Full Text Available Coronary heart disease is still one of the most common sources for death in western industrial countries. Since 1986, a metal vessel scaffold (stent has been inserted to prevent the vessel wall from collapsing. Most of these coronary stents are made from CrNiMosteel (316L. Due to its austenitic structure, the material shows a good combination of strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, this material has some disadvantages like its non-MRI compatibility and its poor fluoroscopic visibility. Other typically used materials are the CoBase alloys L-605 and F-562 which are MRI compatible as well as radiopaque. Another interesting fact is their excellent radial strength and therefore the ability to produce extra thin struts with increased strength. However, because of a strut diameter much less than 100 μm, the cross section consists of about 5 to 10 crystal grains (oligocrystalline. Thus, very few or even just one grain can be responsible for the success or failure of the whole stent. To investigate the relation between microstructure, mechanical factors and stent design, commercially available Cobalt-Chromium stents were investigated with focus on distinct inhomogeneous plastic deformation due to crimping and dilation. A characteristic, material related deformation behavior with predominantly primary slip was identified to be responsible for the special properties of CoCr stents.
Halford, G. R.
Study of some important characteristics of the cyclic creep-rupture curves for the titanium alloy 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo at 900 and 1100 F (755 and 865 K), the cobalt-base alloy L-605 at 1180 F (910 K), and for two hardness levels of 316 stainless steel at 1300 F (980 K). The cyclic creep-rupture curve relates tensile stress and tensile time-to-rupture for strain-limited cyclic loading and has been found to be independent of the total strain range and the level of compressive stress employed in the cyclic creep-rupture tests. The cyclic creep-rupture curve was always found to be above and to the right of the conventional (constant load) monotonic creep-rupture curve by factors ranging from 2 to 10 in time-to-rupture. This factor tends to be greatest when the creep ductility is large. Cyclic creep acceleration was observed in every cyclic creep-rupture test conducted. The phenomenon was most pronounced at the highest stress levels and when the tensile and compressive stresses were completely reversed. In general, creep rates were found to be lower in compression than in tension for equal true stresses. The differences, however, were strongly material-dependent.
Li, Xiu-Mei [School of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 Nanjing North Street, Shenyang 110002 (China); Li, Hui-Zhe; Wang, Shao-Ping [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Huang, Hsun-Miao; Huang, Her-Hsiung [Biomaterials and Electrochemistry Lab, Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City 112, Taiwan (China); Ai, Hong-Jun, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 Nanjing North Street, Shenyang 110002 (China); Xu, Jian, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)
Nb–60Ta–2Zr is a newly developed MRI-compatible alloy used for vascular stents. In this work, its haemocompatibility was investigated, including platelet adhesion (lactate dehydrogenase activity), platelet activation (P-selectin expression), coagulation and haemolysis. For comparison, parallel assessments for these factors were performed for the niobium, tantalum, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and L605 Co–Cr alloy (L605). In addition, albumin and fibrinogen were selected to examine the correlation of protein adsorption with platelet adhesion and metal surface properties. The propensity for platelet adhesion and activation on the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy was at nearly the same level as that for Nb and Ta but was slightly less than those of 316L SS and L605. The mitigated platelet adhesion and activation of the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy is associated with its decreased adsorption of fibrinogen. The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy has a longer clotting time and exhibits significantly superior thromboresistance than 316L SS and L605. Moreover, the haemolysis rate of the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy satisfies the bio-safety requirement of the ISO 10993–4 standard. The favourable haemocompatiblity of the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy provides evidence of its good biocompatibility and of its suitability as a candidate stent material. - Highlights: • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy is less hydrophobic than the 316L SS and L605 alloy. • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr has slightly weak propensity for platelet adhesion and activation. • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy results in a longer clotting time. • Haemolysis of Nb–60Ta–2Zr is slightly lower than that of 316L SS and L605. • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy is a promising MRI-compatible stent material.