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Sample records for alloyed uranium transformation

  1. Contribution towards the study of β→α transformation in uranium and its alloys (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.

    1962-05-01

    The kinetics of the transformation of uranium alloys containing 0.5 - 0.75 - 1.0 - 1.5 and 3 atoms per cent have been studied. The influence of heat treatment before decomposition has been discussed. The study of the transformation characteristics such as kinetics, residual phases, phenomena connected with the coherence between phases, reversibility below the equilibrium temperature, shows the following mechanisms exhibited during the decomposition of the β phase on lowering the temperature: 1 ) eutectoid, 2) bainitic, 3) martensitic. The study of the TTT diagrams of alloys containing decreasing percentages of chromium indicates that the unalloyed uranium transforms without maintaining the coherence above 600 deg. C, where as at lower temperatures the transformation is mainly martensitic. The various alloying elements can be characterised by their influence on the three TTT curves corresponding to the three possible transformation mechanisms. The ability of the uranium alloys to alpha grain refining during isothermal decomposition or ambient temperature quenching is directly connected with the characteristics of the TTT diagrams and especially to the mode of bainitic transformation. (author) [fr

  2. An investigation of the γ → α martensitic transformation in uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, J.G.; Edmonds, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the γ → chi martensite transformation in uranium alloys is presented. Five binary uranium-base alloys containing 0.77 Ti, 1.2 Mo, 2.2 Mo, 4.3 Mo and 5.0 Mo, respectively, were examined. As quenched, the U-0.77 Ti and U-1.2 Mo alloys consisted of an orthorhombic α'/sub a/ martensite phase with an acicular morphology. The acicular martensite plates contain deformation twins which result from transformation stresses. The U-2.2 Mo and U-4.3 Mo alloys transformed during quenching to orthorhomic chi'/sub b/ and monoclinic chi'/sub b/ martensite phases, respectively. The banded morphology observed in these two alloys consists of long, parallel martensite plates containing fine arrays of transformation twins. The type I transformation twinning modes were identified as /021/, /130/ and /131/. There was also evidence for a type II /111/ mode. It was found that adjacent bands could contain different kinds of transformation twins. In the U-5.0 Mo alloy, some of the cubic parent phase was retained during water quenching, and chi/γ orientation relationship was determined. The γ phase was completely retained in this alloy by slow cooling from the solution treatment temperature of 800 0 C, and it was found that a martensitic reaction could be induced by deformation. The strain-induced martensite plates contained /021/ transformation twins. The chi/γ orientation relationship was found to be different than the one determined in the quenched condition, and both orientation relationships are irrational. The invariant plane strain theory of martensite crystallography was applied to the twinned martensites, and a number of different parent/product lattice correspondences were considered for the γ → chi transformations. It was concluded that more than one correspondence may be operative during these transformations

  3. Study of the quenching and subsequent return to room temperature of uranium-chromium, uranium-iron, and uranium-molybdenum alloys containing only small amounts of the alloying element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaplace, J.

    1960-09-01

    By means of an apparatus which makes possible thermal pre-treatments in vacuo, quenching carried out in a high purity argon atmosphere, and simultaneous recording of time temperature cooling and thermal contraction curves, the author has examined the transformations which occur in uranium-chromium, uranium-iron and uranium-molybdenum alloys during their quenching and subsequent return to room temperature. For uranium-chromium and uranium-iron alloys, the temperature at which the γ → β transformation starts varies very little with the rate of cooling. For uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 atom per cent of Mo, this temperature is lowered by 120 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn. The temperature at which the β → α transformation starts is lowered by 170 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn in the case of uranium-chromium alloy containing 0,37 atom per cent of Cr. The temperature is little affected in the case of uranium-iron alloys. The addition of chromium or iron makes it possible to conserve the form β at ordinary temperatures after quenching from the β and γ regions. The β phase is particularly unstable and changes into needles of the α form even at room temperatures according to an autocatalytic transformation law similar to the austenitic-martensitic transformation law in the case of iron. The β phase obtained by quenching from the β phase region is more stable than that obtained by quenching from the γ region. Chromium is a more effective stabiliser of the β phase than is iron. Unfortunately it causes serious surface cracking. The β → α transformation in uranium-chromium alloys has been followed at room temperature by means of micro-cinematography. The author has not observed the direct γ → α transformation in uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 per cent of molybdenum even for cooling rates of up to 2000 deg. C/s. He has however observed the formation of several martensitic structures. (author) [fr

  4. Contribution towards the study of {beta}{yields}{alpha} transformation in uranium and its alloys (1962); Contribution a l'etude de la transformation {beta}{yields}{alpha} dans l'uranium et ses alliages (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-05-15

    The kinetics of the transformation of uranium alloys containing 0.5 - 0.75 - 1.0 - 1.5 and 3 atoms per cent have been studied. The influence of heat treatment before decomposition has been discussed. The study of the transformation characteristics such as kinetics, residual phases, phenomena connected with the coherence between phases, reversibility below the equilibrium temperature, shows the following mechanisms exhibited during the decomposition of the {beta} phase on lowering the temperature: 1 ) eutectoid, 2) bainitic, 3) martensitic. The study of the TTT diagrams of alloys containing decreasing percentages of chromium indicates that the unalloyed uranium transforms without maintaining the coherence above 600 deg. C, where as at lower temperatures the transformation is mainly martensitic. The various alloying elements can be characterised by their influence on the three TTT curves corresponding to the three possible transformation mechanisms. The ability of the uranium alloys to alpha grain refining during isothermal decomposition or ambient temperature quenching is directly connected with the characteristics of the TTT diagrams and especially to the mode of bainitic transformation. (author) [French] II a ete etudie la cinetique de transformation des alliages uranium-chrome de teneur 0,5 - 0,75 - 1 - 1,5 - et 3 atomes pour cent. L'influence des traitements thermiques precedant la decomposition a ete discutee. L'etude des caracteristiques de la transformation: cinetique, phases residuelles, phenomenes lies a la coherence entre phases, reversibilite au-dessous de la temperature d'equilibre, permet de conclure que la decomposition met en jeu successivement les trois mecanismes eutectoide, bainitique et martensitique quand la temperature baisse. L'etude de l'evolution des diagrammes TTT quand la teneur en Cr decroit indique que dans l'uranium non allie la transformation se fait sans maintien de la coherence au-dessus de 600 deg. C; a plus basse temperature la

  5. Phase Transformations in a Uranium-Zirconium Alloy containing 2 weight per cent Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G

    1961-04-15

    The phase transformations in a uranium-zirconium alloy containing 2 weight percent zirconium have been examined metallographically after heat treatments involving isothermal transformation of y and cooling from the -y-range at different rates. Transformations on heating and cooling have also been studied in uranium-zirconium alloys with 0.5, 2 and 5 weight per cent zirconium by means of differential thermal analysis. The results are compatible with the phase diagram given by Howlett and Knapton. On quenching from the {gamma}-range the {gamma} phase transforms martensitically to supersaturated a the M{sub S} temperature being about 490 C. During isothermal transformation of {gamma} in the temperature range 735 to 700 C {beta}-phase is precipitated as Widmanstaetten plates and the equilibrium structure consists of {beta} and {gamma}{sub 1}. Below 700 C {gamma} transforms completely to Widmanstaetten plates which consist of {beta} above 660 C and of a at lower temperatures. Secondary phases, {gamma}{sub 2} above 610 C and {delta} below this temperature, are precipitated from the initially supersaturated Widmanstaetten plates during the isothermal treatments. At and slightly below 700 C the cooperative growth of |3 and {gamma}{sub 2} is observed. The results of isothermal transformation are summarized in a TTTdiagram.

  6. Contribution towards the study of {beta}{yields}{alpha} transformation in uranium and its alloys (1962); Contribution a l'etude de la transformation {beta}{yields}{alpha} dans l'uranium et ses alliages (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-05-15

    The kinetics of the transformation of uranium alloys containing 0.5 - 0.75 - 1.0 - 1.5 and 3 atoms per cent have been studied. The influence of heat treatment before decomposition has been discussed. The study of the transformation characteristics such as kinetics, residual phases, phenomena connected with the coherence between phases, reversibility below the equilibrium temperature, shows the following mechanisms exhibited during the decomposition of the {beta} phase on lowering the temperature: 1 ) eutectoid, 2) bainitic, 3) martensitic. The study of the TTT diagrams of alloys containing decreasing percentages of chromium indicates that the unalloyed uranium transforms without maintaining the coherence above 600 deg. C, where as at lower temperatures the transformation is mainly martensitic. The various alloying elements can be characterised by their influence on the three TTT curves corresponding to the three possible transformation mechanisms. The ability of the uranium alloys to alpha grain refining during isothermal decomposition or ambient temperature quenching is directly connected with the characteristics of the TTT diagrams and especially to the mode of bainitic transformation. (author) [French] II a ete etudie la cinetique de transformation des alliages uranium-chrome de teneur 0,5 - 0,75 - 1 - 1,5 - et 3 atomes pour cent. L'influence des traitements thermiques precedant la decomposition a ete discutee. L'etude des caracteristiques de la transformation: cinetique, phases residuelles, phenomenes lies a la coherence entre phases, reversibilite au-dessous de la temperature d'equilibre, permet de conclure que la decomposition met en jeu successivement les trois mecanismes eutectoide, bainitique et martensitique quand la temperature baisse. L'etude de l'evolution des diagrammes TTT quand la teneur en Cr decroit indique que dans l'uranium non allie la transformation se fait sans maintien de la coherence au-dessus de 600 deg. C; a

  7. β → α isothermal transformation in pure and weakly alloyed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.; Lelong, C.

    1966-01-01

    The TTT diagrams describing the β → α isothermal transformation have been made by isothermal dilatometry for pure uranium and 21 alloys based on chromium, silicon, molybdenum, iron, aluminium, zirconium. The thermal cycle preceding the isothermal step influences the decomposition kinetics at temperature corresponding to the eutectoid and martensitic mechanisms, but not in the range where the bainitic transformation occurs. The stability of the β phase decreases with the chromium, molybdenum and silicon concentration: it is affected differently for each of the three transformation mechanisms. The ternary additions, even at very low concentration have a considerable effect on the stability. When the concentration decreases the martensitic mechanism is active at progressively higher temperature, diminishing to the point of disappearance the temperature range where the transformation is considered as being of the bainitic mode. (author) [fr

  8. Shape memory effects in a uranium + 14 at. % niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeer, R.A.; Ogle, J.C.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    There is a class of alloys that, on cooling from elevated temperatures, experience a martensitic phase change. Some of these, when stressed in the martensitic state to an apparently plastic strain, recover their predeformed shape simply by heating. This striking shape recovery is known as the ''shape memory effect'' (SME). Up to a certain limiting strain, epsilon/sub L/, 100% shape recovery may be accomplished. This memory phenomenon seems to be attributable to the thermoelastic nature of and deformational modes associated with the phase transformation in the alloy. Thus, shape recovery results when a stress-biased martensite undergoes a heat-activated reversion back to the parent phase from which it originated. There are uranium alloys that demonstrate SME-behavior. Uranium-rich, uranium--niobium alloys were the first to be documented; New experimental observations of SME in a polycrystalline uranium--niobium alloy are presented. This alloy can exhibit a two-way memory under cetain circumstances. Additional indirect evidence is presented suggesting that the characteristics of the accompanying phase transformation in this alloy meet the criteria or ''selection rules'' deemed essential for SME

  9. Study of the transformation of uranium-niobium alloys with low niobium concentrations, tempered from the gamma and beta + gamma 1 regions and then annealed at different temperatures. Comparison with uranium-molybdenum alloys (1963); Etude des transformations des alliages uranium-niobium a faible teneur en niobium trempes depuis les domaines gamma et beta + gamma 1 puis revenus a differentes temperatures. Comparaison avec les alliages uranium-molybdene (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-09-15

    The author shows that uranium-niobium alloys, like uranium-molybdenum alloys, tempered from the gamma region, give a martensitic phase with a structure deriving from that of alpha uranium by a slight contraction parallel to the axis [001], The critical cooling rate allowing the formation of this martensite is 80 deg. C/s at 750 deg. C. Retention of the beta phase of uranium-niobium alloys is particularly difficult, the critical retention rate being 700 deg. C/s at 668 deg. C for an alloy containing 2.5 at. per cent of Nb. This beta phase is completely converted to the alpha phase at room temperature in about 6 hours. The TTT curves of this beta alloy are effectively reduced to the lower branch of the lower 'C'. The beta phase conversion law is expressed as: 1-x = exp. (kt){sup n} x being the degree of progression of the conversion, t the time, n an exponent no-varying with temperature and having approximately the value 2 for the alloy considered, k an increasing function of temperature. The activation energy of conversion is of the order of 14,600 cal/mole. Niobium is much less active than molybdenum as a stabiliser of beta uranium. (author) [French] Dans ce travail l'auteur montre que les alliages uranium-niobium, comme d'ailleurs les alliages uranium-molybdene, trempes depuis le domaine gamma, donnent une phase martensitique dont la structure derive de celle de l'uranium alpha par une legere contraction parallele de l'axe [001]. La vitesse critique de refroidissement permettant la formation de cette martensite est de 80 deg. C/s a 750 deg. C. La retention de la phase beta des alliages uranium-niobium est particulierement delicate car la vitesse critique de retention est de 700 deg. C/s a 668 deg. C pour l'alliage a 2,5 at. pour cent de Nb. Cette phase beta se transforme completement en phase alpha a la temperature ordinaire en 6 heures environ. Les courbes TTT de cet alliage de structure beta se reduisent pratiquement a la branche inferieure du 'C' inferieur. La

  10. Study of the quenching and subsequent return to room temperature of uranium-chromium, uranium-iron, and uranium-molybdenum alloys containing only small amounts of the alloying element; Etude de la trempe et du revenu a la temperature ordinaire d'alliages uranium-chrome, uranium-fer et uranium-molybdene, a faible teneur en element d'alliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaplace, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-09-15

    By means of an apparatus which makes possible thermal pre-treatments in vacuo, quenching carried out in a high purity argon atmosphere, and simultaneous recording of time temperature cooling and thermal contraction curves, the author has examined the transformations which occur in uranium-chromium, uranium-iron and uranium-molybdenum alloys during their quenching and subsequent return to room temperature. For uranium-chromium and uranium-iron alloys, the temperature at which the {gamma} {yields} {beta} transformation starts varies very little with the rate of cooling. For uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 atom per cent of Mo, this temperature is lowered by 120 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn. The temperature at which the {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation starts is lowered by 170 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn in the case of uranium-chromium alloy containing 0,37 atom per cent of Cr. The temperature is little affected in the case of uranium-iron alloys. The addition of chromium or iron makes it possible to conserve the form {beta} at ordinary temperatures after quenching from the {beta} and {gamma} regions. The {beta} phase is particularly unstable and changes into needles of the {alpha} form even at room temperatures according to an autocatalytic transformation law similar to the austenitic-martensitic transformation law in the case of iron. The {beta} phase obtained by quenching from the {beta} phase region is more stable than that obtained by quenching from the {gamma} region. Chromium is a more effective stabiliser of the {beta} phase than is iron. Unfortunately it causes serious surface cracking. The {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation in uranium-chromium alloys has been followed at room temperature by means of micro-cinematography. The author has not observed the direct {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation in uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 per cent of molybdenum even for cooling rates of up to 2000 deg. C

  11. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures

  12. Study of the quenching and subsequent return to room temperature of uranium-chromium, uranium-iron, and uranium-molybdenum alloys containing only small amounts of the alloying element; Etude de la trempe et du revenu a la temperature ordinaire d'alliages uranium-chrome, uranium-fer et uranium-molybdene, a faible teneur en element d'alliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaplace, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-09-15

    By means of an apparatus which makes possible thermal pre-treatments in vacuo, quenching carried out in a high purity argon atmosphere, and simultaneous recording of time temperature cooling and thermal contraction curves, the author has examined the transformations which occur in uranium-chromium, uranium-iron and uranium-molybdenum alloys during their quenching and subsequent return to room temperature. For uranium-chromium and uranium-iron alloys, the temperature at which the {gamma} {yields} {beta} transformation starts varies very little with the rate of cooling. For uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 atom per cent of Mo, this temperature is lowered by 120 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn. The temperature at which the {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation starts is lowered by 170 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn in the case of uranium-chromium alloy containing 0,37 atom per cent of Cr. The temperature is little affected in the case of uranium-iron alloys. The addition of chromium or iron makes it possible to conserve the form {beta} at ordinary temperatures after quenching from the {beta} and {gamma} regions. The {beta} phase is particularly unstable and changes into needles of the {alpha} form even at room temperatures according to an autocatalytic transformation law similar to the austenitic-martensitic transformation law in the case of iron. The {beta} phase obtained by quenching from the {beta} phase region is more stable than that obtained by quenching from the {gamma} region. Chromium is a more effective stabiliser of the {beta} phase than is iron. Unfortunately it causes serious surface cracking. The {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation in uranium-chromium alloys has been followed at room temperature by means of micro-cinematography. The author has not observed the direct {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation in uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 per cent of molybdenum even for cooling rates of up to 2000 deg. C

  13. Metallurgical structures in a high uranium-silicon alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, B.S.; Berthiaume, L.C.; Conversi, J.L.

    1968-10-01

    The effects of fabrication and heat treatment variables on the structure of a uranium -- 3.96 wt% silicon alloy have been studied using optical microscopy, quantitative metallography and hardness determinations. It has been shown that an optimum temperature exists below the peritectoid temperature where the maximum amount of transformation to U 3 Si occurs in a given period of time. The time required to fully transform an as-cast alloy at this optimum temperature is affected by the size of the primary U 3 Si 2 dendrites. With a U 3 Si 2 particle size of <12 μm complete transformation can be achieved in four hours. (author)

  14. Oxidation of uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, S.

    1976-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of uranium in oxygen, water and water + oxygen mixtures is compared and contrasted. A considerable amount of work, much of it conflicting, has been published on the U + H 2 O and U + H 2 O + O 2 systems. An attempt has been made to summarise this data and to explain the reasons for the lack of agreement between the experimental results. The evidence for the mechanism involving OH - ion diffusion as the reacting entity in both the U + H 2 O and U + O 2 + H 2 O reactions is advanced. The more limited corrosion data on some lean uranium alloys and on some higher addition alloys referred to as stainless materials is summarised together with some previously unreported results obtained with these materials at AWRE. The data indicates that in the absence of oxygen the lean alloys behave in a similar manner to uranium and evolve hydrogen in approximately theoretical quantities. But the stainless alloys absorb most of the product hydrogen and assessments of reactivity based on hydrogen evolution would be very inaccurate. The direction that future corrosion work on these materials should take is recommended

  15. Fracture characteristics of uranium alloys by scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koger, J.W.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    The fracture characteristics of uranium alloys were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The fracture mode of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of uranium-7.5 weight percent niobium-2.5 weight percent zirconium (Mulberry) alloy, uranium--niobium alloys, and uranium--molybdenum alloys in aqueous chloride solutions is intergranular. The SCC fracture surface of the Mulberry alloy is characterized by very clean and smooth grain facets. The tensile-overload fracture surfaces of these alloys are characteristically ductile dimple. Hydrogen-embrittlement failures of the uranium alloys are brittle and the fracture mode is transgranular. Fracture surfaces of the uranium-0.75 weight percent titanium alloys are quasi cleavage

  16. Phase transformation of metastable cubic γ-phase in U-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Hegde, P.V.; Prasad, G.J.; Dey, G.K.; Kamath, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable efforts have been put by many fuel designers to develop low enriched uranium (LEU 235 ) base U-Mo alloy as a potential fuel for core conversion of existing research and test reactors which are running on high enriched uranium (HEU > 85%U 235 ) fuel and also for the upcoming new reactors. U-Mo alloy with minimum 8 wt% molybdenum shows excellent metastability with cubic γ-phase in cast condition. However, it is important to characterize the decomposition behaviour of metastable cubic γ-uranium in its equilibrium products for in reactor fuel performance point of view. The present paper describes the phase transformation behaviour of cubic γ-uranium phase in U-Mo alloys with three different molybdenum compositions (i.e. 8 wt%, 9 wt% and 10 wt%). U-Mo alloys were prepared in an induction melting furnace and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method for phase determination. Microstructures were developed for samples in as cast condition. The alloys were hot rolled in cubic γ-phase to break the cast structure and then they were aged at 500 o C for 68 h and 240 h, so that metastable cubic γ-uranium will undergo eutectoid decomposition to form equilibrium phases of orthorhombic α-uranium and body centered tetragonal U 2 Mo intermetallic compound. U-Mo alloy samples with different ageing history were then characterized by XRD for phase and development of microstructure.

  17. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  18. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, V.A.; Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Chukin, A.V.; Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovich, V.A., E-mail: v.a.volkovich@urfu.ru [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F. [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry UD RAS, Ekaterinburg, 620137 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G. [JSC “State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors”, Dimitrovgrad, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  1. Computer simulation of quenching uranium-0.75 weight per cent titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludtka, G.M.; Llewellyn, G.H.; Aramayo, G.A.; Siman-Tov, M.; Childs, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    A ''QUENCH SIMULATOR'' has been developed which uses finite difference heat transfer and finite element stress analysis techniques to predict the behavior of a metal during quenching. The actual nonlinear temperature- and microstructure-dependent physical, thermophysical, and mechanical properties are incorporated as input into the computer model as well as the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) behavior and heats of transformation of the alloy. The final output provides the transient temperature distribution, details the final residual profile, predicts and shows where distortion occurs, and maps out the microstructure distribution throughout the entire sample. These data are available in tabulated form, contour plots, or color-coded graphics. This analysis has been demonstrated on simple shapes for unalloyed uranium and the uranium-0.75 weight per titanium alloy which undergoes a martensite transformation and is quench-rate sensitive. The results of this study are discussed in detail in addition to other applications of this analysis approach which is generic in nature

  2. Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Meyer, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. (author)

  3. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  4. Study on segregation of aluminium-uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rui Marques de

    1979-01-01

    The relations between alloy solidification and solute segregation were considered. The solidification structure and the solute redistribution during the solidification of alloys with dendritic micro morphology were studied. The macro and micro segregation theories were reviewed. The mechanisms that could change the solidification structure were taken into account in the context of more homogeneous alloy production. Aluminum alloys solidification structures and segregation were studied experimentally in the 13 to 45% uranium range, usually considering solidification in static molds. The uranium alloys with up to 20% uranium were studied both for solidification in ingot molds and for controlled directional solidification. It was verified that these alloy compositions had structures similar to those of hipoeutectic alloys, showing an a phase with dendritic morphology and inter dendritic eutectic. For the alloys with more than 25% uranium, it was observed the formation of UAl 3 and UAl 4 phases with dendritic morphology. The dendritic UAl 3 , phase morphology was affected both by the solute concentration in the alloy and by the growth rate. The dendritic UAl 3 phase non-singular aspect could be destroyed with decrease of the alloy solute concentration. In the alloys obtained with higher cooling rates it was found a tendency for the formation of substantial quantities of equi axial crystals of the solute enriched phases in the central regions of the ingot upper half. In the more external regions it was observed dendritic growth of these phases, for alloy compositions with over 25% uranium. An adequate reduction in the cooling rate changed the solidification structure form and distribution, as well as the segregation type and intensity. The uranium content in the solidified macro structures is presented as a function of: cooling rate, superheating, mold size, mold form and its temperature, number of remelting and time for the melt homogenization and agitation. It was

  5. Corrosion resistant coatings for uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirick, L.J.; Lynch, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    Coatings to prevent the corrosion of uranium and uranium alloys are considered in two military applications: kinetic energy penetrators and aircraft counterweights. This study, which evaluated organic films and metallic coatings, demonstrated that the two most promising coatings are based on an electrodeposited nickel system and a galvanized zinc system

  6. A study of phase transformations processes in 0,5 to 4% mo uranium-molybdenum alloys; Etude des processus des transformations dans les alliages uranium-molybdene de teneur 0,5 a 4% en poids de molybdene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    Isothermal and continuous cooling transformations process have been established on uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 4 w% Mo. Transformations process of the {beta} and {gamma} solid solutions are described. These processes depend upon molybdenum concentration. Out of the {beta} solid solution phase appears an eutectoid decomposition of {beta} to ({alpha} + {gamma}) or the formation of a martensitic phase {alpha}''. The {gamma} solid solution shows a decomposition of {gamma} to ({alpha} + {gamma}) or ({alpha} + {gamma}'), or a formation of martensitic phases a' or a'{sub b}. The U-Mo equilibrium diagram is discussed, particularly in low concentrations zones. Limits between domains ({alpha} + {gamma}) and ({beta} + {gamma}), ({beta} + {gamma}) and {gamma}, ({beta} + {gamma}) and {beta}, have been determined. (author) [French] Les processus des transformations isothermes, et au cours de refroidissements continus ont ete etablis sur les alliages uranium-molybdene de 0,5 a 4 % en poids de Mo. Ceci a permis de mettre en evidence les processus des transformations de solutions solides {beta} et {gamma}, differents suivant la teneur en molybdene de l'alliage. Dans le premier cas il y a decomposition eutectoide de {beta} en ({alpha} + {gamma}) ou formations d'une phase martensitique {alpha}''. Dans le second cas il y a decomposition de {gamma} soit en ({alpha} + {gamma}) soit en ({alpha} + {gamma}') suivant la temperature, ou bien formation des phases martensitiques {alpha}' ou {alpha}'{sub b}. Le diagramme d'equilibre, uranium-molybdene est sujet a de nombreuses controverses, en particulier dans la zone des faibles concentrations. Les limites entre les domaines ({alpha} + {gamma}) et ({beta} + {gamma}), ({beta} + {gamma}) et {gamma}, ({beta} + {gamma}) et {beta}, ont ete determinees. (auteur)

  7. Method of removing niobium from uranium-niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, E.N.; Schlier, D.S.; Shinopulos, G.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of removing niobium from a uranium-niobium alloy. It comprises dissolving the uranium-niobium alloy metal pieces in a first aqueous solution containing an acid selected from the group consisting of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid and fluoboric acid as a catalyst to provide a second aqueous solution, which includes uranium (U +4 ), acid radical ions, the acids insolubles including uranium oxides and niobium oxides; adding nitric acid to the insolubles to oxidize the niobium oxides to yield niobic acid and to complete the solubilization of any residual uranium; and separating the niobic acid from the nitric acid and solubilized uranium

  8. Internal hydrogen embrittlement of gamma-stabilized uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.L.; Koger, J.W.; Bennett, R.K.; Williamson, A.L.; Hemperly, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships between the tensile ductility and fracture characteristics of as-quenched, gamma-stabilized uranium alloys (uranium--10 wt percent molybdenum, uranium--8.5 wt percent niobium, uranium--10 wt percent niobium, and uranium--7.5 wt percent niobium--2.5 wt percent zirconium), the hydrogen content of the tensile specimens, and the hydrogen gas pressure during the annealing at 850 0 C of the tensile test blanks prior to quenching were established. For these alloys, the tensile ductility decreases only slightly with increasing hydrogen content up to a critical hydrogen concentration above which the tensile ductility drops to nearly zero. The only alloy not displaying this sharp drop in tensile ductility was U--7.5 Nb--2.5 Zr, probably because sufficiently high hydrogen contents could not be achieved under our experimental arrangements. The critical hydrogen content for ductility loss increased with increasing hydrogen solubility in the alloy. Fracture surfaces produced by internal hydrogen embrittlement do not resemble those produced by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aqueous environments containing chloride ions. 8 figs

  9. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  10. Solidification microstructures of aluminium-uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The solidification of microstrutures of aluminium-uranium alloys in the range of 4 to 20% uranium is investigated. The solidification was obtained both in ingot molds and under controlled directional solidification. The conditions for the presence of primary crystals and eutectic are discussed and an analysis of the influence of variables (growth rate and thermal gradient in the liquid) on the alloy structure is made. The effect of cooling rate on the alloy structures has been determined. It is found that the resulting structure can be derived from the kinectics concept, as required by the coupled-zone theory. Suggestions on the qualitative intervals of composition and temperatures with eutectic growth are presented [pt

  11. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  12. Irradiation Stability of Uranium Alloys at High Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations were begun of a series of unrestrained dilute uranium alloy specimens irradiated to exposures up to 13,000 MWD/T in NaK-containing stainless steel capsules. This test, part of a program of development of uranium metal fuels for desalination and power reactors sponsored by the Division of Reactor Development and Technology, has the objective of defining the temperature and exposure limits of swelling resistance of the alloyed uranium. This paper discusses those test results

  13. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabane, G.; Englander, M.; Lehmann, J.

    1955-01-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase γ, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase α) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl 2 ) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl 2 particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  14. Development, preparation and characterization of uranium molybdenum alloys for dispersion fuel application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, V.P. [Metallic Fuels Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: vedsinha@barc.gov.in; Prasad, G.J.; Hegde, P.V.; Keswani, R.; Basak, C.B.; Pal, S.; Mishra, G.P. [Metallic Fuels Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-04-03

    Most of the research and test reactors worldwide have undergone core conversion from high enriched uranium base fuel to low enriched uranium base fuel under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program, which was launched in the late 1970s to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation. To realize this goal, high density uranium compounds and {gamma}-stabilized uranium alloy powder were identified. In Metallic Fuels Division of BARC, R and D efforts are on to develop these high density uranium base alloys. This paper describes the preparation flow sheet for different compositions of Uranium and molybdenum alloys by an innovative powder processing route with uranium and molybdenum metal powders as starting materials. The same composition of U-Mo alloys were also fabricated by conventional method i.e. ingot metallurgy route. The U-Mo alloys prepared by both the methods were then characterized by XRD for phase analysis. The photomicrographs of alloys with different compositions prepared by powder metallurgy and ingot metallurgy routes are also included in the paper. The paper also covers the comparison of properties of the alloys prepared by powder metallurgy and ingot metallurgy routes.

  15. Development, preparation and characterization of uranium molybdenum alloys for dispersion fuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Prasad, G.J.; Hegde, P.V.; Keswani, R.; Basak, C.B.; Pal, S.; Mishra, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the research and test reactors worldwide have undergone core conversion from high enriched uranium base fuel to low enriched uranium base fuel under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program, which was launched in the late 1970s to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation. To realize this goal, high density uranium compounds and γ-stabilized uranium alloy powder were identified. In Metallic Fuels Division of BARC, R and D efforts are on to develop these high density uranium base alloys. This paper describes the preparation flow sheet for different compositions of Uranium and molybdenum alloys by an innovative powder processing route with uranium and molybdenum metal powders as starting materials. The same composition of U-Mo alloys were also fabricated by conventional method i.e. ingot metallurgy route. The U-Mo alloys prepared by both the methods were then characterized by XRD for phase analysis. The photomicrographs of alloys with different compositions prepared by powder metallurgy and ingot metallurgy routes are also included in the paper. The paper also covers the comparison of properties of the alloys prepared by powder metallurgy and ingot metallurgy routes

  16. Fluorimetric determination of uranium in zirconium and zircaloy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta L, E.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this procedure is to determine microquantities of uranium in zirconium and zircaloy alloys. The report also covers the determination of uranium in zirconium alloys and zircaloy in the range from 0.25 to 20 ppm on 1 g of base sample of radioactive material. These limit its can be variable if the size of the used aliquot one is changed for the final determination of uranium. (Author)

  17. Uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 3 per cent by weight of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.

    1959-01-01

    The following properties have been determined in the new cast state of uranium alloys containing 0.5-1-1.8-2 and 3.5 per cent of molybdenum: micro-graphical aspect, crystalline structure, thermal expansion, the mechanical characteristics, behaviour when subjected to cyclic temperature variations, and heat treatment. The transformation curves have been established for continuous cooling at rates varying between 2.5 and 200 deg. C per minute, using a dilatation method for the alloys containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 per cent Mo. T.T.T. curves have been traced for 0.5 and 1.0 per cent Mo alloys and the Ms points determined for alloys containing 2.0 and 3.0 par cent Mo. In this way it has been possible to show the different results of transformation, brought about either by nucleation and diffusion or by shear - the alloy containing 1 per cent Mo, give two martensites α' and α'' and the alloys containing 2 and 3 per cent Mo give one martensite with a band structure. (author) [fr

  18. Development of metal uranium fuel and testing of construction materials (I-VI); Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlovic, A.

    1965-11-01

    This project includes the following tasks: Study of crystallisation of metal melt and beta-alpha transforms in uranium and uranium alloys; Study of the thermal treatment influence on phase transformations and texture in uranium alloys; Radiation damage of metal uranium; Project related to irradiation of metal uranium in the reactor; Development of fuel element for nuclear reactors

  19. Welding of a powder metallurgy uranium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, R.K.; Doughty, M.W.; Alexander-Morrison, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interest at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in powder metallurgy (P/M) uranium parts is due to the potential cost savings in the fabrication of the material, to achieving a more homogeneous product, and to the reduction of uranium scrap. The joining of P/M uranium-6 wt-% niobium (U-6Nb) alloys by the electron beam (EB) welding process results in weld porosity. Varying the EB welding parameters did not eliminate the porosity. Reducing the oxygen and nitrogen content in this P/M uranium material did minimize the weld porosity, but this step made the techniques of producing the material more difficult. Therefore, joining wrought and P/M U-6Nb rods with the inertia welding technique is considered. Since no gases will be evolved with the solid-state welding process and the weld area will be compacted, porosity should not be a problem in the inertia welding of uranium alloys. The welds that are evaluated are wrought-to-wrought, wrought-to-P/M, and P/M-to-P/M U-6Nb samples

  20. Thermal stress relieving of dilute uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckelmeyer, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of thermal stress relieving of uranium - 2.3 wt. % niobium, uranium - 2.0 wt. % molybdenum, and uranium - 0.75 wt. % titanium are reported and discussed. Two temperature regimes of stress relieving are observed. In the low temperature regime (T 0 C) the process appears to be controlled by an athermal microplasticity mechanism which can be completely suppressed by prior age hardening. In the high temperature regime (300 0 C 0 C) the process appears to be controlled by a classical diffusional creep mechanism which is strongly dependent on temperature and time. Stress relieving is accelerated in cases where it occurs simultaneously with age hardening. The potential danger of residual stress induced stress corrosion cracking of uranium alloys is discussed. It is shown that the residual stress relief which accompanies age hardening of uranium - 0.75% titanium more than compensates for the reduction in K/sub ISCC/ caused by aging. As a result, age hardening actually decreases the susceptibility of this alloy to residual stress induced stress corrosion cracking

  1. Durability of adhesive bonds to uranium alloys, tungsten, tantalum, and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    Long-term durability of epoxy bonds to alloys of uranium (U-Nb and Mulberry), nickel-plated uranium, thorium, tungsten, tantalum, tantalum--10 percent tungsten, and aluminum was evaluated. Significant strengths remain after ten years of aging; however, there is some evidence of bond deterioration with uranium alloys and thorium stored in ambient laboratory air

  2. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content; Alliages uranium-aluminium a faible teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabane, G; Englander, M; Lehmann, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase {gamma}, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase {alpha}) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl{sub 2}) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl{sub 2} particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  3. Spectrographic analysis of uranium-based alloys; Analyse spectrographique d'alliages a base d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G.; Blum, P.

    1959-07-01

    The authors describe a spectrographic method for dosing cobalt in cobalt-uranium alloys with cobalt content from 0.05 to 10 per cent. They describe sample preparation, alloy solution, spectrographic conditions, and photometry operations. In a second part, they address the dosing of boron in uranium borides. They implement the so-called 'porous cup' method. Boride is dissolved by fusion with Co{sub 3}-NaK [French] Uranium-Cobalt: il est decrit une methode spectrographique de dosage de cobalt dans des alliages cobalt-uranium pour des teneurs de 0,05 pour cent a 10 pour cent de Co. On opere sur solution avec le fer comme standard interne. Borure d'Uranium: ici encore on opere par la methode dite 'porous cup', le fer etant conserve comme standard interne. Le borure est mis en solution par fusion avec Co{sub 3}NaK. (auteurs)

  4. Study of the pyrophoric characteristics of uranium-iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessis, X.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study is to understand the pyrophoric characteristics of uranium-iron alloys. In order to carry out this research we have elected to use uranium-iron alloy powder with granules of 200 μm and 1000 μm diameter with 4%, 10.8% and 14% iron content. The experiments were performed on small samples of few milligrams and on larger quantities of few hundred grams. The main conclusions obtained are the followings: -The reaction start at 453 K (180 deg. C) and the ignition at 543 K (270 deg. C) - The influence of the specific area seems more important than the iron concentration in the alloys - When the alloy ignites, the fire spreads quickly and the alloy rapidly consumes. (author)

  5. Experimental study on uranium alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaconu, M.; Meleg, T.; Dinu, A.; Mihalache, M.; Ciuca, I.; Abrudeanu, M.

    2013-01-01

    The heaviest isotope of hydrogen is one of critically important elements in the field of fusion reactor technology. Conventionally, uranium metal is used for the storage of heavier isotopes of hydrogen (D and T). Under appropriate conditions, uranium absorbs hydrogen to form a stable UH 3 compound when exposed to molecular hydrogen at the temperature range of 300-500 O C at varied operating pressure below one atmosphere. However, hydriding-dehydriding on pure uranium disintegrates the specimen into fine powder. The powder is highly pyrophoric and has low heat conductivity, which makes it difficult to control the temperature, and has a high possibility of contamination Due to the powdering effect as hydrogen in uranium, alloying uranium with other metal looks promising for the use of hydrogen storage materials. This paper has the aim to study the hydriding properties of uranium alloys, including U-Ti U-Mo and U-Ni. The uranium alloys specimens were prepared by melting the constituent elements by means of simultaneous measurements of thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA-DTA) and studied in as cast condition as hydrogen storage materials. Then samples were thermally treated under constant flow of hydrogen, at various temperatures between 573-973 0 K. The structural and absorption properties of the products obtained were examined by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They slowly reacted with hydrogen to form the ternary hydride and the hydrogenated samples mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride bat contained also U or UO 2 and some transient phase. (authors)

  6. Dissolution of metallic uranium and its alloys. Part 1. Review of analytical and process-scale metallic uranium dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, C.A.; Gates-Anderson, D.; Fitch, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on dissolution/reaction systems capable of treating uranium metal waste to remove its pyrophoric properties. The primary emphasis is the review of literature describing analytical and production-scale dissolution methods applied to either uranium metal or uranium alloys. A brief summary of uranium's corrosion behavior is included since the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys affects their dissolution behavior. Based on this review, dissolution systems were recommended for subsequent screening studies designed to identify the best system to treat depleted uranium metal wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). (author)

  7. Preparation, heat treatment, and mechanical properties of the uranium-5 weight percent chromium eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, A.B.

    1980-10-01

    The eutectic alloy of uranium-5 wt % chromium (U-5Cr) was prepared from high-purity materials and cast into 1-in.-thick ingots. This material was given several simple heat treatments, the mechanical properties of these heat-treated samples were determined; and the microstructure was examined. Some data on the melting point and transformation temperatures were obtained

  8. Development of casting techniques for uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The casting process concerning furnace set-up, mould temperatures, pouring temperatures, out gassing, post heating, casting recovery and crucible and mould clean-up is discussed. Some applications of casting theory can be made in practice, but experience in handling the metal is most valuable in the successful solution of a new problem. The casting of uranium alloys using induction stirring of the melt to promote homogeneity in the casting is described. A few remarks are made concerning safety aspects associated with the casting of uranium

  9. Some properties of aluminum-uranium alloys in the cast, rolled and annealed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.I.; McGee, I.J.; Norlock, L.R.

    1960-06-01

    The metallographic and hardness changes associated with the rolling and subsequent. annealing of aluminum alloys containing up to 30-wt.% uranium have been described. The alloys possessed good rolling properties. However the richer alloys were unusual in that after an initial reduction,, further cold rolling caused softening. In the alloy range examined, increasing uranium contents caused reduced preferred orientation. Qualitative explanations have been proposed to account for the observations on roll softening and preferred orientation. Heat-treating and ageing experiments confirmed that the solid solubility of uranium in aluminum is negligible. (author)

  10. Design of high density gamma-phase uranium alloys for LEU dispersion fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Ray, Allison E.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium alloys are candidates for the fuel phase in aluminium matrix dispersion fuels requiring high uranium loading. Certain uranium alloys have been shown to have good irradiation performance at intermediate burnup. previous studies have shown that acceptable fission gas swelling behavior and fuel-aluminium interaction is possible only if the fuel alloy can be maintained in the high temperature body-centered-cubic γ-phase during fabrication and irradiation, at temperatures at which αU is the equilibrium phase. transition metals in Groups V through VIII are known to allow metastable retention of the gamma phase below the equilibrium isotherm. These metals have varying degrees of effectiveness in stabilizing the gamma phase. Certain alloys are metastable for very long times at the relatively low fuel temperatures seen in research operation. In this paper, the existing data on the gamma stability of binary and ternary uranium alloys is analysed. The mechanism and kinetics of decomposition of the gamma phase are assessed with the help of metal alloy theory. Alloys with the highest possible uranium content, good gamma-phase stability, and good neutronic performance are identified for further metallurgical studies and irradiation tests. Results from theory will be compared with experimentally generated data. (author)

  11. Amorphous uranium alloy and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, R.J.; McElfresh, M.W.; McGuire, T.R.; Plaskett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    An amorphous alloy containing uranium and a member selected from the group N, P, As, Sb, Bi, S, Se, Te, Po and mixtures thereof; and use thereof for storage medium, light modulator or optical isolator. (author) figs

  12. Equations of state for enriched uranium and uranium alloy to 3500 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Chaomao; Hai Yuying; Liu Jenlong; Li Zhenrong

    1990-04-01

    The volume compressions of 6 kinds of cast materials including enriched uranium, poor uranium, U-0.57 wt% Ti, U-0.33 wt% Nb, U-2.85 wt% Nb and U-7.5 wt% Nb-3.3 wt% Zr have been determined by monitoring piston displacements in a piston cylinder apparatus with double strengthening rings to 3500 MPa at room temperature. The dilation of the cylinder vessel and the press deformation were corrected by some experiments. The calculational data free from using the standard sample closed with used standard sample. The volume compressions of enriched uranium and poor uranium are nearly coincident. Pure uranium is more compressible than uranium alloys. These values of enriched uranium are in close agreement with values of Bridgman's pure uranium. The fitting coefficients of Bridgman's polynomial and Anderson's equation of state and isothermal bulk modules for the above materials are given

  13. Martensitic transformation, shape memory effects, and other curious mechanical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeer, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review tutorially the subject of martensitic transformations in uranium alloys emphasizing their role in the shape memory effect (SME). We examine first what a martensitic transformation is, illustrating some of its characteristics with specific examples. As well as being athermal in nature, as expected, data are presented indicating that martensitic transformations in some uranium alloys also have a strong isothermal component. In addition, a few alloys are known to exhibit thermoelastic martensitic reactions. The SME, which is associated with these, is defined and demonstrated graphically with data from a uranium-6 wt % niobium alloy. Some of the important variables influencing SME behavior are described. Specifically, these are reheat temperature, amount of deformation, crystal structure, and composition. A mechanism for SME is postulated and the association with martensitic transformation is detailed. A self-induced shape instability in the uranium-7.5 wt % niobium-2.5 wt % zirconium alloy with a rationalization of the behavior in terms of texture and lattice parameter change during aging is reviewed and discussed. 24 figures

  14. Highlighting micrographic structures of uranium alloys containing 0.5 to 10 per cent wt molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laniesse, J.; Bouleau, M.

    1959-02-01

    The authors report a study which aimed at determining for different uranium molybdenum alloys and with respect to their molybdenum content a polishing method which allows a relatively simple grain examination in the as-cast condition, an as perfect as possible resolution of eutectic decompositions, and the appropriate conditions to highlight structures (beta-alpha and gamma-alpha martensite transformations, beta phase retention and decomposition, transient structures, eutectoid decomposition, and so on). Alloys differ by their molybdenum content: from 0.5 to 1 per cent wt, 1.5 to 3 per cent wt, 5 to 10 per cent wt

  15. Study of the pyrophoric characteristics of uranium-iron alloys; Etude du caractere pyrophorique des alliages uranium fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplessis, X

    2000-02-23

    The objective of the study is to understand the pyrophoric characteristics of uranium-iron alloys. In order to carry out this research we have elected to use uranium-iron alloy powder with granules of 200 {mu}m and 1000 {mu}m diameter with 4%, 10.8% and 14% iron content. The experiments were performed on small samples of few milligrams and on larger quantities of few hundred grams. The main conclusions obtained are the followings: -The reaction start at 453 K (180 deg. C) and the ignition at 543 K (270 deg. C) - The influence of the specific area seems more important than the iron concentration in the alloys - When the alloy ignites, the fire spreads quickly and the alloy rapidly consumes. (author)

  16. Obtention of uranium-molybdenum alloy ingots technique to avoid carbon contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Reis, Sergio C.; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Faeda, Kelly Cristina M.; Ferraz, Wilmar B., E-mail: tap@cdtn.b, E-mail: jbp@cdtn.b, E-mail: jgmb@cdtn.b, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The replacement of high enriched uranium (U{sup 235} > 85 wt%) by low enriched uranium (U{sup 235} < 20wt%) nuclear fuels in research and test reactors is being implemented as an initiative of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, conceived in the USA since mid-70s, in order to avoid nuclear weapons proliferation. Such replacement implies in the use of compounds or alloys with higher uranium densities. Among the several uranium alloys investigated since then, U-Mo presents great application potential due to its physical properties and good behavior during irradiation, which makes it an important option as a nuclear fuel material for the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. The development of the plate-type nuclear fuel based on U-Mo alloy is being performed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) and also at IPEN. The carbon contamination of the alloy is one of the great concerns during the melting process. It was observed that U-Mo alloy is more critical considering carbon contamination when using graphite crucibles. Alternative melting technique was implemented at CDTN in order to avoid carbon contamination from graphite crucible using Yttria stabilized ZrO{sub 2} crucibles. Ingots with low carbon content and good internal quality were obtained. (author)

  17. Properties of low content uranium-molybdenum alloys which may be used as nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Decours, J.

    1964-01-01

    Metallurgical properties are given in this report of uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 3 per cent of molybdenum. Since some of these alloys are used in EDF power reactors are given: briefly the operating conditions imposed on nuclear fuels: maximum temperature, temperature gradient and external pressure. In the first part are considered the structural properties of the alloys correlation with the phase transformation kinetics; a description is given of the effects of certain physico-metallurgical factors on the morphology and the crystalline structure of the materials: - solidification conditions and the heredity of the γ structure, - cooling rate at the transformation points, - whether or not the intermediate γ → β transformation is suppressed In the second part we show how a knowledge of the phase transformation processes has made it possible to define the optimum preparation conditions for these materials in the form of fuel tubes intended for the EDF reactors: casting conditions, controlled cooling treatments, weldability. In the third part we study the thermal, stability during the long duration high temperature treatments and the cycles in the two zones of the diagram α + γ; β + γ the effects of the morphology (in particular the two types of α pseudo-grains observed) and of the cooling rate during the transformation point transitions are described. In the fourth part are discussed the mechanical properties: resistance to a tractive force, resistance to creep, resilience. These properties can also be affected by the γ structure heredity and by the cooling rate to which the alloy has been subjected. In conclusion we discuss the reasons which led to the choice of some of these alloys for the first EDF reactors in particular the advantages of their high creep resistance between 450 and 600 deg C for use in the form of tubes subjected to an external pressure. (authors) [fr

  18. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization of microstrain in some iron and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, G.; Dayan, D.; Frank, G.A.; Landau, A.

    1996-01-01

    The high linear attenuation coefficient of steel, uranium and uranium based alloys is associated with the small penetration depth of X-rays with the usual wavelength used for diffraction. Nevertheless, by using the proper surface preparation technique, it is possible of obtaining surfaces with bulk properties (free of residual mechanical microstrain). Taking advantage of the feasibility to obtain well prepared surfaces, extensive work has been conducted in studying XRD line broadening effects from flat polycrystalline samples of steel, uranium and uranium alloys

  19. Obtention of uranium-molybdenum alloy ingots microstructure and phase characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Braga, Daniel M.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Ferraz, Wilmar B., E-mail: tap@cdtn.b, E-mail: bragadm@cdtn.b, E-mail: jbp@cdtn.b, E-mail: jgmb@cdtn.b, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The replacement of high enriched uranium (U-{sup 235} > 85 wt%) by low enriched uranium (U-{sup 235} < 20 wt%) nuclear fuels in research and test reactors is being implemented as an initiative of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, conceived in the USA since mid-70s, in order to avoid nuclear weapons proliferation. Such replacement implies in the use of compounds or alloys with higher uranium densities. Several uranium alloys that fill this requirement has been investigated since then. Among these alloys, U-Mo presents great application potential due to its physical properties and good behavior during irradiation, which makes it an important option as a nuclear fuel material for the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. The development of the plate-type nuclear fuel based on U-Mo alloys is being performed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) and also at the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN. U-{sup 10}Mo ingots were melted in an induction furnace with protective argon atmosphere. The microstructure of the ingots were characterized through optical and scanning electronic microscopy in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and X-Ray Diffraction were used as characterization techniques for elemental analysis and phases determination. It was confirmed the presence of metastable gamma-phase in the as cast condition, surrounded by hypereutectoid alpha-phase (uranium-rich phase), as well as a pearlite-like constituent, composed by alternated lamellas of U{sub 2}Mo compound and alpha-phase, in the heat treated condition. (author)

  20. Thermal stress relieving of dilute uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckelmeyer, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of thermal stress relieving of uranium - 2.3 wt % niobium, uranium - 2.0 wt % molybdenum, and uranium - 0.75 wt % titanium are reported and discussed. Two temperature regimes of stress relieving are observed. In the low temperature regime (T 0 C) the process appears to be controlled by an athermal microplasticity mechanism which can be completely suppressed by prior age hardening. In the high temperature regime (300 0 C 0 C) the process appears to be controlled by a classical diffusional creep mechanism which is strongly dependent on temperature and time. Stress relieving is accelerated in cases where it occurs simultaneously with age hardening. The potential danger of residual stress induced stress corrosion cracking of uranium alloys is discussed

  1. Study on thermo-oxide layers of uranium-niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lizhu; Yang Jiangrong; Zhou Ping

    2010-01-01

    Surface oxides structure of uranium-niobium alloys which were annealed under different temperatures (room temperature, 100, 200, 300 degree C, respectively)in air were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and depth profile. Thickness of thermo-oxide layers enhance with the increasing oxide temperature, and obvious changes to oxides structure are observed. Under different delt temperatures, Nb 2 O 5 are detected on the initial surface of U-Nb alloys, and a layer of NbO mixed with some NbO x (0 2 O 5 and Nb metal. Dealing samples in air from room temperature to 200 degree C, non-stoichiometric UO 2+x (UO 2 + interstitial oxygen, P-type semiconductor) are found on initial surface of U-Nb alloys, which has 0.7 eV shift to lower binding energy of U 4f 7/2 characteristics comparing to that of UO 2 . Under room temperature, UO 2 are commonly detected in the oxides layer, while under temperature of 100 and 200 degree C, some P-type UO 2+x are found in the oxide layers,which has a satellite at binding energy of 396.6 eV. When annealing at 300 degree C, higher valence oxides, such as U 3 O 8 or UO x (2 5/2 and U 4f 7/2 peaks are 392.2 and 381.8 eV, respectively. UO 2 mixed uranium metal are the main compositions in the oxide layers. From the results, influence of temperature to oxidation of uranium is more visible than to niobium in uranium-niobium alloys. (authors)

  2. Determination of uranium in fissium-uranium alloy and in fissium dross

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnar, L.Z.

    1976-01-01

    Dissolution and analysis techniques for fissium-uranium alloy and fissium dross are described. The fuming technique of dissolution effectively eliminated all interferring elements in the titration determination of U. The results from the semiquantitative analysis of fission dross by spark source mass spectrometry were tabulated

  3. Annex 4 - Task 08/13 final report, Producing the binary uranium alloys with alloying components Al, Mo, Zr, Nb, and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1961-01-01

    Due to reactivity of uranium in contact with the gasses O 2 , N 2 , H 2 , especially under higher temperatures uranium processing is always done in vacuum or inert gas. Melting, alloying and casting is done in high vacuum stoves. This report reviews the type of furnaces and includes detailed description of the electric furnace for producing uranium alloys which is available in the Institute

  4. Some potential strategies for the treatment of waste uranium metal and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.J.; Frankcom, T.M.; Gordon, P.L.; Sauer, N.N.

    1993-01-01

    Large quantities of uranium metal chips and turnings stored throughout the DOE Complex represent a potential hazard, due to the reactivity of this material toward air and water. Methods are being sought to mitigate this by conversion of the metal, via room temperature solutions routes, to a more inert oxide form. In addition, the recycling of uranium and concomitant recovery of alloying metals is a desirable goal. The emphasis of the authors' research is to explore a variety of oxidation and reduction pathways for uranium and its compounds, and to investigate how these reactions might be applied to the treatment of bulk wastes

  5. Nuclear criticality safety parameter evaluation for uranium metallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Abe, Alfredo, E-mail: andreasdpz@hotmail.com, E-mail: abye@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety during fuel fabrication process, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials requires criticality safety analysis. Normally the analysis involves computer calculations and safety parameters determination. There are many different Criticality Safety Handbooks where such safety parameters for several different fissile mixtures are presented. The handbooks have been published to provide data and safety principles for the design, safety evaluation and licensing of operations, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials. The data often comprise not only critical values, but also subcritical limits and safe parameters obtained for specific conditions using criticality safety calculation codes such as SCALE system. Although many data are available for different fissile and fissionable materials, compounds, mixtures, different enrichment level, there are a lack of information regarding a uranium metal alloy, specifically UMo and UNbZr. Nowadays uranium metal alloy as fuel have been investigated under RERTR program as possible candidate to became a new fuel for research reactor due to high density. This work aim to evaluate a set of criticality safety parameters for uranium metal alloy using SCALE system and MCNP Monte Carlo code. (author)

  6. Development of metal uranium fuel and testing of construction materials (I-VI); Part I; Razvoj metalnog goriva i ispitivanje konstrukcionih materijala (I-VI deo); I deo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihajlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    This project includes the following tasks: Study of crystallisation of metal melt and beta-alpha transforms in uranium and uranium alloys; Study of the thermal treatment influence on phase transformations and texture in uranium alloys; Radiation damage of metal uranium; Project related to irradiation of metal uranium in the reactor; Development of fuel element for nuclear reactors.

  7. Surface preparation process of a uranium titanium alloy, in particular for chemical nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri, A.; Lefevre, D.; Massicot, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this process the uranium alloy surface is attacked with a solution of lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid. Dissolved uranium can be recovered from the solution by an ion exchange resin. Treated alloy can be nickel plated by a chemical process [fr

  8. Microstructural investigation of as-cast uranium rich U–Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuting, E-mail: zhangyuting@caep.cn [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Jiangyou 621908, Sichuan (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, Anhui (China); Wang, Xin [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Jiangyou 621908, Sichuan (China); Zeng, Gang [Institute of Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Jiangyou 621908, Sichuan (China); Wang, Hui [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Jiangyou 621908, Sichuan (China); Jia, Jianping [Institute of Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Jiangyou 621908, Sichuan (China); Sheng, Liusi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, Anhui (China); Zhang, Pengcheng, E-mail: zpc113@sohu.com [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Jiangyou 621908, Sichuan (China)

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluates the microstructure in as-cast uranium rich U–Zr alloys, an important subsystem of U–Pu–Zr ternary metallic nuclear reactor fuel, as a function of the Zr content, from 2wt.% to 15wt.%Zr. It has been previously suggested that the unique intermetallic compound δ phase in U–Zr alloys is only present in as-cast U–Zr alloys with a Zr content exceeding 10wt.%Zr. However, our analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data shows that the δ phase is common to all as-cast alloys studied in this work. Furthermore, specific coherent orientation relationship is found between the α and δ phases, consistent with previous findings, and a third variant is discovered in this paper. - Highlights: • Initially, lattice parameter of as-cast U–Zr alloys decrease with the increasing Zr content, and then increase. • XRD data show the presence of δ-UZr{sub 2} phase in as-cast U–Zr alloys with a Zr content of more than 8wt.% Zr. • Finding δ-UZr{sub 2} phase exists in all as-cast uranium rich U–Zr alloys, even for alloys with a lean Zr content. • Three kinds of preferential orientations of the δ phase grow.

  9. Determination of crystalline texture in aluminium - uranium alloys by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.M.V. de.

    1978-01-01

    Textures of hot-rolled aluminum-uranium alloys and of aluminum were determined by neutron diffraction. Sheets of alloys containing 8.0, 21.5 and 23.7 wt pct U, as well as pure aluminum, were obtained in a stepped rolling process, 15% reduction each step, 75% total reduction. During the rolling the temperature was 600 0 C. Alloys with low uranium contents are two phase systems in which an intermetallic compound UAl 4 , orthorhombic, is dispersed in a pure aluminum matrix. The addition of a few percent of Si in such alloys leads to the formation of UAl 3 , simple cubic, instead of UAl 4 . The Al -- 23.7 wt pct U alloy was prepared with 2,2 wt pct of Si. The results indicate that the texture of the matrix is more dependent on the uranium concentration than on the texture of the intermetallic phases. An improvement in the technique applied to texture measurements by using a sample fully bathed in the neutron beam is also presented. The method takes advantage of the low neutron absorption of the studied materials as well as of the neglibible variation in the multiple scattering which occurs in a conveniently shaped sample having a weakly developed texture. (Author) [pt

  10. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix A - MSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled 'Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications' A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled 'Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications' A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled 'Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors' Appendix B - External presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, 'Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors,' Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, 'Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process,' Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix C - Fuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled 'Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys' presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis by William Sames, Research Fellow

  11. Atmospheric corrosion of uranium-carbon alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, P.; Accary, A.

    1965-01-01

    The authors study the corrosion of uranium-carbon alloys having compositions close to that of the mono-carbide; they show that the extent of the observed corrosion effects increases with the water vapour content of the surrounding gas and they conclude that the atmospheric corrosion of these alloys is due essentially to the humidity of the air, the effect of the oxygen being very slight at room temperature. They show that the optimum conditions for preserving U-C alloys are either a vacuum or a perfectly dry argon atmosphere. The authors have also established that the type of corrosion involved is a corrosion which 'cracks under stress' and is transgranular (it can also be intergranular in the case of sub-stoichiometric alloys). They propose, finally, two hypotheses for explaining this mechanism, one of which is illustrated by the existence, at the fissure interface, of corrosion products which can play the role of 'corners' in the mono-carbide grains. (authors) [fr

  12. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    outlining the beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix A—MSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled “Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled “Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors” Appendix B—External presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix C—Fuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys” presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis

  13. Characterization of the uranium--2 weight percent molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    The uranium-2 wt percent molybdenum alloy was prepared, processed, and age hardened to meet a minimum 930-MPa yield strength (0.2 percent) with a minimum of 10 percent elongation. These mechanical properties were obtained with a carbon level up to 300 ppM in the alloy. The tensile-test ductility is lowered by the humidity of the laboratory atmosphere

  14. Investigation of transformation of uranium hexafluoride into dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, N.P.; Veryatin, U.D.; Yakhonin, I.F.; Logunov, A.F.; Dymkov, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    The process of transformation of uranium hexafluoride into dioxide using the method of pyrohydrolysis by steam-hydrogen mixture in a boiling layer using uranium dioxide granules applicable for production of fuel elements is considered. Technological parameters and equipment of the process are described, intermediate stages and process products are considered. Physicochemical and physicomechanical properties of the obtained uranium dioxide granules are given. The results of metallographical investigations into solid products of pyrohydrolysis in phase transformations at certain stages of the process as well as test on vibration packing of the obtained granules in fuel cans are presented

  15. Mechanical properties of depleted uranium-2 w/o molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deel, O.L.; Burian, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is to develop data and techniques for determining the dynamic impact response of radioactive-material shipping-container systems for environmental control and safety overview and assessment. One phase of this program is the dynamic testing of 1/8-, 1/4-, and 1/2-scale models of uranium-shielded truck casks. These linearly scaled models are fabricated from the same materials typically used in full-size prototype casks. In order to analytically evaluate the results of dynamic tests, it is necessary to know the mechanical properties of the materials of construction. Since the properties of cast uranium--molybdenum alloys vary significantly with casting and heat-treating techniques, it is necessary to fully characterize the mechanical properties of the uranium used in the model tests. This report presents the results of these studies. The uranium alloy exhibited a tensile strength equal to or greater than that reported by others. As indicated by the percentage of elongation and reduction in area, the ductility was lower. Comparative data for the other mechanical properties measured were not found in the literature

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  17. Metallurgical processing of the uranium-0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Although the addition of titanium is an effective means of strengthening uranium, careful control of casting, homogenization, and heat treatment are necessary to optimize mechanical properties. Quenching of the alloy provides increased strength and elongation; however, subsequent low temperature aging will increase the strength even higher at the sacrifice of ductility. The properties of the alloy are quench rate sensitive and quenching produces high residual stresses in the alloy. The residual stresses can be reduced by mechanical deformation with only slight degradation of the mechanical properties. 15 figures

  18. Analysis of uranium and of some of its compounds and alloys. Copper spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper determination in uranium, uranium oxides (UO 2 , UO 3 , U 3 O 8 ), ammonium diuranate, U-Al-Fe alloy (700 ppm Al and 300 ppm Fe) and U-Mo alloy (1.1 percent Mo) by acid dissolution reduction of copper by hydroxylamine hydrochloride and formation of a complex with diquinolyle-2,2' amyl alcohol (pH value 6 to 7) and spectrophotometry at 550 nm. The method is applicable for copper content between 5 to 40 ppm in respect of uranium contained in the material [fr

  19. Effect of aging on the general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of uranium--6 wt % niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koger, J.W.; Ammons, A.M.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1975-11-01

    Mechanical properties of the uranium-6 wt percent niobium alloy change with aging time and temperature. In general, the ultimate tensile strength and hardness reach a peak, while elongation becomes a minimum at aging temperatures between 400 and 500 0 C. The first optical evidence of a second phase was in the 400 0 C-aged alloy, while complete transformation to a two-phase structure was seen in the 600 0 C-aged alloy. The maximum-strength conditions correlate with the minimum stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. The maximum SCC resistance is found in the as-quenched and 150, 200, and 600 0 C-aged specimens. The as-quenched and 300 0 C-aged specimens had the greatest resistance to general corrosion in aqueous chloride solutions; the 600 0 C-aged specimen had the least resistance

  20. Uranium alloys for using in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C.; Pires, O.S.

    1988-08-01

    The U-Zr and U-Ti alloys are studied, given emphasis to the high solute solubility in gamma phase of uranium, which is suitable for using as metal fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alloys were prepared in electron beam furnaces and submitted to X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, microhardness, optical metallography, and chemical analysis. The obtained values are good agreements with the literature data. The study shows that the U-Zr presents better characteristics than the U-Ti for using as fuel in fast breeder reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Study of transformations by annealing of the body. Centred cubic {gamma} phase of uranium-molybdenum alloys; Etude des transformations par revenu de la phase {gamma} cubique centree des alliages uranium-molybdene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikailoff, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    By annealing at different temperatures, we have studied the transformations of the body centred cubic {gamma} phase for two alloys containing 6 and 10 per cent molybdenum by weight respectively. There is a return to the equilibrium state by formation of the stable {alpha} orthorhombic and {epsilon} ordered tetragonal phases, following two types of reaction: - pearlite transformation by nucleation and growth from the grain boundaries, preponderant when the annealing takes place at temperature above 400 deg. C, and identical for the two types of alloys. This reaction has already been studied by numerous authors, who have constructed the corresponding TTT curves, - transformation inside the grains of the quenched solid solution when annealing takes place at 400 deg. C or below: 6 per cent alloy - precipitation of fine a phase particles, followed by progressive ordering of the solid solution enriched in molybdenum, 10 per cent alloy - formation of small ordered regions and then a fine a phase precipitate. In the course of this work we have paid particular attention to the study of intragranular reactions after low-temperature annealing, the reactions involved in this case not having been explained up to the present. The {gamma} phase transformation has been studied by means of three techniques: micrography - microhardness tests - X-ray diffraction. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les transformations par revenu a differentes temperatures, de la phase {gamma} cubique centree des alliages U-Mo trempes, pour deux alliages a 6 et a 10 pour cent de molybdene en poids. Il y a retour a l'etat d'equilibre par formation des phases stables {alpha} orthorhombique et quadratique ordonnee, suivant deux types de reactions: - transformation perlitique par germination et croissance a partir des joints de grains, preponderante lorsque le recuit a lieu a temperature superieure a 400 deg. C, et identique pour les deux types d'alliages. Cette reaction a deja ete etudiee par de nombreux

  2. Uranium determination in U-Al alloy with statistical tools support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Helio Akira; Medalla, Felipe Quirino; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barbosa; Pires, Maria Aparecida Faustino

    2011-01-01

    ICP-OES was used to quantify total uranium in natural UAl x powder alloy. A simple solubilisation procedure using diluted HNO 3 /HCl was successfully applied. Only 100 mg of sample were used which is an advantage over the volumetric methodologies. Only two dilutions were needed to reach measurable concentration. No other treatment was applied to the solutions. Calibration curves of three uranium lines (367.007, 385.958 and 409.014 nm) were evaluated using ANOVA. Comparing the indicators, the 367.007 nm line was the poorer one but exhibiting a R 2 = 0.998 and 0.9996 and 0.999 for the other two lines. No significant difference was found between these two lines. If needed, the 385.958 nm line could be used to quantify uranium in very low concentrations but with few advantages over the 409.014 nm line, if so. The average uranium concentration found was 0.80±0.01 μg.g-1, as expected for a predominant UAl 2 phase alloy. Higher uranium concentrations are also expected to be successfully quantified using these lines. In order to verify possibly inhomogeneity due to the high uranium concentration, one-way ANOVA was applied to 3 replicates. Homogeneity was confirmed measuring in both 385.958 and 409.014 nm lines. The uncertainty of solution homogeneity was estimated also in these two emission lines giving 0.006 and 0.005 μg.g-1, respectively. These two values are in compliance with the standard deviation of the average. (author)

  3. Method for electrodeposition of nickel--chromium alloys and coating of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromatt, R.W.; Lundquist, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High-quality electrodeposits of nickel-chromium binary alloys in which the percentage of chromium is controlled can be obtained by the addition of a complexing agent such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic disodium salt to the plating solution. The nickel-chromium alloys were found to provide an excellent hydrogen barrier for the protection of uranium fuel elements. (U.S.)

  4. X-ray topography of uranium alloys; Topographie aux rayons X d'alliages d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Naour, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A description of the structure of uranium alloys has been made using the data obtained by X-ray diffraction techniques derived from the Berg-Barrette method. In the first.stage the use of a monochromatic beam of X-rays having a very low divergence makes it possible to obtain very reproducible and exact numerical data concerning the grain and sub-grain sizes, and also the distribution of the sizes. It is thereby possible to detect any disorientation greater than 30 seconds of arc.The results obtained have been completed using a variable incidence device which- gives simultaneously an overall picture of a grain and an idea of the importance of internal disorientations; a more rigorous measurement of this latter parameter is then deduced from the Debye-Scherrer diagrams obtained using a fine-focus equipment. Observations are carried out on various one-phase or two phase uranium alloys which are compared successively to technical and to high-purity uranium. It is shown that the use of X-ray topographies, although limited in certain respects, allows a quantitative characterization of the structure. (author) [French] Une description des structures d'alliages d'uranium a ete faite a partir des donnees fournies par des techniques de diffraction de rayons X derivees de la methode de BERG--BARRETT. Dans une premiere etape, l'utilisation d'un faisceau de rayons X monochromatique et de tres faible divergence permet d'obtenir des donnees numeriques precises et tres reproductibles, relatives aux dimensions des grains, des sous-grains et a la distribution de ces grandeurs. Toute desorientation superieure a 30 secondes d'arc peut ainsi etre decelee. Les resultats obtenus ont ete completes en utilisant un montage a incidence variable, qui fournit simultanement l'image globale d'un grain et l'ordre de grandeur des desorientations internes; une mesure plus rigoureuse de ce dernier parametre se deduit ensuite de diagrammes DEBYE SHERRER realises avec un montage a foyer fin. Des

  5. Transformation-Induced Creep and Creep Recovery of Shape Memory Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kohei; Tobushi, Hisaaki; Pieczyska, Elzbieta A

    2012-05-22

    If the shape memory alloy is subjected to the subloop loading under the stress-controlled condition, creep and creep recovery can appear based on the martensitic transformation. In the design of shape memory alloy elements, these deformation properties are important since the deflection of shape memory alloy elements can change under constant stress. The conditions for the progress of the martensitic transformation are discussed based on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation for the shape memory alloy. During loading under constant stress rate, temperature increases due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation. If stress is held constant during the martensitic transformation stage in the loading process, temperature decreases and the condition for the progress of the martensitic transformation is satisfied, resulting in the transformation-induced creep deformation. If stress is held constant during the reverse transformation stage in the unloading process, creep recovery appears due to the reverse transformation. The details for these thermomechanical properties are investigated experimentally for TiNi shape memory alloy, which is most widely used in practical applications. The volume fraction of the martensitic phase increases in proportion to an increase in creep strain.

  6. Vapor corrosion of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel materials in storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of vapor environments on the corrosion of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (A1 SNF) has been performed. Aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel alloys have been exposed to environments of air/water vapor/ionizing radiation and characterized for applications to degradation mode analysis for interim dry and repository storage systems. Models have been developed to allow predictions of the corrosion response under conditions of unlimited corrodant species. Threshold levels of water vapor under which corrosion does not occur have been identified through tests under conditions of limited corrodant species. Coupons of aluminum 1100, 5052, and 6061, the US equivalent of cladding alloys used to manufacture foreign research reactor fuels, and several aluminum-uranium alloys (aluminum-10, 18, and 33 wt% uranium) were exposed to various controlled vapor environments in air within the following ranges of conditions: Temperature -- 80 to 200 C; Relative Humidity -- 0 to 100% using atmospheric condensate water and using added nitric acid to simulate radiolysis effects; and Gamma Radiation -- none and 1.8 x 10 6 R/hr. The results of this work are part of the body of information needed for understanding the degradation of the A1 SNF waste form in a direct disposal system in the federal repository. It will provide the basis for data input to the ongoing performance assessment and criticality safety analyses. Additional testing of uranium-aluminum fuel materials at uranium contents typical of high enriched and low enriched fuels is being initiated to provide the data needed for the development of empirical models

  7. Effect of passivation with CO on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of uranium-niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiaoguo; Dai Lianxin; Zou Juesheng; Bai Chaomao; Wang Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical studies are performed to investigate the corrosion resistance of uranium-niobium alloy before and after passivated with carbon monoxide. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the surface composition of specimen passivated with carbon monoxide is determined. The corrosion resistance of uranium-niobium alloy is well improved because the passive layer (UC/UC x O y + Nb 2 O 5 + UO 2 ) on surface serves as passive film and increases the anodic impedance after the specimen is passivated with carbon monoxide

  8. Microbial transformation of uranium in wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Cline, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from the disposal of uranium processing wastes is a major national concern. Although much is known about the physico- chemical aspects of U, we have little information on the effects of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activities on the mobilization or immobilization of U and other toxic metals in mixed wastes. In order to understand the mechanisms of microbial transformations of uranium, we examined a contaminated pond sediment and a sludge sample from the uranium processing facility at Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. The uranium concentration in the sediment and sludge samples was 923 and 3080 ug/g dry wt, respectively. In addition to U, the sediment and sludge samples contained high levels of toxic metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The association of uranium with the various mineral fractions of the sediment and sludge was determined by selective chemical extraction techniques. Uranium was associated to varying degrees with the exchangeable carbonate, iron oxide, organic, and inert fractions in both samples. Initial results in samples amended with carbon and nitrogen indicate immobilization of U due to enhanced indigenous microbial activity under anaerobic conditions. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Kinetics of first order phase transformation in metals and alloys. Isothermal evolution in martensite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    The 11th lecture about microstructures and fluctuation in solids reports on the martensitic phase transformation of alkali metals and alloys. The martensitic transformation is a diffusionless first order phase transformation. Martensitic transformations are classified into two with respect to kinetics, one is isothermal transformation and the other is athermal transformation. The former transformation depends upon both temperature and time, but the latter solely depends on temperature. The former does not have a definite transformation start temperature but occurs after some finite incubation time during isothermal holding. The isothermal martensitic transformation is changed to the athermal one under high magnetic field, and also the reverse transformation occurs under the application of hydrostatic pressure. The former phenomena were observed in Fe-Ni-Mn alloys, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys and also the reverse transformation in Fe-3.1at%Ni-0.5at%Mn alloys. The athermal transformation was observed in Li and Na metals at 73 and 36 K, respectively. A neutron diffraction study has been performed on single crystals of metallic Na. On cooling the virgin sample, the incubation time to transform from the bcc structure to the low-temperature structure (9R structure) is formed to be more than 2h at 38 K, 2 K higher than the transformation temperature of 36 K. The full width of half maximum of the Bragg reflection suddenly increased, due to some deformation introduced by the nucleation of the low-temperature structure. In relation to the deformation, strong extra-diffuse scattering (Huang scattering) was observed around the Bragg reflection in addition to thermal diffuse scattering. The kinetics of the martensitic transformation in In-Tl alloys has been studied by x-ray and neutron diffraction methods. A characteristic incubation time appeared at fixed temperature above Ms, the normal martensitic transformation start temperature. (author)

  10. A method for the electrolytic coating of uranium or uranium alloy parts, and parts thus obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method, preceded by a surface treatment, for applying an electrolytic coating (e.g. of nickel) on uranium, or uranium alloy parts. This method is characterized in that the previous surface treatment comprises a chemical removal of grease in halogenated solvent bath (free from halogen ions) and an anodic scouring in a buffered aqueous solution solution of an acid free from halogen ions. The coating can be applied to fuel elements for nuclear industry, counter-weight for aeronautics and space industries and to radiation shields [fr

  11. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D.

    1997-01-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables

  12. Transformations of highly enriched uranium into metal or oxide; Etudes des procedes de transformation des composes d'uranium a fort enrichissement isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nollet, P; Sarrat, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The enriched uranium workshops in Cadarache have a double purpose on the one hand to convert uranium hexafluoride into metal or oxide, and on the other hand to recover the uranium contained in scrap materials produced in the different metallurgical transformations. The principles that have been adopted for the design and safety of these workshops are reported. The nuclear safety is based on the geometrical limitations of the processing vessels. To establish the processes and the technology of these workshops, many studies have been made since 1960, some of which have led to original achievements. The uranium hexafluoride of high isotopic enrichment is converted either by injection of the gas into ammonia or by an original process of direct hydrogen reduction to uranium tetrafluoride. The uranium contained m uranium-zirconium metal scrap can be recovered by combustion with hydrogen chloride followed treatment of the uranium chloride by fluorine in order to obtain the uranium in the hexafluoride state. Recovery of the uranium contained m various scrap materials is obtained by a conventional refining process combustion of metallic scrap, nitric acid dissolution of the oxide, solvent purification by tributyl phosphate, ammonium diuranate precipitation, calcining, reduction and hydro fluorination into uranium tetrafluoride, bomb reduction by calcium and slag treatment. Two separate workshops operate along these lines one takes care of the uranium with an isotopic enrichment of up to 3 p. 100, the other handles the high enrichments. The handling of each step of this process, bearing in mind the necessity for nuclear safety, has raised some special technological problems and has led to the conception of new apparatus, in particular the roasting furnace for metal turnings, the nitric acid dissolution unit, the continuous precipitator and ever safe filter and dryer for ammonium diuranate, the reduction and hydro fluorination furnace and the slag recovery apparatus These are

  13. Fabrication and characterization of uranium-6--niobium alloy plate with improved homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical inhomogeneities produced during arc melting of uranium--6 weight percent niobium alloy normally persist during fabrication of the ingot to a finished product. An investigation was directed toward producing a more homogeneous product (approx. 13.0-mm plate) by a combination of mechanical working and homogenization. Ingots were cast, forged to various reductions, homogenized under different conditions, and finally rolled to 13.0-mm-thick plate. It was concluded that increased forging reductions prior to homogenization resulted in a more homogeneous plate. Comparison of calculated and experimentally measured niobium concentration profiles indicated that the activation energy for the diffusion of niobium in uranium--niobium alloys may be lower than previously observed

  14. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  15. Atmospheric corrosion of uranium-carbon alloys; Corrosion atmospherique des alliages uranium-carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, P; Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors study the corrosion of uranium-carbon alloys having compositions close to that of the mono-carbide; they show that the extent of the observed corrosion effects increases with the water vapour content of the surrounding gas and they conclude that the atmospheric corrosion of these alloys is due essentially to the humidity of the air, the effect of the oxygen being very slight at room temperature. They show that the optimum conditions for preserving U-C alloys are either a vacuum or a perfectly dry argon atmosphere. The authors have also established that the type of corrosion involved is a corrosion which 'cracks under stress' and is transgranular (it can also be intergranular in the case of sub-stoichiometric alloys). They propose, finally, two hypotheses for explaining this mechanism, one of which is illustrated by the existence, at the fissure interface, of corrosion products which can play the role of 'corners' in the mono-carbide grains. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient la corrosion des alliages uranium-carbone de composition voisine du monocarbure; ils montrent que l'importance des effets de la corrosion observee augmente avec la teneur en vapeur d'eau du milieu gazeux ambiant et concluent que la corrosion atmospherique de ces alliages est due essentiellement a l'humidite de l'air, l'action de l'oxygene de l'air etant tres faible a la temperature ambiante. Ils indiquent que les conditions optimales de conservation des alliages U-C sont le vide ou une atmosphere d'argon parfaitement desseches. D'autre part, les auteurs etablissent que le type de corrosion mis en jeu est une corrosion 'fissurante sous contrainte', transgranulaire (pouvant egalement etre intergranulaire dans le cas d'alliages sous-stoechiometriques). Ils proposent enfin deux hypotheses pour rendre compte de ce mecanisme, dont l'une est illustree par la mise en evidence, a l'interface des fissures, de produits de corrosion pouvant jouer le role de 'coins' dans les grains de

  16. Refining U-Zr-Nb alloys by remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, B.M.; Kniess, C.T.; Riella, H.G.; Ferraz, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    The high density U-Zr-Nb and U-Nb uranium-based alloys can be employed as nuclear fuel in a PWR reactor due to their high density and nuclear properties. These alloys can stabilize the gamma phase, however, according to TTT diagrams, at the working temperature of a PWR reactor, all gamma phase transforms to α'' phase in a few hours. To avoid this kind of transformation during the nuclear reactor operation, the U-Zr-Nb alloy and U-Nn are used in α'' phase. The stability of α'' phase depends on the alloy composition and cooling rate. The alloy homogenization has to be very effective to eliminate precipitates rich in Zr and Nb to avoid changes in the alloying elements contents in the matrix. The homogenization was obtained by remelting the alloy and keeping it in the liquid state for enough time to promote floating of the precipitates (usually carbides, less dense) and leaving the matrix free of precipitates. However, this floating by density difference may result in segregation between the alloying elements (Nb and Zr, at the top) and uranium (at the bottom). The homogenized alloys were characterized in terms of metallographic techniques, optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, EDS and X-ray diffraction. In this paper, it is shown that the contents of Zr and Nb at the bottom and at the top of the matrix are constant. (author)

  17. Relation between time-temperature transformation and continuous heating transformation diagrams of metallic glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    The time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the Ge-Ni-La and Cu-Hf-Ti glassy alloys were calculated from the isothermal differential calorimetry data using an Arrhenius equation. The continuous heating transformation (CHT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the glassy alloys were subsequently recalculated from TTT diagrams. The recalculation method used for conversion of the TTT into CHT diagrams produces reasonable results and is not sensitive to the type of the devitrification reaction (polymorphous or primary transformation). The diagrams allow to perform a comparison of the stabilities of glassy alloys on a long-term scale. The relationship between these diagrams is discussed

  18. Fluorimetric determination of uranium in zirconium and zircaloy alloys; Determinacion fluorimetrica de uranio en aleaciones de zirconio y zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta L, E [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-05-15

    The objective of this procedure is to determine microquantities of uranium in zirconium and zircaloy alloys. The report also covers the determination of uranium in zirconium alloys and zircaloy in the range from 0.25 to 20 ppm on 1 g of base sample of radioactive material. These limit its can be variable if the size of the used aliquot one is changed for the final determination of uranium. (Author)

  19. Gamma→alpha transformation during cooling of Fe-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtejnberg, M.M.; Mirzaev, D.A.; Ponomareva, T.N.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to the effect of the cooling rate on the temperatures of γ→α transformation initiation, the structure and microhardness of Fe-Mn alloys. The general principles governing phase transformations in these alloys are similar to those which have been the subject of earlier investigations for Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr, Fe-Mo systems. It has been found that the higher manganese content results in a more intensive temperature drop for all the stages and elimination of stage 111 at a relatively low manganese content. Support is provided for the existence of the four stages of γ→α transformation in the iron alloys. The yield point, ultimate strength and microhardness of each alloy are related by Petch's relations to the size of the martensite packet which at the given grain size of the γsup(')-phase is defined by a transformation stage and a cooling rate at the given stage

  20. Properties of low content uranium-molybdenum alloys which may be used as nuclear fuels; Proprietes des alliages uranium-molybdene de faibles teneurs utilisables comme materiaux combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J; Decours, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Metallurgical properties are given in this report of uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 3 per cent of molybdenum. Since some of these alloys are used in EDF power reactors are given: briefly the operating conditions imposed on nuclear fuels: maximum temperature, temperature gradient and external pressure. In the first part are considered the structural properties of the alloys correlation with the phase transformation kinetics; a description is given of the effects of certain physico-metallurgical factors on the morphology and the crystalline structure of the materials: - solidification conditions and the heredity of the {gamma} structure, - cooling rate at the transformation points, - whether or not the intermediate {gamma} {yields} {beta} transformation is suppressed In the second part we show how a knowledge of the phase transformation processes has made it possible to define the optimum preparation conditions for these materials in the form of fuel tubes intended for the EDF reactors: casting conditions, controlled cooling treatments, weldability. In the third part we study the thermal, stability during the long duration high temperature treatments and the cycles in the two zones of the diagram {alpha} + {gamma}; {beta} + {gamma} the effects of the morphology (in particular the two types of {alpha} pseudo-grains observed) and of the cooling rate during the transformation point transitions are described. In the fourth part are discussed the mechanical properties: resistance to a tractive force, resistance to creep, resilience. These properties can also be affected by the {gamma} structure heredity and by the cooling rate to which the alloy has been subjected. In conclusion we discuss the reasons which led to the choice of some of these alloys for the first EDF reactors in particular the advantages of their high creep resistance between 450 and 600 deg C for use in the form of tubes subjected to an external pressure. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport

  1. Alloying effect on martensite transformation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Shlyamnev, A.P.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of cobalt, nickel, molybdenum on the martensite transformation kinetics in stainless steels containing 9 to 13% Cr has been studied. Cobalt in Fe-Cr base alloys decreases the temperature of the Msub(in) and Msub(fin) points without a considerable decrease of the martensite phase amount after the transformation. Nickel reduces the martensite transformation temperature range, the nickel effect being enhanced in the presence of cobalt, which is characterized by a change of the linear dependence Msub(in)=f(%Ni) for a quadratic one. Molybdenum decreases the temperature of the Msub(in) and Msub(fin) points intensively, thus, substantially increasing the residual austenite amount. In the steels investigated Ni and Co decrease, whereas Mo increases, to some extent, the temperature of the reverse a-γ-transformation. The reduction of chromium content from 13 to 9% stimulates the martensite transformation initiation, that is why, in alloys containing 9% Cr, the increase in the contents of Ni, Co., Mo with the martensite structure maintained is possible. A further alloying of steel containing 13% Cr with these elements is rather limited due to the inhibition of the martensite transformation

  2. Estimation of Transformation Temperatures in Ti-Ni-Pd Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, P. L.; Kim, Seong-Woong; Hong, Jae-Keun; Reddy, N. S.; Yeom, Jong-Taek

    2018-03-01

    The present study focused on estimating the complex nonlinear relationship between the composition and phase transformation temperatures of Ti-Ni-Pd shape memory alloys by artificial neural networks (ANN). The ANN models were developed by using the experimental data of Ti-Ni-Pd alloys. It was found that the predictions are in good agreement with the trained and unseen test data of existing alloys. The developed model was able to simulate new virtual alloys to quantitatively estimate the effect of Ti, Ni, and Pd on transformation temperatures. The transformation temperature behavior of these virtual alloys is validated by conducting new experiments on the Ti-rich thin film that was deposited using multi target sputtering equipment. The transformation behavior of the film was measured by varying the composition with the help of aging treatment. The predicted trend of transformational temperatures was explained with the help of experimental results.

  3. X-ray diffraction study of reversible deformation mechanisms in the aged uranium-6.5 niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The x-ray diffraction (XRD) data from 200 0 C/2h-aged uranium-6.5 wt % niobium (U-6.5Nb) alloys, taken under stress as a function of strain, revealed a gamma-zero (γ 0 )→ alpha prime-prime (α'') thermoelastic martensitic phase transformation. It was concluded that the primary reversible deformation modes consisted of the movement of γ 0 /α'' interphase interfaces and α'' intervariant interfaces. Specimen elasticity at low strains was associated with the retreat of interphase interfaces. At higher strains, interphase interfaces did not recover significantly on unloading, and elasticity was due primarily to the retreat of α'' intervariant interfaces

  4. Microstructure and martensitic transformation of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunwang [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Shanghai Maritime University, College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Shilei; Jin, Yongjun; Hou, Qingyu [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Guo, Shaoqiang [Beihang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 50-x}Pr{sub x} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) alloys were investigated experimentally. Results show that the microstructures of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys consist of the NiTi matrix and the NiPr precipitate with the Ti solute. The martensitic transformation start temperature decreases gradually with the increase in Pr fraction. The stress around NiPr precipitates is responsible for the decrease in martensitic transformation temperature with the increase in Pr fraction in Ni-Ti-Pr alloys. (orig.)

  5. Studies on tempering at different temperatures of the beta phase retained by water quenching in uranium-chromium alloys containing from 0,37 to 4 atoms of chromium percent (1963); Etude du revenu a differentes temperatures de la phase beta retenue par trempe a l'eau dans les alliages uranium-chrome contenant de 0,37 a 4 atomes pour cent de chrome (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degois, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-15

    The author made a systematic study of the annealing of the beta phase retained by water-quenching in uranium-chromium alloys of concentrations between 0.37 and 4 of chromium percent. It is shown that alloys containing less than 1 atom per cent are transformed at temperatures between room temperature and 250 deg. C according to a bainitic process involving activation energies of the order of 14,500 cal/mole. Alloys containing more than 1 at. per cent are transformed at temperature between 400 and 650 deg. C by way of a germination and growth process involving an activation energy of the order of 33,000 cal/mole. The limit of solubility of chromium in beta uranium plays a fundamental part in the transformations of the alloys. The TTT curves of beta {yields} alpha transformation were drawn by the use of a thermo-dilatometer of very low inertia. The transformation law may be expressed 1 x = exp. (kt){sup n}; x represents the degree of progression of the transformation, k a coefficient dependent on the temperature, and n an exponent depending only on the composition of the alloy. A micrographic and crystallographic study confirmed the results found by dilatometry; in particular it was possible to measure the progression rates of the transformation. (author) [French] L'auteur a fait une etude systematique du revenu de la phase beta retenue par trempe a l'eau dans les alliages uranium-chrome de teneurs comprises entre 0,37 et 4 atomes pour cent de chrome. Il a montre que les alliages qui contiennent moins de 1 atome pour cent de chrome se transforment aux temperatures comprises entre la temperature ordinaire et 250 deg. C selon un processus bainitique mettant en jeu des energies d'activatlon de l'ordre de 14500 cal/mole. Les alliages qui renferment plus de 1 atome pour cent de chrome se transforment aux temperatures comprises entre 400 et 650 deg. C suivant un processus de germination et croissance mettant en jeu une energie d'activation de l'ordre de -33000 cal/mole. La

  6. Contribution to the micrographic study of uranium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, H.

    1956-06-01

    The present report is the result of research carried out by the radio metallurgy section, to perfect micrographic techniques applicable to the study of samples of irradiated uranium. In the first part of this work, two polishing baths are developed, having the qualities with a minimum of disadvantages inherent in their respective compositions: they are, on the one hand perchloric acid-ethanol mixtures, and on the other hand a phospho-chromic-ethanol bath. In the chapter following, the micrographic attack of uranium is studied. The only satisfactory process is oxidation by cathode bombardment forming epitaxic layers. In the third chapter, an attempt is made to characterise the different surface states of the uranium by dissolution potential measurements and electronic diffraction. In the fourth chapter are given some examples of the application of these techniques to the micrographic study of various uranium alloys. In an appendix, it is shown how the chemical oxidation after phospho-chromic-alcohol polishing allows the different inclusions present in the molten uranium to be distinguished. By X-ray diffraction, uranium monocarbide and mononitride inclusions in particular are characterised. (author) [fr

  7. Comparative study of allotropic transformations of uranium and iron and of their structural consequences; Etude comparee des transformations allotropiques de l'uranium et du fer et de leurs consequences structurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    The {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} phase change in pure uranium occurs, as in the case of the {alpha} {r_reversible} {gamma} transformation in pure iron, according to a nucleation and growth process. The development of the nuclei during these transformations have been studied by controlling in a furnace presenting a temperature gradient, a slow and regular movement of the interface between the two phase. In those conditions, the number of {alpha} nuclei so formed, is limited and the development of big crystals, elongated in the direction of the temperature gradient, or eventually single crystals are obtained. The crystallographic orientation of these iron or uranium crystals, and their degree of perfection have been analysed. The dilatometric behaviour of the uranium single crystals were studied on a fraction of their crystallographic orientation. The expansion coefficients along the three principal axes of the orthorhombic {alpha} cell were measured. By passing through the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} or {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} transformation points of uranium, it is possible to suppress all prior textures presented by the metal. Especially, water-quenching of uranium from the {beta} phase, gives a grain sufficiently small in size and without preferential orientation, so that a statistic compensation of the expansion anisotropy of each grain can be obtained. The stresses, created by fast cooling in the transformation range, produce a recrystallization of the metal during further annealing in the {alpha} phase. The volume change, which accompanies the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} transformation in uranium, and the {alpha} {r_reversible} {gamma} transformation in iron, creates, during the formation of the new phase nuclei and their subsequent growth, stresses which are important enough, to produce a real plastic deformation of the metal. The deformation characteristics, its structural consequences and the effect of the thermal cycling in the transformation

  8. Effect of different factors on phase transformations in Fe-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balychev, Yu.M.; Tkachenko, F.K.

    1983-01-01

    Phase transformations proceeding under Fe-Mn alloy heating are studied and the effect of previous working conditions, particularly, cooling rate on these transformations is investigated. Investigations have been conducted on pure Fe-Mn alloys with 2-15% Mn. Phase transformations are shown to proceed according to α → #betta# and epsilon → #betta# reaction in Fe-Mn alloys containing 2-15% Mn under heating. Cooling rate in the range of approximately 5-1000 deg/min in preliminary working essentially affects phase transformations under subsequent heating

  9. Thermal Analysis of Pure Uranium Metal, UMo and UMoSi Alloys Using a Differential Thermal Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanlinastuti; Sutri Indaryati; Rahmiati

    2010-01-01

    Thermal analysis of pure uranium metal, U-7%Mo and U-7%Mo-1%Si alloys have been done using a Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). The experiments are conducted in order to measure the thermal stability, thermochemical properties of elevated temperature and enthalpy of the specimens. From the analysis results it is showed that uranium metal will transform from α to β phases at temperature of 667.16°C and enthalpy of 2.3034 cal/g and from β to γ phases at temperature of 773.05 °C and enthalpy of 2.8725 cal/g and start melting at temperature of 1125.26 °C and enthalpy of 2.1316 cal/g. The U-7%Mo shows its thermal stability up to temperature of 650 °C and its thermal changes at temperature of 673.75 °C indicated by the formation of an endothermic peak and enthalpy of 0.0257 cal/g. The U-7%Mo-1%Si alloys shows its thermal stability up to temperature of 550 °C and its thermal changes at temperature of 574.18 °C indicated by the formation of an endothermic peak and enthalpy of 0.613 cal/g. From the three specimens it is showed that they have a good thermal stability at temperature up to 550 °C. (author)

  10. Optimisation by plastic deformation of structural and mechanical uranium alloys properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, Claude.

    1981-08-01

    Structural and mechanical properties evolution of rich and poor uranium alloys are investigated. Good usual properties are obtained with few metallic additions with a limited effect giving a fine and isotrope grain structure. Amelioration is observed with heat treatment from β and γ phases high temperature range. However, dynamic recrystallisation, related to hot working, is the better phenomena to maximize the usual mechanical and structural properties. So high temperature behaviour of rich and poor uranium alloys in α, β and γ crystalline structure is studied: - dynamic recrystallisation phenomena begins only in α, and β phases high temperature range; - high strength and brittle β phase shows a very large ductility above 700 deg C. Recrystallisation is a thermal actived phenomena localised at grain boundary, dependant with alloys concentration and crystalline structure. β phase activation energy and deformation rate for dynamic recrystallisation beginning are most important, than α and γ phases in relation with quadratic structure complexity. Both temperature and deformation rate are the main dynamic recrystallisation factors. Optimal usual mechanical and structural properties obtained by hot working (forging, milling) are sensible to hydrogen embrittlement [fr

  11. Refining U-Zr-Nb alloys by remelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, B.M.; Kniess, C.T.; Riella, H.G., E-mail: bmaguiar@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferraz, W.B. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The high density U-Zr-Nb and U-Nb uranium-based alloys can be employed as nuclear fuel in a PWR reactor due to their high density and nuclear properties. These alloys can stabilize the gamma phase, however, according to TTT diagrams, at the working temperature of a PWR reactor, all gamma phase transforms to {alpha}'' phase in a few hours. To avoid this kind of transformation during the nuclear reactor operation, the U-Zr-Nb alloy and U-Nn are used in {alpha}'' phase. The stability of {alpha}'' phase depends on the alloy composition and cooling rate. The alloy homogenization has to be very effective to eliminate precipitates rich in Zr and Nb to avoid changes in the alloying elements contents in the matrix. The homogenization was obtained by remelting the alloy and keeping it in the liquid state for enough time to promote floating of the precipitates (usually carbides, less dense) and leaving the matrix free of precipitates. However, this floating by density difference may result in segregation between the alloying elements (Nb and Zr, at the top) and uranium (at the bottom). The homogenized alloys were characterized in terms of metallographic techniques, optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, EDS and X-ray diffraction. In this paper, it is shown that the contents of Zr and Nb at the bottom and at the top of the matrix are constant. (author)

  12. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.; Laniesse, J.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small α grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [fr

  13. PROCESS FOR DISSOLVING BINARY URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM OR ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Barghusen, J.J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1962-08-14

    A process of dissolving uranium-- zirconium and zircaloy alloys, e.g. jackets of fuel elements, with an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride containing from 10 to 32% by weight of hydrogen chloride at between 400 and 450 deg C., preferably while in contact with a fluidized inert powder, such as calcium fluoride is described. (AEC)

  14. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  15. Spectrographic analysis of uranium-molybdenum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.

    1967-01-01

    A spectrographic method of analysis has been developed for uranium-molybdenum alloys containing up to 10 % Mo. The carrier distillation technique, with gallium oxide and graphite as carriers, is used for the semiquantitative determination of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni and Si, involving the conversion of the samples into oxides. As a consequence of the study of the influence of the molybdenum on the line intensities, it is useful to prepare only one set of standards with 0,6 % MoO 3 . Total burning excitation is used for calcium, employing two sets of standards with 0,6 and 7.5 MoO 3 . (Author) 5 refs

  16. Comparative study of allotropic transformations of uranium and iron and of their structural consequences; Etude comparee des transformations allotropiques de l'uranium et du fer et de leurs consequences structurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    The {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} phase change in pure uranium occurs, as in the case of the {alpha} {r_reversible} {gamma} transformation in pure iron, according to a nucleation and growth process. The development of the nuclei during these transformations have been studied by controlling in a furnace presenting a temperature gradient, a slow and regular movement of the interface between the two phase. In those conditions, the number of {alpha} nuclei so formed, is limited and the development of big crystals, elongated in the direction of the temperature gradient, or eventually single crystals are obtained. The crystallographic orientation of these iron or uranium crystals, and their degree of perfection have been analysed. The dilatometric behaviour of the uranium single crystals were studied on a fraction of their crystallographic orientation. The expansion coefficients along the three principal axes of the orthorhombic {alpha} cell were measured. By passing through the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} or {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} transformation points of uranium, it is possible to suppress all prior textures presented by the metal. Especially, water-quenching of uranium from the {beta} phase, gives a grain sufficiently small in size and without preferential orientation, so that a statistic compensation of the expansion anisotropy of each grain can be obtained. The stresses, created by fast cooling in the transformation range, produce a recrystallization of the metal during further annealing in the {alpha} phase. The volume change, which accompanies the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} transformation in uranium, and the {alpha} {r_reversible} {gamma} transformation in iron, creates, during the formation of the new phase nuclei and their subsequent growth, stresses which are important enough, to produce a real plastic deformation of the metal. The deformation characteristics, its structural consequences and the effect of the thermal cycling in the transformation

  17. Effect of heat treatment on transformation behavior of Ti-Ni-V shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhirong; Liu Manqian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New shape memory alloy (SMA) - Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA. → The evolution laws of transformation types of annealed Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA. → The evolution laws of transformation types of aged Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA. → The effect laws of annealing on transformation temperature and hysteresis of the alloy. → The effect laws of aging on transformation temperature and hysterises of the alloy. - Abstract: Effects of annealing and aging processes on the transformation behaviors of Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V (atomic fraction, %) shape memory alloy were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The A → R/R → A (A - parent phase, R - R phase) type one-stage reversible transformation occurs in 350-400 deg. C annealed alloy, the A → R → M/M → R → A (M - martensite) type two-stage transformation occurs in 450-500 deg. C annealed alloy, the A → R → M/M → A type transformation occurs in 550 deg. C annealed alloy, and A → M/M → A type transformation occurs in the alloy annealed at above 600 deg. C upon cooling/heating. The transformation type of 300 deg. C aged alloy is A → R/R → A, and that of 500 deg. C aged alloy is A → R → M/M → A, while that of 400 deg. C aged alloy changes from A → R/R → A to A → R → M/M → R → A with increasing aging time. The effects of annealing and aging processes on R and M transformation temperatures and temperature hysteresis are given. The influence of annealing and aging temperature on transformation behaviors is stronger than that of annealing and aging time.

  18. Incentives for the use of depleted uranium alloys as transport cask containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.W.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive material transport casks use either lead or depleted uranium (DU) as gamma-ray shielding material. Stainless steel is conventionally used for structural containment. If a DU alloy had sufficient properties to guarantee resistance to failure during both nominal use and accident conditions to serve the dual-role of shielding and containment, the use of other structure materials (i.e., stainless steel) could be reduced. (It is recognized that lead can play no structural role.) Significant reductions in cask weight and dimensions could then be achieved perhaps allowing an increase in payload. The mechanical response of depleted uranium has previously not been included in calculations intended to show that DU-shielded transport casks will maintain their containment function during all conditions. This paper describesa two-part study of depleted uranium alloys: First, the mechanical behavior of DU alloys was determined in order to extend the limited set of mechanical properties reported in the literature. The mechanical properties measured include the tensile behavior the impact energy. Fracture toughness testing was also performed to determine the sensitivity of DU alloys to brittle fracture. Fracture toughness is the inherent material property which quantifies the fracmm resistance of a material. Tensile strength and ductility are significant in terms of other failure modes, however, as win be discussed. These mechanical properties were then input into finite element calculations of cask response to loading conditions to quantify the potential for claiming structural credit for DU. (The term ''structural credit'' describes whether a material has adequate properties to allow it to assume a positive role in withstanding structural loadings.)

  19. Martensitic Transformation in a β-Type Mg-Sc Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Koike, Junichi

    2018-03-01

    Recently, we found that a Mg-Sc alloy with a bcc (β) phase exhibits superelasticity and a shape memory effect at low temperature. In this work, we examined the stress-induced and thermally induced martensitic transformation of the β-type Mg-Sc alloy and investigated the crystal structure of the thermally induced martensite phase based on in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The lattice constants of the martensite phase were calculated to be a = 0.3285 nm, b = 0.5544 nm, and c = 0.5223 nm when we assumed that the martensite phase has an orthorhombic structure (Cmcm). Based on the lattice correspondence between a bcc and an orthorhombic structures such as that in the case of β-Ti shape memory alloys, we estimated the transformation strain of the β Mg-Sc alloy. As a result, the transformation strains along the 001, 011, and 111 directions in the β phase were calculated to be + 5.7, + 8.8, and + 3.3%, respectively.

  20. Martensitic Transformation in a β-Type Mg-Sc Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Koike, Junichi

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we found that a Mg-Sc alloy with a bcc (β) phase exhibits superelasticity and a shape memory effect at low temperature. In this work, we examined the stress-induced and thermally induced martensitic transformation of the β-type Mg-Sc alloy and investigated the crystal structure of the thermally induced martensite phase based on in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The lattice constants of the martensite phase were calculated to be a = 0.3285 nm, b = 0.5544 nm, and c = 0.5223 nm when we assumed that the martensite phase has an orthorhombic structure (Cmcm). Based on the lattice correspondence between a bcc and an orthorhombic structures such as that in the case of β-Ti shape memory alloys, we estimated the transformation strain of the β Mg-Sc alloy. As a result, the transformation strains along the 001, 011, and 111 directions in the β phase were calculated to be + 5.7, + 8.8, and + 3.3%, respectively.

  1. Mechanisms of diffusional phase transformations in metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Aaronson, Hubert I; Lee, Jong K

    2010-01-01

    Developed by the late metallurgy professor and master experimentalist Hubert I. Aaronson, this collection of lecture notes details the fundamental principles of phase transformations in metals and alloys upon which steel and other metals industries are based. Mechanisms of Diffusional Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys is devoted to solid-solid phase transformations in which elementary atomic processes are diffusional jumps, and these processes occur in a series of so-called nucleation and growth through interface migration. Instead of relying strictly on a pedagogical approach, it doc

  2. Orientational relationships between phases in the γ→α transformations for uranium-molybdenum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, G.

    1966-04-01

    A crystallographic study has been made of the γ → α + γ transformation in the alloy containing 3 per cent by weight of molybdenum using electronic micro-diffraction; it has been possible to establish the orientational relationships governing the germination of the α phase in the γ phase. One finds: (111)γ // (100) α, (112-bar)γ // (010) α, (11-bar 0)γ // (001)α. By choosing a monoclinic lattice containing the same number of atoms as the orthorhombic lattice for defining the γ mother phase, the change in structure has been explained by adding a homogeneous (112-bar)γ [111]γ shearing deformation to a heterogeneous deformation brought about by slipping of the atoms which are not situated at the nodes of this lattice. The identity of the orientation relationships γ/α and γ/α''b and the loss of coherence γ /α as a function of temperature or of time lead to the conclusion that, in the range studied, the γ → α transformation begins with a martensitic process and continues by germination and growth. (author) [fr

  3. Phase transformations in the titanium-niobium binary alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental study of the phase transformations in the Ti-Nb binary alloy system was completed. Eight alloys in the range 20 to 70 at% Nb were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, light metallography, and x-ray diffraction. Measurements of electric resistivity and Vicker's microhardness also were performed. Emphasis was placed on the minimization of interstitial contamination in all steps of alloy fabrication and specimen preparation. In order to eliminate the effects of prior cold working, the alloys studied were recrystallized at 1000 0 C. Phase transformations were studied in alloys quenched to room temperature after recrystallization and then isothermally aged, and in those isothermally aged without a prior room temperature quench. It was found that the microstructures of the quenched 20 and 25% Nb alloys were extremely sensitive to quench rate - with a fast quench producing martensite, a slow quench, the omega phase. Microstructures of the higher niobium content alloys were much less sensitive to quench rate. The microstructures of the isothermally aged 20 and 25% Nb alloys were found to be sensitive to prior thermal history. Alloys quenched to room temperature and then aged at 400 0 C contained large omega precipitates, while those aged without an intermediate room temperature quench contained alpha precipitates

  4. Study of phase transformation of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb alloys for application in advanced nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, Rafael Witter Dias

    2015-01-01

    Metal fuels are relevant in the nuclear area due to the versatility of its use in the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the alloys of uranium investigated with high potential for use in nuclear power reactors, U-Zr-Nb alloys appear as an important alternative because of their superior physico-chemical and metallurgical properties. These alloys have also potential for use in nuclear testing, research and production radioisotopes of high performance nuclear reactors. Therefore, the development of these alloys is strategic since they are planned to be used in national reactors as RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) and LABGENE (Electrical Generation Core Laboratory), currently under development in Brazil. In this work it was realized a extensive study in the scope of the manufacturing, heat treatment and phase transformations of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb (m/m%) and U-3ZR-9NB (m/m%) fuel alloys. Ingots of both alloys were produced employing a specific methodology developed in this study. This methodology comprised the melting process in a vacuum induction furnace at high temperatures (1500 °C) and thermal-mechanical processing to break the as-cast structure. Samples with typical dimensions (17 x 7 x 2.5 mm) free from macrostructural defects were homogenized at 1000 °C in vacuum of 10 -5 torr for 17.5 hours with a 10°C/min cooling rate until to 820 °C and, subsequently, quenched in water. The samples, randomly selected, were subjected to isothermal treatment tests under different conditions of time and temperature. Isothermal treatments for transformation and retention phases were carried out in a special assembly designed for this work. After the tests, the samples were characterized by the usual phase characterization techniques with particular emphasis for the X-ray diffraction technique. In this way, the Rietveld refinement method was applied. In the case of uranium based alloys it is quite challenging due to the lack of data in the literature. In this work a strategy for the

  5. The use of slightly alloyed uranium as fuel: its influence on the dissolution and other stages of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Leroy, P.; Lheureux, C.

    1959-01-01

    This report deals chiefly with the treatment of binary alloys (UAI, UMo, UZr, UCr, USi) with a low concentration of the additional element (≤2 per cent). The investigation was pursued with a view to the continued utilisation, with a minimum of modification, of the existing plants for treatment of non-alloyed irradiated uranium. In the first part, the usual process for the treatment of irradiated uranium by solvent extraction is briefly recalled. The second part is devoted to a study of the selective dissolution of the canning around certain of these alloys. The third part gives the behaviour of these different alloys at various phases of the usual treatment: a) dissolution; b) extractions; c) final treatment of fission products; d) final purification of plutonium. To conclude, possible alloys are classed as a function of their repercussions on the normal treatment. (author) [fr

  6. Study on direct dissolution of U-10Zr alloy and distribution of uranium and zirconium in liquid cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuxing; Gao Yuan

    1997-09-01

    The effect of dissolution time, temperature, total surface area of U-10Zr alloy pellets and stirring on the dissolution and dissolution rate of uranium in liquid cadmium were studied. Cadmium containing U and Zr dissolved from U-10Zr alloy at 475 degree C and 500 degree C respectively was analyzed with electron microanalyzer. The experimental results show that at 400 degree and 500 degree C with the stirring rate of some 150 r/min, the solubilities of uranium in liquid cadmium are 0.4% and 2.2%, respectively. At the first 30 min, the dissolution rates of U-10Zr alloy pellets are 0.05 g/(cm 2 ·h) and 0.32 g/(cm 2 ·h), respectively. The suitable dissolution conditions for U-10Zr alloy pellets in liquid cadmium (the ratio of the mass of liquid cadmium to that of the pellets ≅7) are: temperature, about 480 degree C; stirring rate, about 150 r/min; dissolution time, 4 h. The distribution of uranium and zirconium in cadmium is homogeneous

  7. The martensitic transformation in Ti-rich TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.C.; Wu, S.K.; Lin, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The martensitic (Ms) transformation temperatures and their ΔH values of Ti 51 Ni 49 and Ti 50.5 Ni 49.5 alloys are higher than those of equiatomic or Ni-rich TiNi alloys. The Ti-rich TiNi alloys exhibit good shape recovery in spite of a great deal of second phase Ti 2 Ni or Ti 4 Ni 2 O existing around B2 grain boundaries. The nearly identical transformation temperatures indicate that the absorbed oxygen in Ti-rich TiNi alloys may react with Ti 2 Ni particles, instead of the TiNi matrix, to form Ti 4 Ni 2 O. Martensite stabilization can be induced by cold rolling at room temperature. Thermal cycling can depress the transformation temperatures significantly, especially in the initial 20 cycles. The R-phase transformation can be promoted by both cold rolling and thermal cycling in Ti-rich TiNi alloys due to introduced dislocations depressing the Ms temperature. The strengthening effects of cold rolling and thermal cycling on the Ms temperature of Ti-rich TiNi alloys are found to follow the expression Ms = To - KΔσ y . The K values are affected by different strengthening processes and related to the as-annealed transformation temperatures. The higher the as-annealed Ms (or As), the larger the K value. (orig.)

  8. Incentives for the use of depleted uranium alloys as transport cask containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.W.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive material transport casks use either lead or depleted uranium (DU) as gamma-ray shielding material. Stainless steel is conventionally used for structural containment. If a DU alloy had sufficient properties to guarantee resistance to failure during both normal use and accident conditions to serve the dual-role of shielding and containment, the use of other structural materials (i.e., stainless steel) could be reduced. (It is recognized that lead can play no structural role.) Significant reductions in cask weight and dimensions could then be achieved perhaps allowing an increase in payload. The mechanical response of depleted uranium has previously not been included in calculations intended to show that DU-shielded transport casks will maintain their containment function during all conditions. This paper describes a two-part study of depleted uranium alloys: First, the mechanical behavior of DU alloys was determined in order to extend the limited set of mechanical properties reported in the literature (Eckelmeyer, 1991). The mechanical properties measured include the tensile behavior the impact energy. Fracture toughness testing was also performed to determine the sensitivity of DU alloys to brittle fracture. Fracture toughness is the inherent material property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. Tensile strength and ductility are significant in terms of other failure modes, however, as will be discussed. These mechanical properties were then input into finite element calculations of cask response to loading conditions to quantify the potential for claiming structural credit for DU. (The term 'structural credit' describes whether a material has adequate properties to allow it to assume a positive role in withstanding structural loadings.) (J.P.N.)

  9. X-ray topography of uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Naour, L.

    1984-01-01

    The limitations of x-ray topography methods are due to the variety of structures studied and to the variation of the amplitude of the scattering of incident beams. It is difficult to evaluate the aberrations and the imperfections of the material studied. Interpretation of the x-ray images will often be delicate and that is aggravated by the complexity of the diffraction spectrum of uranium. This negative aspect is compensated for by the advantage that chemical or electrochemical preparations of the alloy surface, along with alterations that can take place and the lack of trueness are avoided. Precise and very reproducible numerical data can be derived from the patterns. The structure of alloys, at a given scale, is revealed and characterized by quantitative parameters such as size of grains or sub-grains, dispersion of their dimensions, mutual disorientations and the continuous or discontinuous nature of the latter. The results of this research, therefore, justify the use of methods inspired by the Berg-Barrett technique. These diffraction procedures constitute a useful means for investigating many elements of microstructure that closely govern the behavior under irradiation of the materials being examined

  10. Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, U.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies in tantalum was made. Using advanced techniques of electron microscopy and ultrahigh vacuum techology, an understanding of the microstructures and phase transformations in dilute interstitial tantalum--carbon alloys is developed. Through a number of control experiments, the role and sources of interstitial contamination in the alloy preparation (and under operating conditions) are revealed. It is demonstrated that all previously published work on the dilute interstitially ordered phase Ta 64 C can be explained consistently in terms of ordering of the interstitial contaminants oxygen and hydrogen, leading to the formation of the phases Ta 12 O and Ta 2 H

  11. The fracture mechanism of uranium-niobium alloys near hypoeutectoid composition aged at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoying; Ren Dapeng; Yang Jianxiong; Jiang Guifen

    2006-01-01

    The microstructures and the crack propagation of uranium-niobium alloys near hypoeutectoid composition aged at temperature 200 degree C for 2 hours during a tension was investigated by means of in situ tension tests using TEM. The results show that the twinning planes inside and between the martensite laths move and merge, and then disintegrate in uranium-niobium alloys with monoclinic α structure during the tension. The crack propagation can be described as follows. Under the tension, the thinning zone which is locally plastically deformed emerges in the front of the crack tip. After the process of nucleation, growth and conjunction, the microvoids connect with the main crack, which results in the fracture. Neither of emission, propagation and movement of dislocation was observed during the tension. (authors)

  12. Impact strength of the uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy between -1980 and +2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a ductile-to-brittle transition wxisted for the uranium-6 wt % niobium (U-6Nb) alloy. Standard V-notched Charpy bars were made from both solution-quenched and solution-quenched and aged U-6Nb alloy and were tested between -198 0 and +200 0 C. It was found that a sharp ductile-brittle transition does not exist for the alloy. A linear relationship existed between test temperature and impact strength, and the alloy retained a significant amount of impact strength even at very low temperatures. 9 figures

  13. Determination of impurities in uranium--niobium (7.5%)--zirconium (2.5%) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arragon, Y

    1973-10-01

    The determination of 11 impurities in uranium--niobium-- zirconium alloys was studied. Elements of which the alloy is composed are considered and information is given on the determination of niobium by niobic acid precipitation. Selective elimination of the three components is discussed. Two liquid-liquid extractions are used. The nioblum is separated by methylisobutylketone in a hydrochloric --hydrofluoric medium and the zirconium and uranium by tributyl phosphate in a nitric medium. The determination of trace elements using electrochemical methods is discussed. Anodic re-dissolution polarography or square wave polarography enabled six elements (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, bismuth, and thallium) to be determined in a carbonate medium together with aluminium in tetraethylammonium perchlorate, molybdenum in nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, and tungsten in hydrochloric acid with added double sodium and potassium tartrate. Fluorine was determined using ionometric techniques with a specific electrode and carbon was titrated by conductometry after combustion of the sample in an oxygen current. (auth)

  14. Spectrographic determination of niobium in uranium - niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbel, M.Y.; Lordello, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for the spectrographic determination of niobium in uranium-niobium alloys in the concentration range 1-10% has been developed. The metallic sample is converted to oxide by calcination in a muffle furnace at 800 0 C for two hours. The standards are prepared synthetically by dry-mixing. One part of the sample or standard is added to nineteen parts of graphite powder and the mixture is excited in a DC arc. Hafnium has been used as internal standard. The precision of the method is + - 4.8%. (Author) [pt

  15. Study of alloy crystallization in systems undergoing peritectic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarev, V.I.; Kirij, V.G.; Kuznetsov, A.V.; Psareva, I.V.; Ivanov, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    Studies into Ge-Te, In-Te, Al-Mn, Sb-Zn, Sn-Au systems are carried out at melt cooling rates from 50 deg/h to 10 5 deg/h to establish regularities in stable and metastable crystallization of alloys undergoing peritectic transformations. Methods of metallographic, X-ray phase and X-ray diffraction analyses are used. Differentiation in types of peritectic transformations is made through their mechanisms under equilibrium and non-equilibrium crystallization conditions for various alloy systems. It is found out that ability to supercooling even at low or moderate cooling rates for Te-Ge and Te-In system melts can be one of the main indication of the possibility of amorphous alloy formation [ru

  16. The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen, Fanbing [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Cheng, Yangjian [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Lin, Zhang, E-mail: zlin@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guan, Xiong, E-mail: guanxfafu@126.com [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Indigenous B. thuringiensis exhibited highly accumulation ability to U(VI) in the absence of additional nutrients. • The amorphous uranium compound would transformed into crystalline nano-uramphite by B. thuringiensis. • The chemical nature of formed U-species were monitored. • The cell-free extracts of B. thuringiensis had better uranium-immobilization ability than its cell debris. • Provided the understanding of the uranium transformation mechanism. - Abstract: The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains was investigated in the present work. Our data showed that the bacteria isolated from uranium mine possessed highly accumulation ability to U(VI), and the maximum accumulation capacity was around 400 mg U/g biomass (dry weight). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyzes indicated that the U(VI) was adsorbed on the bacterial surface firstly through coordinating with phosphate, −CH{sub 2} and amide groups, and then needle-like amorphous uranium compounds were formed. With the extension of time, the extracellular crystalline substances were disappeared, but some particles were appeared in the intracellular region, and these particles were characterized as tetragonal-uramphite. Moreover, the disrupted experiment indicated that the cell-free extracts had better uranium-immobilization ability than cell debris. Our findings provided the understanding of the uranium transformation process from amorphous uranium to crystalline uramphite, which would be useful in the regulation of uranium immobilization process.

  17. The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Fanbing; Cheng, Yangjian; Lin, Zhang; Guan, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Indigenous B. thuringiensis exhibited highly accumulation ability to U(VI) in the absence of additional nutrients. • The amorphous uranium compound would transformed into crystalline nano-uramphite by B. thuringiensis. • The chemical nature of formed U-species were monitored. • The cell-free extracts of B. thuringiensis had better uranium-immobilization ability than its cell debris. • Provided the understanding of the uranium transformation mechanism. - Abstract: The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains was investigated in the present work. Our data showed that the bacteria isolated from uranium mine possessed highly accumulation ability to U(VI), and the maximum accumulation capacity was around 400 mg U/g biomass (dry weight). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyzes indicated that the U(VI) was adsorbed on the bacterial surface firstly through coordinating with phosphate, −CH 2 and amide groups, and then needle-like amorphous uranium compounds were formed. With the extension of time, the extracellular crystalline substances were disappeared, but some particles were appeared in the intracellular region, and these particles were characterized as tetragonal-uramphite. Moreover, the disrupted experiment indicated that the cell-free extracts had better uranium-immobilization ability than cell debris. Our findings provided the understanding of the uranium transformation process from amorphous uranium to crystalline uramphite, which would be useful in the regulation of uranium immobilization process

  18. Simulation of Structural Transformations in Heating of Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A. S.; Makarov, E. L.; Kurkin, A. B.; Rubtsov, D. E.; Rubtsov, M. E.

    2017-07-01

    Amathematical model for computer simulation of structural transformations in an alloy steel under the conditions of the thermal cycle of multipass welding is presented. The austenitic transformation under the heating and the processes of decomposition of bainite and martensite under repeated heating are considered. Amethod for determining the necessary temperature-time parameters of the model from the chemical composition of the steel is described. Published data are processed and the results used to derive regression models of the temperature ranges and parameters of transformation kinetics of alloy steels. The method developed is used in computer simulation of the process of multipass welding of pipes by the finite-element method.

  19. Uranium-Based Cermet Alloys; Cermets a base d'uranium; Metallokeramicheskie splavy na osnove urana; Cermets a base de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Zelenskij, V. F.; Voloshchuk, A. I.; Grishok, V. N. [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Institut an USSR, Khar' kov, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-11-15

    The paper describes certain features of dispersion-hardened uranium-based cermets. As possible hardening materials, consideration was given to UO{sub 2}, UC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and UBe{sub 13}. Data were obtained on the behaviour of uranium alloys containing the above-mentioned admixtures during creep tests, short-term strength tests and cyclic thermal treatment. The corrosion resistance o f UBe{sub 13}-based uranium alloys was also studied. )author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent certaines proprietes de cermets a base d'uranium, dont la resistance a ete accrue a l'aide de particules dispersees. Les materiaux utilises a cette fin sont notamment: UO{sub 2}, UC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO et UBe{sub 13}. Les auteurs indiquent les donnees obtenues sur le comportement des cermets a l'uranium; durant les essais de fluage, les essais de resistance a court terme et le traitement thermique cyclique, en mentionnant les substances ajoutees. Ils etudient enfin la resistance a la corrosion des cermets d'uranium et UBe{sub 13}. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen algunas propiedades de los cermets a base de uranio, reforzados por particulas de diversos compuestos en dispersion. En calidad de posibles materiales de refuerzo, ensayaron el UO{sub 2}, el UC, el Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, el MgO y el UBe{sub 13}. Obtuvieron datos sobre el comportamiento de esas aleaciones en ensayos de fluencia, ensayoe rapidos de resistencia y tratamiento termico ciclico. Por ultimo, estudiaron la resistencia a la corrosion de las aleaciones de uranio a base de UBe{sub 13}. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie nekotorykh svojstv metallokeramicheskikh splavov urana, uprochnennykh dispersionnymi chastitsami. V kachestve vozmozhnykh uprochnyayushchikh materialov izuchalis' UO{sub 2}, UC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} , MgO i UBe{sub 13}. Polucheny dannye o povedenii splavov urana s ukazannymi primesyami pri kripovykh ispytaniyakh, pri kratkovremennykh prochnostnykh ispytaniyakh i pri tsiklicheskoj termoobrabotke

  20. Present day state of knowledge of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium; L'etat actuel des connaissances sur la transformation allotropique α-β de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de Technologie, Departement de Metallurgie et de Chimie Appliquee, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The technological conditions of the problem of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium are presented first. Then, the author explains the qualitative reasons why in non-allied uranium: 1) the new phase germination follows a consistent process; 2) the new phase growth, at the expense of the mother phase, proceeds either by martensitic-type shear or by thermal diffusion if the temperature and impurities amount are high enough. Reprint of a paper published in La Mettalurgia Italiana, vol. LI, no. 11, p. 497-504, 1959 [French] Il est montre d'abord dans quelles conditions se pose technologiquement le probleme de la transformation allotropique α/β de l'uranium. L'auteur expose ensuite les raisons qualitatives selon lesquelles il y a lieu d'admettre que dans l'uranium non allie: 1) la germination de la nouvelle phase s'effectue par un processus coherent; 2) la croissance de la nouvelle phase au detriment de la phase mere s'opere soit par cisaillement de type martensitique, soit par diffusion thermique si la temperature et le taux d'impuretes sont suffisants. Reproduction d'un article publie dans La Mettalurgia Italiana, vol. LI, no. 11, p. 497-504, 1959.

  1. Effects of post-irradiation annealing on the transformation behavior of Ti-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Tsuruga, H.; Morimura, T.; Misawa, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recovery processes of martensitic transformation of neutron irradiated Ti-50.0, 50.5 and 51.0 at.%Ni alloys during post-irradiation annealing were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile tests and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. Neutron irradiation up to a fluence of 1.2x10 24 n/cm 2 at 333 K suppressed the martensitic transformation as well as the stress-induced martensitic transformation of these alloys above 150 K. The TEM observations revealed that the disordered zones containing small defect clusters in high density were formed in the neutron irradiated Ti-Ni alloys. The DSC measurements also showed that the post-irradiation annealing caused recovery of the transformation of which the progress depended on the annealing temperature and period. A significant retardation of the recovery was recognized in the Ti-51.0 at.%Ni alloy in comparison with the Ti-50.0 at.%Ni alloy. From the shifts in the transformation temperature upon isothermal annealing at various annealing temperatures, the activation energies of the recovery process of the transformation in the neutron irradiated Ti-50.0 and 51.0 at.%Ni alloys were evaluated by a cross-cut method to be 1.2 eV and 1.5 eV, respectively. The recovery of the transformation was ascribed to the re-ordering resulting from decomposition of vacancy clusters, and those obtained values of the activation energy were considered to be the sum of the migration energy of vacancy and the binding energy of vacancy-vacancy cluster. The retardation of the recovery in the Ti-51.0 at%Ni alloy was interpreted in terms of large binding energy in this alloy due to the off-stoichiometry. (author)

  2. High-strength uranium-0.8 weight percent titanium alloy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcutt, W.G.

    1978-09-01

    Long-rod kinetic-energy penetrators, produced from a uranium-0.8 titanium (U-0.8 Ti) alloy, are normally water quenched from the gamma phase (approximately 800 0 C) and aged to the desired hardness and strength levels. High cooling rates from 800 0 C in U-0.8 Ti alloy cylindrical bodies larger than about 13 mm in diameter cause internal voids, while slower rates of cooling can produce material that is unresponsive to aging. For the present study, elimination of quenching voids was of paramount importance; therefore, a process including the quenching of plate was explored. Vacuum-induction-cast ingots were forged and rolled into plate and cut into blanks from which the penetrators were obtained. Quenched U-0.8 Ti alloy blanks were aged at 350 to 500 0 C to determine the treatment that would provide maximum tensile and impact strengths. Both tensile and impact strengths were maximized by aging in vacuum for six hours at 450 0 C

  3. Vacuum-induction melting, refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R J

    1989-10-11

    The vacuum-induction melting (VIM), refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys are discussed. Emphasis is placed on historical development, VIM equipment, crucible and mold design, furnace atmospheres, melting parameters, impurity pickup, ingot quality, and economics. The VIM procedures used to produce high-purity, high-quality sound ingots at the US Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant are discussed in detail.

  4. Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Kirk, M. A.; Rest, J.; Allen, T. R.; Wachs, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si) 3, (U, Mo)(Al, Si) 3, UMo 2Al 20, U 6Mo 4Al 43 and UAl 4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 °C to ion doses up to 2.5 × 10 19 ions/m 2 (˜10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10 16 ions/m 2/s (˜4.0 × 10 -3 dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Review of DREV uranium research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, J.P.; Erickson, W.H.; Tardif, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a brief review of the DREV uranium research carried out on various aspects of the physical metallurgy of depleted uranium alloys. It includes (1) a survey of the early work on polynary alloys, (2) recent metallurgical investigations on various alloy systems and (3) miscellaneous studies on grain size refinement, grain growth, powder metallurgy, pyrophoricity and directional casting of uranium alloys. A general summary of most of the studies carried out during the last ten years is also presented

  6. An approach for continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herding, T.; Kessler, O.; Hoffmann, F.; Mayr, P.

    2002-01-01

    Two different kinds of time temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams are known. The first one are isothermal transformation (IT) diagrams and the second one continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams. These diagrams are important for the correct heat treatment of aluminium alloys, because they provide information about the required quenching rate, which is necessary to obtain a supersaturated solid solution during age hardening. Furthermore, it is possible to determine the lowest quenching rate, which permits both a high strength and a small distortion of the component after age hardening. In the literature IT diagrams for different aluminium alloys are available. To determine these diagrams, a solution annealing followed by quenching to defined temperatures is necessary. At these temperatures the alloy is kept isothermally until a transformation has started. These diagrams are not directly portable on continuous cooling, because of the different cooling paths. (orig.)

  7. Gamma stability and powder formation of UMo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, F.B.V.; Andrade, D.A.; Angelo, G.; Belchior Junior, A.; Torres, W.M.; Umbehaun, P.E., E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelo, E., E-mail: eangelo@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Simulacao Numerica (GSN)

    2015-07-01

    A study of the hydrogen embrittlement as well as a research on the relation between gamma decomposition and powder formation of uranium molybdenum alloys were previously presented. In this study a comparison regarding the hypo-eutectoid and hyper-eutectoid molybdenum additions is presented. Gamma uranium molybdenum alloys have been considered as the fuel phase in plate type fuel elements for material and test reactors (MTR). Regarding their usage as a dispersion phase in aluminum matrix, it is necessary to convert the as cast structure into powder, and one of the techniques considered for this purpose is the hydration-dehydration (HDH). This paper shows that, under specific conditions of heating and cooling, γ-UMo fragmentation may occur with non-reactive or reactive mechanisms. Following the production of the alloys by induction melting, samples of the alloys were thermally treated under a constant flow of hydrogen. It was observed that, even without a massive hydration-dehydration process, the alloys fragmented under specific conditions of thermal treatment, during the thermal shock phase of the experiments. Also, there is a relation between absorption and the rate of gamma decomposition or the gamma phase stability of the alloy and this phenomenon can be related to the eutectoid transformation temperature. This study was carried out to search for a new method for the production of powders and for the evaluation of important physical parameter such as the eutectoid transformation temperature, as an alternative to the existing ones. (author)

  8. Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de

    2008-01-01

    This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature, time and

  9. Metallurgical examination of powder metallurgy uranium alloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.G.M.; Dobbins, A.G.; Holbert, R.K.; Doughty, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Inertia welding provided a successful technique for joining full density, powder metallurgy uranium-6 wt pct niobium alloy. Initial joining attempts concentrated on the electron beam method, but this method failed to produce a sound weld. The electron beam welds and the inertia welds were evaluated by radiography and metallography. Electron beam welds were attempted on powder metallurgy plates which contained various levels of oxygen and nitrogen. All welds were porous. Sixteen inertia welds were made and all welds were radiographically sound. The tensile properties of the joints were found to be equivalent to the p/m base metal properties

  10. Displacive transformations in near-equiatomic niobium--ruthenium alloys. I. Morphology and crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Lieberman, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    Displacive phase transformations in near-equiatomic Nb--Ru alloys were studied using electrical resistivity measurements, optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. Alloys containing between 41 and 45 at. percent Ru undergo a CsCl (β) to tetragonal (β') transformation on cooling from 1500 0 C to room temperature. Alloys containing more than 46 at. percent Ru exhibit a two step CsCl (β) to tetragonal (β') to orthorhombic (β'') transformation on cooling to room temperature. Although the product of each successive transformation consists of stacks of twins (in β' → β'', twins within twins), the transformations do not proceed by the advance of sharp planar interfaces as in many of the first order martensitic transformations resulting in morphologically similar products. Rather, the interphase region consists of a small volume of the crystal over which the parent phase is gradually distorted into the product phase. (U.S.)

  11. Uranium for Nuclear Power: Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Uranium for Nuclear Power: Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel discusses the nuclear industry and its dependence on a steady supply of competitively priced uranium as a key factor in its long-term sustainability. A better understanding of uranium ore geology and advances in exploration and mining methods will facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new uranium deposits. The practice of efficient, safe, environmentally-benign exploration, mining and milling technologies, and effective site decommissioning and remediation are also fundamental to the public image of nuclear power. This book provides a comprehensive review of developments in these areas: • Provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative overview of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle • Presents a comprehensive and systematic coverage of geology, mining, and conversion to fuel, alternative fuel sources, and the environmental and social aspects • Written by leading experts in the field of nuclear power, uranium mining, milling, and geological exploration who highlight the best practices needed to ensure environmental safety

  12. Reversibility in martensitic transformation and shape memory in high Mn ferrous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomota, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The reversibility of austenite (γ : fcc) epsilon (ε : hcp) martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in high Mn ferrous alloys are discussed. A particular emphasis is put on the ε → γ reverse transformation behavior in two poly-crystalline alloys, Fe-24Mn and Fe-24Mn-6Si, where the latter exhibits excellent shape memory while the former shows poor memory although their forward γ → ε transformation behavior is quite similar. TEM in situ observations have revealed that the motion of Shockley partial dislocations during ε → γ reverse transformation is different from each other in these two alloys. The influence of alloying elements on the shape memory effect can be related to solid solution hardening of austenite, suggesting an important role of internal stress. The effect of training on enhancing the shape memory is explained by such an internal stress distribution associated with the formation of very thin, i.e., nano-scale ε/γ lamellae. (orig.)

  13. Low alloy additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the literature has been made on the experimental results of small additions of iron, silicon, and aluminum to uranium. Information is also included on the constitution, mechanical properties, heat treatment, and deformation of various binary and ternary alloys. 42 references, 24 figures, 13 tables

  14. Determination of new time-temperature-transformation diagrams for lead-calcium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F.; Lambertin, M. [Arts et Metiers Paristech, LaBoMaP, ENSAM, Rue porte de Paris, 71250 Cluny (France); Delfaut-Durut, L. [CEA, centre de Valduc [SEMP, LECM], 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Maitre, A. [SPCTS, UFR Sciences et techniques, 87060 Limoges (France); Vilasi, M. [LCSM, Universite Nancy I, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2008-12-01

    The Pb-Ca is an age hardening alloy that allows for an increase in the hardness compared to pure lead. The hardening is obtained after different successive ageing transformations. In addition, this hardening is followed by an overageing which induces a softening. The ageing and overageing transformation mechanisms are now well identified in lead-calcium alloys. In this paper, we propose to represent the domain of stability of each transformation via time-temperature-transformation diagrams for a calcium concentration from 600 to 1280 ppm and in a range of temperatures from -20 to 180 C. These diagrams are constructed with the data obtained by in situ ageing with metallographic observations, hardness and electrical resistance measurements. The specificities of lead-calcium such as its fast ageing at ambient temperature and its overageing over time required the design of specific devices to be able to identify the characteristics of these alloys. (author)

  15. Electrochemical formation of uranium-zirconium alloy in LiCl-KCl melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: m-tsuyo@criepi.denken.or.j [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kato, Tetsuya; Kurata, Masaki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Yamana, Hajimu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Since zirconium is considered an electrochemically active species under practical conditions of the electrorefining process, it is crucial to understand the electrochemical behavior of zirconium in LiCl-KCl melts containing actinide ions. In this study, the electrochemical codeposition of uranium and zirconium on a solid cathode was performed. It was found that the delta-(U, Zr) phase, which is the only intermediate phase of the uranium-zirconium binary alloy system, was deposited on a tantalum substrate by potentiostatic electrolysis at -1.60 V (vs. Ag{sup +}/Ag) in LiCl-KCl melts containing 0.13 in mol% UCl{sub 3} and 0.23 in mol% ZrCl{sub 4} at 773 K. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrochemical formation of the delta-(U, Zr) phase. The relative partial molar properties of uranium in the delta-(U, Zr) phase were evaluated by measuring the open-circuit-potentials of the electrochemically prepared delta-phase electrode.

  16. Electrochemical formation of uranium-zirconium alloy in LiCl-KCl melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Tetsuya; Kurata, Masaki; Yamana, Hajimu

    2009-01-01

    Since zirconium is considered an electrochemically active species under practical conditions of the electrorefining process, it is crucial to understand the electrochemical behavior of zirconium in LiCl-KCl melts containing actinide ions. In this study, the electrochemical codeposition of uranium and zirconium on a solid cathode was performed. It was found that the δ-(U, Zr) phase, which is the only intermediate phase of the uranium-zirconium binary alloy system, was deposited on a tantalum substrate by potentiostatic electrolysis at -1.60 V (vs. Ag + /Ag) in LiCl-KCl melts containing 0.13 in mol% UCl 3 and 0.23 in mol% ZrCl 4 at 773 K. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrochemical formation of the δ-(U, Zr) phase. The relative partial molar properties of uranium in the δ-(U, Zr) phase were evaluated by measuring the open-circuit-potentials of the electrochemically prepared δ-phase electrode.

  17. Ore controlling oxidized zonation epigenetic uranium-coal deposits and regularities in lignite transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uspenskij, V.A.; Kulakova, Ya.M.

    1982-01-01

    Complex of analytical methods was used to study epigenetic transformations in uranium-coal ore manifestation. To clarify the principle scheme of oxidized zonation in coals the materials, related to three similar objects were used. When comparing obtained epigenetic column with columns of similar ore objects the principle scheme of oxidized epigenetic zonation for ancient infiltration uranium-coal deposits was specified; general regularities of eignite transformations and characteristics of profile distribution of uranium and accessory metal zonations were revealed. Infiltration processes, proceeded in coal measureses, formed the steady epigenetic oxidized zonation: O - zone of barren unoxidized coals, 1 - zone of ore-bearing unoxidized coals, 2 - zone of weakly ore-bearing oxidized coals, 3 - zone of oxidized terrigenous rocks with zonules of development of yellow and red iron hydroxides. Capacities of some zones and zonules reflect the intensity and duration of ore-forming processes. Distribution of U and accessory elements obeys completely epigenetic zonation. It is assumed, that ancient infiltration uranium-coal deposits formed due to weakly uranium-bearing oxygen-containing waters

  18. Electrolytic etching of uranium and of its alloys for examination under ordinary light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouleau, M.

    1958-12-01

    The author reports a metallographic study of uranium and of some of its alloys (U-Mo with different Mo contents, U-Sn, U-Al) performed by using electrolytic etching. Samples are polished before being etched. Metallographic images are provided and results are briefly stated in terms of presence of grain boundaries, twins, platelets, pitting, metallic and non-metallic inclusions or eutectoid decomposition. The authors notice that, in some alloys with a gamma-stabilized structure, electrolytic etching allows an oxidation under reduced oxygen pressure, and then phase structure to be perfectly revealed

  19. Elastic-plastic waves in UV 0.2 Uranium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, H.; Lalle, P.

    1984-09-01

    Release waves coming from the back face of an uranium alloy projectile in a symmetric collision are used to estimate some dynamic characteristics of this material. In the pressure range experimentally covered (<=29GPa) the velocity of the elastic precursor is about 3,45 km/s, and the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) is 1,15GPa. The pressure decrease behind the 20GPa (29GPa) shock wave begins with a quasi-elastic wave which velocity is 3,9 km/s (4,2 km/s), and pressure jump of 3GPa (3,7GPa)

  20. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  1. Acoustic emission on thermoelastic martensitic transformations in alloys in the course of mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.A.; Kokhanenko, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The connection of the emission process with the process of the deformation accumulation and relaxation in the cycle of the martensitic transformations is studied. The martensitic transformations cycling was investigated by cycling change in the temperature in the Ti 50 Ni 50 Cu 10 alloys. The deformation accumulation and recovery is observed in the alloys undergoing the thermoelastic martensitic transformations under the mechanical loading conditions. The acoustic emission, accompanying the martensitic transformations, reflects the peculiarities of the alloy deformation behavior by the martensitic transformations. The anomalous acoustic effect correlates with the reversible deformation accumulation and does not correlates with the irreversible deformation accumulation [ru

  2. PROCESSING OF URANIUM-METAL-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-10-01

    A process is given for recovering uranium from neutronbombarded uranium- aluminum alloys. The alloy is dissolved in an aluminum halide--alkali metal halide mixture in which the halide is a mixture of chloride and bromide, the aluminum halide is present in about stoichiometric quantity as to uranium and fission products and the alkali metal halide in a predominant quantity; the uranium- and electropositive fission-products-containing salt phase is separated from the electronegative-containing metal phase; more aluminum halide is added to the salt phase to obtain equimolarity as to the alkali metal halide; adding an excess of aluminum metal whereby uranium metal is formed and alloyed with the excess aluminum; and separating the uranium-aluminum alloy from the fission- productscontaining salt phase. (AEC)

  3. Transformations of highly enriched uranium into metal or oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nollet, P.; Sarrat, P.

    1964-01-01

    The enriched uranium workshops in Cadarache have a double purpose on the one hand to convert uranium hexafluoride into metal or oxide, and on the other hand to recover the uranium contained in scrap materials produced in the different metallurgical transformations. The principles that have been adopted for the design and safety of these workshops are reported. The nuclear safety is based on the geometrical limitations of the processing vessels. To establish the processes and the technology of these workshops, many studies have been made since 1960, some of which have led to original achievements. The uranium hexafluoride of high isotopic enrichment is converted either by injection of the gas into ammonia or by an original process of direct hydrogen reduction to uranium tetrafluoride. The uranium contained m uranium-zirconium metal scrap can be recovered by combustion with hydrogen chloride followed treatment of the uranium chloride by fluorine in order to obtain the uranium in the hexafluoride state. Recovery of the uranium contained m various scrap materials is obtained by a conventional refining process combustion of metallic scrap, nitric acid dissolution of the oxide, solvent purification by tributyl phosphate, ammonium diuranate precipitation, calcining, reduction and hydro fluorination into uranium tetrafluoride, bomb reduction by calcium and slag treatment. Two separate workshops operate along these lines one takes care of the uranium with an isotopic enrichment of up to 3 p. 100, the other handles the high enrichments. The handling of each step of this process, bearing in mind the necessity for nuclear safety, has raised some special technological problems and has led to the conception of new apparatus, in particular the roasting furnace for metal turnings, the nitric acid dissolution unit, the continuous precipitator and ever safe filter and dryer for ammonium diuranate, the reduction and hydro fluorination furnace and the slag recovery apparatus These are

  4. Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, J., E-mail: Jian.Gan@inl.go [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Keiser, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Miller, B.D. [University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kirk, M.A.; Rest, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Allen, T.R. [University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wachs, D.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si){sub 3}, (U, Mo)(Al, Si){sub 3}, UMo{sub 2}Al{sub 20}, U{sub 6}Mo{sub 4}Al{sub 43} and UAl{sub 4}. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 {sup o}C to ion doses up to 2.5 x 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} ({approx}10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}/s ({approx}4.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF URANIUM METAL CORROSION MECHANISM AND KINETICS IN WATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudanova, Natalya; Maslennikov, Alexander; Peretroukhine, Vladimir F.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2006-01-01

    During long-term underwater storage of low burn-up uranium metal fuel, a corrosion product sludge forms containing uranium metal grains, uranium dioxide, uranates and, in some cases, uranium peroxide. Literature data on the corrosion of non-irradiated uranium metal and its alloys do not allow unequivocal prediction of the paragenesis of irradiated uranium in water. The goal of the present work conducted under the program 'CORROSION OF IRRADIATED URANIUM ALLOYS FUEL IN WATER' is to study the corrosion of uranium and uranium alloys and the paragenesis of the corrosion products during long-term underwater storage of uranium alloy fuel irradiated at the Hanford Site. The elucidation of the physico-chemical nature of the corrosion of irradiated uranium alloys in comparison with non-irradiated uranium metal and its alloys is one of the most important aspects of this work. Electrochemical methods are being used to study uranium metal corrosion mechanism and kinetics. The present part of work aims to examine and revise, where appropriate, the understanding of uranium metal corrosion mechanism and kinetics in water

  6. A survey of the mechanical properties of uranium alloys U-5Mo-3Nb wt.% and U-3Mo-3Nb wt.%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, G.

    1969-04-15

    In a continuing program on the development of soft and ductile uranium alloys for armament applications, two compositions were studied. These gamma extruded uranium alloys were U-5Mo-3Nb wt.% and U-3Mo-3Nb wt.%. This study was carried out to determine the influence of tempering heat treatments associated with extrusion on the ductility of these uranium alloys. The mechanical properties of both alloys were measured in the extruded condition, in the extruded and annealed condition and in the quenched and tempered condition. A maximum elongation of 13.7% in tension with a low amount of work hardening was obtained for the U-3Mo-3Nb wt.% alloy after 1 1/2 hours anneal at 1200 deg F (650 deg C) followed by a rapid cooling in water at 70 deg F (21 deg C). A maximum elongation of 17.3% with a large amount of work hardening was obtained for alloy U-5Mo-3Nb wt.% after vacuum annealing, normalizing, gamma phase solubilizing at 1500 deg F (815 deg C) and quenching in water at 700 deg F (210 deg C). The maximum ductility achieved in these two alloys by our approaches is low compared with the ductility of Armco Iron employed for the same applications in the field of ballistics.

  7. Structural transformations in quenched Fe-Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lograsso, T.A.; Ross, A.R.; Schlagel, D.L.; Clark, A.E.; Wun-Fogle, M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been speculated that the large increase in magnetostriction in Fe-Ga alloys results from local short-range ordering of the Ga atoms along specific crystallographic directions in the disordered Fe structure. The structural transitions associated with different cooling rates from the high temperature disordered state were investigated with X-ray diffraction of oriented single crystals of Fe-19 at% Ga. Results are presented for long-range ordering during slow cooling and indirect evidence of local short-range ordering of Ga atoms in the disordered state when the alloys are quenched is also presented. In the latter case, the short-range ordering of Ga atoms leads to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. The dependence of the magnetostrictive response of Fe-Ga alloys on thermal history has been found to be directly related to these structural transformations in Fe-19 at% Ga alloys and experimental support for the proposed magnetostriction model based on Ga-Ga pairing along [100] crystallographic directions is presented

  8. Matrix Transformation in Boron Containing High-Temperature Co-Re-Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Pavel; Mukherji, Debashis; Beran, Přemysl; Gilles, Ralph; Karge, Lukas; Hofmann, Michael; Hoelzel, Markus; Rösler, Joachim; Farkas, Gergely

    2018-03-01

    An addition of boron largely increases the ductility in polycrystalline high-temperature Co-Re alloys. Therefore, the effect of boron on the alloy structural characteristics is of high importance for the stability of the matrix at operational temperatures. Volume fractions of ɛ (hexagonal close-packed—hcp), γ (face-centered cubic—fcc) and σ (Cr2Re3 type) phases were measured at ambient and high temperatures (up to 1500 °C) for a boron-containing Co-17Re-23Cr alloy using neutron diffraction. The matrix phase undergoes an allotropic transformation from ɛ to γ structure at high temperatures, similar to pure cobalt and to the previously investigated, more complex Co-17Re-23Cr-1.2Ta-2.6C alloy. It was determined in this study that the transformation temperature depends on the boron content (0-1000 wt. ppm). Nevertheless, the transformation temperature did not change monotonically with the increase in the boron content but reached a minimum at approximately 200 ppm of boron. A probable reason is the interplay between the amount of boron in the matrix and the amount of σ phase, which binds hcp-stabilizing elements (Cr and Re). Moreover, borides were identified in alloys with high boron content.

  9. Room-Temperature Deformation and Martensitic Transformation of Two Co-Cr-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Huang, D.; Gao, J.; Ren, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Deformation of two Co-Cr alloys was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Both alloys show stress-induced martensite transformation, which is affected by phase stabilities and transformation strains. Crystal structure of WC in Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni is identified. Compared with other phases present, it is elastically isotropic, exhibits high strength, and can elastically withstand strains exceeding 1 pct. Texture change during phase transformation is explained based on the crystal orientation relationship between γ- and ɛ-phases.

  10. Microstructural and thermodynamic evaluation of as-cast U-rich U-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Chandrabhanu; Prasad, G.J.; Kamath, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study involves evaluation of microstructures and some basic properties of as-cast uranium rich U-Zr alloys; i.e. uranium alloys containing 2wt%, 5wt%, 7wt% and 10 wt% zirconium. Microstructural evaluation, both optical and SEM, with hardness values are reported. It was shown that a definite correlation exists between the microstructure and the hardness of the alloy. Lattice parameter and densities are determined with the help of XRD analysis. Also the phase transformation mechanism is proposed based on the microstructures and XRD analysis. Thermodynamic analysis coupled with the experimental observation reveals that the lamellar structure found in the as-cast U-rich U-Zr alloys originates from the monotectoid reaction (γ→β + γ'). As Zr concentration increases in the alloy the gamma phase can remain in the metastable state even at lower T. So, with increasing Zr content the monotectoid reaction takes place at lower temperature causing generation of finer lamellae. (author)

  11. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yong; Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung

    2010-01-01

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm 2 /h within a temperature range of 773 ∼ 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller

  12. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yong [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm{sup 2}/h within a temperature range of 773 {approx} 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller.

  13. Phase transformation in delta Pu alloys at low temperature: in situ dilatometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texier, G.; Oudot, B.; Platteau, C.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to precisely study the martensitic transformation in a plutonium-gallium alloy. Thus, the thermodynamics and kinetics of the {delta} {yields} {alpha}' + {delta} transformation in a Pu-Ga alloy were studied under isochronal and isothermal conditions. The activation energy of the {delta} {yields} {alpha}' + {delta} phase transformation at a constant cooling rate (0.5 K. min{sup -1}) was determined by using Kissinger and Ozawa models. The average value of the activation energy was found to be at -56 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Dilatometry measurement was also used to trace 'in situ' the entire transformation for several temperatures. The kinetics of the {delta} {yields} {alpha}' + {delta} transformation were modelled under isothermal conditions in the theoretical frame of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory. It is proposed that the transformation consists of three stages. The {alpha}' transformation begins with a nucleation of pre-existing embryos. Then, both nucleation and rapid growth of {alpha}' occurs simultaneously and finally, the plates width expend. Apparent activation energies for nucleation and growth transformation were determined from the temperature dependence of the constant K at respectively -34 kJ.mol{sup -1} and -60 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Dler et al. [1] investigated also the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the martensitic transformation in Pu alloys. These nucleation energies were found by modelling of heterogeneous martensitic nucleation via strain interaction with observed superdislocation-like nucleation sites in PuGa alloys. The values obtain by this model was very close to those we find. Investigations in steels alloys indicate that these energies are of the same order for nucleation near dislocation. Then, it could be indicating a strong relationship between these dislocations and martensitic nucleation sites. (authors)

  14. Phase transformation in {delta} Pu alloys at low temperature: In situ dilatometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texier, G; Oudot, B; Platteau, C; Ravat, B; Delaunay, F, E-mail: gwenael.texier@cea.fr, E-mail: benoit.oudot@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, Valduc, Is sur Tille 21120 (France)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this work is to precisely study the martensitic transformation in a plutonium-gallium alloy. Thus, the thermodynamics and kinetics of the {delta}{yields}{alpha}'+{delta} phase transformation in a Pu-Ga alloy were studied under isochronal and isothermal conditions. The activation energy of the {delta}{yields}{alpha}'+{delta} phase transformation at a constant cooling rate (0.5 K.min{sup -1}) was determined by using Kissinger and Ozawa models. The average value of the activation energy was found to be at -56 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Dilatometry measurement was also used to trace 'in situ' the entire transformation for several temperatures. The kinetics of the {delta}{yields}{alpha}'+{delta} transformation were modelled under isothermal conditions in the theoretical frame of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory. It is proposed that the transformation consists of three stages. The {alpha}' transformation begins with a nucleation of pre-existing embryos. Then, both nucleation and rapid growth of {alpha}' occurs simultaneously and finally, the plates width expend. Apparent activation energies for nucleation and growth transformation were determined from the temperature dependence of the constant K at respectively -34 kJ.mol{sup -1} and -60 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Adler et al. [1] investigated also the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the martensitic transformation in Pu alloys. These nucleation energies were found by modelling of heterogeneous martensitic nucleation via strain interaction with observed superdislocation-like nucleation sites in PuGa alloys. The values obtain by this model was very close to those we find. Investigations in steels alloys indicate that these energies are of the same order for nucleation near dislocation. Then, it could be indicating a strong relationship between these dislocations and martensitic nucleation sites.

  15. Magnetic hysteresis and refrigeration capacity of Ni–Mn–Ga alloys near Martensitic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, Fu; Yi, Long; Jing-Fang, Duan; Chao-Lun, Wang; Yong-Qin, Chang; Rong-Chang, Ye; Guang-Heng, Wu

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the magnetic hysteresis and refrigeration capacity of Ni-Mn-Ga alloys in detail during heating and cooling isothermal magnetisation processes. The Ni-Mn-Ga alloys show larger magnetic hysteresis when they transform from austenite to martensite, but smaller magnetic hysteresis when they transform from martensite to austenite. This behaviour is independent of either the pure Ni-Mn-Ga alloys or the alloys doped with other elements. Because of the existence of the magnetic hysteresis, the relation between the magnetic entropy change and refrigeration capacity is not simply linear. For practical consideration, magnetocaloric effect of Ni-Mn-Ga alloys should be investigated both on cooling and heating processes. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in polycomponent TiNi-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachin, V.N.; Voronin, V.P.; Sivokha, V.P.; Pushin, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The results of martesitic transformation (MT) and shape memory effect (SME) in quaternary Ti 50 (NiCoCu) 50 , Ti 50 (NiFeCu) 50 and (TiAl) 50 (NiCu) 50 alloys studies are generalized in this paper. On alloying TiNi simultaneously by two elements, their individual effect on MT and SME is conserved. Martensitic transformations B2→R and B2→B19' are almost simultaneously realizing in a binary TiNi. One can selectively control each of two MT channels by selecting property of alloying elements. As a result, the alloys having any sequences of MT and their realizations temperatures, including simultaneous realization of two MTs at low temperatures, which was not observed earlier, can be produced. (orig.)

  17. Phase transformations in the Cu.6 Pd.4 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imakuma, K.

    1977-01-01

    Order-disorder and structural transformations in the Cu-Pd 60-40% (Cu. 6 Pd. 4 ) alloy by means of a temperature and time dependent treatment are studied. The structural transformations by x-rays diffraction are also studied, where the bcc, fcc and tetragonal phases were observed. A qualitative analyze of the resistivity kinetics are made [pt

  18. Annex 4 - Task 08/13 final report, Producing the binary uranium alloys with alloying components Al, Mo, Zr, Nb, and B; Prilog 4 - Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadatku 08/13, Dobijanje binarnih legura urana sa legirajucim komponentama Al, Mo, Zr, Nb i B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, Dj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    Due to reactivity of uranium in contact with the gasses O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, especially under higher temperatures uranium processing is always done in vacuum or inert gas. Melting, alloying and casting is done in high vacuum stoves. This report reviews the type of furnaces and includes detailed description of the electric furnace for producing uranium alloys which is available in the Institute.

  19. Study of transformation behavior in a Ti-4.4 Ta-1.9 Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mythili, R.; Paul, V. Thomas; Saroja, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.; Raghunathan, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    An alloy of composition Ti-4.4 wt.% Ta-1.9 wt.% Nb is being developed as a structural material for corrosion applications, as titanium and its alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance in many oxidizing media. The primary physical metallurgy database for the Ti-4.4 wt.% Ta-1.9 wt.% Nb alloy is being presented for the first time. Determination of the β transus, M s temperature and classification of the alloy have been carried out, employing a variety of microscopy techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The β transition temperature or β transus determined using different experimental techniques was found to agree very well with evaluations based on empirical calculations. Based on chemistry and observed room temperature microstructure, the alloy has been classified as an α + β titanium alloy. The high temperature β transforms to either α' or α + β by a martensitic or Widmanstatten transformation. The mechanisms of transformation of β under different conditions and characteristics of different types of α have been studied and discussed in this paper

  20. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti–Nb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bönisch, Mariana Calin, Thomas Waitz, Ajit Panigrahi, Michael Zehetbauer, Annett Gebert, Werner Skrotzki and Jürgen Eckert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti–Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti–Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti–Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α' and α'' and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α'' martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α'' martensite form.

  1. Study of uranium-plutonium alloys containing from 0 to 20 peri cent of plutonium (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paruz, H.

    1963-05-01

    The work is carried out on U-Pu alloys in the region of the solid solution uranium alpha and in the two-phase region uranium alpha + the zeta phase. The results obtained concern mainly the influence of the addition of plutonium on the physical properties of the uranium (changes in the crystalline parameters, the density, the hardness) in the region of solid solution uranium alpha. In view of the discrepancies between various published results as far as the equilibrium diagram for the system U-Pu is concerned, an attempt was made to verify the extent of the different regions of the phase diagram, in particular the two phased-region. Examinations carried out on samples after various thermal treatments (in particular quenching from the epsilon phase and prolonged annealings, as well as a slow cooling from the epsilon phase) confirm the results obtained at Los Alamos and Harwell. (author) [fr

  2. Peculiarities of phase transformation in Ni3Fe powder alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzhdin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ordering process in sintered powder alloy Ni 3 Fe by normal and high temperatures was studied. Thermal stresses connected with porosity level of material effect on transformation peculiarities. The changes of electric conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus during transformation were studied. The analysis of this changes was made

  3. An informatics approach to transformation temperatures of NiTi-based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Dezhen; Xue, Deqing; Yuan, Ruihao; Zhou, Yumei; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Lookman, Turab

    2017-01-01

    The martensitic transformation serves as the basis for applications of shape memory alloys (SMAs). The ability to make rapid and accurate predictions of the transformation temperature of SMAs is therefore of much practical importance. In this study, we demonstrate that a statistical learning approach using three features or material descriptors related to the chemical bonding and atomic radii of the elements in the alloys, provides a means to predict transformation temperatures. Together with an adaptive design framework, we show that iteratively learning and improving the statistical model can accelerate the search for SMAs with targeted transformation temperatures. The possible mechanisms underlying the dependence of the transformation temperature on these features is discussed based on a Landau-type phenomenological model.

  4. High-temperature phase transformation in Cr added TiAl base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, E.; Niinobe, K.; Nobuki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1999-07-01

    The authors have investigated a microstructure evolution of a Ti-48Al-3.5Cr (in at.%) alloy at high-temperatures ({gt} 1,473K). In the alloy annealed at 1673K for 1.8ks, followed by air-cooling, a characteristic microstructure with a feathery fashion was uniformly formed. From a cooling-rate-controlling study, it was found that formation of the feathery structure is accomplished during continuous cooling from 1673K to 1573K, within the {alpha} + {gamma} two-phase region. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the feathery structure is composed of lamellar colonies (5--10{micro}m) which are crystallographically tilted slightly (a few degree) with their neighbors. A surprising fact is that lamellae in each colony are mostly the {gamma} phase with few {alpha}{sub 2} phase less than 5% in volume. This suggests that the feathery structure is a metastable product and has not resulted from the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation above 1,573 K. Instead, the feathery structure formation should be attributed to the non-equilibrium {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} transformation which occurs at high-temperatures with a small degree of supercooling. The authors discuss this interesting phase transformation in terms of the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} massive transformation, based on the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram constructed for the present alloy.

  5. Effect of nickel plating upon tensile tests of uranium--0.75 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1975-01-01

    Electrolytic-nickel-plated specimens of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium alloy were tested in air at 20 and 100 percent relative humidities. Tensile-test ductility values were lowered by a high humidity and also by nickel plating alone. Baking the nickel-plated specimens did not eliminate the ductility degradation. Embrittlement because of nickel plating was also evident in tensile tests at -34 0 C. (U.S.)

  6. Phase transformations at continuous cooling in VT6ch and VT23 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyasotskaya, V.S.; Lyasotskij, I.V.; Meshcheryakov, V.N.; Ravdonikas, N.Yu.; Nadtochij, S.I.; Faustov, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    Phase transformations at continuous cooling at β-region temperatures in VT6ch and VT23 alloys are studied. Nonequilibrium phases: α', α'', (ω), βsub(e), αsub(e), are shown to be formed in these alloys depending on cooling composition and rate. It is established that at cooling at temperatures below Ar 3 in alloys studied high-temperature α-phase is formed, and at temperatures below 650 deg C - more dispersed low-temperature α-phase precipitating from β-solution volumes mostly enriched by alloying elements according to the intermediate mechanism. Diagrams of anisothermal β-phase decomposition for VT6ch and VT23 alloys are plotted in coincidence with the results of thermal, thermodifferential, metallographic and X-ray diffraction analyses; lines of martensite transformation, lines of high- and low-temperature α-phase formation are pointed on the diagrams. Besides, for VT23 alloy a line for (ω)-phase formation is pointed

  7. Neutron diffraction study of the deformation mechanisms of the uranium-7 wt.% niobium shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: dbrown@lanl.gov; Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Field, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hults, W.L. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Teter, D.F. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Thoma, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Vogel, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The shape memory effect (SME) has been reported in the uranium-niobium alloy system in the region of the phase diagram surrounding U-6.5 wt.% Nb. In this regime, the material may have either an {alpha}'' monoclinic (U-6 wt.% Nb), or {gamma}{sup 0} tetragonal structure (U-7 wt.% Nb) and is two phase near 6.5 wt.% niobium. In situ neutron diffraction studies during uniaxial compressive loading of U-7 wt.% Nb indicate that strain in the recoverable region is accommodated by both motion of existing twin boundaries within {gamma}{sup 0}-phase and stress-induced phase transformation from the {gamma}{sup 0} to the {alpha}'' structure. The volume fraction of the {gamma}{sup 0}-phase decreases from 100% initially to {approx}26% after 4% total strain and some reversion is observed on release. The initial stress state of the stress-induced {alpha}'' grains will be discussed as well as the load sharing between the two phases.

  8. U-8 wt %Mo and 7 wt %Mo alloys powder obtained by an hydride-de hydride process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, Silvia N.; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Granovsky, Marta S.; Gribaudo, Luis M. J.; Hermida, Jorge D.; Ovejero, Jose; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.; Vicente, Eduardo E.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium-molybdenum alloys are been tested as a component in high-density LEU dispersion fuels with very good performances. These alloys need to be transformed to powder due to the manufacturing requirements of the fuels. One method to convert ductile alloys into powder is the hydride-de hydride process, which takes advantage of the ability of the U-α phase to transform to UH 3 : a brittle and relatively low-density compound. U-Mo alloys around 7 and 8 wt % Mo were melted and heat treated at different temperature ranges in order to partially convert γ -phase to α -phase. Subsequent hydriding transforms this α -phase to UH 3 . The volume change associated to the hydride formation embrittled the material which ends up in a powdered alloy. Results of the optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction during different steps of the process are shown. (author)

  9. Entropy change linked to the martensitic transformation inmetamagnetic shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Cesari, E.; Kustov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, 6-7 (2012), s. 3168-3175 ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metamagnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) * martensitic phase transformation * thermodynamics * transformation entropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2012

  10. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  11. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis on the phase transformations of Fe–Co–V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, S.; Shamanian, M.; Shafyei, A.; Behjati, P.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated, occurrence of different phase transformations in a FeCo- 7.15%wt V alloy upon heating to 1200 °C. • We investigated, the determination of the activation energy for these phase transformations by using five isoconversional methods. • We investigated, the calculation of the empirical kinetic triplets by using the invariant kinetic parameters method and fitting model. - Abstract: In this study, occurrence of different phase transformations was investigated in a FeCo-7 wt% V alloy upon heating to 1200 °C by the dilatometry method at different heating rates (5, 10, and 15 °C min −1 ). It was found that four phase transformations (including B2-type atomic ordering in α phase, first stage of polymorphic transformation (α → α r + γ), ordering to disordering, and second stage of polymorphic transformation (α r → γ) occur in this alloy up to 1200 °C. Two isoconversional methods, as Starink and Friedman, were used to determine variation of the activation energy with temperature, E(T). Moreover, the empirical kinetic triplets (E, A, and g(α)) were calculated by the invariant kinetic parameters (IKP) method and fitting model

  12. Phase transformation and precipitation in aged Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.L.; Cai, W.; Zheng, Y.F.; Zhao, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    More attention has been paid to ternary Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to their high phase transformation temperatures, good thermal stability and low cost. However, the Ti-Ni-Hf alloys have been found to have low ductility and only about 3% shape memory effect and these have hampered their applications. It is well known that there are three methods to improve the shape memory properties of high-temperature SMAs: (a) cold rolling + annealing; (b) adding another element to the alloy; (c) aging. These methods are not suitable to improve the properties of Ti-Ni-Hf alloys. In this paper, a method of conditioning Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys as high-temperature SMAs by aging is presented. For Ni-rich Ti 80-x Ni x Hf 20 alloys (numbers indicate at.%) the phase transformation temperatures are on average increased by more than 100 K by aging at 823 K for 2 h. Especially for those alloys with Ni contents less than 50.6 at.%, the martensitic transformation start temperatures (M s ) are higher than 473 K after aging. Transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 precipitates after aging. Compared with the precipitation of Ti 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys, the precipitation of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys needs higher temperatures and longer times

  13. Phase transformations in TiAl based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghal, Slim; Thomas, Marc; Naka, Shigehisa; Finel, Alphonse; Couret, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of a fully lamellar Ti 49 Al 47 Cr 2 Nb 2 alloy have been investigated in different annealed conditions by quantitative transmission electron microscopy. Statistical analyses have yielded clear information about the γ-γ interfaces, the respective orientation groups of the γ phase, and the distribution of orientational variants. From the results, three sequences of lamellar transformation have been identified with decreasing temperature: (1) a high-temperature heterogeneous transformation characterized by the nucleation of isolated primary γ lamellae mostly belonging to the same orientation group and having locally the same order; (2) a low-temperature homogeneous transformation in the ordered α 2 phase characterized by the formation of a fine lamellar structure with an even distribution of the orientation groups and a random ordering of γ lamellae; and (3) a coherent interfacial transformation at the α 2 /γ interfaces characterized by the nucleation of ultra-fine twin related lamellae. Finally, the driving forces for these various transformations as well as the nucleation mechanisms of γ lamellae involved in these transformations are discussed

  14. Microstructure and transformation behaviour of Ni75−XTiXPd25 high temperature shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, K.V.; Saikrishna, C.N.; Gouthama; Bhaumik, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Partitioning of elements during solidification of cast NiTiPd results in cored microstructure. ► Homogenized alloys consists of NiTiPd matrix with Ti2(Ni,Pd) precipitates. ► Transformation temperatures of NiTiPd alloy is strongly dependent on Ti content. ► Transformation hysteresis was found to be relatively low, in the range 7–12 °C. ► Lower fraction of second phases and twinless/small twin ratio martensite led to low hysteresis. -- Abstract: The effect of composition on microstructure, transformation behaviour and thermal stability of cast and homogenized Ni 75−X Ti X Pd 25 alloys (X = 49.7, 50.0 and 50.3 at.%) were studied. Results showed significant partitioning of the alloying elements during solidification, resulting in cored microstructure in the cast alloys. The interdendritic regions were depleted in Pd and richer in Ni compared to dendritic regions. The interdendritic regions also showed presence of a thread-like Ti-rich second phase. The microstructure of the homogenized alloys consisted of NiTiPd matrix phase interspersed with Ti 2 (Ni,Pd) second phase precipitates. The precipitate phase was found to be rich in Ni and depleted in Pd. EPMA analysis showed that significant redistribution of Ni concentration in the matrix and the precipitate phase takes place during homogenization. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the matrix phase at room temperature to be of orthorhombic B19 structure. Study showed that the transformation temperatures of the alloys were strongly dependent on Ti content. The martensite finish temperature (M f ) of 157 °C for stoichiometric-Ti alloy increased to 179 °C and decreased to 105 °C for Ti-rich and Ti-lean alloys, respectively. Also, the alloys showed relatively low transformation hysteresis in the range 7–12 °C. TEM micrographs showed the presence of twinless/small twin ratio martensite which minimizes the interfacial energy and hence lower hysteresis. The transformation stability upon stress

  15. Grain boundary engineering to control the discontinuous precipitation in multicomponent U10Mo alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Kautz, Elizabeth; Arey, Bruce; Jana, Saumyadeep; Lavender, Curt; Joshi, Vineet

    2018-06-01

    Grain boundaries in metallic alloys often play a crucial role, not only in determining the mechanical properties or thermal stability of alloys, but also in dictating the phase transformation kinetics during thermomechanical processing. We demonstrate that locally stabilized structure and compositional segregation at grain boundaries—“grain boundary complexions”—in a complex multicomponent alloy can be modified to influence the kinetics of cellular transformation during subsequent thermomechanical processing. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography analysis of a metallic nuclear fuel highly relevant to worldwide nuclear non-proliferation efforts —uranium-10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy, new evidence for the existence of grain boundary complexion is provided. We then modified the concentration of impurities dissolved in Υ-UMo grain interiors and/or segregated to Υ-UMo grain boundaries by changing the homogenization treatment, and these effects were used used to retard the kinetics of cellular transformation during subsequent sub-eutectoid annealing in this U-10-Mo alloy during sub-eutectoid annealing. Thus, this work provided insights on tailoring the final microstructure of the U-10Mo alloy, which can potentially improve the irradiation performance of this important class of alloy fuels.

  16. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Jong-taek [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-il [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Dong-A, Hadan-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Tae-hyun, E-mail: tahynam@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (alloys displaying the B2-B19′ transformation. Solid solution hardening was an important factor for inducing the B2-R transformation in Ti–Ni–X (X = non-transition elements) alloys.

  17. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun; Yeom, Jong-taek; Kim, Jae-il; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (< Hv 200) of the alloys displaying the B2-B19′ transformation. Solid solution hardening was an important factor for inducing the B2-R transformation in Ti–Ni–X (X = non-transition elements) alloys

  18. The effect of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of casting Al-Cu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasijević Ivana I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is one of the main alloying elements for aluminum casting alloys. As an alloying element, copper significantly increases the tensile strength and toughness of alloys based on aluminum. The copper content in the industrial casting aluminum alloys ranges from 3,5 to 11 wt.%. However, despite the positive effect on the mechanical properties, copper has a negative influence on the corrosion resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In order to further improve the properties of Al-Cu alloys they are additional alloyed with elements such as zinc, magnesium and others. In this work experimental and analytical examination of the impact of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys was carried out. In order to determine the effect of the addition of zinc to the structure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys two alloys of Al-Cu-Zn system with selected compositions were prepared and then examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The experimental results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria.

  19. Anomalous acoustic effect during martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.A.; Kokhanenko, D.V.

    2002-01-01

    One carried out experiments to determine effect of external static stress on martensitic transformations and acoustic emission, Martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide base alloys under mechanical stress were determined to change nature of acoustic emission to anomalous one - cycling of transformations under gradual increase of mechanical stress during direct martensitic transformation was followed by increase of acoustic emission energy instead of reduction. The mentioned nature of acoustic emission is indicative of essential effect of external stress on martensitic transformations and energy dissipation during transformations [ru

  20. Development of an environmentally friendly protective coating for the depleted uranium-0.75 wt% titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Donald F.; Chidambaram, Devicharan; Clayton, Clive R.; Halada, Gary P.; Derek Demaree, J.

    2006-01-01

    Molybdenum oxide-based conversion coatings have been formed on the surface of the depleted uranium-0.75 wt% titanium alloy using either concentrated nitric acid or fluorides for surface activation prior to coating formation. The acid-activated surface forms a coating that offers corrosion protection after a period of aging, when uranium species have migrated to the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the protective coating is primarily a polymolybdate bound to a uranyl ion. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) on the acid-activated coatings also shows uranium dioxide migrating to the surface. The fluoride-activated surface does not form a protective coating and there are no uranium species on the surface as indicated by XPS. The coating on the fluoride-activated samples has been found to contain a mixture of molybdenum oxides of which the main component is molybdenum trioxide and a minor component of an Mo(V) oxide

  1. Present day state of knowledge of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, M.

    1960-01-01

    The technological conditions of the problem of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium are presented first. Then, the author explains the qualitative reasons why in non-allied uranium: 1) the new phase germination follows a consistent process; 2) the new phase growth, at the expense of the mother phase, proceeds either by martensitic-type shear or by thermal diffusion if the temperature and impurities amount are high enough. Reprint of a paper published in La Mettalurgia Italiana, vol. LI, no. 11, p. 497-504, 1959 [fr

  2. Metallic uranium as fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a first overview of the use of metallic uranium and its alloys as an option for fuel for rapid reactors. Aspects are discussed concerning uranium alloys which present high solubility in the gamma phase. (author)

  3. Use of vacuum in processing of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Rai, C.B.; Singh, S.P.; Singh, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Natural uranium in the form of metal and alloys with suitable heat treatment are being used as fuel in research and some of the power reactors. The fuel is required to satisfy the purity specification from the criteria of neutron economy, corrosion resistance and fabricability. Uranium and its alloys fall under the category of reactive materials. They readily react with atmospheric air to form oxides. If molten uranium is exposed to atmosphere, it reacts violently with atmospheric gases and moisture, leading to explosion in extreme cases. Hence, protective inert atmosphere or high vacuum is required in processing of the materials especially during the melting and casting operation. Vacuum is preferred for melting and remelting of metals and alloys to remove the gaseous and high volatile impurities, to improve the mechanical properties of the material. Also, under vacuum sound castings are produced for further processing by mechanical working or use in casting forms. The addition of reactive alloying elements in uranium is efficiently carried out under vacuum. The paper highlights vacuum systems deployed and applications of vacuum in various operations involved in the processing of uranium and its alloys

  4. Radiation damage of uranium; Radijaciono ostecenje urana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, Dj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1966-11-15

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method.

  5. Melting, casting, and alpha-phase extrusion of the uranium-2.4 weight percent niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.; Beck, D.E.; Kollie, T.G.; Zorinsky, E.J.; Jones, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    The experimental details of the melting, casting, homogenization, and alpha-phase extrusion process used to fabricate the uranium-2.4 wt % niobium alloy into 46-mm-diameter rods is described. Extrusion defects that were detected by an ultrasonic technique were eliminated by proper choice of extrusion parameters; namely, reduction ratio, ram speed, die angle, and billet preheat temperature

  6. Parameters of Models of Structural Transformations in Alloy Steel Under Welding Thermal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A. S.; Makarov, E. L.; Kurkin, A. B.; Rubtsov, D. E.; Rubtsov, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model of structural transformations in an alloy steel under the thermal cycle of multipass welding is suggested for computer implementation. The minimum necessary set of parameters for describing the transformations under heating and cooling is determined. Ferritic-pearlitic, bainitic and martensitic transformations under cooling of a steel are considered. A method for deriving the necessary temperature and time parameters of the model from the chemical composition of the steel is described. Published data are used to derive regression models of the temperature ranges and parameters of transformation kinetics in alloy steels. It is shown that the disadvantages of the active visual methods of analysis of the final phase composition of steels are responsible for inaccuracy and mismatch of published data. The hardness of a specimen, which correlates with some other mechanical properties of the material, is chosen as the most objective and reproducible criterion of the final phase composition. The models developed are checked by a comparative analysis of computational results and experimental data on the hardness of 140 alloy steels after cooling at various rates.

  7. Microstructural study on gamma phase stability in U-9 wt% Mo alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Jha, S.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Singh, R.P.; Neogy, S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium exists in three polymorphic forms viz., orthorhombic α phase - stable up to 667 deg C, tetragonal β phase - stable between 667 deg C and 771 deg C and bcc γ phase - stable above 771 deg C. When alloying of uranium is done, the alloying additions alter the temperature ranges over which the α, β and γ phases are stable. In addition, they frequently retard the rates at which phase transformations occur. As a result, a number of metastable phases can be obtained in uranium alloys. It has been well known among reactor designers that a pure uranium metal is not suitable for power reactor fuel mainly because of (i) phase changes occurring at lower temperatures and (ii) poor irradiation behavior of α phase. γ phase uranium alloys containing small amount of another metal to stabilize the γ-U solid solution provides good prospects in this respect. U-Mo alloy is one of the prospective materials for low enrichment uranium fuel with high U loading because a solid solution of Mo in the γ-U phase possesses acceptable irradiation and mechanical properties and is formed over a wide range of Mo concentration. In the present work vacuum induction melted and cast U-9 wt% Mo alloy was subjected to different thermo mechanical processing to investigate the stability of the γ phase. The as cast alloy was rolled at 550 deg C and then homogenized at 1000 deg C in the γ phase field for 24 hours followed by (i) water quenching and (ii) furnace cooling to generate two different starting conditions. Two of the water-quenched samples were aged at 500 deg C for 5 days and 14 days and one as-rolled sample was aged at 500 deg C for 5 days. The as-cast, as-rolled, homogenized and aged samples were subjected to optical microscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) investigations. All the samples were also subjected to microhardness measurements. The as cast sample contained predominantly the gamma phase along with inclusions. After homogenizing the alloy at 1000 deg C and quenching in

  8. Effects of composition on the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Ni-Cr based alloys undergo an ordering transformation, due to the formation of an ordered Ni 2 Cr phase, which causes a lattice contraction and it is responsisble for ''negative creep'' or excessive stresses in constrained components. A short-range ordered (SRO) structure develops in the matrix phase after solution treatment and at early stages of ageing, which can transform to a long-range ordered (LRO) structure, depending on the alloy composition and on time and temperature of ageing, upon prolonged annealing below the critical temperature. In stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr alloy LRO forms in a few hours, but in off-stoichiometric alloys the transformation kinetics are very sluggish and LRO takes several tens of thousands of hours to form, when it forms. The ordering behaviours of stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr and Ni 3 Cr were studied by means of isothermal treatments in the temperature range 450-600degC for different ageing times up to 30 000 h, followed by lattice parameter measurements by X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. Similar studies performed on a series of ternary Ni-Cr-Fe alloys revealed the dependence of the degree of order on Cr concentration and a markedly delaying influence of Fe on the ordering kinetics. Finally, long-term microstructural stability of some commercial Ni-Cr based alloys, widely used for high temperature applications, have been studied: the ordering behaviour and associated microstructural changes are discussed in this paper

  9. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels; Alliages d'uranium a faible teneur pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H; Laniesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small {alpha} grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [French] Sont decrits la structure et les proprietes d'alliages a faible teneur, contenant de 0,1 a 0,5 pour cent en poids de Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo ou une combinaison de ces elements. L'etude des cinetiques et du mode de transformation permet de choisir le traitement thermique le plus favorable. On a cherche a mettre, au point des alliages se pretant a une mise en oeuvre industrielle economique et presentant une structure a petits grains {alpha}, sans orientation preferentielle marquee, avec des precipites tres fins et stables ainsi qu'une bonne resistance au fluage. Les proprietes physiques et la resistance mecanique de ces alliages sont decrites entre la temperature ambiante et 600 deg C. Irradies sous forme d'elements combustibles de dimensions normales, ces alliages ont montre un bon comportement. (auteurs)

  10. Phase transformations behavior in a Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Z., E-mail: lizhou6931@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China) and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wang, M.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Zhang, L.; Gong, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiao, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L693 GH (United Kingdom); Pan, Z.Y. [Hunan Nonferrous Metals Holding Group Co., Ltd., Changsha, 410015 (China)

    2011-02-24

    Research highlights: > High solute concentrations Cu-Ni-Si alloy with super high strength and high conductivity has a good prospect for replacing Cu-Be alloys. At least four different kinds of precipitation products (DO{sub 22} ordered structure, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si precipitate, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si precipitate and {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} precipitate) have been observed in previous investigation. Therefore, the overall phase transformation behavior of Cu-Ni-Si alloy appears to be very complex. And most previous studies on the phase transformation usually investigated the precipitation process at only one temperature or at most a few temperatures, which is far away to establish a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for Cu-Ni-Si alloy. > The phase transformation behavior of Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy has been studied systematically at wide temperature range in this paper. The results we have gained are that: after solution treatment, followed by different conditions of isothermal treatment, DO{sub 22} ordering, discontinuous precipitation and continuous precipitation were observed in the alloy; discontinuous precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si phase appeared when the alloy isothermal treated at 550 deg. C for short time, which had not been reported by the previous Cu-Ni-Si system alloy's researchers in their papers; two kinds of precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si and {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si were determined by the TEM characterization; the orientation relationship between the two kinds of precipitates and Cu-matrix is that: (1 1 0){sub Cu}//(1 1 0){sub {beta}}//(211-bar){sub {delta}}, [112-bar]{sub Cu}//[11-bar 2]{sub {beta}}//[3 2 4]{sub {delta}}; during overaging treatment, Cu-matrix, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si and {delta}'-Ni{sub 2}Si were distinguished in the samples and the orientation relationship between the precipitates and Cu-matrix can be expressed as that: (0 2 2){sub Cu}//(0 2 2){sub {beta}}//(1 0 0){sub {delta}}, (02-bar 2){sub Cu

  11. Microstructures and phase transformations of Ti-30Zr-xNb (x = 5, 7, 9, 13 at.%) shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Wentao; Sun, Xuguang; Yuan, Bifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China); Xiong, Chengyang; Zhang, Fei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Baohui [Lanzhou Seemine SMA Co. Ltd., Lanzhou 730010 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The microstructures, phase transformations and shape memory properties of Ti-30Zr-xNb (x = 5, 7, 9, 13 at.%) alloys were investigated. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the Ti-30Zr-5Nb, Ti-30Zr-7/9Nb and Ti-30Zr-13Nb alloys were composed of the hcp α′-martensite, orthorhombic α″-martensite and β phases, respectively. The results indicated the enhanced β-stabilizing effect of Nb in Ti-30Zr-xNb alloys than that in Ti-Nb alloys due to the high content of Zr. The differential scanning calorimetry test indicated that the Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy displayed a reversible transformation with a high martensitic transformation start temperature of 776 K and a reverse martensitic transformation start temperature (A{sub s}) of 790 K. For the Ti-30Zr-7Nb and Ti-30Zr-9Nb alloys, the martensitic transformation temperatures decreased with the increasing Nb content. Moreover, an ω phase transformation occurred in the both alloys upon heating at a temperature lower than the corresponding A{sub s}, which is prompted by more addition of Nb. Although the critical stress in tension of the three martensitic alloys decreased with increasing Nb content, the Ti-30Zr-9Nb alloy showed a critical stress of as high as 300 MPa. Among all the alloys, the Ti-30Zr-9Nb alloy exhibited the maximum shape memory effect of 1.61%, due to the lowest critical stress for the martensite reorientation. - Highlights: •Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy is composed of hcp α′-martensite with the M{sub s} of 776 K. •Ti-30Zr-7Nb and Ti-30Zr-9Nb alloys are predominated by orthorhombic α″-martensite. •Ti-30Zr-13Nb alloy consists of a single β phase due to the β-stabilizing effect of Nb. •The martensitic transformation temperatures decrease with increasing Nb content. •Ti-30Zr-9Nb alloy shows the maximum shape memory effect of 1.61%.

  12. Phase martensitic transformation study in mechanically alloyed Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 25}Fe{sub 25} alloy via high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Joao Cardoso de; Ferreira, Ailton da Silva, E-mail: joao.cardoso.lima@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Rovani, Pablo Roberto; Pereira, Altair Soria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Alloys based on titanium and nickel with shape memory effect (SME) have been widely investigated due to potential use in different areas of science and technology, such as electronics, medicine, and space.1 Among them, the superalloys Ti-Ni-Fe show high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties even at high temperatures that make them suitable for use in applications such as power plant components that work under aggressive conditions. At room temperature, the TiNi alloy has a monoclinic (B19'), known as the martensitic phase. With increasing temperature, the B19' phase transforms into a trigonal/hexagonal (B19) phase, known as the R- or pre martensitic phase, which, in its turn, transforms into a cubic (B2) structure, known as the austenitic phase. On cooling to room temperature, the reverse B2→B19→B19' phase transformations are observed. Since the B19↔B19' transformation occurs at a temperature low enough to inhibit diffusion-controlled processes, it belongs to a class of diffusionless phase transformations known as martensitic transformations. For this study, a Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 25}Fe{sub 25} (B2) alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying, and the effects of high pressures up to 18 GPa will be presented. The structural changes with increasing pressure were followed by recording in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) diffractograms, in transmission geometry, using a long fine focus Mo X-ray tube and an imaging plate detector. The obtained results were already reported in Ref [1]. (1) A. S. Ferreira, P. R. Rovani, J. C. de Lima, A. S. Pereira, J. Appl. Phys. 117 (2015). (author)

  13. The effect of hafnium content on the transformation temperatures of Ni49Ti51-xHfx shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angst, D.R.; Thoma, P.E.; Kao, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ternary alloys of NiTiHf, having higher transformation temperatures than binary NiTi shape memory alloys, have been produced and analyzed. Beginning with a base composition of Ni 49 Ti 51 , Hf was substituted for Ti up to 30 atomic percent. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the transformation temperatures of the as-cast alloys. The peak martensite temperature of the Ni 49 Ti 51 alloy was 69 C and increased to 525 C for the Ni 49 Ti 21 Hf 30 alloy. The peak austenite temperature of the Ni 49 Ti 51 alloy was 114 C and increased to 622 C for the Ni 49 Ti 21 Hf 30 alloy. An apparent minimum in the peak transformation temperatures occurred between 0 and 3 atomic percent Hf. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to determine the effect of thermomechanical processing on the shape memory properties of the Ni 49 Ti 41 Hf 10 . Data are presented on the effect of cold work and heat treatment on the transformation temperatures of this alloy. (orig.)

  14. Simulation of Dislocation and Transformation Plasticity in Shape Memory Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volkov, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A model of deformation of shape memory alloys has been developed. It takes into account deformation due to the phase transformation and plastic deformation, produced by an external stress or by inter-phase stresses...

  15. A new method to determinate phase transformation in shape memory alloys: infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubulinca, C.; Balandraud, X.; Grediac, M.; Plaiasu, G. A.; Abrudeanu, M.; Stanciu, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article it is presented a shape memory alloy case, based on copper, namely Cu-Zn-Al, which is subjected to periodic mechanical traction. Traction is performed in conditions of normal temperature and pressure. The purpose of this article it is to study stress induced phase transformation. All tests are performed in same conditions. Transformation on which is based this effect occurs in two ways: by applying a stress or temperature variation. In this article it is studied stress induced phase transformation. The method to analyze the microstructure of an shape memory alloy (SMA) is relatively new and it is based on tracking the evolution of temperature. After thermal analysis we can decide in which state is one alloy without any other supplier measures (differential scanning calorimetric or electrical resistivity). If our specimen will producing thermal energy when specimen is tensile he is austenitic. If absorbing heat during the first deformation is in martensitic state. (authors)

  16. Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation of Cu-Al alloy in cooling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Liao, Bo; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Shuqing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Ruijun

    2012-07-01

    The solid-state phase transformation temperature and duration of deep cryogenic treated and untreated Cu-Al alloys in cooling process were measured by differential scanning calorimetry measurement. The solid-state phase transformation activation energy and Avrami exponent were calculated according to these measurements. The effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation were investigated based on the measurement and calculation as well as the observation of alloy's microstructure. The results show that deep cryogenic treatment can increase the solid-phase transformation activation energy and shorten the phase transformation duration, which is helpful to the formation of fine grains in Cu-Al alloy.

  17. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Steefel, Carl I; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Hubbard, Susan S

    2009-07-15

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can bean effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  18. Aluminum titanate crucible for molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    An improved crucible for molten uranium is described. The crucible or crucible liner is formed of aluminum titanate which essentially eliminates contamination of uranium and uranium alloys during molten states thereof. (U.S.)

  19. The kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite of the Mn-Ni iron based model alloy

    OpenAIRE

    E. Rożniata; R. Dziurka; J. Pacyna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Present work corresponds to the research on the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite of Mn-Ni iron based model alloy. The kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite of investigated alloy was presented on CCT diagram (continuous cooling transformation). Also the methodology of a dilatometric samples preparation and the method of the critical points determination were described.Design/methodology/approach: The austenitising temperature was defined ...

  20. Determination of hydrogen in uranium-niobium-zirconium alloy by inert-gas fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carden, W.F.

    1979-12-01

    An improved method has been developed using inert-gas fusion for determining the hydrogen content in uranium-niobium-zirconium (U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr) alloy. The method is applicable to concentrations of hydrogen ranging from 1 to 250 micrograms per gram and may be adjusted for analysis of greater hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen is determined using a hydrogen determinator. The limit of error for a single determination at the 95%-confidence level (at the 3.7-μg/g-hydrogen level) is +-1.4 micrograms per gram hydrogen

  1. Electron Beam Welding of a Depleted Uranium Alloy to Niobium Using a Calibrated Electron Beam Power Density Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; Terrill, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Electron beam test welds were made joining flat plates of commercially pure niobium to a uranium-6wt%Nb (binary) alloy. The welding parameters and joint design were specifically developed to minimize mixing of the niobium with the U-6%Nb alloy. A Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) technique using computer-assisted tomography was employed to determine the precise power distribution of the electron beam so that the welding parameters could be directly transferred to other welding machines and/or to other facilities

  2. A melt refining method for uranium-contaminated aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, T.; Iba, H.; Hanawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    Melt refining of uranium-contaminated aluminum which has been difficult to decontaminate because of the high reactivity of aluminum, was experimentally studied. Samples of contaminated aluminum and its alloys were melted after adding various halide fluxes at various melting temperatures and various melting times. Uranium concentration in the resulting ingots was determined. Effective flux compositions were mixtures of chlorides and fluorides, such as LiF, KCl, and BaCl 2 , at a fluoride/chloride mole ratio of 1 to 1.5. The removal of uranium from aluminum (the ''decontamination effect'') increased with decreasing melting temperature, but the time allowed for reaction had little influence. Pure aluminum was difficult to decontaminate from uranium; however, uranium could be removed from alloys containing magnesium. This was because the activity of the aluminum was decreased by formation of the intermetallic compound Al-Mg. With a flux of LiF-KCl-BaCl 2 and a temperature of 800 0 C, uranium added to give an initial concentration of 500 ppm was removed from a commercial alloy of aluminum, A5056, which contains 5% magnesium, to a final concentration of 0.6 ppm, which is near that in the initial aluminum alloy

  3. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams for 6XXX aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryantsev, P Yu

    2009-01-01

    Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of aluminum solid solution decomposition in range of cooling rates 100-1900 deg. C/h were built for some alloys of Al-Mg-Si-Fe system. Influence of cooling rate and chemical composition on temperatures of start and finish of solution decomposition was determined.

  4. Report of the panel on the use of depleted uranium alloys for large caliber long rod kinetic energy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, D.J.; Jessen, N.; Loewenstein, P.; Weirick, L.

    1980-01-01

    In early 1977 the National Materials Advisory Board, an operating unit in the Commission on Sociotechnical Systems of the National Research Council, NAS/NAE, formed a study committee on High Density Materials for Kinetic Energy Penetrators. The Specific objectives of the Committee were defined as follows. Assess the potential of two materials for use in kinetic energy penetrators, including such factors as: (a) properties (as applied to this application: strength, toughness, and dynamic behavior); (b) uniformity, reliability and reproducibility; (c) deterioration in storage; (d) production capability; (e) ecological impact; (f) quality assurance; (g) availability, and (h) cost. The Committee was divided into two Panels; one panel devoted to the study of tungsten alloys and the other devoted to the study of depleted uranium alloys for use in Kinetic energy penetrators. This report represents the findings and recommendation of the Panel on Uranium

  5. Stress-induced phase transformation and room temperature aging in Ti-Nb-Fe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J.E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corp, 9609 Ardmore Ave., Fort Wayne, IN 46809 (United States); Ren, Y. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Room temperature deformation behavior of Ti-17Nb-1Fe and Ti-17Nb-2Fe alloys was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. It was found that, after proper heat treatment, both alloys were able to recover a deformation strain of above 3.5% due to the Stress-induced Martensite (SIM) phase transformation. Higher Fe content increased the beta phase stability and onset stress for SIM transformation. A strong {110}{sub β} texture was produced in Ti-17Nb-2Fe compared to the {210}{sub β} texture that was observed in Ti-17Nb-1Fe. Room temperature aging was observed in both alloys, where the formation of the omega phase increased the yield strength (also SIM onset stress), and decreased the ductility and strain recovery. Other metastable beta Ti alloys may show a similar aging response and this should draw the attention of materials design engineers.

  6. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels; Alliages d'uranium a faible teneur pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H.; Laniesse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small {alpha} grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [French] Sont decrits la structure et les proprietes d'alliages a faible teneur, contenant de 0,1 a 0,5 pour cent en poids de Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo ou une combinaison de ces elements. L'etude des cinetiques et du mode de transformation permet de choisir le traitement thermique le plus favorable. On a cherche a mettre, au point des alliages se pretant a une mise en oeuvre industrielle economique et presentant une structure a petits grains {alpha}, sans orientation preferentielle marquee, avec des precipites tres fins et stables ainsi qu'une bonne resistance au fluage. Les proprietes physiques et la resistance mecanique de ces alliages sont decrites entre la temperature ambiante et 600 deg C. Irradies sous forme d'elements combustibles de dimensions normales, ces alliages ont montre un bon comportement. (auteurs)

  7. A review on the martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Q.; Humbeeck, J. van; Delaey, L.

    1994-01-01

    The martensitic transformation and the shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloys received great attention recently due to its potential commercial value. In this paper, the mechanisms for the martensitic transformation and various parameters influencing the shape memory effect like alloy composition, applied stress, prestrain, crystal orientation, temperature, grain size, pre-existing martensite, thermal cycling and training etc. are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Hexagonal close packed to face centered cubic polymorphic transformation in nanocrystalline titanium-zirconium system by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, S.; Manna, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports a reversible hexagonal close packed (hcp) to face centered cubic (fcc) polymorphic phase transformation in four different nanocrystalline titanium-zirconium binary alloys in the course of mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill. This transformation is monitored at appropriate stages by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Lattice parameter of the nanocrystalline fcc phase is a function of the alloy composition. For a given alloy, the lattice parameter and hence volume per atom increase with increase in milling time under comparable conditions. On the other hand, crystallite size, measured from X-ray peak broadening, significantly decreases with the progress of milling. It is suggested that structural instability due to plastic strain, increasing lattice expansion, and negative (from core to boundary) hydrostatic pressure is responsible for this hcp → fcc polymorphic transformation. The said transformation seems reversible as isothermal annealing at 1000 deg. C for 1 h or melting the powder mass leads to partial or complete transformation of the milled product from single phase fcc to hcp

  9. Solidification Rate Dependence of Microstructures and Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Hf Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Jo; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    The microstructures and transformation behavior of Ti-49Ni-20Hf, Ti-49.5Ni-20Hf and Ti-50.3Ni- 20Hf alloys, when prepared by conventional casting, were investigated and compared with the properties of the alloys prepared by melt spinning. The area fraction of (Ti,Hf)2Ni in Ti-Ni-Hf alloys decreased to 3.9% from 9.4% as Ni content rose to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. Several cracks were observed in the hot-rolled Ti-49Ni-20Hf alloy sheet but none were found in the Ti-50.3Ni-20Hf alloy sheet. The B2-B19' transformation start temperature (Ms) decreased to 476 K from 580 K as Ni content increased to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. All the as-spun ribbons were amorphous, and the activation energy for crystallization ranged from 167.8 kJ/mol to 182.7 kJ/mol based on Ni content. When annealing temperature ranged from 810 K to 873 K, crystalline Ti-Ni-Hf alloys without (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles were obtained. At annealing temperatures higher than 873 K, very fine (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles, less than 20 nm in size, were found embedded in a crystalline matrix.

  10. Orientational relationships between phases in the {gamma}{yields}{alpha} transformations for uranium-molybdenum alloys; Relations d'orientation entre phases dans les transformations {gamma}{yields}{alpha} des alliages uranium-molybdene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    A crystallographic study has been made of the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation in the alloy containing 3 per cent by weight of molybdenum using electronic micro-diffraction; it has been possible to establish the orientational relationships governing the germination of the {alpha} phase in the {gamma} phase. One finds: (111){gamma} // (100) {alpha}, (112-bar){gamma} // (010) {alpha}, (11-bar 0){gamma} // (001){alpha}. By choosing a monoclinic lattice containing the same number of atoms as the orthorhombic lattice for defining the {gamma} mother phase, the change in structure has been explained by adding a homogeneous (112-bar){gamma} [111]{gamma} shearing deformation to a heterogeneous deformation brought about by slipping of the atoms which are not situated at the nodes of this lattice. The identity of the orientation relationships {gamma}/{alpha} and {gamma}/{alpha}''b and the loss of coherence {gamma} /{alpha} as a function of temperature or of time lead to the conclusion that, in the range studied, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins with a martensitic process and continues by germination and growth. (author) [French] Une etude cristallographique de la transformation {gamma} {yields} {alpha} + {gamma} dans l'alliage {alpha} 3 pour cent en poids de Mo, effectuee par microdiffraction electronique a permis d'etablir les relations d'orientation regissant la germination de {alpha} dans {gamma}. On a: (111){gamma} // (100){alpha}, (112-bar){gamma} // (010){alpha}, (11-bar 0){gamma} // (001){alpha}. En choisissant pour decrire la phase mere {gamma} une maille monoclinique contenant le meme nombre d'atomes que la maille orthorhombique {alpha}, le changement de structure a ete explique en superposant a une deformation homogene par cisaillement (112-bar){gamma} [111]{gamma} une deformation heterogene par glissement des atomes non situes aux noeuds de cette maille. L identite des relations d'orientation {gamma}/{alpha} et {gamma} /{alpha

  11. Martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in NiTi alloy covered by chitosan/silver layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryczka Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NiTi shape memory alloy was covered with chitosan/silver layer. Coatings were deposited at room temperature using combination of processing parameters such as deposition voltage and amount of silver in colloidal suspension. Structure of layers was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. Quality of the coatings was evaluated basing on observations done in scanning electron microscopy. Transformation behaviour of coated samples was studied with use of differential scanning calorimeter. The covered sample revealed presence of the reversible martensitic transformation and ability to deformation (in bending mode up to 8%. Forward martensitic transformation, in as-received NiTi alloy and in alloy after layer deposition occurred in two steps B2-R-B19’. After deformation quality of the chitosan/silver layer remained unchanged.

  12. Recent advances in study of uranium surface chemistry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lizhu; Lai, Xinchun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is very important in nuclear energy industry; however, uranium and its alloys corrode seriously in various atmospheres because of their chemical reactivities. In China, continuous investigations focused on surface chemistry have been carried out for a thorough understanding of uranium in order to provide technical support for its engineering applications. Oxidation kinetics of uranium and its alloys in oxidizing atmospheres are in good agreement with those in the literature. In addition to the traditional techniques, non-traditional methods have been applied for oxidation kinetics of uranium, and it has been verified that spectroscopic ellipsometry and X-ray diffraction are effective and nondestructive tools for in situ kinetic studies. The inhibition efficiency of oxidizing gas impurities on uranium hydrogenation is found to follow the order CO 2 > CO > O 2 , and the broadening of XPS shoulders with temperature in depth profile of hydrogenated uranium surface is discussed, which is not mentioned in the literature. Significant progress on surface chemistry of alloyed uranium (U-Nb and U-Ti) in hydrogen atmosphere is reported, and it is revealed that the hydrating nucleation and subsequent growth of alloyed uranium are closely connected with the surface states, underlying metal matrix, and it is microstructure-dependent. In this review, the recent advances in uranium surface chemistry in China, published so far mostly in Chinese language, are briefly summarized. Suggestions for further study are made. (orig.)

  13. Monte Carlo criticality analysis of simple geometries containing tungsten-rhenium alloys engrained with uranium dioxide and uranium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jonathan A.; Charit, Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The addition of rhenium to the tungsten matrix within W-UO 2 and W-UN CERMET materials can help reduce the risk of submersion criticality accidents while increasing the strength and ductility of tungsten based nuclear fuel elements. → The addition of rhenium up to 30 at.% to simple geometries containing W-UO 2 mixtures can increase the critical mass by 65 kg. → The addition of rhenium up to 30 at.% to simple geometries containing W-UN mixtures can increase the critical mass by 22 kg. → The addition of rhenium by up to 30 at.% to simple geometries containing W-UO 2 mixtures can reduce the change in reactivity change due to water submersion by $5.07. → The addition of rhenium by up to 30 at.% to simple geometries containing W-UN mixtures can reduce the change in reactivity due to water submersion by $3.24. - Abstract: The critical mass and dimensions of simple geometries containing highly enriched uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) and uranium mononitride (UN) encapsulated in tungsten-rhenium alloys are determined using MCNP5 criticality calculations. Spheres as well as cylinders with length to radius ratios of 1.82 are computationally built to consist of 60 vol.% fuel and 40 vol.% metal matrix. Within the geometries, the uranium is enriched to 93 wt.% uranium-235 and the rhenium content within the metal alloy was modeled over the range of 0-30 at.%. The spheres containing UO 2 were determined to have a critical radius of 18.29-19.11 cm and a critical mass ranging from 366 kg to 424 kg. The cylinders containing UO 2 were found to have a critical radius ranging from 17.07 cm to 17.84 cm with a corresponding critical mass of 406-471 kg. Spheres engrained with UN were determined to have a critical radius ranging from 14.82 cm to 15.19 cm and a critical mass between 222 kg and 242 kg. Cylinders which were engrained with UN were determined to have a critical radius ranging from 13.81 cm to 14.15 cm and a corresponding critical mass of 245-267 kg. The critical

  14. Determination of the intrinsic α/γ interface mobility during massive transformations in interstitial free Fe-X alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianing; Luo, Haiwen; Yang, Zhigang; Zhang, Chi; Van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Kinetics of the austenite (γ) to ferrite (α) transformation and the reverse ferrite (α) to austenite (γ) transformation in a series of Fe-X (X = Ni, Mn and Co) binary alloys has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A transition from partitioning to partitionless transformation has been predicted to occur during both the γ→α and α→γ transformations by a so called Gibbs Energy Balance (GEB) model, in which the chemical driving force is assumed to be equal to the energy dissipation due to interface friction and diffusion of X inside the migrating interfaces. The transition temperature is found to depend on the kind of X and its concentration, which is in good agreement with experimental results. The intrinsic mobility of the α/γ interface has been derived from the kinetic curves of both the γ→α and α→γ transformations in the investigated alloys, and its value seems to be marginally affected by the transformation direction and alloying elements.

  15. Oxidation behavior of U-2wt%Nb, Ti, and Ni alloys in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, J. S.; Yoo, K. S.; Jo, I. J.; Gug, D. H.; Su, H. S.; Lee, E. P.; Bang, K. S.; Kim, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    For the long term storage safety study of the metallic spent fuel, U-Nb, U-Ti, U-Ni, U-Zr, and U-Hf simulated metallic uranium alloys, known as corrosion resistant alloys, were fabricated and oxidized in oxygen gas at 200 .deg. C-300 .deg. C. Simulated metallic uranium alloys were more corrosion resistant than pure uranium metal, and corrosion resistance increases Nb, Ni, Ti in that order. The oxidation rates of uranium alloys determined and activation energy was calculated for each alloy. The matrix microstructure of the test specimens were analyzed using OM, SEM, and EPMA. It was concluded that Nb was the best acceptable alloying elements for reducing corrosion of uranium metal considered to suitable as candidate

  16. On the nature of the variation of martensitic transformation hysteresis and SME characteristics in Fe-Ni-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, Yu.N.; Monastyrsky, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the various investigations, both by the authors and other works, concerning with the martensitic transformation and SME in Fe-Ni-base alloys. The thermal hysteresis dependence on the alloying elements and thermal treatments are surveyed. The contribution and effect on SME characteristics of widely used alloying elements such as Ti, Nb, Ni, Al, Co, Ta and peculiarities of thermal treatment are discussed. It is noted the main goal of these treatments is to reduce the symmetry of transformation by the ordering or precipitation of a fine coherent phase. The physical principles of transformation hysteresis manipulation in Fe-base alloys is discussed and it concluded that the thermal cycling behavior of Fe-base alloys is very complex and is not clearly understood at present. On the other hand, it is pointed out that thermal cycling is an effective method for control and improvement of SME in these alloys. It is concluded that Fe-base alloys are highly evolved shape memory materials-having a wide working range, good workability and are relatively cheap. In addition, the properties are easily controlled by suitably alloying, aging and thermal cycling. (orig.)

  17. The massive transformation in Ti-Al alloys: mechanistic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.D.; Godfrey, S.; Weaver, M.; Strangwood, M.; Kaufman, M.J.; Loretto, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The massive α→γ m transformation, as observed using analytical transmission electron microscopy, in Ti-49Al, Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Mn, Ti-55Al-25Ta and Ti-50Al-20Ta alloys is described. Conventional solution heating and quenching experiments have been combined with the more rapid quenching possible using electron beam melting in order to provide further insight into the early stages of the transformation of these alloys. It is shown that the γ develops first at grain boundaries as lamellae in one of the grains and that these lamellae intersect and spread into the adjacent grain in a massive manner. Consequently, there is no orientation relationship between the massive gamma (γ m ) and the grain being consumed whereas there is the expected relation between the γ m and the first grain which is inherited from the lamellae. It is further shown that the γ m grows as an f.c.c. phase after initially growing with the L1 0 structure. Furthermore, it is shown that the massive f.c.c. phase then orders to the L1 0 structure producing APDB-like defects which are actually thin 90 degree domains separating adjacent domains that have the same orientation yet are out of phase. The advancing γ m interface tends to facet parallel either to one of its four {111} planes or to the basal plane in the grain being consumed by impinging on existing γ lamellae. Thin microtwins and α 2 platelets then form in the γ m presumably due, respectively, to transformation stresses and supersaturation of the γ m with titanium for alloys containing ∼48% Al; indeed, there is a local depletion in aluminium across the α 2 platelets as determined using fine probe microanalysis

  18. Contribution to the micrographic study of uranium and its alloys; Contribution a l'etude micrographique de l'uranium et de ses alliages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-06-15

    The present report is the result of research carried out by the radio metallurgy section, to perfect micrographic techniques applicable to the study of samples of irradiated uranium. In the first part of this work, two polishing baths are developed, having the qualities with a minimum of disadvantages inherent in their respective compositions: they are, on the one hand perchloric acid-ethanol mixtures, and on the other hand a phospho-chromic-ethanol bath. In the chapter following, the micrographic attack of uranium is studied. The only satisfactory process is oxidation by cathode bombardment forming epitaxic layers. In the third chapter, an attempt is made to characterise the different surface states of the uranium by dissolution potential measurements and electronic diffraction. In the fourth chapter are given some examples of the application of these techniques to the micrographic study of various uranium alloys. In an appendix, it is shown how the chemical oxidation after phospho-chromic-alcohol polishing allows the different inclusions present in the molten uranium to be distinguished. By X-ray diffraction, uranium monocarbide and mononitride inclusions in particular are characterised. (author) [French] Le present rapport est le resultat de recherches effectuees au service de radiometallurgie pour la mise au point de techniques micrographiques applicables a l'etude d'echantillons d'uranium irradie. Dans la premiere partie de ce travail, nous mettons au point deux bains de polissage qui presentent les qualites inherentes a leur composition respective, avec le minimum d'inconvenients: ce sont d'une part des melanges acide perchlorique-ethanol, et d'autre part un bain phospho-chromique-ethanol. Dans le chapitre suivant, nous etudions l'attaque micrographique de l'uranium. Seul le procede d'oxydation par bombardement cathodique formant des couches epitaxiques, est satisfaisant. Dans le troisieme chapitre, nous essayons de caracteriser les differents etats de

  19. Effect of molybdenum addition on metastability of cubic γ-uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Hegde, P.V.; Prasad, G.J.; Dey, G.K.; Kamath, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years U 3 Si 2 compound dispersed in aluminium matrix has been used successfully as the potential low enriched uranium (LEU 235 ) base dispersion fuel for use in new research and test reactors and also for converting high enriched uranium (HEU > 85%U 235 ) cores to LEU for most of the existing research and test reactors world over, though maximum 4.8 g U cm -3 density is achievable with U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel. To achieve a uranium density of 8.0-9.0 g U cm -3 in dispersion fuel with aluminium as matrix material, it is required to use γ-stabilized uranium metal powders. At Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), R and D efforts are on to develop these high density uranium base alloys. This paper describes the alloying behaviour of uranium with varying amount of molybdenum. The U-Mo alloys with different molybdenum content have been prepared by using an induction melting furnace with uranium and molybdenum metal pellets as starting materials. U-Mo alloys with different molybdenum content were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase identification and lattice parameter measurements. The optical microstructure of different U-Mo alloy composition has also been discussed in this paper. Quantitative image analysis was also carried out to determine the amount of various phases in each composition.

  20. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  1. Transformation lines in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kikuaki; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Fischer, F.D.; Buchmayr, B.

    1994-01-01

    Transformation lines, the martensite/austenite start and finish conditions in the stress-temperature plane, are determined in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy with two different experimental procedures. The transformation lines are shown to be almost linear with nearly the same slope. The martensitic transformation zone and the reverse transformation zone do not coincide, and the reverse transformation zone is very wide; T Af -T As ∼ 180 K. The strong dependence on the preloading of the transformation lines, especially of the reverse transformation lines, is examined. (orig.)

  2. Proceedings of the JOWOG 22C (uranium) meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T; Talaber, C; Wood, D H [eds.

    1987-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was pleased to be host to the JOWOG 22C Meeting on June 9-11, 1987. This meeting was one of a continuing series on the subject of uranium and uranium alloys held between representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States under a treaty signed July 3, 1958. These, and similar meetings on other subjects, are controlled by the Department of Energy and the Joint Atomic Information Exchange Group (a combined agency of the Departments of Energy and Defense). The following topics were covered in the meeting: Use of Computers to Simulate Uranium; Corrosion and Chemical Stability; Superplasticity; Bonding, Corrosion, Etc.; Thermomechanical Properties and Fabrication; U-Ti Alloys; Uranium-Niobium Alloys; Physical Metallurgy and Testing; Miscellaneous Subjects; and Production and Facilities/Production Technology.

  3. Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; LaCerte, Carolyne; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-02-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and noncombatants is frequent and widespread. Previous studies have shown that DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity and that the primary route of exposure of DU to humans is through inhalation and ingestion. However, there is limited research information on the potential carcinogenicity of DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the neoplastic transforming ability of particulate DU to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). We observed the loss of contact inhibition and anchorage independent growth in cells exposed to DU after 24 h. We also characterized these DU-induced transformed cell lines and found that 40% of the cell lines exhibit alterations in plating efficiency and no significant changes in the cytotoxic response to DU. Cytogenetic analyses showed that 53% of the DU-transformed cell lines possess a hypodiploid phenotype. These data indicate that human bronchial cells are transformed by DU and exhibit significant chromosome instability consistent with a neoplastic phenotype.

  4. Method of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jackie G [Seymour, TN; DeMint, Amy L [Kingston, TN

    2012-04-24

    Methods of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil are described. The foil may be substantially pure uranium, or may be a uranium alloy such as a uranium-molybdenum alloy. The method typically includes a series of hot rolling operations on a cast plate material to form a thin sheet. These hot rolling operations are typically performed using a process where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant percentage. The sheet is typically then annealed and then cooled. The process typically concludes with a series of cold rolling passes where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant thickness amount to form the foil.

  5. Order-disorder transformation in the Ni-4.49 at.% Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorno, A.T.; Garlipp, W.; Cilense, M.; Silva, R.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The order-disorder transformation in the Ni-4.49 at.% Al alloy was studied using electrical resistivity measurements, microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results confirmed the ordering behavior expected for Ni-Al dilute alloys and the suggested relation between resistivity changes and microhardness changes with anti-ferromagnetic spin ordering. The higher value obtained for the activation energy of vacancy migration was associated with a decrease in the Al concentration gradient near solute-depleted regions

  6. Recent advances in study of uranium surface chemistry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lizhu; Lai, Xinchun [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xiaolin [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Sichuan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Uranium is very important in nuclear energy industry; however, uranium and its alloys corrode seriously in various atmospheres because of their chemical reactivities. In China, continuous investigations focused on surface chemistry have been carried out for a thorough understanding of uranium in order to provide technical support for its engineering applications. Oxidation kinetics of uranium and its alloys in oxidizing atmospheres are in good agreement with those in the literature. In addition to the traditional techniques, non-traditional methods have been applied for oxidation kinetics of uranium, and it has been verified that spectroscopic ellipsometry and X-ray diffraction are effective and nondestructive tools for in situ kinetic studies. The inhibition efficiency of oxidizing gas impurities on uranium hydrogenation is found to follow the order CO{sub 2} > CO > O{sub 2}, and the broadening of XPS shoulders with temperature in depth profile of hydrogenated uranium surface is discussed, which is not mentioned in the literature. Significant progress on surface chemistry of alloyed uranium (U-Nb and U-Ti) in hydrogen atmosphere is reported, and it is revealed that the hydrating nucleation and subsequent growth of alloyed uranium are closely connected with the surface states, underlying metal matrix, and it is microstructure-dependent. In this review, the recent advances in uranium surface chemistry in China, published so far mostly in Chinese language, are briefly summarized. Suggestions for further study are made. (orig.)

  7. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha” martensite transformation occurs.

  8. Role of magnetism on the martensitic transformation in Ni–Mn-based magnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I.; Gómez-Polo, C.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of magnetism on the martensitic structural transformation has been analyzed through the evolution of the transformation temperatures of several Ni–Mn–Ga and Ni–Mn–In alloys subjected to high-temperature quenching and post-quench annealing thermal treatments. It is found that the atomic order variations associated with the thermal treatments affect the structural transformation in different ways depending on the character of the magnetic ordering in the austenitic and the martensitic phases. In particular, regardless of composition, the variation in the atomic order affects the martensitic transformation temperature only in those alloys in which at least one of the structural phases show magnetic order at the transformation temperature, whereas those transformations taking place between paramagnetic phases remain unaffected. The observed behaviors are explained in terms of the effect of the magnetic exchange coupling variations on the free energy difference between austenite and martensite. The results confirm the key role of magnetism in the martensitic transformation.

  9. Characterization of Transformation-Induced Defects in Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Matthew L.

    Shape memory alloys have remarkable strain recovery properties that make them ideal candidates for many applications that include devices in the automotive, aerospace, medical, and MEMS industries. Although these materials are widely used today, their performance is hindered by poor dimensional stability resulting from cyclic degradation of the martensitic transformation behavior. This functional fatigue results in decreased work output and cyclic accumulation of permanent strain. To date, few studies have taken a fundamental approach to investigating the interaction between plasticity and martensite growth and propagation, which is vitally important to mitigating functional fatigue in future alloy development. The current work focuses on understanding the interplay of these deformation mechanisms in NiTi-based shape memory alloys under a variety of different thermomechanical test conditions. Micron-scale compression testing of NiTi shape memory alloy single crystals is undertaken in an effort to probe the mechanism of austenite dislocation generation. Mechanical testing is paired with post mortem defect analysis via diffraction contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Accompanied by micromechanics-based modeling of local stresses surrounding a martensite plate, these results demonstrate that the previously existing martensite and resulting austenite dislocation substructure are intimately related. A mechanism of transformation-induced dislocation generation is described in detail. A study of pure and load-biased thermal cycling of bulk polycrystalline NiTi is done for comparison of the transformation behavior and resultant defects to the stress-induced case. Post mortem and in situ STEM characterization demonstrate unique defect configurations in this test mode and STEM-based orientation mapping reveals local crystal rotation with increasing thermal cycles. Changes in both martensite and austenite microstructures are explored. The results for

  10. The hydrolysis of thorium dicarbide and of mixed uranium-thorium dicarbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Litto, B.

    1966-09-01

    The hydrolysis of thorium dicarbide leads to the formation of a complex mixture of gaseous and condensed carbon hydrides. The temperature, between 25 and 100 deg. C, has no influence on the nature and composition of the gas phase. The reaction kinetics, however, are strongly temperature dependent. In a hydrochloric medium, an enrichment in hydrogen of the gas mixture is observed. On the other hand a decrease in hydrogen and an increase in acetylene content take place in an oxidizing medium. The general results can be satisfactorily interpreted through a reaction mechanism involving C-C radical groups. In the same way, the hydrolysis of uranium-thorium-carbon ternary alloys leads to the formation of gaseous and condensed carbon hydrides. The variation of the composition of the gas phase versus uranium content in the alloy suggests an hypothesis about the carbon-carbon distance in the alloy crystal lattice. The variation of methane content, on the other hand, has lead us to discuss the nature of the various phases present in uranium-carbon alloys and carbon-rich uranium-thorium-carbon alloys. We have reached the conclusion that these alloys include a proportion of monocarbide which is dependent upon the ratio. Th/(Th + U). We put forward a diagram of the system uranium-carbon with features proper to explain some phenomena which have been observed in the uranium-thorium-carbon ternary diagram. (author) [fr

  11. Effect of phase transformations on laser forming of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.; Cheng, P.; Yao, Y.L.; Yang, Z.; Egland, K.

    2005-01-01

    In laser forming, phase transformations in the heat-affected zone take place under steep thermal cycles, and have a significant effect on the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the laser-forming process. The flow-stress data of a material are generally provided as only dependent on strain, strain rate, and temperature, while phase transformations are determined by both temperature and temperature history. Therefore, effect of phase transformations on the flow behavior of materials in thermomechanical processing is not given necessary considerations. In the present work, both the α→β transformation during heating and the decomposition of β phase, producing martensite α ' or lamellae α dependent on cooling rate, are numerically investigated. The spatial distribution of volume fractions of phases is obtained by coupling thermal and phase transformation kinetic modeling. Consequently, the flow stress of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is calculated by the rule of mixtures based on the phase ratio and the flow stress of each single phase, which is also a function of temperature, strain, and strain rate. According to the obtained flow-stress data, the laser-forming process of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is modeled by finite element method, and the deformation is predicted. A series of carefully controlled experiments are conducted to validate the theoretically predicted results

  12. Effects of Stoichiometry on Transformation Temperatures and Actuator-Type Performance of NiTiPd and NiTiPdX High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita; Padula, Santo A., II; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature shape memory NiTiPd and NiTiPdX (X=Au, Pt, Hf) alloys were produced with titanium equivalent (Ti+Hf) compositions of 50.5, 50.0, 49.5, and 49.0 at.%. Thermo-mechanical testing in compression was used to evaluate the transformation temperatures, transformation strain, work output, and permanent deformation behavior of each alloy to study the effects of quaternary alloying and stoichiometry on high-temperature shape memory alloy behavior. Microstructural evaluation showed the presence of second phases for all alloy compositions. No load transformation temperatures in the stoichiometric alloys were relatively unchanged by Au and Pt substitutions, while the substitution of Hf for Ti causes a drop in transformation temperatures. The NiTiPd, NiTiPdAu and NiTiPdHf alloys exhibited transformation temperatures that were highest in the Ti-rich compositions, slightly lower at stoichiometry, and significantly reduced when the Ti equivalent composition was less than 50 at.%. For the NiTiPdPt alloy, transformation temperatures were highest for the Ti-rich compositions, lowest at stoichiometry, and slightly higher in the Ni-rich composition. When thermally cycled under constant stresses of up to 300 MPa, all of the alloys had transformation strains, and therefore work outputs, which increased with increasing stress. In each series of alloys, the transformation strain and thus work output was highest for stoichiometric or Ti-rich compositions while permanent strain associated with the constant-load thermal cycling was lowest for alloys with Ni-equivalent-rich compositions. Based on these results, basic rules for optimizing the composition of NiTiPd alloys for actuator performance will be discussed.

  13. Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Si Alloy Ribbons Prepared via Melt Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Wan; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    Ti-(50-x)Ni-xSi (at%) (x = 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0) alloy ribbons were prepared via melt spinning and their crystallization procedure and transformation behavior were investigated using differential scanning calorimtry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Ti-Ni-Si alloy ribbons with Si content less than 1.0 at% were crystalline, whereas those with Si content more than 3.0 at% were amorphous. Crystallization occurred in the sequence of amorphous →B2 → B2 → Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → B2 + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-47.0Ni-3.0Si alloy and amorphous →R → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy. The activation energy for crystallization was 189 ±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-47Ni-3Si alloy and 212±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-45Ni-5Si alloy. One-stage B2-R transformation behavior was observed in Ti-49.5Ni-0.5Si, Ti-49.0Ni-1.0Si, and Ti-47.0Ni- 3.0Si alloy ribbons after heating to various temperatures in the range of 873 K to 1073 K. In the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy, one-stage B2-R transformation occurred after heating to 893 K, two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred after heating to 973 K, and two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred on cooling and one-stage B19'-B2 occurred on heating, after heating to 1073 K.

  14. Martensitic transformation in Heusler alloys Mn2YIn (Y=Ni, Pd and Pt): Theoretical and experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hongzhi; Liu, Bohua; Xin, Yuepeng; Jia, Pengzhong; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-01-01

    The martensitic transformation and electronic structure of Heusler alloys Mn 2 YIn (Y=Ni, Pd, Pt) have been investigated by both first-principles calculation and experimental investigation. Theoretical calculation reveals that, the energy difference ΔE between the tetragonal martensitic phase and cubic austenitic phase increases with Y varying from Ni to Pt in Mn 2 YIn. Thus a structural transition from cubic to tetragonal is most likely to happen in Heusler alloy Mn 2 PtIn. A single Heusler phase can be obtained in both Mn 2 PtIn and Mn 2 PdIn. A martensitic transformation temperature of 615 K has been identified in Mn 2 PtIn. And in Mn 2 PdIn, the austenitic phase is stable and no martensitic transformation is observed till 5 K. This indicates there may exist a positive relation between ΔE and martensitic transformation temperature. Calculated results show that Mn 2 YIn are all ferrimagnets in both austenitic and martensitic phases. The magnetic properties are mainly determined by the antiparallel aligned Mn spin moments. These findings can help to develop new FSMAs with novel properties. - Highlights: • Positive relation between ΔE and martensitic transformation temperature has been observed. • Heusler alloy Mn 2 PdIn has been synthesized successfully and investigated. • Martensitic transformation in Heusler alloys can be predicted by first -principles calculations

  15. Studies on yttrium oxide coatings for corrosion protection against molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, Y.; Bhandari, Subhankar; Pragatheeswaran; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Das, A.K.; Kumar, Jay; Kutty, T.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Yttrium oxide is resistant to corrosion by molten uranium and its alloys. Yttrium oxide is recommended as a protective oxide layer on graphite and metal components used for melting and processing uranium and its alloys. This paper presents studies on the efficacy of plasma sprayed yttrium oxide coatings for barrier applications against molten uranium

  16. X-ray diffraction study of thermally and stress-induced phase transformations in single crystalline Ni-Mn-Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Using in-situ single crystal X-ray diffraction methods, thermally- and stress-induced crystal structure evolution was investigated in two Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler-type alloys. For the 51at.%Ni-24at.%Mn-25at.%Ga alloy it was found that application of external stress in a temperature range ∼20 C above the M s at first causes intensity changes of X-ray diffuse scattering peaks in β-phase. Further stressing results in stress-induced phase transformations and under the appropriate conditions three successive martensitic transformations (one is parent-to-martensite and two are martensite-to-martensite transformations) can be stress induced. Of these only the parent-to-martensite transformation can be thermally-induced. Two successive structural transformations (thermally-induced parent-to-martensite and stress-induced martensite-to-martensite transformations) were found in 52at.%Ni-25at.%Mn-23at.%Ga alloy. Crystal structure, lattice parameters, type of modulation, and the length of modulation period for all martensites were identified. (orig.)

  17. Effect of alloying elements on martensitic transformation in the binary NiAl(β) phase alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, R.; Ohtani, H.; Ishida, K.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the B2(β) to L1 0 (β') martensitic transformation in NiAl base alloys containing a small amount of third elements have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that in addition to the normal L1 0 (3R) martensite, the 7R martensite is also present in the ternary alloys containing Ti, Mo, Ag, Ta, or Zr. While the addition of third elements X (X: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Si) to the binary Ni 64 Al 36 alloy stabilizes the parent β phase, thereby lowering the M s temperature, addition of third elements such as Co, Cu, or Ag destabilizes the β phase, increasing the M s temperature. The occurrence of the 7R martensite structure is attributed to solid solution hardening arising from the difference in atomic size between Ni and Al and the third elements added. The variation in M s temperature with third element additions is primarily ascribed to the difference in lattice stabilities of the bcc and fcc phases of the alloying elements

  18. Effect of aging on the martensitic transformation temperature in Ag-Zn-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, K.; Hoshi, H.; Marukawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    The relation between atomic ordering and martensitic transformation temperature, M s , in Ag-Zn-Al alloys was examined mainly by means of electrical resistivity measurements. Disordered bcc phase was frozen-in by quenching from a temperature above the critical temperature for ordering, T c . In a Ag-22.3at%Zn-8.9at%Al alloy, the M s temperature has been found to decrease by aging in the parent phase at temperatures between 253 and 293 K. The resistivity also decreased in accord with the M s temperature. This indicates that atomic ordering proceeds by aging. The relation between the decrease in the reverse transformation temperature, A f , and the degree of long range order was obtained. In a Ag-11.0at%Zn-15.5at%Al alloy, in which the M s temperature in the as-quenched state is higher and the T c temperature is lower than that of the former alloy, aging in the martensite phase was performed. In this case, the aging brought about the increase in the A f temperature. This is in contrast to the results of aging in the parent phase. Furthermore, the effect of aging in the parent phase at temperatures higher than T c was examined. Both the transformation temperature and the resistivity were found to become higher. These changes are due to lowering in the degree of short range order. (orig.)

  19. Application of the theory of martensite crystallography to displacive phase transformations in substitutional nonferrous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muddle, B.C.; Nie, J.F.; Hugo, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the theory of martensite crystallography is capable of accounting successfully for the form and crystallography of a range of plate- or lath-shaped transformation products, even when the formation of the product phase involves significant substitutional diffusion. These transformations include the precipitation of metastable hexagonal γ' (Ag 2 Al) plates in disordered face-centered cubic (fcc) solid-solution Al-Ag alloys, the formation of ordered AuCu II plates from disordered fcc solid solution in equiatomic Au-Cu alloys, and the formation of metastable 9R α 1 plates in ordered (B2) Cu-Zn and Ag-Cd alloys. The application of the theory to these transformations is reviewed critically and the features common to them identified. It is confirmed that, in all three transformations, the product phase produces relief at a free surface consistent with an invariant plane-strain shape change and that the transformations are thus properly described as displacive. The agreement between experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the transformation crystallography is in all cases excellent. It is proposed that successful application of the theory implies a growth mechanism in which the coherent or semicoherent, planar interface between parent and product phases maintains its structural identity during migration and that growth proceeds atom by atom in a manner consistent with the maintenance of a correspondence of lattice sites

  20. Transformation behavior and shape memory characteristics of thermo-mechanically treated Ti–(45−x)Ni–5Cu–xV (at%) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jae-young; Chun, Su-jin [Division of Materials Scince and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunsoo [Department of Civil Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Yinong; Yang, Hong [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Nam, Tae-hyun, E-mail: tahynam@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Materials Scince and Engineering and ERI, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics and superelasticity of thermo-mechanically treated Ti–(45−x)Ni–5Cu–xV (at%) (x = 0.5–2.0) alloys were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractions, thermal cycling tests under constant load and tensile tests. The B2–B19′ transformation occurred when V content was 0.5 at%, above which the B2–B19–B19′ transformation occurred. The B2–B19 transformation was not separated clearly from the B19–B19′ transformation. Thermo-mechanically treated Ti–(45−x)Ni–5Cu–xV alloys showed perfect shape memory effect and transformation hysteresis(ΔT) of Ti–43.5Ni–5.0Cu–1.5V and Ti–43.0Ni–5.0Cu–2.0V alloys was about 9 K which was much smaller than that of a Ti–44.5Ni–5.0Cu–0.5V alloy(23.3 K). More than 90% of superelastic recovery ratio was observed in all specimens and transformation hysteresis (Δσ) of a Ti–44.5Ni–5.0Cu–0.5V alloy was about 70 MPa, which was much larger than that of a Ti–43.0Ni–5.0Cu–2.0V alloy (35 MPa).

  1. Spectrographic analysis of uranium-molybdenum alloys; Analisis espectrografico de aleaciones uranio-molibdeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M

    1967-07-01

    A spectrographic method of analysis has been developed for uranium-molybdenum alloys containing up to 10 % Mo. The carrier distillation technique, with gallium oxide and graphite as carriers, is used for the semiquantitative determination of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni and Si, involving the conversion of the samples into oxides. As a consequence of the study of the influence of the molybdenum on the line intensities, it is useful to prepare only one set of standards with 0,6 % MoO{sub 3}. Total burning excitation is used for calcium, employing two sets of standards with 0,6 and 7.5 MoO{sub 3}. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  3. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Kakurai, Yousuke

    1993-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g -1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g -1 , respectively. (author)

  4. Microstructure design of low alloy transformation-induced plasticity assisted steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruixian

    The microstructure of low alloy Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels has been systematically varied through the combination of computational and experimental methodologies in order to enhance the mechanical performance and to fulfill the requirement of the next generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). The roles of microstructural parameters, such as phase constitutions, phase stability, and volume fractions on the strength-ductility combination have been revealed. Two model alloy compositions (i.e. Fe-1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.3C, and Fe-3Mn-1Si-0.3C in wt%, nominal composition) were studied. Multiphase microstructures including ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and martensite were obtained through conventional two step heat treatment (i.e. intercritical annealing-IA, and bainitic isothermal transformation-BIT). The effect of phase constitution on the mechanical properties was first characterized experimentally via systematically varying the volume fractions of these phases through computational thermodynamics. It was found that martensite was the main phase to deteriorate ductility, meanwhile the C/VA ratio (i.e. carbon content over the volume fraction of austenite) could be another indicator for the ductility of the multiphase microstructure. Following the microstructural characterization of the multiphase alloys, two microstructural design criteria (i.e. maximizing ferrite and austenite, suppressing athermal martensite) were proposed in order to optimize the corresponding mechanical performance. The volume fraction of ferrite was maximized during the IA with the help of computational thermodyanmics. On the other hand, it turned out theoretically that the martensite suppression could not be avoided on the low Mn contained alloy (i.e. Fe- 1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.3C). Nevertheless, the achieved combination of strength (~1300MPa true strength) and ductility (˜23% uniform elongation) on the low Mn alloy following the proposed design criteria fulfilled the

  5. Deformation Induced Martensitic Transformation and Its Initial Microstructure Dependence in a High Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Lin; Huang, Tian Lin; Wang, Yu Hui

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) usually occurs in metastable austenitic stainless steels. Recent studies have shown that DIMT may occur in the austenite phase of low alloyed duplex stainless steels. The present study demonstrates that DIMT can also take place in a high alloyed...... Fe–23Cr–8.5Ni duplex stainless steel, which exhibits an unexpectedly rapid transformation from γ-austenite into α′-martensite. However, an inhibited martensitic transformation has been observed by varying the initial microstructure from a coarse alternating austenite and ferrite band structure...

  6. Thermal cycling behaviour and thermal stability of uranium-molybdenum alloys of low molybdenum content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, J.; Fabrique, B.; Peault, O.

    1963-01-01

    We have studied the behaviour during thermal cycling of as-cast U-Mo alloys whose molybdenum content varies from 0.5 to 3 per cent; results are given concerning grain stability during extended heat treatments and the effect of treatments combining protracted heating with thermal cycling. The thermal cycling treatments were carried out at 550, 575, 600 and 625 deg C for 1000 cycles; the protracted heating experiments were done at 550, 575, 600 and 625 deg C for 2000 hours (4000 hrs at 625 deg C). The 0.5 per cent alloy resists much better to the thermal cycling than does the non-alloyed uranium. This resistance is, however, much lower than that of alloys containing over l per cent, even at 550 deg C it improves after a heat treatment for grain-refining. Alloys of over 1.1 per cent have a very good resistance to a cycling treatment even at 625 deg C, and this behaviour improves with increasing concentrations up to 3 per cent. An increase in the temperature up to the γ-phase has few disadvantages provided that it is followed by rapid cooling (50 to 100 deg C/min). The α grain is fine, the γ-phase is of the modular form, and the behaviour during a thermal cycling treatment is satisfactory. If this cooling is slow (15 deg /hr) the α-grain is coarse and cycling treatment behaviour is identical to that of the 0.5 per cent alloy. The protracted heat treatments showed that the α-grain exhibits satisfactory stability after 2000 hours at 575, 600 and 625 deg C, and after 4000 hours at 625 deg C. A heat cycling treatment carried out after these tests affects only very little the behaviour of these alloys during cycling. (authors) [fr

  7. Density functional theory investigation of elastic properties and martensitic transformation of Ti-Ta alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Rogal, Jutta; Drautz, Ralf [Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation, Ruhr- Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Ti-Ta alloys are considered as promising materials for high temperature shape memory alloys as well as biomedical applications. The properties of these alloys have been shown to be strongly composition dependent. The temperature for the martensitic transformation between the high temperature cubic austenite and the low temperature orthorhombic martensite decreases linearly with increasing Ta content. Likewise, the elastic properties show clear trends with changing composition. We use density functional theory to investigate the involved phases in Ti-Ta where the disordered phases are treated by special quasi-random structures. To compare the stability of the involved phases as a function of temperature we calculate free energies using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The obtained trends in the stability are consistent with experimentally measured transformation temperatures. Furthermore, we determine elastic properties which are in good agreement with experimentally observed trends.

  8. A study of phase transformation in a TiAlNb alloy and the effect of Cr addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Michael S.; Goyel, Sonalika; Rios, Orlando [University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cupid, Damian M. [University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Freiberg (Germany); Seifert, Hans J. [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Freiberg (Germany); Ebrahimi, Fereshteh, E-mail: febra@mse.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The phase transformation paths, transformation temperatures and phase equilibria of Ti-45Al-27Nb and Ti-45Al-22Nb-5Cr (at%) alloys were evaluated over a temperature range from 865 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. Both alloys solidified as single {beta}-phase and transformed to {gamma} + {sigma} phases upon slow cooling. The addition of Cr did not affect the {beta} {yields} {gamma} transformation temperature upon slow cooling. In contrast, the temperature, at which the {sigma}-phase formed, was reduced noticeably. Upon heating, the temperature at which the {beta}-phase evolves from the {gamma} + {sigma} microstructure was found to decrease significantly with the addition of Cr. In the ternary alloy the formation of the {gamma}-phase could not be retarded on quenching, however, the substitution of Nb with Cr allowed for the retainment of the {beta}-phase to room temperature. These results are explained by the partitioning of Cr into the {beta}-phase, which in addition to thermodynamic stability reduces the kinetics of transformations at lower temperatures.

  9. A study of phase transformation in a TiAlNb alloy and the effect of Cr addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Michael [University of Florida, Gainesville; Goyel, Sonalika [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Cupid, Damian M [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology; Seifert, Hans J [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology; Ebrahimi, Fereshteh [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2010-01-01

    The phase transformation paths, transformation temperatures and phase equilibria of Ti-45Al-27Nb and Ti-45Al-22Nb-5Cr (at%) alloys were evaluated over a temperature range from 865 C to 1600 C. Both alloys solidified as single {beta}-phase and transformed to {gamma} + {sigma} phases upon slow cooling. The addition of Cr did not affect the {beta} {yields} {gamma} transformation temperature upon slow cooling. In contrast, the temperature, at which the {sigma}-phase formed, was reduced noticeably. Upon heating, the temperature at which the {beta}-phase evolves from the {gamma} + {sigma} microstructure was found to decrease significantly with the addition of Cr. In the ternary alloy the formation of the {gamma}-phase could not be retarded on quenching, however, the substitution of Nb with Cr allowed for the retainment of the {beta}-phase to room temperature. These results are explained by the partitioning of Cr into the {beta}-phase, which in addition to thermodynamic stability reduces the kinetics of transformations at lower temperatures.

  10. A study of phase transformation in a TiAlNb alloy and the effect of Cr addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Michael S.; Goyel, Sonalika; Rios, Orlando; Cupid, Damian M.; Seifert, Hans J.; Ebrahimi, Fereshteh

    2010-01-01

    The phase transformation paths, transformation temperatures and phase equilibria of Ti-45Al-27Nb and Ti-45Al-22Nb-5Cr (at%) alloys were evaluated over a temperature range from 865 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. Both alloys solidified as single β-phase and transformed to γ + σ phases upon slow cooling. The addition of Cr did not affect the β → γ transformation temperature upon slow cooling. In contrast, the temperature, at which the σ-phase formed, was reduced noticeably. Upon heating, the temperature at which the β-phase evolves from the γ + σ microstructure was found to decrease significantly with the addition of Cr. In the ternary alloy the formation of the γ-phase could not be retarded on quenching, however, the substitution of Nb with Cr allowed for the retainment of the β-phase to room temperature. These results are explained by the partitioning of Cr into the β-phase, which in addition to thermodynamic stability reduces the kinetics of transformations at lower temperatures.

  11. Interdiffusion, Intrinsic Diffusion, Atomic Mobility, and Vacancy Wind Effect in γ(bcc) Uranium-Molybdenum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Keiser, Dennis D.; Sohn, Yongho

    2013-02-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment uranium fuels under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. In order to understand the fundamental diffusion behavior of this system, solid-to-solid pure U vs Mo diffusion couples were assembled and annealed at 923 K, 973 K, 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (650 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) for various times. The interdiffusion microstructures and concentration profiles were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. As the Mo concentration increased from 2 to 26 at. pct, the interdiffusion coefficient decreased, while the activation energy increased. A Kirkendall marker plane was clearly identified in each diffusion couple and utilized to determine intrinsic diffusion coefficients. Uranium intrinsically diffused 5-10 times faster than Mo. Molar excess Gibbs free energy of U-Mo alloy was applied to calculate the thermodynamic factor using ideal, regular, and subregular solution models. Based on the intrinsic diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic factors, Manning's formalism was used to calculate the tracer diffusion coefficients, atomic mobilities, and vacancy wind parameters of U and Mo at the marker composition. The tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities of U were about five times larger than those of Mo, and the vacancy wind effect increased the intrinsic flux of U by approximately 30 pct.

  12. Vacuum fusion of uranium; Fusion de l'uranium sous vide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J. A.

    1957-06-04

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results.

  13. Effect of the Remelting on Transformations in Co-Cr-Mo Prosthetics Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacprzyk B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article we were studing the impact of the remelting on transformations in Co-Cr-Mo prosthetics alloy. The TDA curves were analyzed, the microstructure was examined, the analysis of the chemical composition and hardness using the Brinell method was made. It was found that the obtained microstructure of the alloys that we studied do not differ significantly. In all four samples, microscopic images were similar to each other. The volume, size and distribution of the phases remain similar. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that all the samples fall within the compositions provided for the test alloy. Further to this the hardness of the samples, regardless of the number of remeltings did not show any significant fluctuations and remained within the error limit.After analyzing all the results, it can be concluded that the remeltings of the alloys should not have a significant impact on their properties. Secondarily melted alloys can be used for prosthetics works.

  14. Uranium determination in different compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Ivanova, K.S.; Ryzhinskij, M.V.; Alekseeva, N.A.; Solntseva, L.F.; Shereshevskaya, I.I.

    1978-01-01

    For clarifying the suitability of two different methods of analysis for determining uranium without its previous purification, the analysis of uranium carbides (UC, UC 2 , UC - ZrC) and alloys (U - Al, U - Zr - Nb, U- Ti) has been carried out. Dissolution of the compositions examined was carried out either after previous calcining (UC, UC 2 ) or fusion with KHSO 4 (UC - ZrC), or in phosphoric acid (alloys). The first method, a variant of potentiometric titration, has been modified for small amounts of uranium. Titration was carried out on a semiautomatic titrating unit. The uranium amount per titration is about 4 to 5 mg. The second method of analysis is the coulombmetric titration at a constant current intensity. The quantity of uranium per titration was equal to 1 - 3 mg. The statistical processing of the results obtained was carried out by a dispersion analysis that allowed to reveal the influence of separate factors, such as method of analysis, type of composition, the non-uniformity of a sample, the enumerated factors influencing the dispersion of the analysis results. It has been shown that the both methods are equally suitable for analysis of the uranium compounds examined

  15. Contribution to the micrographic study of uranium and its alloys; Contribution a l'etude micrographique de l'uranium et de ses alliages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-06-15

    The present report is the result of research carried out by the radio metallurgy section, to perfect micrographic techniques applicable to the study of samples of irradiated uranium. In the first part of this work, two polishing baths are developed, having the qualities with a minimum of disadvantages inherent in their respective compositions: they are, on the one hand perchloric acid-ethanol mixtures, and on the other hand a phospho-chromic-ethanol bath. In the chapter following, the micrographic attack of uranium is studied. The only satisfactory process is oxidation by cathode bombardment forming epitaxic layers. In the third chapter, an attempt is made to characterise the different surface states of the uranium by dissolution potential measurements and electronic diffraction. In the fourth chapter are given some examples of the application of these techniques to the micrographic study of various uranium alloys. In an appendix, it is shown how the chemical oxidation after phospho-chromic-alcohol polishing allows the different inclusions present in the molten uranium to be distinguished. By X-ray diffraction, uranium monocarbide and mononitride inclusions in particular are characterised. (author) [French] Le present rapport est le resultat de recherches effectuees au service de radiometallurgie pour la mise au point de techniques micrographiques applicables a l'etude d'echantillons d'uranium irradie. Dans la premiere partie de ce travail, nous mettons au point deux bains de polissage qui presentent les qualites inherentes a leur composition respective, avec le minimum d'inconvenients: ce sont d'une part des melanges acide perchlorique-ethanol, et d'autre part un bain phospho-chromique-ethanol. Dans le chapitre suivant, nous etudions l'attaque micrographique de l'uranium. Seul le procede d'oxydation par bombardement cathodique formant des couches epitaxiques, est satisfaisant. Dans le troisieme chapitre, nous essayons

  16. Influence of cold deformation on martensite transformation and mechanical properties of Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqiang; Lu Weijie; Qin Jining; Zhang Fan; Zhang Di

    2009-01-01

    Ti-35Nb-2Ta-3Zr alloy was fabricated by vacuum consumable arc melting furnace and hot pressing. Microstructure and phase transformation of solution-treated (ST) and cold-rolled (CR) plates of Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy were observed. Different microstructure of strain-induced martensite transformation during cold deformation were investigated. With the increase of reduction of cold rolling, microstructure of α''-phase changed from acicular martensite to butterfly shaped martensite and showed variant crossed and cross-hatched when the reduction of cold rolling was over 60%. Mechanical properties and SEM images of the fracture surface indicated that the alloy fabricated by cold deformation showed favorable strength and plasticity. Owing to the excellent cold workability and biomedical safety of elements of Nb, Ta and Zr, Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy contributed much to medical applications

  17. The studies of the martensite transformations in a Ti36.5Ni48.5Hf15 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Jin, S.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zou, W.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, high temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) has attracted much interest by many groups of researchers. Many kinds of alloys, such as TiNiPd and NiAL alloys were reported to have shape memory effect in high temperatures. But for different kinds of reasons, these alloys were not put to practical use. TiNi alloys have been considered the best shape memory materials until now. Adding a third element whose characteristics are similar to Ti or Ni in TiNi binary alloys can produce a new style SMA, which has been done in many cases. In most circumstances, Ni was substituted and only a few investigations on the TiNi alloys was Ti replaced. But in recent years, many investigators have given more attention to this subject. In 1976, Eckelmeyer showed that Zr was one of the element that can raise the phase transformation temperatures of TiNi alloys. In 1990, Krupp obtained a patent on TiNiZr SMA with high transformation temperatures for TiNi alloys. J.H. Mulder also published his work on TiNiZr alloys in 1992. In their previous work, a new type of high temperature SMA Ti 36.5 Ni 48.5 Hf 15 alloy were investigated in more detail by DSC measurement, TEM and high-resolution observations

  18. Phase transformation and microstructure evolution of the deformed Ti-30Zr-5Nb shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Wentao, E-mail: wtqu@xsyu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China); Sun, Xuguang; Yuan, Bifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China); Xiong, Chengyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Nie, Yongsheng [Lanzhou Seemine SMA Co. Ltd., Lanzhou 730010 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The phase transformation and microstructures of the deformed Ti-30Zr-5Nb shape memory alloy were investigated. The X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy was composed of a single orthorhombic α″-martensite phase. The alloy exhibited one yielding behavior in the tensile test, with a critical stress of ~ 600 MPa and a tensile strain of approximately 15%. A shape memory recovery accompanied by a permanent strain was exhibited in the deformed alloys when heated at 873 K. The permanent strain increased with increasing pre-strain. The microstructure evolution of the deformed alloy was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the martensite reorientation occurred and the dislocations were generated during deformation. The alloy displayed a reversible martensite transformation start temperature as high as 763 K. However, no strain-induced martensite stabilization was found in the deformed alloy with different pre-strain levels, potentially because the large chemical energy of the Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy depressed the effects of the elastic energy and the dissipative energy. - Highlights: • Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy is composed of single orthorhombic α″-martensite phase with M{sub s} of 721 K. • No martensite stabilization has been found in Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy with different pre-strain. • Ti-30Zr-5Nb shows the maximum shape memory effect of 2.75% with a pre-strain of 8%.

  19. Fabrication and characterisation of uranium, molybdenum, chromium, niobium and aluminium; Dobijanje i karakterizacija legura uranijuma sa molibdenom, hromom, niobijumom i aluminijumom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofrenovic, R; Isailovic, M; Kotur, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    This paper describes fabrication of binary uranium alloys by melting and casting. The following alloys with nominal composition were obtained by melting in the vacuum furnace: uranium with niobium contents from 0.5%- 4.0% and uranium with molybdenum contents from 0.4% - 1.2%. Uranium alloys with chromium content from 0.4% - 1.2% and uranium alloy with 0.12% of aluminium were obtained by vacuum induction furnace (electric arc melting)

  20. Basic design of a rotating disk centrifugal atomizer for uranium-molybdenum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzari, Silvio

    2001-01-01

    One of the most used techniques to produce metallic powders is the centrifugal atomization with a rotating disk. This process is employ to fabricate ductile metallic particles of uranium-molybdenum alloys (typically U- 7 % Mo, by weight) for nuclear fuel elements for research and testing reactors. These alloys exhibit a face-centered cubic structure (γ phase) which is stable above 700 C degrees and can be retained at room temperature. The rotating disk centrifugal atomization allows a rapid solidification of spherical metallic droplets of about 40 to 100 μm, considered adequate to manufacture nuclear fuel elements. Besides the thermo-physical properties of both the alloy and the cooling gas, the main parameters of the process are the radius of the disk (R), the diameter of the atomization chamber (D), the disk rotation speed (ω), the liquid volume flow rate (Q) and the superheating of the liquid (ΔT). In this work, they were applied approximate analytical models to estimate the optimal geometrical and operative parameters to obtain spherical metallic powder of U- 7 % Mo alloy. Three physical phenomena were considerate: the liquid metal flow along the surface of the disk, the fragmentation and spheroidization of the droplets and the cooling and solidification of the droplets. The principal results are the more suitable gas is helium; R ≅ 20 mm; D ≥ 1 m; ≅ 20,000 - 50,000 rpm; Q ≅ 4 - 10 cm 3 /s; ΔT ≅ 100 - 200 C degrees. By applying the relevant non-dimensional parameters governing the main physical phenomena, the conclusion is that the more appropriate non-radioactive metal to simulate the atomization of U- 7 % Mo is gold [es

  1. Highlighting micrographic structures of uranium-zirconium alloys with 6 per cent of weight of Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouleau, Maurice

    1961-01-01

    In order to study the transformation kinetics of U-Zr alloys with a Zr content of 6 per cent in weight, the authors searched for a slow enough electrolytic polishing bath, and for an attack and examination method to highlight martensite structures produced by austempering and water tempering, and ultra-fine decomposition structures obtained by austempering. The authors explain the choice of a perchloric-butyl glycol polishing bath, of an examination under polarized light or normal light after appropriate attacks. These studies are reported for annealed alloys, and for processed alloys with martensite or ultra-fine decomposition structures [fr

  2. Effect of W Contents on Martensitic Transformation and Shape Memory Effect in Co-Al-W Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Qian, B. N.; Peng, H. B.; Wu, B. J.; Wen, Y. H.

    2018-04-01

    To clarify the effect of W contents on the shape memory effect (SME) in the Co-Al alloys and its influencing mechanism, the SME, martensitic transformation, and deformation behavior were studied in the Co-7Al-xW ( x = 0, 4, 6, 9 wt pct) alloys. The results showed that the additions of W all deteriorated the SME in Co-7Al alloy when deformed at room temperature. However, when deformed in liquid nitrogen, the SME in Co-7Al alloy could be remarkably improved from 43 to 78 pct after the addition of 4 pct W, above which the SME decreased rapidly with the increase of W content although the yield strength of the parent phase rose due to the solution strengthening of W. The deterioration in SME induced by the excessive addition of W could be ascribed to its resulting significant drop of the start temperature of martensitic transformation.

  3. Aging effect in parent phase and martensitic transformation in Au-47.5at.%Cd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, T.; Komachi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Nakamura, S.

    1999-01-01

    Au-Cd alloy is one of the typical alloys which shows martensitic transformation. There are two martensites close to the 1:1 composition: one is γ' 2 martensite and the other is ζ' 2 martensite. When the phonon dispersion curve was measured in the composition for Au-47.5at.%Cd which produces γ' 2 martensite, phonon softening was observed at the Brillouin zone boundary and at ζ=0.35 of the [ζζ0]TA 2 branch and a peculiar behavior was observed. One is that the M s temperature determined in this experiment was lower than the ordinary value. The other is the time dependence of the 1/3 elastic reflection, which was observed prior to the martensitic transformation. Electrical resistance measurements were performed in this alloy in order to clarify this peculiar behavior. A decrease of the M s temperature was observed after aging at 393 K, in the parent phase. The lower M s observed in neutron experiments can be explained by an aging effect in the parent phase. There are two possibilities of explaining the time-dependence of the 1/3 reflection; one is the transformation with diffusion (bainite transformation above M s ) and the other is embryo growing. (orig.)

  4. Martensitic transformations and the shape memory effect in Ti-Zr-Nb-Al high-temperature shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Zhiguo; Xiong, Chengyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qu, Wentao; Yuan, Bifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi’an 710065 (China); Wang, Zhenguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The microstructures, phase transformations, mechanical properties and shape memory effect of Ti-20Zr-10Nb-xAl (x=1, 2, 3, 4 at%) alloys were investigated. The X-ray diffraction results show that the alloys are composed of a single martensitic α″-phase and that the corresponding unit cell volume decreases with increasing Al content. The reverse martensitic transformation start temperature (A{sub s}) of the Ti-20Zr-10Nb-Al alloy is 534 K and decreases with increasing Al content. The addition of Al results in solid solution strengthening and grain refinement strengthening, thus improving the mechanical properties and the shape memory effect of the Ti-20Zr-10 Nb-xAl alloys. The Ti-20Zr-10Nb-3Al alloy shows the greatest shape memory strain (3.2%) and the largest tensile strain (17.6%) as well as a very high tensile strength (886 MPa).

  5. A review of the environmental behavior of uranium derived from depleted uranium alloy penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, R.L.; Hostetler, C.J.; Divine, J.R.; Price, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators as armor-piercing projectiles in the field results in the release of uranium into the environment. Elevated levels of uranium in the environment are of concern because of radioactivity and chemical toxicity. In addition to the direct contamination of the soil with uranium, the penetrators will also chemically react with rainwater and surface water. Uranium may be oxidized and leached into surface water or groundwater and may subsequently be transported. In this report, we review some of the factors affecting the oxidation of the DU metal and the factors influencing the leaching and mobility of uranium through surface water and groundwater pathways, and the uptake of uranium by plants growing in contaminated soils. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Thermomechanical behavior of an Fe-based shape memory alloy: transformation conditions and hystereses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Nishimura, F.; Tobushi, H.; Oberaigner, E.R.; Fischer, F.D.

    1995-01-01

    Transformation/thermomechanical behavior in an Fe-9%Cr-5%Ni-14%Mn-6%Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy during thermomechanical loading is investigated. The transformation lines in the stress-temperature plane are strongly influenced by the parameters characterizing the thermomechanical loading. The transformation start condition, the martensite start stress and the austenite start temperature, is carefully measured to compare the results with the other experimental and theoretical observations. The stress-strain-temperature hysteresis loops, full and sub, are determined during cyclic loading. (orig.)

  7. Thermal conductivity of uranium: effects of purity and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandenaw, T.A.

    1975-10-01

    Thermal conductivity curves for polycrystalline uranium are presented for the temperature range below 373 0 K. The curves are for specimens prepared by different fabrication procedures from material of known purity and hardness. Included is a curve for U/2wt percent Mo alloy. Different mechanisms appear to be influencing the thermal conductivity behavior of uranium in well-defined temperature regions: below 37 to 43 0 K, approximately 40 to approximately 80 0 K, 80 to approximately 280 0 K, and from 280 0 K to the α → β transformation temperature. Mechanisms responsible for results in one temperature region continue to exert a strong influence in the next higher temperature region. Impurities and initial microstructure seem to influence results at any starting temperature. Evidence is presented for the possibility of imperfection ordering in uranium between approximately 40 and approximately 280 0 K. It is postulated that the type of ordering is capable with a martensite-like behavior and that all physical property results depend on the extent of a modification of the α-phase on cooling below approximately 280 0 K

  8. Amorphous alloys in the U-Cr-V system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Musso, E.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous uranium-chromium-vanadium alloys and a method of producing them are described. The uranium content of the alloys may vary between 60 and 80 atom percent, and chromium and vanadium between 0 and 40 atom percent, most particularly between 20 and 40 atom percent. A maximum of 10 atom percent of Cr or V may be replaced by other alloying elements, including metalloids and at least one transtion metal element. (LL)

  9. U-8 wt %Mo and 7 wt %Mo alloys powder obtained by an hydride-de hydride process; Obtencion de polvo de aleaciones U-8% Mo y U-7% Mo (en peso) mediante hidruracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balart, Silvia N; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Granovsky, Marta S; Gribaudo, Luis M.J.; Hermida, Jorge D; Ovejero, Jose; Rubiolo, Gerardo H; Vicente, Eduardo E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    2000-07-01

    Uranium-molybdenum alloys are been tested as a component in high-density LEU dispersion fuels with very good performances. These alloys need to be transformed to powder due to the manufacturing requirements of the fuels. One method to convert ductile alloys into powder is the hydride-de hydride process, which takes advantage of the ability of the U-{alpha} phase to transform to UH{sub 3}: a brittle and relatively low-density compound. U-Mo alloys around 7 and 8 wt % Mo were melted and heat treated at different temperature ranges in order to partially convert {gamma} -phase to {alpha} -phase. Subsequent hydriding transforms this {alpha} -phase to UH{sub 3}. The volume change associated to the hydride formation embrittled the material which ends up in a powdered alloy. Results of the optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction during different steps of the process are shown. (author)

  10. Study of phase transformation of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb alloys for application in advanced nuclear fuel; Estudo das transformacoes de fases nas ligas U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb para aplicacao em combustivel nuclear avancado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, Rafael Witter Dias

    2015-07-01

    Metal fuels are relevant in the nuclear area due to the versatility of its use in the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the alloys of uranium investigated with high potential for use in nuclear power reactors, U-Zr-Nb alloys appear as an important alternative because of their superior physico-chemical and metallurgical properties. These alloys have also potential for use in nuclear testing, research and production radioisotopes of high performance nuclear reactors. Therefore, the development of these alloys is strategic since they are planned to be used in national reactors as RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) and LABGENE (Electrical Generation Core Laboratory), currently under development in Brazil. In this work it was realized a extensive study in the scope of the manufacturing, heat treatment and phase transformations of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb (m/m%) and U-3ZR-9NB (m/m%) fuel alloys. Ingots of both alloys were produced employing a specific methodology developed in this study. This methodology comprised the melting process in a vacuum induction furnace at high temperatures (1500 °C) and thermal-mechanical processing to break the as-cast structure. Samples with typical dimensions (17 x 7 x 2.5 mm) free from macrostructural defects were homogenized at 1000 °C in vacuum of 10{sup -5} torr for 17.5 hours with a 10°C/min cooling rate until to 820 °C and, subsequently, quenched in water. The samples, randomly selected, were subjected to isothermal treatment tests under different conditions of time and temperature. Isothermal treatments for transformation and retention phases were carried out in a special assembly designed for this work. After the tests, the samples were characterized by the usual phase characterization techniques with particular emphasis for the X-ray diffraction technique. In this way, the Rietveld refinement method was applied. In the case of uranium based alloys it is quite challenging due to the lack of data in the literature. In this work a strategy for the

  11. The Method of Measured Electrical Resistivity in Studying Phase Transformations in Zr1Nb Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsina, V.M.; Klimenko, S.P.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    The paper systematically arranges and analyzes the data on the methods of research into α ↔ β transformation process in zirconium alloys, as well as capabilities and information provided by each method. A special emphasis is put on the method of measured electrical resistivity. The authors also present the results of their own research into α ↔ β transformation process in Zr1Nb alloy (in the material of Zr+1% Nb tubing produced in Ukraine from calciothermal zirconium). The ρ →T curve was used to define the maximum and minimum values for transformation temperatures. Combined processing of the phase data on Zr+1% Nb found in literature and obtained from measured resistivity suggests that transformation process happens in several stages. The maximum value on the ρ → T curve corresponds to the beginning of stage 3, whereas the minimum - to its completion; as suggested by the pooled data, accounts for over 95% of the total volume of the material

  12. Effect of pre-deformation temperature on reverse transformation characteristic in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Xing, X.; Chen, J.; Dong, Z.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    Two alloys of A: Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr(wt.%) and B: Fe-13Mn-5Si-12Cr-6Ni(wt.%) with different Ms temperatures were selected to be subjected to tensile deformation under different temperatures. The effect of deformation temperature on shape memory effect (SME) and the reverse transformation kinetics were studied respectively. It was found that: (1) The best SME could be obtained by deformation at Ms temperature; (2) The As temperature varied with deformation temperature. The lower the deformation temperature was, the lower the As temperature would be; (3) Some non-transformation related strain recovery between deformation temperature and As temperature was observed to be resulted from the retraction of stacking faults. The facts that the variation of As temperature with deformation temperature, as well as the non-transformation strain recovery imply that the γ→ε martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys exhibits quasithermoelastic property. (orig.)

  13. Internal friction behaviors of Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloy with two-step structural transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-ni Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal friction (IF behaviors of dual-phase Ni52Mn32In16 alloy with two-step structural transformation were investigated by dynamic mechanical analyzer. The IF peak for the martensite transformation (MT is an asymmetric shoulder rather than those sharp peaks for other shape memory alloys. The intermartensitic transformation (IMT peak has the maximum IF value. As the heating rate increases, the height of the IMT peak increases and its position is shifted to higher temperatures. In comparison with the IMT peak, the MT peak is independent on the heating rate. The starting temperatures of the IMT peak are strongly dependent on frequency, while the MT peak is weakly dependent. Meanwhile, the heights of both the MT and IMT peak rapidly decrease with increasing the frequency. This work also throws new light on their structural transformation mechanisms.

  14. Determination of uranium traces in nuclear cans of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta L, E.; Benavides M, A.M.; Sanchez P, L.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the uranium content as impurity can be found in zirconium alloys and zircaloy, utilized to construct the sheaths containing fuels of the reactors of nuclear plants. The determination by fluorescence spectroscopy was employed as quality control measurement, at once the corrosion resistance, diminish with the increase of the uranium content in the alloys. (Author)

  15. Mineral transformations and magnetic properties: example of an uranium rich front of oxido-reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergaux, O.; Samama, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    In sedimentary environments, the mineral associations and the associated magnetic properties may be ascribed to superimposed processes of sedimentation, diagenesis and epigenesis. In the case of uranium sandstone deposits, the epigenetic processes of oxido-reduction are responsible for both concentration in uranium and specific mineral transformations which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the rocks. These variations are illustrated by the Treville deposit (Southwestern France), where uranium rich bodies have developed within the Tertiary sandstones. The unaltered sandstones are characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility (scarcity of ferrimagnetic species but abundance of paramagnetic species). The siderite rich facies forming part of the front does not display any significant change in the mean magnetic susceptibility whilst the uranium-pyrite facies which belongs to the same front indicates a much lower susceptibility. The mean susceptibility facies resulting from pyrite and siderite oxidation remains unchanged. The facies of alteration of the iron rich silicates is responsible for higher susceptibility. The comparison between measured susceptibility and computed susceptibility helps in interpreting the role of the various species in the overall susceptibility of the rocks. It may also help in restituting the mineral associations from magnetic and chemical logging

  16. Acoustic emission during R-phase and martensitic transformations in a Ti50.2Ni48.3Fe1.5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, K.; Nishida, M.

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) signals generated during phase transformations in a Ti 50.2 Ni 48.3 Fe 1.5 shape memory alloy have been measured, and the AE parameters have been correlated with the phase transformation events. The AE count rate curve during cooling of the specimen was found to have two distinct peaks at temperatures of approximately 8 and -30 C. These peaks were confirmed by both optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry to correspond to the B2 to R phase transformation (at 8 C) and the R to B19' transformation (at -30 C) respectively. This is the first detection of the AE events associated with the R-phase transformation in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys. Although the amplitude distributions during both transformations were almost identical, both the duration and the rise time of AE events during the B2 to R phase transformation were larger than those during the R to B19' transformation. These observations suggest that the transformation velocity of the R-phase transformation is slower than that of the martensitic transformation, and are consistent with the nature of both these transformations. It is concluded that the AE technique can be applied to the determination of transformation temperatures of Ti-Ni alloys on cooling as well as DSC and electrical resistivity measurement. (orig.)

  17. Study of uranium - 20 Wt per cent plutonium-niobium alloys (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abgrall, J.; Barthelemy, P.; Boucher, R.

    1963-01-01

    U-Pu-Nb alloys containing 20 wt per cent Pu and 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 or 60 wt per cent Nb have been studied principally to determine the feasibility of their use as fuel element. The fabrication, casting and homogenisation presented certain difficulties due specially to niobium. The transformation temperatures, thermal expansion coefficients and nature of phases have been determined by thermal analysis, dilatometry, micrography and X Rays diffraction. For similar compositions, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb alloys have many common points concerning the presence of zeta phase (up to 40 wt per cent Nb), the coefficients of expansion, the good behaviour during thermal cycling and the good resistance to air oxidation in spite of zeta phase. In consequence, irradiation tests in EL 3 reactor (Saclay) will be carried out in the near future. (authors) [fr

  18. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lin; Wang Yangwei; Xu Xin; Liu Chengze

    2015-01-01

    Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy...

  19. Effect of cooling rate on the phase transformation behavior and mechanical properties of Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motemani, Y. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nili-Ahmadabadi, M. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, 14395-731 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tan, M.J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: mmjtan@ntu.edu.sg; Bornapour, M.; Rayagan, Sh. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, 14395-731 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-05

    TiNi alloy is a well-known shape memory alloy and has been widely used for bio-medical, mechanical and electrical applications. In this study, a Ni-rich NiTi alloy was prepared by vacuum arc melting in a water-cooled copper crucible. Three samples of this alloy were heated to 1000 deg. C and cooled in three media: furnace, water, and dry-ice bath. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness measurement and tensile test were carried out to investigate the effect of cooling rate on transformation temperature and mechanical properties. The results show that Ni{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compounds have a great influence on martensitic phase transformation temperature. These tests clearly showed the correlation between cooling rate and properties of the alloy.

  20. Elucidating Bioreductive Transformations within Physically Complex Media: Impact on the Fate and Transport of Uranium and Chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendorf, Scott; Francis, Chris; Jardine, Phil; Benner, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    In situ stabilization (inclusive of natural attenuation) of toxic metals and radionuclides is an attractive approach for remediating many contaminated DOE sites. By immobilizing toxic metals and radionuclides in place, the removal of contaminated water to the surface for treatment as well as the associated disposal costs are avoided. To enhance in situ remediaton, microbiological reductive stabilization of contaminant metals has been, and continues to be, actively explored. It is likely that surface and subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, either directly or indirectly, so they are rendered immobile. Furthermore, anaerobic bacterial metabolic products will help to buffer pulses of oxidation, typically from fluxes of nitrate or molecular oxygen, and thus may stabilize reduced contaminants from oxidative mobilization. Uranium and chromium are two elements of particular concern within the DOE complex that, owing to their abundance and toxicity, appear well suited for biologically mediated reductive stabilization. Subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, rending them immobile. Imparting an important criterion on the probability that contaminants will undergo reductive stabilization, however, is the chemical and physical heterogeneity of the media. Our research first examined microbially induced transformation of iron (hydr)oxide minerals and their impact on contaminant attenuation. We revealed that in intricate cascade of geochemical reactions is induced by microbially produced Fe(II), and that during transformation contaminants such as U(VI) can be incorporated into the structure, and a set of Fe(II) bearing solids capable of reducing Cr(VI) and stabilizing resulting Cr(III). We also note, however, that common subsurface constituents such as phosphate can modify iron oxide transformation pathways and thus impact contaminant sequestration - affecting both Cr and U

  1. Performance of single wire earth return transformers with amorphous alloy core in a rural electric energy distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some considerations about the performance of single wire earth return amorphous alloy core transformers in comparison with conventional silicon steel sheets cores transformers used in rural electric energy distribution network. It has been recognized that amorphous metal core transformers improve electrical power distribution efficiency by reducing transformer core losses. This reduction is due to some electromagnetic properties of the amorphous alloys such as: high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, and low coercivity. Experimental results obtained with some single-phase, 60 Hz, 5 kVA amorphous core transformers installed in a rural area electric distribution system in Northern Brazil have been confirming their superior performance in comparison to identical nominal rated transformers built with conventional silicon steel cores, particularly with regard to the excitation power and to the no-load losses.

  2. Microstructural evolution and thermophysical property evaluation of Th-U alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Santanu; Kaity, Santu; Bannerjee, Joydipto; Kumar, Raj; Roy, S.B.; Chaudhari, G.P.; Daniel, B.S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thorium-uranium alloy fuel has not received much research attention mainly because of easy availability of uranium and military incentive offered by U-Pu cycle. Moreover, (i) lack of a consistent systematic effort to develop the alloys and define the limitations of these fuels, (ii) dearth of initiatives to define its microstructures that can result from composition and fabrication variables are prime reasons for this system not having witnessed much developmental research endeavour. Hence, it seems prudent to explore few compositions selected from thorium-uranium phase diagram keeping two primary objectives in view viz. (i) establishing its microstructural features and to study the variations in those, if any, brought about by processing variables etc. and (ii) to assess few thermal properties relevant to fuel applications. This experimental work aims at addressing gap in research on thorium-uranium alloys. Selected compositions of thorium-uranium alloy have been taken for microstructural study and evaluation of thermophysical properties. Based on the microstructural features and thermophysical property evaluation it is seen that high thorium Th-U alloys have appreciable thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion coefficient. It can reasonably be concluded that high thorium Th-U alloy can be used for possible nuclear fuel application in reactors provided other factors (e.g. reactor physics, post irradiation examinations etc.) are also seen to be favourable. (author)

  3. Computer simulation of quenching uranium-0.75% titanium penetrator blanks. Final report for FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.H.; Aramayo, G.A.; Childs, K.W.; Ludtka, G.M.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1985-02-01

    The models developed can be used as a basis to understand, study, and optimize the process. Information obtained from these models can be used to analytically predict temperature distribution, cooling rates, stresses, deformation, phase composition, and possibly the prediction of void formations, all as functions of both position and time. It was demonstrated that nonsymmetrical boundary conditions can lead to bowing of the penetrator blanks and applicable techniques were developed to optimize the quenching process. Experiments for deriving physical and mechanical properties for the uranium-0.75% Ti alloy including data on the heats of transformation have been performed. It is concluded that the contribution of the transformation heat constitutes about 19% of the total heat transfer involved and is, therefore, a significant factor affecting the metallurgical behavior of the alloy during the quenching operation. This behavior is less sensitive to the dependence of the property data on temperature

  4. The life of some metallic uranium based fuel elements; Duree de vie de quelques combustibles a base d'uranium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J A; Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Description of some theoretical and experimental data concerning the design and most economic preparation of metallic uranium based fuel elements, which are intended to produce an energy of 3 kW days/g of uranium in a thermal reactor, at a sufficiently high mean temperature. Experimental results obtained by testing by analogy or by actually trying out fuel elements obtained by alloying uranium with other metals in proportions such that the resistance to deformation of the alloy produced is much higher than that of pure metallic uranium and that the thermal utilisation factor is only slightly different from that of the uranium. (author) [French] Description de quelques donnees theoriques et experimentales concernant la conception et la preparation la plus economique d'elements combustibles a base d'uranium metallique naturel, destines a degager dans un reacteur thermique une energie de l'ordre de 3 kWj/g d'uranium a une temperature moyenne suffisamment elevee. Resultats experimentaux acquis par tests analogiques ou reels sur combustibles obtenus par alliage de l'uranium avec des elements metalliques en proportions telles que la resistance a la deformation soit bien superieure a celle de l'uranium metal pur et que le facteur propre d'utilisation thermique n ne soit que peu affecte. (auteur)

  5. Effect of Ta content on martensitic transformation behavior of RuTa ultrahigh temperature shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhirong; Zhou Jingen; Furuya, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Ta content on martensitic transformation (MT) behavior of Ru 100-x Ta x (x=46-54 at.%) alloys have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Ta content significantly affects the MT behavior of RuTa alloys. The one-stage reservible MT occurs in Ta-poor RuTa alloys with Ta content less than 49 at.%. The two-stage reservible MT takes place in near-equiatomic RuTa alloys. No reservible MT is observed in Ta-rich alloys with Ta content more then 52 at.% Ta. The MT temperatures and hysteresis of RuTa alloys decrease with increasing Ta content. The aged and thermal cycled processes are nearly no effect on the MT behavior of these alloys. The deforming way of RuTa alloys is twinning. The Ru 50 Ta 50 alloy is of the most excellent MT behavior among these RuTa alloys

  6. Primary and secondary creep in aluminum alloys as a solid state transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Bruno, G.; González-Doncel, G.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the massive literature and the efforts devoted to understand the creep behavior of aluminum alloys, a full description of this phenomenon on the basis of microstructural parameters and experimental conditions is, at present, still missing. The analysis of creep is typically carried out in terms of the so-called steady or secondary creep regime. The present work offers an alternative view of the creep behavior based on the Orowan dislocation dynamics. Our approach considers primary and secondary creep together as solid state isothermal transformations, similar to recrystallization or precipitation phenomena. In this frame, it is shown that the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, typically used to analyze these transformations, can also be employed to explain creep deformation. The description is fully compatible with present (empirical) models of steady state creep. We used creep curves of commercially pure Al and ingot AA6061 alloy at different temperatures and stresses to validate the proposed model.

  7. REGENERATION OF FISSION-PRODUCT-CONTAINING MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, P.

    1964-02-01

    A process of regenerating a magnesium-thorium alloy contaminated with fission products, protactinium, and uranium is presented. A molten mixture of KCl--LiCl-MgCl/sub 2/ is added to the molten alloy whereby the alkali, alkaline parth, and rare earth fission products (including yttrium) and some of the thorium and uranium are chlorinated and

  8. Direct evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites in a Ni–Mn–Ga multifunctional alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L; Cong, D Y; Dong, Y H; Zhang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Z L; Nie, Z H; Ren, Y

    2015-01-01

    The structural response of coexisting multiple martensites to stress field in a Ni–Mn–Ga multifunctional alloy was investigated by the in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction technique. Stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites was observed at 110 K, at which five-layered modulated (5M), seven-layered modulated (7M) and non-modulated (NM) martensites coexist. We found that a tiny stress of as low as 0.5 MPa could trigger the transformation from 5M and 7M martensites to NM martensite and this transformation is partly reversible. Besides the transformation between coexisting multiple martensites, rearrangement of martensite variants also occurs during loading, at least at high stress levels. The present study is instructive for designing advanced multifunctional alloys with easy actuation. (paper)

  9. Effect of microstructure on shape memory effect and transformation behavior in an Fe-32Mn-6.5Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, C. S.; Jee, K. K.; Shin, M. C.; Jang, W. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microstructure and pre-strain on Shape Memory Effect(SME) and transformation behavior in an Fe-32Mn-6.5Si alloy. The alloy was annealed at various temperatures from 600 to 1200 .deg. C for 1 hour to vary microstructure after cold rolling. Shape memory effect and reverse transformation behavior were examined through bending test and TMA after deforming the alloy with various degree of pre-strain. Austenite grain size increases with an increase in heat treatment temperature, except the specimen heat-treated at 600 .deg. C, which remains unrecrystallized. The specimen heat-treated at 600 .deg. C, retaining cold rolling effect, exhibits the best SME due to a high Md temperature. In the recrystallized specimens, the larger grain size, the better SME. As grain size increases, the reverse transformation range becomes shorter, indicating that reverse transformation takes place with less constraint. The better SME in a large grain size can be attributed to the easiness of the reverse transformation

  10. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  11. Uranium Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — An integral part of Y‑12's transformation efforts and a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Uranium Center of Excellence, the Uranium...

  12. Transformation condition in a Fe-based shape memory alloy under thermomechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, F.; Watanabe, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The martensitic transformation start conditions in an Fe-9%Cr-5%Ni-14%Mn-6%Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy (SMA) are studied in the stress-temperature space. The martensite start condition is represented by an oval cone, which is not governed by the von Mises type condition. The subsequent martensite start condition is also investigated. The martensite start stress increases both in the initial loading and in the subsequent loading, with the progress of prior martensitic transformation. The concept of linear hardening in plasticity explains well the experimental results. On the contrary, the subsequent martensite start stress returns to the initial value with the progress of the reverse transformation. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of phase transformations of U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb alloys aging at 600 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantagalli, Natalia Mattar; Tanure, Leandro Paulo de Almeida Reis; Braga, Daniel Martins; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Investigation has been made of the effects of high-temperature aging (600 deg C) on the phase transformations in the U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb alloys. These alloys have been produced with vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace in cast ingots. The ingots were homogenized at 1000 deg C for 24 hours in vacuum of -4 torr, and cooled to room temperature at a rate of 3 deg C/min. Specimens from these homogeneous materials, cut in 3 mm high and 10 mm diameter, were reheated to γ phase at 850 deg C, for 1 hour, and aging at 600 deg C at different times from 0.5 to 24 hours. The phases decomposition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), metallographic, micro-probe analyze by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and microhardness methods. It was verified that the decomposition of the δ phase proceeds in two steps. The first is a discontinuous precipitation of a lamellar two-phase aggregate composed of alpha solid solution and a metastable gamma phase. The metastable gamma phase has a constant composition at given temperature. After longer annealing, it decomposes eutectoidally into the equilibrium (α + δ 2 ) phases mixture. During this process a modification of the original lamellar microstructure takes place. The obtained metastable phases of these alloys of different compositions were analyzed in relation to their constitution, heat treatability and micrographic features and the results confronted with available distinct uranium alloys data from literature. (author)

  14. Atomic bonding of precipitate and phase transformation of Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yingjun; Hou Xianhua; Mo Qifeng; Wei Chengyang; Qin Xiaobing

    2007-01-01

    Atomic bonding of the GPB zone and S'' phase of Al-Cu-Mg alloys in early aging stage are calculated using the empirical electron theory (EET) in solid. The results show that not only the covalence bond-network is very strong in GPB zone, but the whole covalence bond energy of S'' phase is also very large, and all the primary bond-net framework of these precipitates can consolidate the matrix of alloy. Phase transformation from GPB zone to S'' phase is explained reasonably based on atomic bonding and total binding capacity of Al and Cu atoms in these precipitates

  15. Pressure effects on martensitic transformation under quenching process in a molecular dynamics model of NiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanc, S.; Ozgen, S.; Adiguzel, O.

    2003-01-01

    The solid-solid phase transitions in NiAl alloys occur by the temperature changes and application of a pressure on the system. Both types of transitions are called martensitic transformation and have displacive and thermoelastic characters. Pressure effects on thermoelastic transformation in Ni 62.5 Al 37.5 alloy model have been studied by means of molecular dynamics method proposed by Parrinello-Rahman. Interaction forces between atoms in the model system were calculated by Lennard-Jones potential energy function. Thermodynamics and structural analysis of the martensitic transformations under hydrostatic pressure during the quenching processes have been performed. The simulation runs have been carried out in different hydrostatic pressures changing from zero to 40.65 GPa during the quenching process of the model alloy. At the zero and nonzero pressures, the system with B2-type ordered structure undergoes the product phase with L1 0 -type ordered structure by Bain distortion in the first step of martensitic transformation under the quenching process. The increase in hydrostatic pressure causes decrease in the formation time of the product phase, and twin-like lattice distortion is observed in low temperature L1 0 phase

  16. Determination of five kinds of impurity elements such as titanium in uranium titanium alloy by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yan; Hu Haihong

    2010-01-01

    New description is given of an ICP-OES method in which 5 impurities, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Al in U-Ti alloy can be determined simultaneously. Studying the dissolution of the sample preparation, separation condition of impurity elements; determining analysis of instrument line, detection limit and detection lower limit; eliminating the matrix effect of Ti and TiO 2 on the measurement of precipitation; standard addition method verify the method accuracy and precision. The results show: taking Uranium titanium alloys containing 0.1000 g sample, 5 kinds of elements Ti detection lower limits is 0.2-0.7 μg·g -1 , recovery were in the range of 98.8%-102.1%, and RSD'S found were less than 8%. The method of measurement proved is accurate and reliable. (authors)

  17. Phase transformations in Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni melt-spun high-temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstov, G.S.; Koval, Yu.N.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Portier, R.; Vermaut, P.; Ochin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the phase transformations during crystallization of the melt-spun Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA). This alloy exhibits a martensitic transformation in the bulk polycrystalline state at temperatures above crystallization of the metallic glass with the same composition. The crystallization kinetics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The intermediate and final products of crystallization for this HTSMA were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The chain of the transformations starting from crystallization and ending at martensitic transformation will be described. Perspectives of the thin film production of Zr-based HTSMA will be discussed

  18. Phase transformations in Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni melt-spun high-temperature shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firstov, G.S. [Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 36 Vernadsky blvd., UA-03680, Kiev-142 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: gfirst@imp.kiev.ua; Koval, Yu.N. [Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 36 Vernadsky blvd., UA-03680, Kiev-142 (Ukraine); Van Humbeeck, J. [Department MTM, Catholic University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Leuven) (Belgium); Portier, R. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Structurale ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Vermaut, P. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Structurale ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ochin, P. [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique-CNRS UPR2801, 15 rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2006-11-25

    The present paper focuses on the phase transformations during crystallization of the melt-spun Zr-29.56 at.% Cu-19.85 at.% Ni high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA). This alloy exhibits a martensitic transformation in the bulk polycrystalline state at temperatures above crystallization of the metallic glass with the same composition. The crystallization kinetics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The intermediate and final products of crystallization for this HTSMA were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The chain of the transformations starting from crystallization and ending at martensitic transformation will be described. Perspectives of the thin film production of Zr-based HTSMA will be discussed.

  19. Change of Composition in Metallic Fuel Slug of U-Zr Alloy from High-Temperature Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Young Sang; Lee, Jeong Mook; Kim, Jong Yun; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The U–Zr alloy is a candidate for fuel to be used as metallic fuel in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Its chemical composition before and after annealing at the operational temperature of SFRs (610 .deg. C) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The original alloy surface contained uranium oxides with the U(IV) and U(VI) oxidation states, Zr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a low amount of uranium metal. After annealing at 610 .deg. C, the alloy was composed of uranium metal, uranium carbide, uranium oxide with the U(V) valence state, zirconium metal, and amorphous carbon. Meanwhile, X-ray diffraction data indicate that the bulk composition of the alloy remained unchanged.

  20. Change of Composition in Metallic Fuel Slug of U-Zr Alloy from High-Temperature Annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Young Sang; Lee, Jeong Mook; Kim, Jong Yun; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The U–Zr alloy is a candidate for fuel to be used as metallic fuel in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Its chemical composition before and after annealing at the operational temperature of SFRs (610 .deg. C) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The original alloy surface contained uranium oxides with the U(IV) and U(VI) oxidation states, Zr 2 O 3 , and a low amount of uranium metal. After annealing at 610 .deg. C, the alloy was composed of uranium metal, uranium carbide, uranium oxide with the U(V) valence state, zirconium metal, and amorphous carbon. Meanwhile, X-ray diffraction data indicate that the bulk composition of the alloy remained unchanged

  1. On the microstructural evolution and phase transformations in a high niobium containing γ-TiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dezhi; Dehm, G.; Clemens, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes our recent work on microstructure evolution and phase transformations in a high Nb containing γ-TiAl alloy with a low Al content. The microstructures of a Ti-42Al-8.5Nb-0.5(W,Si,B,Y) alloy (composition in at.%) in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments have been examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the alloy in the as-cast condition reveals the existence of a very fine lamellar microstructure (the colony grain size is about 40 μm and the lamellar spacing within the colonies is about 65 nm) with B2(β) phase along colony grain boundaries. Additionally, a B2 (β) → ω phase transformation has been observed. The microstructure of the cast alloy shows evidence of the following solidification and transformation pathway: L → L + α → L + α + β → α + β + γ → lamellar (α + γ) + B2 (β) + γ → lamellar (α 2 + γ) + B2 (β)/ω + γ. After annealing for 2 h from 1250 C to 1450 C, which corresponds to heat treatments within the (β + α) and β phase fields as well as different cooling conditions, the colony size does not increase dramatically, and the lamellar spacing keeps fine upon air cooling or furnace cooling (lamellar spacing ∼ 120 nm). Additionally, the microstructure of the as-cast alloy is stable during long time aging at 900 C, and the colony size does not change remarkably during long time annealing at 1150 C. These results indicate that the material has a small tendency to grain growth, which is attributed to the high Nb content as well as complex alloying effects of W, Y, Si, and B. (orig.)

  2. Effect of hydrogen on transformation characteristics and deformation behavior in a Ti-Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshiya, Taiji; Ando, Hiroei; Den, Shoji; Katsuta, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    Transformation characteristics and deformation behavior of hydrogenated Ti-50.5 at% Ni alloys, which were occluded in a low pressure range of hydrogen between 1.1 and 78.5 kPa, have been studied by electrical resistivity measurement, tensile test, X-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural observation. M S temperature of the Ti-Ni alloys decreased with an increase in hydrogen content. This corresponds to the stabilization of the parent phase during cooling, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction: The suppression effect of hydrogen takes place on the martensitic transformation. Critical stress for slip deformation of hydrogenated Ti-Ni alloys changed with hydrogen content and thus hydrogen had a major influence on deformation behavior of those alloys. With hydrogen contents above 0.032 mol%, hardening was distinguished from softening which was pronounced in the contents from 0 to 0.032 mol% H. Hydrides were formed in hydrogen contents over 1.9 mol%. The hydride formation results in the reorientation in variants of the R phase and increase in the lattice strains of the parent phase. (author)

  3. Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. Phase transformations, structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, J.V.

    2006-12-21

    This work has been devoted to the study of phase transformations involving chemical ordering and magnetic properties evolution in bulk Fe-Pt alloys composed of nanometersized grains. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} (x=40-60) alloys have been prepared by mechanical ball milling of elemental Fe and Pt powders at liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-milled Fe-Pt alloys consist of {proportional_to} 100 {mu}m sized particles constituted by randomly oriented grains having an average size in the range of 10-40 nm. Depending on the milling time, three major microstructure types have been obtained: samples with a multilayer-type structure of Fe and Pt with a thickness of 20-300 nm and a very thin (several nanometers) A1 layer at their interfaces (2 h milled), an intermediate structure, consisting of finer lamellae of Fe and Pt (below approximately 100 nm) with the A1 layer thickness reaching several tens of nanometers (4 h milled) and alloys containing a homogeneous A1 phase (7 h milled). Subsequent heat treatment at elevated temperatures is required for the formation of the L1{sub 0} FePt phase. The ordering develops via so-called combined solid state reactions. It is accompanied by grain growth and thermally assisted removal of defects introduced by milling and proceeds rapidly at moderate temperatures by nucleation and growth of the ordered phases with a high degree of the long-range order. In a two-particle interaction model elaborated in the present work, the existence of hysteresis in recoil loops has been shown to arise from insufficient coupling between the low- and the high-anisotropy particles. The model reveals the main features of magnetisation reversal processes observed experimentally in exchange-coupled systems. Neutron diffraction has been used for the investigation of the magnetic structure of ordered and partially ordered nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of the electrochemical behavior of U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb uranium alloys in relation to the pH and the solution aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Fabio Abud; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Figueiredo, Celia de Araujo

    2011-01-01

    The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) is developing, in cooperation with the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), the advanced nuclear plate type fuel for the second core of the land-based reactor prototype of the Laboratorio de Geracao Nucleo-Eletrica (LABGENE). Recent investigations have shown that the fuel made of uranium-based niobium and zirconium alloys reaches the best performance relative to other fuels, e.g. UO 2 . Niobium and Zirconium also increase the corrosion resistance and the mechanical strength of the uranium alloys. By means of electrochemical techniques the corrosion behavior of alloys U 2 . 5 Zr 7.5 Nb and U 3 Zr 9 Nb, developed at CDTN and heat treated in the temperature range of 200 deg C to 600 deg C, was assessed. The effect of the parameters pH and solution aeration was studied as well as the influence of zirconium and niobium alloying elements in the corrosion of uranium. The techniques used were open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic anodic polarization at room temperature. The tests were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with Ag/AgCl (3M KCl) as the reference electrode and a platinum plate as the auxiliary electrode. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of uranium and its alloys in acidic solutions showed regions with anodic currents limited by a passive film. The presence of niobium and zirconium contributed for the formation of this film. The impedance data showed the presence of two semicircles in the Bode diagram, indicating the occurrence of two distinct electrochemical processes. The data were fitted to an equivalent circuit model in order to obtain parameters of the electrochemical processes and evaluate the effect of the studied variables. (author)

  5. Simple process to fabricate nitride alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jong Hun; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mono-nitride (UN) is considered as a fuel material [1] for accident-tolerant fuel to compensate for the loss of fissile fuel material caused by adopting a thickened cladding such as SiC composites. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. Among them, a direct nitriding process of metal is more attractive because it has advantages in the mass production of high-purity powders and the reusing of expensive 15 N 2 gas. However, since metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots, it has a drawback in the fabrication of fine powders. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a centrifugal atomisation technique to fabricate uranium and uranium alloy powders. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate nitride fuel powders directly from uranium metal alloy powders. Spherical powder and flake of uranium metal alloys were fabricated using a centrifugal atomisation method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating the metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. The phase and morphology evolutions of powders were investigated during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also part of the present work. KAERI has developed the centrifugal rotating disk atomisation process to fabricate spherical uranium metal alloy powders which are used as advanced fuel materials for research reactors. The rotating disk atomisation system involves the tasks of melting, atomising, and collecting. A nozzle in the bottom of melting crucible introduces melt at the center of a spinning disk. The centrifugal force carries the melt to the edge of the disk and throws the melt off the edge. Size and shape of droplets can be controlled by changing the nozzle size, the disk diameter and disk speed independently or simultaneously. By adjusting the processing parameters of the centrifugal atomiser, a spherical and flake shape

  6. Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co2Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao; Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Nagasako, Makoto; Kanomata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and compression tests were performed on Co 2 Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys. The reentrant martensitic transformation behavior was directly observed during the in situ XRD measurements. The high-temperature parent phase and low-temperature reentrant parent phase were found to have a continuous temperature dependence of lattice parameter, therefore suggesting that they are the same phase in nature. Moreover, compression tests were performed on a parent-phase single crystal sample; an evolution from normal to inverse temperature dependence of critical stress for martensitic transformation was directly observed. Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron analysis, a sign reversal of entropy change can be expected on the same alloy

  7. Influence of pressure on the solid state phase transformation of Cu–Al–Bi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li; Jian-Hua, Liu; Wen-Kui, Wang; Ri-Ping, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The solid state phase transformation of Cu-Al-Bi alloy under high pressure was investigated by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results show that the initial crystalline phase in the Cu-Al-Bi alloy annealed at 750 °C under the pressures in the range of 0–6 GPa is α-Cu solid solution (named as α-Cu phase below), and high pressure has a great influence on the crystallisation process of the Cu-Al-Bi alloy. The grain size of the α-Cu phase decreases with increasing pressure as the pressure is below about 3 GPa, and then increases (P > 3 GPa). The mechanism for the effects of high pressure on the crystallisation process of the alloy has been discussed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  8. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO x emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO x fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO x emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO 2 which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered

  9. Surface morphological study of the transformation strain of martensites and bainites in copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukawa, K.; Kumagai, I.; Takezawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Transformation strain associated with martensites and bainites has been determined by surface relief measurements with an atomic force microscope. To this end, morphological data of transformation products have been combined with data on their crystallographic orientations, which have been determined by the electron back-scatter diffraction technique. The results have shown that the transformation strain of bainites has a comparable value to that of martensites in the same alloy. The orientation relationship between the transformation products and the parent crystal has also been determined. The relationship for bainites as well as martensites was consistent with the prediction of the phenomenological theory for the transformation. It was concluded that the transformation mechanism of bainites involves lattice shearing in a manner similar to that of the martensitic transformation. (orig.)

  10. First-principles investigations of the physical properties of binary uranium silicide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Long, Jianping; Yang, Lijun; Li, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Total density of states for USi 2 . Display Omitted -- Abstract: The structural, elastic properties and the Debye temperature of binary Uranium Silicide (U-Si) alloys are investigated by using the first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential density function theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The ground states properties are found to agree with the available experimental data. The mechanical properties like shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio σ and ratio B/G are also calculated. Finally, The averaged sound velocity (v m ), the longitudinal sound velocity (v l ), transverse sound velocity (v t ) and the Debye temperature (θ D ) are obtained. However, the theoretical values are slightly different from few existed experiment data because the latter was obtained at room temperature while the former one at 0 K

  11. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  12. Structural analysis and martensitic transformation in equiatomic HfPd alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, S.; Matsuda, M.; Takashima, K.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the crystal structure and the martensitic transformation in equiatomic HfPd alloy. The analysis of the crystal structure by electron diffraction and Rietveld refinement using X-ray diffraction data indicates that the space group of the martensitic phase is Cmcm, and the lattice parameters are a = 0.329 nm, b = 1.021 nm, and c = 0.438 nm. Martensitic variants are composed of the plate-like morphology of several hundred nm, and the boundaries between the variants have (021)Cmcm twin relations. This (021)Cmcm twin boundary seems to be sharp without ledge and steps. Differential scanning calorimetry measurement indicates that each martensitic transformation temperature is determined to be Ms = 819 K, Mf = 794 K, As = 928 K, and Af = 954 K. Based on the dimension change using a thermo-mechanical analyzer, the expansion and shrinkage of the sample occurred with the forward and reverse martensitic transformation, respectively.

  13. Influence of the particle size on phase transformation temperatures of Ni-49at.%Ti shape memory alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmo, George Carlos. S.; Castro, Walman B. de; Araujo, Carlos Jose de

    2009-01-01

    It is important to control the martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) of Ti-Ni alloys because it determines the temperature range over which the shape memory effect and superelasticity appear. Powder metallurgy (PM) is known to provide the possibility of material saving and automated fabrication of at least semi-finished products as well as net-shape components for NiTi alloys. In this study powder with different particle sizes was subjected by gas atomization. The evolution of the control the martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of the particle size of powders on the transformation temperatures behaviors was discussed. (author)

  14. Martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in Ni54.75Mn13.25Fe7Ga25 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.B.; Sui, J.H.; Liu, C.; Cai, W.

    2008-01-01

    The martensitic transformation and shape memory effect of Ni 54.75 Mn 13.25 Fe 7 Ga 25 (at.%) alloy are studied in the present paper. It is shown that tetragonal martensite with parallel bands substructure transforms to parent phase heated by electron beam. It can be clearly observed that the martensite band becomes smaller and smaller, then transforms to parent phase completely in the end. A large reversible transformation strain, about 1.5%, is obtained in this undeformed polycrystalline alloy due to martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation. This transformation strain is also increased to 1.8% by the external magnetic field. It is believed that the effect of the magnetic field on the preferential orientation of martensitic variants increases the transformation strain

  15. Characterization of the phase transformations in shape-memory alloys by modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Z.G.; Sandstroem, R.

    1999-01-01

    Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) is a recently developed calorimetric technique, which has demonstrated some significant advantages over the conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By separating the reversing quantity from the non-reversing component in the total thermal events, it provides some new information that can not be obtained from the conventional DSC. The technique has been applied to various polycrystalline and single crystalline shape-memory alloys, including Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni(Cu), Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Mn-Si, to characterize the martensitic transformations, bainitic transformation, chemical and magnetic ordering transitions, atomic reordering and other kinetic relaxation processes in the alloys. The preliminary results of the MDSC measurements are summarized and the interpretation of the MDSC results and some factors affecting the results are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Giant magnetocaloric effect from reverse martensitic transformation in Ni–Mn–Ga–Cu ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudip Kumar; Sarita; Babu, P.D.; Biswas, Aniruddha; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to produce Giant Magnetocaloric effect (GMCE) near room temperature, in a first ever such study, the austenite transformation temperature (A_s) was fine tuned to ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T_C) in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMA) and a large GMCE of ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K was achieved in Ni_5_0Mn_1_8_._5Cu_6_._5Ga_2_5 alloy during reverse martensitic transformation (heating cycle) for a magnetic field change of 9 T at 303 K. Fine tuning of A_s with T_C was achieved by Cu substitution in Ni_5_0Mn_2_5_−_xCu_xGa_2_5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0)-based FSMAs. Characterizations of these alloys were carried out using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and DC magnetization measurements. Addition of Cu to stoichiometric Heusler type Ni_2MnGa increases the martensitic transformation temperatures and decreases T_C. Concurrently, ΔSM increases with Cu addition and peaks at 6.5 at% Cu for which there is a virtual overlap between T_C and A_s. Maximum Refrigerant Capacity (RCP) of 327.0 J/Kg was also achieved in the heating cycle for 9 T field change at 303 K. Corresponding values for the cooling cycle measurements (measured during forward transformation) were 30.4 J/Kg-K and 123.5 J/Kg respectively for the same 6.5 at% Cu sample under the same thermo-magnetic conditions. - Highlights: • A_s was fine tuned to T_C in Cu substituted Ni_5_0Mn_2_5_−_xCu_xGa_2_5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0) alloys. • MT temperature increases with Cu addition while T_C decreases. • A virtual overlapping of A_s with T_C was found in Ni_5_0Mn_1_8_._5Cu_6_._5Ga_2_5 alloys. • ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K achieved from reverse MT for Δ(μ_0H) = 9 T at 303 K. • A highest RCP value of 94.6 J/Kg was observed for Δ(μ_0H) = 5 T in Cu:6.5 alloys.

  17. Manhattan Project Technical Series The Chemistry of Uranium (I) Chapters 1-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitch, E. I.; Katz, J. J.

    1946-01-01

    This constitutes Chapters 1 through 10. inclusive, of The Survey Volume on Uranium Chemistry prepared for the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Chapters are titled: Nuclear Properties of Uranium; Properties of the Uranium Atom; Uranium in Nature; Extraction of Uranium from Ores and Preparation of Uranium Metal; Physical Properties of Uranium Metal; Chemical Properties of Uranium Metal; Intermetallic Compounds and Alloy systems of Uranium; the Uranium-Hydrogen System; Uranium Borides, Carbides, and Silicides; Uranium Nitrides, Phosphides, Arsenides, and Antimonides.

  18. Evolution of microstructure of U-Mo alloys in as cast and sintered forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Hegde, P.V.; Prasad, G.J.; Kamath, H.S.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years U 3 Si 2 compound dispersed in aluminium matrix has been successfully used as potential Low Enriched Uranium (LEU 235 ) base dispersion fuel in new research and test reactors and also for converting High Enriched Uranium (HEU > 85% U 235 ) cores to LEU in most of the existing research and test reactors. The maximum density achievable with U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion fuel is around 4.8 g U cm -3 . To achieve a uranium density of 8.0 to 9.0 g U cm -3 in dispersion fuel with aluminium as matrix material, it is required to use γ-stabilized uranium metal powders. At Metallic Fuels Division, R and D efforts are on to develop these high density uranium alloys. Molybdenum plays a crucial role in metastabilising the γ-phase of uranium at room temperature which is very much evident when we see the microstructures of different U-Mo alloys with varying molybdenum concentration as solute atom. The paper describes the role of molybdenum in imparting metastability in U-Mo alloys from their microstructures in as cast and sintered forms. The paper also covers the role of tailored microstructure in U-Mo alloy for the purpose of hydriding and dehydriding treatment to generate alloy powders. (author)

  19. Martensitic Transformation and Superelasticity in Fe-Mn-Al-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2017-12-01

    Ferrous shape memory alloys showing superelasticity have recently been obtained in two alloy systems in the 2010s. One is Fe-Mn-Al-Ni, which undergoes martensitic transformation (MT) between the α (bcc) parent and γ' (fcc) martensite phases. This MT can be thermodynamically understood by considering the magnetic contribution to the Gibbs energy, and the β-NiAl (B2) nanoprecipitates play an important role in the thermoelastic MT. The temperature dependence of critical stress for the MT is very small (about 0.5 MPa/°C) due to the small entropy difference between the parent and martensite phases in the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni alloy, and consequently, superelasticity can be obtained in a wide temperature range from cryogenic temperature to about 200 °C. Microstructural control is of great importance for obtaining superelasticity, and the relative grain size is among the most crucial factors.

  20. Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation and Texture Evolution in Cold-Rolled Co–Cr Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Onuki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Co–Cr alloys have been used in biomedical purposes such as stents and artificial hip joints. However, the difficulty of plastic deformation limits the application of the alloys. During the deformation, Co–Cr alloys often exhibit strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT, which is a possible reason for the low formability. The distinct increase in dislocation density in the matrix phase may also result in early fractures. Since these microstructural evolutions accompany the textural evolution, it is crucial to understand the relationship among the SIMT, the increase in dislocations, and the texture evolution. To characterize those at the same time, we conducted time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments at iMATERIA beamline at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF, Ibaraki, Japan. The cold-rolled sheets of Co–29Cr–6Mo (CCM and Co–20Cr–15W–10Ni (CCWN alloys were investigated in this study. As expected from the different stacking fault energies, the SIMT progressed more rapidly in the CCM alloy. The dislocation densities of the matrix phases of the CCM and CCWN alloys increased similarly with an increase in the rolling reduction. These results suggest that the difference in deformability between the CCM and CCWN alloys originate not from the strain hardening of the matrix phase but from the growth behaviors of the martensitic phase.

  1. Microstructure, transformation behavior and mechanical properties of a (Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 38}Cu{sub 12}){sub 93}Nb{sub 7} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Daqiang, E-mail: daqiang.jiang@uwa.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Liu, Yinong [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Liu, Weilong; Song, Lixie; Jiang, Xiaohua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Yang, Hong [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Cui, Lishan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-11

    A (Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 38}Cu{sub 12}){sub 93}Nb{sub 7} alloy is fabricated by arc melting, forging and drawing. The microstructure, transformation behavior and mechanical properties were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and tensile test machine. SEM observation showed that the as cast alloy is composed of TiNiCu and Nb-rich phases. After drawing, the alloy showed single step transformations during heating and cooling within the whole annealing temperature range from 400 °C to 800 °C. With the increase of the annealing temperature, both the transformation temperatures and the damping capacity increased first and then decreased. The ultimate strength of the alloy after annealing at 400 °C is over 1500 MPa and the maximum elongation of the alloy after annealing at 800 °C is more than 20%.

  2. The α → ω Transformation in Titanium-Cobalt Alloys under High-Pressure Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar R. Kilmametov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pressure influence on the α → ω transformation in Ti–Co alloys has been studied during high pressure torsion (HPT. The α → ω allotropic transformation takes place at high pressures in titanium, zirconium and hafnium as well as in their alloys. The transition pressure, the ability of high pressure ω-phase to retain after pressure release, and the pressure interval where α and ω phases coexist depend on the conditions of high-pressure treatment. During HPT in Bridgeman anvils, the high pressure is combined with shear strain. The presence of shear strain as well as Co addition to Ti decreases the onset of the α → ω transition from 10.5 GPa (under quasi-hydrostatic conditions to about 3.5 GPa. The portion of ω-phase after HPT at 7 GPa increases in the following sequence: pure Ti → Ti–2 wt % Co → Ti–4 wt % Co → Ti–4 wt % Fe.

  3. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, P., E-mail: Philip.Platt@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Frankel, P. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gass, M.; Howells, R. [AMEC, Walton House, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal–oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations.

  4. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2014-11-01

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal-oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations.

  5. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal–oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations

  6. Thermodynamic study contribution of U-Fe and U-Ga alloys by high temperature mass spectroscopy, and of the wetting of yttrium oxide by uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardie, P.

    1992-01-01

    High temperature thermodynamic properties study of U-Fe and U-Ga alloys, and wetting study of yttrium oxide by uranium are presented. High temperature mass spectrometry coupled to a Knudsen effusion multi-cell allows to measure iron activity in U-Fe alloys and of gallium in U-Ga alloys, the U activity is deduced from Gibbs-Duhem equation. Wetting of the system U/Y_2O_3_-_x is studied between 1413 K and 1973 K by the put drop method visualized by X-rays. This technique also furnishes density, surface tension of U and of U-Fe alloys put on Y_2O_3_-_x. A new model of the interfacial oxygen action on wetting is done for the system U/Y_2O_3_-_x. (A.B.)

  7. Depleted-Uranium Weapons: the Whys and Wherefores

    OpenAIRE

    Gsponer, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform present-day tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10%, and it disappears when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform DU alloys, enabling the production of ...

  8. Structure-phase transformations in 36NXTYu highly deformed alloy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, S.V.; Radashin, M.V.; Alontseva, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The 36NXTYu alloy - containing 35.39% Ni, 12.43% Cr, 3.08% Ti, 1.22% Al, 0.93% Mn, 0.36% Si, 0.09% Cu , 0.03% C, 0.12% P, 0.09% S and the rest iron - has been examined. Under aging beginning in the alloy the Ni 3 (Al,Yi) type metastable γ'-phase release of with L12 structure is taking place, and then the stable η-phase (Ni 3 Ti, DO 24 ) is occurring. The thin foils structure and micro-diffraction analysis were observed with help of the electron microscope. Fractography has been watched on the scanning electron microscope. For study both phase content and samples texture the DRON-3 diffractometer was applied. The mechanical testing include one-axis static expansion with measurement of a strength limit, conventional fluidity limit, relational extension up to sample breakage. It is shown, that rolling deep levels in the 36NXTYu alloy, in the common case, do not change the structure-phase transformation morphology, but instead of γ'-phase the η-phase is discretely releasing

  9. Behaviour of uranium under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, Y.; Mustelier, J.P.; Quere, Y.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses

    1964-01-01

    The main results obtained in a study of the formation of defects caused in uranium by fission at low temperature are reported. By irradiation at 20 K. it was possible to determine the number of Frenkel pairs produced by one fission. An analysis of the curves giving the variations in electrical resistivity shows the size of the displacement spikes and the mechanism of defect creation due to fission. Irradiations at 77 K gave additional information, showing behaviour differences in the case of recrystallised and of cold worked uranium. The diffusion of rare gases was studied using metal-rare gas alloys obtained by electrical discharge, and samples of irradiated uranium. Simple diffusion is only responsible for the release of the rare gases under vacuum in cases where the rare gas content is very low (very slightly irradiated U). On the other hand when the concentration is higher (samples prepared by electrical discharge) the gas is given off by the formation, growth and coalescence of bubbles; the apparent diffusion coefficient is then quite different from the true coefficient and cannot be used in calculations on swelling. The various factors governing the phenomenon of simple diffusion were examined. It was shown in particular that a small addition of molybdenum could reduce the diffusion coefficient by a factor of 100. The precipitation of gas in uranium (Kr), in silver (Kr) and in Al-Li alloy (He) have been followed by measurement of the crystal parameter and of the electrical resistivity, and by electron microscope examination of thin films. The important part played by dislocations in the generation and growth of bubbles has been demonstrated, and it has been shown also that precipitation of bubbles on the dislocation lattice could block the development of recrystallisation. The results of these studies were compared with observations made on the swelling of uranium and uranium alloys U Mo and U Nb strongly irradiated between 400 and 700 C. In the case of Cubic

  10. Phase transformations on Zr-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Sergio Norifumi

    1980-01-01

    This research intended the laboratory scale experimental development of Zr-Nb alloys with adequate characteristics for use as fuel element cladding or for the making of irradiation capsules. Zr-Nb alloys with different Nb contents were melted and the resulting material was characterised. The following metallurgical aspects were considered: preparation of Zr-Nb alloys with various Nb contents; heat and thermomechanical treatments; microstructural characterization; mechanical properties; oxidation properties. The influence of the heat treatment and thermomechanical treatment, on the out-of-pile mechanical and oxidation properties of the Zr-Nb alloys were studied. It was found that the alloy microhardness increases with the Nb content and/or with the thermomechanical treatment. Mechanical properties such as yield and ultimate tensile strength as well as elongation were determined by means of compression tests. The results showed that the alloy yield stress increases with the Nb content and with the thermomechanical treatment, while its elongation decreases. Thermogravimetric analysis determined the alloy oxidation kinetics, in the 400 - 800 deg C interval, at 1 atm. oxygen pressure. The results showed that the alloy oxidation rate increases with the temperature and Nb content. It was also observed that the oxidation rate increases considerably for temperatures higher than 600 deg C.(author)

  11. The hydrolysis of thorium dicarbide and of mixed uranium-thorium dicarbides; L'hydrolyse du dicarbure de thorium et des dicarbures mixtes d'uranium et de thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Litto, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    The hydrolysis of thorium dicarbide leads to the formation of a complex mixture of gaseous and condensed carbon hydrides. The temperature, between 25 and 100 deg. C, has no influence on the nature and composition of the gas phase. The reaction kinetics, however, are strongly temperature dependent. In a hydrochloric medium, an enrichment in hydrogen of the gas mixture is observed. On the other hand a decrease in hydrogen and an increase in acetylene content take place in an oxidizing medium. The general results can be satisfactorily interpreted through a reaction mechanism involving C-C radical groups. In the same way, the hydrolysis of uranium-thorium-carbon ternary alloys leads to the formation of gaseous and condensed carbon hydrides. The variation of the composition of the gas phase versus uranium content in the alloy suggests an hypothesis about the carbon-carbon distance in the alloy crystal lattice. The variation of methane content, on the other hand, has lead us to discuss the nature of the various phases present in uranium-carbon alloys and carbon-rich uranium-thorium-carbon alloys. We have reached the conclusion that these alloys include a proportion of monocarbide which is dependent upon the ratio. Th/(Th + U). We put forward a diagram of the system uranium-carbon with features proper to explain some phenomena which have been observed in the uranium-thorium-carbon ternary diagram. (author) [French] L'hydrolyse du dicarbure de thorium conduit a la formation d'un melange complexe d'hydrures de carbone gazeux et condenses. La temperature entre 25 et 100 deg. C n'a pas d'influence sur la nature ef la composition de la phase gazeuse. Par contre la cinetique en depend fortement. En milieu chlorhydrique, on observe un enrichissement en hydrogene du melange gazeux. Au contraire, en milieu oxydant il se produit une diminution du taux d'hydrogene et une augmentation tres nette du taux d'acetylene. L'ensemble des resultats obtenus peut etre interprete d'une maniere

  12. Major constituent quantitative determination in uranium alloys by coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and X ray fluorescence wavelength dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luis Claudio de; Silva, Adriana Mascarenhas Martins da; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves; Silva, Ieda de Souza

    2013-01-01

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of major constituents elements (Zr, Nb, Mo) in Uranium/Zirconium/Niobium and Uranium/Molybdenum alloy samples were developed. The methods use samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in hot nitric acid and precipitate particles melted with lithium tetraborate and dissolved in hot nitric acid and finally analyzed as a solution. Studies on the determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using matched matrix in calibration curve were developed. The same samples solution were analyzed in both methods. The limits of detection (LOD), linearity of the calibrations curves, recovery study, accuracy and precision of the both techniques were carried out. The results were compared. (author)

  13. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  14. Study of uranium-plutonium alloys containing from 0 to 20 peri cent of plutonium (1963); Etude des alliages uranium-plutonium aux concentrations comprises entre 0 et 20 pour cent de plutonium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paruz, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-05-15

    The work is carried out on U-Pu alloys in the region of the solid solution uranium alpha and in the two-phase region uranium alpha + the zeta phase. The results obtained concern mainly the influence of the addition of plutonium on the physical properties of the uranium (changes in the crystalline parameters, the density, the hardness) in the region of solid solution uranium alpha. In view of the discrepancies between various published results as far as the equilibrium diagram for the system U-Pu is concerned, an attempt was made to verify the extent of the different regions of the phase diagram, in particular the two phased-region. Examinations carried out on samples after various thermal treatments (in particular quenching from the epsilon phase and prolonged annealings, as well as a slow cooling from the epsilon phase) confirm the results obtained at Los Alamos and Harwell. (author) [French] L'etude porte sur des alliages U-Pu du domaine de la solution solide uranium alpha et du domaine biphase uranium + phase zeta. Les resultats obtenus concernent en premier lieu l'influence de l'addition de plutonium sur les proprietes physiques de l'uranium (changement des parametres cristallins, densite, durete) dans le domaine de la solution solide uranium alpha. Compte tenu des divergences entre les differents resultats publies en ce qui concerne le diagramme d'equilibre du systeme U-Pu, on a essaye ensuite de verifier l'etendue des differents domaines du diagramme des phases, en particulier du domaine biphase zeta + uranium alpha. Les examens par micrographie et par diffraction des rayons X des echantillons apres differents traitements thermiques (notamment trempe a partir de la phase epsilon et recuits prolonges, ainsi qu'un refroidissement lent etage a partir de la phase epsilon) confirment les resultats obtenus a Los Alamos et a Harwell. (auteur)

  15. Giant magnetocaloric effect from reverse martensitic transformation in Ni–Mn–Ga–Cu ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sudip Kumar, E-mail: sudips@barc.gov.in [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Sarita [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Babu, P.D. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Biswas, Aniruddha [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Siruguri, Vasudeva [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Krishnan, Madangopal [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2016-06-15

    In an effort to produce Giant Magnetocaloric effect (GMCE) near room temperature, in a first ever such study, the austenite transformation temperature (A{sub s}) was fine tuned to ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T{sub C}) in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMA) and a large GMCE of ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K was achieved in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 18.5}Cu{sub 6.5}Ga{sub 25} alloy during reverse martensitic transformation (heating cycle) for a magnetic field change of 9 T at 303 K. Fine tuning of A{sub s} with T{sub C} was achieved by Cu substitution in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 25−x}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 25} (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0)-based FSMAs. Characterizations of these alloys were carried out using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and DC magnetization measurements. Addition of Cu to stoichiometric Heusler type Ni{sub 2}MnGa increases the martensitic transformation temperatures and decreases T{sub C}. Concurrently, ΔSM increases with Cu addition and peaks at 6.5 at% Cu for which there is a virtual overlap between T{sub C} and A{sub s}. Maximum Refrigerant Capacity (RCP) of 327.0 J/Kg was also achieved in the heating cycle for 9 T field change at 303 K. Corresponding values for the cooling cycle measurements (measured during forward transformation) were 30.4 J/Kg-K and 123.5 J/Kg respectively for the same 6.5 at% Cu sample under the same thermo-magnetic conditions. - Highlights: • A{sub s} was fine tuned to T{sub C} in Cu substituted Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 25−x}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 25} (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0) alloys. • MT temperature increases with Cu addition while T{sub C} decreases. • A virtual overlapping of A{sub s} with T{sub C} was found in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 18.5}Cu{sub 6.5}Ga{sub 25} alloys. • ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K achieved from reverse MT for Δ(μ{sub 0}H) = 9 T at 303 K. • A highest RCP value of 94.6 J/Kg was observed for Δ(μ{sub 0}H) = 5 T in Cu:6.5 alloys.

  16. Final Report - Elucidating Bioreductive Transformations within Physically Complex Media: Impact on the Fate and Transport of Uranium and Chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, Shawn G.; Fendorf, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In situ stabilization (inclusive of natural attenuation) of toxic metals and radionuclides is an attractive approach for remediating many contaminated DOE sites. By immobilizing toxic metals and radionuclides in place, the removal of contaminated water to the surface for treatment as well as the associated disposal costs are avoided. To enhance in situ remediaton, microbiological reductive stabilization of contaminant metals has been, and continues to be, actively explored. It is likely that surface and subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, either directly or indirectly, so they are rendered immobile. Furthermore, anaerobic bacterial metabolic products will help to buffer pulses of oxidation, typically from fluxes of nitrate or molecular oxygen, and thus may stabilize reduced contaminants from oxidative mobilization. Uranium and chromium are two elements of particular concern within the DOE complex that, owing to their abundance and toxicity, appear well suited for biologically mediated reductive stabilization. Subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, rending them immobile. Imparting an important criterion on the probability that contaminants will undergo reductive stabilization, however, is the chemical and physical heterogeneity of the media. Our research first examined microbially induced transformation of iron (hydr)oxide minerals and their impact on contaminant attenuation. We revealed that in intricate cascade of geochemical reactions is induced by microbially produced Fe(II), and that during transformation contaminants such as U(VI) can be incorporated into the structure, and a set of Fe(II) bearing solids capable of reducing Cr(VI) and stabilizing resulting Cr(III). We also note, however, that common subsurface constituents such as phosphate can modify iron oxide transformation pathways and thus impact contaminant sequestration - 'affecting both Cr and U

  17. Experimental measurement of fission fragments paths in uranium gold, molybdenum, zirconium and silicon; Mesure experimentale des parcours des fragments de fission dans l'uranium, l'or, le molybdene, le zirconium et le silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Garin-Bonnet, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The measurement of total number of fissiongments emerging from an homogeneous, thick alloy composed of uranium plus another element (the concentration of uranium being known) allows to obtain the range of the fragments in this alloy. By varying the concentration, the range of the fragments in uranium and in the other element can be deduced. (author)Fren. [French] La mesure du nombre total de fragments de fission sortant d'un alliage homogene epais d'uranium et d'un autre element, pour lequel la concentration en uranium est donnee, permet la mesure du parcours des fragments dans cet alliage. En faisant varier la concentration, on peut deduire de ces mesures le parcours des fragments dans l'uranium et dans l'autre element. (auteur)

  18. Dilatometric studies on uranium-zirconium-fissium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Kulkarni, S.G.; Kulkarni, R.V.; Kaity, Santu

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of thermophysical properties of U-Zr alloys are important for modelling fuel behaviour in nuclear reactor. Fissium is an alloy that approximates the equilibrium concentration of the metallic fission product elements left by metallurgical reprocessing. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) data is needed to calculate stresses occurring in fuel and cladding with change in temperature. Coefficient of thermal expansion can be utilized to determine the change of alloy density as a function of temperature. In the present investigation, thermophysical properties like coefficient of thermal expansion and density were determined using dilatometer for U-20wt.%Zr-5wt.%Fs alloy prepared by arc melting process. The microstructural investigation was carried out using scanning electron microscope

  19. Martensitic phase transformations in Ni–Ti-based shape memory alloys: The Landau theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchyglo, Oleg; Salman, Umut; Finel, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple Landau free energy functional for cubic-to-orthorhombic and cubic-to-monoclinic martensitic phase transformations. The functional is derived following group–subgroup relations between different martensitic phases – tetragonal, trigonal, orthorhombic and monoclinic – in order to fully capture the symmetry properties of the free energy of the austenite and martensite phases. The derived free energy functional is fitted to the elastic and thermodynamic properties of NiTi and NiTiCu shape memory alloys which exhibit cubic-to-monoclinic and cubic-to-orthorhombic martensitic phase transformations, respectively.

  20. Phase Transformation and Shape Memory Effect of Ti-Pd-Pt-Zr High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Takebe, Wataru; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    To understand the potential of high-temperature shape memory alloys, we have investigated the phase transformation and shape memory effect of Ti-(50 - x)Pt- xPd-5Zr alloys ( x = 0, 5, and 15 at.%), which present the B2 structure in the austenite phase and B19 structure in the martensite phase. Their phase transformation temperatures are very high; A f and M f of Ti-50Pt are 1066 and 1012 °C, respectively. By adding Zr and Pd, the phase transition temperatures decrease, ranging between 804 and 994 °C for A f and 590 and 865 °C for M f. Even at the high phase transformation temperature, a maximum recovery ratio of 70% was obtained for one cycle in a thermal cyclic test. A work output of 1.2 J/cm3 was also obtained. The recovery ratio obtained by the thermal cyclic test was less than 70% because the recovery strain was training effect was also investigated.

  1. From Nanowires to Biofilms: An Exploration of Novel Mechanisms of Uranium Transformation Mediated by Geobacter Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REGUERA, GEMMA [Michigan State University

    2014-01-16

    One promising strategy for the in situ bioremediation of radioactive groundwater contaminants that has been identified by the SBR Program is to stimulate the activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms to reductively precipitate uranium and other soluble toxic metals. The reduction of U(VI) and other soluble contaminants by Geobacteraceae is directly dependent on the reduction of Fe(III) oxides, their natural electron acceptor, a process that requires the expression of Geobacter’s conductive pili (pilus nanowires). Expression of conductive pili by Geobacter cells leads to biofilm development on surfaces and to the formation of suspended biogranules, which may be physiological closer to biofilms than to planktonic cells. Biofilm development is often assumed in the subsurface, particularly at the matrix-well screen interface, but evidence of biofilms in the bulk aquifer matrix is scarce. Our preliminary results suggest, however, that biofilms develop in the subsurface and contribute to uranium transformations via sorption and reductive mechanisms. In this project we elucidated the mechanism(s) for uranium immobilization mediated by Geobacter biofilms and identified molecular markers to investigate if biofilm development is happening in the contaminated subsurface. The results provided novel insights needed in order to understand the metabolic potential and physiology of microorganisms with a known role in contaminant transformation in situ, thus having a significant positive impact in the SBR Program and providing novel concept to monitor, model, and predict biological behavior during in situ treatments.

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of uranium--niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, N.J.

    1978-03-01

    The stress corrosion cracking behavior of U-2 1 / 4 , 4 1 / 2 , 6 and 8 wt % Nb alloys was evaluated in laboratory air and in aqueous Cl - solutions. Thresholds for crack propagation were obtained in these environments. The data showed that Cl - solutions are more deleterious than air environments. Tests were also conducted in pure gases to identify the species in the air responsible for cracking. These data showed the primary stress corrodent is water vapor for the most reactive alloy, U-2 1 / 4 % Nb, while O 2 is primarily responsible for cracking in the more corrosion resistant alloys, U-6 and 8% Nb. The 4 1 / 2 % alloy was found to be susceptible in both H 2 O and O 2 environments

  3. Phase Transformation Behavior of Oxide Particles Formed in Mechanically Alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Jung-Sun; Noh, Sanghoon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Do [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The phase transformation behavior of the oxides formed in mechanically alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is investigated. Non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides with sizes of less than 300 nm are observed in the mechanically alloyed powder. The diffusion and redistribution reactions of the elements in these oxides during heating of the powder above 800 ℃ were observed, and these reactions result in the formation of a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase after heating at 1050 ℃. Thus, it is considered that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and some Fe powder are formed from the non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides after the mechanical alloying process, and a considerable energy accumulated during the mechanical alloying process leads to a phase transformation of the Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides to Y{sub α}Fe{sub β}O{sub γ}-type phase during heating.

  4. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure

  5. Theory of phase transformation and reorientation in single crystalline shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J J; Liang, N G; Cai, M; Liew, K M; Huang, W M

    2008-01-01

    A constitutive model, based on an (n+1)-phase mixture of the Mori–Tanaka average theory, has been developed for stress-induced martensitic transformation and reorientation in single crystalline shape memory alloys. Volume fractions of different martensite lattice correspondence variants are chosen as internal variables to describe microstructural evolution. Macroscopic Gibbs free energy for the phase transformation is derived with thermodynamics principles and the ensemble average method of micro-mechanics. The critical condition and the evolution equation are proposed for both the phase transition and reorientation. This model can also simulate interior hysteresis loops during loading/unloading by switching the critical driving forces when an opposite transition takes place

  6. Internal friction in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted to relate internal friction measurements in U to allotropic transformations. It was found that several internal friction peaks occur in α-uranium whose magnitude changed drastically after annealing in the β phase. All of the allotropic transformations in uranium are diffusional in nature under slow heating and cooling conditions. Creep at regions of high stress concentration appears to be responsible for high temperature internal friction in α-uranium. The activation energy for grain boundary relaxation in α-uranium was found to be 65.1 +- 4 kcal/mole. Impurity atoms interfere with the basic mechanism for grain boundary relaxation resulting in a distribution in activation energies. A considerable distribution in ln tau 0 was also found which is a measure of the distribution in local order and in the Debye frequency around a grain boundary

  7. Evaluation of phase transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory Fe-Pd alloy by magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Yasubumi; Tamoto, Shizuka; Kubota, Takeshi; Okazaki, Teiko; Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Spearing, S. Mark

    2002-07-01

    The possibility to detect the phase transformation with martensites by heating or cooling as well as stress-loading in ferromagnetic shape memory Fe-30at percent Pd alloy thin foil by using magnetic Markhausen noise sensor was studied. MBHN is caused by the irregular interactions between magnetic domain and thermally activated martensite twins during magnetization. In general, the envelope of the MBHN voltage versus time signals in Fe-29at percent Pd ribbon showed two peaks during magnetization, where secondary peak at intermediate state of magnetization process decreased with increasing temperature, while the MBHN envelopes in pure iron did not change with increasing temperature. The variety of MBHN due to the phase transformation was apt to arise at higher frequency part of spectrum during intermediate state of magnetization process and it decreased with disappearance of martensite twins. Besides, MBHN increased monotonically with increasing loading stress and then, it decreased with unloading, however MBHN showed large hysteresis between loading and unloading passes. Based on the experimental results from MBHN measurements for both thermoelastic and stress-induced martensite phase transformations in Fe-30at percent Pd ribbon samples, MBHN method seems a useful technique to non-destructive evaluation of martensite phase transformation of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy.

  8. Corrosion and protection of uranium alloy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirick, L.J.; Johnson, H.R.; Dini, J.W.

    1975-06-01

    Penetrators made from either a U--3/4 percent Ti alloy or a U--3/4 percent Mo--3/4 percent Zr--3/4 percent Nb--1/2 percent Ti alloy (''Quad'') corrode mildly in moist air, significantly in moist nitrogen, and severely in salt fog. Adequate protection was provided in moist air and nitrogen by coating with electroplated nickel, electroplated nickel and zinc with a chromate finish, and galvanized zinc with a chromate finish. In salt fog, electroplated nickel offered only temporary protection whereas galvanized zinc and electroplated nickel-zinc provided long-lasting protection. The resistance of uncoated penetrators was affected variously by dissimilar metal couplings. Aluminum protected the Quad alloy and adversely affected the U--3/4 percent Ti alloy, whereas steel enhanced localized corrosion in both. (U.S.)

  9. Evaluation of the electrochemical behavior of U{sub 2.5}Zr{sub 7.5}Nb and U{sub 3}Zr{sub 9}Nb uranium alloys in relation to the pH and the solution aeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Fabio Abud; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Figueiredo, Celia de Araujo, E-mail: ferraz@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) is developing, in cooperation with the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), the advanced nuclear plate type fuel for the second core of the land-based reactor prototype of the Laboratorio de Geracao Nucleo-Eletrica (LABGENE). Recent investigations have shown that the fuel made of uranium-based niobium and zirconium alloys reaches the best performance relative to other fuels, e.g. UO{sub 2}. Niobium and Zirconium also increase the corrosion resistance and the mechanical strength of the uranium alloys. By means of electrochemical techniques the corrosion behavior of alloys U{sub 2}.{sub 5}Zr{sub 7.5}Nb and U{sub 3}Zr{sub 9}Nb, developed at CDTN and heat treated in the temperature range of 200 deg C to 600 deg C, was assessed. The effect of the parameters pH and solution aeration was studied as well as the influence of zirconium and niobium alloying elements in the corrosion of uranium. The techniques used were open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic anodic polarization at room temperature. The tests were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with Ag/AgCl (3M KCl) as the reference electrode and a platinum plate as the auxiliary electrode. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of uranium and its alloys in acidic solutions showed regions with anodic currents limited by a passive film. The presence of niobium and zirconium contributed for the formation of this film. The impedance data showed the presence of two semicircles in the Bode diagram, indicating the occurrence of two distinct electrochemical processes. The data were fitted to an equivalent circuit model in order to obtain parameters of the electrochemical processes and evaluate the effect of the studied variables. (author)

  10. The effect of applied stress on the shape memory behavior of TiNi-based alloys with different consequences of martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, L.L.; Sivokha, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The development of plastic deformation and shape memory behavior of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 , Ti 50 Ni 34 Pt 16 , Ti 50 Ni 39,25 Cu 10 Fe 0,75 alloys are studied. The alloys differ by consequences of martensitic transformations (MT). It is found that the behavior of both accumulated and returned strain components exhibit some features in the alloys under consideration. The strain-temperature diagrams of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 alloy with the B2↔B19' MT are of the one-step form. There are three stages on the strain-stress curves of this alloy depending on value of the applied mechanical torque. The regularity of plastic behavior of the Ti 50 Ni 34 Pt 16 alloy with the B2↔B19 transformation is similar to that of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 alloy. The strain-stress diagram has three stages. However, there is a significant difference in the shape memory behavior of this alloy. The shape-memory behavior of the Ti 50 Ni 39,25 Cu 10 Fe 0,75 alloy corresponds to the two-stage nature of its B2↔B19↔B19' MT. The deformation mechanisms for these stages have their features in contrast to those of the foregoing alloys. The strain and temperature parameters of the shape memory effect and plastic behavior of the TiNi-based alloys are also examined

  11. A contribution to the structural and kinetic study of the slow transformation of an iron or uranium alpha crystal; Contribution a l'etude structurale et cinetique de la transformation lente d'un cristal de fer alpha ou d'uranium alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donze, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-12-15

    1- During the course of the work reported, we observed and studied a curious phenomenon of regeneration of an iron or uranium {alpha} crystal in the double transformation of iron or uranium: {alpha} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {alpha} and {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {alpha} respectively. We have demonstrated that this phenomenon does not occur with very pure metals, but only in the case of metals containing impurities, and more particularly, containing carbon. The monocrystal is not regenerated unless care is taken not to exceed final transformation temperatures by more than a few degrees. The same phenomenon is encountered in polycrystalline compounds: the orientation of the crystals is maintained, though the respective grain positions ('joints') are considerably displaced. 2- Kinetic study of the transformation at cooling, on the one hand, and the analysis of the texture at the {gamma} phase (iron) on the other, show that regeneration results from the conservation of the phase {alpha} germs at the high temperature phase. They appear to be relatively stable because they had retained their properties at the end of 24 hours at the experiment temperature. 3- Study of the twin crystals of {gamma} iron engendered by the transformation {alpha} {yields} {gamma} demonstrated that there is no orientation relationship in the transformation: {alpha} {yields} {gamma} of pure iron. 4- Thanks to the production of an epitaxic oxide film on the surface of {gamma} iron, we were able to evidence a new type of iron transformation twinned crystal which grows in one direction (110) and is in contact also at 110. Formed of very thin lamina, these crystals are very instable and become penetrant, each element - much larger - consisting of the increased thickness of a certain number of lamina. (author) [French] 1- Au cours de ce travail, nous avons observe et etudie un curieux phenomene de regeneration d'un cristal unique de fer {alpha} ou d'uranium {alpha} au cours de la double

  12. Development of an aging integrator for uranium-0.75 weight percent titanium alloy part aging control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, L.C.

    1977-12-01

    An instrumentation system (Aging Integrator) has been developed to provide more precise control of the heat-treatment process used on uranium-0.75 wt.% titanium alloy material. The Aging Integrator calculates the integral of a predetermined aging function to control the aging period in the heat-treatment process. This control was employed to compensate for discrepancies caused by variations in heatup times, furnace-control fluctuations, and disagreement as to the temperature at which aging actually starts. Although the Aging Integrator hardware has been installed and satisfactorily tested on a production-area furnace, sufficient data to estimate a statistically sound aging integration function will not be available for approximately one year

  13. Effect of Annealing in Magnetic Field on Ferromagnetic Nanoparticle Formation in Cu-Al-Mn Alloy with Induced Martensite Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titenko, Anatoliy; Demchenko, Lesya

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the influence of aging of high-temperature phase on subsequent martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Mn alloy. The morphology of behavior of martensitic transformation as a result of alloy aging under annealing in a constant magnetic field with different sample orientation relatively to the field direction and without field was studied for direct control of the processes of martensite induction at cooling. Temperature dependences of electrical resistance, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization, as well as field dependences of magnetization, and phase composition were found. The tendency to the oriented growth of precipitated ferromagnetic phase nanoparticles in a direction of applied field and to an increase of their volume fraction under thermal magnetic treatment of material that favors a reversibility of induced martensitic transformation is observed.

  14. Phase transformation in δ-Pu alloys at low temperature: An in situ microstructural characterization using X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravat, B.; Platteau, C.; Texier, G.; Oudot, B.; Delaunay, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the martensitic transformation, an isothermal hold at -130 deg. C for 48 h was performed on a highly homogenized PuGa alloy. The modifications of the microstructure were characterized in situ thanks to a specific tool. This device was developed at the CEA-Valduc to analyze the crystalline structure of plutonium alloys as a function of temperature and more especially at low temperature using X-ray diffraction. The analysis of the recorded diffraction patterns highlighted that the martensitic transformation for this alloy is the result of a direct δ → α' + δ phase transformation. Moreover, a significant Bragg's peaks broadening corresponding to the δ-phase was observed. A microstructural analysis was made to characterize anisotropic microstrain resulting from the stress induced by the unit cell volume difference between the δ and α' phases. The amount of α'-phase evolved was analyzed within the framework of the Avrami theory in order to characterize the nucleation process. The results suggested that the growth mechanism corresponded to a general mechanism where the nucleation sites were in the δ-grain edges and the α'-phase had a plate-like morphology.

  15. Phase transformation in δ-Pu alloys at low temperature: An in situ microstructural characterization using X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, B.; Platteau, C.; Texier, G.; Oudot, B.; Delaunay, F.

    2009-09-01

    In order to investigate the martensitic transformation, an isothermal hold at -130 °C for 48 h was performed on a highly homogenized PuGa alloy. The modifications of the microstructure were characterized in situ thanks to a specific tool. This device was developed at the CEA-Valduc to analyze the crystalline structure of plutonium alloys as a function of temperature and more especially at low temperature using X-ray diffraction. The analysis of the recorded diffraction patterns highlighted that the martensitic transformation for this alloy is the result of a direct δ → α' + δ phase transformation. Moreover, a significant Bragg's peaks broadening corresponding to the δ-phase was observed. A microstructural analysis was made to characterize anisotropic microstrain resulting from the stress induced by the unit cell volume difference between the δ and α' phases. The amount of α'-phase evolved was analyzed within the framework of the Avrami theory in order to characterize the nucleation process. The results suggested that the growth mechanism corresponded to a general mechanism where the nucleation sites were in the δ-grain edges and the α'-phase had a plate-like morphology.

  16. Phase transformation in delta-Pu alloys at low temperature: An in situ microstructural characterization using X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravat, B., E-mail: brice.ravat@cea.f [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Platteau, C.; Texier, G.; Oudot, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-09-15

    In order to investigate the martensitic transformation, an isothermal hold at -130 deg. C for 48 h was performed on a highly homogenized PuGa alloy. The modifications of the microstructure were characterized in situ thanks to a specific tool. This device was developed at the CEA-Valduc to analyze the crystalline structure of plutonium alloys as a function of temperature and more especially at low temperature using X-ray diffraction. The analysis of the recorded diffraction patterns highlighted that the martensitic transformation for this alloy is the result of a direct delta -> alpha' + delta phase transformation. Moreover, a significant Bragg's peaks broadening corresponding to the delta-phase was observed. A microstructural analysis was made to characterize anisotropic microstrain resulting from the stress induced by the unit cell volume difference between the delta and alpha' phases. The amount of alpha'-phase evolved was analyzed within the framework of the Avrami theory in order to characterize the nucleation process. The results suggested that the growth mechanism corresponded to a general mechanism where the nucleation sites were in the delta-grain edges and the alpha'-phase had a plate-like morphology.

  17. Study of the aqueous chemical treatment of uranium zirconium fuels; Etude du traitement chimique des combustibles uraniumzirconium par voie seche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, M; Nollet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A dry process has been studied for separating the uranium from the zirconium-either for recovering the enriched uranium from fuel element production waste, or with a view to treating this waste after irradiation. In this process the alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid at 400 deg. C in a fluidized corundum bed which causes the zirconium to volatilize as tetrachloride and the uranium to form the trichloride. This latter is then converted to the hexafluoride by attack with fluorure. After the laboratory tests, a first pilot plant with a capacity of 1 kg of alloy was tried out at the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre; this made it possible to fix the operational conditions for the process. An industrial scale plant was then built with the collaboration of the from Kuhlmann, and operated until a satisfactory process had been developed for treating the waste. This installation treats 3 kg/h of alloy with a yield for the hydrochloric acid of about 50 per cent and with a uranium loss in the zirconium tetrachloride of about 0.1 per cent. An active pilot plant capable of treating of treating a few kilos of irradiated alloy is now being studied. (authors) [French] On a etudie un procede de voie seche pour effectuer la separation de l'uranium et du zirconium - soit en vue de la recuperation de l'uranium enrichi contenu dans les dechets de fabrication des elements combustibles - soit en vue du traitement de ceux-ci apres irradiation. Ce procede consiste a attaquer l'alliage par l'acide chlorhydrique a 400 deg. C dans un lit fluidise de corindon, ce qui a pour effet de volatiliser le zirconium sous forme de tetrachlorure et de transformer l'uranium en trichlorure. Ce dernier est ensuite converti en hexafluorure par action du fluor. Apres des essais de laboratoire, un premier pilote a l'echelle de 1 kg d'alliage a ete experimente au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses et a permis de determiner les conditions operatoires du procede. En collaboration avec

  18. Martensitic transformations, structure, and strengthness of processed high-nitrogen and high-carbon ferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaputkina, L. M.; Prokoshkina, V. G.

    2003-10-01

    Structures and properties of metastable austenitic alloys Fe-18Cr-16Ni-I2Mn-(0.17 to 0. 50)N, Fe-18Cr-12Mn-(0.48 to 1.12)N, Fe-18Cr-(0.1 to 1.18)N, and Fe-(12 to 20)Ni-(0.6 to 1.3)C, Fe-(6 to 8)Mn-(0.6 to 1.0)C, Fe-(5 to 6)Cr-(4 to 5)Mn-(0.6 to 0.8)C, Fe-6Cr-(1.0 to 1.3)C resulting from martensitic transformations under cooling and cold deformation (CD), as well as following tempering processes, were studied by magnetometry, X-ray and electron microscopy analyses, hardness measurements and mechanical properties tests. Martensite with a b.c.t. lattice was formed in all alloys with M_s{>}-196^circC during cooling. Under CD transformations of γ{to}α, γ{to}\\varepsilon{to}α, or γ{to}\\varepsilon types were realized depending on the alloy composition. Carbon increased but nitrogen decreased stacking fault energy. Thus carbon assists α-martensite formation but nitrogen promotese. As CD level and/or concentration of carbon and nitrogen increase residual stresses resulting from the CD also increase. The martensitic transformation during CD can decrease the residual stresses. Kinetic of tempering of b.c.t. thermal martensite differs from those of CD-induced martensite. In the second case, deformation aging, texture, and residual stresses are more visible. The maximal strengthening under CD takes place in (Mn+N)-steels. (Cr+N) and (Cr+Mn+N)-steels are high-strength, non-magnetic and corrosion resistant and are easily hardened by a low level of plastic deformation.

  19. Phase transformations in ion-mixed metastable (GaSb)1/sub 1 -x/(Ge2)/sub x/ semiconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadien, K.C.; Muddle, B.C.; Greene, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Low energy (75--175 eV) Ar + ion bombardment during film deposition has been used to produce well-mixed amorphous GaSb/Ge mixtures which, when annealed, transform first to single phase polycrystalline metastable (GaSb)/sub 1-x/(Ge 2 )/sub x/ alloys before eventually transforming to the equilibrium two-phase state. At 500 0 C, for example, the annealing time t/sub a/ required for the amorphous to crystalline metastable (ACM) transformation was approx.10 min, while t/sub a/ for the crystalline metastable to equilibrium (CME) transformation was >6 h. The exothermic enthalpy of crystallization and the onset temperature of the ACM transition were determined as a function of alloy composition using differential thermal analysis. The thermodynamic data was then used to calculate the surface energy per unit area sigma of the amorphous/metastable-crystal interface. sigma was found to exhibit a minimum between x = 0.3 and 0.4. The driving energy for the transition from the crystalline metastable state to the equilibrium two-phase state was of the order of 0.12 kJ cm -3 while the activation barrier was approx.19 kJ cm -3 . Thus, the metastable alloys, which had average grain sizes of 100--200 nm and a lattice constant which varied linearly with x, exhibited good thermal and temporal stability

  20. Phase transformation, oxidation and shape memory properties of Ti–50Au–10Zr alloy for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadood, A.; Hosoda, H.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti–50Au–10Zr exhibited better thermo-mechanical and shape memory properties than Ti–50Au. • Improvement was related to solid solution and precipitation strengthening. • No oxidation problem as oxidation was observed at 100 K higher than A f . • TMA was used not only for thermo-mechanical but also for shape memory and oxidation. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the phase transformation, oxidation and high temperature mechanical and shape memory properties of Ti–50Au–10Zr (all compositions in atomic%) alloy. Thermo-mechanical analyzer (TMA) was used not only for phase transformation but also for the measurement of shape memory effect and oxidation behavior in air environment. Ti–50Au–10Zr exhibited lower martensitic transformation temperature of 758 K than TiAu stoichiometric alloy exhibiting 870 K since Zr addition stabilizes B2 parent phase. Oxidation was initiated at 873 K that was about 100 K higher than the austenite finish temperature, indicating no such oxidation problems for practical use. Shape memory effect was improved by partial substitution of Ti with Zr in Ti–50Au–10Zr alloy. Compression test of Ti–50Au–10Zr revealed high compressive strength of 1239 MPa of martensite at 691 K (=M f − 50 K) and 924 MPa of B2 parent phase at 834 K (=A f + 50 K) in comparison with Ti–50Au. It is concluded that Zr is effective to improve the mechanical and shape memory properties of TiAu alloy, and that Ti–50Au–10Zr shape memory alloy has potential for high temperature (∼650–850 K) practical applications

  1. Development of very-high-density low-enriched-uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Trybus, C.L.; Wiencek, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Following a hiatus of several years and following its successful development and qualification of 4.8 g U cm -3 U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel for application with low-enriched uranium in research and test reactors, the US Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program has embarked on the development of even-higher-density fuels. Our goal is to achieve uranium densities of 8-9 g cm -3 in aluminum-based dispersion fuels. Achieving this goal will require the use of high-density, γ-stabilized uranium alloy powders in conjunction with the most-advanced fuel fabrication techniques. Key issues being addressed are the reaction of the fuel alloys with aluminum and the irradiation behavior of the fuel alloys and any reaction products. Test irradiations of candidate fuels in very-small (micro) plates are scheduled to begin in the Advanced Test Reactor during June, 1997. Initial results are expected to be available in early 1998. We are performing out-of-reactor studies on the phase structure of the candidate alloys on diffusion of the matrix material into the aluminum. In addition, we are modifying our current dispersion fuel irradiation behavior model to accommodate the new fuels. Several international partners are participating in various phases of this work. (orig.)

  2. H-Phase Precipitation and Martensitic Transformation in Ni-rich Ni-Ti-Hf and Ni-Ti-Zr High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evirgen, A.; Pons, J.; Karaman, I.; Santamarta, R.; Noebe, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    The distributions of H-phase precipitates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 alloys formed by aging treatments at 500 and 550 °C or slow furnace cooling and their effects on the thermal martensitic transformation have been investigated by TEM and calorimetry. The comparative study clearly reveals faster precipitate-coarsening kinetics in the NiTiZr alloy than in NiTiHf. For precipitates of a similar size of 10-20 nm in both alloys, the martensite plates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 have larger widths and span a higher number of precipitates compared with the Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 alloy. However, for large H-phase particles with hundreds of nm in length, no significant differences in the martensitic microstructures of both alloy systems have been observed. The martensitic transformation temperatures of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 are 80-90 °C higher than those of Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 in the precipitate-free state and in the presence of large particles of hundreds on nm in length, but this difference is reduced to only 10-20 °C in samples with small H-phase precipitates. The changes in the transformation temperatures are consistent with the differences in the precipitate distributions between the two alloy systems observed by TEM.

  3. Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation in mechanically alloyed Fe50W50 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Sumiyama, K.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    A mechanical alloying process via a ball milling technique has been applied for preparing amorphous Fe 50 W 50 alloy powders. The results have shown that during the first and second stages of milling (0 to 360 ks) W atoms emigrate to Fe lattices to form nanocrystalline b.c.c. Fe-W solid solution, with a grain size of about 7 nm in diameter. After 720 ks of the milling time, this solid solution was transformed to an amorphous Fe-W alloy coexisting with the residual fraction of the unprocessed W powders. During the last stage of milling (720 to 1,440 ks) all of this residual W powder reacts with the amorphous phase to form a homogeneous Fe 50 W 50 amorphous alloy. The crystallization temperature and the enthalpy change of crystallization of amorphous Fe 50 W 50 powders milled for 1,440 ks were measured to be 860 K and -9kJ/mol, respectively. The amorphous Fe 50 W 50 powder produced is almost paramagnetic at room temperature. The powder comprises homogeneous and smooth spheres with an average size of about 0.5 microm in diameter

  4. Dependence of the martensitic transformation and magnetic transition on the atomic order in Ni–Mn–In metamagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of atomic order and its influence on the magnetic and structural properties of Ni–Mn–In metamagnetic shape memory alloys has been performed. The effect of the different thermal treatments on the magnetic and structural transformation temperatures, as well as on the thermodynamics of the martensitic transformation, has been made by calorimetric measurements. The evolution of the degree of long-range atomic order with temperature has been determined by neutron diffraction experiments, thus confirming the effect of thermal treatments on the atomic order. Calorimetric and structural results allow thermal treatments to be directly related to atomic order, and to allow the effect of the atomic order on the martensitic and magnetic transformations in Ni–Mn–In alloys to be quantified. The thermodynamics of the martensitic transformation depends on the atomic order as indicated out by its influence on the transformation entropy. In addition, a correlation between the transformation entropy and changes in the magnetic-field-induced transformation temperatures has been found through the evolution of the atomic order.

  5. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  6. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal

  7. High temperature Moessbauer study of order-disorder transformation in iron-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Kensuke; Yamamura, Akihiko; Kudo, Kazunao; Eguchi, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    Ordering process of iron rich Fe-Al alloys has been investigated at elevated temperatures by mean of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The observed spectra are analyzed to obtain the temperature dependences of the internal field, isomer shift and line width, and the results are discussed in connection with the ordering process. The alloy with 24.7 at% Al exhibits spectra, which are characteristic of the superposition of a single-line spectrum and a six-line one, originating from the ordered paramagnetic B2 or DO 3 state and disordered ferromagnetic α, respectively, and the results confirm the coexistence of α phase with B2 or DO 3 . The isomer shift of the paramagnetic component of the spectra shows discontinuous changes at the temperatures of transformation α reversible B2 and B2 reversible DO 3 . (author)

  8. Martensitic transformation in a high textured Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrero, C; Roatta, A; Malarria, J; Bolmaro, R.

    2008-01-01

    The formation of the 18R1 martensite in copper based shape memory alloys occurs spontaneously during cooling by the localized formation of four self-accommodating variants in a plate group. Each of the six plate groups have four self-accommodating variants, resulting on twenty four transformation variants from de parent phase (β 1 ) to the martensitic one (β 1 '). In the current work experimental texture measurements for both phases and simulations have been carried out to establish the effect of the different activated variants in the transformation texture. The high temperature textures were measured with an on purpose designed stage and the samples were cycled a few times to evaluate texture degradation

  9. Acoustic recognition of stress induced martensitic transformations in Cu-based shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Václav; Landa, Michal; Šittner, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 112, - (2003), s. 593-596 ISSN 1155-4339 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048107; GA ČR GA106/01/0396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : shape memory alloys(SMA) * Cu-based SMA * Martensitic phase transformation * acoustic emission Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.319, year: 2003

  10. A first principles approach to phase stability and order-disorder transformation: Application to Li-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, A.; Banerjee, S.; Das, G.P.

    1994-08-01

    Starting from TB-LMTO electronic structure total energy calculations of ordered binary alloys, we have determined the configurationally averaged effective (multisite) cluster interactions (ECI's) using the Connolly-Williams inversion method. The configurational entropy has been calculated in the mean field approximation of the Ising model using the Cluster Variation Method (CVM). The resulting configurational free energy (or equivalently the grand potential) has been minimized and order-disordered transformation behaviour in Li-Al alloys has been discussed. (author). 12 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Effect of thermal cycling on the transformation temperature ranges of a Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, A.S.; Canejo, J.P.H.G.; Martins, R.M.S.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) represents a class of metallic materials that has the capability of recovering a previously defined initial shape when subject to an adequate thermomechanical treatment. The present work aims to study the influence of thermal cycles on the transition temperatures of a Ni-Ti alloy. In this system, small variations around the equiatomic composition give rise to significant transformation temperature variations ranging from 173 to 373 K. SMA usually presents the shape memory effect after an annealing treatment at ca. 973 K. The optimisation of the thermomechanical treatment will allow to 'tune' the material to different transformation temperature ranges from the same starting material, just by changing the processing conditions. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to identify the transformation temperatures and the phases that are present after different thermal cycles. The results concerning a series of thermal cycles with different heating and cooling rates (from 1.67x10 -2 to 1.25x10 -1 K/s) and different holding temperatures (from 473 to 1033 K) are presented

  12. Phase transformations in a Cu−Cr alloy induced by high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneva, Anna; Straumal, Boris; Kilmametov, Askar; Chulist, Robert; Straumal, Piotr; Zięba, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Phase transformations induced by high pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature in two samples of the Cu-0.86 at.% Cr alloy, pre-annealed at 550 °C and 1000 °C, were studied in order to obtain two different initial states for the HPT procedure. Observation of microstructure of the samples before HPT revealed that the sample annealed at 550 °C contained two types of Cr precipitates in the Cu matrix: large particles (size about 500 nm) and small ones (size about 70 nm). The sample annealed at 1000 °C showed only a little fraction of Cr precipitates (size about 2 μm). The subsequent HPT process resulted in the partial dissolution of Cr precipitates in the first sample and dissolution of Cr precipitates with simultaneous decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in another. However, the resulting microstructure of the samples after HPT was very similar from the standpoint of grain size, phase composition, texture analysis and hardness measurements. - Highlights: • Cu−Cr alloy with two different initial states was deformed by HPT. • Phase transformations in the deformed materials were studied. • SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for microstructure analysis. • HPT leads to formation the same microstructure independent of the initial state.

  13. Determination of uranium traces in fuel cans of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta L, C.E.; Benavides M, A.M.; Sanchez P, L.A.; Nava S, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the uranium content that as impurity can be found in zircon and zircaloy alloys which are used in the construction of fuel cans. The determination of this serves as a quality control measure due to that the increment of uranium content in alloy, diminishing the corrosion resistance. The fluorimetric method was used to do this determination. It is a very sensitive, reliable, rapid method also high reproducibility and repeatability as well as low detection limits (0.25 mg/kg). (Author)

  14. Transformation-Induced Relaxation and Stress Recovery of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takeda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The transformation-induced stress relaxation and stress recovery of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA in stress-controlled subloop loading were investigated based on the local variation in temperature and transformation band on the surface of the tape in the tension test. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1 In the loading process, temperature increases due to the exothermic martensitic transformation (MT until the holding strain and thereafter temperature decreases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress relaxation due to the MT; (2 In the unloading process, temperature decreases due to the endothermic reverse transformation until the holding strain and thereafter temperature increases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress recovery due to the reverse transformation; (3 Stress varies markedly in the initial stage followed by gradual change while holding the strain constant; (4 If the stress rate is high until the holding strain in the loading and unloading processes, both stress relaxation and stress recovery are large; (5 It is important to take into account this behavior in the design of SMA elements, since the force of SMA elements varies even if the atmospheric temperature is kept constant.

  15. Crystallographic considerations of the δ in equilibrium α displacive transformation in plutonium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, P.H.; Olson, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    Determination of invariant-plane strain crystallographic solutions for martensitic transformation between the FCC δ and monoclinic α phases in plutonium alloys, using three possible lattice correspondences and 53 possible lattice-invariant shear systems, identifies the most probable δ-α lattice correspondence. The operative lattice-invariant shear systems are predicted by comparison of both shape strain magnitudes and computed interfacial energies. For δ → α transformation twinning on (001) [100]/sub α/ is favored, giving a (.817, .538, .208)/sub δ/ habit and a [.947, .269, .174]/sub δ/ shape strain of magnitude m 1 = .324. The α → δ transformation favors slip on (111) [101]/sub δ/, giving a (.255, .844, .471)/sub α/ habit and [.822, .466, .355]/sub α/ shape strain of magnitude m 1 = .417

  16. Martensitic transformation, fcc and hcp relative phase stability, and thermal cycling effects in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-X Alloys (X = Si, Co)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruj, Alberto

    1999-01-01

    In this Thesis we present a study of the fcc and hcp relative phase stability in the Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Co systems. In particular, we have investigated the effect of two main factors affecting the relative phase stability: changes in the chemical composition of the alloys and changes in the density of crystalline defects in the microstructure.In order to analyse the effect of chemical composition, we have performed an experimental study of the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation temperatures in Fe-Mn-Co alloys in the composition range lying between 15% and 34% Mn, and between 1% and 16% Co.We have measured the martensitic transformation temperatures by means of dilatometry and electrical resistivity.We have combined this information with measurements of the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation temperatures in Co-rich alloys to perform a modelling of the Gibbs energy function for the hcp phase in the Fe-Mn-Co and Fe-Co systems.We found that, for alloys in the Mn range between 17% and 25%, Co additions tend to stabilise slightly the fcc phase.In the alloys with Mn contents below that range, increasing the amount of Co stabilise the bcc phase. In alloys with Mn contents above 25% the Neel temperature is depressed by the addition of Co, which stabilise the hcp phase.In order to investigate the effect of changes in the density of crystalline defects, we have performed thermal cycling experiments through the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn, Fe-Mn-Co and Fe-Mn-Si alloys.We have applied the thermodynamic description obtained before in order to analyse these experiments.We found in the thermal cycling experiments a first stage where the martensitic transformation is promoted.This stage occurs in all the studied alloys during the first cycle or the two first cycles.Increasing the number of thermal cycles, the promotion stage is replaced by an inhibition of the transformation stage.We propose a possible microstructural interpretation of these phenomena where the plastic

  17. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  18. Study of uranium - 20 Wt per cent plutonium-niobium alloys (1963); Etude d'alliages U-Pu-Nb a 20 pour cent en poids de plutonium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, J; Barthelemy, P; Boucher, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    U-Pu-Nb alloys containing 20 wt per cent Pu and 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 or 60 wt per cent Nb have been studied principally to determine the feasibility of their use as fuel element. The fabrication, casting and homogenisation presented certain difficulties due specially to niobium. The transformation temperatures, thermal expansion coefficients and nature of phases have been determined by thermal analysis, dilatometry, micrography and X Rays diffraction. For similar compositions, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb alloys have many common points concerning the presence of zeta phase (up to 40 wt per cent Nb), the coefficients of expansion, the good behaviour during thermal cycling and the good resistance to air oxidation in spite of zeta phase. In consequence, irradiation tests in EL{sub 3} reactor (Saclay) will be carried out in the near future. (authors) [French] Les alliages a 20 pour cent de plutonium, 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 pour cent de niobium et le complement en uranium ont ete etudies du point de vue de leur possibilite d'emploi comme combustible. Les problemes d'elaboration, de mise en forme et d'homogeneisation sont presentes. Ils sont relativement delicats. On a determine par analyse thermique, dilatometrie, micrographie et diffraction des rayons X les temperatures de transformation a l'etat solide, les coefficients de dilatation et la nature des phases. Pour des teneurs analogues, on retrouve de nombreux points communs avec les alliages U-Pu-Mo: presence de la phase zeta des U-Pu a temperature moyenne, coefficients de dilatation analogues, bonne tenue en cyclage thermique et bonne resistance a l'oxydation dans l'air malgre la presence de la phase zeta. Des essais d'irradiation dans EL{sub 3} vont etre entrepris. (auteurs)

  19. Possibilities of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, B.; Mihajlovic, A.; Drobnjak, Dj.

    1965-11-01

    There are serious economic reasons for using metal uranium in heavy water reactors, because of its high density, i.e. high conversion factor, and low cost of fuel elements production. Most important disadvantages are swelling at high burnup and corrosion risk. Some design concepts and application of improved uranium obtained by alloying are promising for achievement of satisfactory stability of metal uranium under reactor operation conditions [sr

  20. Martensite. gamma. -->. cap alpha. transformations in various purity Fe-Ni-Mo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, I.I.; Rozhkova, A.S. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR))

    1982-06-01

    Kinetics of isothermal and athermal ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha.. martensitic transitions in the Fe-25.5% Ni-4.5% Mo alloys with different degree of purity is studied. The determinant role of dislocation blocking by interstitials in stabilization of isothermal martensitic transformation is displayed. Presented are the data permitting to consider that the character of martensitic transition kinetics is determined by the ratio of the process moving force and resistance to microplastic deformation.

  1. On the widths of the hysteresis of mechanically and thermally induced martensitic transformations in Ni-Ti-based shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Stefanie; Maass, Burkhard; Frenzel, Jan; Schmidt, Marvin; Ullrich, Johannes; Seelecke, Stefan; Schuetze, Andreas; Kastner, Oliver; Eggeler, Gunther [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe

    2015-10-15

    It is well known that a good crystallographic compatibility between austenite and martensite in Ni-Ti-based shape memory alloys results in narrow thermal hystereses (e.g. Ball and James, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 1987). The present work suggests that a good crystallographic fit is moreover associated with a small mechanical hysteresis width, observed during a forward and reverse stress-induced transformation. Furthermore, shape memory alloys with a good crystallographic fit show smaller transformation strains. The results obtained in the present study suggest that these correlations are generic and apply to binary Ni-Ti (with varying Ni contents) and quaternary Ni-Ti-Cu-X (X = Cr, Fe, V) alloys. For binary Ni-Ti, it was observed that Ni-rich compositions (good lattice fit) show a lower accumulation of irreversible strains during pseudoelastic cycling.

  2. Phase transformations and resulting microstructures in Ti - 47 Al -2 Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Armaki, H.; Heshmati-Manesh, S.; Jafarian, H. R.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last three decades, intermetallic alloys have focused attention because of their high strength to weight ratio and good creep resistance. Titanium aluminide alloys based on γ-Ti Al are potential candidates to replace Ni-based super alloys currently used in jet engine components at high temperatures because of their low density, high melting temperature, good elevated-temperature strength and modulus retention, high resistance to oxidation and hydrogen absorption, and excellent creep properties. One of the major concerns in these alloys is their poor ductility at room and intermediate temperatures which has been improved slightly by microstructure modifications through heat treatment. Thus, modification of microstructure during cooling and CCT diagram in these alloys is of vital importance. In this study, Ti - 47 Al - 2 Cr intermetallic alloy has been prepared by remelting 4 times with a vacuum arc remelting furnace. Homogenizing treatment was done at 1125 d eg C for 72 h in a sealed vacuum quartz tube. All heat treatments on the samples were carried out in a vacuum heat treatment furnace under a pressure of 10 -1 bar. The atmosphere inside the furnace was changed to that of high purity argon for each heat treatment as an added precaution against oxidation. In this paper, phase transformations in a γ-Ti Al based intermetallic alloy containing chromium were investigated. Heat treatments on samples of this alloy at temperatures above Tα and subsequent cooling with various cooling rates resulted in variety of microstructures. The schematic CCT diagram for this alloy was drawn from microstructural studies using microscopy routs and X-ray diffraction. Then, cyclic heat treatment with grain refining purpose was conducted on a sample of this alloy having massive gamma microstructure. During cyclic heat treatment, gradual dissociation of the gamma phase resulted in the formation of a Widmanstaetten type structure. Trend of microstructure evolution and

  3. In situ martensitic transformation in a ternary MgO-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/ alloy: II, transformation in tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/ precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.R.; Heuer, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The stress-induced martensitic transformation of t-ZrO/sub 2/ precipitates in a ternary MgO-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/ alloy has been studied in situ in the transmission electron microscope. The transformation occurs autocatalytically and takes place by piecewise growth of two twin-related m-ZrO/sub 2/ variants. Unloading causes retransformation of partially transformed precipitates, but this reverse (m → t) transformation of fully transformed precipitates only occurs on heating. The martensitic transformation in this system is clearly thermoeleastic

  4. Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures; Desenvolvimento de um combustivel de alta densidade a base das ligas uranio-molibdenio com alta compatibilidade em altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de

    2008-07-01

    This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature

  5. Diffusion of aluminium during the transformation UAl3 - UAl4 in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, R.

    1959-01-01

    The alloys studied which contain 40 % uranium, are quenched from the region liquid + UAl 3 so as to obtain pure crystals of UAl 3 . These samples are then heat treated at 600 deg. C (at which point Al and UAl 4 are in equilibrium) for varying durations in order to permit the transformation of UAl 3 to UA 4 . This transformation presumably takes place by the diffusion of aluminium through the UAl 4 . The evolution of the transformation UAl 3 → UAl 4 is followed micro-graphically. The compounds are distinguished by: - colour; - examination under polarised light; - microhardness measurements. The kinetics of the transformation are strongly influenced by the presence of elements such as silicon in relatively small quantities. In the absence of silicon UAl 3 , crystals are transformed to UAl 4 in approximately one hour. For low silicon contents (0,1% by weight) the transformation takes ten times longer. Silicon concentrations of 0,6 practically stop the transformation. After a hundred hours a slight transformation is observed, but this transformation is no further advanced even after 1000 hours. (author) [fr

  6. Postirradiation examination of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Strain, R.V.

    1998-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles, designated RERTR-2, were inserted into the Advanced Test reactor in Idaho in August 1997. These tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels, including U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru and U-10Mo-0.05Sn: the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U-10Mo-0.-5Sn; the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U 3 Si 2 were also included in the fuel test matrix. These fuels are included in the experiments as microplates (76 mm x 22 mm x 1.3mm outer dimensions) with a nominal fuel volume loading of 25% and irradiated at relatively low temperature (∼100 deg C). RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 were discharged from the reactor in November 1997 and July 1998, respectively at calculated peak fuel burnups of 45 and 71 at %-U 235 Both experiments are currently under examination at the Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago. This paper presents the postirradiation examination results available to date from these experiments. (author)

  7. Martensitic phase transformation in shape-memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golestaneh, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Isothermal studies are described of the shape-recovery phenomenon, stress-strain behavior, electrical resistivity and thermo-electric power associated with the martensite-parent phase reaction in the Ni-Ti shape-memory alloys. The energy-balance equation that links the reaction kinetics with the strain energy change during the cooling-deforming and heating cycle is analyzed. The strain range in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation satisfactorily describes this reaction is determined. A large change in the Young's modulus of the specimen is found to be associated with the M → P reaction. A hysteresis loop in the resistivity-temperature plot is found and related to the anomaly in the athermal resistivity changes during cyclic M → P → M transformation. An explanation for the resistivity anomaly is offered. The M structure is found to be electrically negative relative to the P structure. A thermal emf of greater than or equal to 0.12 mV is found at the M-P interface

  8. Finite-strain micromechanical model of stress-induced martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupkiewicz, S.; Petryk, H.

    2006-01-01

    A micromechanical model of stress-induced martensitic transformation in single crystals of shape memory alloys is developed. This model is a finite-strain counterpart to the approach presented recently in the small-strain setting [S. Stupkiewicz, H. Petryk, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 50 (2002) 2303-2331]. The stress-induced transformation is assumed to proceed by the formation and growth of parallel martensite plates within the austenite matrix. Propagation of phase transformation fronts is governed by a rate-independent thermodynamic criterion with a threshold value for the thermodynamic driving force, including in this way the intrinsic dissipation due to phase transition. This criterion selects the initial microstructure at the onset of transformation and governs the evolution of the laminated microstructure at the macroscopic level. A multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and transformation parts is assumed, with full account for the elastic anisotropy of the phases. The pseudoelastic behavior of Cu-Zn-Al single crystal in tension and compression is studied as an application of the model

  9. Examination of temperature-induced shape memory of uranium--5.3-to 6.9 weight percent niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemperly, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    The uranium-niobium alloy system was examined in the range of 5.3-to-6.9 weight percent niobium with respect to shape memory, mechanical properties, metallography, Coefficients of linear thermal expansion, and differential thermal analysis. Shape memory increased with increasing niobium levels in the study range. There were no useful correlations found between shape memory and the other tests. Coefficients of linear thermal expansion tests of as-quenched 5.8 and 6.2 weight percent niobium specimens, but not 5.3 and 6.9 weight percent niobium specimens, had a contraction component on heating, but the phenomenon was not a contributor to shape memory

  10. Phase transformation in rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, D. G.; Shubakov, V. S.; Zhukova, E. Kh; Gorshenkov, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The research results of phase transformations in Fe-24Cr-16Co-3Mo-0.2Ti-1Si-B alloys (with a boron content of 1 to 3% by mass) obtained by rapid quenching are presented. The structure formation regularities during the melt spinning and during the subsequent crystallization annealing in rapidly quenched bands of the Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B system alloys were studied. The changes in the phase composition of the rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti- Si-B system alloys after quenching at various quench rates and at different boron concentrations in the alloys are studied. It is shown that during crystallization from an amorphous state, at temperatures above 570 °C, in addition to the α-phase, the σ-phase appears first, followed by the γ-phase. Heat treatment of rapidly quenched bands to high-coercive state was carried out. A qualitative assessment of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state was carried out. An evaluation of the level of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state allows us to conclude that the application of a magnetic field during crystallization from an amorphous state leads to anisotropy of the magnetic properties, that is, an anisotropic effect of thermo-magnetic treatment is detected.

  11. High resolution electron microscope study of the omega transformation in Zr--Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.L.J.; Sass, S.L.; Krakow, W.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution direct lattice imaging and dark field electron microscopy were used to examine the omega phase transformation in Zr--Nb alloys. Direct lattice imaging demonstrated the existence of subvariants within an omega variant. The existence of an ordered sequence of subvariants, which is the basic premise of recent diffuse intensity calculations which seek to explain diffuse diffraction observations in high Nb content alloys, could not be checked because of the small size of the omega regions. In the low Nb content alloys dark field electron microscopy was used to show that the ω phase consists of large domains (100 to 200 A dia) the interior of which contains features that are 3 to 6 A dia. As the Nb content is increased the omega domains decrease in size until only 3 to 5 A images are observed in alloys containing 15 wt. percent Nb or more. The isolated images are present over the range of composition from 8 to 30 wt. percent Nb. Time sequence dark field micrographs show that these small images change with time. The diffuse ω reflections are believed due in part to the existence of a (111) linear detect, consisting of groups of (111) rows of atoms which are displaced from bcc to ω positions for short periods of time

  12. Annex 5 - Fabrication of U-Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnjak, Dj.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Mihajlovic, A.

    1961-01-01

    Alloy U-Al with low content of aluminium is often used for fabrication of fuel elements because it is stable under moderate neutron flux density. Additionally this type of alloys show much better characteristics than pure uranium under reactor operating conditions (temperature, mechanical load, corrosion effect of water). This report contains the analysis of the phase diagram of U-Al alloy with low content of aluminium, applied procedure for alloying and casting with detailed description of equipment. Characteristics of the obtained alloy are described and conclusions about the experiment and procedure are presented [sr

  13. Phase transformation, magnetic property and microstructure of Ni-Mn-Fe-Co-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Sho, Y.; Kushima, T.; Todaka, Y.; Umemoto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of addition of Fe and Co on the phase stability, magnetic property and microstructures were investigated for Ni-Mn-Ga. In Ni-Mn 21- x -Fe x -Ga 27 alloys, martensitic transformation temperatures decreased with increasing amount of Fe (x) up to 15 mol%, then slightly increased by the further addition. The crystal structure of martensite phase was 10 M for x 15 mol%. Relatively high martensite stability was obtained for Ni 52 -Mn 16- x -Fe x -Co 5 -Ga 27 alloys. The highest stability of the ferromagnetic martensite phase was achieved in Ni 52 -Mn 6 -Fe 10 -Co 5 -Ga 27 after aging at 773 K for 3.6 ks. Martensite structure was non-modulated 2 M in this series of alloys

  14. Production of Mo-99 using low-enriched uranium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Srinivasan, B.; Vicek, M.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, uranium silicide fuels have been under development as low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for Mo-99. The use of LEU silicide is aimed at replacing the UAl x alloy in the highly-enriched uranium dissolution process. A process to recover Mo-99 from low-enriched uranium silicide is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The uranium silicide is dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Experiments performed to determine the optimum dissolution procedure are discussed, and the results of dissolving a portion of a high-burnup (>40%) U 3 Si 2 miniplate are presented. Future work related to Mo-99 separation and waste disposal are also discussed

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing plate structure for a nuclear reactor is described; such structure comprising a pair of malleable metallic non-fissionable matrix plates having confronting surfaces which are pressure bonded together and fully united to form a bonded surface, and elongated malleable wire-like fissionable fuel members separately confined and fully enclosed between the matrix plates along the interface to afford a high fuel density as well as structural integrity and effective retention of fission products. The plates have separate recesses formed in the confronting surfaces for closely receiving the wire-like fissionable fuel members. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are made of a maleable uranium alloy capable of being formed into elongated wire-like members and capable of withstanding pressure bonding. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are completely separated and isolated by fully united portions of the interface

  16. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented

  17. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented

  18. Study of uranium - 20 Wt per cent plutonium-niobium alloys (1963); Etude d'alliages U-Pu-Nb a 20 pour cent en poids de plutonium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, J.; Barthelemy, P.; Boucher, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    U-Pu-Nb alloys containing 20 wt per cent Pu and 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 or 60 wt per cent Nb have been studied principally to determine the feasibility of their use as fuel element. The fabrication, casting and homogenisation presented certain difficulties due specially to niobium. The transformation temperatures, thermal expansion coefficients and nature of phases have been determined by thermal analysis, dilatometry, micrography and X Rays diffraction. For similar compositions, U-Pu-Mo and U-Pu-Nb alloys have many common points concerning the presence of zeta phase (up to 40 wt per cent Nb), the coefficients of expansion, the good behaviour during thermal cycling and the good resistance to air oxidation in spite of zeta phase. In consequence, irradiation tests in EL{sub 3} reactor (Saclay) will be carried out in the near future. (authors) [French] Les alliages a 20 pour cent de plutonium, 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 pour cent de niobium et le complement en uranium ont ete etudies du point de vue de leur possibilite d'emploi comme combustible. Les problemes d'elaboration, de mise en forme et d'homogeneisation sont presentes. Ils sont relativement delicats. On a determine par analyse thermique, dilatometrie, micrographie et diffraction des rayons X les temperatures de transformation a l'etat solide, les coefficients de dilatation et la nature des phases. Pour des teneurs analogues, on retrouve de nombreux points communs avec les alliages U-Pu-Mo: presence de la phase zeta des U-Pu a temperature moyenne, coefficients de dilatation analogues, bonne tenue en cyclage thermique et bonne resistance a l'oxydation dans l'air malgre la presence de la phase zeta. Des essais d'irradiation dans EL{sub 3} vont etre entrepris. (auteurs)

  19. Simulation of uranium aluminide dissolution in a continuous aluminum dissolver system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.R.; Farman, R.F.; Christian, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which recovers highly-enriched uranium (uranium that contains at least 20 atom percent 235 U) from spent nuclear reactor fuel by dissolution of the fuel elements and extraction of the uranium from the aqueous dissolver product. Because the uranium is highly-enriched, consideration must be given to whether a critical mass can form at any stage of the process. In particular, suspended 235 U-containing particles are of special concern, due to their high density (6.8 g/cm 3 ) and due to the fact that they can settle into geometrically unfavorable configurations when not adequately mixed. A portion of the spent fuel is aluminum-alloy-clad uranium aluminide (UAl 3 ) particles, which dissolve more slowly than the cladding. As the aluminum alloy cladding dissolves in mercury-catalyzed nitric acid, UAl 3 is released. Under standard operating conditions, the UAl 3 dissolves rapidly enough to preclude the possibility of forming a critical mass anywhere in the system. However, postulated worst-case abnormal operating conditions retard uranium aluminide dissolution, and thus require evaluation. To establish safety limits for operating parameters, a computerized simulation model of uranium aluminide dissolution in the aluminum fuel dissolver system was developed

  20. Structure and transformation behaviour of a rapidly solidified Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.; Inoue, A.

    2005-01-01

    An as-solidified structure and transformation behaviour on heating of the rapidly solidified Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd alloy was studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. The Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd ribbon samples have been produced by the melt spinning technique and heat treated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The addition of Pd to Al-Y-Ni-Co alloys caused disappearance of the supercooled liquid region as well as the formation of the highly dispersed primary α-Al nanoparticles about 3-7 nm in size homogeneously embedded in the glassy matrix upon solidification. An extremely high density of precipitates of the order of 10 24 m -3 is obtained. These particles start growing at the temperature below a glass-transition temperature. The results presented in this paper indicate that some of so-called 'marginal' glass-formers in as-solidified state are actually not glassy alloys with pre-existed nuclei but crystal-glassy nanocomposites

  1. Effect of composition on the matrix transformation of the Co-Re-Cr-Ta-C alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Přemysl; Mukherji, D.; Strunz, Pavel; Gilles, R.; Hofmann, M.; Karge, L.; Dolotko, O.; Rösler, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2016), s. 562-571 ISSN 1598-9623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : alloys * phase transformation * scanning electron microscopy (SEM) * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.889, year: 2016

  2. Microstructure, martensitic transformation, mechanical and shape memory properties of Ni–Co–Mn–In high-temperature shape memory alloys under different heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Wang, Cuiping; Shi, Zhan; Wang, Jinming; Zhang, Jinbin; Huang, Yixiong; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure, martensitic transformation behavior, mechanical and shape memory properties of Ni 40 Co 10 Mn 41+x In 9−x (x=0, 2 and 4) high-temperature shape memory alloys annealed at 900 °C for 24 h or at 800 °C for 2 h were investigated, respectively. The tetragonal martensite phase and fcc γ phase are observed in all the studied alloys. The reversible martensitic transformation temperatures of the alloys increase with the increases of the electron concentration and the tetragonality of martensite phase. The amount of γ phase gradually increases with the decrease of In content, and much more γ phase in the alloys annealed at 900 °C results in slightly larger compressive fracture strain. Although the alloys with x=0 and 2 have a mass of γ phase, they still exhibit good shape memory properties. The amount of γ phase reaches about 20% in the alloy with x=0 after annealed at 900 °C, but a full recovery strain of 3.6% and a two-way shape memory effect of 0.8% can be obtained after two thermomechanical cycles.

  3. Recent irradiation tests of uranium-plutonium-zirconium metal fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Villarreal, R.; Hofman, G.L.; Beck, W.N.

    1986-09-01

    Uranium-Plutonium-Zirconium metal fuel irradiation tests to support the ANL Integral Fast Reactor concept are discussed. Satisfactory performance has been demonstrated to 2.9 at.% peak burnup in three alloys having 0, 8, and 19 wt % plutonium. Fuel swelling measurements at low burnup in alloys to 26 wt % plutonium show that fuel deformation is primarily radial in direction. Increasing the plutonium content in the fuel diminishes the rate of fuel-cladding gap closure and axial fuel column growth. Chemical redistribution occurs by 2.1 at.% peak burnup and generally involves the inward migration of zirconium and outward migration of uranium. Fission gas release to the plenum ranges from 46% to 56% in the alloys irradiated to 2.9 at.% peak burnup. No evidence of deleterious fuel-cladding chemical or mechanical interaction was observed

  4. Aqueous corrosion study on U-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Titas; Venkatesan, V.; Kumar, Pradeep; Khan, K.B.; Kumar, Arun

    2009-01-01

    In low power or research reactor, U-Zr alloy is a potential candidate for dispersion fuel. Moreover, Zirconium has a low thermal-neutron cross section and uranium alloyed with Zr has excellent corrosion resistance and dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In the present study aqueous corrosion behavior of U-Zr alloy samples was studied in autoclave at 200 deg C temperature. Corrosion rate was determined from weight loss with time. (author)

  5. Microstructural analysis of the {delta} to {alpha}' phase transformation in plutonium alloys using X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platteau, C; Ravat, B; Texier, G; Oudot, B; Delaunay, F, E-mail: brice.ravat@cea.fr [CEA Valduc 21120 Is sur Tille (France)

    2010-03-15

    The partial martensitic {delta}{yields}{alpha}' transformation in plutonium alloys is sensitive to chemical composition, sample thermal history, as well as crystalline defects. The present work investigates the {delta}-Pu phase microstructure before and after the martensitic transformation {delta}{yields}{delta}+{alpha}'. More precisely, microstructural modifications of the host {delta}-phase, resulting from the stress induced by a cell volume difference of 19% between the {delta} and {alpha}'-phases, were analysed. Microstructural information about crystallite size and microstrain of a highly homogenized Pu-Ga alloy was extracted from x-ray diffraction patterns using a three dimension crystallite size and microstrain model. This is available in Rietveld refinement software and consists in anisotropic broadening analysis of diffraction peaks. Crystallite size doesn't significantly change with the phase transformation contrary to microstrain that is multiplied, on average, by five. Furthermore, internal normal and shear microstress are multiplied, respectively, by 2 and 13 when {alpha}'-phase appears. Last, dislocation densities, calculated from crystallite size and microstrain, are compared to TEM results available in the literature.

  6. ''Some features of γ-ε martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper several important aspects concerning the shape memory behavior of the ε-martensite in the cost-saving Fe-Mn-Si-based alloys and its application are reported. Some kinetic features of the γ-ε martensitic transformation are discussed. The effects of the composition, volume change induced by the transformation, strength of austenite, temperature of pre strain on the shape memory effect have been investigated. (orig.)

  7. Kinetics of cellular transformation and competing precipitation mechanisms during sub-eutectoid annealing of U10Mo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Varga, Tamas; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2017-11-01

    Transformation kinetics of metastable body-centered cubic γ-UMo phase in U-10 wt.percent Mo alloy during annealing at sub-eutectoid temperatures of 500C and 400C has been determined as a function of time using detailed microstructural characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. Based on the results, we found that the phase transformation is initiated by cellular transformation at both the temperatures, which results in formation of a lamellar microstructure along prior γ-UMo grain boundaries.

  8. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  9. Influence of preliminary deformation on structure and properties of Fe-Ni-V-C alloy after reverse α → γ transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, V.I.; Kozlov, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, the Fe-25 Ni-1.5 V-0.3 C alloy structure was investigated after the γ → α → γ transformation and the effect of the preliminary deformation upon it in the range from 16 to 33% at the temperature of +200 and -196 deg C. Characteristic of nondeformed specimens is the lath morphology of the reverse austenite. Deformation prior to the α → γ transformation is conducive to the appearance of areas of fine-grained austenite With a low density of dislocations, probably forming through a partial recrystallization of the lath austenite. It was found that the reverse austenite inherits the misorientation zones which are a structure particularity of slippage-deformed (259) martensite crystals (7). The maximum strength of the alloy after the α → γ transformation is achieved through a preliminary deformation at-196 deg C leading to a decrease in the amount of austenite that failed to undergo the γ → α → γ transformation

  10. Uranium recovering from slags generated in the metallic uranium by magnesiothermic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornarolo, F.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M.; Riella, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN/CNEN-SP has recent/y concluded a program for developing the fabrication technology of the nuclear fuel based on the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion, which is being used in the IEA-R1 research reactor. The uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) fuel production starts with the uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) processing and uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) precipitation. Then, the UF 4 is converted to metallic uranium by magnesiothermic reduction. The UF 4 reduction by magnesium generates MgF 2 slag containing considerable concentrations of uranium, which could reach 20 wt%. The uranium contained in that slag should be recovered and this work presents the results obtained in recovering the uranium from that slag. The uranium recovery is accomplished by acidic leaching of the calcined slag. The calcination transforms the metallic uranium in U 3 O 8 , promoting the pulverization of the pieces of metallic uranium and facilitating the leaching operation. As process variables, have been considered the nitric molar concentration, the acid excess regarding the stoichiometry and the leaching temperature. As result, the uranium recovery reached a 96% yield. (author)

  11. Multi-Step Martensitic Transformations in Ni-rich NiTi Alloys - an In-situ TEM Investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Antonín; Khalil Allafi, J.; Eggeler, G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2003), s. 339-363 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/1172 Grant - others:DFG(DE) SFB-459 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : martensitic transformation * shape memory alloys * transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Investigation of americium-241 metal alloys for target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO

    1982-01-01

    Several 241 Am metal alloys have been investigated for possible use in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Radiochemical Diagnostic Tracer Program. Several properties were desired for an alloy to be useful for tracer program applications. A suitable alloy would have a fairly high density, be ductile, homogeneous and easy to prepare. Alloys investigated have included uranium-americium, aluminium-americium, and cerium-americium. Uranium-americium alloys with the desired properties proved to be difficult to prepare, and work with this alloy was discontinued. Aluminium-americium alloys were much easier to prepare, but the alloy consisted of an aluminium-americium intermetallic compound (AmAl 4 ) in an aluminum matrix. This alloy could be cast and formed into shapes, but the low density of aluminum, and other problems, made the alloy unsuitable for the intended application. Americium metal was found to have a high solid solubility in cerium and alloys prepared from these two elements exhibited all of the properties desired for the tracer program application. Cerium-americium alloys containing up to 34 wt% americium have been prepared using both co-melting and co-reduction techniques. The latter technique involves co-reduction of cerium tetrafluoride and americium tetrafluoride with calcium metal in a sealed reduction vessel. Casting techniques have been developed for preparing up to eight 2.2 cm (0.87 in) diameter disks in a single casting, and cerium-americium metal alloy disks containing from 10 to 25 wt% 241 Am have been prepared using these techniques. (orig.)

  13. Phase Transformation and Creep Behavior in Ti50Pd30Ni20 High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parikshith K.; Desai, Uri; Monroe, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Karaman, Ibrahim; Noebe, Ron; Bigelow, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The creep behavior and the phase transformation of Ti50Pd30Ni20 High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy (HTSMA) is investigated by standard creep tests and thermomechanical tests. Ingots of the alloy are induction melted, extruded at high temperature, from which cylindrical specimens are cut and surface polished. A custom high temperature test setup is assembled to conduct the thermomechanical tests. Following preliminary monotonic tests, standard creep tests and thermally induced phase transformation tests are conducted on the specimen. The creep test results suggest that over the operating temperatures and stresses of this alloy, the microstructural mechanisms responsible for creep change. At lower stresses and temperatures, the primary creep mechanism is a mixture of dislocation glide and dislocation creep. As the stress and temperature increase, the mechanism shifts to predominantly dislocation creep. If the operational stress or temperature is raised even further, the mechanism shifts to diffusion creep. The thermally induced phase transformation tests show that actuator performance can be affected by rate independent irrecoverable strain (transformation induced plasticity + retained martensite) as well as creep. The rate of heating and cooling can adversely impact the actuators performance. While the rate independent irrecoverable strain is readily apparent early in the actuators life, viscoplastic strain continues to accumulate over the lifespan of the HTSMA. Thus, in order to get full actuation out of the HTSMA, the heating and cooling rates must be sufficiently high enough to avoid creep.

  14. Automated controlled-potential coulometric determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, C.H.; Clegg, D.E.; Wright, K.D.; Cassidy, R.M.

    1982-06-01

    A controlled-potential coulometer has been automated in our laboratory for routine determination of uranium in solution. The CRNL-designed automated system controls degassing, prereduction, and reduction of the sample. The final result is displayed on a digital coulometer readout. Manual and automated modes of operation are compared to show the precision and accuracy of the automated system. Results are also shown for the coulometric titration of typical uranium-aluminum alloy samples

  15. On the regularities of structural transformations in copper-beryllium alloys during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkhagapsoev, Kh.G.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities of elastic oscillations damping and those of the change of specific electric resistance taking place in the process of isothermal aging of the BrB2 bronze have been studied to determine the mechanism and kinetics of mutual transformations of precipitating phases in Cu-Be alloys. It is found out that isothermal aging of beryllium bronze BrB2 at 260... 400 deg C is accompanied by structural transitions connected with the decomposition of oversaturated α-solid solution. Formation of α phase nuclei (or transformation of Guinier-Preston zones) as well as their growth occur at the expense of cooperative-shift processes characterized by low activation energy (19.7...26.3 J/mol) and by considerable time of relaxation (tau approximately equal to 10 -1 -10 2 s)

  16. Preparation of the pur uranium-metal; La preparation de l'uranium-metal pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B; Vertes, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    A detailed description of the chemical processes used to prepare in the factory of Bouchet of the CEA (Seine-Et-Oise) pur metal uranium with either relatively rich ores, or extracts coming of physical or chemical treatment of poor ores. The nitric treatment of ores succeeds to the production of uranate of impure sodium carbonate. This last last product is dissolved in nitric acid and the uranyl nitrate is extracted by tributyl-phosphate diluted in an inert solvent. The uranyl nitrate pure is re-extracted and successively transformed in uranium peroxide, in orange oxide then in brown oxide which is transformed in fluoride by the anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Uranate fluoride is then reduced in metal by the pure calcium with an yield superior to 99%. (authors) [French] Description detaillee des procedes chimiques mis en jeu pour preparer a l'Usine du Bouchet du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (Seine-et-Oise) l'uranium metal pur a partir soit de minerais relativement riches, soit de concentres provenant de traitement physique ou chimique de minerais pauvres. Le traitement nitrique des minerais aboutit a la production d'uranate de soude impur. Ce dernier est a son tour dissous dans l'acide nitrique et le nitrate d'uranyle est extrait par du tributyl-phosphate dilue par un solvant inerte. Le nitrate d'uranyle pur reextrait est transforme successivement en peroxyde d'uranium, en oxyde orange puis en oxyde brun qui est transforme en fluorure par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre. Le fluorure uraneux est reduit en metal par le calcium pur avec un rendement superieur a 99 %. (auteurs)

  17. Interaction between uranium oxide alloyed with Al2O3·SiO2 and pyrocarbon coating during irradiation of micro fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, A.S.; Khromov, Y.F.; Svistunov, D.E.; Chuiko, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the interaction between uranium oxide and carbon was previously studied in the presence of Al 2 O 3 ·SiO 2 , SiC, and UC 1.86 ; in this case, the quantity of the reacting substances does not have any effect on the attainment of the equilibrium state. Based on the obtained results, it is interesting to study the characteristic features of the interaction between the alloyed UO x cores (kernels) with the PyC-coating under the conditions involving irradiation of the micro fuel elements with thermal neutrons and the formation of solid fission products. The data concerning the characteristics of a micro fuel element (the weight of the core, its composition, etc.) are useful for carrying out a quantitative evaluation of the additives required for fixing the alkali-earth fission products by obtaining stable compounds of aluminosilicates with Ba, Sr, Rb, and Cs at different levels of depletion (burnup) of the oxide fuel. An analysis of the interaction processes in such a complex system as the irradiated alloyed uranium oxide fuel located in a micro fuel element is carried out by comparing the chemical potential of oxygen (RT ln P O 2 ) for the competing constituents of the system

  18. Development and Validation of Capabilities to Measure Thermal Properties of Layered Monolithic U-Mo Alloy Plate-Type Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-01

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world's highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the thermal-conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify functionality of equipment installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, refine procedures to operate the equipment, and validate models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures, and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a Zr diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  19. Formation of uranium based nanoparticles via gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M., E-mail: tmnenof@sandia.gov [Nanoscale Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1415, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ferriera, Summer R. [Nanoscale Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1415, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Huang, Jianyu [Center for Integrated Nanotechnology, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1315, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Hanson, Donald J. [Department of Hot Cells and Gamma Facilities, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1143, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of d-U nanoparticles formed in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •d-U nanoparticles were grown in solution by gamma irradiation. •The reaction solution does not exceed 25 °C (room temperature). •Only after multiday exposure to air is there evidence of oxidation of the d-U nanoparticles. •Evidence of d-U alloy nanoparticle formation confirmed by TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. -- Abstract: The ability to fabricate nuclear fuels at low temperatures allows for the production of complex Uranium metal and alloys with minimum volatility of alloy components in the process. Gamma irradiation is a valuable method for the synthesis of a wide range of metal-based nanoparticles. We report on the synthesis via room temperature radiolysis and characterization of uranium (depleted, d-U) metal and uranium–lathanide (d-ULn, Ln = lanthanide surrogates) alloy nanoparticles from aqueous acidic salt solutions. The lanthanide surrogates chosen include La and Eu due to their similarity in ionic size and charge in solution. Detailed characterization results including UV–vis, TEM/HR-TEM, and single particle EDX (elemental analyses) are presented for the room temperature formed nanoparticle products.

  20. Formation of uranium based nanoparticles via gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Ferriera, Summer R.; Huang, Jianyu; Hanson, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of d-U nanoparticles formed in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •d-U nanoparticles were grown in solution by gamma irradiation. •The reaction solution does not exceed 25 °C (room temperature). •Only after multiday exposure to air is there evidence of oxidation of the d-U nanoparticles. •Evidence of d-U alloy nanoparticle formation confirmed by TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. -- Abstract: The ability to fabricate nuclear fuels at low temperatures allows for the production of complex Uranium metal and alloys with minimum volatility of alloy components in the process. Gamma irradiation is a valuable method for the synthesis of a wide range of metal-based nanoparticles. We report on the synthesis via room temperature radiolysis and characterization of uranium (depleted, d-U) metal and uranium–lathanide (d-ULn, Ln = lanthanide surrogates) alloy nanoparticles from aqueous acidic salt solutions. The lanthanide surrogates chosen include La and Eu due to their similarity in ionic size and charge in solution. Detailed characterization results including UV–vis, TEM/HR-TEM, and single particle EDX (elemental analyses) are presented for the room temperature formed nanoparticle products

  1. Experimental observations on uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life.

  2. Experimental observations on uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life. (paper)

  3. Determination of trace impurities in uranium-transition metal alloy fuels by ICP-MS using extended common analyte internal standardization (ECAIS) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for the determination of eight trace impurities viz, Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn and Ni in three different uranium-transition metal alloy fuels (U-Me; Me = Ti, Zr and Mo) employing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The well known common analyte internal standardization (CAIS) chemometric technique was modified and then employed to minimize and account for the matrix effect on analyte intensity. Standard addition of analytes to the pure synthetic U-Me sample solutions and subsequently their ≥ 94% recovery by the ICP-MS measurement validates the proposed methodology. One real sample of each of these alloys was analyzed by the developed analytical methodology and the %RSD observed was in the range of 5-8%. The method detection limits were found to be within 4-10 μg L -1 . (author)

  4. Microstructural evolutions in warm compression of Betacez and 6246 titanium alloys and influence of the forging on the transformation {beta} {yields} {alpha}; Evolutions microstructurales en compression a chaud des alliages de titane Betacez et 6246 et influence du forgeage sur la transformation {beta} {yields} {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussy Mraizika, F

    1996-06-26

    The relations between the thermomechanical ranges and the microstructures of titanium alloys are still insufficient. This work proposes to improve the knowledge of structural state coming from the {beta} forging and the ulterior transformation {beta} to {alpha}+{beta}. The influence of the two parameters, rate and strain speed, on the microstructural and textural evolutions appear during the forging and also during the {beta}/{alpha} transformation are systematically studied. The two titanium alloys which are studied are Betacez titanium alloy and the 6246 titanium alloy. (N.C.)

  5. A contribution to the structural and kinetic study of the slow transformation of an iron or uranium alpha crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donze, G.

    1958-12-01

    1- During the course of the work reported, we observed and studied a curious phenomenon of regeneration of an iron or uranium α crystal in the double transformation of iron or uranium: α → γ → α and α → β → α respectively. We have demonstrated that this phenomenon does not occur with very pure metals, but only in the case of metals containing impurities, and more particularly, containing carbon. The monocrystal is not regenerated unless care is taken not to exceed final transformation temperatures by more than a few degrees. The same phenomenon is encountered in polycrystalline compounds: the orientation of the crystals is maintained, though the respective grain positions ('joints') are considerably displaced. 2- Kinetic study of the transformation at cooling, on the one hand, and the analysis of the texture at the γ phase (iron) on the other, show that regeneration results from the conservation of the phase α germs at the high temperature phase. They appear to be relatively stable because they had retained their properties at the end of 24 hours at the experiment temperature. 3- Study of the twin crystals of γ iron engendered by the transformation α → γ demonstrated that there is no orientation relationship in the transformation: α → γ of pure iron. 4- Thanks to the production of an epitaxic oxide film on the surface of γ iron, we were able to evidence a new type of iron transformation twinned crystal which grows in one direction (110) and is in contact also at 110. Formed of very thin lamina, these crystals are very instable and become penetrant, each element - much larger - consisting of the increased thickness of a certain number of lamina. (author) [fr

  6. Equation of state, phase stability, and phase transformations of uranium-6 wt. % niobium under high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Vogel, Sven; Brown, Donald; Clausen, Bjorn; Hackenberg, Robert

    2018-05-01

    In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments were conducted on the uranium-niobium alloy with 6 wt. % Nb (U-6Nb) at pressures up to 4.7 GPa and temperatures up to 1073 K. Upon static compression at room temperature, the monoclinic structure of U-6Nb (α″ U-6Nb) remains stable up to the highest experimental pressure. Based on the pressure-volume measurements at room temperature, the least-squares fit using the finite-strain equation of state (EOS) yields an isothermal bulk modulus of B0 = 127 ± 2 GPa for the α″-phase of U-6Nb. The calculated zero-pressure bulk sound speed from this EOS is 2.706 ± 0.022 km/s, which is in good agreement with the linear extrapolation of the previous Hugoniot data above 12 GPa for α″ U-6Nb, indicating that the dynamic response under those shock-loading conditions is consistent with the stabilization of the initial monoclinic phase of U-6Nb. Upon heating at ambient and high pressures, the metastable α″ U-6Nb exhibits complex transformation paths leading to the diffusional phase decomposition, which are sensitive to applied pressure, stress state, and temperature-time path. These findings provide new insight into the behavior of atypical systems such as U-Nb and suggest that the different U-Nb phases are separated by rather small energies and hence highly sensitive to compositional, thermal, and mechanical perturbations.

  7. Factors influencing shape memory effect and phase transformation behaviour of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Dunne, D.; Kennon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the factors influencing the shape memory effect and phase transformation behaviour of three Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys: Fe-28Mn-6Si, Fe-13Mn-5Si-10Cr-6Ni and Fe-20Mn-6Si-7Cr-1Cu. The research results show that the shape memory capacity of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys varies with annealing temperature, and this effect can be explained in terms of the effect of annealing on γ ε transformation. The nature and concentration of defects in austenite are strongly affected by annealing conditions. A high annealing temperature results in a low density of stacking faults, leading to a low nucleation rate during stress induced γ→ε transformation. The growth of ε martensite plates is favoured rather than the formation of new ε martensite plates. Coarse martensite plates produce high local transformation strains which can be accommodated by local slip deformation, leading to a reduction in the reversibility of the martensitic transformation and to a degradation of the shape memory effect. Annealing at low temperatures (≤673 K) for reasonable times does not eliminate complex defects (dislocation jogs, kinks and vacancy clusters) created by hot and cold working strains. These defects can retard the movement and rearrangement of Shockley partial dislocations, i.e. suppress γ→ε transformation, also leading to a degradation of shape memory effect. Annealing at about 873 K was found to be optimal to form the dislocation structures which are favourable for stress induced martensitic transformation, thus resulting in the best shape memory behaviour. (orig.)

  8. X-ray spectroscopic studies of uranium transformations in microbial cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J.; Clayton, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Microbial transformations of uranyl nitrate, U:citric acid, and mixed metal U:Fe:citric acid complex were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses showed that soluble U 6+ was reduced to insoluble U 4+ by Clostridium sp. and was associated with the bacterial surface, whereas U 3+ was observed within the biomass. Uranium forms a binuclear complex with citric acid involving two carboxylic acid groups and the hydroxyl group. Biodegradation studies of U:citric acid and U:Fe:citric acid complexes using Pseudomonas fluorescens showed they were recalcitrant. The lack of biodegradation was due to the nature of the metal-citrate complex species and not due to toxicity. Characterization of the mixed metal U:Fe:citric acid complex by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicated that Fe was associated with the U and citric acid, resulting in formation of a bionuclear mixed metal citrate complex

  9. Thermal and magnetic hysteresis associated with martensitic and magnetic phase transformations in Ni52Mn25In16Co7 Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiligama, A. S. B.; Ari-Gur, P.; Ren, Y.; Koledov, V. V.; Dilmieva, E. T.; Kamantsev, A. P.; Mashirov, A. V.; Shavrov, V. G.; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L.; Grande, B. H.

    2017-11-01

    Ni-Mn-In-Co Heusler alloys demonstrate promising magnetocaloric performance for use as refrigerants in magnetic cooling systems with the goal of replacing the lower efficiency, eco-adverse fluid-compression technology. The largest change in entropy occurs when the applied magnetic field causes a merged structural and magnetic transformation and the associated entropy changes of the two transformations works constructively. In this study, magnetic and crystalline phase transformations were each treated separately and the effects of the application of magnetic field on thermal hystereses associated with both structural and magnetic transformations of the Ni52Mn25In16Co7 were studied. From the analysis of synchrotron diffraction data and thermomagnetic measurements, it was revealed that the alloy undergoes both structural (from cubic austenite to a mixture of 7M &5M modulated martensite) and magnetic (ferromagnetic to a low-magnetization phase) phase transformations. Thermal hysteresis is associated with both transformations, and the variation of the thermal hystereses of the magnetic and structural transformations with applied magnetic field is significantly different. Because of the differences between the hystereses loops of the two transformations, they merge only upon heating under a certain magnetic field.

  10. Effect of small additions of silicon, iron, and aluminum on the room-temperature tensile properties of high-purity uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven binary and ternary alloys of uranium and very low concentrations of iron, silicon, and aluminum were prepared and tested for room-temperature tensile properties after various heat treatments. A yield strength approximately double that of high-purity derby uranium was obtained from a U-400 ppM Si-200 ppM Fe alloy after beta solution treatment and alpha aging. Higher silicon plus iron alloy contents resulted in increased yield strength, but showed an unacceptable loss of ductility

  11. FORMING TUBES AND RODS OF URANIUM METAL BY EXTRUSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-01-27

    A method and apparatus are presented for the extrusion of uranium metal. Since uranium is very brittle if worked in the beta phase, it is desirable to extrude it in the gamma phase. However, in the gamma temperature range thc uranium will alloy with the metal of the extrusion dic, and is readily oxidized to a great degree. According to this patent, uranium extrusion in thc ganmma phase may be safely carried out by preheating a billet of uranium in an inert atmosphere to a trmperature between 780 C and 1100 C. The heated billet is then placed in an extrusion apparatus having dies which have been maintained at an elevated temperature for a sufficient length of time to produce an oxide film, and placing a copper disc between the uranium billet and the die.

  12. Influence of Temperature to Thermal Properties of U-Zr Alloy With The Zr Content Variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslina-Br-Ginting; Masrukan; M-Husna-Al-Hasa

    2007-01-01

    Have been done thermal of characteristic covering heat stability, heat capacities, enthalpy and also phase changes from uranium, zirkonium and U-Zr alloy with the Zr content variation of Zr 2 %, 6 %, 10% and 14% weight. Change of the temperature and composition anticipated will cause the characteristic of thermal to uranium metal, zirkonium and also U-Zr alloy. Therefore at this research was conducted using analysis influence of temperature to thermal of characteristic of uranium, zirkonium and U-Zr alloy with the Zr content variation by using DTA and DSC. Result of analysis indicate that the uranium metal at temperature 662 o C stable in phase α. Above at temperature, uranium metal experience of the phase change indicated by formed the thermochemical reaction as much 3 endothermic peak. At temperature 667.16 o C, happened by the phase change of α become the phase β with the enthalpy 2,3034 cal/g, at temperature 773.05 o C happened by the phase change β becoming phase γ 2,8725 cal/g and also at temperature 1125.26 the o C uranium metal experience the phenomenon become to melt with the enthalpy 2,1316 cal/g. (author)

  13. Overlapping phase transformations on tempering of a low-alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Morales, E; Galeano Alvarez, N.J; Vega Leiva, J; Castellanos L M; Villar C E; Antiquera Munoz J; Hernandez R J

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of precipitation of the primary and independent carbides during tempering of a low-alloy steel are characterized by the application of the Kinetic Theory of the Overlapping Phase Transformations(KTOPT). It is based on the Avrami model and considers two simultaneous precipitation processes. The present set-up allows us to calculate the exponent of the Avrami equation for simultaneous reactions at different rates. Only the dilatometry curves on tempering are required. According to this new formulation, the treatment of the dilatometry records showed different mechanisms of nucleation and growth of the primary and independent carbides. These results are in agreement with the thin foil electron micrographs and hardness tests of the thermally treated samples (au)

  14. Behaviour of uranium dioxide in liquid nitrogen tetraoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Klavsut', G.N.; Dolgov, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Interaction kinetics of uranium dioxide with liquid nitrogen tetroxide at 25-150 deg C has been studied. It is shown that in the temperature range studied NO[UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 ] is the final product of the reaction. With the increase of specific surface of uranium dioxide and with the temperature increase the degree of oxide transformation increases. Uranium dioxide-liquid N 2 O 4 interaction proceeds in the diffusion region. Seeming activation energies and rate constants of the mentioned processes are calculated. Effect of nitrogen trioxide additions on transformation kinetics is considered

  15. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  16. Uranium decontamination of common metals by smelting, a review (handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautz, E.W.; Briggs, G.G.; Shaw, W.E.; Cavendish, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The published and unpublished literature relating to the smelting of common metals scrap contaminated with uranium-bearing compounds has been searched and reviewed. In general, standard smelting practice produces ingots having a low uranium content, particularly for ferrous, nickel, and copper metals or alloys. Aluminum recovered from uranium contaminated scrap shows some decontamination by smelting but the uranium content is not as low as for other metals. Due to the heterogeneous nature and origin of scrap metals contaminated with uranium, information is frequently missing as to the extent of the initial contamination and the degree of decontamination obtained. The uranium content of the final cast ingots is generally all that is available. Results are summarized below by the primary composition of the uranium contaminated scrap metal. (U.S.)

  17. First interactions between hydrogen and stress-induced reverse transformation of Ni-Ti superelastic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2017-11-01

    The first dynamic interactions between hydrogen and the stress-induced reverse transformation have been investigated by performing an unloading test on a Ni-Ti superelastic alloy subjected to hydrogen charging under a constant applied strain in the elastic deformation region of the martensite phase. Upon unloading the specimen, charged with a small amount of hydrogen, no change in the behaviour of the stress-induced reverse transformation is observed in the stress-strain curve, although the behaviour of the stress-induced martensite transformation changes. With increasing amount of hydrogen charging, the critical stress for the reverse transformation markedly decreases. Eventually, for a larger amount of hydrogen charging, the reverse transformation does not occur, i.e. there is no recovery of the superelastic strain. The residual martensite phase on the side surface of the unloaded specimen is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Upon training before the unloading test, the properties of the reverse transformation slightly recover after ageing in air at room temperature. The present study indicates that to change the behaviour of the reverse transformation a larger amount of hydrogen than that for the martensite transformation is necessary. In addition, it is likely that a substantial amount of hydrogen in solid solution more strongly suppresses the reverse transformation than hydrogen trapped at defects, thereby stabilising the martensite phase.

  18. Thermodynamic activity measurements of U-Zr alloys by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masayoshi; Yamawaki, Michio; Koyama, Tadafumi; Morioka, Nobuo

    1988-01-01

    Vaporization of a series of U-Zr alloys, a fundamental subsystem of the promising metallic fuel U-Pu-Zr, was studied by using a tantalum Knudsen cell coupled with a mass spectrometer in the temperature range 1700-2060 K. Thermodynamic activities partial molar Gibbs free energies and integral molar Gibbs free energies of mixing were calculated from the partial vapor pressures of uranium over these alloys. The activities of uranium exhibit negative deviations from ideality, especially in the uranium-rich composition region. Both the solidus and liquidus lines for this system estimated from the activities show negative deviations from the tentative phase diagram previously reported. (orig.)

  19. Effect of reversible hydrogen alloying and plastic deformation on microstructure development in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murzinova, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen leads to degradation in fracture-related mechanical properties of titanium alloys and is usually considered as a very dangerous element. Numerous studies of hydrogen interaction with titanium alloys showed that hydrogen may be considered not only as an impurity but also as temporary alloying element. This statement is based on the following. Hydrogen stabilizes high-temperature β-phase, leads to decrease in temperature of β→α transformation and extends (α + β )-phase field. The BCC β-phase exhibits lower strength and higher ductility in comparison with HCP α -phase. As a result, hydrogen improves hot workability of hard-to-deform titanium alloys. Hydrogen changes chemical composition of the phases, kinetics of phase transformations, and at low temperatures additional phase transformation (β→α + TiH 2 ) takes place, which is accompanied with noticeable change in volumes of phases. As a result, fine lamellar microstructure may be formed in hydrogenated titanium alloys after heat treatment. It was shown that controlled hydrogen alloying improves weldability and machinability of titanium alloys. After processing hydrogenated titanium preforms are subjected to vacuum annealing, and the hydrogen content decreases up to safe level. Hydrogen removal is accompanied with hydrides dissolution and β→α transformation that makes possible to control structure formation at this final step of treatment. Thus, reversible hydrogen alloying of titanium alloys allows to obtain novel microstructure with enhanced properties. The aim of the work was to study the effect of hydrogen on structure formation, namely: i) influence of hydrogen content on transformation of lamellar microstructure to globular one during deformation in (α+β)-phase field; ii) effect of dissolved hydrogen on dynamic recrystallization in single α- and β- phase regions; iii) influence of vacuum annealing temperature on microstructure development. The work was focused on the optimization of

  20. A thick-interface model for diffusive and massive phase transformation in substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Vala, J.; Gamsjaeger, E.; Fischer, F.D.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the application of the thermodynamic extremal principle, a new model for the diffusive and massive phase transformation in multicomponent substitutional alloys is developed. Interfacial reactions such as the rearrangement of the lattice, solute drag and trans-interface diffusion are automatically considered by assigning a finite thickness and a finite mobility to the interface region. As an application of the steady-state solution of the derived evolution equations, the kinetics of the massive γ → α transformation in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni system is simulated. The thermodynamic properties of the interface may influence significantly the contact conditions at the interface as well as the conditions for the occurrence of the massive transformation and its kinetics. The model is also used for the simulation of the diffusion-induced grain boundary migration in the same system. By application of the model a realistic value for the Gibbs energy per unit interface area is obtained

  1. Study of the order-disorder transition and martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be alloy by EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.H.; Ochoa, M.T.; Flores-Zuniga, H.; Espinosa-Magana, F.; Rios-Jara, D.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in 3d states occupancy associated with order-disorder transition and martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be alloy was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in both high energy and low energy loss regions. From the high energy loss region, the Cu L 2,3 white-line intensities, which reflect the unoccupied density of states in 3d bands, was measured for three states of the alloy: disordered austenite, ordered austenite and martensite. It was found that the white-line intensity remains the same during order-disorder transition but appears slightly smaller in martensite, indicating that some electrons left Cu 3d bands or some hybridization took place during phase transformation. From the low energy loss region, the optical joint density of states (OJDS) was obtained by Kramers-Kronig analysis. As maxima observed in the OJDS spectra are assigned to interband transitions, these spectra can be used to probe changes in the electronic band structure. The analysis shows that during the martensitic transformation, the peaks positions and relative intensities in the OJDS spectra undergoes noticeable changes, which are associated with interband transitions

  2. Phase transformations in nickel-aluminum alloys during ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eridon, J.; Rehn, L.; Was, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ion beam mixing of nickel-aluminum alloys with 500 keV krypton ions has been investigated over a range of temperature, composition, ion dose, and post-irradiation thermal treatments. Samples were formed by alternate evaporation of layers of aluminum and nickel. A portion of these samples was subsequently annealed to form intermetallic compounds. Irradiations were performed at both room temperature and 80 0 K using the 2MV ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase transformations were observed during both in situ irradiations in the High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) at Argonne, and also in subsequent analysis of an array of irradiated samples. Electron diffraction indicates the presence of metastable crystalline structures not present in the conventional nickel-aluminum phase diagram. Transformations occur at doses as low as 5 x 10 14 cm -2 and continue to develop as the irradiation progresses up to 2 x 10 16 cm -2 . Layer mixing is followed through Rutherford Backscattering analysis. Samples are also checked with x-rays and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). A thermodynamic argument is presented to explain the phase transformations in terms of movements on a free energy diagram. This analysis explains the interesting paradox concerning the radiation hardness of the NiAl phase and the amorphous structure of mixed Ni-50% Al layers

  3. Martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of manganese-rich Ni-Mn-In and Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenke, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the martensitic transition and the magnetic properties of Manganese rich Ni 50 Mn 50-x Sn x and Ni 50 Mn 50-y In y alloys with 5 at%≤x(y)≤25 at% were investigated. Calorimetry, X-ray and neutron diffraction, magnetization, and strain measurements were performed on polycrystalline samples. It was shown that alloys close to the stoichiometric composition Ni 50 Mn 25 Sn 25 and Ni 50 Mn 25 Sn 25 do not exhibit a structural transition on lowering of the temperature, whereas alloys with x≤15 at% Tin and y≤16 at% Indium transform martensitically. The structural transition temperatures increase linearly with decreasing Tin or Indium content. The crystal structures of the low temperature martensite are modulated as well as unmodulated. Alloys with compositions close to stoichiometry are dominated by ferromagnetic interactions, whereas those close to the binary composition Ni 50 Mn 50 order antiferromagnetically. Ferromagnetic order and structural instability coexist in a narrow composition range between 13 at%≤x≤15 at% and 15 at%≤x≤16 at% for Ni 50 Mn 50-x Sn x and Ni 50 Mn 50-y In y respectively. As a consequence, interesting magnetoelastic effects are observed. The Ni 50 Mn 34 In 16 alloy shows a magnetic field-induced structural transition, whereby application of an external magnetic field in the martensitic state stabilizes the high temperature L2 1 structure. Evidence for this was given by neutron diffraction experiments in external magnetic fields. Moreover, the structural transition temperatures of this alloy show large magnetic field dependencies. By use of calorimetry, M(T), and strain measurements, changes in M s up to -11 K/Tesla are observed. Such large values have, until now, not been observed in Heusler alloys. Since during transformation the volume changes reversibly, magnetic field-induced strains of about 0.12 % appear. Additionally, the alloys Ni 50 Mn 35 Sn 15 , Ni 50 Mn 37 Sn 13 , Ni 50 Mn 34 In 16 , Ni 51.5 Mn 33 In

  4. Determination of uranium by a gravimetric-volumetric titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.

    1998-01-01

    A volumetric-gravimetric modification of a method for the determination of uranium based on the reduction of uranium to U (IV) in a phosphoric acid medium and titration with a standard potassium dichromate solution is described. More than 99% of the stoichiometric amount of the titrating solution is weighed and the remainder is added volumetrically by using the Mettler DL 40 RC Memotitrator. Computer interconnected with analytical balances collects continually the data on the analyzed samples and evaluates the results of determination. The method allows to determine uranium in samples of uranium metal, alloys, oxides, and ammonium diuranate by using aliquot portions containing 30 - 100 mg of uranium with the error of determination, expressed as the relative standard deviation, of 0.02 - 0.05%. (author)

  5. Uranium hexafluoride. Bromine spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Bromine determination in hydrolized uranium hexafluoride by reduction of bromates by ferrous sulfate, oxidation of bromides by potassium permanganate to give bromine which is extracted into carbon tetrachloride and transformed in eosine for spectrophotometry at 510 nm. The method is suitable for determining 5 to 150 ppm with respect to uranium [fr

  6. Transformation processes during annealing of Al-amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, N.; Petrescu, M.; Calin, M.; Jianu, A.D.; Fecioru, M.

    1993-01-01

    As the amorphous aluminum alloys represent the newest achievement in rapid solidification of Al-based high strength heat resistent materials, a study was undertaken on the amorphous alloys in the Al-RE-TM system, the rare-earth metal being a lanthanide mixture and the transition metal a Ni-Fe substitution in definite proportions. The decomposition on heating of the most highly alloyed amorphous alloy in the investigated series is characterized by differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. (orig.)

  7. Transformation processes during annealing of Al-amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, N. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Petrescu, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Calin, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Jianu, A.D. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania) IFTM-Bucharest (Romania)); Fecioru, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania) DACIA Enterprise-Bucharest (Romania))

    1993-11-01

    As the amorphous aluminum alloys represent the newest achievement in rapid solidification of Al-based high strength heat resistent materials, a study was undertaken on the amorphous alloys in the Al-RE-TM system, the rare-earth metal being a lanthanide mixture and the transition metal a Ni-Fe substitution in definite proportions. The decomposition on heating of the most highly alloyed amorphous alloy in the investigated series is characterized by differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. (orig.).

  8. Corrosion of Al-7075 by uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The results of the Al-7075 corrosion by uranium hexafluoride are presented in this work. The kinetic study shows that corrosion process occurs by two temperature dependent mechanism and that the alloy can be safely used up to 140 0 C. The corrosion film is formed by uranium oxifluoride with variable composition in depth. Two alternative corrosion models are proposed in order to explain the experimental results, as well as the tests taht will be carried out to confirm one of them [pt

  9. Oxidation Behavior of Simudated Metallic U-Nb Alloys in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Pyo; Ju, June Sik; You, Gil Sung; Cho, Il Je; Kook, Dong Hak; Kim, Ho Dong

    2004-01-01

    In order to enhance an oxidation resistance of the pure uranium metal under air condition, a small quantity of niobium(Nb) which is known to mitigate metal oxidation is added into uranium metal as an alloying element. A simulated metallic uranium alloy, U-Nb has been fabricated and then oxidized in the range of 200 to under the environment of the pure oxygen gas. The oxidized quantity in terms of the weight gain (wt%) has been measured with the help of a thermogravimetric analyzer. The results show that the oxidation resistance of the U-Nb alloy is considerably enhanced in comparison with that of the pure uranium metal. It is revealed that the oxidation resistance of the former with the niobium content of 1, 2, 3, and 4 wt% is : 1) 1.61, 7.78, 11.76 and 20.14 times at the temperature of 200 .deg. C; 2) 1.45, 5.98, 10.08 and 11.15 times at 250 .deg. C; and 3) 1.33, 4.82, 8.87 and 6.84 times at 300 .deg. C higher than that of the latter, respectively. Besides, it is shown that the activation energy attributable to the oxidation is 17.13-21.92 kcal/mol.

  10. Irreversibility in transformation behavior of equiatomic nickel-titanium alloy by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity were precisely performed on shape memory Ni 50 Ti 50 alloy in order to reveal the irreversible behavior of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation with thermal cycling. The hump in the electrical resistivity during cooling is enhanced with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles to result in a peak, although no peak in the electrical resistivity is observed on the reverse transformation during heating. The electrical resistivity in the low-temperature phase, of which the temperature dependence is linear, increases with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles. The temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity in the temperature region of the high-temperature phase increases with elevating the temperature. The transformation is strongly influenced by incomplete thermal cycles to result in a peak in the resistivity even on the reverse transformation after incomplete thermal cycling. It is thought that the anomalous behavior such as enhancement of a resistivity-peak, the increase in the electrical resistivity of the low-temperature phase, and the nonlinear relation between the resistivity and the temperature in the high-temperature phase are attributable to the appearance of an intermediate phase stabilized by transformation-induced defects, the accumulation of the transformation-induced defects, and the electron scattering due to the softening of a phonon mode in the high-temperature phase, respectively. It proved useful to make more accurate measurements of the electrical resistivity in order to investigate the intrinsic behavior of the transformation in NiTi

  11. Polarized Neutron Study of Ni-Mn-Ga Alloys: Site-Specific Spin Density Affected by Martensitic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázpita, P; Barandiarán, J M; Gutiérrez, J; Mondelli, C; Sozinov, A; Chernenko, V A

    2017-10-13

    Polarized neutron scattering has been used to obtain the magnetic moment at specific crystallographic sites of the austenitic and martensitic phases of two nonstoichiometric Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals with close composition. These alloys have been chosen because they exhibit different structures in the paramagnetic state and inverse positions of the respective martensitic transformation and Curie temperature. The diffraction analysis revealed a remarkable result: Despite the similar alloy composition, the magnetic moments of Mn are quite different for the two alloys at the same crystallographic position. Furthermore, such a difference enabled us to assess that the exchange coupling between Mn atoms switches from ferro- to antiferromagnetic at a distance between 2.92 and 3.32 Å in the martensite. These results are of great importance to guide first principles calculations that, up to now, have not been contrasted with experiments at the atomic level.

  12. Variation of the uranium monocarbide parameter with changes in the carbon content; Variations du parametre du monocarbure d'uranium en fonction de sa teneur en carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnier, P; Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors show that the chemical species uranium monocarbide is only a particular composition of the uranium-carbon alloy phase containing between 48 and 50 atoms per cent of carbon, and that the crystalline parameter of this phase varies simultaneously from 4.956 to 4.961 Angstroms. (authors) [French] Les auteurs montrent que l'espece chimique monocarbure d'uranium n'est qu'une composition particuliere de la phase des alliages uranium carbone contenant entre 48 et 50 atomes pour cent de carbone et que le parametre cristallin de cette phase varie simultanement de 4.956 a 4.961 Angstroms.

  13. Martensitic Transformations and Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Fe-Mn-Si Alloys for Biodegradable Medical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevet, Richard; Zhukova, Yulia; Malikova, Polina; Dubinskiy, Sergey; Korotitskiy, Andrey; Pustov, Yury; Prokoshkin, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The Fe-Mn-Si alloys are promising materials for biodegradable metallic implants for temporary healing process in the human body. In this study, three different compositions are considered (Fe23Mn5Si, Fe26Mn5Si, and Fe30Mn5Si, all in wt pct). The phase composition analysis by XRD reveals ɛ-martensite, α-martensite, and γ-austenite in various proportions depending on the manganese amount. The DSC study shows that the starting temperature of the martensitic transformation ( M s) of the alloys decreases when the manganese content increases (416 K, 401 K, and 323 K (143 °C, 128 °C, and 50 °C) for the Fe23Mn5Si, Fe26Mn5Si, and Fe30Mn5Si alloys, respectively). Moreover, mechanical compression tests indicate that these alloys have a much lower Young's modulus ( E) than pure iron (220 GPa), i.e., 145, 133, and 118 GPa for the Fe23Mn5Si, Fe26Mn5Si, and Fe30Mn5Si alloys, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the alloys is studied in Hank's solution at 310 K (37 °C) using electrochemical experiments and weight loss measurements. The corrosion kinetics of the Fe-Mn-Si increases with the manganese content (0.48, 0.59, and 0.80 mm/year for the Fe23Mn5Si, Fe26Mn5Si, and Fe30Mn5Si alloys, respectively). The alloy with the highest manganese content shows the most promising properties for biomedical applications as a biodegradable and biomechanically compatible implant material.

  14. X-ray spectroscopic studies of microbial transformations of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J.; Clayton, C.R.

    1995-10-01

    Several uranium compounds U-metal (α-phase), UO 2 , U 3 O 8 , γ-UO 3 , uranyl acetate, uranyl nitrate, uranyl sulfate, aqueous and solid forms of 1:1 U:citric acid and 1:1:2 U:Fe:citric acid mixed-metal complexes, and a precipitate obtained by photodegradation of the U-citrate complex were characterized by X-ray spectroscopy using XPS, XANES, and EXAFS. XPS and XANES were used to determine U oxidation states. Spectral shifts were obtained at the U 4f 7/2 and U 4f 5/2 binding energies using XPS, and at the uranium M V absorption edge using XANES. The magnitude of the energy shift with oxidation state, and the ability to detect mixed-valent forms make these ideal techniques for determining uranium speciation in wastes subjected to bacterial action. The structure of 1:1 U:citric acid complex in both the aqueous and solid state was determined by EXAFS analysis of hexavalent uranium at the L M absorption edge and suggests the presence of a binuclear complex with a (UO 2 ) 2 (μ,η 2 -citrato) 2 core with a U-U distance of 5.2 angstrom. The influence of Fe on the structure of U-citrate complex was determined by EXAFS and the presence of a binuclear mixed-metal citrate complex with a U-Fe distance of 4.8 angstrom was confirmed. The precipitate resulting from photodegradation of U-citrate complex was identified as an amorphous form of uranium trioxide by XPS and EXAS

  15. Thermal expansion and transformation behavior of cerium and plutonium alloys: an application of the Aptekar-Ponyatovsky regular solution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A C; Lashley, J C

    2011-09-14

    In this paper we apply the Aptekar-Ponyatovsky (AP) regular solution thermodynamic model to the analysis of experimental data for the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and determine the AP model parameters for unalloyed cerium metal, Ce-Th-La alloys, and Pu-Ga alloys. We find that the high temperature CTE of cerium metal follows the predictions of the AP model based on low temperature, high pressure data. For Ce-Th-La alloys we use the AP parameters to track the suppression of the first-order γ-α cerium transition. We show the AP model accounts for the negative CTE observed for Pu-Ga alloys and is equivalent to an earlier invar model. Finally, we apply the AP parameters obtained for Pu-Ga alloys to rationalize the observed δ-α transformation pressures of these alloys. We show that the anomalous values of the Grüneisen and Grüneisen-Anderson parameters are important features of the thermal properties of plutonium. A strong analogy between the properties of plutonium and cerium is confirmed.

  16. Behaviour of uranium under irradiation; Comportement de l'uranium sous irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y; Mustelier, J P; Quere, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The main results obtained in a study of the formation of defects caused in uranium by fission at low temperature are reported. By irradiation at 20 K. it was possible to determine the number of Frenkel pairs produced by one fission. An analysis of the curves giving the variations in electrical resistivity shows the size of the displacement spikes and the mechanism of defect creation due to fission. Irradiations at 77 K gave additional information, showing behaviour differences in the case of recrystallised and of cold worked uranium. The diffusion of rare gases was studied using metal-rare gas alloys obtained by electrical discharge, and samples of irradiated uranium. Simple diffusion is only responsible for the release of the rare gases under vacuum in cases where the rare gas content is very low (very slightly irradiated U). On the other hand when the concentration is higher (samples prepared by electrical discharge) the gas is given off by the formation, growth and coalescence of bubbles; the apparent diffusion coefficient is then quite different from the true coefficient and cannot be used in calculations on swelling. The various factors governing the phenomenon of simple diffusion were examined. It was shown in particular that a small addition of molybdenum could reduce the diffusion coefficient by a factor of 100. The precipitation of gas in uranium (Kr), in silver (Kr) and in Al-Li alloy (He) have been followed by measurement of the crystal parameter and of the electrical resistivity, and by electron microscope examination of thin films. The important part played by dislocations in the generation and growth of bubbles has been demonstrated, and it has been shown also that precipitation of bubbles on the dislocation lattice could block the development of recrystallisation. The results of these studies were compared with observations made on the swelling of uranium and uranium alloys U Mo and U Nb strongly irradiated between 400 and 700 C. In the case of Cubic

  17. Preparation of the pur uranium-metal; La preparation de l'uranium-metal pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B.; Vertes, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    A detailed description of the chemical processes used to prepare in the factory of Bouchet of the CEA (Seine-Et-Oise) pur metal uranium with either relatively rich ores, or extracts coming of physical or chemical treatment of poor ores. The nitric treatment of ores succeeds to the production of uranate of impure sodium carbonate. This last last product is dissolved in nitric acid and the uranyl nitrate is extracted by tributyl-phosphate diluted in an inert solvent. The uranyl nitrate pure is re-extracted and successively transformed in uranium peroxide, in orange oxide then in brown oxide which is transformed in fluoride by the anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Uranate fluoride is then reduced in metal by the pure calcium with an yield superior to 99%. (authors) [French] Description detaillee des procedes chimiques mis en jeu pour preparer a l'Usine du Bouchet du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (Seine-et-Oise) l'uranium metal pur a partir soit de minerais relativement riches, soit de concentres provenant de traitement physique ou chimique de minerais pauvres. Le traitement nitrique des minerais aboutit a la production d'uranate de soude impur. Ce dernier est a son tour dissous dans l'acide nitrique et le nitrate d'uranyle est extrait par du tributyl-phosphate dilue par un solvant inerte. Le nitrate d'uranyle pur reextrait est transforme successivement en peroxyde d'uranium, en oxyde orange puis en oxyde brun qui est transforme en fluorure par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre. Le fluorure uraneux est reduit en metal par le calcium pur avec un rendement superieur a 99 %. (auteurs)

  18. Reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation over a wide temperature window in Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin

    2018-05-01

    Ni42-xCoxCu8Mn37Ga13 (0 ≤ x ≤ 14) alloys are reported to exhibit a magnetostructural transition from weakly-magnetic martensite to ferromagnetic austenite over a rather wide temperature window ranging from 200 K to 380 K. Simultaneously a large magnetization change Δσ of up to 105 Am2 kg-1 is obtained at the martensitic transformation. A reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation is realized, resulting in a large magnetocaloric effect related to the high magnetic entropy change with a broad working temperature span. This work shows how it is possible to effectively tailor the magnetostructural transition in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys so as to achieve a reversible magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation and associated functionalities.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the crystal structure, martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 53}Ni{sub 25}Ga{sub 22} ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, G.F., E-mail: dgfu0451@sina.com [Department of mechanics Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China); Gao, Z.Y. [National Key Laboratory Precision Hot Processing of Metals, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 405, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on crystal structure, martensitic transformation, thermodynamic behavior and magnetic properties of polycrystalline Mn{sub 53}Ni{sub 25}Ga{sub 22} ferromagnetic shape memory alloy was systematically investigated. The results show that the heat treatment has obvious effect on martensitic transformation temperatures, crystal structure and hysteresis loops. Heat treatment greatly effects on transformation temperatures due to modified composition of the matrix. Martensitic transformation temperature, saturation magnetization decreased with the increase heat treatment temperature, reaching their minimum values at the heat treatment temperature of 1173 K for 12 h. Curie temperature of maximum values obtained at solution-treated of 1173 K for 12 h. In other word, increasing heat treatment temperature and time has an effect on Curie temperature. In addition, the annealed alloy Mn{sub 53}Ni{sub 25}Ga{sub 22} may completely dissolve in vacuum tubes at 1173 K for 12 h. It is found that the studied alloys have some (Mn,Ni){sub 4} Ga-type compound precipitates, which can be seen dispersing both in grain interiors and on grain boundaries at other heat treatment process. Lastly, Rietveld analysis shows the good agreement between experiment and calculated data of XRD patterns. - Highlights: • Heat treatment has obvious effect on transformation, structure and hysteresis. • Transformation temperature decreased with increase heat treatment temperature. • Magnetization decreased with increase heat treatment temperature. • Annealed alloy completely dissolve in vacuum tubes at 1123 K for 24 h.

  20. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  1. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  2. Uranium fluorides analysis. Titanium spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Titanium determination in uranium hexafluoride in the range 0.7 to 100 microgrammes after transformation of uranium fluoride in sulfate. Titanium is separated by extraction with N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine, reextracted by hydrochloric-hydrofluoric acid. The complex titanium-N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine is extracted by chloroform. Spectrophotometric determination at 400 nm [fr

  3. Phase transformation and magnetic anisotropy of an iron-palladium ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, J.; Shield, T.W.; James, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    Martensitic phase transformations in an Fe 7 Pd 3 alloy were studied using various experimental techniques: visual observation, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements and X-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements on this alloy were made using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Susceptibility Kappa bridge. The VSM measurements were made with the sample in a compression fixture to bias the martensite phase to a single variant. Both X-ray and DSC measurements show that the FCC-FCT transformation is a weak first-order thermoelastic transition. The average lattice parameters are a=3.822±0.001 A and c=3.630±0.001 A for the FCT martensite, and a 0 =3.756±0.001 A for the FCC austenite. The latent heat of the FCC-FCT transformation is 10.79±0.01 J/cm 3 . A Susceptibility Kappa bridge measurement determined the Curie temperature to be 450 deg. C. The saturation magnetization from VSM data is m s =1220±10 emu/cm 3 at -20 deg. C for the martensite and m s =1080±10 emu/cm 3 at 60 deg. C for the austenite. The easy axes of a single variant of FCT martensite are the [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions (the a-axes of the FCT lattice) and the [0 0 1] direction (FCT c-axis) is the hard direction. The cubic magnetic anisotropy constant K 1 is -5±2x10 3 erg/cm 3 for the austenite at 60 deg. C, and the tetragonal anisotropy constant K 1 +K 2 is 3.41 ± 0.02 x 10 5 erg/cm 3 for the martensite at a temperature of -20 deg. C and under 8 MPa of compressive stress in the [0 0 1] direction

  4. Long-Range Atomic Order and Entropy Change at the Martensitic Transformation in a Ni-Mn-In-Co Metamagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez-Alarcos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the atomic order on the martensitic transformation entropy change has been studied in a Ni-Mn-In-Co metamagnetic shape memory alloy through the evolution of the transformation temperatures under high-temperature quenching and post-quench annealing thermal treatments. It is confirmed that the entropy change evolves as a consequence of the variations on the degree of L21 atomic order brought by thermal treatments, though, contrary to what occurs in ternary Ni-Mn-In, post-quench aging appears to be the most effective way to modify the transformation entropy in Ni-Mn-In-Co. It is also shown that any entropy change value between around 40 and 5 J/kgK can be achieved in a controllable way for a single alloy under the appropriate aging treatment, thus bringing out the possibility of properly tune the magnetocaloric effect.

  5. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-03-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

  6. Evolution of phase transformation and magnetic properties with Fe content in Ni55-x Fe x Mn20Ga25 Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanlei; Li, Zhe; He, Xijia; Huang, Yinsheng; Xu, Kun; Jing, Chao

    2018-02-01

    A series of Ni55-x Fe x Mn20Ga25 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  5) Heusler alloys was prepared to investigate their phase transitions and magnetic properties. At room temperature, these alloys present various crystal structures, and the unit cell volume enlarges with increase of Fe content in both austenite and martensite. Multiple magneto-structural transformations were observed in the parent alloy (x  =  0). In the process of cooling, it undergoes martensitic transformation (MT) from L21-type paramagnetic austenite to L10-type ferromagnetic martensite, accompanying an intermartensitic transformation (IMT, 7M  →  L10). By establishing a detailed phase diagram, we found that both MT and IMT shift to lower temperature simultaneously, while the ferromagnetic (FM) transition of austenite moves to higher temperature as Fe increases. With the further increase of Fe content beyond a critical value, both the IMT and the FM transitions split off from MT, and the former follows with the transforming sequence of 7M  →  5M. Based on the experimental data, some key magnetic parameters have been obtained in this system. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant ({{K}1} ) of martensite quickly increases as Fe increases, and then it almost reaches a saturated value (~5.5  ×  105 J m-3) for the alloys with x  >  3. However, the spontaneous magnetic moment ({μs} ) attains a peak value of about 4.2 μ B/f.u. in the alloy with x  =  4, which is not consistent with the linear increasing of effective magnetic moment ({μef f} ). Further magnetic measurements with hydrostatic pressure indicate that such a discrepancy could be ascribed to the competition between the magnetic exchange interaction and the volume change of unit cell governed by the dopant Fe content.

  7. Study on phase transformations in superconducting Ti-50%Nb alloy using temperature-dependent internal friction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapoval, B.I.; Tikhinskij, G.F.; Somov, A.I.; Chernyj, O.V.; Rudycheva, T.Yu.; Andrievskaya, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    The internal friction method is used to study phase transformations in the Ti-50%Nb alloy parallel with other methods. The effect of annealing temperature and time, as well as the content of interstitial impurities in the alloy and its thermomechanical treatment (TMT) is studied. In the 250-300 deg C temperature range the complex maximum of internal friction caused by extraction of secondary phases is observed. The latter is confirmed by the measurement data of mechanical properties and electron microscopic analysis. The maximum consists of three overlapping peaks that reflects stepped form of the decomposition process of the metastable solid solution. The preliminary thermo-mechanical alloy treatment consisting of equidirectional plastic deformation with the following recrystallization annealing leads to peak increase. This fact testifies to the stimulating effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on the degree of solid solution decomposition and reveals in the increase of the critical current density of a wire made of the ingot. The increase of the interstitial impurity content in the alloy has the analogous effect. The reduction of the internal friction level during isothermal stand-up at temperatures higher than the third peak temperature proceeds in two stages [ru

  8. Surface mechanical attrition treatment induced phase transformation behavior in NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.; Wen, C.S.; Lu, J.; Wu, S.L.; Xin, Y.C.; Zhang, W.J.; Chu, C.L.; Chung, J.C.Y.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase constituents and transformation behavior of the martensite B19' NiTi shape memory alloy after undergoing surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) are investigated. SMAT is found to induce the formation of a parent B2 phase from the martensite B19' in the top surface layer. By removing the surface layer-by-layer, X-ray diffraction reveals that the amount of the B2 phase decreases with depth. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) further indicates that the deformed martensite in the sub-surface layer up to 300 μm deep exhibits the martensite stabilization effect. The graded phase structure and transformation behavior in the SMATed NiTi specimen can be attributed to the gradient change in strain with depth.

  9. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  10. A Very High Uranium Density Fission Mo Target Suitable for LEU Using atomization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. K.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Ryu, H. J.; Woo, Y. M.; Jang, S. J.; Park, J. M.; Choi, S. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Currently HEU minimization efforts in fission Mo production are underway in connection with the global threat reduction policy. In order to convert HEU to LEU for the fission Mo target, higher uranium density material could be applied. The uranium aluminide targets used world widely for commercial {sup 99}Mo production are limited to 3.0 g-U/cc in uranium density of the target meat. A consideration of high uranium density using the uranium metal particles dispersion plate target is taken into account. The irradiation burnup of the fission Mo target are as low as 8 at.% and the irradiation period is shorter than 7 days. Pure uranium material has higher thermal conductivity than uranium compounds or alloys. It is considered that the degradation by irradiation would be almost negligible. In this study, using the computer code of the PLATE developed by ANL the irradiation behavior was estimated. Some considerations were taken into account to improve the irradiation performance further. It has been known that some alloying elements of Si, Cr, Fe, and Mo are beneficial for reducing the swelling by grain refinement. In the RERTR program recently the interaction problem could be solved by adding a small amount of Si to the aluminum matrix phase. The fabrication process and the separation process for the proposed atomized uranium particles dispersion target were reviewed

  11. Dissolution of metallic uranium and its alloys. Part II. Screening study results: Identification of an effective non-thermal uranium dissolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, C.A.; Gates-Anderson, D.; Fitch, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Screening experiments were performed to evaluate reagent systems that deactivate pyrophoric, metallic depleted uranium waste streams at ambient temperature. The results presented led to the selection of two systems, which would be investigated further, for the design of the LLNL onsite treatment process of metallic depleted uranium wastes. The two feasible systems are: (a) 7.5 mol/l H 2 SO 4 - 1 mol/l HNO 3 and (b) 3 mol/l HCl - 1 mol/l H 3 PO 4 . The sulfuric acid system dissolves uranium metal completely, while the hydrochloric-phosphoric acid system converts the metal completely into a solid, which might be suitable for direct disposal. Both systems combine oxidation of metallic uranium with complexation of the uranium ions formed to effectively deactivate uranium.s pyrophoricity at ambient temperature. (author)

  12. Electron irradiation effect on the reverse phase transformation temperatures in TiNi shape memory alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.G.; Zu, X.T.; Fu, Y.Q.; Zhu, S.; Wang, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Ti-Ni shape memory alloy thin films were irradiated by 1.7 MeV electron with three types of fluences: 4 x 10 20 , 7 x 10 20 and 1 x 10 21 /m 2 . The influence of electron irradiation on the transformation behavior of the TiNi thin films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation temperatures A s and A f shifted to higher temperature after electron irradiation, the martensite was stabilized. The electron irradiation effect can be easily eliminated by one thermal cycle. The shifts of the transformation temperatures can be explained from the change of po