nasirian, Vahidreza; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed control strategy for voltage and reactive power regulation in ac Microgrids. First, the control module introduces a voltage regulator that maintains the average voltage of the system on the rated value, keeping all bus voltages within an acceptable range. Dynamic...

  12. Soliton ratchetlike dynamics by ac forces with harmonic mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of unidirectional motion of a kink (topological soliton) of a dissipative sine-Gordon equation in the presence of ac forces with harmonic mixing (at least biharmonic) and of zero mean, is presented. The dependence of the kink mean velocity on system parameters is investigated...

  13. Stretched exponential relaxation and ac universality in disordered dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the connection between the properties of dielectric relaxation and alternating-current (ac) conduction in disordered dielectrics. The discussion is divided between the classical linear-response theory and a self-consistent dynamical modeling. The key issues are stretc......This paper is concerned with the connection between the properties of dielectric relaxation and alternating-current (ac) conduction in disordered dielectrics. The discussion is divided between the classical linear-response theory and a self-consistent dynamical modeling. The key issues...... are stretched exponential character of dielectric relaxation, power-law power spectral density, and anomalous dependence of ac conduction coefficient on frequency. We propose a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation in which the relaxations are described by a stretched exponential decay function....... Mathematically, our study refers to the expanding area of fractional calculus and we propose a systematic derivation of the fractional relaxation and fractional diffusion equations from the property of ac universality....

  14. Current Control of Grid Converters Connected with Series AC Capacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    The series ac capacitor has recently been used with the transformerless grid-connected converters in the distribution power grids. The capacitive characteristic of the resulting series LC filter restricts the use of conventional synchronous integral or stationary resonant current controllers. Thus...

  15. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad;

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting...

  16. Measurement of AC losses in different former materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Træholt, Chresten; Kühle, Anders Van Der Aa;

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting cable may be based on a centrally located cylindrical support, a so-called former. If electrically conductive, the former can contribute to the AC losses through eddy current losses caused by unbalanced axial and tangential magnetic fields. With these measurements...

  17. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  18. Direct Experimental Observation of a Practical AC Zeeman Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Rotunno, Andrew; Du, Shuangli; Aubin, Seth

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the spin-dependent AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-field gradients on an atom chip. We measure the AC Zeeman force on ultracold 87 Rb atoms by observing its effect on the motion of atoms in free-fall and on those confined in a trap. We have studied the force as a function of microwave frequency detuning from a hyperfine transition at 6.8 GHz at several magnetic field strengths and have observed its characteristic bipolar and resonant features predicted by two-level dressed atom theory. We find that the force is several times the strength of gravity in our setup, and that it can be targeted to a specific hyperfine transition while leaving other hyperfine states and transitions relatively unaffected. We find that our measurements are reasonably consistent with theory and are working towards a parameter-free comparison. AC Zeeman potentials offer the possibility of targeting qualitatively different trapping potentials to different spin states, a capability currently absent from the toolbox of atomic quantum control techniques. In particular, an AC Zeeman potential could be used as the beamsplitter for a spin-dependent atom interferometer or for engineering a quantum gate. Work supported by AFOSR and W&M, and in part by AFRL.

  19. Introducing AC Inductive Reactance with a Power Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Wesley; Baker, Blane

    2016-01-01

    The concept of reactance in AC electrical circuits is often non-intuitive and difficult for students to grasp. In order to address this lack of conceptual understanding, classroom exercises compare the predicted resistance of a power tool, based on electrical specifications, to measured resistance. Once students discover that measured resistance…

  20. Rethinking Rectification: AC-DC Power Supply in Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jens; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    Rectification of AC mains voltage is almost exclusively implemented with passive diode bridge rectifiers for power applications below 100 W. The diode bridge rectifier is reliable, cost effective and easy to use. But it is also lossy, nonlinear and passive. Thus reducing the power conversion...

  1. Dielectric relaxation and ac conductivity of sodium tungsten phosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Singh; P S Tarsikka; L Singh

    2002-10-01

    Studies of dielectric relaxation and ac conductivity have been made on three samples of sodium tungsten phosphate glasses over a temperature range of 77–420 K. Complex relative permittivity data have been analyzed using dielectric modulus approach. Conductivity relaxation frequency increases with the increase of temperature. Activation energy for conductivity relaxation has also been evaluated. Measured ac conductivity (m()) has been found to be higher than dc at low temperatures whereas at high temperature m() becomes equal to dc at all frequencies. The ac conductivity obeys the relation ac() = A over a considerable range of low temperatures. Values of exponent are nearly equal to unity at about 78 K and the values decrease non-linearly with the increase of temperature. Values of the number density of states at Fermi level ((F)) have been evaluated at 80 K assuming values of electron wave function decay constant to be 0.5 (Å)-1. Values of (F) have the order 1020 which are well within the range suggested for localized states. Present values of (F) are smaller than those for tungsten phosphate glasses.

  2. AcTA: Accessdatabase Telen met toekomst - Alterra

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, A.; Zwart, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    Binnen het project Telen met toekomst wordt een groot aantal metingen verricht, die op een overzichtelijke manier moeten worden opgeslagen. Er is gekozen voor en relationele database in MS-Access. De database zal AcTA worden genoemd (Access-database voor Telen met toekomst Alterra). Dit rapport bevat de beschrijving van de structuur van de database.

  3. Evolution of ac conductivity in nonequilibrium warm dense gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a chirped pulse probe technique, we have obtained single-shot measurements of temporal evolution of ac conductivity at 1.55 eV (800 nm) during electron energy relaxation in nonequilibrium warm dense gold with energy densities up to 4.1 MJ/kg (8*1010 J/m3). The results uncover important changes that have been masked in an earlier experiment. Equally significant, they provide valuable tests of an ab initio model for the calculation of electron heat capacity, electron-ion coupling, and ac conductivity in a single, first principles framework. While measurements of the real part of ac conductivity corroborate our theoretical temperature-dependent electron heat capacity, they point to an electron-ion coupling factor of 2.2*1016 W/m3K, significantly below that predicted by theory. In addition, measurements of the imaginary part of ac conductivity reveal the need to improve theoretical treatment of intraband contributions at very low photon energy. (authors)

  4. Combined AC electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis for controlled rotation of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walid Rezanoor, Md; Dutta, Prashanta

    2016-03-01

    Electrorotation is widely used for characterization of biological cells and materials using a rotating electric field. Generally, multiphase AC electric fields and quadrupolar electrode configuration are needed to create a rotating electric field for electrorotation. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method to rotate dielectrophoretically trapped microparticles using a stationary AC electric field. Coplanar interdigitated electrodes are used to create a linearly polarized nonuniform AC electric field. This nonuniform electric field is employed for dielectrophoretic trapping of microparticles as well as for generating electroosmotic flow in the vicinity of the electrodes resulting in rotation of microparticles in a microfluidic device. The rotation of barium titanate microparticles is observed in 2-propanol and methanol solvent at a frequency below 1 kHz. A particle rotation rate as high as 240 revolutions per minute is observed. It is demonstrated that precise manipulation (both rotation rate and equilibrium position) of the particles is possible by controlling the frequency of the applied electric field. At low frequency range, the equilibrium positions of the microparticles are observed between the electrode edge and electrode center. This method of particle manipulation is different from electrorotation as it uses induced AC electroosmosis instead of electric torque as in the case of electrorotation. Moreover, it has been shown that a microparticle can be rotated along its own axis without any translational motion. PMID:27014394

  5. Heat Transfer Analysis for Industrial AC Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdali; Murat Tun(c)

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer analysis was performed for an AC electric arc furnace (EAF). Heat losses by conduction, convection and radiation from outer surface, roof, bottom and electrodes of EAF were determined in detail. Some suggestions about decreasing heat losses were presented.

  6. Acústica, fluidos y termodinámica

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    Acústica. Estática de fluidos. Dinámica de fluidos y fluidos reales. Temperatura y propagación del calor. Primer principio de la Termodinámica. Gases ideales. Segundo principio de la Termodinámica.

  7. Exchange anisotropy determined by magnetic field dependence of ac susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Vilela Leão, L. H.; de Aguiar, F. M.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2003-10-01

    ac susceptibility measurements of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AF) bilayers are usually performed as a function of the temperature. In this work we describe measurements of transverse biased ac susceptibility (χt) of FM/AF bilayers as a function of the applied magnetic field H0. The measurements were carried out at room temperature by means of an ac magneto-optical Kerr effect susceptometer. The χt-1(H0) dependence, at the saturation magnetization regime, exhibits a linear behavior with the applied field parallel and perpendicular to the exchange bias direction. The linear extrapolation of χt-1 versus H0 cuts the abscissa at asymmetrical values of field due to the exchange bias coupling. The inverse susceptibility is calculated in the saturation regime by a model, which takes into account the free energy of both layers plus a term corresponding to the interfacial coupling. The exchange coupling field (HE) and uniaxial anisotropy (HU) are extracted from the best fit to the experimental results. The results obtained are crosschecked by those obtained from ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and dc magnetometry. The measurements of the exchange bias and the uniaxial field in all of the three analyzed bilayers gave values that are consistently lower when measured by FMR than those obtained by ac and dc magnetometry. It is argued that the apparently discrepant values of HE and HU, obtained by different techniques, might be explained by existence of unstable AF grains at the AF/FM interface.

  8. A simple technique for a.c. conductivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Padma Suvarna; K Raghavendra Rao; K Subbarangaiah

    2002-12-01

    An inexpensive, indigenous and a simple electronic instrument based on voltage follower, current–to–voltage converter, zero crossing detector and a phase detector has been developed for measurement of a.c. conductivity. Real and imaginary parts of complex impedance are determined for a given sample as a function of frequency and the given sample is represented by a pure electronic model.

  9. An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Caproni, A.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Harrington, S.; Zagar, K.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. On top of this it provides an application architecture based on the Component/Container paradigm that fosters sharing and reusing of software components. Although developed for the ALMA project, ACS is now used by several other projects worldwide, among which the Italian Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). Besides, there is an active community that shares ideas, concepts and actual software components. Major drivers for this diffusion were the choice of adopting the LGPL public license and the adoption of CORBA, a free but reliable and widely used middleware software. In this paper we present an overview of the main features of ACS, emphasizing in particular the role of INAF-OAT in this project.

  10. Container-component model and XML in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zagar, Klemen; Voelter, Markus

    2004-09-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. To meet the challenges of developing distributed software in distributed teams, ACS offers a container/component model that integrates the use of XML transfer objects. ACS containers are built on top of CORBA and are available for C++, Java, and Python, so that ALMA software can be written as components in any of these languages. The containers perform technical aspects of the software system, while components can focus on the implementation of functional requirements. Like Web services, components can use XML to exchange structured data by value. For Java components, the container seamlessly integrates the use of XML binding classes, which are Java classes that encapsulate access to XML data through type-safe methods. Binding classes are generated from XML schemas, allowing the Java compiler to enforce compliance of application code with the XML schemas. This presentation will explain the capabilities of the ACS container/component model, and how it relates to other middleware technologies that are popular in industry.

  11. On Conformal Field Theories With Extremal a/c Values

    CERN Document Server

    Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Unitary conformal field theories (CFTs) are believed to have positive (non-negative) energy correlators. Energy correlators are universal observables in higher-dimensional CFTs built out of integrated Wightman functions of the stress-energy tensor. We analyze energy correlators in parity invariant four-dimensional CFTs. The goal is to use the positivity of energy correlators to further constrain unitary CFTs. It is known that the positivity of the simplest one-point energy correlator implies that 1/3 <= a/c <= 31/18 where a and c are the Weyl anomaly coefficients. We use the positivity of higher point energy correlators to show that CFTs with extremal values of a/c have trivial scattering observables. More precisely, for a/c=1/3 and a/c=31/18 all energy correlators are fixed to be the ones of the free boson and the free vector theory correspondingly. Similarly, we show that the positivity and finiteness of energy correlators together imply that the three-point function of the stress tensor in a CFT cann...

  12. Conductivity measurements with trapezoidal a.c. magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertse, E.A.; Klundert, van de L.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The inductive response of normal metals to trapezoidal a.c. fields is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. A method is presented to determine the conductivity and its magnetic induction dependence from the decay of the induced voltage during periods of constant field. The correctness of

  13. 78 FR 42567 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application June 25, 2013. Correction In notice document 2013-15658 beginning on page 39345 in the issue of Monday, July 1, 2013, make the following correction: On page...

  14. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  15. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  16. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  17. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  18. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  19. Altıntop Suyundaki Acılığın Naringinaz Enzimi ile Giderilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Çeviker, Zuhal; Ünal, M. Ümit

    2005-01-01

    Bu çalışmada MarshSeedless ve Rio Red çeşiti altıntoplardan elde edilen meyve sularındaki acılığın giderilmesi araştırılmıştır. Acılık giderme işlemi farklı naringinaz konsantrasyonlarında (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 ve 1.00 g/L) ve farklı sıcaklıklarda (25, 35 ve 40oC) gerçekleştirilmiştir. Naringin giderimi, naringinaz miktarı ve sıcaklıktaki artışa paralel olarak artmıştır. Her iki çeşitte de en yüksek naringin giderimi 1 g/L naringinaz konsantrasyonunda 40oC’de ve 6 saatlik inkübasyon sonunda eld...

  20. Multi-wavelength observations of a rich galaxy cluster at z ~ 1: the HST/ACS colour-magnitude diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Joana S; Gobat, Raphael; Lidman, Chris; Dawson, Kyle; Perlmutter, Saul; Boehringer, Hans; Balestra, Italo; Mullis, Chris R; Fassbender, Rene; Kohnert, Jan; Lamer, Georg; Rettura, Alessandro; Rite, Charles; Schwope, Axel

    2009-01-01

    XMMU J1229+0151 is a rich galaxy cluster with redshift z=0.975, that was serendipitously detected in X-rays within the scope of the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project. HST/ACS observations in the i775 and z850 passbands, as well as VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy were further obtained, in addition to follow-up Near-Infrared (NIR) imaging in J- and Ks-bands with NTT/SOFI. We investigate the photometric, structural and spectral properties of the early-type galaxies in the high-redshift cluster XMMU J1229+0151. Source detection and aperture photometry are performed in the optical and NIR imaging. Galaxy morphology is inspected visually and by means of Sersic profile fitting to the 21 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members in the ACS field of view. The i775-z850 colour-magnitude relation (CMR) is derived with a method based on galaxy magnitudes obtained by fitting the surface brightness of the galaxies with Sersic models. The i775-z850 CMR of the spectroscopic members shows a very tight red-sequence with a zero point...

  1. The Application of Electrochemical Impedance Techniques in Analyzing the AC Response of Some Two-electron Transfer Dye Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Rashwan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic techniques (EIS were used to investigate the behavior of some dye compounds (quinoid systems characterized with 2e-transfer processes. For this purpose, Alizarin Red S (ARS, Alizarin Cyanine (AC, Alizarin Viridin (AV and carminic acid were chosen for the measurements. The EIS experiments were performed using a small AC amplitude (10 mV p-p in addition to a relatively wide frequency range (0.01 Hz ≤ f ≤ 105 Hz. The investigations were carried out at room temperature in aqueous media (HClO4, NaClO4 and KNO3 on the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE and for comparison one experiment only was measured in aprotic solvent (DMF on the Pt-disc electrode. The EIS diagrams of these systems were characterized in the complex plane by two fundamental observations, the first of which is a straight line crossing the real axis at an angle of 45° (or at least nearly so and the second one is two semicircles beside each other corresponding to high-frequency and low-frequency regions, which are implying the presence of well-separated time constants. The EIS characteristic parameters for these dye systems were calculated and discussed.

  2. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Krishnamachari, Annangarachari

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS) requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS) for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC) denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS), that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme. PMID:27508123

  3. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS, that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme.

  4. Activation of extended red emission photoluminescence in carbon solids by exposure to atomic hydrogen and UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Douglas G.; Witt, Adolf N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on new laboratory results which relate directly to the observation of strongly enhanced extended red emission (ERE) by interstellar dust in H2 photodissociation zones. The ERE has been attributed to photoluminescence by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC). We are demonstrating that exposure to thermally dissociated atomic hydrogen will restore the photoluminescence efficiency of previously annealed HAC. Also, pure amorphous carbon (AC), not previously photoluminescent, can be induced to photoluminesce by exposure to atomic hydrogen. This conversion of AC into HAC is greatly enhanced by the presence of UV irradiation. The presence of dense, warm atomic hydrogen and a strong UV radiation field are characteristic environmental properties of H2 dissociation zones. Our results lend strong support to the HAC photoluminescence explanation for ERE.

  5. Biocontrol activity of Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 against Pseudomonas syringae and its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi Eun; Kwon, Suk Yoon; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-04-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (AC-1) is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has been used as a soil inoculant for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi and to promote plant growth. In this study, we examine the effects of AC-1 on the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae and internal colonization of AC-1 by counting bacterial populations that colonize plants. AC-1 inhibited the growth of both P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and P. syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) in a concentration-dependent manner in in vitro assays. Upon treatment of AC-1 dropping at root tip of axenically grown Arabidopsis, we found that most of the AC-1 was detected in interior of leaves of Arabidiopsis plants rather than roots after 5 days post infection, indicating systemic spreading of AC-1 occur. We examined further AC-1 colonization patterns in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in phytohormone signaling pathways. These results indicated that abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways positively and negatively contributed, respectively, to AC-1 colonization of leaves, whereas epiphytic accumulation of AC-1 around root tissues was not affected. This study shows that AC-1 is an effective biocontrol agent to suppress P. syringae growth, possibly owing to its colonization patterns as a leaf-inhabiting endophyte. The results showed in this work will help to expand our understanding of the mode of action of AC-1 as a biological control agent and consequently, its application in agriculture.

  6. Expression and immunocytochemical analysis of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf74 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI-HENG AN; ZHONG-JIANG GUO; XIN-MING YIN

    2006-01-01

    Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus orf74 (Ac74) is located between 62 311 and 63 108bp in the AcMNPV genome, which encodes 265 amino acid residues with a predicted 31 kDa molecular weight. The homologues of Ac74 were searched using BLASTP in protein databases, GenBank/EMBL and SWISS-PROT. The result revealed that deduced Ac74 protein was homologous to the predicted products from 10 lepidoptera NPV ORFs. The multiple sequence alignments of Ac74 and its 10 homologues manifested only one amino acid residue was completely conserved. The transcript analysis revealed that the transcript of Ac74 was detected from 24-72 hours post-infection (hpi). The product of Ac74was detected at 24 hpi and lasted until 72 bpi by Western blot using anti-Ac74 antiserum,consistent with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results. These results suggested Ac74 was expressed during the later stages of infection. The product of Ac74 was 31 kDa in size, consistent with predicted molecular weight. The subcellular localization of Ac74 proteins manifested Ac74 protein in the cytoplasm, and was hardly present in the nucleus at 24 bpi. The fluorescence was also observed in polyhedra, except cytoplasm at 72hpi. Together, Ac74 is a functional protein with 31kDa molecular weight and is located in the cytoplasm and the polyhedra.

  7. Biocontrol activity of Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 against Pseudomonas syringae and its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi Eun; Kwon, Suk Yoon; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-04-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (AC-1) is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has been used as a soil inoculant for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi and to promote plant growth. In this study, we examine the effects of AC-1 on the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae and internal colonization of AC-1 by counting bacterial populations that colonize plants. AC-1 inhibited the growth of both P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and P. syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) in a concentration-dependent manner in in vitro assays. Upon treatment of AC-1 dropping at root tip of axenically grown Arabidopsis, we found that most of the AC-1 was detected in interior of leaves of Arabidiopsis plants rather than roots after 5 days post infection, indicating systemic spreading of AC-1 occur. We examined further AC-1 colonization patterns in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in phytohormone signaling pathways. These results indicated that abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways positively and negatively contributed, respectively, to AC-1 colonization of leaves, whereas epiphytic accumulation of AC-1 around root tissues was not affected. This study shows that AC-1 is an effective biocontrol agent to suppress P. syringae growth, possibly owing to its colonization patterns as a leaf-inhabiting endophyte. The results showed in this work will help to expand our understanding of the mode of action of AC-1 as a biological control agent and consequently, its application in agriculture. PMID:26946374

  8. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury V. Radial Star Formation History of NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Gogarten, Stephanie M; Williams, Benjamin F; Roskar, Rok; Holtzman, Jon; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Debattista, Victor P; Gilbert, Karoline M; Olsen, Knut; Skillman, Evan; de Jong, Roelof S; Karachentsev, Igor D; Quinn, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of NGC 300 taken as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). Individual stars are resolved in these images down to an absolute magnitude of M_F814W = 1.0 (below the red clump). We determine the star formation history of the galaxy in 6 radial bins by comparing our observed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with synthetic CMDs based on theoretical isochrones. We find that the stellar disk out to 5.4 kpc is primarily old, in contrast with the outwardly similar galaxy M33. We determine the scale length as a function of age and find evidence for inside-out growth of the stellar disk: the scale length has increased from 1.1 +/- 0.1 kpc 10 Gyr ago to 1.3 +/- 0.1 kpc at present, indicating a buildup in the fraction of young stars at larger radii. As the scale length of M33 has recently been shown to have increased much more dramatically with time, our results demonstrate that two galaxies with similar sizes and morphologies can have very different ...

  9. The structure and dynamics of the AC114 galaxy cluster revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Proust, Dominique; Saviane, Ivo; Ivanov, Valentin D; Bresolin, Fabio; Salzer, John J; Capelato, Hugo V

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamical analysis of the galaxy cluster AC114 based on a catalogue of 524 velocities. Of these, 169 (32%) are newly obtained at ESO (Chile) with the VLT and the VIMOS spectrograph. Data on individual galaxies are presented and the accuracy of the measured velocities is discussed. Dynamical properties of the cluster are derived. We obtain an improved mean redshift value z= 0.31665 +/- 0.0008 and velocity dispersion \\sigma= 1893+73-82 \\kms. A large velocity dispersion within the core radius and the shape of the infall pattern suggests that this part of the cluster is in a radial phase of relaxation with a very elongated radial filament spanning 12000 \\kms. A radial foreground structure is detected within the central 0.5/h Mpc radius, recognizable as a redshift group at the same central redshift value. We analyze the color distribution for this archetype Butcher-Oemler galaxy cluster and identify the separate red and blue galaxy sequences. The latter subset contains 44% of confirmed members of the ...

  10. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed completely inorganic solutions for the deposition of monolayers of aragonite spherules (or ooids). • Solutions mimicked the artificial seawater. • Biomimetic crystallization was performed at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. - Abstract: Aragonite (CaCO3, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry

  11. Aragonite coating solutions (ACS) based on artificial seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tas, A. Cuneyt, E-mail: c_tas@hotmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed completely inorganic solutions for the deposition of monolayers of aragonite spherules (or ooids). • Solutions mimicked the artificial seawater. • Biomimetic crystallization was performed at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. - Abstract: Aragonite (CaCO{sub 3}, calcium carbonate) is an abundant biomaterial of marine life. It is the dominant inorganic phase of coral reefs, mollusc bivalve shells and the stalactites or stalagmites of geological sediments. Inorganic and initially precipitate-free aragonite coating solutions (ACS) of pH 7.4 were developed in this study to deposit monolayers of aragonite spherules or ooids on biomaterial (e.g., UHMWPE, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) surfaces soaked in ACS at 30 °C. The ACS solutions of this study have been developed for the surface engineering of synthetic biomaterials. The abiotic ACS solutions, enriched with calcium and bicarbonate ions at different concentrations, essentially mimicked the artificial seawater composition and started to deposit aragonite after a long (4 h) incubation period at the tropical sea surface temperature of 30 °C. While numerous techniques for the solution deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), of low thermodynamic solubility, on synthetic biomaterials have been demonstrated, procedures related to the solution-based surface deposition of high solubility aragonite remained uncommon. Monolayers of aragonite ooids deposited at 30 °C on UHMWPE substrates soaked in organic-free ACS solutions were found to possess nano-structures similar to the mortar-and-brick-type botryoids observed in biogenic marine shells. Samples were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and contact angle goniometry.

  12. Toxicity induced by Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Liu, Hong-Cui; Ou, Wen-Bin; Eilers, Grant; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Meng, Fan-Guo; Li, Chun-Qi; Li, Yong-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 are classified as carcinogenic dyes in the European textile ecology standard, despite insufficient toxicity data. In this study, the toxicity of these dyes was assessed in a zebrafish model, and the underlying toxic mechanisms were investigated. Basic Violet 14 and Direct Red 28 showed acute toxicity with a LC50 value at 60.63 and 476.84 µg ml(-1) , respectively, whereas the LC50 of Acid Red 26 was between 2500 and 2800 µg ml(-1) . Treatment with Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 resulted in common developmental abnormalities including delayed yolk sac absorption and swimming bladder deflation. Hepatotoxicity was observed in zebrafish treated with Basic Violet 14, and cardiovascular toxicity was found in zebrafish treated with Acid Red 26 at concentrations higher than 2500 µg ml(-1) . Basic Violet 14 also caused significant up-regulation of GCLC gene expression in a dose-dependent manner whereas Acid Red 26 induced significant up-regulation of NKX2.5 and down-regulation of GATA4 at a high concentration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 induce developmental and organ-specific toxicity, and oxidative stress may play a role in the hepatotoxicity of Basic Violet 14, the suppressed GATA4 expression may have a relation to the cardiovascular toxicity of Acid Red 26.

  13. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  14. 多元组合ACS-TSP系统%A Multi-Metaheuristic Combined ACS-TSP System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳

    2015-01-01

    文章提出了用多算法结合蚁族系统(ACS)求解旅行商问题(TSP)的方法,介绍了在ACS-TSP问题上的遗传算法,目的是为了寻找处理旅行商早期停滞现象的解空间.此外,还提出了一种新的最小生成树(MST)算法,结合最近邻(NN)来创建一个初始架构,以便又快又好地解决旅行商问题.%This paper presents a Multi-Metaheuristic combined Ant Colony System (ACS)-Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) al-gorithm for solving the TSP. We introduce genetic algorithm in ACS-TSP to search solutions space for dealing with the early stagnation problem of the traveling salesman problem. Moreover, we present a new strategy of Minimum Spanning Tree(MST) coupled with Nearest Neighbor(NN) to construct a initial tour for improving TSP thus obtaining good solutions quickly. According to our simulation results, the new algorithm can provide a significant improvement for obtaining a global optimum solution or a near global optimum solution in large TSPs.

  15. Expression characteristics of CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3, three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under carbon dioxide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathooko, F M; Mwaniki, M W; Nakatsuka, A; Shiomi, S; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A; Nakamura, R

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the expression pattern of three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes, CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under CO2 stress. CO2 stress-induced ethylene production paralleled the accumulation of only CS-ACS1 transcripts which disappeared upon withdrawal of CO2. Cycloheximide inhibited the CO2 stress-induced ethylene production but superinduced the accumulation of CS-ACS1 transcript. At higher concentrations, cycloheximide also induced the accumulation of CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 transcripts. In the presence of CO2 and cycloheximide, the accumulation of CS-ACS2 transcript occurred within 1 h, disappeared after 3 h and increased greatly upon withdrawal of CO2. Inhibitors of protein kinase and types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases which inhibited and stimulated, respectively, CO2 stress-induced ethylene production had little effect on the expression of these genes. The results presented here identify CS-ACS1 as the main ACC synthase gene responsible for the increased ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber fruit under CO2 stress and suggest that this gene is a primary response gene and its expression is under negative control since it is expressed by treatment with cycloheximide. The results further suggest that the regulation of CO2 stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis by reversible protein phosphorylation does not result from enhanced ACC synthase transcription. PMID:10202812

  16. Recent applications of AC electrokinetics in biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a generic term that refers to an induced motion of particles and fluids under nonuniform AC electric fields. The AC electric fields are formed by application of AC voltages to microelectrodes, which can be easily integrated into microfluidic devices by standard microfabrication techniques. Moreover, the magnitude of the motion is large enough to control the mass transfer on the devices. These advantages are attractive for biomolecular analysis on the microfluidic devices, in which the characteristics of small space and microfluidics have been mainly employed. In this review, I describe recent applications of AC electrokinetics in biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices. The applications include fluid pumping and mixing by AC electrokinetic flow, and manipulation of biomolecules such as DNA and proteins by various AC electrokinetic techniques. Future prospects for highly functional biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices with the aid of AC electrokinetics are also discussed.

  17. A Study on Power Quality Improvement in PWM Controlled AC Voltage Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALTINTAŞ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of topologies of pulse-width modulated (PWM-AC controllers for single-phase and three-phase systems are proposed up to date. PWM-AC controllers have important advantages compared with the phase-controlled AC controllers using thyristors and triacs. The PWM-AC controller has sinusoidal current waveforms, smaller THD values, better power factor, faster dynamics, and smaller input/output filter. This article presents a novel control technique for application to PWM-AC controllers with ability of generating fewer harmonics. In the proposed control method, both the traditional AC voltage controllers and the PWM-AC controllers are combined; and smaller THD values are obtained. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced; and consequently, the power quality will be increased. For this purpose, computer simulations are performed in order to investigate the proposed controller performance. The obtained results are compared with the conventional PWM-AC controller.

  18. Advanced reliability improvement of AC-modules (ARIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AC-module is a relatively new development in PV-system technology and offers significant advantages over conventional PV-systems with a central inverter : e.g. increased modularity, ease of installation and freedom of system design. The Netherlands and Switzerland have a leading position in the field of AC-modules, both in terms of technology and of commercial and large-scale application. An obstacle towards large-scale market introduction of AC-modules is that the reliability and operational lifetime of AC-modules and the integrated inverters in particular are not yet proven. Despite the advantages, no module-integrated inverter has yet achieved large scale introduction. The AC-modules will lower the barrier towards market penetration. But due to the great interest in the new AC-module technology there is the risk of introducing a not fully proven product. This may damage the image of PV-systems. To speed up the development and to improve the reliability, research institutes and PV-industry will address the aspects of reliability and operational lifetime of AC-modules. From field experiences we learn that in general the inverter is still the weakest point in PV-systems. The lifetime of inverters is an important factor on reliability. Some authors are indicating a lifetime of 1.5 years, whereas the field experiences in Germany and Switzerland have shown that for central inverter systems, an availability of 97% has been achieved in the last years. From this point of view it is highly desirable that the operational lifetime and reliability of PV-inverters and especially AC-modules is demonstrated/improved to make large scale use of PV a success. Module Integrated Inverters will most likely be used in modules in the power range between 100 and 300 Watt DC-power. These are modules with more than 100 cells in series, assuming that the module inverter will benefit from the higher voltage. Hot-spot is the phenomenon that can occur when one or more cells of a string

  19. A red-letter day !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  20. Red quasars not so dusty

    CERN Document Server

    Benn, C R; Carballo, R; González-Serrano, J I; Sánchez, S F

    1997-01-01

    Webster et al (1995) claimed that up to 80% of QSOs may be obscured by dust. They inferred the presence of this dust from the remarkably broad range of B-K optical-infrared colours of a sample of flat-spectrum PKS radio QSOs. If such dust is typical of QSOs, it will have rendered invisible most of those which would otherwise been have detected by optical surveys. We used the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma to obtain K infrared images of 54 B3 radio quasars selected at low frequency (mainly steep-spectrum), and we find that although several have very red optical-infrared colours, most of these can be attributed to an excess of light in K rather than a dust-induced deficit in B. We present evidence that some of the infrared excess comes from the light of stars in the host galaxy (some, as previously suggested, comes from synchrotron radiation associated with flat-spectrum radio sources). The B-K colours of the B3 QSOs provide no evidence for a large reddened population. Either the Webster et al QSOs are ...

  1. Transposition of Ac from the P Locus of Maize into Unreplicated Chromosomal Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jychian; Greenblatt, Irwin M.; Dellaporta, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    We have analyzed donor and target sites of the mobile element Activator (Ac) that are altered as a result of somatic transposition from the P locus in maize. Previous genetic analysis has indicated that the two mitotic daughter lineages which result from Ac transposition from P differ in their Ac constitution at the P locus. Both lineages, however, usually contain transposed Ac elements which map to the same genetic position. Using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and genomic blot a...

  2. A transgenic system for generation of transposon Ac/Ds-induced chromosome rearrangements in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chuanhe; Han, FangPu; Zhang, Jianbo; Birchler, James; Peterson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The maize Activator (Ac)/Dissociation (Ds) transposable element system has been used in a variety of plants for insertional mutagenesis. Ac/Ds elements can also generate genome rearrangements via alternative transposition reactions which involve the termini of closely linked transposons. Here, we introduced a transgene containing reverse-oriented Ac/Ds termini together with an Ac transposase gene into rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare). Among the transgenic progeny, we identifie...

  3. Decadal stability of Red Sea mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-02-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  4. The Evolving Luminosity Function of Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, M J I; Jannuzi, B T; Brand, K; Benson, A J; Brodwin, M; Croton, D J; Eisenhardt, P R M; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brand, Kate; Benson, Andrew J.; Brodwin, Mark; Croton, Darren J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    We trace the assembly history of red galaxies since z=1, by measuring their evolving space density with the B-band luminosity function. Our sample of 39599 red galaxies, selected from 6.96 square degrees of imaging from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field and Spitzer IRAC Shallow surveys, is an order of magnitude larger, in size and volume, than comparable samples in the literature. We measure a higher space density of z=0.9 red galaxies than some of the recent literature, in part because we account for the faint yet significant galaxy flux which falls outside of our photometric aperture. The B-band luminosity density of red galaxies, which effectively measures the evolution of ~L* galaxies, increases by only 36 percent from z=0 to z=1. If red galaxy stellar populations have faded by 1.24 B-band magnitudes since z=1, the stellar mass contained within the red galaxy population has roughly doubled over the past 8 Gyr. This is consistent with star-forming galaxies being transformed into ~L* red galaxies after a decline in ...

  5. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  6. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  7. Role of space charges on light-induced effects in nematic liquid crystals doped by methyl red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-03-01

    We show that both the extraordinarily large nonlinear response and the light-induced permanent reorientation in liquid crystals doped by the azo dye methyl red originates from the same phenomenon of modification of the charge density on the irradiated surface. The demonstration is done by applying ac voltage to the samples, showing that in this case no permanent anchoring is possible. The measurements confirm the role of photoisomerization that gives a transient contribution to the actual reorientation process only in the high dose regime. This result allows us to draw a picture for light-induced effects that might be applied to a large class of compounds.

  8. Scaling of ac susceptibility and the nonlinear response function of high-temperature superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Kaixuan; NING; Zhenhua; XU; Hengyi; QI; Zhi; LU; Guo

    2005-01-01

    The amplitude-dependent ac susceptibility of high-temperature superconductors is shown to obey some empirical scaling relations. We try to analyze this behavior by extending a dc nonlinear response function of mixed state to the ac cases. The derived equations for critical current and ac susceptibility x(T) agree with the scaling relations of experimental data.

  9. 21 CFR 880.5510 - Non-AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-AC-powered patient lift. 880.5510 Section 880.5510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5510 Non-AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. A non-AC-powered patient lift is...

  10. AC losses and transient field stability of PF-FSJS sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of 17 slides deals with AC losses and transient field stability of poloidal field full-size-joint sample) which is relevant to the poloidal field coils of ITER. The topic is divided into 6 parts: 1) general - AC losses, 2) conductor magnetization, 3) conductor calorimetry, 4) conclusion on AC losses, 5) stability, and 6) conclusion on stability

  11. AC losses and transient field stability of PF-FSJS sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zani, L

    2003-07-01

    This series of 17 slides deals with AC losses and transient field stability of poloidal field full-size-joint sample) which is relevant to the poloidal field coils of ITER. The topic is divided into 6 parts: 1) general - AC losses, 2) conductor magnetization, 3) conductor calorimetry, 4) conclusion on AC losses, 5) stability, and 6) conclusion on stability.

  12. 21 CFR 880.5100 - AC-powered adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. 880.5100... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5100 AC-powered adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. An AC-powered adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a...

  13. Software Development for ALMA in Chile: The ACS-UTFSM Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brand, H. H.

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a common software framework for ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile. ACS is a collection of well-documented patterns for controlling systems and a set of components written to those patterns. In its core, ACS is a distributed, object-oriented system, written on top of CORBA. The ACS-UTFSM Group started as some students of informatics did summer jobs at the La Silla Observatory of ESO, where they became acquainted with ACS. Their interest led them to continue working on ACS on their own, and they eventually became official developers of the package. Now the group is being funded by project ALMA-CONICYT 31060008 ``Software Development for ALMA: Building Up Expertise to Meet ALMA Software Requirements within a Chilean University''. Several members of the original group are now working for ALMA, which fullfills one of the goals of the project. Some parts of ACS developed by the ACS-UTFSM Group include H3E (Hardware End-to-End Example), a Lego model of a telescope and its controlling software for training and demonstration purposes; and CDBChecker, a tool to verify the consistency of the configuration database for a ACS deployment. Currently we are working towards a general framework for telescope control using ACS, in order to simplify the deployment of new instruments; and repackaging ACS so it is easier to install and use. A master's thesis is exploring the real-time requirements of ACS.

  14. Examining the Effects of Introducing Online Access to ACS Journals at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    In collaboration with the Publications Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS), students and faculty at 24 primarily undergraduate institutions were provided online access to ACS primary research journals for a period of 18 months, and a group of eight schools were granted access to use the archives of ACS journals for a year. Resources…

  15. File list: His.PSC.50.H3ac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.H3ac.AllCell mm9 Histone H3ac Pluripotent stem cell SRX882861,SRX882864,...SRX882865,SRX882862,SRX882860,SRX882863 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.50.H3ac.AllCell.bed ...

  16. AC-13混合料矿料级配及特性试验研究%Research on AC-13 mixture mineral materials gradation and feature experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亦伟

    2016-01-01

    The paper adopts the Marshall method and Superpave method,undertakes the mixture design for AC-13Ⅰand AC-13,compares and analyzes the optimal asphalt volume and compaction features of the two,and points out the designed asphalt volumes has the same optimal asphalt and aggregate ratio,and the latter is superior to the former one in the aspect of compaction.%应用马歇尔法和Superpave法对AC-13Ⅰ和AC-13进行了混合料设计,对比分析了两者的最佳沥青用量及压实特性,指出两者的设计沥青用量在最佳油石比时基本相同,AC-13的压实特性优于AC-13Ⅰ.

  17. Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10–200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit.

  18. HST/ACS Photometry of Old Stars in NGC 1569: The Star Formation History of a Nearby Starburst

    CERN Document Server

    Grocholski, Aaron J; Aloisi, Alessandra; Annibali, Francesca; Greggio, Laura; Tosi, Monica

    2012-01-01

    (abridged) We used HST/ACS to obtain deep V- and I-band images of NGC 1569, one of the closest and strongest starburst galaxies in the Universe. These data allowed us to study the underlying old stellar population, aimed at understanding NGC 1569's evolution over a full Hubble time. We focus on the less-crowded outer region of the galaxy, for which the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) shows predominantly a red giant branch (RGB) that reaches down to the red clump/horizontal branch feature (RC/HB). A simple stellar population analysis gives clear evidence for a more complicated star formation history (SFH) in the outer region. We derive the full SFH using a newly developed code, SFHMATRIX, which fits the CMD Hess diagram by solving a non-negative least squares problem. Our analysis shows that the relative brightnesses of the RGB tip and RC/HB, along with the curvature and color of the RGB, provide enough information to ameliorate the age-metallicity-extinction degeneracy. The distance/reddening combination that b...

  19. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. ► The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. ► The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g−1 for SP and AC, respectively. ► Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. ► SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g−1 for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4–99.0% and 93.6–97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  20. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  1. Characterization of an Ac transposon system based on apt1-m1 (Ac) on the long arm of maize chromosome 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Pengfei; Tang, Yuanping; Fan, Jun; Xu, Dabin; Guo, Shengming; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2012-09-01

    Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable elements have been used in maize insertional mutagenesis as a complement to Mutator (Mu). In this study, to further improve the efficiency of the Ac/Ds mutagenesis system, we adopted apt1-m1 (Ac) on the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L) as a donor Ac to create an Ac insertion library. This system is based on the negative selection pressure against the donor Ac, and it was highly efficient for isolating new transposition events. We obtained 9,625 transposition events from 1083 F1 ears with an average transposition rate of 8.66 % (rates ranged from 1.11 to 29.73 %). We also adopted a modified PCR-based genome walking strategy to improve the efficiency of the new method for isolating transposon-flanking sequences. This method is more efficient than the Southern-based method that was used in previous studies. A validation step was developed to distinguish transposon tags derived from newly transposed Ac or Ds elements. Using this PCR-based method, we isolated 67 inheritable flanking sequences from the apt1-m1 (Ac) transposition library; of these, 51 were confirmed as tr-Ac-flanking sequences and 11 were tr-Ds-flanking sequences. Similar to other Ac donors from different loci, the apt1-m1 (Ac) system also exhibited a preference for short distance transposition. In this study, we have further improved the Ac mutagenesis system in maize for gene isolation and functional genomics studies.

  2. 单相AC/AC Buck变换器中双向开关四步换流策略的研究%Four-step switching strategy of the bidirectional switches in single-phase AC/AC Buck converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾松; 张波; 丘东元; 马化盛

    2007-01-01

    为解决双向开关在电力电子器件中的换流问题,可采用"四象限换流"的换流策略,即"四步换流".该方法根据电压的相对大小或电流的方向将两个双向开关之间的换流过程分为四步进行,有效地避免了换流过程中的故障,实现了真正意义上的安全换流.本文以单相AC/AC Buck变换器为例,研究其中双向开关的四步换流控制策略,设计出具体的实现电路,并用实验加以验证.

  3. On-Chip AC self-test controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, John D.; Herring, Jay R.; Lo, Tin-Chee

    2009-09-29

    A system for performing AC self-test on an integrated circuit that includes a system clock for normal operation is provided. The system includes the system clock, self-test circuitry, a first and second test register to capture and launch test data in response to a sequence of data pulses, and a logic circuit to be tested. The self-test circuitry includes an AC self-test controller and a clock splitter. The clock splitter generates the sequence of data pulses including a long data capture pulse followed by an at speed data launch pulse and an at speed data capture pulse followed by a long data launch pulse. The at speed data launch pulse and the at speed data capture pulse are generated for a common cycle of the system clock.

  4. Towards an AC-MOT of CaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Loic; Chae, Eunmi; Ravi, Aakash; Augenbraun, Benjamin; Hemmerling, Boerge; Drayna, Garrett; Hutzler, Nicholas; Collopy, Alejandra; Wu, Yewei; Ding, Shiqian; Ye, Jun; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Doyle, John

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-cold diatomic molecules have rich prospects as candidates to study controlled ultra-cold chemistry, strongly correlated systems and precision measurements. They are also considered as possible qubits in quantum computing and simulation schemes. We report on progress towards loading CaF into a molecular magneto-optical trap (MOT). An AC-MOT will be used to actively remix magnetic dark states via both polarization and magnetic field switching. In order to load a molecular MOT, we have successfully laser slowed a CaF beam to near the expected capture velocity. We describe our AC-MOT apparatus, which is designed to co-trap CaF and Li. We outline our planned study of CaF-Li collisions to explore the feasibility of sympathetically cooling molecules to ultra-cold temperatures.

  5. Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

  6. Effective nonlinear AC response to composite with spherical particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Gang; Liang Fang-Chu; Wei En-Bo

    2005-01-01

    An effective nonlinear alternative-current (AC) response to granular nonlinear-composite with spherical inclusions embedded in a host medium under the action of an external AC field is investigated by using a perturbation approach.The local potentials of composite at higher harmonics are derived both in a region of local inclusion particles and in a local host region under the action of a sinusoidal field E1 sinωt + E3sin3ωt. An effective nonlinear-response to composite and the relationship between the effective nonlinear-responses at the fundamental frequency and the third harmonics are also studied for the spherical inclusions in a dilute limit.

  7. ac power control in the Core Flow Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represents a status report on a development effort to design an ac power controller for the Core Flow Test Loop. The Core Flow Test Loop will be an engineering test facility which will simulate the thermal environment of a gas-cooled fast-breeder reactor. The problems and limitations of using sinusoidal ac power to simulate the power generated within a nuclear reactor are addressed. The transformer-thyristor configuration chosen for the Core Flow Test Loop power supply is presented. The initial considerations, design, and analysis of a closed-loop controller prototype are detailed. The design is then analyzed for improved performance possibilities and failure modes are investigated at length. A summary of the work completed to date and a proposed outline for continued development completes the report

  8. Fiber Materials AC Impedance Characteristics and Principium Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Li, Xiaofeng

    With an invariable amplitude and variable frequency inspiriting, impedance of fiber materials rapidly decrease at first and then increase speedy followed with increasing of signal frequency. For the impedance curve of frequency is section of bathtub, this phenomenon is defined as alternating current electric conductive bathtub effect of fiber material. With analysis tools,of circuit theory and medium polarization theory, the phenomenon can be deeply detected that in AC electric field there are four different kind of currents in fiber material: absorbing current, conductance current, charging current and superficial current. With more analyzing it's discovered this phenomenon can be explained by medium polarize theory. Make using of fiber AC electric conductivity bathtub effect, fast testing equipment on fiber moisture regain can be invent, and disadvantages of conventional impedance technique, such as greatness test error and electrode polarization easily. This paper affords directions to design novel speediness fiber moisture test equipments in theory.

  9. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, L; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S; Serna, C J; Morales, M P [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); MejIas, R; Barber, D F [Centro Nacional de BiotecnologIa, CNB-CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Lazaro, F J, E-mail: lucia@icmm.csic.es [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-06-29

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  10. [Effect of prostatilen AC suppositories on course of experimental prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savateeva-Liubimova, T N; Sivak, K V; Malinin, V V

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of evaluation of efficacy of new drug prostatilen AC (rectal suppositories), containing regulatory peptides of the bovine prostate and zinc arginate-glycinate complex, in the treatment of prostatitis. The experiment was conducted on 40 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180-200 g. Chronic prostatitis was modeled by injection of 10% Dimexidum in combination with water, mixed with turpentine, a volumetric ratio of 4:1. It is shown that prostatilen AC has pronounced organotropic antiinflammatory effect, which manifests in reducing the weight of the prostate, reducing the protein level in the urine, activity of acid phosphatase, and levels of ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein. In addition, this drug normalizes the act of urination and increases the diurnal diuresis, has antioxidant properties and increases the blood level of the male sex hormone testosterone.

  11. Low power DCVSL circuits employing AC power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In view of changing the type of energy conversion in CMOS circuits, this paper investigates low power CMOS circuit design, which adopts a gradually changing power clock. First, we discuss the algebraic expressions and the corresponding properties of clocked power signals. Then the design procedure is summed up for converting complementary CMOS logic gates employing DC power to the power-clocked CMOS gates employing AC power. On this basis, the design of differential cascode voltage switch logic (DCVSL) circuits employing AC power clocks is proposed. The PSPICE simulations using a sinusoidal power-clock demonstrate that the designed power-clocked DCVSL circuit has a correct logic function and low power characteristics. Finally, an interface circuit to convert clocked signals into the standard logic levels of a CMOS circuit is proposed, and its validity is verified by computer simulations.

  12. Total loss of AC power analysis for EPR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.darnowski@itc.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Skrzypek, Eleonora, E-mail: eleonora.skrzypek@ncbj.gov.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), A. Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Mazgaj, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.mazgaj@itc.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Świrski, Konrad [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Gandrille, Pascal [AREVA NP SAS, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Total loss of AC power (Station Blackout) was simulated for the EPR reactor model. • In-vessel phase of the accident is under consideration. • Comparison of MELCOR and MAAP results is presented. • MELCOR and MAAP results are comparable. - Abstract: In this paper the results of severe accident simulations for the EPR reactor in the case of loss of offsite power combined with total failure of all diesel generators (total loss of AC power) are presented. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 2.1 computer code for in-vessel phase of the accident. In this scenario, the unavailability of all offsite and onsite power sources and the lack of cooling leads directly to core degradation, material relocation to the lower plenum and rupture of the reactor pressure vessel. MELCOR results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with MAAP4 code results and show a good agreement.

  13. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Olesen, Laurits H; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We study the response of a model micro-electrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider the simplest possible model of a symmetric binary electrolyte confined between parallel-plate blocking electrodes, ignoring any transverse instability or fluid flow. We analyze the resulting one-dimensional problem by matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers and extend previous work into the strongly nonlinear regime, which is characterized by two novel features - significant salt depletion in the electrolyte near the electrodes and, at very large voltage, the breakdown of the quasi-equilibrium structure of the double layers. The former leads to the prediction of "ac capacitive desalination", since there is a time-averaged transfer of salt from the bulk to the double layers, via oscillating diffusion layers. The latter is associated with transient diffusion limitation, which drives the formation and co...

  14. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  15. Photovoltaic Inverter Controllers Seeking AC Optimal Power Flow Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers future distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems, and addresses the synthesis of feedback controllers that seek real- and reactive-power inverter setpoints corresponding to AC optimal power flow (OPF) solutions. The objective is to bridge the temporal gap between long-term system optimization and real-time inverter control, and enable seamless PV-owner participation without compromising system efficiency and stability. The design of the controllers is grounded on a dual ..epsilon..-subgradient method, while semidefinite programming relaxations are advocated to bypass the non-convexity of AC OPF formulations. Global convergence of inverter output powers is analytically established for diminishing stepsize rules for cases where: i) computational limits dictate asynchronous updates of the controller signals, and ii) inverter reference inputs may be updated at a faster rate than the power-output settling time.

  16. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Trager, Scott [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lancon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chiavassa, Andrea [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-04-10

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  17. SUBNET informática y eléctrica en una red escolar. Caso práctico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Reyes Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación se centra en la parte de la Subnet del Laboratorio de cómputo Escolar y toca aspecto del Área Local de la Organización Escolar en cuanto a la topología bus estrella que se emplea y se observa la problemática que se vive en forma cotidiana en la atenuación sobre todo del acceso a Internet y de los servicios de Red, así como la parte de la red eléctrica que en su momento a finales del siglo pasado respondió a la carga que se demandaba en ese entonces con un numero de nodos ac...

  18. Small-Signal Analysis of Single-Phase and Three-phase DC/AC and AC/DC PWM Converters with the Frequency-Shift Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Aquila, A. Dell’; Liserre, Marco;

    2004-01-01

    A systematic approach to study dc/ac and ac/dc converters without the use of synchronous transformation is proposed. The use of a frequency-shift technique allows a straightforward analysis of single-phase and three-phase systems. The study of dc/ac and of ac/dc converters is reported to the study...... of dc/dc converters via a 50 Hz frequency-shift. The input admittance is calculated and measured for two study examples (a three-phase active rectifier and a single-phase photovoltaic inverter). These examples show that the purpose of a well designed controller for grid-connected converters...

  19. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and toxicological response of Cyperus alternifolius exposed to PhACs in microcosm constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Feng, Guozhong; Gao, Xu; Sun, Chengxiao; Guo, Jin-song; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of selected four pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, and roxithromycin) on the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of Cyperus alternifolius in constructed wetlands (CWs). Moreover, the removal and kinetics of PhACs in CWs were evaluated to explore the related removal mechanisms. Results showed that C. alternifolius can uptake and withstand certain PhACs. The PhAC tolerance of C. alternifolius might be attributed to their capacity to maintain relatively normal photosynthetic activity and elevated antioxidative defense. CWs offered comparable or even higher removal efficiencies for the selected PhACs compared with conventional WWTPs. The removal of the target PhACs was enhanced in the planted CWs versus the unplanted CWs mostly because of plant uptake and rhizosphere effects. In particular, carbamazepine, which is considered the most recalcitrant of the PhACs, was significantly reduced (p<0.05). The removal of target PhACs fitted into two distinct periods. The initial fast step (within the first 2 h) was essentially attributed to the adsorption onto the CW medium surface. The subsequent slow process (2-12 h) closely followed first-order kinetics probably because of the interaction between microorganisms and plants. The obtained results indicate that C. alternifolius can phytoremediate PhAC-contaminated waters in CWs. PMID:26465971

  20. AC Complex Impedance Analysis of Doped Strontium Titanate Multifunctional Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Doped SrTiO3 capacitor-varistor multifunctional ceramics were fabricated by a single sintering process. AC compleximpedance analysis was performed to investigate electrical features ofgrains and grain boundaries for both as-reducedceramic and reoxidized ceramics. The results showed that the as-reduced ceramic exhibited inductive response athigh frequencies above 2 MHz, which is attributed to the contribution of electron behavior in semiconducting grains.The high frequency inductive response disappeared in impedance plots of reoxidized ceramics.

  1. AC system stabilization via phase shift transformer with thyristor commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos de; Guimaraes, Geraldo Caixeta; Moraes, Adelio Jose [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil); Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Edimar Jose de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This article aims to present initially the constructive and operative forms of a phase-shift autotransformer which provides both magnitude and phase angle change through thyristor commutation, including a technic to reduce the number of thyristors. Following, it is proposed a control system to make such equipment an efficient AC system stabilizing tool. It is presented some simulation results to show the operation of this transformer in an electrical system. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Eddy Current Rail Inspection Using AC Bridge Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ze; Koffman, Andrew D; Waltrip, Bryan C; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    AC bridge techniques commonly used for precision impedance measurements have been adapted to develop an eddy current sensor for rail defect detection. By using two detection coils instead of just one as in a conventional sensor, we can balance out the large baseline signals corresponding to a normal rail. We have significantly enhanced the detection sensitivity of the eddy current method by detecting and demodulating the differential signal of the two coils induced by rail defects, using a di...

  3. Photovoltaic Inverter Controllers Seeking AC Optimal Power Flow Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers future distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems, and addresses the synthesis of feedback controllers that seek real- and reactive-power inverter setpoints corresponding to AC optimal power flow (OPF) solutions. The objective is to bridge the temporal gap between long-term system optimization and real-time inverter control, and enable seamless PV-owner participation without compromising system efficiency and stability. The design of the...

  4. Power Loss Modeling of Isolated AC/DC Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Khan, Naveed

    2012-01-01

    Several research activities at KTH are carried out related to Isolated AC/DC converters in order to improve the design and efficiency. Concerning the improvement in the mentioned constraints, losses of the elements in the prototype converter are modeled in this thesis work. The obtained loss model is capable of calculating the losses under different circumstances. The individual contribution of losses for each element at different conditions can be obtained, which is further useful in improvi...

  5. AC Power Local Network with Multiple Power Routers

    OpenAIRE

    Ryo Takahashi; Yutaro Kitamori; Takashi Hikihara

    2013-01-01

    Controlling power flow and achieving appropriate matching between power sources and loads according to the quality of energy is expected to be one of the approaches to reduce wasted energy consumption. A power router, proposed recently, has the capability of realizing circuit switching in a power distribution network. This study focuses on the feasibility of an AC power routing network system composed of multiple power routers. To evaluate the feasibility, we experimentally confirm the circui...

  6. Transient Temperature Analysis for Industrial AC Arc Furnace Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdal1; Murat Tun(c)

    2004-01-01

    Heat losses from the furnaces depend on the design and size. The surface heat loss from the bottom of an industrial AC electric arc furnace (EAF) possesses an important fraction of overall losses. So in this study the transient temperature variation at the bottom of the EAF was investigated. The transient temperature analysis was carried out using MATLAB computer program. T=T(r, t) for different bottom lining layers was depicted.

  7. MD 349: Impedance Localization with AC-dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Biancacci, Nicolo; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Papotti, Giulia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this MD is to measure the distribution of the transverse impedance of the LHC by observing the phase advance variation with intensity between the machine BPMs. Four injected bunches with different intensities are excited with an AC dipole and the turn by turn data is acquired from the BPM system. Through post-processing analysis the phase variation along the machine is depicted and, from this information, first conclusions of the impedance distribution can be drawn.

  8. A Linear-Programming Approximation of AC Power Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Coffrin, Carleton; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Linear active-power-only DC power flow approximations are pervasive in the planning and control of power systems. However, these approximations fail to capture reactive power and voltage magnitudes, both of which are necessary in many applications to ensure voltage stability and AC power flow feasibility. This paper proposes linear-programming models (the LPAC models) that incorporate reactive power and voltage magnitudes in a linear power flow approximation. The LPAC models are built on a co...

  9. Leonurenones A-C: Labdane diterpenes from Leonotis leonurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Harding, Wayne W

    2012-11-01

    Labdanes, leonurenones A-C, two known labdanes, luteolin 7-O-β-glucoside and luteolin were isolated and characterized from a commercial source of Leonotis leonurus. Genetic methods allowed for identification of the plant material. The leonurenones contain an uncommon α,β-unsaturated enone moiety in ring B, and leonurenones A and B were evaluated in a competitive inhibition assay at the GABA A neuroreceptor site.

  10. DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES RESEARCH OF AC ELECTRIC POINT MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Considerable responsibility for safety of operation rests on signal telephone and telegraph department of railway. One of the most attackable nodes (both automation systems, and railway in whole is track switches. The aim of this investigation is developing such system for monitoring and diagnostics of track switches, which would fully meet the requirements of modern conditions of high-speed motion and heavy trains and producing diagnostics, collection and systematization of data in an automated way. Methodology. In order to achieve the desired objectives research of a structure and the operating principle description of the switch electric drive, sequence of triggering its main units were carried out. The operating characteristics and settings, operating conditions, the causes of failures in the work, andrequirements for electric drives technology and their service were considered and analyzed. Basic analysis principles of dependence of nature of the changes the current waveform, which flows in the working circuit of AC electric point motor were determined. Technical implementation of the monitoring and diagnosing system the state of AC electric point motors was carried out. Findings. Signals taken from serviceable and defective electric turnouts were researched. Originality. Identified a strong interconnectionbetween the technical condition of the track switchand curve shape that describes the current in the circuit of AC electric point motor during operation which is based on the research processes that have influence on it during operation. Practical value. Shown the principles of the technical approach to the transition from scheduled preventive maintenance to maintenance of real condition for a more objective assessment and thus more rapid response to emerging or failures when they occur gradually, damages and any other shortcomings in the work track switch AC drives.

  11. Validation of the Peel Plate™ AC for Detection of Total Aerobic Bacteria in Dairy and Nondairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Crowley, Erin; Hammack, Thomas; Chen, Yi; Clark, Dorn; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Peel Plate™ AC (aerobic count) is a low-profile plastic 47 mm culture dish with adhesive top that contains a dried standard plate count medium with oxidation/reduction indicator triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) that turns red with dehydrogenase enzyme activity of growing aerobic bacteria. The method provides a conventional quantitative count with simple rehydration and incubation for 48 ± 3 h at 35 ± 1°C for most food matrixes and 32 ± 1°C for 48 ± 3 h for dairy products. Dairy matrixes claimed and supported with total aerobic count data are whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk (2% fat), light cream (20% fat), pasteurized whole goat milk, ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk, nonfat dried milk, lactose-reduced milk, strawberry milk, raw cow milk, raw goat milk, raw sheep milk, condensed skim milk, and vanilla ice cream. Food matrixes claimed for aerobic count detection are raw ground beef, environmental sponge of stainless steel, raw ground turkey, dry dog food, liquid whole pasteurized eggs, milk chocolate, poultry carcass rinse, and large animal carcass sponge. The method has been independently evaluated for aerobic count in dairy products: whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk, and light cream. The method was also independently evaluated for aerobic count in food matrixes: ground beef and sponge rinse from stainless steel surfaces. In the matrix study, each matrix was assessed separately at each contamination level in comparison to an appropriate reference method. Colony counts were determined for each level and then log10-transformed. The transformed data were evaluated for repeatability, mean comparison between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI), and r(2). A CI range of (-0.5, 0.5) on the mean difference was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical differences between methods. The evaluations demonstrate that the Peel Plate AC provides no statistical differences across most of the matrixes with r(2) > 0

  12. Validation of the Peel Plate™ AC for Detection of Total Aerobic Bacteria in Dairy and Nondairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Crowley, Erin; Hammack, Thomas; Chen, Yi; Clark, Dorn; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Peel Plate™ AC (aerobic count) is a low-profile plastic 47 mm culture dish with adhesive top that contains a dried standard plate count medium with oxidation/reduction indicator triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) that turns red with dehydrogenase enzyme activity of growing aerobic bacteria. The method provides a conventional quantitative count with simple rehydration and incubation for 48 ± 3 h at 35 ± 1°C for most food matrixes and 32 ± 1°C for 48 ± 3 h for dairy products. Dairy matrixes claimed and supported with total aerobic count data are whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk (2% fat), light cream (20% fat), pasteurized whole goat milk, ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk, nonfat dried milk, lactose-reduced milk, strawberry milk, raw cow milk, raw goat milk, raw sheep milk, condensed skim milk, and vanilla ice cream. Food matrixes claimed for aerobic count detection are raw ground beef, environmental sponge of stainless steel, raw ground turkey, dry dog food, liquid whole pasteurized eggs, milk chocolate, poultry carcass rinse, and large animal carcass sponge. The method has been independently evaluated for aerobic count in dairy products: whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk, and light cream. The method was also independently evaluated for aerobic count in food matrixes: ground beef and sponge rinse from stainless steel surfaces. In the matrix study, each matrix was assessed separately at each contamination level in comparison to an appropriate reference method. Colony counts were determined for each level and then log10-transformed. The transformed data were evaluated for repeatability, mean comparison between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI), and r(2). A CI range of (-0.5, 0.5) on the mean difference was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical differences between methods. The evaluations demonstrate that the Peel Plate AC provides no statistical differences across most of the matrixes with r(2) > 0

  13. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  14. NOAA NCCOS: New England Red Tide Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alexandrium blooms are one of several algal bloom types often called "red tides," but more correctly referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Alexandrium...

  15. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  16. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  17. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Red in the Face Understanding Rosacea Some people think of a rosy complexion as ... more troubling—a long-lasting skin disorder called rosacea. Rosacea (pronounced ro-ZAY-she-ah) may start ...

  18. Red Rock Lakes Wildlife Refuge : Reports : 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge during 1939 contains and inventory of migratory waterfowl, as well as weather reports, and general remarks...

  19. Red wine asthma: a controlled challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, R; Henriksen, J M; Harving, H

    1986-12-01

    Drinking red wine may provoke bronchospasm in subjects with asthma. In order to reveal some of the possible agents involved in this reaction, 18 patients with a history of red wine-induced asthma were studied. They received, in a double-blind fashion, red wine with low sulfur dioxide (SO2) and high amine, high SO2 and high amine and low SO2 and low amine content. In each challenge, the wine was administered in stepwise increasing quantities until a total of 385 ml or a fall in peak expiratory flow of greater than 15% was reached. Nine subjects demonstrated a significant fall in peak flow in one or more challenges. In all cases the most severe reaction was observed after the wine with high SO2 content. The study suggests that SO2 is the most important factor in red wine-induced asthma. It is recommended that wine labels provide information on the SO2 content.

  20. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  1. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-26

    Metagenome produces a tremendous amount of data that comes from the organisms living in the environments. This big data enables us to examine not only microbial genes but also the community structure, interaction and adaptation mechanisms at the specific location and condition. The Red Sea has several unique characteristics such as high salinity, high temperature and low nutrition. These features must contribute to form the unique microbial community during the evolutionary process. Since 2014, we started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore, the comparative metagenomics of those data provides a comprehensive view of the Red Sea microbes, leading to identify key microbes, genes and networks related to those environmental differences.

  2. Raoul Kurvitz esitleb : "Armastusest" & "RED" / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Armastusest" Vaal-galeriis, näituse avamine toimus kunstniku performance'iga. Sõnumina mainitakse Raoul Kurvitza kuraatoriprojekti "RED" Mustpeade Maja valges saalis, loetletud eksponeeritud kunstnikud

  3. AC electric field induced vortex in laminar coflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2014-09-22

    Experiments were performed by applying sub-critical high-voltage alternating current (AC) to the nozzle of laminar propane coflow diffusion flames. Light scattering, laser-induced incandescence and laser-induced fluorescence techniques were used to identify the soot zone, and the structures of OH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particle image velocimetry was adopted to quantify the velocity field. Under certain AC conditions of applied voltage and frequency, the distribution of PAHs and the flow field near the nozzle exit were drastically altered, leading to the formation of toroidal vortices. Increased residence time and heat recirculation inside the vortex resulted in appreciable formation of PAHs and soot near the nozzle exit. Decreased residence time along the jet axis through flow acceleration by the vortex led to a reduction in the soot volume fraction in the downstream sooting zone. Electromagnetic force generated by AC was proposed as a viable mechanism for the formation of the toroidal vortex. The onset conditions for the vortex formation supported the role of an electromagnetic force acting on charged particles in the flame zone. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. AC Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Borotellurite Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. A.; Azab, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Borotellurite glasses with formula 60B2O3-10ZnO-(30 - x)NaF- xTeO2 ( x = 0 mol.%, 5 mol.%, 10 mol.%, and 15 mol.%) have been synthesized by thermal melting. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the glasses were amorphous. The glass density ( ρ) was determined by the Archimedes method at room temperature. The density ( ρ) and molar volume ( V m) were found to increase with increasing TeO2 content. The direct-current (DC) conductivity was measured in the temperature range from 473 K to 623 K, in which the electrical activation energy of ionic conduction increased from 0.27 eV to 0.48 eV with increasing TeO2 content from 0 mol.% to 15 mol.%. The dielectric parameters and alternating-current (AC) conductivity ( σ ac) were investigated in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and temperature range from 300 K to 633 K. The AC conductivity and dielectric constant decreased with increasing TeO2 content from 0 mol.% to 15 mol.%.

  5. The ACS-NUCL Division 50th Anniversary: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-10

    The ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was initiated in 1955 as a subdivision of the Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Probationary divisional status was lifted in 1965. The Division’s first symposium was held in Denver in 1964 and it is fitting that we kicked-off the 50th Anniversary in Denver in the spring of 2015. Listed as a small ACS Division with only about 1,000 members, NUCL’s impact over the past fifty years has been remarkable. National ACS meetings have had many symposia sponsored or cosponsored by NUCL that included Nobel Laureates, U.S. Senators, other high-ranking officials and many students as speakers. The range of subjects has been exceptional as are the various prestigious awards established by the Division. Of major impact has been the past 30 years of the NUCL Nuclear Chemistry Summer Schools to help fill the void of qualified nuclear scientists and technicians. In celebrating the 50th Anniversary we honor the past, celebrate the present and shape the future of the Division and nuclear science and technology. To celebrate this auspicious occasion a commemorative lapel pin has been designed for distribution to NUCL Division members.

  6. On conformal field theories with extremal (a/c) values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unitary conformal field theories (CFTs) are believed to have positive (non-negative) energy correlators. Energy correlators are universal observables in higher-dimensional CFTs built out of integrated Wightman functions of the stress-energy tensor. We analyze energy correlators in parity invariant four-dimensional CFTs. The goal is to use the positivity of energy correlators to further constrain unitary CFTs. It is known that the positivity of the simplest one-point energy correlator implies that (1/3)≤(a/c)≤(31/18) where a and c are the Weyl anomaly coefficients. We use the positivity of higher point energy correlators to show that CFTs with extremal values of (a/c) have trivial scattering observables. More precisely, for (a/c)=(1/3) and (a/c)=(31/18) all energy correlators are fixed to be the ones of the free boson and the free vector theory correspondingly. Similarly, we show that the positivity and finiteness of energy correlators together imply that the three-point function of the stress tensor in a CFT cannot be proportional to the one in the theory of free boson, free fermion or free vector field

  7. Esotropia and high ac/a ratio; therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risović Dušica J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 55 children with accommodative esotropia and high AC/A ratio with progressive addition lenses, measured by heterophoria method. All of them wear full hyperopic refraction for distance and addition of +1,00 to 3,5 spheres for near vision. The minimal add that allowed the maximal reduction in the near deviation was prescribed appointed to follow-up control three months after the use of the new lenses, and thereafter every six months. A progressive reduction of the abnormally high AC/A ratio (difference between distance and near deviation measurements showed 45 children (81,81% but ten of them (18,19% deteriorated into non- accommodative esotropia requiring surgical treatment. The age of initial use of progressive-addition lenses ranged from 26 months to 7 years (average: 63,2 months. The age of onset of the esotropia ranged from 7 months to 82 months (average: 28,7 months. The initial add was of +3,00 diopters in 39 children (70,8%. The mean add prescription for whole study group was 2,96 diopters. A progressive improvement of the AC/A ratio achieving normal after a mean of 18 to 24 months in a significant number of cases.

  8. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Electric field can be a viable method in controlling various combustion properties. Comparing to traditional actuators, an application of electric field requires very small power consumption. Especially, alternating current (AC) has received attention recently, since it could modulate flames appreciably even for the cases when direct current (DC) has minimal effects. In this study, the effect of AC electric fields on small coflow diffusion flames is focused with applications of various laser diagnostic techniques. Flow characteristics of baseline diffusion flames, which corresponds to stationary small coflow diffusion flames when electric field is not applied, were firstly investigated with a particular focus on the flow field in near-nozzle region with the buoyancy force exerted on fuels due to density differences among fuel, ambient air, and burnt gas. The result showed that the buoyancy force exerted on the fuel as well as on burnt gas significantly distorted the near-nozzle flow-fields. In the fuels with densities heavier than air, recirculation zones were formed very close to the nozzle exit. Nozzle heating effect influenced this near-nozzle flow-field particularly among lighter fuels. Numerical simulations were also conducted and the results showed that a fuel inlet boundary condition with a fully developed velocity profile for cases with long fuel tubes should be specified inside the fuel tube to obtain satisfactory agreement in both the flow and temperature fields with those from experiment. With sub-critical AC applied to the baseline flames, particle image velocimetry (PIV), light scattering, laser-induced incandescence (LII), and laser-induced fluores- cence (LIF) techniques were adopted to identify the flow field and the structures of OH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soot zone. Under certain AC condi- tions of applied voltage and frequency, the distribution of PAHs and the flow field near the nozzle exit were drastically altered from the

  9. AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayati, Marzieh, E-mail: m-bayati@tums.ac.ir [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinirad, Somayeh [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Foroumadi, Alireza [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gilani, Kambiz [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ► AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ► The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range and V {sub p−p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz–10 MHz range and V {sub p−p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

  10. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  11. Red and lateritic soils : world scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Volkoff, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Calcareous, neutral and acid red soils, red lateritic soils, latosols and lateritic soils sensu lato are defined on the basis of their mineralogical composition and profile development. Their geographical distribution is discussed. Their origin is interpreted, considering successively palaeoclimates and continental drifts, tectonic movements and land-form development since the Early Tertiary period and the soil transformation during the Quaternary period. Finally, it is shown that in the trop...

  12. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  13. Red flags in prospective contractors' financial statements.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Man-ying, Nicole

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis attempts to identify warning signals in the contractors financial statement, or 'red flags', which may be used to identify those prospective contractors who are likely to become delinquent in the performance of their contracts. A 'red flags' list compiled from the current literature was sent to financial analysts in the thirty-eight Financial Service Branches, Defense Contract Management Command Area Offices(FSDCMAOs) to d...

  14. Red de Bibliotecas y Archivos del CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    CSIC - Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación (URICI); Álvarez Díez, Luis Raúl; Pérez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Documento extraído de la entrada en Wikipedia. Contiene datos básicos de la Red de Bibliotecas y Archivos del CSIC, la historia de la Red, la Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación (URICI), las Bibliotecas del CSIC, los Archivos CSIC, Digital.CSIC (repositorio institucional del CSIC), estadísticas y enlaces externos.

  15. Working with the American Community Survey in R a guide to using the acs package

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Ezra Haber

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a hands-on guide to the "acs" R package for demographers, planners, and other researchers who work with American Community Survey (ACS) data. It gathers the most common problems associated with using ACS data and implements functions as a package in the R statistical programming language. The package defines a new "acs" class object (containing estimates, standard errors, and metadata for tables from the ACS) with methods to deal appropriately with common tasks (e.g., creating and combining subgroups or geographies, automatic fetching of data via the Census API, mathematical operations on estimates, tests of significance, plots of confidence intervals).

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-AC21 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AC21 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15104-1 FC-AC21E (Li...nk to Original site) - - - - - - FC-AC21E 527 Show FC-AC21 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AC21 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15104-1 Original site URL http://dict...ce KDSLDVIIFPEMVKLVGLTPNTMEKVLTYFQDNDTIDLSTFPMEIQVEQLSGKYIFICTH KQKDQRCGYCGPILVDQLRDQIKERSLEKEIQVFGTSHVGGHKY... Frames) Frame A: KDSLDVIIFPEMVKLVGLTPNTMEKVLTYFQDNDTIDLSTFPMEIQVEQLSGKYIFICTH KQ

  17. Production of AC-225 and application of the BI-213 daughter in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L.; Apostolidis, C.; Janssens, W.; Molinet, R.; van Geel, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are several ongoing medical trials to use Bi-213 conjugated to monoclonal antibodies to kill tumour-cells of various cancer types. The institute is supplying Ac-225 generators for the test and is itself engaged in in-vitro cytotoxicity tests. Nuclear reactions leading to Ac-225 are discussed. The present supply of Ac-225 stems from Th-229 decay obtained from aged U-233. From the possible alternative the reactions Ra-226 (p, 2n) Ac-225 is presently favoured. The fabrication of a Ac-225 for Bi-213 generator will be described.

  18. The Red Book through the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  19. Control convertidor dc-ac de 100kW

    OpenAIRE

    Olives Camps, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    [Castellà]: Este proyecto desarrolla un estudio y diseño de un inversor trifásico que trabaja como fuente de corriente conectado a red. Tanto a nivel de hardware (los elementos físicos necesarios para su funcionamiento) como el desarrollo del software de control. A nivel de hardware se explicará la función de los componentes y estudiará la necesidad y las variables que determinan su dimensionado. Al mismo tiempo, el uso de convertidores de potencia conectados a red requiere la implem...

  20. A note on the largest number of red nodes in red-black trees

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yingjie; Zhu, Daxin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the number of red nodes in red-black trees. We first present an $O(n^2\\log n)$ time dynamic programming solution for computing $r(n)$, the largest number of red internal nodes in a red-black tree on $n$ keys. Then the algorithm is improved to some $O(\\log n)$ time recursive and nonrecursive algorithms. Based on these improved algorithms we finally find a closed-form solution of $r(n)$.

  1. Differential expression of CD300a/c on human TH1 and TH17 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrego Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human memory CD4+ T cells can be either CD300a/c+ or CD300a/c- and subsequent analyses showed that CD4+ effector memory T (TEM cells are mostly CD300a/c+, whereas CD4+ central memory T (TCM cells have similar frequencies of CD300a/c+ and CD300a/c- cells. Results Extensive phenotypical and functional characterization showed that in both TCM and TEM cells, the CD300a/c+ subset contained a higher number of TH1 (IFN-γ producing cells. Alternatively, TH17 (IL-17a producing cells tend to be CD300a/c-, especially in the TEM subset. Further characterization of the IL-17a+ cells showed that cells that produce only this cytokine are mostly CD300a/c-, while cells that produce IL-17a in combination with other cytokines, especially IFN-γ, are mostly CD300a/c+, indicating that the expression of this receptor is associated with cells that produce IFN-γ. Co-ligation of the TCR and CD300a/c in CD4+ T cells inhibited Ca2+ mobilization evoked by TCR ligation alone and modulated IFN-γ production on TH1 polarized cells. Conclusion We conclude that the CD300a/c receptors are differentially expressed on human TH1 and TH17 cells and that their ligation is capable of modulating TCR mediated signals.

  2. 144例近视患者AC/A值与近视处方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宝轩

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究青少年近视眼与AC/A值的关系,讨论结合AC/A值确定处方的必要性.方法:随机抽取144名10~19岁的患者,进行眼镜全矫,根据屈光度分成6组,然后进行AC/A值的测定.结果:通过AC/A值的比较,可以看出近视眼患者的AC/A值和正常值有差距,而且AC/A平均值随近视度增加有升高的趋势.结论:针对近视患者,在主客观验光的基础上,要结合AC/A检查结果,为患者提供合理的处方.

  3. Adsorption of acid red from dye wastewater by Zn2Al-NO3 LDHs and the resource of adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High removal efficiency of acid red 97 from dye wastewater was achieved by using Zn2Al-NO3 LDHs adsorbent. • The resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) was proposed for the first time. • The thermal stability of PP was significantly improved by introducing only small amount of LDH adsorbent sludge. • The resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers is a very promising option. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we report the removal of acid red 97 (AC97) from simulated dye wastewater by using Zn2Al-NO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) adsorbent, and the resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) for the first time. The obtained Zn2Al-NO3 LDH was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, confirming the formation of pure and platelike LDH nanoparticles. The effects of adsorption time and initial dye concentration on the removal of AC97 from wastewater were systematically investigated, showing that the Zn2Al-NO3 LDHs is very efficient in removing AC97. The saturated adsorption capacity of water washed and acetone washed Zn2Al-LDHs is 204.4 and 299.5 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the LDH adsorbent sludge was added into PP using a modified solvent mixing method. Thermal gravimetric analysis and ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis of PP/Zn2Al-AC97 LDHs nanocomposites suggested that the Zn2Al-AC97 LDH can significantly improve the thermal stability and UV shielding ability of PP. This data demonstrated that it is very promising to resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers

  4. Adsorption of acid red from dye wastewater by Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs and the resource of adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Tianshan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhang, Zhang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Umar, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadumar786@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Yan, Xingru; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Zhanhu [Integrated Composites Laboratory, Dan F Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.wang.ox@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • High removal efficiency of acid red 97 from dye wastewater was achieved by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs adsorbent. • The resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) was proposed for the first time. • The thermal stability of PP was significantly improved by introducing only small amount of LDH adsorbent sludge. • The resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers is a very promising option. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we report the removal of acid red 97 (AC97) from simulated dye wastewater by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides (LDHs) adsorbent, and the resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) for the first time. The obtained Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, confirming the formation of pure and platelike LDH nanoparticles. The effects of adsorption time and initial dye concentration on the removal of AC97 from wastewater were systematically investigated, showing that the Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs is very efficient in removing AC97. The saturated adsorption capacity of water washed and acetone washed Zn{sub 2}Al-LDHs is 204.4 and 299.5 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the LDH adsorbent sludge was added into PP using a modified solvent mixing method. Thermal gravimetric analysis and ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis of PP/Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDHs nanocomposites suggested that the Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDH can significantly improve the thermal stability and UV shielding ability of PP. This data demonstrated that it is very promising to resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers.

  5. The dynamic process of atmospheric water sorption in [EMIM][Ac] and mixtures of [EMIM][Ac] with biopolymers and CO2 capture in these systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Sun, Xiaofu; Yan, Chuanyu; Cao, Yuanyuan; Mu, Tiancheng

    2014-10-01

    There are mainly three findings related to the dynamic process of atmospheric water sorption in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methlyl-imidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) and its mixtures with biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, chitin, and chitosan), and CO2 capture in these systems above. The analytical methods mainly include gravimetric hygroscopicity measurement and in situ infrared spectroscopy with the techniques of difference, derivative, deconvoluted attenuated total reflectance and two-dimensional correlation. These three findings are listed as below. (1) Pure [EMIM][Ac] only shows a two-regime pattern, while all the mixtures of [EMIM][Ac] with biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, chitin, and chitosan) present a three-regime tendency for the dynamic process of atmospheric water sorption. Specifically, the IL/chitosan mixture has a clear three-regime mode; the [EMIM][Ac]/chitin mixture has an unclear indiscernible regime 3; and the [EMIM][Ac]/cellulose mixture shows an indiscernible regime 2. (2) [EMIM][Ac] and its mixtures with biopolymers could physically absorb a trace amount of and chemically react with a much larger amount of CO2 from the air. The chemisorption capacity of CO2 in these pure and mixed systems is ordered as chitosan/[EMIM][Ac] mixture > chitin/[EMIM][Ac] mixture > cellulose/[EMIM][Ac] mixture > pure [EMIM][Ac] (ca. 0.09 mass ratio % g/g CO2/IL). (3) The CO2 solubility in [EMIM][Ac] decreases about 50% after being exposed to the atmospheric moist air for some specific time period.

  6. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P H; Hoffman, D J; Buscemi, D M; Melancon, M J

    2003-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  7. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on red-winged blackbird embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Buscemi, D.M.; Melancon, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-111 I; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate that is used in the United States and other countries as a larvicide for mosquito suppression. As part of a multi-species evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, red-winged blackbird eggs were collected, artificially incubated, and treated with one of five amounts of GB-1111 varying from 0 to 10 times the expected exposure from a spray application of the maximum recommended amount (X=47 l/ha, 5 gal/ac). The application of 10 X caused a significant reduction in hatching success. A dose-related reduction of hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase activity (EROD) was detected. Among body weights, skeletal measurements, and age at death, only crownrump length was different among experimental groups. Overall, the potential hazard to embryos of a representative wetland passerine appears minimal until the application rate exceeds 3 X.

  8. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  9. Red Tide Frequency Analysis Using the Extreme Value Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the red tide erupted frequently, and caused a great economic loss. At present, most literatures emphasize the academic research on the growth mechanism of red tide alga. In order to find out the characters of red tide in detail and improve the precision of forecast, this paper gives some new approaches to dealing with the red tide. By the extreme values, we deal with the red tide frequency analysis and get the estimation of T-times red tide level U(T), which is the level once the consistence of red tide alga exceeds on the average in a period of T times.

  10. Expression Study of LeGAPDH, LeACO1, LeACS1A, and LeACS2 in Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijar Riza Anugerah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a climacteric fruit, which is characterized by ripening-related increase of respiration and elevated ethylene synthesis. Ethylene is the key hormone in ripening process of climacteric fruits. The objective of this research is to study the expression of three ethylene synthesis genes: LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and a housekeeping gene LeGAPDH in ripening tomato fruit. Specific primers have been designed to amplify complementary DNA fragment of LeGAPDH (143 bp, LeACO1 (240 bp, LeACS1A (169 bp, and LeACS2 (148 bp using polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide BLAST results of the complementary DNA fragments show high similarity with LeGAPDH (NM_001247874.1, LeACO1 (NM_001247095.1, LeACS1A(NM_001246993.1, LeACS2 (NM_001247249.1, respectively. Expression study showed that LeACO1, LeACS1A, LeACS2, and LeGAPDH genes were expressed in ripening tomato fruit. Isolation methods, reference sequences, and primers used in this study can be used in future experiments to study expression of genes responsible for ethylene synthesis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and to design better strategy for controlling fruit ripening in agroindustry.

  11. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  12. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  13. Construction and function of recombinant AcMNPV with double copies of v-cath gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two recombinant baculoviruses, dciAcMNPV and dcdAcMNPV in which another copy of the v-cath gene controlled by ie1 promoter and polh promoter was inserted, were respectively constructed by the Bac-to-Bac system. The expression of the v-cath gene of the recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells at different phases was investigated by SDS- PAGE and Western blot. The results showed that only recombinant virus dciAcMNPV containing late gene v-cath driven by early gene promoter could express V-CATH protein, cathepsin encoded by virus genome, 12 h post-infection and dcdAcMNPV containing late gene v-cath driven by late and very late gene promoters could express more V-CATH protein. Negative control ncAcMNPV, a mutant deleted v- cath gene, could not express V-CATH protein at all. The Spodopera exigua larvae were infected with viruses respectively and the results showed that the toxicity was as follows: dcdAcMNPV>dciAcMNPV>wtAcMNPV>ncAcMNPV. The toxicity of recombinant viruses and the characters of dead larvae showed that the v-cath gene was relative to viral toxicity and host liquefaction. Recombinant baculovirus dcdAcMNPV might be used as a new kind of safe viral-pes- ticide, because of its high toxicity obtained by adding another gene copy and changing the expression level of its own gene relative to virulence.

  14. H3K36ac Is an Evolutionary Conserved Plant Histone Modification That Marks Active Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrez, Walid; Arellano, Minerva Susana Trejo; Moreno-Romero, Jordi; Nakamura, Miyuki; Shu, Huan; Nanni, Paolo; Köhler, Claudia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hennig, Lars

    2016-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, histones are subject to a large number of posttranslational modifications whose sequential or combinatorial action affects chromatin structure and genome function. We identified acetylation at Lys-36 in histone H3 (H3K36ac) as a new chromatin modification in plants. The H3K36ac modification is evolutionary conserved in seed plants, including the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the angiosperms rice (Oryza sativa), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In Arabidopsis, H3K36ac is highly enriched in euchromatin but not in heterochromatin. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing experiments revealed that H3K36ac peaks at the 5' end of genes, mainly on the two nucleosomes immediately distal to the transcription start site, independently of gene length. H3K36ac overlaps with H3K4me3 and the H2A.Z histone variant. The histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and the histone deacetylase HDA19 are required for H3K36ac homeostasis. H3K36ac and H3K36me3 show negative crosstalk, which is mediated by GCN5 and the histone methyl transferase SDG8. Although H3K36ac is associated with gene activity, we did not find a linear relationship between H3K36ac and transcript levels, suggesting that H3K36ac is a binary indicator of transcription. PMID:26764380

  15. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis. PMID:26779247

  16. Frequency sweep rate dependence on the dielectrophoretic response of polystyrene beads and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T. N. G.; Leonard, K. M.; Minerick, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) dielectrophoresis (DEP) experiments for biological particles in microdevices are typically done at a fixed frequency. Reconstructing the DEP response curve from static frequency experiments is laborious, but essential to ascertain differences in dielectric properties of biological particles. Our lab explored the concept of sweeping the frequency as a function of time to rapidly determine the DEP response curve from fewer experiments. For the purpose of determining an ideal sweep rate, homogeneous 6.08 μm polystyrene (PS) beads were used as a model system. Translatability of the sweep rate approach to ∼7 μm red blood cells (RBC) was then verified. An Au/Ti quadrapole electrode microfluidic device was used to separately subject particles and cells to 10Vpp AC electric fields at frequencies ranging from 0.010 to 2.0 MHz over sweep rates from 0.00080 to 0.17 MHz/s. PS beads exhibited negative DEP assembly over the frequencies explored due to Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarizations. Results demonstrate that frequency sweep rates must be slower than particle polarization timescales to achieve reliable incremental polarizations; sweep rates near 0.00080 MHz/s yielded DEP behaviors very consistent with static frequency DEP responses for both PS beads and RBCs. PMID:24396548

  17. Identification of a catalase-phenol oxidase in betalain biosynthesis in red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu eTeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO, was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis.

  18. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  19. Concurrent Electroencephalography Recording During Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Kristoffer D; Morishima, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activities are considered to reflect the basis of rhythmic changes in transmission efficacy across brain networks and are assumed to integrate cognitive neural processes. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) holds the promise to elucidate the causal link between specific frequencies of oscillatory brain activity and cognitive processes. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recording during tACS would offer an opportunity to directly explore immediate neurophysiological effects of tACS. However, it is not trivial to measure EEG signals during tACS, as tACS creates a huge artifact in EEG data. Here we explain how to set up concurrent tACS-EEG experiments. Two necessary considerations for successful EEG recording while applying tACS are highlighted. First, bridging of the tACS and EEG electrodes via leaking EEG gel immediately saturates the EEG amplifier. To avoid bridging via gel, the viscosity of the EEG gel is the most important parameter. The EEG gel must be viscous to avoid bridging, but at the same time sufficiently fluid to create contact between the tACS electrode and the scalp. Second, due to the large amplitude of the tACS artifact, it is important to consider using an EEG system with a high resolution analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. In particular, the magnitude of the tACS artifact can exceed 100 mV at the vicinity of a stimulation electrode when 1 mA tACS is applied. The resolution of the A/D converter is of importance to measure good quality EEG data from the vicinity of the stimulation site. By following these guidelines for the procedures and technical considerations, successful concurrent EEG recording during tACS will be realized. PMID:26862814

  20. Overexpressing mouse model demonstrates the protective role of Muc5ac in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehre, Camille; Worthington, Erin N; Liesman, Rachael M; Grubb, Barbara R; Barbier, Diane; O'Neal, Wanda K; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Pickles, Raymond J; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    MUC5AC, a major gel-forming mucin expressed in the lungs, is secreted at increased rates in response to infectious agents, implying that mucins exert a protective role against inhaled pathogens. However, epidemiological and pathological studies suggest that excessive mucin secretion causes airways obstruction and inflammation. To determine whether increased MUC5AC secretion alone produces airway obstruction and/or inflammation, we generated a mouse model overexpressing Muc5ac mRNA ~20-fold in the lungs, using the rCCSP promoter. The Muc5ac cDNA was cloned from mouse lungs and tagged internally with GFP. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis demonstrated an approximate 18-fold increase in Muc5ac protein, which formed high-molecular-weight polymers. Histopathological studies and cell counts revealed no airway mucus obstruction or inflammation in the lungs of Muc5ac-transgenic (Muc5ac-Tg) mice. Mucus clearance was preserved, implying that the excess Muc5ac secretion produced an "expanded" rather than more concentrated mucus layer, a prediction confirmed by electron microscopy. To test whether the larger mucus barrier conferred increased protection against pathogens, Muc5ac-Tg animals were challenged with PR8/H1N1 influenza viruses and showed significant decreases in infection and neutrophilic responses. Plaque assay experiments demonstrated that Muc5ac-Tg BALF and purified Muc5ac reduced infection, likely via binding to α2,3-linked sialic acids, consistent with influenza protection in vivo. In conclusion, the normal mucus transport and absence of a pulmonary phenotype in Muc5ac-Tg mice suggests that mucin hypersecretion alone is not sufficient to trigger luminal mucus plugging or airways inflammation/goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, increased Muc5ac secretion appears to exhibit a protective role against influenza infection. PMID:23012413