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Sample records for alloy phase formation

  1. Phase formation in multicomponent monotectic aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are potential materials for advanced bearings in automotive and other applications. While binary alloys, such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi, are well known, the information available for ternary monotectic Al-alloys is scarce. However, the phase formation in multicomponent alloys is not only more challenging from a scientific aspect, it is also a prerequisite for a focused development of advanced alloys. This motivated our detailed study of monotectic Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys including both experimental and computational thermodynamic methods. Based on the initially established systematic classification of monotectic ternary Al-alloys, the first promising monotectic reaction was observed in the ternary Al-Bi-Zn system. Further ternary systems Al-Cu-Sn, Al-Bi-Sn, Al-Bi-Cu and Bi-Cu-Sn were investigated as basis for quaternary Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys. Experimental investigations of phase equilibria, enthalpies and solidification microstructures were combined with thermodynamic modeling. The results demonstrate that the developed precise thermodynamic description is vital to reveal the distinct multicomponent monotectic features of pertinent phase diagrams. The solidification paths of ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, were also studied using thermodynamic calculations, revealing specific details of phase formation during solidification of selected alloys.

  2. Formation of nano quasicrystalline and crystalline phases by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamah, A.M.; Ibrahim, S. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Hanna, F.F., E-mail: fariedhanna@yahoo.com [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Mechanical alloying (MA) is an important method to investigate the formation of nano sized quasicrystalline phases in Al{sub 86}Cr{sub 14}, Al{sub 84}Fe{sub 16} and Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} compounds. The second part of the present work is an attempt to examine the possibility of formation of the i-phase of the Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5}, which lies in the region of the perfect i-phase in the ternary phase diagram, by rapid solidification method. To perform the obtained quasi phase mechanical alloying and heat treatment at the rapid solidified sample were done. - Abstract: In the present work, the formation of nano quasicrystalline icosahedral phase in Al{sub 86}Cr{sub 14}, Al{sub 84}Fe{sub 16} and Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} alloys has been investigated by mechanical alloying. Mixtures of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases have been observed under various milling conditions. The X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and electrical resistivity techniques have been used for characterization and physical property measurements. The particle size was calculated by X-ray profile using Williamson-Hall plot method and it was found to be 25-50 nm size.

  3. Formation of nano quasicrystalline and crystalline phases by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamah, A.M.; Ibrahim, S.; Hanna, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mechanical alloying (MA) is an important method to investigate the formation of nano sized quasicrystalline phases in Al 86 Cr 14 , Al 84 Fe 16 and Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 compounds. The second part of the present work is an attempt to examine the possibility of formation of the i-phase of the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 , which lies in the region of the perfect i-phase in the ternary phase diagram, by rapid solidification method. To perform the obtained quasi phase mechanical alloying and heat treatment at the rapid solidified sample were done. - Abstract: In the present work, the formation of nano quasicrystalline icosahedral phase in Al 86 Cr 14 , Al 84 Fe 16 and Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 alloys has been investigated by mechanical alloying. Mixtures of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases have been observed under various milling conditions. The X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and electrical resistivity techniques have been used for characterization and physical property measurements. The particle size was calculated by X-ray profile using Williamson-Hall plot method and it was found to be 25-50 nm size.

  4. Influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the phase formation in Cu-Zn alloys

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kozana; St. Rzadkosz; M. Piękoś

    2010-01-01

    Influence of the selected alloy additions into copper and zinc alloys was investigated in order to find out the possibility of limiting the precipitation of unfavourable phase . The observation of microstructures and strength tests were performed. The results of metallographic and strength investigations indicate positive influence of small amounts of nickel, cobalt or tellurium. The precise determination of the influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the gamma phase formation ...

  5. Influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the phase formation in Cu-Zn alloys

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    J. Kozana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the selected alloy additions into copper and zinc alloys was investigated in order to find out the possibility of limiting the precipitation of unfavourable phase . The observation of microstructures and strength tests were performed. The results of metallographic and strength investigations indicate positive influence of small amounts of nickel, cobalt or tellurium. The precise determination of the influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the gamma phase formation will be the subject of further examinations.

  6. Structural formation of aluminide phases on titanium alloy during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaeva, A.A.; Romankov, S.E.; Sagdoldina, Zh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aluminum layer on the surface of titanium alloy has been formed by thermal deposition. The structural formation of aluminide phases on the surface has been studied. The sequence of structural transformations at the Ti/Al interface is limited by the reaction temperature and time. The sequence of aluminide phase formation is occurred in compliance with Ti-Al equilibrium phase diagram. At the initial stages at the Ti/Al interface the Al3Ti alloy starts forming as a result of interdiffusion, and gradually the whole aluminum films is spent on the formation of this layer. The Al3Ti layer decomposes with the increase of temperature (>600C). At 800C the two-phase (Ti3Al+TiAl) layer is formed on the titanium surface. The TiAl compound is unstable and later on with the increase of the exposure time at 800C gradually transforms into the Ti3Al. The chain of these successive transformations leads to the formation of the continuous homogeneous layer consisting of the Ti3Al compound on the surface. At temperatures exceeding the allotropic transformation temperature (>900C) the Ti3Al compound starts decomposing. All structural changes taking place at the Ti/Al interface are accompanied by considerable changes in micro hardness. The structure of initial substrate influences on kinetics of phase transformation and microstructure development. (author)

  7. Effect of alloying elements on σ phase formation in Fe-Cr-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Miyahara, Kazuya; Hosoi, Yuzo; Tanino, Mitsuru; Komatsu, Hazime.

    1989-01-01

    Alloys of Fe-(8∼12%) Cr-(5∼30%) Mn were solution-treated at 1373 K for 3.6 ks, followed by cold-working of 50% reduction. Both solution-treated and 50% cold-worked materials were aged in the temperature range from 773 to 973 K for 3.6 x 10 3 ks. The identification of σ phase formation was made by using X-ray diffraction from the electrolytically extracted residues of the aged specimens. The region of σ phase formation determined by the present work is wider than that on the phase diagram already reported. It is to be noted that Mn promotes markedly the σ phase formation, and that three different types of σ phase formation are observed depending on Mn content: α→γ + α→γ + α + σ in 10% Mn, α→γ + σ in 15 to 20% Mn alloys, α→χ(Chi) →χ + σ + γ in 25 to 30% Mn alloys. An average electron concentration (e/a) in the σ phase was estimated by quantitative analysis of alloying elements using EPMA. The e/a value in the σ phase formed in Fe-(12∼16%) Cr-Mn alloys aged at 873 K for 3.6 x 10 3 ks is about 7.3, which is independent of Mn content. In order to prevent σ phase formation in Fe-12% Cr-15% Mn alloy, the value of Ni * eq of 11 (Ni * eq = Ni + 30(C) + 25(N)) is required. (author)

  8. The quasicrystalline phase formation in Al-Cu-Cr alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sviridova, T.A.; Shevchukov, A.P.; Shelekhov, E.V. [National University of Science and Technology ' MISIS' , Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Diakonov, D.L. [Bardin Central Research Institute for the Iron and Steel Industry, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology ' MISIS' , Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Formation of decagonal quasicrystalline phase in Al-Cu-Cr alloys. > Obtained decagonal phase belongs to D{sub 3} family of decagonal quasicrystals. > Decagonal phase has 1.26 nm periodicity along 10-fold axis. > Alloys were produced by combination of mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing. > Phase composition of as-milled powders depending on annealing temperature. - Abstract: Almost single-phase decagonal quasicrystal with periodicity of 1.26 nm along 10-fold axis was produced in Al{sub 69}Cu{sub 21}Cr{sub 10} and Al{sub 72.5}Cu{sub 16.5}Cr{sub 11} alloys using combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent annealing. Phase transformations of as-milled powders depending on annealing temperature in the range of 200-800 deg. C are examined. Since the transformations can be explained based on kinetic and thermodynamic reasons it seems that applied technique (short preliminary MA followed by the annealing) permits to produce the equilibrium phases rather than metastable ones.

  9. Corrosion phase formation on container alloys in basalt repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Rivera, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is evaluating the suitability of basalt in southeastern Washington State as a possible location for a nuclear waste repository. The performance of the waste package, which includes the waste form, container, and surrounding packing material, will be affected by the stability of container alloys in the repository environment. Primary corrosion phases and altered packing material containing metals leached from the container may also influence subsequent reactions between the waste form and repository environment. Copper- and iron-based alloys were tested at 50 0 to 300 0 C in an air/steam environment and in pressure vessels in ground-water-saturated basalt-bentonite packing material. Reaction phases formed on the alloys were identified and corrosion rates were measured. Changes in adhering packing material were also evaluated. The observed reactions and their possible effects on container alloy durability in the repository are discussed

  10. Formation of ω-phase in Zr-4 at.% Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Kazantseva, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The ω-phase has been discovered in zirconium-base alloys with the transition metals of Period 4 of the Periodic Table only in Zr-V, Zr-Cr, and Zr-Cu alloys. The first mention about the ω-phase formation in Zr-Cr alloys was given for Zr-4.5 at.%. However, there were no experimental data that confirmed this fact. W.M. Rumball and F.G. Elder presented the X-ray results on the ω-phase formation in Zr-3.9 at.%Cr, but at the present time there are no electron microscope studies of the structure of the ω-phase in this system. Investigations of the features of the ω-phase formation, morphology of the ω-phase and the mechanism of its formation in the different zirconium-base alloys are necessary to establish the common features of the formation of structures with the metastable phases. The task of the present work is to study the conditions and features of the ω-phase formation in the Zr-Cr alloys and the effect of the eutectoid decomposition on the formation of ω-phase. This article is part of the detailed investigations of the feature and condition of the ω-phase formation in zirconium-base alloys with the transition metals of the groups I and V to VIII of the Periodic Table

  11. Effect of aluminium on formation of metastable phases in titanium-niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenogina, T.L.; Derevyanko, V.N.; Vozilkin, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Specific features of phase transformations in the alloy of Ti-20Nb-29Al (at.%) are investigated in comparison with those in the aluminium-free Ti-21Nb alloy. It is states that in the alloy Ti-20Nb-29Al on quenching the ordering of β-solid solution takes place with B2-structure formation. The B2-matrix experiences decomposition with the formation of ordered Ω 0 -phase which field ranges up to 700 deg C. The investigation results show that the sequence of phase formation in Ti-Nb-Al and aluminium-free alloys is much the same. The only difference between them is the formation of ordered phases in the alloy Ti-20Nb-29Al [ru

  12. Formation of the minor phase shell on the surface of hypermonotectic alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.Z.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure evolution in an atomized hypermonotectic alloy drop is calculated. The results indicate that the formation of the minor phase shell on the surface of the powder is due to the heterogeneous nucleation of the minor phase droplets on the atomized drop surface and the resultant diffusional transfer of solute during the liquid-liquid phase transformation

  13. Phase formation and crystallization behavior of melt spun Sm-Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shield, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The phase formation and microstructures of Sm-Fe alloys have been investigated at Sm levels of 11 and 17 atomic percent and with alloying additions of Ti and C. At lower Sm content, virtually phase pure SmFe 7 formed, while higher Sm content resulted in the formation of SmFe 7 , SmFe 2 and amorphous phases. The addition of Ti and C resulted in greater stability and a larger volume fraction of the amorphous phase. The binary Sm-Fe alloys at both Sm levels had tremendously variable microstructures, with large discrepancies in grain size and phase distribution from region to region. The addition of Ti and C tended to result in a more homogeneous microstructure, as well as a refinement in the microstructural scale. (orig.)

  14. Microtwin formation in the α phase of duplex titanium alloys affected by strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsiang; Wu, Shu-Ming; Kao, Fang-Hsin; Wang, Shing-Hoa; Yang, Jer-Ren; Yang, Chia-Chih; Chiou, Chuan-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The long and dense twins in α phase of SP700 alloy occurring at lower strain rates promote a good ductility. → The deformation in SP700 alloy changed to micro twins-controlled mechanism in α as the strain rate decreases. → The material has time to redistribute the deformed strain between α and β as the strain rate decreases. - Abstract: The effect of tensile strain rate on deformation microstructure was investigated in Ti-6-4 (Ti-6Al-4V) and SP700 (Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Mo-2Fe) of the duplex titanium alloys. Below a strain rate of 10 -2 s -1 , Ti-6-4 alloy had a higher ultimate tensile strength than SP700 alloy. However, the yield strength of SP700 was consistently greater than Ti-6-4 at different strain rates. The ductility of SP700 alloy associated with twin formation (especially at the slow strain rate of 10 -4 s -1 ), always exceeded that of Ti-6-4 alloy at different strain rates. It is caused by a large quantity of deformation twins took place in the α phase of SP700 due to the lower stacking fault energy by the β stabilizer of molybdenum alloying. In addition, the local deformation more was imposed on the α grains from the surrounding β-rich grains by redistributing strain as the strain rate decreased in SP700 duplex alloy.

  15. Formation and Disruption of W-Phase in High-Entropy Alloys

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    Sephira Riva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys (HEAs are single-phase systems prepared from equimolar or near-equimolar concentrations of at least five principal elements. The combination of high mixing entropy, severe lattice distortion, sluggish diffusion and cocktail effect favours the formation of simple phases—usually a bcc or fcc matrix with minor inclusions of ordered binary intermetallics. HEAs have been proposed for applications in which high temperature stability (including mechanical and chemical stability under high temperature and high mechanical impact is required. On the other hand, the major challenge to overcome for HEAs to become commercially attractive is the achievement of lightweight alloys of extreme hardness and low brittleness. The multicomponent AlCrCuScTi alloy was prepared and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, scanning-electron microscope (SEM and atomic-force microscope equipped with scanning Kelvin probe (AFM/SKP techniques. Results show that the formation of complex multicomponent ternary intermetallic compounds upon heating plays a key role in phase evolution. The formation and degradation of W-phase, Al2Cu3Sc, in the AlCrCuScTi alloy plays a crucial role in its properties and stability. Analysis of as-melted and annealed alloy suggests that the W-phase is favoured kinetically, but thermodynamically unstable. The disruption of the W-phase in the alloy matrix has a positive effect on hardness (890 HV, density (4.83 g·cm−3 and crack propagation. The hardness/density ratio obtained for this alloy shows a record value in comparison with ordinary heavy refractory HEAs.

  16. Phase formation in Mg-Sn-Si and Mg-Sn-Si-Ca alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.; Groebner, J. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R., E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-02-17

    Research highlights: > The solidification paths of ternary and quaternary alloys are analyzed in detail, using the tool of thermodynamic calculations. > The precipitation sequence of phases and their amounts compare well with the microstructure of alloys. > The most efficient comparison to the experimental thermal analysis data is done by calculation of the enthalpy variation with temperature. > The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for the development of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram. - Abstract: Experimental work is done and combined with the Calphad method to generate a consistent thermodynamic description of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn quaternary system, validated for Mg-rich alloys. The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for this multicomponent system. Dedicated thermal analysis with DTA/DSC on sealed samples is performed and the microstructure of slowly solidified alloys is analyzed using SEM/EDX. The thermodynamic description and phase diagram of the ternary Mg-Si-Sn system, developed in detail also in this work, deviates significantly from a previous literature proposal. The phase formation in ternary and quaternary alloys is analyzed using the tool of thermodynamic equilibrium and Scheil calculations for the solidification paths and compared with present experimental data. The significant ternary/quaternary solid solubilities of pertinent intermetallic phases are quantitatively introduced in the quaternary Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram and validated by experimental data.

  17. Formation, stability and crystal structure of the {sigma} phase in Mo-Re-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bei, H., E-mail: beih@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: ying.yang@computherm.com [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Viswanathan, G.B. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Rawn, C.J.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [University of Tennessee, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Tiley, J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Chang, Y.A. [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The formation, stability and crystal structure of the {sigma} phase in Mo-Re-Si alloys were investigated. Guided by thermodynamic calculations, six critically selected alloys were arc melted and annealed at 1600 deg. C for 150 h. Their as-cast and annealed microstructures, including phase fractions and distributions, the compositions of the constituent phases and the crystal structure of the {sigma} phase were analyzed by thermodynamic modeling coupled with experimental characterization by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Two key findings resulted from this work. One is the large homogeneity range of the {sigma} phase region, extending from binary Mo-Re to ternary Mo-Re-Si. The other is the formation of a {sigma} phase in Mo-rich alloys either through the peritectic reaction of liquid + Mo{sub ss} {yields} {sigma} or primary solidification. These findings are important in understanding the effects of Re on the microstructure and providing guidance on the design of Mo-Re-Si alloys.

  18. Modeling of Eutectic Formation in Al-Si Alloy Using A Phase-Field Method

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    Ebrahimi Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized a phase-field model to investigate the evolution of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloy. The interfacial fluctuations are included into a phase-field model of two-phase solidification, as stochastic noise terms and their dominant role in eutectic silicon formation is discussed. We have observed that silicon spherical particles nucleate on the foundation of primary aluminum phase and their nucleation continues on concentric rings, through the Al matrix. The nucleation of silicon particles is attributed to the inclusion of fluctuations into the phase-field equations. The simulation results have shown needle-like, fish-bone like and flakes of silicon phase by adjusting the noise coefficients to larger values. Moreover, the role of primary Al phase on nucleation of silicon particles in Al-Si alloy is elaborated. We have found that the addition of fluctuations plays the role of modifiers in our simulations and is essential for phase-field modeling of eutectic growth in Al-Si system. The simulated finger-like Al phases and spherical Si particles are very similar to those of experimental eutectic growth in modified Al-Si alloy.

  19. Energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the line of phase separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, G M; Ziauddin-Ahmed, A Z

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the solid-liquid phase separation line. A microscopic theory based on the first order perturbation has been applied. The interionic interaction and a reference liquid are the fundamental components of the theory. These are described by a local pseudopotential and the hard sphere liquids, respectively. The results of calculations reveal a characteristic feature that the energy of formation becomes minimum at the equiatomic composition, and thus indicates maximal mix-ability at this concentration. The energy of formation at a particular thermodynamic state that is at T 1173 K predicts the experimental trends fairly well.

  20. The influence of surface microchemistry in protective film formation on multi-phase magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray-Munro, J.E.; Luan, B.; Huntington, L.

    2008-01-01

    The high strength:weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited their use in the automotive and aerospace industries, where exposure to harsh service conditions is unavoidable. The simplest way to avoid corrosion is to coat the magnesium-based substrate by a process such as electroless plating, which is a low-cost, non line of sight process. Magnesium is classified as a difficult to plate metal due to its high reactivity. This means that in the presence of air magnesium very quickly forms a passive oxide layer that must be removed prior to plating. Furthermore, high aluminium content alloys are especially difficult to plate due to the formation of intermetallic species at the grain boundaries, resulting in a non-uniform surface potential across the substrate and thereby further complicating the plating process. The objective of this study is to understand how the magnesium alloy microstructure influences the surface chemistry of the alloy during both pretreatment and immersion copper coating of the substrate. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning Auger microscopy has been used to study the surface chemistry at the various stages of the coating process. Our results indicate that the surface chemistry of the alloy is different on the aluminum rich β phase of the material compared to the magnesium matrix which leads to preferential deposition of the metal on the aluminum rich phase of the alloy

  1. Phase separation and structure formation in gadolinium based liquid and glassy metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD research the liquid-liquid phase separation phenomena in Gd-based alloys was investigated in terms of phase equilibria, microstructure formation upon quenching the melt and corresponding magnetic properties of phase-separated metallic glasses. The phase diagrams of the binary subsystems Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti were experimentally reassessed. Especially the phase equilibria with the liquid phase could be determined directly by combining in situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction with electrostatic levitation of the melt. The Gd-Zr system is of eutectic type with a metastable miscibility gap. The eutectic composition at 18 ± 2 at.% Zr, the liquidus line and the coexistence of bcc-Zr and bcc-Gd at elevated temperature could be determined. The Gd-Ti system is a monotectic system. The experimental observations in this work led to improved new Gd-Zr and Gd-Ti phase diagrams. The phase equilibria of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system were analyzed for two alloy compositions. The XRD patterns for molten Gd 35 Ti 35 Co 30 gave direct evidence for the coexistence of two liquid phases formed by liquid-liquid phase separation. The first experimental and thermodynamic assessment of the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system revealed that the stable miscibility gap of binary Gd-Ti extends into the ternary Gd-Ti-Co system (up to about 30 at.% Co). New phase-separated metallic glasses were synthesized in Gd-TM-Co-Al (TM = Hf, Ti or Zr) alloys. The microstructure was characterized in terms of composition and cooling rate dependence of phase separation. Due to large positive enthalpy of mixing between Gd on the one side and Hf, Ti or Zr on the other side, the alloys undergo liquid-liquid phase separation during rapid quenching the melt. The parameters determining the microstructure development during phase separation are the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase, kinetic parameters and quenching conditions. By controlling these parameters and conditions the microstructure can be

  2. FORMATION REGULARITIES OF PHASE COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES DURING MECHANICAL ALLOYING OF BINARY ALUMINUM COMPOSITES

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    F. G. Lovshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results pertaining to  ascertainment of formation regularities of phase composition and structure during mechanical alloying of binary aluminium composites/substances. The invetigations have been executed while applying a wide range of methods, devices and equipment used in modern material science. The obtained data complement each other. It has been established that presence of oxide and hydro-oxide films on aluminium powder  and introduction of surface-active substance in the composite have significant effect on mechanically and thermally activated phase transformations and properties of semi-finished products.  Higher fatty acids have been used as a surface active substance.The mechanism of mechanically activated solid solution formation has been identified. Its essence is  a formation of  specific quasi-solutions at the initial stage of processing. Mechanical and chemical interaction between components during formation of other phases has taken place along with dissolution  in aluminium while processing powder composites. Granule basis is formed according to the dynamic recrystallization mechanism and possess submicrocrystal structural type with the granule dimension basis less than 100 nm and the grains are divided in block size of not more than 20 nm with oxide inclusions of 10–20 nm size.All the compounds  with the addition of  surface-active substances including aluminium powder without alloying elements obtained by processing in mechanic reactor are disperse hardened. In some cases disperse hardening is accompanied by dispersive and solid solution hardnening process. Complex hardening predetermines a high temperature of recrystallization in mechanically alloyed compounds,  its value exceeds 400 °C.

  3. The formation of quasicrystal phase in Al-Cu-Fe system by mechanical alloying

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    Dilermando Nagle Travessa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain quasicrystalline (QC phase by mechanical alloying (MA in the Al-Cu-Fe system, mixtures of elementary Al, Cu and Fe in the proportion of 65-20-15 (at. % were produced by high energy ball milling (HEBM. A very high energy type mill (spex and short milling times (up to 5 hours were employed. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. QC phase was not directly formed by milling under the conditions employed in this work. However, phase transformations identified by DSC analysis reveals that annealing after HEBM possibly results in the formation of the ψ QC phase.

  4. Predictive calculation of phase formation in Al-rich Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys using a thermodynamic Mg-alloy database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, J.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Dobatkina, T.V.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2007-01-01

    Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges

  5. Predictive calculation of phase formation in Al-rich Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys using a thermodynamic Mg-alloy database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, J. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rokhlin, L.L. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Leninsky prosp. 49, 119991 GSP-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dobatkina, T.V. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Leninsky prosp. 49, 119991 GSP-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)]. E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2007-05-16

    Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges.

  6. Phase separation and formation of omega phase in the beta matrix of a Ti-V-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Devaraj, A.; Nag, S. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Bettles, C.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gibson, M. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Locked Bag 10, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Fraser, H.L. [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Muddle, B.C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Banerjee, R., E-mail: rajarshi.banerjee@unt.edu [Center for Advanced Research and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The formation of the {omega} phase in the presence of simultaneous development of compositional modulations (or phase separation) within the body-centered cubic {beta} matrix phase of a Ti-10V-6Cu (wt.%) alloy during continuous cooling has been investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. While a water quench from the high-temperature {beta} phase field allows apparently athermal formation of {omega} domains without any significant partitioning of solute or modulation in matrix composition, subsequent annealing at 500 {sup o}C for just 60 s leads to unusually rapid growth of the {omega} domains concurrent with, but apparently independent of, a slower development of finer-scale modulations in solute composition occurring apparently uniformly across both {omega} and {beta} phases. In contrast, on slower air cooling from the solution treatment temperature, there are pronounced compositional fluctuations within the {beta} phase, presumably as a product of spinodal decomposition, that are detectable prior to the formation of {omega} phase. The {omega} phase subsequently forms preferentially in solute-depleted regions of the matrix {beta}, with a composition reflecting the local matrix composition and a solute content significantly lower than the average matrix composition. As a result, it has a cuboidal morphology, distinguishably different from the elliposoidal form that is observed in samples water-quenched and annealed at 500 deg. C.

  7. L1{sub 0} phase formation in ternary FePdNi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Arango, A.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Bordeaux, N.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Liu, J.; Barmak, K. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lewis, L.H., E-mail: lhlewis@neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Metallurgical routes to highly metastable phases are required to access new materials with new functionalities. To this end, the stability of the tetragonal chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase in the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni system is quantified to provide enabling information concerning synthesis of L1{sub 0}-type FeNi, a highly attractive yet highly elusive advanced permanent magnet candidate. Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0–7 at%) samples were arc-melted and annealed at 773 K (500 °C) for 100 h to induce formation of the chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. Coupled calorimetry, structural and magnetic investigations allow determination of an isothermal section of the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni phase diagram featuring a single phase L1{sub 0} region near the FePd boundary for x < 6 at%. It is demonstrated that increased Ni content in Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} alloys systematically decreases the order-disorder transition temperature, resulting in a lower thermodynamic driving force for the ordering phase transformation. The Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} L1{sub 0} → fcc disordering transformation is determined to occur via a two-step process, with compositionally-dependent enthalpies and transition temperatures. These results highlight the need to investigate ternary alloys with higher Ni content to determine the stability range of the L1{sub 0} phase near the FeNi boundary, thereby facilitating kinetic access to the important L1{sub 0} FeNi ferromagnetic phase. - Highlights: • Chemical ordering in FePdNi enhances intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. • 773 K annealed FePdNi alloys studied show a stable L1{sub 0} phase for Ni ≤ 5.2 at%. • Chemical disordering in FePdNi occurs by a previously unreported two-step process. • Ni additions to FePd dramatically decrease the chemical order-disorder temperature. • The chemical-ordering transformation kinetics are greatly affected by Ni content.

  8. Phase formation in titanium alloys during their quenching from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, S.Ya.; Kotko, A.V.; Kuz'menko, N.N.; Kulak, L.D.; Firstov, S.A.; Khaenko, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffractin analysis, light and electron microscopy were applied to study structural state of titanium base alloys quenched from liquid state by spinning with cooling in inert gas or at the surface of solid heat exchanger. Phase formation under rapid cooling conditions was considered. The morphology of phases and mutual orientation of their crystal lattices were investigated along with the character of crystallization texture. It was revealed that on melt quenching with 10 5 -10 6 K/s cooling rates the growth of columnar branches of degenerated dendrites was accopanied by Si atoms movement of the order of 0.1 μm. Structure and crack resistance of compacted articles produced from rapidly solidified powders were under study

  9. Formation of metastable and equilibrium phases in the decomposition of the β solid solution in Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharova, M.I.; Kirov, S.A.; Khundzhua, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The decomposition of the β solid solution is studied in Zr-Nb alloys with adding Mo, Al, V, Fe by the methods of electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction on single crystals. The intermetallic compounds forming during crystallization of the alloys do not influence the precipitation of the ω- and α-phases during ageing. In the local regions of foils prepared by electropolishing after ageing the formation of the metastable f.c.c. phase and in some cases the inverse transformation of two phase state to the parent phase is observed. (author)

  10. Effect of Fe and Zr additions on ω phase formation in β-type Ti-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, X.H.; Emura, S.; Zhang, L.; Tsuzaki, K.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 1% Fe and/or 5% Zr (mass%) additions on ω phase formation was investigated for the Ti-15Mo alloy by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and hardness testing. Upon water quenching following solution treatment in the β phase region, the athermal ω phase formation could not be observed in all the alloys, regardless of Fe and Zr additions. The lattice parameter of the β phase decreases with Fe addition, while it increases with Zr addition. Solid solution strengthening by Fe and Zr is not recognized for the β phase. The isothermal ω phase formed after aging at 723 K and 773 K for 3.6 ks, which results in a decrease in the lattice parameter of the β phase and an increase in the hardness. The isothermal ω phase formation is suppressed with Fe and/or Zr additions. This is interpreted as the consequence of the increase in the average value of the bond order (Bo) for the Ti-15Mo-5Zr and Ti-15Mo-5Zr-1Fe alloys, and of the decrease in the average value of the metal d-orbital energy level (Md) for the Ti-15Mo-1Fe alloy. In addition, the degree of the suppression of isothermal ω phase can be predicted by the average values of Bo and Md

  11. Ag-related alloy formation and magnetic phases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Tsai, Du-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Chen, Wei-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    The Kerr intensity versus the Ag thickness for Ag grown on the top of Co/Ir(111) exhibits an oscillating behavior with a period around one monolayer which should be due to the morphological change related electronic structure differences of the Ag layer. From systematical investigations of Ag/Co/Ir(111) films with the Co layer thinner than 4 monolayers at temperatures below 900 K, a magnetic phase diagram has been established. As the annealing temperature increases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) films, enhancements of the coercive force occur in both the polar and longitudinal configurations due to the intermixing of Ag and Co at the interface and the formation of Co–Ir alloy. The disappearance of ferromagnetism is mainly attributed to the reduced atomic percent of cobalt in Co–Ir alloy, the lowered Curie temperature by a reduction of the thickness of magnetic layers, and the intermixing of Ag and Co at the Ag/Co interface. - Highlights: • An oscillating behavior occurs due to the morphological change for Ag on Co/Ir(111). • A magnetic phase diagram has been established for Ag/Co/Ir(111). • Some Ag atoms intermix with the underlying Co layer at high temperatures. • Polar coercive force is enhanced due to the compositional change

  12. Formation of soft magnetic high entropy amorphous alloys composites containing in situ solid solution phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Tao, Juan; Li, Fushan

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy amorphous alloys composites (HEAACs), which containing high entropy solid solution phase in amorphous matrix, show good soft magnetic properties and bending ductility even in optimal annealed state, were successfully developed by melt spinning method. The crystallization phase of the HEAACs is solid solution phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure instead of brittle intermetallic phase. In addition, the BCC phase can transformed into face centered cubic (FCC) phase with temperature rise. Accordingly, Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy alloys (HEAs) with FCC structure and a small amount of BCC phase was prepared by copper mold casting method. The HEAs exhibit high yield strength (about 1200 MPa) and good plastic strain (about 18%). Meanwhile, soft magnetic characteristics of the HEAs are largely reserved from HEAACs. This work provides a new strategy to overcome the annealing induced brittleness of amorphous alloys and design new advanced materials with excellent comprehensive properties.

  13. Microstructures and phase formation in rapidly solidified Sm-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shield, J.E.; Kappes, B.B.; Meacham, B.E.; Dennis, K.W.; Kramer, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sm-Fe-based alloys were produced by melt spinning with various melt spinning parameters and alloying additions. The structural and microstructural evolution varied and strongly depended on processing and alloy composition. The microstructural scale was found to vary from micron to nanometer scale depending on the solidification rate and alloying additions. Additions of Si, Ti, V, Zr and Nb with C were all found to refine the scale, and the degree of refinement was dependent on the atomic size of the alloying agent. The alloying was also found to affect the dynamical aspects of the melt spinning process, although in general the material is characterized by a poor melt stream and pool, which in part contributes to the microstructural variabilities. The alloying additions also suppressed the long-range ordering, leading to formation of the TbCu 7 -type structure. The ordering was recoverable upon heat treatment, although the presence of alloying agents suppressed the recovery process relative to the binary alloy. This was attributed to the presence of Ti (V, Nb, Zr) in solid solution, which limited the diffusion kinetics necessary for ordering. In the binary alloy, the ordering led to the development of antiphase domain structures, with the antiphase boundaries effectively pinning Bloch walls

  14. Formation of metastable phases and nanocomposite structures in rapidly solidified Al-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.S.; Chang, H.J.; Kim, D.H.; Pabi, S.K.; Murty, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Structures of nanocomposites in rapidly solidified Al-Fe alloys were investigated. → Nanoquasicrystalline, amorphous and intermetallics phases coexist with α-Al. → Nanoquasicrystalline phase was observed for the first time in the dilute Al alloys. → Thermodynamic driving force plays dominant role in precipitation of Fe-rich phases. → High hardness (3.57 GPa) was observed for nanocomposite of Al-10Fe alloy. - Abstract: In the present work the structure and morphology of the phases of nanocomposites formed in rapidly solidified Al-Fe alloys were investigated in details using analytical transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Nanoquasicrystalline phases, amorphous phase and intermetallics like Al 5 Fe 2 , Al 13 F 4 coexisted with α-Al in nanocomposites of the melt spun alloys. It was seen that the Fe supersaturation in α-Al diminished with the increase in Fe content and wheel speed indicating the dominant role of the thermodynamic driving force in the precipitation of Fe-rich phases. Nanoquasicrystalline phases were observed for the first time in the dilute Al alloys like Al-2.5Fe and Al-5Fe as confirmed by high resolution TEM. High hardness (3.57 GPa) was measured in nanocomposite of Al-10Fe alloy, which was attributed to synergistic effect of solid solution strengthening due to high solute content (9.17 at.% Fe), dispersion strengthening by high volume fraction of nanoquasicrystalline phase; and Hall-Petch strengthening from finer cell size (20-30 nm) of α-Al matrix.

  15. Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and β-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the α-AlFeSi phase solidification.

  16. Formation of nanocrystalline and amorphous phase of Al-Pb-Si-Sn-Cu powder during mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Guang; Zhou Jingen; Xi Shengqi; Li Pengliang

    2006-01-01

    Al-15%Pb-4%Si-1%Sn-1.5%Cu alloys (mass fraction, %) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions and amorphous phase in the powders are obtained during MA. The effect of ball milling is more evident to lead than to aluminum. During MA, the mixture powders are firstly fined, alloyed, nanocrystallized and then the nanocrystalline partly transforms to amorphous phase. A thermodynamic model is developed based on semi-experimental theory of Miedema to calculate the driving force for phase evolution. The thermodynamic analysis shows that there is no chemical driving force to form a crystalline solid solution from the elemental components. But for the amorphous phase, the Gibbs free energy is higher than 0 for the alloy with lead content in the ranges of 0-86.8 at.% and 98.4-100 at.% and lower than 0 in range of 86.8-98.4 at.%. For the Al-2.25 at.%Pb (Al-15%Pb, mass fraction, %), the driving force for formation of amorphization and nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions are provided not by the negative heat of mixing but by mechanical work

  17. Amorphous phase formation in intermetallic Mg2Ni alloy synthesized by ethanol wet milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Chyou, S.-D.; Wang, S.-H.; Yang, M.-W.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Tien, H.-C.; Huang, N.-N.

    2009-01-01

    The hydriding/dehydriding properties of an intermetallic Mg 2 Ni alloy synthesized by wet ball milling in ethanol have been investigated. The appearance of the particle surface after different milling methods is one obvious difference. The alloyed powders prepared by either dry milling or wet milling under ethanol were characterized for phase content by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results show that two broad diffuse peaks, which are an ionic-organic-Mg amorphous material, appear in addition to the nickel element peaks. This unexpected amorphous phase has the special hydrogen absorbing/desorbing features.

  18. Phase formation in as-solidified and heat-treated Al–Si–Cu–Mg–Ni alloys: Thermodynamic assessment and experimental investigation for alloy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkoosh, A.R.; Javidani, M.; Hoseini, M.; Larouche, D.; Pekguleryuz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase formation in Al–Si–Ni–Cu–Mg–Fe system have been investigated. ► T-Al 9 FeNi, γ-Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, δ-Al 3 CuNi and ε-Al 3 Ni are formed at different Ni levels. ► Thermally stable Ni-bearing precipitates improved the overaged hardness. ► It was found that Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control the precipitation. ► δ-Al 3 CuNi phase has more contribution to strength compare to other precipitates. - Abstract: Thermodynamic simulations based on the CALPHAD method have been carried out to assess the phase formation in Al–7Si–(0–1)Ni–0.5Cu–0.35Mg alloys (in wt.%) under equilibrium and non-equilibrium (Scheil cooling) conditions. Calculations showed that the T-Al 9 FeNi, γ-Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, δ-Al 3 CuNi and ε-Al 3 Ni phases are formed at different Ni levels. By analyzing the calculated isothermal sections of the phase diagrams it was revealed that the Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control precipitation in this alloy system. In order to verify the simulation results, microstructural investigations in as-cast, solution treated and aged conditions were carried out using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, cooling curve analysis (CCA) was also performed to determine the freezing range of the new alloys and porosity formation during solidification. Hardness measurements of the overaged samples showed that in this alloy system the δ-Al 3 CuNi phase has a greater influence on the overall strength of the alloys compared to the other Ni-bearing precipitates.

  19. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Yunus Eren

    2008-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made since rapid solidification was first introduced to the field of materials science and technology. New types of materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructure materials have been developed as a result of rapid solidification techniques. While these advances are, in many respects, ground breaking, much remains to be discerned concerning the fundamental relationships that exist between a liquid and a rapidly solidified solid. The scope of the current dissertation involves an extensive set of experimental, analytical, and computational studies designed to increase the overall understanding of morphological selection, phase competition, and structural hierarchy that occurs under far-from equilibrium conditions. High pressure gas atomization and Cu-block melt-spinning are the two different rapid solidification techniques applied in this study. The research is mainly focused on Al-Si and Al-Sm alloy systems. Silicon and samarium produce different, yet favorable, systems for exploration when alloyed with aluminum under far-from equilibrium conditions. One of the main differences comes from the positions of their respective T 0 curves, which makes Al-Si a good candidate for solubility extension while the plunging T 0 line in Al-Sm promotes glass formation. The rapidly solidified gas-atomized Al-Si powders within a composition range of 15 to 50 wt% Si are examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The non-equilibrium partitioning and morphological selection observed by examining powders at different size classes are described via a microstructure map. The interface velocities and the amount of undercooling present in the powders are estimated from measured eutectic spacings based on Jackson-Hunt (JH) and Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) models, which permit a direct comparison of theoretical predictions. For an average particle size of 10 (micro)m with a Peclet number of ∼0.2, JH and TMK deviate from each other. This

  20. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalay, Yunus Eren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made since rapid solidification was first introduced to the field of materials science and technology. New types of materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructure materials have been developed as a result of rapid solidification techniques. While these advances are, in many respects, ground breaking, much remains to be discerned concerning the fundamental relationships that exist between a liquid and a rapidly solidified solid. The scope of the current dissertation involves an extensive set of experimental, analytical, and computational studies designed to increase the overall understanding of morphological selection, phase competition, and structural hierarchy that occurs under far-from equilibrium conditions. High pressure gas atomization and Cu-block melt-spinning are the two different rapid solidification techniques applied in this study. The research is mainly focused on Al-Si and Al-Sm alloy systems. Silicon and samarium produce different, yet favorable, systems for exploration when alloyed with aluminum under far-from equilibrium conditions. One of the main differences comes from the positions of their respective T0 curves, which makes Al-Si a good candidate for solubility extension while the plunging T0 line in Al-Sm promotes glass formation. The rapidly solidified gas-atomized Al-Si powders within a composition range of 15 to 50 wt% Si are examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The non-equilibrium partitioning and morphological selection observed by examining powders at different size classes are described via a microstructure map. The interface velocities and the amount of undercooling present in the powders are estimated from measured eutectic spacings based on Jackson-Hunt (JH) and Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) models, which permit a direct comparison of theoretical predictions. For an average particle size of 10 {micro}m with a Peclet number of ~0.2, JH and TMK deviate from

  1. Formation and transformation of binary intermetallic phases in high purity Al-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griger, A.; Stefaniay, V.; Kovacs-Csetenyi, E.; Turmezey, T.

    1990-01-01

    The solid solubility of iron in aluminium is very low (<0.04%), (all compositions are given in w%) therefore most of the iron content appears as intermetallic phases in combination with aluminium and other elements. The amount of iron does not exceed the level of the eutectic concentration in the commercial aluminium alloys, however the non-desired effect of these primary phases of large size must be taken into consideration. In the case of rapid solidification (RS) the eutectic point shifts to higher values of iron content. The eutectic has a very fine structure and the primary phases formed at high cooling rates have also very low particle size. Because of it, for the sake of improvement of the thermo-mechanical properties of the RS aluminium alloys the quantity of iron can be increased up to 8-10%. Above this concentration the favourable properties do not develop while the elongation decreases

  2. Phase-field modeling of microstructural pattern formation during directional solidification of peritectic alloys without morphological instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shing Lo, Tak; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis

    2001-01-01

    During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, two stable solid phases (parent and peritectic) grow competitively into a metastable liquid phase of larger impurity content than either solid phase. When the parent or both solid phases are morphologically unstable, i.e., for a small temperature gradient/growth rate ratio (G/v p ), one solid phase usually outgrows and covers the other phase, leading to a cellular-dendritic array structure closely analogous to the one formed during monophase solidification of a dilute binary alloy. In contrast, when G/v p is large enough for both phases to be morphologically stable, the formation of the microstructure becomes controlled by a subtle interplay between the nucleation and growth of the two solid phases. The structures that have been observed in this regime (in small samples where convection effects are suppressed) include alternate layers (bands) of the parent and peritectic phases perpendicular to the growth direction, which are formed by alternate nucleation and lateral spreading of one phase onto the other as proposed in a recent model [R. Trivedi, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 26, 1 (1995)], as well as partially filled bands (islands), where the peritectic phase does not fully cover the parent phase which grows continuously. We develop a phase-field model of peritectic solidification that incorporates nucleation processes in order to explore the formation of these structures. Simulations of this model shed light on the morphology transition from islands to bands, the dynamics of spreading of the peritectic phase on the parent phase following nucleation, which turns out to be characterized by a remarkably constant acceleration, and the types of growth morphology that one might expect to observe in large samples under purely diffusive growth conditions

  3. The influence of temperature on σ-phase formation and the resulting hardening of Fe-Cr-Mo-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waanders, F.B.; Vorster, S.W.; Pollak, H.

    1999-01-01

    Hardening in Fe-Cr-Mo-alloys due to the formation of σ-phase, has been the subject of theoretical and experimental interest. In the present investigation Fe-Cr-alloys containing 0, 2, 4 and 6% Mo were prepared and were fully transformed to the σ-phase by isothermally annealing the samples for various periods at temperatures of 600-800 deg. C. After each annealing cycle room temperature CEMS-spectra were recorded and micro-hardness tests were performed. The micro-hardness increases with annealing time and temperature, in accordance with the fraction of σ-phase present, and ranged from about 140 HV to 200 HV. From the measurements, activation energies were also deduced

  4. Effect of Nb element content in U-Zr-Nb alloy on hardness, microstructure and phase formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrukan; M Husna Al Hasa; Jan Setiawan; Slamet Pribadi

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to determine the effect of Nb element in the U-Zr alloys on hardness, microstructure and phase formation has been done. The addition of Nb element would effect the hardness, microstructure and phase which formed. The U-Zr-Nb alloy was made with the variation of Nb 2%, 5% and 8% by melting in an electric arc melting furnace that equipped with water cooling and the argon atmosphere. The U-Zr-Nb alloy to be cut divided to some testing, such as hardness test, microstructure, and phase analysis. Hardness testing was done by Vickers hardness testing equipment, microstructure by an optical microscope, and diffraction pattern by XRD and phase analysis was done by GSAS. Hardness testing results showed that the addition of 2% to 5% Nb element in U-Zr alloys will increased in hardness, but the addition of Nb element over 5% the hardness was decreased. Observations the microstructure showed that the addition of 2% to 5% Nb element, grains were formed from fine into coarse. Phase analysis for diffraction pattern showed that the phase changed from αU and γU (Zr,Nb)at 2% Nb to be αU, γU (Zr,Nb) and δ1 (UZr_2) phase at 5% and 8% Nb. Phase changes was followed by changes in its compositions. The composition of αU at 2% Nb was 40% increased to 81% at 5% Nb and decreased to 3.9% at 8% Nb. The composition of γU decreased from 59,86% to 14,91% with increased Nb from 2% to 5% and further increased to 52,74% at 8% Nb. (author)

  5. Effect of grain refiner on intermetallic phase formation in directional solidification of 6xxx series wrought Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, G.; O' Reilly, K.; Cantor, B. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Adv. Mat. and Composites; Hamerton, R.; Worth, J.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of a grain refiner on the formation of intermetallic phases in a directionally solidified (Bridgman grown) model 6xxx series wrought Al alloy has been investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A base alloy with and without Al-Ti-B grain refiner was directionally solidified in a Bridgman furnace at growth velocities in the range of 5-120 mm/min. In both cases, the Fe-containing intermetallic phases present were found to be mainly {alpha}-AlFeSi and {beta}-AlFeSi. However, in the alloy with grain refiner solidified at 5mm/min, Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} was also observed. Quantitative XRD results indicated that the addition of Al-Ti-B grain refiner has a strong influence on the relative quantities of intermetallic phases forming during solidification at different growth velocities, which was also confirmed by TEM observations. TEM observations also show that depending on where the {beta}-AlFeSi particles solidified e.g. grain boundaries or triple grain junctions, the size and morphology of the particles may change dramatically. TiB{sub 2} particles were observed to nucleate {beta}-AlFeSi at low and high growth velocities in the 6xxx series Al alloys. (orig.)

  6. The formation of quasicrystal phase in Al-Cu-Fe system by mechanical alloying

    OpenAIRE

    Travessa, Dilermando Nagle; Cardoso, Kátia Regina; Wolf, Witor; Jorge Junior, Alberto Moreira; Botta, Walter José

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain quasicrystalline (QC) phase by mechanical alloying (MA) in the Al-Cu-Fe system, mixtures of elementary Al, Cu and Fe in the proportion of 65-20-15 (at. %) were produced by high energy ball milling (HEBM). A very high energy type mill (spex) and short milling times (up to 5 hours) were employed. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). QC phase was not directly formed ...

  7. Regularities of texture formation in alloys undergoing phase transformations during heat treatment and plastic working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, N.V.; Babarehko, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities of texture formation in metals undergoing phase transformations in the temperature range of heat treatment and hot working are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A low-temperature phase after hot working is shown to inherite a high-temperature phase texture due to definite orientation conformity during phase transformation. Strengthened heat and thermomechanical treatments, as a rule, do not destroy material texture but change it

  8. Study on the Formation and Precipitation Mechanism of Mn5Si3 Phase in the MBA-2 Brass Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jie, Jinchuan; Zhang, Pengchao; Jia, Chunxu; Wang, Tongmin; Li, Tingju

    2016-06-01

    Mn5Si3 is an attractive dispersion in the special brass, owing to its high hardness and high wear resistance. In the present study, synchrotron X-ray radiography and rapid cooling were applied to investigate the formation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase in the MBA-2 brass alloy. The primary Mn5Si3 phase is proved to exist stably in the alloy melt and nucleate from the melt at temperatures above 1373 K (1100 °C). In addition, the precipitation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase is addressed systematically by the isothermal heat treatment. The Mn5Si3 particles are observed to precipitate from the matrix at temperatures above 1023 K (750 °C), and a crystallographic orientation relationship is found between the precipitated Mn5Si3 particle and β phase: (110)_{β } //(1overline{1} 00)_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} and [overline{1} 11]_{β } //[11overline{2} overline{2} ]_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} . However, the precipitation of Mn5Si3 phase is thermodynamically inhibited at lower temperatures, which can be ascribed to the increase in the Gibbs free energy of formation of Mn5Si3 with decreasing the temperature.

  9. Phase formation in as-solidified and heat-treated Al-Si-Cu-Mg-Ni alloys: Thermodynamic assessment and experimental investigation for alloy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkoosh, A.R., E-mail: amir.rezaeifarkoosh@mail.mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 (Canada); Javidani, M. [Laval University, Department of Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, 1065 Ave de la Medecine, Quebec, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Hoseini, M. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 (Canada); Larouche, D. [Laval University, Department of Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, 1065 Ave de la Medecine, Quebec, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Pekguleryuz, M. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase formation in Al-Si-Ni-Cu-Mg-Fe system have been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T-Al{sub 9}FeNi, {gamma}-Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 4}Ni, {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi and {epsilon}-Al{sub 3}Ni are formed at different Ni levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermally stable Ni-bearing precipitates improved the overaged hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control the precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi phase has more contribution to strength compare to other precipitates. - Abstract: Thermodynamic simulations based on the CALPHAD method have been carried out to assess the phase formation in Al-7Si-(0-1)Ni-0.5Cu-0.35Mg alloys (in wt.%) under equilibrium and non-equilibrium (Scheil cooling) conditions. Calculations showed that the T-Al{sub 9}FeNi, {gamma}-Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 4}Ni, {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi and {epsilon}-Al{sub 3}Ni phases are formed at different Ni levels. By analyzing the calculated isothermal sections of the phase diagrams it was revealed that the Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control precipitation in this alloy system. In order to verify the simulation results, microstructural investigations in as-cast, solution treated and aged conditions were carried out using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, cooling curve analysis (CCA) was also performed to determine the freezing range of the new alloys and porosity formation during solidification. Hardness measurements of the overaged samples showed that in this alloy system the {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi phase has a greater influence on the overall strength of the alloys compared to the other Ni-bearing precipitates.

  10. Quasicrystalline phase formation in the mechanically alloyed Al{sub 70}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, S. N. de, E-mail: snm@dfi.uem.br; Cadore, S.; Pereira, H. A.; Santos, I. A.; Colucci, C. C.; Paesano, A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    In the present work, the formation of the Al{sub 70}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 10} icosahedral phase by mechanical alloying the elemental powders in a high-energy planetary mill was investigated by X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was verified that the sample milled for 80 h produces an icosahedral phase besides Al(Cu, Fe) solid solution ({beta}-phase) and Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic phase. The Moessbauer spectrum for this sample was fitted with a distribution of quadrupole splitting, a doublet and a sextet, revealing the presence of the icosahedral phase, {beta}-phase and {alpha}-Fe, respectively. This compound is not a good hydrogen storage. The results of the X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy of the sample milled for 40 h and annealed at 623 deg. C for 16 h shows essentially single i-phase and tetragonal Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2} Fe phase.

  11. Investigation of the Phase Formation of AlSi-Coatings for Hot Stamping of Boron Alloyed Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, R.; Kolleck, R.; Hofmann, H.; Sikora, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hot stamping of boron alloyed steel is gaining more and more importance for the production of high strength automotive body parts. Within hot stamping of quenchenable steels the blank is heated up to austenitization temperature, transferred to the tool, formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. To avoid scale formation during the heating process of the blank, the sheet metal can be coated with an aluminium-silicum alloy. The meltimg temperature of this coating is below the austenitization temperature of the base material. This means, that a diffusion process between base material and coating has to take place during heating, leading to a higher melting temperature of the coating.In conventional heating devices, like roller hearth furnaces, the diffusion process is reached by relatively low heating rates. New technologies, like induction heating, reach very high heating rates and offer great potentials for the application in hot stamping. Till now it is not proofed, that this technology can be used with aluminum-silicon coated materials. This paper will present the results of comparative heating tests with a conventional furnace and an induction heating device. For different time/temperature-conditions the phase formation within the coating will be described.

  12. Effect of the Heusler phase formation on the magnetic behavior of the Cu–10 wt.%Mn alloy with Al and Ag additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, T.M., E-mail: thaisa.mary@gmail.com [Instituto de Química – UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Santos, C.M.A. [Instituto de Química – UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Silva, R.A.G. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Magnani, M. [Instituto de Química – UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The presence of the Cu{sub 2}MnAl phase was observed in annealed alloys. • Al and Ag additions shift the equilibrium concentration to higher Al values. • There is a correlation between the Ag-rich phase and the Cu{sub 2}MnAl phase. - Abstract: In this work, the formation of the Cu{sub 2}AlMn Heusler phase and its influence on the magnetic behavior of the Cu–Mn–Al–Ag alloys in the range of 8–10 wt.% of aluminum and 2–4 wt.% of silver were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and saturation magnetization measurements at 4 K. The results showed that there is a correlation between the presence of the Ag-rich phase and the formation of the Cu{sub 2}MnAl phase.

  13. Formation of nanocrystalline phases during decomposition of amorphous Ni-P alloys by continuous linear heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, A.; Lendvai, J. [Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyeten, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. for General Physics; Cziraki, A. [Eoetvoes Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Solid State Physics; Liebermann, H.H. [Honeywell Amorphous Metals, Morristown, NJ (United States); Bakonyi, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary). Research Inst. for Solid State Physics and Optics

    2001-05-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder diffraction and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations have been performed on melt-quenched amorphous Ni-P alloys with compositions of 18 to 22 at.% P. The calorimetric results revealed different crystallization routes during linear heating below, at and above the eutectic point (19 at.% P) but with the same general transformation scheme as reported previously for electrodeposited and electroless Ni-P amorphous alloys. The composition dependence of the activation energy of the crystallization and the heats evolved during the structural transformations were determined from DSC measurements. The average grain size was derived from XRD line broadening and important information on the crystallization products and their microstructure could be revealed also from the TEM studies. All these findings will have special significance when analysing the results of isothermal annealing experiments to be described in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  14. A New Thermodynamic Parameter to Predict Formation of Solid Solution or Intermetallic Phases in High Entropy Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-02

    George , Relative effects of enthalpy and entropy on the phase stability of equiatomic high-entropy alloys, Acta Mater. 61 (2013) 2628e2638. [4] B... Cantor , I.T.H. Chang, P. Knight, A.J.B. Vincent, Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 375e377 (2004...an Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy, In- termetallics 31 (2012) 165e172. [24] Z. Wu, H. Bei, F. Otto, G.M. Pharr, E.P. George , Recovery

  15. Accurate Gas Phase Formation Enthalpies of Alloys and Refractories Decomposition Products

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2017-01-17

    Accurate gas phase formation enthalpies, ΔHf, of metal oxides and halides are critical for the prediction of the stability of high temperature materials used in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Unfortunately, the experimental ΔHf values of these compounds in the most used databases, such as the NIST-JANAF database, are often reported with large inaccuracy, while some other ΔHf values clearly differ from the value predicted by CCSD(T) methods. To address this point, in this work we systematically predicted the ΔHf values of a series of these compounds having a group 4, 6, or 14 metal. The ΔHf values in question were derived within a composite Feller-Dixon-Peterson (FDP) scheme based protocol that combines the DLPNO-CCSD(T) enthalpy of ad hoc designed reactions and the experimental ΔHf values of few reference complexes. In agreement with other theoretical studies, we predict the ΔHf values for TiOCl2, TiOF2, GeF2, and SnF4 to be significantly different from the values tabulated in NIST-JANAF and other sources, which suggests that the tabulated experimental values are inaccurate. Similarly, the predicted ΔHf values for HfCl2, HfBr2, HfI2, MoOF4, MoCl6, WOF4, WOCl4, GeO2, SnO2, PbBr4, PbI4, and PbO2 also clearly differ from the tabulated experimental values, again suggesting large inaccuracy in the experimental values. In the case when largely different experimental values are available, we point to the value that is in better agreement with our results. We expect the ΔHf values reported in this work to be quite accurate, and thus, they might be used in thermodynamic calculations, because the effects from core correlation, relativistic effects, and basis set incompleteness were included in the DLPNO-CCSD(T) calculations. T1 and T2 values were thoroughly monitored as indicators of the quality of the reference Hartree-Fock orbitals (T1) and potential multireference character of the systems (T2).

  16. Driving forces of redistribution of elements during quasicrystalline phase formation under heating of mechanically alloyed Al65Cu23Fe12 powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherdyntsev, V. V.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Shelekhov, E. V.; Principi, G.; Rodin, A. O.

    2008-02-01

    Al65Cu23Fe12 alloys were prepared by ball milling of the elemental powders mixture. Phase and structural transformations at heating of as-milled powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Precision analysis of Mössbauer spectra was performed to check the adequacy of the fitting of X-ray diffraction patterns. The results were compared with the data of differential scanning and solution calorimetry, as well as with the thermodynamic literature data, in order to estimate the driving forces of redistribution of elements that preceded the formation of single-phase quasicrystalline structure. The heat of elements mixing, which is positive for Cu-Fe system and negative for Al-Fe and Al-Cu systems, was supposed to be a decisive factor for phase transformations during heating of the alloy. The correlation between sequence of phase transformations during heating and the thermodynamic data was discussed and the scheme describing phase transformations observed was proposed.

  17. Effect of Ag additions on the lengthening rate of Ω plates and formation of σ phase in Al-Cu-Mg alloys during thermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yaru; Liu, Zhiyi, E-mail: liuzhiyi@csu.edu.cn; Bai, Song; Ying, Puyou; Lin, Lianghua

    2017-01-15

    Effect of Ag additions on the mechanical properties and microstructures of the peak-aged Al-Cu-Mg alloys during prolonged thermal exposure at 150 °C, was investigated by tensile testing, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results showed that after exposure for 500 h, > 85% of the peak strength remained. Microstructure observations indicated that increasing the Ag content from 0.14 to 0.57% promoted the precipitation of a fine and uniform Ω phase and suppressed the formation of the θ′ phase, leading to a notable improvement of the strength properties and thermal stability of the studied alloys. Quantitative TEM analysis showed that the coarsening of Ω phase was predominated by plate lengthening rather than thickening, while its lengthening rate was independent of various Ag additions during exposure at 150 °C. In addition, an increase of Ag also facilitated the formation of a cubic σ phase, which was further supported by STEM results. - Highlights: •Increasing Ag improved strength properties and thermal stability of the alloys. •After exposure for 500 h, > 85% of the peak strength remained. •The lengthening rate of Ω plates remained constant as Ag increased at 150 °C. •Increasing Ag content facilitated the formation of σ phase.

  18. Formation of coatings from a liquid phase on the surface of iron-base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tatarek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discloses the present state of the art regarding the technology and investigations of the phenomena that take place during the formation and growth of aluminum and zinc coatings hot-dip formed on iron products. In its cognitive aspect, the study offers an in-depth analysis of the partial processes that proceed in metal bath at the solid body – liquid metal interface. It is expected that the present study will help in a more detailed description of the respective phenomena and in full explanation of the mechanism of the coating growth, taking as an example the growth of aluminum coatings. The obtained results can serve as a background for some general conclusions regarding the thickness evolution process in other hot-dip coatings.

  19. Formation of metastable cubic phase in Ce{sub 100−x}Al{sub x} (x=45, 50) alloys and their thermal and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzikowski, Bogdan, E-mail: idzi@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Śniadecki, Zbigniew [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Puźniak, Roman [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kaczorowski, Dariusz [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    Ce{sub 100−x}Al{sub x} (x=45 and 50) alloys were synthesized by rapid quenching technique in the form of ribbons composed of nanocrystalline phase of CeAl with the ClCs-type structure (Pm-3m space group) embedded in an amorphous matrix. The cubic CeAl phase is known as metastable with random distribution of Ce and Al atoms in the unit cell. The crystalline volume fraction is about 7.5% in Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} and 3% in Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50}. The alloy Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} shows better thermal stability than Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50}, indicated by higher effective activation energy and higher crystallization temperature. Small off-stoichiometry in Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} results in degrading the glass forming ability and promotes formation of the cubic CeAl phase, as confirmed by magnetic measurements. In both alloys, the Ce ions are in stable trivalent state and order magnetically near 20 K. Another magnetic phase transition close to 10 K was found for Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50} and was attributed to the presence of the well-known stable orthorhombic CeAl phase. To the best of our knowledge, the magnetic behavior of the CeAl cubic phase is reported here for the first time. - Highlights: • Synthesis of metastable cubic CeAl phase by rapid quenching. • The Ce ions in Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} and Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50} are in stable trivalent state. • Magnetic transition near 10 K connected with the orthorhombic CeAl phase. • Phase transition at about 20 K originates from the cubic CeAl phase.

  20. Effect of composition and heat treatment on the phase formation of mechanically alloyed Cr-B and Mo-B powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H M; Hu, C J; Pai, K Y

    2009-01-01

    Blended elemental Cr-B and Mo-B powders in atomic ratio of 67:33, 50:50, and 20:80 were subjected to mechanical alloying up to 60 h and subsequent heat treatment to investigate effect of composition and heat treatment on the phase formation of Cr-B and Mo-B powders. It was studied by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. Mechanical alloying these powder mixtures for 60 h leads essentially to a amorphous structure except for the Mo 20 B 80 powder, which creates a partially amorphous MoB 4 structure. Annealing at lower temperatures relieves the strains cumulative in the milled powders and creates no new phase. The structures obtained after annealing the milled powders at higher temperature vary and depend on the overall composition of the powder mixtures. Annealing the milled Mo-B powders having greater Mo content ends up with a dissociation reaction at higher temperature.

  1. Effect of Ag additions on the β phase formation reaction in the Cu–9 wt.%Al–6 wt.%Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.T., E-mail: atadorno@iq.unesp.br [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, T.M. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Silva, R.A.G. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Santos, C.M.A.; Magdalena, A.G. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The results suggest a multi-step process involving reversible reactions. • Ag solubilizes preferably at the Cu matrix. • Ag additions decrease the activation energy for the process. - Abstract: The influence of 4 and 5 wt.%Ag additions on the kinetics of β [T{sub 7}-(CuMn){sub 3}Al] phase formation reaction in the Cu–9 wt.%Al–6 wt.%Mn alloy was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the conversion dependence of the activation energy has a descending shape, suggesting a multi-step process involving reversible reactions. The presence of Ag facilitates the formation of the β phase. The results also showed that the Ag precipitates formation includes the dissolution of Mn and Al atoms, thus decreasing the partial fraction of these elements available to react.

  2. Phase formation in alloy-type anode materials in the quaternary system Li-Sn-Si-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druee, Martin; Seyring, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto Schott Inst. of Materials Research; Liang, Song-Mao; Kozlov, Artem; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Metallurgy; Song, Xiaoyan [Beijing Univ. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Functional Materials; Rettenmayr, Markus [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto Schott Inst. of Materials Research; Jena Univ. (Germany). Center for Energy and Environmental

    2017-11-15

    Investigations on the thermodynamics of alloy-type anode materials have been carried out for the quaternary Li-C-Si-Sn system. Phase equilibria and phase stabilities were characterized in the binary subsystems Li-C, Li-Si, Li-Sn. The Calphad method was first used to optimize or completely re-establish all binary subsystems containing Li. For reasons of consistency, the binary subsystem Si-C had to be revisited and its Calphad description was modified. The ternary phase diagrams were then tentatively calculated by extrapolation from the binary subsystems and confirmed by key experiments. No ternary compounds were found. In order to verify the applicability of the anode materials in real batteries, some of the materials were nanostructured by ball milling and spark plasma sintering, the corresponding nanostructures were characterized. Theoretical predictions that nanograined Li{sub 2}C{sub 2} can also be used as cathode material were verified experimentally. The methodologies worked out in the present project (e.g. nanoscale structure transmission electron microscopy analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy) were also employed in other projects and led to publications concerning other materials such as Mg alloys, carbon nanofibers and an Mn-based antiperovskite.

  3. Phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC and the formation of TiC in Fe3Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Schneider, Andre; Zaefferer, Stefan; Frommeyer, Georg; Raabe, Dierk

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the development of high-strength Fe 3 Al-based alloys, phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC phases in the Fe-Al-Cr-Ti-C quinary system and the formation of TiC were determined. A pseudo-eutectic trough (L α + L + TiC) exists at 1470 deg C at around Fe-26Al-5Cr-2Ti-1.7C on the vertical section between Fe-26Al-5Cr (α) and Ti-46C (TiC) in at.%. Large faceted TiC precipitates form from the melt after the formation of primary α phase even in hypoeutectic alloys. The TiC formation is thought to be due to the composition change of the liquid towards the hypereutectic compositions by solidification of the primary α. In order to remove the faceted TiC, which are unfavourable for strengthening the material, two different processing routes have been successfully tested: (i) solidification with an increased rate to reduce the composition variation of the liquid during solidification, and (ii) unidirectional solidification to separate the light TiC precipitates from the melt

  4. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  5. Principles of Structure and Phase Composition Formation in Composite Master Alloys of the Al-Ti-B/B4c Systems Used for Aluminum Alloy Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, I. A.; Promakhov, V. V.; Matveev, A. E.; Platov, V. V.; Khrustalev, A. P.; Dubkova, Ya. A.; Vorozhtsov, S. A.; Potekaev, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The principles of formation of structure and properties of materials produced by self-propagating hightemperature synthesis (SHS) from the Al-Ti-B/B4C powder systems are identified. It is shown that the SHSmaterials produced from the Al-Ti-B powder systems consist of a TiAl intermetallic matrix with inclusions of titanium diboride particles. It is found out that an introduction of 1 wt.% of TiB2 particles into the melt of the AD35 aluminum alloy allows reducing the grain size from 620 to 220 μm and gives rise to an increase in the ultimate tensile strength of as-cast specimens from 100 to 145 MPa and in the plasticity from 7 to 9%.

  6. Formation of Ag nanoparticles in percolative Ag–PbTiO3 composite thin films through lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Zongrong; Su, Yanbo; Tang, Liwen; Shen, Ge; Song, Chenlu; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2012-01-01

    The Ag nanoparticle dispersed percolative PbTiO 3 ceramic thin film was prepared in situ by sol–gel method with excess lead introduced into a sol precursor. The influence of excess lead and the heat treatment time on the formation of Ag nanoparticles was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. Results showed that the excess lead introduced into the sol precursor was in favor of the crystallization of the thin film and in favor of formation of the perovskite phase without the pyrochlore phase. Lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles first formed in the thin films and then decomposed to become large numbers of Ag nanoparticles of about 3 nm in size in the thin films when the heat treatment time was longer than 2 min. The content of the Ag nanoparticles increased with increasing the heat treatment time. The percolative behavior appears typically in the Ag nanoparticle dispersed thin films. The dielectric constant of the thin film was about 3 times of that without Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: ► The Ag nanoparticles formed in the PbTiO 3 percolative ceramic thin film. ► The Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase during thin film preparation. ► The lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles decomposed to form Ag nanoparticles in the film. ► Permittivity of the thin film is 3 times higher than that without Ag nanoparticles.

  7. The influence of alloying on the phase formation sequence of ultra-thin nickel silicide films and on the inheritance of texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, F. A.; Solano, E.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C.; Mocuta, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2018-05-01

    The controlled formation of silicide materials is an ongoing challenge to facilitate the electrical contact of Si-based transistors. Due to the ongoing miniaturisation of the transistor, the silicide is trending to ever-thinner thickness's. The corresponding increase in surface-to-volume ratio emphasises the importance of low-energetic interfaces. Intriguingly, the thickness reduction of nickel silicides results in an abrupt change in phase sequence. This paper investigates the sequence of the silicides phases and their preferential orientation with respect to the Si(001) substrate, for both "thin" (i.e., 9 nm) and "ultra-thin" (i.e., 3 nm) Ni films. Furthermore, as the addition of ternary elements is often considered in order to tailor the silicides' properties, additives of Al, Co, and Pt are also included in this study. Our results show that the first silicide formed is epitaxial θ-Ni2Si, regardless of initial thickness or alloyed composition. The transformations towards subsequent silicides are changed through the additive elements, which can be understood through solubility arguments and classical nucleation theory. The crystalline alignment of the formed silicides with the substrate significantly differs through alloying. The observed textures of sequential silicides could be linked through texture inheritance. Our study illustrates the nucleation of a new phase drive to reduce the interfacial energy at the silicide-substrate interface as well as at the interface with the silicide which is being consumed for these sub-10 nm thin films.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT WITH THE LIQUID PHASE ON FORMATION OF A MICROSTRUCTURE OF EUTECTIC Al-Si-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on the structure of the eutectic Al-Si-alloy, a theoretical substantiation process based on thermal analyzer and cooked microstructures was presented in this paper.

  9. Theory of alloy phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.; Ehrenreich, H.; Bennett, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Various non-thermodynamic approaches to understanding and predicting phase diagrams are explored from the viewpoint of solid-state physics. The review is intended to indicate the scope of activity and some of the progress which has been made

  10. Formation of Al15Mn3Si2 Phase During Solidification of a Novel Al-12%Si-4%Cu-1.2%Mn Heat-Resistant Alloy and Its Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Xiaojing; Liao, Hengcheng; Hu, Yiyun; Dixit, Uday S.; Petrov, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    The formation of Al15Mn3Si2 phase in Al-12Si-4Cu-1.2Mn (wt.%) alloy during solidification was investigated by adopting CALPHAD method and microstructural observation by optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS/SAD and XRD analysis; SEM fixed-point observation method was applied to evaluate its thermal stability. As-cast microstructural observation consistently demonstrates the solidification sequence of the studied alloy predicted by phase diagram calculation. Based on the phase diagram calculation, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS/SAD and XRD analysis, as well as evidences on Al-Si-Mn-Fe compounds from the literature, the primary and eutectic Mn-rich phases with different morphologies in the studied alloy are identified to be Al15Mn3Si2 that has a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure with a lattice constant of a = 1.352 nm. SEM fixed-point observation and XRD analysis indicate that Al15Mn3Si2 phase has more excellent thermal stability at high temperature than that of CuAl2 phase and can serve as the major strengthening phase in heat-resistant aluminum alloy that has to face a high-temperature working environment. Results of tension test show that addition of Mn can improve the strength of Al-Si-Cu alloy, especially at elevated temperature.

  11. Alloy phase stability and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocks, G.M.; Pope, E.P.; Giamei, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    At the level of basic quantum theory the papers in this symposium reflect the great progress that has been made in understanding the physical properties of both ordered and disordered alloys based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). DFT provides a quantitative parameter-free (often referred to as first principles) theory of the ground state properties of these systems. This general approach has also been used in combination with classical elasticity and dislocation theory to provide the first quantitative understanding of some of the mechanical properties of intermetallic alloys. Recent advances have built on DFT theory to provide the first glimpses of a theory of the finite temperature phase stability of alloys. It is the strength of these first principles theories that the understanding of materials properties is in terms of the underlying electronic structure. At the level of atomistic simulation, based on semi-empirical potentials, again much progress has been made in understanding the properties of extended defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. On the experimental front increasingly sophisticated tools are being brought to bear in order to understand both the underlying electronic structure and detailed atomic arrangements. This information, together with input from theory, is playing an increasing role in guiding alloy design efforts. At the more practical level a number of these sophisticated alloy design efforts have in recent years produced impressive results across a broad front. The properties of existing materials are continually being improved and new ones developed. Often this progress is based on a deeper understanding of the properties at the atomistic and electronic level. The design of new ordered intermetallic alloys that have reached or are reaching commercialization represents one of the major achievements of this investment of intellectual resources

  12. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per

    1997-01-01

    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign...... is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss...

  13. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  14. Analysis of phase formation in Ni-rich alloys of the Ni-Ta-W system by calorimetry, DTA, SEM, and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Hecht, U.; Warnken, N.; Fries, S.G. [Access e.V., Aachen (Germany); Hu Weiping [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The partial enthalpies of dissolution of pure Ni, W and Ta in liquid ternary Ni-Ta-W alloys have been determined at (1773 {+-} 5) K using a high temperature isoperibolic calorimeter. Measurements were performed in Ni-rich alloys (from 80 to 100 at.% Ni) along sections with constant Ta:W atomic ratios 1:0, 2:1, 1:2, and 0:1. The partial enthalpies and thereby the integral enthalpy of mixing of these ternary alloys are calculated from the partial enthalpies of dissolution using SGTE Gibbs energies for pure elements as reference. The obtained thermochemical data confirm that in the investigated Ni-rich alloys the binary interactions between Ta and W as well as the ternary Ni-Ta-W interactions are negligibly small. Due to this the variation of the integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary alloys is well described as linear combination of the constituent Ni-Ta and Ni-W binaries. Such behaviour of the ternary liquid alloys is related to a very low probability of new ternary stable phases to occur in solid state. This prediction is confirmed by differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of the as-solidified and annealed samples obtained as last alloy compositions in the series of calorimetric dissolution. (orig.)

  15. Lave phase precipitation in Nb- and Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, R.; Vishwanadh, B.; Dey, G.K.

    2010-01-01

    In multicomponent Nb-based alloys system, which are potential candidate materials for high temperature applications, the presence of Laves phase was noticed along with the silicides in equilibrium with the soft β-matrix. In Ti-Cr alloys, which show a tendency for inverse melting, the formation of the phase was noticed in the β matrix upon aging. The Laves phase being topologically closed pack structure appears to have strong tendency for the formation provided the criterion of atomic size factor is met

  16. Gamma stability and powder formation of UMo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, F.B.V.; Andrade, D.A.; Angelo, G.; Belchior Junior, A.; Torres, W.M.; Umbehaun, P.E., E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelo, E., E-mail: eangelo@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Simulacao Numerica (GSN)

    2015-07-01

    A study of the hydrogen embrittlement as well as a research on the relation between gamma decomposition and powder formation of uranium molybdenum alloys were previously presented. In this study a comparison regarding the hypo-eutectoid and hyper-eutectoid molybdenum additions is presented. Gamma uranium molybdenum alloys have been considered as the fuel phase in plate type fuel elements for material and test reactors (MTR). Regarding their usage as a dispersion phase in aluminum matrix, it is necessary to convert the as cast structure into powder, and one of the techniques considered for this purpose is the hydration-dehydration (HDH). This paper shows that, under specific conditions of heating and cooling, γ-UMo fragmentation may occur with non-reactive or reactive mechanisms. Following the production of the alloys by induction melting, samples of the alloys were thermally treated under a constant flow of hydrogen. It was observed that, even without a massive hydration-dehydration process, the alloys fragmented under specific conditions of thermal treatment, during the thermal shock phase of the experiments. Also, there is a relation between absorption and the rate of gamma decomposition or the gamma phase stability of the alloy and this phenomenon can be related to the eutectoid transformation temperature. This study was carried out to search for a new method for the production of powders and for the evaluation of important physical parameter such as the eutectoid transformation temperature, as an alternative to the existing ones. (author)

  17. The system study of 1:13 phase formation, the magnetic transition adjustment, and magnetocaloric property in La(Fe,Co){sub 13−x}Si{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang, E-mail: gxucx@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Physics and Electronic Informational Engineering, Neijiang Teachers College, Neijiang 641002 (China); Chen, Yungui, E-mail: ygchen60@yahoo.com.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tang, Yongbo; Xiao, Dingquan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The effects of Co on the formation of NaZn{sub 13}-type phase in as-cast and annealed LaFe{sub 16−x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 1.4} and LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4−x}Co{sub x} alloys have been investigated systematically by XRD, SEM, and EDS, respectively. In LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4−x}Co{sub x} alloys, the introduction of Co will hamper the formation of 1:13 and LaFeSi phases, and help the formation of αof (Co, Si) solid solution, so there is almost only α-Fe(Co, Si) solid solution when x reaches 0.7 in as-cast and annealed LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4−x}Co{sub x} alloys. Although the amounts of 1:13 phase increases when x reaches 0.7 in as-cast LaFe{sub 16−x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 1.4} alloys, there is a small amount of α-Fe in LaFe{sub 11.6−x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 1.4} alloys annealed at 1523 K (5 h), which indicates that the annealing time for obtaining a 1:13 single-phase cannot be shortened in our high-temperature and short-time annealing. The studies on the magnetic properties show that the Curie temperature T{sub C} goes up from 207 K to 285 K with increase of Co content from x=0.1 to 0.8. The introduction of Co element weakens the first order magnetic phase transition, which results in the change of magnetic transition type from first to second order at about x=0.3–0.5. At the same time, it has effects on the phase transition temperature interval and magnetic filed interval, and the changing rate of magnetic entropy change dependence on the Co content in LaFe{sub 16−x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 1.4} alloys. The maximum entropy values of LaFe{sub 11.6−x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 1.4} alloys decrease with the increase of Co content, but the relative cooling power does not decrease, the reason of which is that the phase transition temperature interval increases and the first order phase transition character decreases, and the effective refrigeration temperature range becomes big, which is useful to the application of magnetic refrigeration material. - Highlights: • The introduction of Co

  18. Modelling and theories of alloy phase behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.; Davenport, J.W.; Weinert, M.; Bennett, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Many trends in alloy phase formation are readily understood in terms of physically plausible atomic parameters. This has led to the introduction of structural maps where two (or more) such atomic parameters are employed as the coordinates and well-defined regions are observed to be associated with particular crystalline phases. These coordinates sometimes involve the difference in atomic parameters and sometimes involve an average. An alternative approach to the emphasis on atomic parameters has been the consideration of how atoms are packed in some crystal structure and how this controls what the constituent atoms may be. Recently this has led to the utilization of Wigner-Seitz (sometimes called Voronoi or Dirichlet) constructs of the atomic cells in a crystal structure and to the observation that sometimes two crystals which are nominally considered to have the same crystal structure according to normal crystallographic designation should be considered to be different. The Wigner-Seitz cell constructs have also offered a framework for understanding trends in the magnetic and chemical properties of particular phases as well as making coordination between crystalline and glassy structures. Neither of the above approaches provides numerical estimates of quantities of thermodynamic interest such as heats of formation. Such heats are being calculated. 42 refs., 15 figs

  19. Phases in lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Lanthanum-nickel-aluminum (LANA) alloys will be used to pump, store and separate hydrogen isotopes in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF). The aluminum content (y) of the primary LaNi 5 -phase is controlled to produce the desired pressure-temperature behavior for adsorption and desorption of hydrogen. However, secondary phases cause decreased capacity and some may cause undesirable retention of tritium. Twenty-three alloys purchased from Ergenics, Inc. for development of RTF processes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to determine the distributions and compositions of constituent phases. This memorandum reports the results of these characterization studies. Knowledge of the structural characteristics of these alloys is a useful first step in selecting materials for specific process development tests and in interpreting results of those tests. Once this information is coupled with data on hydrogen plateau pressures, retention and capacity, secondary phase limits for RTF alloys can be specified

  20. Shape Memory Alloy Adaptive Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will demonstrate and scale up an innovative manufacturing process that yields aerospace grade shape memory alloy (SMA) solids and periodic...

  1. Monitoring alloy formation during mechanical alloying process by x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom; Noraizam Md Diah; Mazli Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring alloying (MA) is a novel processing technique that use high energy impact ball mill to produce alloys with enhanced properties and microscopically homogeneous materials starting from various powder mixtures. Mechanical alloying process was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion strengthened nickel superalloys. In principal, in high-energy ball milling process, alloy is formed by the result of repeated welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high energy ball mill. In this process a powder mixture in a ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions among balls. MA has been shown to be capable of synthesizing a variety of materials. It is known to be capable to prepare equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases starting from blended elemental or prealloyed powders. The process ability to produce highly metastable materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructured materials has made this process attractive and it has been considered as a promising material processing technique that could be used to produce many advanced materials at low cost. The present study explores the conditions under which aluminum alloys formation occurs by ball milling of blended aluminum and its alloying elements powders. In this work, attempt was made in producing aluminum 2024 alloys by milling of blended elemental aluminum powder of 2024 composition in a stainless steel container under argon atmosphere for up to 210 minutes. X-ray diffraction together with thermal analysis techniques has been used to monitor phase changes in the milled powder. Results indicate that, using our predetermined milling parameters, alloys were formed after 120 minutes milling. The thermal analysis data was also presented in this report. (Author)

  2. Electronic structure theory of alloy phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been developed and applied to the study of phase stability properties in substitutional alloys. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method, or with Monte-Carlo simulations. We show that this approach is well suited for studying ground state properties of substitutional alloys, for calculating energies of idealized interfaces and antiphase boundaries, and finally to compute alloy phase diagrams

  3. Decagonal quasicrystalline phase in as-cast and mechanically alloyed Al–Cu–Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchukov, A.P.; Sviridova, T.A.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Gorshenkov, M.V.; Churyukanova, M.N.; Zhang, D.; Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microstructure of as-cast Al–Cu–Cr alloys was investigated. ► Composition of decagonal quasicrystalline phase was determined. ► Single-phase decagonal quasicrystalline powder was obtained. ► Phase composition changes during heating were controlled using DSC and X-ray diffraction. -- Abstract: Microstructure and phase composition of three Al-rich as-cast alloys of Al–Cu–Cr system were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The decagonal quasicrystalline phase is contained in all alloys under study and has grains with faceted shape, its composition lies in the range of 71–73 at.% Al, 11–12 at.% Cu and 15–18 at.% Cr. The heating in calorimeter of the mechanically alloyed Al 73 Cu 11 Cr 16 powder up to 600 °C leads to the formation of the pure decagonal phase. Total thermal effect in the temperature range 250–600 °C corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase formation is about 15 kJ/mol

  4. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, Sonja; Ratke, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Budenkova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al 5 SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence ...

  5. Microstructural characterization and formation of α′ martensite phase in Ti–6Al–4V alloy butt joints produced by friction stir and gas tungsten arc welding processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaily, M.; Nooshin Mortazavi, S.; Todehfalah, P.; Rashidi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A fusion (GTAW) and a solid state method (FSW) are used to weld Ti–6Al–4V alloy. ► Optimal parameters yielding defects-free weldments are identified. ► A very careful microstructural quantification of the FSW and GTAW weldments are performed. ► α′ Martensite formed only in FSWed samples and avoided in GTAWed samples. ► FSW process produced joints with considerably smaller HAZ and higher hardness values. - Abstract: The obtained microstructures of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy welded by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW) were investigated and evaluated quantitatively. In the GTAW method, the effect of current was examined so that the samples were subjected to various currents between 90 and 120 A. In the FSW process, samples were welded by different rotational speeds (450–850 rpm). Non-destructive tests including Visual and Radiography Tests (VT and RT) were used to identify defect-free samples. The microstructural studies by electron microscopes revealed formation of different phases in the weld area of the samples welded via mentioned methods. The recorded peak temperatures in the weld regions compared favorably with the expectations about the evolved microstructures. A bi-modal microstructure was just obtained in the FSWed sample with a peak temperature below β transus temperature (T < 995 °C). α′ martensite phase, which is an acicular and strengthening phase in this alloy, was only observed in FSWed specimens

  6. Formation and structure of nanocrystalline Al-Mn-Ni-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, J.; Krasnowski, M.; Ciesielska, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the short investigation on the effect of Cu additions upon the nanocrystallization behaviour of an Al-Mn-Ni alloy. 2 at.% Cu added to the base alloy of Al 85 Mn 10 Ni 5 alloy by substitution for Mn(mischmetal). The control of cooling rate did not cause the formation of nanocrystals of fcc-Al phase. The nanocrystalline structure fcc-Al + amorphous phase in quarternary alloy was obtained by isothermal annealing and continuous heating method, but the last technique is more effective. The volume fraction, lattice parameter, and size of Al-phase were calculated. (author)

  7. Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, U.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies in tantalum was made. Using advanced techniques of electron microscopy and ultrahigh vacuum techology, an understanding of the microstructures and phase transformations in dilute interstitial tantalum--carbon alloys is developed. Through a number of control experiments, the role and sources of interstitial contamination in the alloy preparation (and under operating conditions) are revealed. It is demonstrated that all previously published work on the dilute interstitially ordered phase Ta 64 C can be explained consistently in terms of ordering of the interstitial contaminants oxygen and hydrogen, leading to the formation of the phases Ta 12 O and Ta 2 H

  8. Isothermal α″ formation in β metastable titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeby-Gautier, E.; Settefrati, A.; Bruneseaux, F.; Appolaire, B.; Denand, B.; Dehmas, M.; Geandier, G.; Boulet, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isothermal kinetics of orthorhombic α″ formation is characterized by HEXRD. ► Cell parameters of parent and product phases are obtained. ► Partitioning of solutes during the transformation and the ageing is discussed. -- Abstract: Thanks to time resolved high energy X-ray diffraction, isothermal decomposition of β metastable phase was studied, directly after solution treatment in the β temperature range, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 °C for two beta metastable alloys (Ti 17 and Ti 5553). The formation of an orthorhombic α″ phase is clearly identified at the beginning of the transformation whatever the alloy studied. If transformation occurs at the higher temperature an evolution of α″ is observed toward the hexagonal α phase. The phase amounts and the mean cell parameters of each phase were quantified by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained cell parameters evolutions and the orthorhombicity of α″ are discussed. Moreover, the orthorhombicity of α″ compared to that obtained for stress induced martensite may indicate a slight partitioning of solutes in isothermal α″

  9. Isothermal α″ formation in β metastable titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeby-Gautier, E., E-mail: Elisabeth.Gautier@mines.inpl-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Settefrati, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Airbus Operations, Materials and Processes, Toulouse (France); Bruneseaux, F. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Appolaire, B. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures ONERA – CNRS Chatillon (France); Denand, B.; Dehmas, M.; Geandier, G.; Boulet, P. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Isothermal kinetics of orthorhombic α″ formation is characterized by HEXRD. ► Cell parameters of parent and product phases are obtained. ► Partitioning of solutes during the transformation and the ageing is discussed. -- Abstract: Thanks to time resolved high energy X-ray diffraction, isothermal decomposition of β metastable phase was studied, directly after solution treatment in the β temperature range, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 °C for two beta metastable alloys (Ti 17 and Ti 5553). The formation of an orthorhombic α″ phase is clearly identified at the beginning of the transformation whatever the alloy studied. If transformation occurs at the higher temperature an evolution of α″ is observed toward the hexagonal α phase. The phase amounts and the mean cell parameters of each phase were quantified by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained cell parameters evolutions and the orthorhombicity of α″ are discussed. Moreover, the orthorhombicity of α″ compared to that obtained for stress induced martensite may indicate a slight partitioning of solutes in isothermal α″.

  10. Numerical simulation of freckle formation in directional solidification of binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicelli, Sergio D.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Poirier, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of solidification is presented which simulates the formation of segregation models known as 'freckles' during directional solidification of binary alloys. The growth of the two-phase or dendritic zone is calculated by solving the coupled equations of momentum, energy, and solute transport, as well as maintaining the thermodynamic constraints dictated by the phase diagram of the alloy. Calculations for lead-tin alloys show that the thermosolutal convection in the dendritic zone during solidification can produce heavily localized inhomogeneities in the composition of the final alloy.

  11. Phase evolution and thermal stability of 2 Mg–Cu alloys processed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, C., E-mail: carola.martinezu@usach.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Casilla de correo 10233, Santiago (Chile); Ordoñez, S., E-mail: stella.ordonez@usach.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Casilla de correo 10233, Santiago (Chile); Guzmán, D. [Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Atacama y CRIDESAT, Av. Copayapu 485, Casilla de Correo 240, Copiapó (Chile); Serafini, D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Casilla de correo 307, Santiago (Chile); Iturriza, I. [CEIT, Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián, España (Spain); Bustos, O. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Casilla de correo 10233, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Study of phase evolution of elemental powders Mg and Cu by mechanical alloying. •The presence of an amorphous precursor which crystallizes to Mg{sub 2}Cu can be observed. •Establishing the sequence of phase transformations leading to the formation of Mg{sub 2}Cu. •The feasibility to obtain Mg{sub 2}Cu by means two possible routes has been established. -- Abstract: Phase evolution during mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental Mg and Cu powders and their subsequent heat treatment is studied. Elemental Mg and Cu powders in a 2:1 atomic ratio were mechanically alloyed in a SPEX 8000D mill using a 10:1 ball-to-powder ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the formation of the intermetallic Mg{sub 2}Cu takes place between 3 and 4 h of milling, although traces of elemental Cu are still present after 10 h of milling. The thermal behavior of different powder mixtures was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The combination of DSC, heat treatment and XRD has shown a sequence of phase transformations that results in the intermetallic Mg{sub 2}Cu from an amorphous precursor. This amorphous phase is converted into Mg{sub 2}Cu by heating at low temperature (407 K). Short MA times and the formation of the amorphous precursor, together with its subsequent transformation into Mg{sub 2}Cu at low temperatures; represent an advantageous alternative route for its preparation.

  12. Phase distribution studies in metallic alloy SIMFUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolay, S.; Basu, M.; Kaity, S.; Das, D.

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of U-Pu based alloy fuel in the three stage nuclear power generation program in India is one of the important mandate due to shorter doubling time for breeding of the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu and 233 U) to be used in Th based driver fuel in the 3rd stage. Reported information shows successful performance of fuel with porous alloy matrix in achieving 10-15 atom % burn-up. The porosity and microstructure of this alloy are strongly dependent on the composition and phases of the fission products incorporated in the matrix. The porosity influences the extent of fuel swelling and fission gas release, which affects the performance and integrity of the fuel. This study addresses to these issues taking the base alloy U-10wt% Zr

  13. Kinetics and formation mechanism of amorphous Fe52Nb48 alloy powder fabricated by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Eskandarany, S.

    1999-01-01

    A single phase amorphous Fe 52 Nb 48 alloy has been synthesized through a solid state interdiffusion of pure polycrystalline Fe and Nb powders at room temperature, using a high-energy ball-milling technique. The mechanisms of metallic glass formation and competing crystallization processes in the mechanically deformed composite powders have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The numerous intimate layered composite particles of the diffusion couples that formed during the first and intermediate stages of milling time (0-56 ks), are intermixed to form amorphous phase(s) upon heating to about 625 K by so-called thermally assisted solid state amorphization, TASSA. The amorphization heat of formation for binary system via the TASSA, ΔH a , was measured directly as a function of the milling time. Comparable with the TASSA, homogeneous amorphous alloys were fabricated directly without heating the composite multilayered particles upon milling these particles for longer milling time (86 ks-144 ks). The amorphization reaction here is attributed to the mechanical driven solid state amorphization. This single amorphous phase transforms into an order phasephase) upon heating at 1088 K (crystallization temperature, T x ) with enthalpy change of crystallization, ΔH x , of -8.3 kJmol -1 . (orig.)

  14. Phase transitions in alloys of the Ni-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinovshikov, Y.; Shabanova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The structure of Ni-20 at.% Mo and Ni-25 at.% Mo alloys was studied by methods of TEM and XPS. It is shown that at high temperatures the tendency toward phase separation takes place in the alloys and crystalline bcc Mo particles precipitate in the liquid solution. At 900 deg. C and below, the tendency toward ordering leads to the dissolution of Mo particles and precipitation of the particles of Ni 3 Mo, Ni 2 Mo or Ni 4 Mo chemical compounds. Highlights: → 'Chemical' phase transition 'ordering-phase separation' is first discovered in alloys of the Ni-Mo system. → It is first shown that the phase separation in the alloys studied begins at temperatures above the liquidus one. → The formation of Ni 3 Mo from A1 has gone through the intervening stage of the Ni 4 Mo and Ni 2 Mo coexistence. - Abstract: The structure of Ni-20 at.% Mo and Ni-25 at.% Mo alloys heat treated at different temperatures was studied by the method of transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to detect the sign of the chemical interaction between Ni and Mo atoms at different temperatures. It is shown that at high temperatures the tendency toward phase separation takes place. The system of additional reflections at positions {1 1/2 0} on the electron diffraction patterns testifies that the precipitation of crystalline bcc Mo particles begins in the liquid solution. At 900 deg. C and below, the tendency toward ordering leads to the precipitation of the particles of the chemical compounds. A body-centered tetragonal phase Ni 4 Mo (D1 a ) is formed in the Ni-20 at.% Mo alloy. In the Ni-25 at.% Mo alloy, the formation of the Ni 3 Mo (D0 22 ) chemical compound from the A1 solid solution has gone through the intervening stage of the Ni 4 Mo (D1 a ) and Ni 2 Mo (Pt 2 Mo) formation.

  15. Study on the Formation of Reaction Phase to Si Addition in Boron Steel Hot-Dipped in Al–7Ni Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Gil Yun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the intermetallic compounds formed during the application of an Al–7Ni wt % hot-dip multifunctional coating on boron steel, developed for Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB and hot stamping, 2–6 wt % Si was added to the coating to change the reaction layer. The coating was run at 690 °C for 120 s. Al9FeNi phases were formed on the steel interface, Fe2Al5 was formed on the steel, FeAl3 was generated between the existing layers, and flake-type Al2Fe3Si3 was formed in the Fe2Al5 phase, depending on the Si content. In addition, as Si was added to the coating, the thickness of the Fe2Al5 phase decreased and the thickness of the Al9FeNi phase and Al2Fe3Si3 increased. The decrease in the thickness of the Fe2Al5 phase was mainly due to the effect of the Si solid solution and the Al2Fe3Si3 formation in the Fe2Al5 phase. The reason for the growth of Al9FeNi is that the higher the Si content in the coating, the more the erosion of the interface of the steel material due to the coating solution. Therefore, the outflow of Fe into the coating liquid increased.

  16. Glass formation and crystallization in Zr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come in to prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. Though these have been produced for the last four decades, the necessity of rapid solidification at cooling rates of 10 5 K/sec or higher for their production, have restricted their geometry to thin ribbons and prevented their application to many areas despite their excellent properties. It has been shown in recent investigations that, many Zr base multicomponent alloys can be obtained in glassy state by cooling at much lower rate typically 10 2 to 10 3 K/sec. This has enabled production of these alloys in the glassy stat in bulk. By now, bulk metallic glasses have been produced in Mg, Ln, Zr, Fe, Pd-Cu, Pd-Fe, Ti and Ni- based alloys. Production of these glasses in bulk has opened avenue for their application in many areas where their excellent mechanical properties an corrosion resistance can be exploited. The transformation of the amorphous phase in these alloys to one or more crystalline phases, is an interesting phase transformation and can lead to formation of crystals in a variety of morphologies and a wide range of crystal sizes, including nanometer size crystals or nanocrystals. The bulk amorphous alloys exhibit higher fracture stress, combined with higher hardness and lower young's modulus than those of any crystalline alloy. The Zr- and Ti-based bulk amorphous alloy exhibit high bending and flexural strength values which are typically 2.0 to 2.5 time higher than those for crystalline counterparts. The composites of bulk metallic glass containing crystalline phases have been found to have special properties. This has been demonstrated in the case of composites of bulk metallic glass and tungsten wires wit the glass forming the matrix. Such a composite has a very high impact strength and is especially suitable for application as an armour penetrator in various types of shells used

  17. Effect of Iron Impurity on the Phase Composition, Structure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys Containing Manganese and Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, E. F.

    2017-07-01

    Results of a study of the interaction between iron impurity and manganese and aluminum alloying elements during formation of phase composition in alloys of the Mg - Mn, Mg - Al, Mg - Al - Mn, and Mg - Al - Zn - Mn systems are presented. It is proved that this interaction results in introduction of Fe into the intermetallic phase. The phase compositions of model magnesium alloys and commercial alloys MA2-1 and MA5 are studied. It is shown that both manganese and aluminum may bind the iron impurity into phases. Composite Fe-containing intermetallic phases of different compositions influence differently the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  18. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devulder, Wouter; De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Muller, Robert; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Belmonte, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 -C/Al 2 O 3 /Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al 2 O 3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al 2 O 3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents

  19. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devulder, Wouter; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Belmonte, Attilio; Muller, Robert; De Schutter, Bob; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu0.6Te0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu0.6Te0.4-C/Al2O3/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al2O3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al2O3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

  20. Alloy composition dependence of formation of porous Ni prepared by rapid solidification and chemical dealloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Zhen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: zh_zhang@sdu.edu.cn; Jia Haoling [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Qu Yingjie [Shandong Labor Occupational Technology College, Jingshi Road 388, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu Guodong; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-20

    In this paper, the effect of alloy composition on the formation of porous Ni catalysts prepared by chemical dealloying of rapidly solidified Al-Ni alloys has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption experiments. The experimental results show that rapid solidification and alloy composition have a significant effect on the phase constituent and microstructure of Al-Ni alloys. The melt spun Al-20 at.% Ni alloy consists of {alpha}-Al, NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, while the melt spun Al-25 and 31.5 at.% Ni alloys comprise NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}. Moreover, the formation and microstructure of the porous Ni catalysts are dependent upon the composition of the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. The morphology and size of Ni particles in the Ni catalysts inherit from those of grains in the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. Rapid solidification can extend the alloy composition of Al-Ni alloys suitable for preparation of the Ni catalysts, and obviously accelerate the dealloying process of the Al-Ni alloys.

  1. Phase stability of transition metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hixson, R.S.; Schiferl, D.; Wills, J.M.; Hill, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project was focused on resolving unexplained differences in calculated and measured phase transition pressures in transition metals. Part of the approach was to do new, higher accuracy calculations of transmission pressures for group 4B and group 6B metals. Theory indicates that the transition pressures for these baseline metals should change if alloyed with a d-electron donor metal, and calculations done using the Local Density Approximation (LDA) and the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) indicate that this is true. Alloy systems were calculated for Ti, Zr and Hf based alloys with various solute concentrations. The second part of the program was to do new Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) measurements to experimentally verify calculational results. Alloys were prepared for these systems with grain size suitable for Diamond Anvil Cell experiments. Experiments were done on pure Ti as well as Ti-V and Ti-Ta alloys. Measuring unambiguous transition pressures for these systems proved difficult, but a new technique developed yielded good results

  2. Cermet anode compositions with high content alloy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions comprising NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 -Cu-Ni, and methods for making, are disclosed. Addition of nickel metal prior to formation and densification of a base mixture into the cermet allows for an increase in the total amount of copper and nickel that can be contained in the NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 oxide system. Nickel is present in a base mixture weight concentration of from 0.1% to 10%. Copper is present in the alloy phase in a weight concentration of from 10% to 30% of the densified composition. Such cermet electrodes can be formed to have electrical conductivities well in excess of 100 ohm.sup.-1 cm.sup.-1. Other alloy and oxide system cermets having high content metal phases are also expected to be manufacturable in accordance with the invention.

  3. Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. Phase transformations, structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, J.V.

    2006-12-21

    This work has been devoted to the study of phase transformations involving chemical ordering and magnetic properties evolution in bulk Fe-Pt alloys composed of nanometersized grains. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} (x=40-60) alloys have been prepared by mechanical ball milling of elemental Fe and Pt powders at liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-milled Fe-Pt alloys consist of {proportional_to} 100 {mu}m sized particles constituted by randomly oriented grains having an average size in the range of 10-40 nm. Depending on the milling time, three major microstructure types have been obtained: samples with a multilayer-type structure of Fe and Pt with a thickness of 20-300 nm and a very thin (several nanometers) A1 layer at their interfaces (2 h milled), an intermediate structure, consisting of finer lamellae of Fe and Pt (below approximately 100 nm) with the A1 layer thickness reaching several tens of nanometers (4 h milled) and alloys containing a homogeneous A1 phase (7 h milled). Subsequent heat treatment at elevated temperatures is required for the formation of the L1{sub 0} FePt phase. The ordering develops via so-called combined solid state reactions. It is accompanied by grain growth and thermally assisted removal of defects introduced by milling and proceeds rapidly at moderate temperatures by nucleation and growth of the ordered phases with a high degree of the long-range order. In a two-particle interaction model elaborated in the present work, the existence of hysteresis in recoil loops has been shown to arise from insufficient coupling between the low- and the high-anisotropy particles. The model reveals the main features of magnetisation reversal processes observed experimentally in exchange-coupled systems. Neutron diffraction has been used for the investigation of the magnetic structure of ordered and partially ordered nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. (orig.)

  4. Improvement of the surface properties of aluminium by the formation of intermetallic phases and metal matrix composites during laser surface alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is widely used in industry due to its low cost, light weight and excellent workability, but is lacking in wear resistance and hardness. Laser alloying is used to improve the surface properties, such as hardness, by modifying...

  5. Simulation studies of GST phase change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In order to help drive post-Moore's Law technology development, switching processes involving novel materials, in particular, GeSbTe (GST) alloys are being investigated for use in memory and eFuse applications. An anneal/quench thermal process crystallizes/amorphosizes a GST alloy which then has a low/high resistance and thereby forms a readable/writeable bit; for example, a ``one'' might be the low resistance, conducting crystalline state and a ``zero'' might be the high resistance, glassy state. There are many open questions about the precise nature of the structural transitions and the coupling to electronic structure changes. Computational and experimental studies of the effect of pressure on the GST materials were initiated in order to probe the physics behind the thermal switching process. A new pathway to reversible phase change involving pressure-induced structural metal insulator transitions was discovered. In a binary GS system, a room-temperature, direct, pressure-induced transformation from the high resistance amorphous phase to the low resistance crystalline phase was observed experimentally while the reverse process under tensile load was demonstrated via ab initio MD simulations performed on IBM's Blue Gene/L enabled by massively parallel software. Pressure induced transformations of the ternary material GST-225 (Ge2Sb2Te5) were, also, examined In the talk, the behavior of the two systems will be compared and insight into the nature of the phase change given.

  6. Essential Magnesium Alloys Binary Phase Diagrams and Their Thermochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mezbahul-Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based alloys are becoming a major industrial material for structural applications because of their potential weight saving characteristics. All the commercial Mg alloys like AZ, AM, AE, EZ, ZK, and so forth series are multicomponent and hence it is important to understand the phase relations of the alloying elements with Mg. In this work, eleven essential Mg-based binary systems including Mg-Al/Zn/Mn/Ca/Sr/Y/Ni/Ce/Nd/Cu/Sn have been reviewed. Each of these systems has been discussed critically on the aspects of phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. All the available experimental data has been summarized and critically assessed to provide detailed understanding of the systems. The phase diagrams are calculated based on the most up-to-date optimized parameters. The thermodynamic model parameters for all the systems except Mg-Nd have been summarized in tables. The crystallographic information of the intermetallic compounds of different binary systems is provided. Also, the heat of formation of the intermetallic compounds obtained from experimental, first principle calculations and CALPHAD optimizations are provided. In addition, reoptimization of the Mg-Y system has been done in this work since new experimental data showed wider solubility of the intermetallic compounds.

  7. Nanotube formation and morphology change of Ti alloys containing Hf for dental materials use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Kang; Choe, Han-Cheol; Ko, Yeong-Mu; Brantley, William A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Ti-Hf (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%) alloys were prepared by arc melting, and subjected to heat treatment for 24 h at 1000 o C in an argon atmosphere. Formation of surface nanotubes was achieved by anodizing a Ti-Hf alloy in 1.0 M H 3 PO 4 electrolytes with small amounts of NaF at room temperature. Microstructures of the alloys and nanotube morphology were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The homogenized Ti-Hf alloys had a needle-like microstructure of α phase, and nanotubes formed on Ti-xHf alloys had the anatase phase after treatment that promoted crystallization. Uniform nanotubes formed for Hf contents up to 20 wt.%. Irregular nanotubes formed on the Ti-30Hf and Ti-40Hf alloys. The structure of the irregular layers on the Ti-30Hf and Ti-40Hf alloys had nanotubes of two sizes. Increasing the Hf content in Ti led to the formation of nanotubes with more narrow size. The pores in the nanotubes typically had a diameter ranging from 80-120 nm and a length of approximately 1.7 μm. It is concluded that nanotube morphology on Ti-Hf alloys can controlled by varying the amount of Hf.

  8. STRUCTURE FORMATION OF ALLOYS ON IRON BASIS AFTER LASER ALLOYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigations on influence of laser treatment regimes of gas-thermal and adhesive coatings from self-fluxing powders on iron basis and after melting with modifying plaster on their roughness and phase composition. One of mathematical planning methods that is a complete factor experiment method has been used for investigation of parameters’ influence on micro-geometry of coatings. The executed investigations have made it possible to observe a general regularity which does not depend on a type of alloying plaster: while increasing speed of laser beam relatively to treated part, beam diameter value of Ra parameter is becoming less. Decrease in height of surface irregularities in case of increasing laser beam speed is related with intensification of evaporation processes. An increase in beam diameter diminishes Ra parameter of the surface. This is due to the fact that decrease in power density occurs at high rate of beam defocusing. Overlapping coefficient does not exert a pronounced effect on Ra parameter of fused coatings. While increasing the speed of laser beam relatively to the part structure is transferred from dendrite into supersaturated one with carbide and boride precipitations. It has been established that technological parameters of laser treatment and particularly speed of laser beam influence on coating composition. While increasing the speed up to v5 = 5 × 10–3 m/s amount of chromium has become larger by 1.5-fold that resulted in increase of micro-hardness of the coating from 9.5–10.1 GPa up to 11.04–15.50 GPa.

  9. On the role of Nb in Z-phase formation in a 12% Cr steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cipolla, L.; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Di Nunzio, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Z-phase precipitation in two model alloys, 12CrVNbN and 12CrVN, has been investigated. The alloys were aged up to 104 h and their precipitate evolution was followed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The formation rate of Z-phase from vanadium-based nitrides, (V,Nb)N, in t...

  10. Understanding Phase-Change Memory Alloys from a Chemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.

    2015-09-01

    Phase-change memories (PCM) are associated with reversible ultra-fast low-energy crystal-to-amorphous switching in GeTe-based alloys co-existing with the high stability of the two phases at ambient temperature, a unique property that has been recently explained by the high fragility of the glass-forming liquid phase, where the activation barrier for crystallisation drastically increases as the temperature decreases from the glass-transition to room temperature. At the same time the atomistic dynamics of the phase-change process and the associated changes in the nature of bonding have remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that key to this behavior is the formation of transient three-center bonds in the excited state that is enabled due to the presence of lone-pair electrons. Our findings additionally reveal previously ignored fundamental similarities between the mechanisms of reversible photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys and offer new insights into the development of efficient PCM materials.

  11. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  12. Phase transformations at continuous cooling in VT6ch and VT23 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyasotskaya, V.S.; Lyasotskij, I.V.; Meshcheryakov, V.N.; Ravdonikas, N.Yu.; Nadtochij, S.I.; Faustov, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    Phase transformations at continuous cooling at β-region temperatures in VT6ch and VT23 alloys are studied. Nonequilibrium phases: α', α'', (ω), βsub(e), αsub(e), are shown to be formed in these alloys depending on cooling composition and rate. It is established that at cooling at temperatures below Ar 3 in alloys studied high-temperature α-phase is formed, and at temperatures below 650 deg C - more dispersed low-temperature α-phase precipitating from β-solution volumes mostly enriched by alloying elements according to the intermediate mechanism. Diagrams of anisothermal β-phase decomposition for VT6ch and VT23 alloys are plotted in coincidence with the results of thermal, thermodifferential, metallographic and X-ray diffraction analyses; lines of martensite transformation, lines of high- and low-temperature α-phase formation are pointed on the diagrams. Besides, for VT23 alloy a line for (ω)-phase formation is pointed

  13. Influence of atomic ordering on sigma phase precipitation of the Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 50} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vélez, G.Y., E-mail: g.y.velezcastillo@gmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Física, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, avenida Manuel Nava 6, zona universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosí, SLP México (Mexico); Pérez Alcázar, G.A. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Física, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • σ-FeCr phase can be delayed when α-FeCr phase is ordered. • The formation of σ phase is favored by concentration gradients of α phase. • We determine the iron occupation number of the five sites of σ-Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 50}. - Abstract: In this work we report a study of the kinetic of the formation of the σ-Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 50} alloy which is obtained by heat treatment of α-FeCr samples with different atomic ordering. Two α-FeCr alloys were obtained, one by mechanical alloying and the other by arc-melting. Both alloys were heated at 925 K for 170 h and then quenched into ice water. Before heat treatment both alloys exhibit α-FeCr disordered structure with greater ferromagnetic behavior in the alloy obtained by mechanical alloying due to its higher atomic disorder. The sigma phase precipitation is influenced by the atomic ordering of the bcc samples: in the alloy obtained by mechanical alloying, the bcc phase is completely transformed into the σ phase; in the alloy obtained by melted the α–σ transformation is partial.

  14. Liquid Phase Sintering of Highly Alloyed Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Troels

    1996-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering of stainless steel is usually applied to improve corrosion resistance by obtaining a material without an open pore system. The dense structure normally also give a higher strength when compared to conventional sintered steel. Liquid phase sintrering based on addition...... of boride to AISI 316L type steels have previously been studied, but were found to be sensitive to intergranular corrosion due to formation of intermetallic phases rich in chromium and molybdenum. In order to improve this system further, new investigations have focused on the use of higher alloyed stainless...... steel as base material. The stainless base powders were added different amounts and types of boride and sintered in hydrogen at different temperatures and times in a laboratory furnace. During sintering the outlet gas was analyzed and subsequently related to the obtained microstructure. Thermodynamic...

  15. Bubble formation upon crystallization of high nitrogen iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyazhin, A.G.; Sivka, E.; Skuza, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into the conditions of nitrogen bubble formation during crystallization of unalloyed iron, alloys of Fe-O, Fe-O-S systems, steels 1Kh13, 0Kh18N9 and a two-phase Fe-11%Cr-1%Mo-0.2%V steel. It is revealed that the amount of bubbles in a high nitrogen steel casting increases with a degree of nitrogen supersaturation and decreases with a cooling rate growth and with a rise of surfactant concentration in the metal. In sound castings a nitrogen content can be increased due to a cooling rate growth, nitrogen dilution with inert gas, an increase of nitrogen pressure during crystallization as well as due to the introduction of such surfactants as sulphur, selenium, tellurium, tin [ru

  16. Estimation of formation heat of rare earth and actinide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubin, A.B.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Raspopin, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forecasting the enthalpy of formation of scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and lanthanides, thorium, uranium and plutonium alloys with a series of fusible metals (Al, Ga, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi) is proposed. The obtained confidence internal value for the calculated Δ f H 0 values exceeds sufficiently the random error of the experimental determination of the rare metal alloy formation enthalpies. However, taking into account considerable divergences in results of Δ f H 0 determinations performed by different science groups, one may conclude, that such forecasting accuracy may be useful in the course of estimation calculations, especially, for actinide element alloys

  17. On the phase evolution of AlCoCrCuFeMnSix high entropy alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and arc melting route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Chopkar, Manoj

    2018-05-01

    Effect of Si addition on phase formation of AlCoCrCuFeMnSix (x=0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9) high entropy alloy have been investigated in this work. The alloys are prepared by mechanical alloying and vacuum arc melting technique. The X-ray diffraction results reveals the formation of mixture of face centered and body centered cubic solid solution phases in milled powders. The addition of Si favours body centered cubic structure formation during milling process. Whereas, after melting the milled powders, body centered phases formed during milling is partial transformed into sigma phases. XRD results were also correlated with the SEM elemental mapping of as casted samples. Addition of Si favours σ phase formation in the as cast samples.

  18. Stability enhancement of Cu2S against Cu vacancy formation by Ag alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sajib K.; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2018-04-01

    As a potential solar absorber material, Cu2S has proved its importance in the field of renewable energy. However, almost all the known minerals of Cu2S suffer from spontaneous Cu vacancy formation in the structure. The Cu vacancy formation causes the structure to possess very high p-type doping that leads the material to behave as a degenerate semiconductor. This vacancy formation tendency is a major obstacle for this material in this regard. A relatively new predicted phase of Cu2S which has an acanthite-like structure was found to be preferable than the well-known low chalcocite Cu2S. However, the Cu-vacancy formation tendency in this phase remained similar. We have found that alloying silver with this structure can help to reduce Cu vacancy formation tendency without altering its electronic property. The band gap of silver alloyed structure is higher than pristine acanthite Cu2S. In addition, Cu diffusion in the structure can be reduced with Ag doped in Cu sites. In this study, a systematic approach is presented within the density functional theory framework to study Cu vacancy formation tendency and diffusion in silver alloyed acanthite Cu2S, and proposed a possible route to stabilize Cu2S against Cu vacancy formations by alloying it with Ag.

  19. On the coexistence of the magnetic phases in chromium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.

    1969-01-01

    Detailed neutron diffraction investigations have been performed on Cr-Re alloys in order to explain the several observations in Cr alloys of the coexistence of a commensurable and an oscillatory magnetic phase. It is concluded that the individual magnetic phases probably occur in separate domains....

  20. Hydrogen formation in metals and alloys during fusion reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, S.; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Mori, Seiji

    1994-08-01

    The results of neutron transport calculations of the hydrogen formation based on the JENDL gas-production cross section file are discussed for some metals and alloys, namely 51 V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Mo, austenitic stainless steel (Ti modified 316SS:PCA), ferritic steel (Fe-8Cr-2W:F82H) and the vanadium-base alloy (V-5Cr-5Ti). Impact of the steel fraction in steel/water homogeneous blanket/shield compositions on the hydrogen formation rate in above-mentioned metals and alloys is discussed both for the hydrogen formation in the first wall and the blanket/shield components. The results obtained for the first wall are compared with those for the helium formation obtained at JAERI by the same calculational conditions. Hydrogen formation rates at the first wall having 51 V, Cr, Fe, Ni and Mo are larger than those of helium by 3-8 times. (author)

  1. Formation of MgZnO alloy under thermodynamic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markevich, I.V.; Stara, T.R., E-mail: stara_t@ukr.net; Kuchuk, A.V.; Polishchuk, Yu.O.; Kladko, V.P.

    2014-11-15

    Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O ceramics with x=0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 were sintered at T{sub s}=700–1250 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra as well as X-ray diffraction patterns were measured at 293 K. Bandgap width was evaluated from the position of PLE peak. Non-monotonous dependence of PLE peak position on T{sub s} was observed for all used x. This effect was concluded to be caused by the formation of cubic phase side by side with hexagonal one and the enhancement of this process with increasing T{sub s}, which resulted in the decrease of Mg content in the hexagonal phase at T{sub s}>1000 °C. Temperature range of 1000–1050 °C was found to be the optimum one for the formation of hexagonal MgZnO alloy at used x. It was shown that x=0.20 was the solubility limit of MgO in hexagonal Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O ceramics.

  2. Influence of second phase dispersion on void formation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Banerjee, S.; Krishnan, R.

    Irradiation-induced void formation in alloys has been found to be strongly influenced by the microstructure, the important microstructural parameters being the dislocation density and the nature, density and distribution of second-phase precipitates. The effects of various types of precipitates on void swelling have been examined using the generally-accepted model of void formation : void embryos are assumed to grow in a situation where equal numbers of vacancies and interstitials are continuously generated by the incident irradiation, the interstitials being somewhat perferentially absorbed in some sinks present in the material. The mechanism of the trapping of defects by a distribution of precipitates has been discussed and the available experimental results on the suppression of void formation in materials containing coherent precipitates have been reviewed. Experimental results on the microstructure developed in a nickel-base alloys, Inconel-718 (considered to be a candidate material for structural applications in fast reactors), have been presented. The method of determination of the coherency strain associated with the precipitates has been illustrated with the help of certain observations made on this alloy. The major difficulty in using a two-phase alloy in an irradiation environment is associated with the irradiation-induced instability of the precipitates. Several processes such as precipitate dislocation (in which the incident radiation removes the outer layer of precipitates by recoil), enhanced diffusion disordering, fragmentation of precipitates, etc. are responsible for bringinq about a significant change in the structure of a two-phase material during irradiation. The effect of these processes on the continued performance of a two-phase alloy subjected to irradiation at an elevated temperature has been discussed. (auth.)

  3. Phases in U-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domagala, R.F.

    1986-09-01

    The binary (two component) U-Si system contains a total of seven ''compounds.'' The most U-rich compounds are of interest to the RERTR community because they are now being employed as fuels in research and test reactors. The nomenclature used in describing these fuels and the metallurgical significance of the notations recorded may have different meanings to people from different technical backgrounds. This paper is a succinct exploration of the principles of phase equilibria and the realities of commerical fabrication as applied to U-Si alloys. It is an attempt to record in referenceable and retrievable form information of value to the continued development, application and understanding of silicide fuels

  4. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  5. General aspects of surface alloy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Roetter, Ralf T.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Berko, Andras

    2010-07-01

    Surface confined alloys are excellent model systems for studies of structure-property relationships of bimetallic surfaces. They are formed by deposition of a guest metal B onto a substrate A, followed by annealing to a temperature, where place exchange between adatoms and atoms from the underlying surface layer becomes possible and diffusion into the bulk is sufficiently slow. We exemplarily confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy for PtRu/Ru(0001), PdRu/Ru(0001), AuPt/Pt(111), AgPt/Pt(111), and AgPd/Pd(111), surface alloys are obtained for systems where metal B has a negative surface segregation energy within metal A. By exchanging A and B, however, AB surface alloys are most likely overgrown by metal B, which we demonstrate for RuPt/Pt(111) in comparison to PtRu/Ru(0001).

  6. Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation of Cu-Al alloy in cooling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhui; Liao, Bo; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Shuqing; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Ruijun

    2012-07-01

    The solid-state phase transformation temperature and duration of deep cryogenic treated and untreated Cu-Al alloys in cooling process were measured by differential scanning calorimetry measurement. The solid-state phase transformation activation energy and Avrami exponent were calculated according to these measurements. The effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the solid-state phase transformation were investigated based on the measurement and calculation as well as the observation of alloy's microstructure. The results show that deep cryogenic treatment can increase the solid-phase transformation activation energy and shorten the phase transformation duration, which is helpful to the formation of fine grains in Cu-Al alloy.

  7. Phase transformations in intermetallic phases in zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Kirichenko, V. G. [Kharkiv National Karazin University (Ukraine); Salomasov, V. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Khasanov, A. M. [University of North Carolina – Asheville, Chemistry Department (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Phase change was analyzed in intermetallic compounds of zirconium alloys (Zr – 1.03 at.% Fe; Zr – 0.51 at.% Fe; Zr – 0.51 at.% Fe – M(M = Nb, Sn). Mössbauer spectroscopy on {sup 57}Fe nuclei in backscattering geometry with the registration of the internal conversion electrons and XRD were used. Four types of iron bearing intermetallic compounds with Nb were detected. A relationship was found between the growth process of intermetallic inclusions and segregation of these phases. The growth kinetics of inclusions possibly is not controlled by bulk diffusion, and a lower value of the iron atom’s activation energy of migration can be attributed to the existence of enhanced diffusion paths and interface boundaries.

  8. Effective interactions approach to phase stability in alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrique, R.A.; Bellon, P.

    1999-01-01

    Phase stability in alloys under irradiation is studied considering effective thermodynamic potentials. A simple kinetic model of a binary alloy with phase separation is investigated. Time evolution in the alloy results from two competing dynamics: thermal diffusion, and irradiation induced ballistic exchanges The dynamical (steady state) phase diagram is evaluated exactly performing Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The solution is then compared to two theoretical frameworks: the effective quasi-interactions model as proposed by Vaks and Kamishenko, and the effective free energy model as proposed by Martin. New developments of these models are proposed to allow for quantitative comparisons. Both theoretical frameworks yield fairly good approximations to the dynamical phase diagram

  9. Effective interactions approach to phase stability in alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrique, R.A.; Bellon, P.

    1999-01-01

    Phase stability in alloys under irradiation is studied considering effective thermodynamic potentials. A simple kinetic model of a binary alloy with phase separation is investigated. Time evolution in the alloy results form two competing dynamics: thermal diffusion, and irradiation induced ballistic exchanges. The dynamical (steady state) phase diagram is evaluated exactly performing Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The solution is then compared to two theoretical frameworks: the effective quasi-interactions model as proposed by Vaks and Kamishenko, and the effective free energy model as proposed by Martin. New developments of these models are proposed to allow for quantitative comparisons. Both theoretical frameworks yield fairly good approximations to the dynamical phase diagram

  10. Microscopy of Alloy Formation on Arc Plasma Sintered Oxide Dispersion Strengthen (ODS) Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandriyana, B.; Sujatno, A.; Salam, R.; Dimyati, A.; Untoro, P.

    2017-07-01

    The oxide dispersed strengthened (ODS) alloys steel developed as structure material for nuclear power plants (NPP) has good resistant against creep due to their unique microstructure. Microscopy investigation on the microstructure formation during alloying process especially at the early stages was carried out to study the correlation between structure and property of ODS alloys. This was possible thanks to the arc plasma sintering (APS) device which can simulate the time dependent alloying processes. The ODS sample with composition of 88 wt.% Fe and 12 wt.% Cr powder dispersed with 1 wt.% ZrO2 nano powder was mixed in a high energy milling, isostatic compressed to form sample coins and then alloyed in APS. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDX) line scan and mapping was used to characterize the microstructure and elemental composition distribution of the samples. The alloying process with unification of each Fe and Cr phase continued by the alloying formation of Fe-Cr by inter-diffusion of both Fe and Cr and followed by the improvement of the mechanical properties of hardness.

  11. Effects of phase constitution of Zr-Nb alloys on their magnetic susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Yuko; Suyalatu; Kondo, Ryota; Doi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Hanawa, Takao

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities and microstructures of Zr-Nb binary alloys were investigated to develop a new metallic biomaterial with a low magnetic susceptibility for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic susceptibility was measured with a magnetic susceptibility balance, and the microstructure was evaluated with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), an optical microscope (OM), and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Zr-Nb alloys as-cast showed a minimum value of magnetic susceptibility between 3 and 9 mass% Nb, and the value abruptly increased up to 20 mass% Nb, followed by a gradual increase with the increase of the Nb content. XRD, OM, and TEM revealed that the minimum value of the susceptibility was closely related to the appearance of the athermal ω phase in the β phase. Since the magnetic susceptibility of Zr-3Nb alloy consisting of an α' phase was as low as that of Zr-9Nb alloy consisting of the β and ω phases, that of the ω phase was lower than that of the α' and β phases. When Zr-16Nb alloy was heat-treated, the isothermal ω phase appeared, and, simultaneously, the magnetic susceptibility decreased. Therefore, the ω phase contributes to the decrease of the magnetic susceptibility, independently of the formation process of the ω phase. The magnetic susceptibility of the Zr-3Nb alloy as-cast was almost one-third that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which is commonly used for medical implant devices. Zr-Nb alloys are useful for medical devices used under MRI. (author)

  12. Stress-induced phase transformation and room temperature aging in Ti-Nb-Fe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J.E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corp, 9609 Ardmore Ave., Fort Wayne, IN 46809 (United States); Ren, Y. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Room temperature deformation behavior of Ti-17Nb-1Fe and Ti-17Nb-2Fe alloys was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. It was found that, after proper heat treatment, both alloys were able to recover a deformation strain of above 3.5% due to the Stress-induced Martensite (SIM) phase transformation. Higher Fe content increased the beta phase stability and onset stress for SIM transformation. A strong {110}{sub β} texture was produced in Ti-17Nb-2Fe compared to the {210}{sub β} texture that was observed in Ti-17Nb-1Fe. Room temperature aging was observed in both alloys, where the formation of the omega phase increased the yield strength (also SIM onset stress), and decreased the ductility and strain recovery. Other metastable beta Ti alloys may show a similar aging response and this should draw the attention of materials design engineers.

  13. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  14. Reduction in the formation temperature of Poly-SiGe alloy thin film in Si/Ge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tah, Twisha; Singh, Ch. Kishan; Madapu, K. K.; Sarguna, R. M.; Magudapathy, P.; Ilango, S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of deposition temperature in the formation of poly-SiGe alloy thin film in Si/Ge system is reported. For the set ofsamples deposited without any intentional heating, initiation of alloying starts upon post annealingat ˜ 500 °C leading to the formation of a-SiGe. Subsequently, poly-SiGe alloy phase could formonly at temperature ≥ 800 °C. Whereas, for the set of samples deposited at 500 °C, in-situ formation of poly-SiGe alloy thin film could be observed. The energetics of the incoming evaporated atoms and theirsubsequent diffusionsin the presence of the supplied thermal energy is discussed to understand possible reasons for lowering of formation temperature/energyof the poly-SiGe phase.

  15. Thermodynamic and experimental study on phase stability in nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenwu; Song Xiaoyan; Lu Nianduan; Huang Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys exhibit apparently different phase transformation characteristics in comparison to the conventional polycrystalline alloys. The special phase stability and phase transformation behavior, as well as the essential mechanisms of the nanocrystalline alloys, were described quantitatively in a nanothermodynamic point of view. By introducing the relationship between the excess volume at the grain boundary and the nanograin size, the Gibbs free energy was determined distinctly as a function of temperature and the nanograin size. Accordingly, the grain-size-dependence of the phase stability and phase transformation characteristics of the nanocrystalline alloy were calculated systematically, and the correlations between the phase constitution, the phase transformation temperature and the critical nanograin size were predicted. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the phase transformations at room temperature and high temperatures using the nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloy as an example. The phase constitution and phase transformation sequence found in nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloys with various grain-size levels agree well with the calculations by the nanothermodynamic model.

  16. Reaction kinetics of oxygen on single-phase alloys, oxidation of nickel and niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalauze, Rene

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis first addresses the reaction kinetics of oxygen on alloys. It presents some generalities on heterogeneous reactions (conventional theory, theory of jumps), discusses the core reaction (with the influence of pressure), discusses the influence of metal self-diffusion on metal oxidation kinetics (equilibrium conditions at the interface, hybrid diffusion regime), reports the application of the hybrid diffusion model to the study of selective oxidation of alloys (Wagner model, hybrid diffusion model) and the study of the oxidation kinetics of an alloy forming a solid solution of two oxides. The second part reports the investigation of the oxidation of single phase nickel and niobium alloys (phase α, β and γ)

  17. The effect warming time of mechanical properties and structural phase aluminum alloy nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna Al Hasa, M.; Anwar Muchsin

    2011-01-01

    Ferrous aluminum alloys as fuel cladding will experience the process of heat treatment above the recrystallization temperature. Temperature and time of heat treatment will affect the nature of the metal. Heating time allows will affect change in mechanical properties, thermal and structure of the metal phase. This study aims to determine the effect of time of heat treatment on mechanical properties and phase metal alloys. Testing the mechanical properties of materials, especially violence done by the method of Vickers. Observation of microstructural changes made by metallographic-optical and phase structure were analyzed Based on the x-ray diffraction patterns Elemental analysis phase alloy compounds made by EDS-SEM. Test results show the nature of violence AlFeNiMg alloy by heating at 500°C with a warm-up time 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours respectively decreased range 94.4 HV, 87.6 HV and 85.1 HV. The nature of violence AlFeNi alloy showed a decrease in line with the longer heating time. Metallographic-optical observations show the microstructural changes with increasing heating time. Microstructure shows the longer the heating time trend equi axial shaped grain structure of growing and the results showed a trend analyst diffraction pattern formation and phase θ α phase (FeAl3) in the alloy. (author)

  18. Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M. C.; Suzuki, Y.; Schweiger, H.; Doǧan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J.; Widom, M.

    2013-02-01

    V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson’s ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson’s ratio for bcc Cr-V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.

  19. Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, M C; Suzuki, Y; Schweiger, H; Doğan, Ö N; Hawk, J; Widom, M

    2013-01-23

    V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr–V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson’s ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson’s ratio for bcc Cr–V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.

  20. Study of phase transformations in Fe-Mn-Cr Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schule, W.; Panzarasa, A.; Lang, E.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel free alloys for fusion reactor applications are examined. Phase changes in fifteen, mainly austenitic iron-manganese-chromium-alloys of different compositions were investigated in the temperature range between -196 0 C and 1000 0 C after different thermo-mechanical treatments. A range of different physical measuring techniques was employed to investigate the structural changes occurring during heating and cooling and after cold-work: electrical resistivity techniques, differential thermal analysis, magnetic response, Vickers hardness and XRD measurement. The phase boundary between the α Fe-phase and the γ-phase of the iron manganese alloy is approximately maintained if chromium is added to the two component materials. Consequently all the alloy materials for contents of manganese smaller than about 30% Mn are not stable below 500 0 C. This concerns also the AMCR alloys. However the α Fe-phase is not formed during slow cooling from 1000 0 C to ambient temperature and is only obtained if nucleation sites are provided and after very long anneals. A cubic α Mn-type-phase is found for alloys with 18% Cr and 15% Mn, with 13% Cr and 25% Mn, with 10% Cr and 30% Mn, and with 10% Cr and 40% Mn. For these reasons the γ-phase field of the iron-chromium-manganese alloys is very small below 600 0 C and much narrower than reported in the literature. 95 figs. 22 refs

  1. Computation material science of structural-phase transformation in casting aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golod, V. M.; Dobosh, L. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Successive stages of computer simulation the formation of the casting microstructure under non-equilibrium conditions of crystallization of multicomponent aluminum alloys are presented. On the basis of computer thermodynamics and heat transfer during solidification of macroscale shaped castings are specified the boundary conditions of local heat exchange at mesoscale modeling of non-equilibrium formation the solid phase and of the component redistribution between phases during coalescence of secondary dendrite branches. Computer analysis of structural - phase transitions based on the principle of additive physico-chemical effect of the alloy components in the process of diffusional - capillary morphological evolution of the dendrite structure and the o of local dendrite heterogeneity which stochastic nature and extent are revealed under metallographic study and modeling by the Monte Carlo method. The integrated computational materials science tools at researches of alloys are focused and implemented on analysis the multiple-factor system of casting processes and prediction of casting microstructure.

  2. Enhanced Densification of PM Steels by Liquid Phase Sintering with Boron-Containing Master Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattur Sundaram, Maheswaran; Surreddi, Kumar Babu; Hryha, Eduard; Veiga, Angela; Berg, Sigurd; Castro, Fransisco; Nyborg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Reaching high density in PM steels is important for high-performance applications. In this study, liquid phase sintering of PM steels by adding gas-atomized Ni-Mn-B master alloy was investigated for enhancing the density levels of Fe- and Mo- prealloyed steel powder compacts. The results indicated that liquid formation occurs in two stages, beginning with the master alloy melting (LP-1) below and eutectic phase formation (LP-2) above 1373 K (1100 °C). Mo and C addition revealed a significant influence on the LP-2 temperatures and hence on the final densification behavior and mechanical properties. Microstructural embrittlement occurs with the formation of continuous boride networks along the grain boundaries, and its severity increases with carbon addition, especially for 2.5 wt pct of master alloy content. Sintering behavior, along with liquid generation, microstructural characteristics, and mechanical testing revealed that the reduced master alloy content from 2.5 to 1.5 wt pct (reaching overall boron content from 0.2 to 0.12 wt pct) was necessary for obtaining good ductility with better mechanical properties. Sintering with Ni-Mn-B master alloy enables the sintering activation by liquid phase formation in two stages to attain high density in PM steels suitable for high-performance applications.

  3. Phase transformations in the titanium-niobium binary alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental study of the phase transformations in the Ti-Nb binary alloy system was completed. Eight alloys in the range 20 to 70 at% Nb were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, light metallography, and x-ray diffraction. Measurements of electric resistivity and Vicker's microhardness also were performed. Emphasis was placed on the minimization of interstitial contamination in all steps of alloy fabrication and specimen preparation. In order to eliminate the effects of prior cold working, the alloys studied were recrystallized at 1000 0 C. Phase transformations were studied in alloys quenched to room temperature after recrystallization and then isothermally aged, and in those isothermally aged without a prior room temperature quench. It was found that the microstructures of the quenched 20 and 25% Nb alloys were extremely sensitive to quench rate - with a fast quench producing martensite, a slow quench, the omega phase. Microstructures of the higher niobium content alloys were much less sensitive to quench rate. The microstructures of the isothermally aged 20 and 25% Nb alloys were found to be sensitive to prior thermal history. Alloys quenched to room temperature and then aged at 400 0 C contained large omega precipitates, while those aged without an intermediate room temperature quench contained alpha precipitates

  4. Study on phase formation mechanism and electrochemical properties of La{sub 0.75−x}Nd{sub x}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.3} (x = 0, 0.15) alloys prepared by powder sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinding [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Han, Shumin, E-mail: hanshm@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials, Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Li, Yuan; Liu, Jingjing [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Che, Linda [Desert Vista High School, Phoenix, AZ 85048 (United States); Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Junling [Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 7} phase abundance increases with Nd substitution dramatically. • Nd substitution results in the depletion of the minor CaCu{sub 5}-type phase. • The equilibrium plateau is elevated and broadened with Nd substitution. -- Abstract: An investigation of the phase formation mechanism and electrochemical properties of the La{sub 0.75−x}Nd{sub x}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.3} (x = 0, 0.15) alloys has been conducted in this paper. As explored by Rietveld analysis of the XRD data, the La{sub 0.75}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.3} alloy is composed of Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}-type and Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 7}-type phases accompanied by minor CaCu{sub 5}-type phase. The partial substitution Nd for La benefits the formation of Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 7}-type phase, indicating that the atoms with smaller radius favor the formation of the Gd{sub 2}Co{sub 7}-type phase. However, CaCu{sub 5}-type phase disappears with Nd substitution. Because part of the replaced La atoms transform into [A{sub 2}B{sub 4}] subunits with the Ni atoms, and the formed [A{sub 2}B{sub 4}] subunits crystallize with [AB{sub 5}] subunits to produce A{sub 2}B{sub 7}-type phase, resulting in the depletion of the minor CaCu{sub 5}-type phase. The electrochemical P–C isotherms present that the La{sub 0.60}Nd{sub 0.15}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.3} alloy only containing A{sub 2}B{sub 7}-type phase has one single plateau while the La{sub 0.75}Mg{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 3.3} alloy which contains minor LaNi{sub 5} phase has two plateaus. It is beneficial for the elevation of equilibrium plateau pressure ascribing to the contraction in cell volumes by Nd substitution. Electrochemical measurements show that the substitution of La by Nd improves the discharge capacity and the high rate dischargeability owing to the increase of A{sub 2}B{sub 7}-type phase abundance.

  5. ANALYSIS OF KINETICS OF CAST IRON ALLOYING THROUGH SLAG PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cast iron alloying through slag phase due to use of nickel and copper oxides is considered and the analysis of kinetics regularity of alloying in case of absence of fuse in the form of milled cast-iron chips in slag and at their presence in it is carried out.

  6. Effect of structure and alloying elements on void formation in austenitic steels and nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, V.; Azam, N.; Le Naour, L.; Didout, G.; Delaplace, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the development of the fast breeder reactors the phenomenon of metal swelling due to the formation of radiation induced voids is a large problem. In the complex alloys small fluctuations in composition can have a considerable effect on swelling and a great deal of investigation on the effect of both major and minor alloying elements is needed to be able to predict swelling. To provide more insight a research program involving irradiation of both commercial or specially cast alloys by 500 keV Ni + ions or 1 MeV electrons has been developed. The major results are presented

  7. Biodegradability engineering of biodegradable Mg alloys: Tailoring the electrochemical properties and microstructure of constituent phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Pil-Ryung; Han, Hyung-Seop; Yang, Gui-Fu; Kim, Yu-Chan; Hong, Ki-Ha; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jung, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Kim, Young-Yul; Cho, Sung-Youn; Byun, Ji Young; Lee, Kang-Sik; Yang, Seok-Jo; Seok, Hyun-Kwang

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline Mg-based alloys with a distinct reduction in hydrogen evolution were prepared through both electrochemical and microstructural engineering of the constituent phases. The addition of Zn to Mg-Ca alloy modified the corrosion potentials of two constituent phases (Mg + Mg2Ca), which prevented the formation of a galvanic circuit and achieved a comparable corrosion rate to high purity Mg. Furthermore, effective grain refinement induced by the extrusion allowed the achievement of much lower corrosion rate than high purity Mg. Animal studies confirmed the large reduction in hydrogen evolution and revealed good tissue compatibility with increased bone deposition around the newly developed Mg alloy implants. Thus, high strength Mg-Ca-Zn alloys with medically acceptable corrosion rate were developed and showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants. PMID:23917705

  8. Sulfide phase in the Fe-Ti-S and Fe-C-Ti-S alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, Ya.N.; Balakina, N.A.; Shmelev, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the sulfide phases in Fe-Ti-S and Fe-C-Ti-S alloys was studied. The carbide and the sulfide phase were identified the aid of X-ray spectral microanalysis. It was established that for a small content of titanium and sulfur in ternary Fe-Ti-S alloys the solidification of the γ-solution on the boundaries of dendritic branches is accompanied, along with the precipitation of a sulfide rich in iron of the (Fe, Ti) S type where a small quantity of titanium is dissolved, by the formation of a titanium-bearing sulfide eutectic γ + TiS. The amount of the sulfide eutectic increases with the contents of titanium and sulfur until a purely eutectic alloy is formed. Both carbides and sulfides may be formed in the solidification of quaternary alloys Fe-C-Ti-S

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of (Ni, Fe)3Al formation by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabavazeh, Z.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying. ► We use a thermodynamic analysis to predict the more stable phase. ► We calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes by using extended Miedema model. ► The results of MA compared with thermodynamic analysis and showed a good agreement with it. - Abstract: (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni, Fe and Al elemental powder mixtures of composition Ni 50 Fe 25 Al 25 . Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that mechanical alloying resulted in a Ni (Al, Fe) solid solution. By continued milling, this structure transformed to the disordered (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound. A thermodynamic model developed on the basis of extended theory of Miedema is used to calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes. Final product of MA is a phase having minimal Gibbs free energy compared with other competing phases in Ni–Fe–Al system. However in Ni–Fe–Al system, the most stable phase at all compositions is intermetallic compound (not amorphous phase or solid solution). The results of MA were compared with thermodynamic analysis and revealed the leading role of thermodynamic on the formation of MA product prediction.

  10. Phase stability and microstructures of high entropy alloys ion irradiated to high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Songqin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Gao, Michael C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, 1450 Queen Ave SW, Albany, OR, 97321 (United States); AECOM, P.O. Box 1959, Albany, OR, 97321 (United States); Yang, Tengfei [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996 (United States); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: drzhangy@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2016-11-15

    The microstructures of Al{sub x}CoCrFeNi (x = 0.1, 0.75 and 1.5 in molar ratio) high entropy alloys (HEAs) irradiated at room temperature with 3 MeV Au ions at the highest fluence of 105, 91, and 81 displacement per atom, respectively, were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analyses show that the initial microstructures and phase composition of all three alloys are retained after ion irradiation and no phase decomposition is observed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) and disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) phases show much less defect cluster formation and structural damage than the NiAl-type ordered B2 phase. This effect is explained by higher entropy of mixing, higher defect formation/migration energies, substantially lower thermal conductivity, and higher atomic level stress in the disordered phases.

  11. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  12. A study of nitride formation during the oxidation of titanium-tantalum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Lu, Y.C.; Kung, H.; Butt, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The oxidation rates of Ti rich titanium-tantalum alloys are significantly lower in air than in oxygen. This nitrogen effect has been shown to be associated with the formation of a nitride layer at or near the scale-metal interface. In the present work the authors used transmission electron microscopy and microdiffraction to identify the nitrides formed on Ti5Ta and Ti40Ta (5 and 40 weight percent Ta alloys) during identical exposures. In both alloys the nitride develops in contact with the oxygen stabilized α-phase in the substrate. In Ti5Ta a continuous layer of TiN forms, while in Ti40Ta a discontinuous layer of Ti 2 N interspersed with Ta 2 O 5 (formed from the Ta rich β-phase) is formed. The nitride layer acts as an oxygen diffusion barrier, reducing the dissolution of oxygen in the substrate

  13. Volta potential of second phase particles in extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreatta, F.; Apachitei, I.; Kodentsov, A.; Dzwonczyk, J.; Duszcyk, J.

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium alloys show strong susceptibility to localized corrosion when immersed in aggressive solutions (e.g. chlorides). The existence of second phase particles in the microstructure might represent initiation sites for localized corrosion. This is due to the formation of galvanic couples between

  14. Phase transformations on Zr-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Sergio Norifumi

    1980-01-01

    This research intended the laboratory scale experimental development of Zr-Nb alloys with adequate characteristics for use as fuel element cladding or for the making of irradiation capsules. Zr-Nb alloys with different Nb contents were melted and the resulting material was characterised. The following metallurgical aspects were considered: preparation of Zr-Nb alloys with various Nb contents; heat and thermomechanical treatments; microstructural characterization; mechanical properties; oxidation properties. The influence of the heat treatment and thermomechanical treatment, on the out-of-pile mechanical and oxidation properties of the Zr-Nb alloys were studied. It was found that the alloy microhardness increases with the Nb content and/or with the thermomechanical treatment. Mechanical properties such as yield and ultimate tensile strength as well as elongation were determined by means of compression tests. The results showed that the alloy yield stress increases with the Nb content and with the thermomechanical treatment, while its elongation decreases. Thermogravimetric analysis determined the alloy oxidation kinetics, in the 400 - 800 deg C interval, at 1 atm. oxygen pressure. The results showed that the alloy oxidation rate increases with the temperature and Nb content. It was also observed that the oxidation rate increases considerably for temperatures higher than 600 deg C.(author)

  15. Strength and fracture of two-phase alloys: a comparison of two alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurland, J.

    1978-01-01

    The functional roles of the hard and soft constituents in the deformation and fracture of two-phase alloys are discussed on the basis of two commercially important alloy systems, namely spheroidized carbon steels and cemented carbides, WC-Co. A modified rule of mixtures provides a structural approach to the yield and flow strength. Consideration of the fracture toughness is attempted by means of a phenomenological modelling of the fracture process on the microscale. While there are large differences in properties between the two alloys, the deformation and fracture processes show broad smilarities which are associated with the features of the interaction between constituents common to both alloys

  16. Real space multiple scattering description of alloy phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been recently developed to study phase stability properties of substitutional alloys, including order-disorder phenomena and structural transformations. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method first introduced by Ducastelle and Gautier, within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method. The viability and the predictive power of such a scheme will be illustrated by a few examples, among them: the ground state properties of alloys, in particular the ordering tendencies for a series of equiatomic bcc-based alloys, the computation of alloy phase diagrams with the case of fcc and bcc-based Ni-Al alloys, the calculation of antiphase boundary energies and interfacial energies, and the stability of artificial ordered superlattices

  17. Dynamics of Shape Memory Alloy Systems, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Systems with Discontinuous Support Using a Switch Model”, DINAME 2005 - XI International Conference on Dynamic Problems in...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2016-0003 Dynamics of Shape Memory Alloy Systems , Phase 2 Marcelo Savi FUNDACAO COORDENACAO DE PROJETOS PESQUISAS E EEUDOS TECNOL...release. 2 AFOSR FINAL REPORT Grant Title: Nonlinear Dynamics of Shape Memory Alloy Systems , Phase 2 Grant #: FA9550-11-1-0284 Reporting Period

  18. Prediction of Phase Separation of Immiscible Ga-Tl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunkyum; Kim, Han Gyeol; Kang, Youn-Bae; Kaptay, George; Lee, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    Phase separation temperature of Ga-Tl liquid alloys was investigated using the constrained drop method. With this method, density and surface tension were investigated together. Despite strong repulsive interactions, molar volume showed ideal mixing behavior, whereas surface tension of the alloy was close to that of pure Tl due to preferential adsorption of Tl. Phase separation temperatures and surface tension values obtained with this method were close to the theoretically calculated values using three different thermodynamic models.

  19. Phase transformations and resulting microstructures in Ti - 47 Al -2 Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Armaki, H.; Heshmati-Manesh, S.; Jafarian, H. R.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last three decades, intermetallic alloys have focused attention because of their high strength to weight ratio and good creep resistance. Titanium aluminide alloys based on γ-Ti Al are potential candidates to replace Ni-based super alloys currently used in jet engine components at high temperatures because of their low density, high melting temperature, good elevated-temperature strength and modulus retention, high resistance to oxidation and hydrogen absorption, and excellent creep properties. One of the major concerns in these alloys is their poor ductility at room and intermediate temperatures which has been improved slightly by microstructure modifications through heat treatment. Thus, modification of microstructure during cooling and CCT diagram in these alloys is of vital importance. In this study, Ti - 47 Al - 2 Cr intermetallic alloy has been prepared by remelting 4 times with a vacuum arc remelting furnace. Homogenizing treatment was done at 1125 d eg C for 72 h in a sealed vacuum quartz tube. All heat treatments on the samples were carried out in a vacuum heat treatment furnace under a pressure of 10 -1 bar. The atmosphere inside the furnace was changed to that of high purity argon for each heat treatment as an added precaution against oxidation. In this paper, phase transformations in a γ-Ti Al based intermetallic alloy containing chromium were investigated. Heat treatments on samples of this alloy at temperatures above Tα and subsequent cooling with various cooling rates resulted in variety of microstructures. The schematic CCT diagram for this alloy was drawn from microstructural studies using microscopy routs and X-ray diffraction. Then, cyclic heat treatment with grain refining purpose was conducted on a sample of this alloy having massive gamma microstructure. During cyclic heat treatment, gradual dissociation of the gamma phase resulted in the formation of a Widmanstaetten type structure. Trend of microstructure evolution and

  20. Stereological analysis of structure formation for solid WC-Co alloys in the process of carbide powder consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyavskij, K S

    1986-03-01

    Evolution of particle size distribution in carbide powders of different technological prehistory is studied in the process of their consolidation as a hard alloy. A successive estimate on identical preparations is used to study a structural powder->alloy transition. Temperature dependences of integral measures of the consolidated structure and characteristics of its heterogeneity are studied. It is shown that all studied structural rearrangements: formation of regular alternation of carbide and binding phases, development of particle-phase interfaces, change in size distribution - more intensely proceed in the high-temperature carbide base alloy.

  1. Ag-rich precipitates formation in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Jabase, L. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Cu-rich nanoprecipitates are formed in the presence of Ag. • Bainite precipitation is shifted to higher temperatures in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy. • The eutectoid α phase and bainite α{sub 1} phase compete by the Cu atoms during precipitation process. - Abstract: The formation of Ag-rich precipitates in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy initially quenched from 1123 K was analyzed. The results showed that nanoprecipitates of a Cu-rich phase are produced at about 523 K. In higher temperatures these nanoparticles grow and the relative fraction of Ag dissolved in it is increased, thus forming the Ag-rich phase.

  2. Investigation of phase stability of novel equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn based-high entropy alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Vinay Kumar; Sanyal, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the structural and phase stability analysis of equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn High entropy alloy (HEA) systems prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) method. In this research effort some 1287 alloy combinations were extensively studied to arrive at most favourable combination. FeCoNiCuZn based alloy system was selected on the basis of physiochemical parameters such as enthalpy of mixing (ΔHmix), entropy of mixing (ΔSmix), atomic size difference (ΔX) and valence electron concentration (VEC) such that it fulfils the formation criteria of stable multi component high entropy alloy system. In this context, we have investigated the effect of novel alloying addition in view of microstructure and phase formation aspect. XRD plots of the MA samples shows the formation of stable solid solution with FCC (Face Cantered Cubic) after 20 hr of milling time and no indication of any amorphous or intermetallic phase formation. Our results are in good agreement with calculation and analysis done on the basis of physiochemical parameters during selection of constituent elements of HEA.

  3. Formation and characterization of Al–Ti–Nb alloys by electron-beam surface alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkov, S., E-mail: stsvalkov@gmail.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lazarova, R. [Institute of Metal Science, Equipment and Technologies with Hydro and Aerodynamics Center, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 67 Shipchenski Prohod blvd., 1574 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bezdushnyi, R. [Department of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridsky”, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dechev, D. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Al–Ti–Nb surface alloys have been successfully obtained by electron-beam surface alloying technology. • The alloys consist of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} fractions, distributed in the biphasic structure of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} particles dispersed in α-Al. • The alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} and, does not form additional stresses, strains etc. • It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. • The measured hardness of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} compound reaches 775 HV[kg/cm{sup 2}] which is much greater than the values of NbAl{sub 3}. - Abstract: The combination of attractive mechanical properties, light weight and resistance to corrosion makes Ti-Al based alloys applicable in many industrial branches, like aircraft and automotive industries etc. It is known that the incorporation of Nb improves the high temperature performance and mechanical properties. In the present study on Al substrate Ti and Nb layers were deposited by DC (Direct Current) magnetron sputtering, followed by electron-beam alloying with scanning electron beam. It was chosen two speeds of the specimen motion during the alloying process: V{sub 1} = 0.5 cm/s and V{sub 2} = 1 cm/s. The alloying process was realized in circular sweep mode in order to maintain the melt pool further. The obtained results demonstrate a formation of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} fractions randomly distributed in biphasic structure of intermetallic (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} particles, dispersed in α-Al solid solution. The evaluated (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} lattice parameters are independent of the speed of the specimen motion and therefore the alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters and thus, does not form additional residual stresses, strains etc. It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. The metallographic analyses demonstrate a

  4. Effects of Al content and annealing on the phases formation, lattice parameters, and magnetization of A lxF e2B2 (x =1.0 ,1.1 ,1.2 ) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E. M.; Jensen, B. A.; Barua, R.; Lejeune, B.; Howard, A.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.; Lewis, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    AlF e2B2 is a ferromagnet with the Curie temperature around 300 K and has the potential to be an outstanding rare-earth free candidate for magnetocaloric applications. However, samples prepared from the melt contain additional phases which affect the functional response of the AlF e2B2 phase. We report on the effects of Al content in samples with the initial (nominal) composition of A lxF e2B2 , where x =1.0 , 1.1, and 1.2 prepared by arc-melting followed by suction casting and annealing. The as-cast A lxF e2B2 alloys contain AlF e2B2 as well as additional phases, including the primary solidifying FeB and A l13F e4 compounds, which are ferromagnetic and paramagnetic, respectively, at 300 K. The presence of these phases makes it difficult to extract the intrinsic magnetic properties of AlF e2B2 phase. Annealing of A lxF e2B2 alloys at 1040 °C for 3 days allows for reaction of the FeB with A l13F e4 to form the AlF e2B2 phase, significantly reduces the amount of additional phases, and results in nearly pure AlF e2B2 phase as confirmed with XRD, magnetization, scanning electron microscopy, and electronic transport. The values of the magnetization, effective magnetic moment per Fe atom, specific heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient for the AlF e2B2 compound have been established.

  5. Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys: Phase composition, texture, and anisotropy of mechanical properties (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Knyazev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The results of studying the phase transformations, the texture formation, and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties in Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys are generalized. A technique and equations are developed to calculate the amounts of the S1 (Al2MgLi), T1 (Al2CuLi), and δ' (Al3Li) phases. The fraction of the δ' phase in Al-Cu-Li alloys is shown to be significantly higher than in Al-Mg-Li alloys. Therefore, the role of the T1 phase in the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys is thought to be overestimated, especially in alloys with more than 1.5% Li. A new model is proposed to describe the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys upon aging, and the results obtained with this model agree well with the experimental data. A texture, which is analogous to that in aluminum alloys, is shown to form in sheets semiproducts made of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys. The more pronounced anisotropy of the properties of lithium-containing aluminum alloys is caused by a significant fraction of the ordered coherent δ' phase, the deformation mechanism in which differs radically from that in the solid solution.

  6. Peculiarities of α- and ω-phase precipitations in cold-deformed Ti-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadykova, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The peculiar features of the depositions of ω and α-phases have been examined, the depositions being evolved under the following conditions: holding in vacuum of 10 -5 mm Hg at the temperature of about 250 to 450 deg C, of an alloy containing 30% Ti, 35% Nb, and 7.5% Zr, which was previously subjected to quenching and cold deformation up to the thickness of about 0.1 mm. The structure of the alloys was examined by resorting to the X-ray, metallographic, and electron-microscopic analysis methods. The microhardness was measured. It is the cold deformation that promotes intensely the formation of α-phase in the ageing of Ti-Nb alloys. In this case, the formation of ω-phase is suppressed. At the initial stages of decomposition, the equiaxial particles of α phase are formed in titanium alloys containing about 30 to 35% Nb and up to 7.5% Zr: then the acicular α particles are formed in less distorted areas of β-matrix. A variation in their dimensions depending on the treatment conditions is shown. An increase in hardness of the examined cold-strained alloys in ageing, within the temperature range of up to about 350 deg C, is attributed to the formation of α+β structure. On cold straining and ageing, it proves to be possible to create β+ω+α structure in Ti-Nb alloys. For this purpose, before starting the cold straining, it will be necessary to obtain the structure containing a considerable proportion of ω-phase

  7. Microstructural characterization and phase transformation of ternary alloys near at Al3Ti compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles Ch, C.

    1999-01-01

    This research work is related with the structural characteristic and compositional values of the crystalline phases, which are found in ternary alloys of Ti-Al-Fe and TI-Al-Cu. These types of alloys were obtained using a rapid solidification technique (10 3 -10 4 K/s) and pure elements such as Al, Ti, Fe and Cu (99.99%). These cooling velocities allow the formation of stable phases and small grain sizes (approximately in range of a few micras). The obtained results indicate the presence of Al 3 Ti and others phases of L1 2 type. These phases are commonly found in a matrix rich in A1. The microalloyed elements (Cu and Fe) substitute the aluminum in both kinds of phases. Alloys with low content of Cu show transition states from the tetragonal structure DO 22 to the cubic phases L1 2 . The structural characteristics of the alloys are related with some microhardness measurement. The results show that the presence of the L1 2 phase tends to increase to hardness depending of the content of this phase

  8. Phase composition of rapidly solidified Ag-Sn-Cu dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecong Dzuong; Do Minh Nghiep; Nguyen van Dzan; Cao the Ha

    1996-01-01

    The phase composition of some rapidly solidified Ag-Sn-Cu dental alloys with different copper contents (6.22 wtpct) has been studied by XRD, EMPA and optical microscopy. The samples were prepared from melt-spun ribbons. The microstructure of the as-quenched ribbons was microcrystalline and consisted of the Ag sub 3 Sn, Ag sub 4 Sn, Cu sub 3 Sn and Cu sub 3 Sn sub 8 phases. Mixing with mercury (amalgamation) led to formation of the Ag sub 2 Hg sub 3, Sn sub 7 Hg and Cu sub 6 Sn sub 5 phases. The amount of copper atoms in the alloys played an important role in phase formation in the amalgams

  9. Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    The diameter (d f ) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end

  10. Vanadium Influence on Iron Based Intermetallic Phases in AlSi6Cu4 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Negative effect of iron in Al-Si alloys mostly refers with iron based intermetallic phases, especially Al5FeSi phases. These phases are present in platelet-like forms, which sharp edges are considered as main cracks initiators and also as contributors of porosity formation. In recent times, addition of some elements, for example Mn, Co, Cr, Ni, V, is used to reduce influence of iron. Influence of vanadium in aluminium AlSi6Cu4 alloy with intentionally increased iron content is presented in this article. Vanadium amount has been graduated and chemical composition of alloy has been analysed by spectral analysis. Vanadium influence on microstructural changes was evaluated by microstructural analysis and some of intermetallic particles were reviewed by EDX analysis.

  11. Formation of metal-alloy nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation and annealing in selected atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, G.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sada, C.; Zhang, X.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of binary alloy clusters in sequentially ion-implanted Au-Cu or Au-Ag silica glass has been studied as a function of the annealing atmosphere. Alloy formation has been evidenced in the as-implanted samples. The selective influence on Au precipitation of either oxygen or hydrogen annealing atmosphere governs the alloy cluster formation and the thermal stability

  12. Phase separation and antisite defects in the thermoelectric TiNiSn half-Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirievsky, K.; Gelbstein, Y.; Fuks, D.

    2013-01-01

    The half-Heusler TiNiSn alloys have recently gained an attention as promising candidates for thermoelectric applications. Improvement of these alloys for such applications can be obtained by both electronic and compositional optimizations. The latter can result in a miscibility gap, allowing a phase separation in the nano-scale and consequently a thermal conductivity reduction. Combination of ab initio calculations and statistical thermodynamics was applied for studying the relative stability of a number of superstructures in TiNiSn based alloys. The quasi-binary phase diagram beyond T=0 K for TiNiSn–TiNi 2 Sn solid solutions was calculated using energy parameters extracted from the total energy calculations for ordered structures in the Ni sublattice. We demonstrated that a decomposition of the off-stoichiometric Ni-rich half-Heusler alloy into the stoichiometric TiNiSn phase and into Ni deficient Heusler TiNi 2 Sn phase occurs at elevated temperatures—an effect which recently had been observed experimentally. Furthermore, favorable energetic conditions for antisite defects formation were deduced, based on calculations of the energy of formation, an effect which was explained as a cooperative process of partial disordering on the Ni sublattice. The influence of these two effects on improvement of the thermoelectric performance of TiNiSn based half Heusler compounds is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Phase separation and antisite defects in the thermoelectric TiNiSn alloy, are covered as methods for nanostructuring and thereby enhancement of the thermoelectric potential. - Highlights: • Ab initio calculations/statistical thermodynamics was applied for studying the TiNiSn system. • The phase diagram for TiNiSn–TiNi 2 Sn solid solutions was calculated. • Decomposition of the Ni-rich HH into TiNiSn and Ni deficient TiNi 2 Sn phases was observed. • Favorable energetic conditions for antisite defects formation were deduced

  13. Unusual crystallization behavior in Ga-Sb phase change alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Putero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ X-ray scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the crystallization behavior of Sb-rich Ga-Sb alloys. Measurements of the sheet resistance during heating indicated a reduced crystallization temperature with increased Sb content, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The electrical contrast increased with increasing Sb content and the resistivities in both the amorphous and crystalline phases decreased. It was found that by tuning the composition between Ga:Sb = 9:91 (in at.% and Ga:Sb = 45:55, the change in mass density upon crystallization changes from an increase in mass density which is typical for most phase change materials to a decrease in mass density. At the composition of Ga:Sb = 30:70, no mass density change is observed which should be very beneficial for phase change random access memory (PCRAM applications where a change in mass density during cycling is assumed to cause void formation and PCRAM device failure.

  14. Orthorhombic martensite formation upon aging in a Ti-30Nb-4Sn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Camilo A.F.; Lopes, Eder S.N. [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), School of Mechanical Engineering, 13083-860, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ospina, Carlos A. [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Campinas, 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Caram, Rubens, E-mail: caram@fem.unicamp.br [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), School of Mechanical Engineering, 13083-860, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The characteristics of orthorhombic martensite (α″) formed by step-quenching in a Ti-30Nb-4Sn (wt%) alloy have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). According to literature, α″ lattice parameters depend mainly on the composition of the parent β phase. In this study, samples subjected to step quenching heat treatment presented α″ phase formation in the proximity of α phase laths, driven by two combined factors: solute rejection and lattice strain. Our results indicate that as the aging is prolonged, α″ becomes richer in solute content, which makes it more similar to the parent β phase. An average 2.55% lattice strain along [110]β directions was found to be necessary in order to obtain α″ from the β phase after 24 h of aging at 400 °C, followed by water-quenching. The initial lattice strain along the same direction was estimated at approximately 3.60% with zero aging time. The precipitation of the α phase does not inhibit a solute rich α″ phase formation. - Highlights: • A massive α″ martensite formation was observed after 24 h of heat treatment. • Martensite formation occurs in the vicinity of α phase laths. • Incorporation of Sn in the β phase reduces the strain needed to form α″ phase.

  15. Single-phase high-entropy alloys. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, Roksolana; Steurer, Walter [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. of Crystallography; Sologubenko, Alla [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. of Nanotechnology

    2015-02-01

    The term 'high-entropy alloys (HEAs)' first appeared about 10 years ago defining alloys composed of n=5-13 principal elements with concentrations of approximately 100/n at.% each. Since then many equiatomic (or near equiatomic) single- and multi-phase multicomponent alloys were developed, which are reported for a combination of tunable properties: high hardness, strength and ductility, oxidation and wear resistance, magnetism, etc. In our paper, we focus on probably single-phase HEAs (solid solutions) out of all HEAs studied so far, discuss ways of their prediction, mechanical properties. In contrast to classical multielement/multiphase alloys, only single-phase multielement alloys (solid solutions) represent the basic concept underlying HEAs as mixing-entropy stabilized homogenous materials. The literature overview is complemented by own studies demonstrating that the alloys CrFeCoNi, CrFeCoNiAl{sub 0.3} and PdFeCoNi homogenized at 1300 and 1100 C, respectively, for 1 week are not single-phase HEAs, but a coherent mixture of two solid solutions.

  16. Understanding hydride formation in Zr-1Nb alloy through microstructural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neogy, S.; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Singh, R.N.; Dey, G.K.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2003-07-01

    In this study the experimental results of hydride formation and their microstructure evolution in Zr-1Nb alloy is presented. This Zr-1Nb binary alloy and other Zr-1 Nb based ternary and quaternary alloys are being used as fuel tube materials and have the potential for meeting the requirement of high burn up fuel. Hydriding of Zr-1Nb alloy having a microstructure comprising equiaxed α grains and a uniform distribution of spherical particles of the β phase has been carried out in this study. The specimens have been hydrided by gaseous charging method to different hydrogen levels. The microstructures of hydrided samples were examined as a function of hydrogen content. The formation of δ hydride in slow cooled specimens and formation of γ hydride in rapidly cooled specimens has been studied with their morphology, habit plane and orientation relationship with the α matrix in view. The habit planes of either type of hydride phase has been determined and compared with those observed in other Zr-Nb alloys. The orientation relationship between the α matrix and the δ hydride was found to be the following: (0001) α // (111) δ and [1120] α // [110] δ . The orientation relationship between the α matrix and the γ hydride was of the following type: (0001) α // (111) γ and [1120] α // [110] γ . The internal structure of both types of hydride has been examined. The effect of the presence of the spherical β phase particles in the a matrix on the growth of the hydride plates has been investigated. (author)

  17. Amorphous phase formation in the Cu_3_6Zr_5_9A_l_5 and Cu_4_8Zr_4_3A_l_9 ternary alloys studied by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Schimidt, C.S.; Lima, L.V.; Domingues, G.M.B.; Bastos, I.N.

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous alloys presents better mechanical and physical properties than its crystalline counterparts. However, there is a scarce understanding on structure - properties relationship in this class of materials. This paper presents the results of the molecular dynamics application to obtain an atomistic description of melting, solidification and the glass forming ability in the ternary Cu_3_6Zr_5_9A_l_5 and Cu_4_8Zr_4_3A_l_9 alloys. In the study we used the EAM potential and different cooling rates, β = 0.1, 1 and 100 K/ps to form the amorphous phase in a system consisting of 32,000 atoms by using the free code LAMMPS. The solidus and liquidus temperatures, on a heating rate of the 5 K/ps, were obtained. Also, on the cooling down step, it was observed that the glass transition temperature (T_g) decreases as cooling rate increases. The structural evolution was analyzed through the radial distribution functions and Voronoi polyhedra. Furthermore, it was determined the evolution of viscosity upper T_g, as well as the fragility (m) parameter for each amorphous alloy. The thermal parameters of the simulation obtained are compared with those of the experiments. (author)

  18. Mechanisms of diffusional phase transformations in metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Aaronson, Hubert I; Lee, Jong K

    2010-01-01

    Developed by the late metallurgy professor and master experimentalist Hubert I. Aaronson, this collection of lecture notes details the fundamental principles of phase transformations in metals and alloys upon which steel and other metals industries are based. Mechanisms of Diffusional Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys is devoted to solid-solid phase transformations in which elementary atomic processes are diffusional jumps, and these processes occur in a series of so-called nucleation and growth through interface migration. Instead of relying strictly on a pedagogical approach, it doc

  19. Nonequilibrium self-organization in alloys under irradiation leading to the formation of nano composites

    CERN Document Server

    Enrique, R A; Averback, R S; Bellon, P

    2003-01-01

    Alloys under irradiation are continuously driven away from equilibrium: Every time an external particle interacts with the atoms in the solid, a perturbation very localized in space and time is produced. Under this external forcing, phase and microstructural evolution depends ultimately on the dynamical interaction between the external perturbation and the internal recovery kinetics of the alloy. We consider the nonequilibrium steady state of an immiscible binary alloy subject to mixing by heavy-ion irradiation. It has been found that the range of the forced atomic relocations taking place during collision cascades plays an important role on the final microstructure: when this range is large enough, it can lead to the spontaneous formation of compositional patterns at the nanometer scale. These results were rationalized in the framework of a continuum model solved by deriving a nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential. Here we derive the nonequilibrium structure factor by including the role of fluctuations. In ...

  20. Laser-induced microstructural development and phase evolution in magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z.L.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary phase evolution caused by laser processing was firstly reported. • Microstructure development was controlled by heat flow thermodynamics and kinetics. • Solid-state transformation resulted in submicron and nano-scale precipitates. • Cluster-shaped particles in overlapped region were due to precipitation coarsening. • Properties of materials can be tailored selectively by laser processing. -- Abstract: Secondary phase plays an important role in determining microstructures and properties of magnesium alloys. This paper focuses on laser-induced microstructure development and secondary phase evolution in AZ91D Mg alloy studied by SEM, TEM and EDS analyses. Compared to bulk shape and lamellar structure of the secondary phase in as-received cast material, rapid-solidified microstructures with various morphologies including nano-precipitates were observed in laser melt zone. Formation mechanisms of microstructural evolution and effect of phase development on surface properties were further discussed

  1. Phase and microstructural characterization of Mo–Si–B multiphase intermetallic alloys produced by pressureless sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, P.R.; Bakhshi, S.R.; Borhani, G.H.; Erfanmanesh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and ultra-fine Mo–Si–B powders were produced by mechanical alloying. • The phases of MoSi 2 and MoB were obtained by sintering Mo–57Si–10B at 1400 °C for 2 h. • Composite based on MoB/MoSi 2 was obtained by sintering Mo–47Si–23B at 1300 °C for 3 h. • High content of MoB in the composite based on MoB/MoSi 2 increased density. • High hardness of the composite based on MoB/MoSi 2 is related to MoB matrix. -- Abstract: In this study Mo–47Si–23B and Mo–57Si–10B powders (at.%) was milled for 20 h in attritor ball mill with a rotational speed of 365 rpm and the ball/powder mass ratio 20/1. After degassing of As-mechanically alloyed powders at 450 °C, the powders were pressed into cylindrical samples with 25 mm diameter under 600 MPa pressure. The samples were sintered by using of a tube resistance furnace under Ar atmosphere. Phase and microstructure characteristic of mechanically alloyed powders and sintered samples, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Also hardness test was performed. Homogeneous distribution of active and ultra-fine powders were obtained after milling for 20 h. Mo–57Si–10B alloy with MoB and MoSi 2 dominant phases was produced by sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h. Dominant phases similar to Mo–57Si–10B alloy sintered at 1400 °C for 2 h could be synthesized in Mo–47Si–23B alloy after sintering at 1300 °C for 3 h, but volume fraction of MoB phase was different. The Mo–47Si–23B alloy contained a higher phase fraction of MoB compound as compared to Mo–57Si–10B alloy. Very high density in Mo–47Si–23B alloys was obtained, due to the presence of high volume fraction of MoB phase. Formation heat of MoB acted as a positive potential to increase driving force of sintering and consequently bulk density. Finally, a uniform and fine distribution of MoSi 2 particles in MoB continuous matrix in the microstructure of Mo-47Si

  2. Iron Intermetallic Phases in the Alloy Based on Al-Si-Mg by Applying Manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podprocká R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an effective element used for the modification of needle intermetallic phases in Al-Si alloy. These particles seriously degrade mechanical characteristics of the alloy and promote the formation of porosity. By adding manganese the particles are being excluded in more compact shape of “Chinese script” or skeletal form, which are less initiative to cracks as Al5FeSi phase. In the present article, AlSi7Mg0.3 aluminium foundry alloy with several manganese content were studied. The alloy was controlled pollution for achieve higher iron content (about 0.7 wt. % Fe. The manganese were added in amount of 0.2 wt. %, 0.6 wt. %, 1.0 wt. % and 1.4 wt. %. The influence of the alloying element on the process of crystallization of intermetallic phases were compared to microstructural observations. The results indicate that increasing manganese content (> 0.2 wt. % Mn lead to increase the temperature of solidification iron rich phase (TAl5FeSi and reduction this particles. The temperature of nucleation Al-Si eutectic increase with higher manganese content also. At adding 1.4 wt. % Mn grain refinement and skeleton particles were observed.

  3. Secondary phases in AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys : An in-situ TEM heating study and thermodynamic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, J. C.; Diao, H. Y.; Ocelík, V.; Vainchtein, D.; Zhang, C.; Kuo, C. C.; Tang, Z.; Guo, W.; Poplawsky, J. D.; Zhou, Y.; Liaw, P. K.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phases, either introduced by alloying or heat treatment, are commonly present in most high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Understanding the formation of secondary phases at high temperatures, and their effect on mechanical properties, is a critical issue that is undertaken in the present study,

  4. Unusual morphology of the omega phase in a Zr-1.75 At. pct Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Ramadasan, E.; Banerjee, S.

    1993-01-01

    The observations reported in the present communication were made in the course of a microstructural investigation on dilute Zr-Ni alloys. The alloys were prepared from nuclear-grade sponge zirconium and high-purity nickel by nonconsumable arc melting. Repeated melting was carried out to enhance homogeneity. A master alloy was used in the preparation of very dilute alloys. The observations reported here clearly indicate that the formation of the ω phase on β quenching, can occur in the binary Zr-Ni system at very low solute concentrations, suggesting that nickel is a strong ω stabilizer. Such a situation is known to obtain in the binary Zr-Mo system also. However, the unusual ω morphology observed in the present work has not been reported in the context of dilute Zr-Mo alloys. The appearance of sharp ω reflections and the absence of streaking and diffuse distributions in the selected area electron diffraction (SAD) patterns suggest that the Zr-1.75 at. pct Ni composition lies toward the solute lean end of the composition range associated with the formation of the athermal ω phase in the binary Zr-Ni system. In a more dilute Zr-Ni alloy (Zr-1.30 at. pct Ni), no athermal ω could be observed in β quenched specimens. The absence of streaking is also consistent with the fact that the ω phase in the β quenched Zr-1.75 at. pct Ni alloy did not occur in the form of very fine precipitates. The unusual ω morphology encountered in this work merits further investigation

  5. Phase formation of physically associating polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Fumihiko

    1993-01-01

    Polymers exhibit a variety of condensed phases when some of their segments are capable of forming weak bonds which can be created and destroyed by thermal motion. Transition from one phase to another caused by such 'segment association' is reversible by the change of the temperature and the concentration, so that it is called 'reversible phase transition'. What types of reversible phase formation are possible for a given associative interaction? What is the most fundamental laws which govern the competition between molecular association and phase separation? This paper surveys, as typical examples of reversible phases, macroscopic phase separation, microphase formation, solvation, gelation, etc. from the unified point of view, and explores the possibility of new condensed phases caused by their mutual interference. (author)

  6. Phase transformations in TiAl based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghal, Slim; Thomas, Marc; Naka, Shigehisa; Finel, Alphonse; Couret, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of a fully lamellar Ti 49 Al 47 Cr 2 Nb 2 alloy have been investigated in different annealed conditions by quantitative transmission electron microscopy. Statistical analyses have yielded clear information about the γ-γ interfaces, the respective orientation groups of the γ phase, and the distribution of orientational variants. From the results, three sequences of lamellar transformation have been identified with decreasing temperature: (1) a high-temperature heterogeneous transformation characterized by the nucleation of isolated primary γ lamellae mostly belonging to the same orientation group and having locally the same order; (2) a low-temperature homogeneous transformation in the ordered α 2 phase characterized by the formation of a fine lamellar structure with an even distribution of the orientation groups and a random ordering of γ lamellae; and (3) a coherent interfacial transformation at the α 2 /γ interfaces characterized by the nucleation of ultra-fine twin related lamellae. Finally, the driving forces for these various transformations as well as the nucleation mechanisms of γ lamellae involved in these transformations are discussed

  7. Whisker-Like Formations in Sn-3.0Ag-Pb Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koncz-Horváth D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, different types of whisker-like formations of Sn-3.0Ag based alloy were presented. In the experimental process the amount of Pb element was changed between 1000 and 2000 ppm, and the furnace atmosphere and cooling rate were also modified. The novelty of this work was that whisker-like formations in macro scale size were experienced after an exothermic reaction. The whiskers of larger sizes than general provided opportunities to investigate the microstructure and the concentration nearby the whiskers. In addition, the whisker-like formations from Sn-Ag based bulk material did not only consist of pure tin but tin and silver phases. The whisker-like growth appeared in several forms including hillock, spire and nodule shaped formations in accordance with parameters. It was observed that the compound phases were clustered in many cases mainly at hillocks.

  8. Thermal stability and phase transformations of martensitic Ti–Nb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bönisch, Mariana Calin, Thomas Waitz, Ajit Panigrahi, Michael Zehetbauer, Annett Gebert, Werner Skrotzki and Jürgen Eckert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at understanding the governing microstructural phenomena during heat treatments of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory materials for biomedical applications, a series of Ti–Nb alloys with Nb concentrations up to 29 wt% was produced by cold-crucible casting, followed by homogenization treatment and water quenching. Despite the large amount of literature available concerning the thermal stability and ageing behavior of Ti–Nb alloys, only few studies were performed dealing with the isochronal transformation behavior of initially martensitic Ti–Nb alloys. In this work, the formation of martensites (α' and α'' and their stability under different thermal processing conditions were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry and electron microscopy. The effect of Nb additions on the structural competition in correlation with stable and metastable phase diagrams was also studied. Alloys with 24 wt% Nb or less undergo a transformation sequence on heating from room temperature to 1155 K. In alloys containing >24 wt% Nb α'' martensitically reverts back to β0, which is highly unstable against chemical demixing by formation of isothermal ωiso. During slow cooling from the single phase β domain α precipitates and only very limited amounts of α'' martensite form.

  9. Phase evolution and its effects on the magnetic performance of nanocrystalline SmCo7 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhexu; Song Xiaoyan; Xu Wenwu

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the phase constitution and the microstructure, as well as their effects on magnetic performance, were investigated systematically using a prepared nanocrystalline single-phase SmCo 7 alloy as the starting material for a series of annealing processes. The SmCo 7 (1:7 H) phase was discovered to have a good single-phase stability from room temperature up to 600 deg. C. The destabilization of the SmCo 7 phase results in the formation of the Sm 2 Co 17 (2:17 R) and SmCo 5 (1:5 H) phases, which exist as phase-transformation twins and particulate precipitates, respectively, with a completely coherent relationship with the 1:7 H parent phase. For the first time the formation mechanism of the 2:17 R phase-transformation twins has been proposed, in which the ordered substitution of 1/3 of the Sm atoms by Co-Co dumbbell pairs along two particular crystal directions was demonstrated. The characteristic width values of the 2:17 R phase-transformation twins, as deduced from this model of the mechanism, were unambiguously verified by the experimental results. Among the SmCo 7 alloys with various phase constitutions and microstructures, the best magnetic properties were obtained in the nanocrystalline 1:7 H single-phase alloys. The present work may promote a new understanding of nanoscale-stabilized single-phase SmCo 7 and its potential applications as unique high-temperature permanent magnets.

  10. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  11. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  12. Bainite formation kinetics in high carbon alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzginova, N.V.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many investigations have been carried out on the modeling of the bainite formation. In the present work, a physical approach proposed in the literature is implemented to model the formation of lower bainite in high carbon steels (1 wt.% C). In this model, the carbon diffusion is assumed to control the kinetics of the bainite formation. Both the nucleation and the growth rates are considered in an Avrami type analysis. The effect of alloying elements is taken into account considering only the thermodynamics of the system. The results and the physical meaning of the model parameters are discussed. It is shown that the diffusional approach gives a reasonable description of bainite formation kinetics in high carbon steel. Only two fitting parameters are used: the first accounts for carbon grain-boundary diffusion and the second is the initial nucleation-site density. The model satisfactorily accounts for the effect of transformation temperature, but does not take into account the carbide precipitation during bainite formation and the effect of alloying elements on the diffusion coefficient of carbon

  13. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  14. Phase transformation in rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, D. G.; Shubakov, V. S.; Zhukova, E. Kh; Gorshenkov, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The research results of phase transformations in Fe-24Cr-16Co-3Mo-0.2Ti-1Si-B alloys (with a boron content of 1 to 3% by mass) obtained by rapid quenching are presented. The structure formation regularities during the melt spinning and during the subsequent crystallization annealing in rapidly quenched bands of the Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B system alloys were studied. The changes in the phase composition of the rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti- Si-B system alloys after quenching at various quench rates and at different boron concentrations in the alloys are studied. It is shown that during crystallization from an amorphous state, at temperatures above 570 °C, in addition to the α-phase, the σ-phase appears first, followed by the γ-phase. Heat treatment of rapidly quenched bands to high-coercive state was carried out. A qualitative assessment of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state was carried out. An evaluation of the level of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state allows us to conclude that the application of a magnetic field during crystallization from an amorphous state leads to anisotropy of the magnetic properties, that is, an anisotropic effect of thermo-magnetic treatment is detected.

  15. Microstructural study and numerical simulation of phase decomposition of heat treated Co–Cu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Mebed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of heat treatment on the phase decomposition and the grain size of Co–10 at% Cu alloy were studied. Few samples were aged in a furnace for either 3 or 5 h and then quenched in iced water. The materials and phase compositions were investigated using energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the samples contained Co, Cu, CuO, CoCu2O3, CoCuO2 phases in different proportions depending on the heat treatment regimes. The formation of dendrite Co phase rendered the spinodal decomposition while the oxidations prevent the initiation of the spinodal decomposition even for a deep long aging inside the miscibility gap. Since the Bragg reflections from different phases of Co–Cu alloy significantly overlap, the crystal structural parameters were refined with FULLPROF program. The shifts in the refined lattice constants (a, b and c, the space group and the grain size were found to be phase- and heat treatment-dependant. Two-dimensional computer simulations were conducted to study the phase decomposition of Co–Cu binary alloy systems. The excess free energy as well as the strain energy, without a priori knowledge of the shape or the position of the new phase, was precisely evaluated. The results indicate that the morphology and the shape of the microstructure agree with SEM observation.

  16. Formation and structure of V-Zr amorphous alloy thin films

    KAUST Repository

    King, Daniel J M

    2015-01-01

    Although the equilibrium phase diagram predicts that alloys in the central part of the V-Zr system should consist of V2Zr Laves phase with partial segregation of one element, it is known that under non-equilibrium conditions these materials can form amorphous structures. Here we examine the structures and stabilities of thin film V-Zr alloys deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computational methods. Atomic-scale modelling was used to investigate the enthalpies of formation of the various competing structures. The calculations confirmed that an amorphous solid solution would be significantly more stable than a random body-centred solid solution of the elements, in agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the modelling effort provided insight into the probable atomic configurations of the amorphous structures allowing predictions of the average distance to the first and second nearest neighbours in the system.

  17. The role of intermetallic phases in the corrosion of magnesium-rare earth alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Campos, Maria del Rosario

    2016-07-25

    A new concept to develop a RE based Mg alloy with improved corrosion resistance was followed in the current work. Based on subsequent characterisation steps to eliminate less suitable RE elements the best microstructure for improved corrosion resistance was identified. At first, the corrosion properties of selected RE elements were determined. Based on these results RE elements that have a potential to enhance the corrosion resistance of Mg-RE alloys were selected. Two aspects of RE elements were important for the selection: the electrochemical properties and the solid solubility in Mg. If the solubility limit of RE elements in the Mg matrix is exceeded, they form intermetallic phases with Mg. By performing galvanic coupling measurements the compatibility between Mg matrix and intermetallic phases were estimated. At that point three binary Mg-RE alloys systems remained (Mg-Ce, Mg-La, and Mg-Gd). To evaluate the influence of composition (amount of intermetallic phases) on the corrosion behaviour, four concentrations were cast with 1, 5, 10 and 15 wt. % of RE. Ce and La have a lower solid solubility in Mg matrix generating higher volume fraction of the secondary phases, thus higher dissolution rates in the binary Mg-RE alloys. While Gd with higher solid solubility shows a different behaviour. Additions of up to 10 wt. % Gd resulted in similar behaviour compared to 1 wt. % Gd addition. The most promising results were obtained for the Mg-Gd system with 10 wt. % Gd. Thus, the microstructure of this alloy was further modified by heat treatments to understand the influence of microstructural changes on corrosion behaviour. A ternary element was used to attempt further optimisation of the corrosion performance. Additions of Al, Zn, Ga and Y did not show any improvement in the corrosion resistance of Mg10Gd. This is due to increasing volume fractions of critical more noble phases and the microstructure dominated by eutectic phase formation. Thus galvanic effects became much

  18. The role of intermetallic phases in the corrosion of magnesium-rare earth alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Campos, Maria del Rosario

    2016-01-01

    A new concept to develop a RE based Mg alloy with improved corrosion resistance was followed in the current work. Based on subsequent characterisation steps to eliminate less suitable RE elements the best microstructure for improved corrosion resistance was identified. At first, the corrosion properties of selected RE elements were determined. Based on these results RE elements that have a potential to enhance the corrosion resistance of Mg-RE alloys were selected. Two aspects of RE elements were important for the selection: the electrochemical properties and the solid solubility in Mg. If the solubility limit of RE elements in the Mg matrix is exceeded, they form intermetallic phases with Mg. By performing galvanic coupling measurements the compatibility between Mg matrix and intermetallic phases were estimated. At that point three binary Mg-RE alloys systems remained (Mg-Ce, Mg-La, and Mg-Gd). To evaluate the influence of composition (amount of intermetallic phases) on the corrosion behaviour, four concentrations were cast with 1, 5, 10 and 15 wt. % of RE. Ce and La have a lower solid solubility in Mg matrix generating higher volume fraction of the secondary phases, thus higher dissolution rates in the binary Mg-RE alloys. While Gd with higher solid solubility shows a different behaviour. Additions of up to 10 wt. % Gd resulted in similar behaviour compared to 1 wt. % Gd addition. The most promising results were obtained for the Mg-Gd system with 10 wt. % Gd. Thus, the microstructure of this alloy was further modified by heat treatments to understand the influence of microstructural changes on corrosion behaviour. A ternary element was used to attempt further optimisation of the corrosion performance. Additions of Al, Zn, Ga and Y did not show any improvement in the corrosion resistance of Mg10Gd. This is due to increasing volume fractions of critical more noble phases and the microstructure dominated by eutectic phase formation. Thus galvanic effects became much

  19. Phase transformation of metastable cubic γ-phase in U-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Hegde, P.V.; Prasad, G.J.; Dey, G.K.; Kamath, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable efforts have been put by many fuel designers to develop low enriched uranium (LEU 235 ) base U-Mo alloy as a potential fuel for core conversion of existing research and test reactors which are running on high enriched uranium (HEU > 85%U 235 ) fuel and also for the upcoming new reactors. U-Mo alloy with minimum 8 wt% molybdenum shows excellent metastability with cubic γ-phase in cast condition. However, it is important to characterize the decomposition behaviour of metastable cubic γ-uranium in its equilibrium products for in reactor fuel performance point of view. The present paper describes the phase transformation behaviour of cubic γ-uranium phase in U-Mo alloys with three different molybdenum compositions (i.e. 8 wt%, 9 wt% and 10 wt%). U-Mo alloys were prepared in an induction melting furnace and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method for phase determination. Microstructures were developed for samples in as cast condition. The alloys were hot rolled in cubic γ-phase to break the cast structure and then they were aged at 500 o C for 68 h and 240 h, so that metastable cubic γ-uranium will undergo eutectoid decomposition to form equilibrium phases of orthorhombic α-uranium and body centered tetragonal U 2 Mo intermetallic compound. U-Mo alloy samples with different ageing history were then characterized by XRD for phase and development of microstructure.

  20. Phase-oriented surface segregation in an aluminium casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Atanacio, Armand; Zhang, Wei; Prince, Kathryn E.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Metson, James B.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many reports of the surface segregation of minor elements, especially Mg, into surface layers and oxide films on the surface of Al alloys. LM6 casting alloy (Al-12%Si) represents a challenging system to examine such segregation as the alloy features a particularly inhomogeneous phase structure. The very low but mobile Mg content (approximately 0.001 wt.%), and the surface segregation of modifiers such as Na, mean the surface composition responds in a complex manner to thermal treatment conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to determine the distribution of these elements within the oxide film. Further investigation by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) confirmed a strong alignment of segregated Na and Mg into distinct phases of the structure.

  1. The formation of AlB2 in an Al-B master alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    The formation of borides in an Al-3 wt.%B master alloy, produced via chemical reactions of KBF 4 and aluminium has been investigated. The chemical reactions produce boron, which dissolves into molten aluminium and subsequently forms aluminium borides. Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) of the Al-3 wt.%B master alloy under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the presence of two types of phases that contain different levels of boron. Combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the two types of phases are identified as AlB 2 on AlB 12 . This gives a direct evidence for a peritectic reaction of AlB 12 and aluminium, which produces AlB 2 . The thermodynamic properties of the reactions that may be involved are examined, and the presence of AlB 12 phase in the master alloy explained. The observed microstructure is explained according to the peritectic reaction in an Al-B phase diagram. The stability of AlB 2 and AlB 12 at lower temperature than 975 deg. C is clarified

  2. Preferential site occupancy of alloying elements in TiAl-based phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holec, David, E-mail: david.holec@unileoben.ac.at; Reddy, Rajeev K.; Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-05-28

    First principles calculations are used to study the preferential occupation of ternary alloying additions into the binary Ti-Al phases, namely, γ-TiAl, α{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al, β{sub o}-TiAl, and B19-TiAl. While the early transition metals (TMs, group IVB, VB, and VIB elements) prefer to substitute for Ti atoms in the γ-, α{sub 2}-, and B19-phases, they preferentially occupy Al sites in the β{sub o}-TiAl. Si is, in this context, an anomaly, as it prefers to sit on the Al sublattice for all four phases. B and C are shown to prefer octahedral Ti-rich interstitial positions instead of substitutional incorporation. The site preference energy is linked with the alloying-induced changes of energy of formation, hence alloying-related (de)stabilisation of the phases. We further show that the phase-stabilisation effect of early TMs on β{sub o}-phase has a different origin depending on their valency. Finally, an extensive comparison of our predictions with available theoretical and experimental data (which is, however, limited mostly to the γ-phase) shows a consistent picture.

  3. Hot cracks formation nature in welds Al-Mg-Li and Al-Cu-Li alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, V.I.; Fedoseev, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanism of cleavage formation in alloy systems Al-Mg-Li and Al-Cu-Li welds at thermal test is proposed. This mechanism is connected with stitching spacing and stretching in direction of main deformation of intermetallic compounds inclusions and with active gases movement into the liquid phase [ru

  4. Phase transformations in the Cu.6 Pd.4 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imakuma, K.

    1977-01-01

    Order-disorder and structural transformations in the Cu-Pd 60-40% (Cu. 6 Pd. 4 ) alloy by means of a temperature and time dependent treatment are studied. The structural transformations by x-rays diffraction are also studied, where the bcc, fcc and tetragonal phases were observed. A qualitative analyze of the resistivity kinetics are made [pt

  5. Parametric Study of Amorphous High-Entropy Alloys formation from two New Perspectives: Atomic Radius Modification and Crystalline Structure of Alloying Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Guo, S.; Wang, J. M.; Yan, Y. H.; Chen, S. S.; Lu, D. P.; Liu, K. M.; Zou, J. Z.; Zeng, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical and topological parameters have been widely used for predicting the phase selection in high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Nevertheless, previous studies could be faulted due to the small number of available data points, the negligence of kinetic effects, and the insensitivity to small compositional changes. Here in this work, 92 TiZrHfM, TiZrHfMM, TiZrHfMMM (M = Fe, Cr, V, Nb, Al, Ag, Cu, Ni) HEAs were prepared by melt spinning, to build a reliable and sufficiently large material database to inspect the robustness of previously established parameters. Modification of atomic radii by considering the change of local electronic environment in alloys, was critically found out to be superior in distinguishing the formation of amorphous and crystalline alloys, when compared to using atomic radii of pure elements in topological parameters. Moreover, crystal structures of alloying element were found to play an important role in the amorphous phase formation, which was then attributed to how alloying hexagonal-close-packed elements and face-centered-cubic or body-centered-cubic elements can affect the mixing enthalpy. Findings from this work not only provide parametric studies for HEAs with new and important perspectives, but also reveal possibly a hidden connection among some important concepts in various fields.

  6. Phase constitution and corrosion resistance of Al–Co alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palcut, Marián, E-mail: marian.palcut@gmail.com; Priputen, Pavol; Šalgó, Kristián; Janovec, Jozef

    2015-09-15

    Al–24Co, Al–25Co, Al–26Co, Al–27Co and Al–28Co alloys (composition in atomic percent) were prepared by arc-melting in high purity argon. Each alloy was found to consist of several microstructure constituents. Precipitation sequences of different intermetallic compounds were described based on a previously published Al–Co phase diagram and non-equilibrium processes taking place during casting. Electrochemical corrosion was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization in aqueous NaCl solution at room temperature. A large amount of pitting is observed, with some of the phases being preferentially corroded. The nobility of Al–Co intermetallic compounds is discussed in terms of chemical composition and crystal structure. Conclusions towards the alloy stability are provided. - Highlights: • Al–24Co to Al–28Co alloys were prepared by arc-melting in high purity argon. • Precipitation sequences of different intermetallic compounds have been observed. • Anodic alloy dissolution takes place by galvanic mechanism. • Nobility of Al–Co intermetallic compounds increases with increasing Co concentration.

  7. Formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Sil [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The goal of this study was to investigate the formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on the surface of cast Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing. The anodization technique for creating the nanotubes utilized a potentiostat and an electrolyte containing 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with 0.8 wt.% NaF. The grain size of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys increased as the Ta content increased. Using X-ray diffraction, for the Ti–30Nb alloy the main peaks were identified as α″ martensite with strong peaks of β phase. The phases in the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys changed from a duplex (α″ + β) microstructure to solely β phase with increasing Ta content. The nanotubes that formed on the surface of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys were amorphous TiO{sub 2} without an evidence of the crystalline anatase or rutile forms of TiO{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the average diameters of the small and large nanotubes on the Ti–30Nb alloy not containing Ta were approximately 100 nm and 400 nm, respectively, whereas the small and large nanotubes on the alloy had diameters of approximately 85 nm and 300 nm, respectively. As the Ta content increased from 0 to 15 wt.%, the average lengths of the nanotubes increased from 2 μm to 3.5 μm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the nanotubes were principally composed of Ti, Nb, Ta, O and F. Contact angle measurements showed that the nanotube surface had good wettability by water droplets. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers on anodized Ti-30Nb-xTa alloys have been investigated. • Nanotube surface had an amorphous structure without heat treatment. • Nanotube diameter of Ti-30Nb-xTa decreased, whereas tube layer increased with Ta content. • The nanotube surface exhibited the low contact angle and good wettability.

  8. Formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Sil; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on the surface of cast Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing. The anodization technique for creating the nanotubes utilized a potentiostat and an electrolyte containing 1 M H 3 PO 4 with 0.8 wt.% NaF. The grain size of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys increased as the Ta content increased. Using X-ray diffraction, for the Ti–30Nb alloy the main peaks were identified as α″ martensite with strong peaks of β phase. The phases in the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys changed from a duplex (α″ + β) microstructure to solely β phase with increasing Ta content. The nanotubes that formed on the surface of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys were amorphous TiO 2 without an evidence of the crystalline anatase or rutile forms of TiO 2 . Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the average diameters of the small and large nanotubes on the Ti–30Nb alloy not containing Ta were approximately 100 nm and 400 nm, respectively, whereas the small and large nanotubes on the alloy had diameters of approximately 85 nm and 300 nm, respectively. As the Ta content increased from 0 to 15 wt.%, the average lengths of the nanotubes increased from 2 μm to 3.5 μm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the nanotubes were principally composed of Ti, Nb, Ta, O and F. Contact angle measurements showed that the nanotube surface had good wettability by water droplets. - Highlights: • TiO 2 nanotube layers on anodized Ti-30Nb-xTa alloys have been investigated. • Nanotube surface had an amorphous structure without heat treatment. • Nanotube diameter of Ti-30Nb-xTa decreased, whereas tube layer increased with Ta content. • The nanotube surface exhibited the low contact angle and good wettability

  9. Occurence and prediction of sigma phase in fuel cladding alloys for breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    In sodium-cooled fast reactor systems, fuel cladding materials will be exposed for several thousand hours to liquid sodium. Satisfactory performance of the materials depends in part on the sodium compatibility and phase stability of the materials. This paper mainly deals with the phase stability aspect, with particular emphasis on sigma phase formation of the cladding materials upon extended exposures to liquid sodium. A new method of predicting sigma phase formation is proposed for austenitic stainless steels and predictions are compared with the experimental results on fuel cladding materials. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. The new method is different from the empirical methods suggested for superalloys and does not suffer from the same drawbacks. The present method uses the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary phase diagram for predicting the sigma-forming tendencies and exhibits a wide range of applicability to austenitic stainless steels and heat-resistant Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

  10. Comparative study of structure formation and mechanical behavior of age-hardened Ti–Nb–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaekyan, K. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, 1100, Notre-Dame Str. West, Montreal Quebec H3C 1K3 (Canada); Brailovski, V., E-mail: vladimir.brailovski@etsmtl.ca [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, 1100, Notre-Dame Str. West, Montreal Quebec H3C 1K3 (Canada); Prokoshkin, S. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninskiy prosp. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pushin, V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 18, S. Kovalevskoy Str., Ekaterinburg 620199 (Russian Federation); Dubinskiy, S.; Sheremetyev, V. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, 1100, Notre-Dame Str. West, Montreal Quebec H3C 1K3 (Canada); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninskiy prosp. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    This work sets out to study the peculiar effects of aging treatment on the structure and mechanical behavior of cold-rolled and annealed biomedical Ti–21.8Nb–6.0Zr (TNZ) and Ti–19.7Nb–5.8Ta (TNT) (at.%) shape memory alloys by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, functional fatigue and thermomechanical testing techniques. Dissimilar effects of aging treatment on the mechanical behavior of Zr- and Ta-doped alloys are explained by the differences in the ω-phase formation rate, precipitate size, fraction and distribution, and by their effect on the alloys' critical stresses and transformation temperatures. Even short-time aging of the TNZ alloy leads to its drastic embrittlement caused by “overaging”. On the contrary, during aging of the TNT alloy, formation of finely dispersed ω-phase precipitates is gradual and controllable, which makes it possible to finely adjust the TNT alloy functional properties using precipitation hardening mechanisms. To create in this alloy nanosubgrained dislocation substructure containing highly-dispersed coherent nanosized ω-phase precipitates, the following optimum thermomechanical treatment is recommended: cold rolling (true strain 0.37), followed by post-deformation annealing (600 °C, 15–30 min) and age-hardening (300 °C, 30 min) thermal treatments. It is shown that in TNT alloy, pre-transition diffraction effects (diffuse reflections) can “mask” the β-phase substructure and morphology of secondary phases. - Highlights: • TNZ alloy is characterized by much higher ω-phase precipitation rate than TNT alloy. • Difference in precipitation rates is linked to the difference in Zr and Ta diffusion mobility. • Aging of nanosubgrained TNZ alloy worsens its properties irrespective of the aging time. • Aging time of nanosubgrained TNT alloy can be optimized to improve its properties.

  11. Point Defects in Binary Laves-Phase Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, P.K.; Liu, C.T.; Pike, L.M.; Zhu, J.H.

    1999-01-11

    Point defects in the binary C15 NbCrQ and NbCoz, and C 14 NbFe2 systems on both sides of stoichiometry were studied by both bulk density and X-ray Iattiee parameter measurements. It was found that the vacancy concentrations in these systems after quenching from 1000"C are essentially zero. The constitutional defects on both sides of stoichiometry for these systems were found to be of the anti-site type in comparison with the model predictions. Thermal vacancies exhibiting a maximum at the stoichiometric composition were obtained in NbCr2 Laves phase alloys after quenching from 1400"C. However, there are essentially no thermal vacancies in NbFe2 alloys after quenching from 1300oC. Anti-site hardening was found on both sides of stoichiometry for all the tie Laves phase systems studied, while the thermal vacancies in NbCr2 alloys quenched from 1400'C were found to soften the Laves phase. The anti-site hardening of the Laves phases is similar to that of the B2 compounds and the thermal vacancy softening is unique to the Laves phase. Neither the anti-site defects nor the thermal vacancies affect the fracture toughness of the Laves phases significantly.

  12. Application of the theory of martensite crystallography to displacive phase transformations in substitutional nonferrous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muddle, B.C.; Nie, J.F.; Hugo, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the theory of martensite crystallography is capable of accounting successfully for the form and crystallography of a range of plate- or lath-shaped transformation products, even when the formation of the product phase involves significant substitutional diffusion. These transformations include the precipitation of metastable hexagonal γ' (Ag 2 Al) plates in disordered face-centered cubic (fcc) solid-solution Al-Ag alloys, the formation of ordered AuCu II plates from disordered fcc solid solution in equiatomic Au-Cu alloys, and the formation of metastable 9R α 1 plates in ordered (B2) Cu-Zn and Ag-Cd alloys. The application of the theory to these transformations is reviewed critically and the features common to them identified. It is confirmed that, in all three transformations, the product phase produces relief at a free surface consistent with an invariant plane-strain shape change and that the transformations are thus properly described as displacive. The agreement between experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the transformation crystallography is in all cases excellent. It is proposed that successful application of the theory implies a growth mechanism in which the coherent or semicoherent, planar interface between parent and product phases maintains its structural identity during migration and that growth proceeds atom by atom in a manner consistent with the maintenance of a correspondence of lattice sites

  13. Metastable Phase Separation and Concomitant Solute Redistribution of Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn Ternary Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Mei, Zhang; Wei-Li, Wang; Ying, Ruan; Bing-Bo, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn ternary alloys with lower Sn contents are usually assumed to display a peritectic-type solidification process under equilibrium condition. Here we show that liquid Fe 47.5 Cu 47.5 Sn 5 ternary alloy exhibits a metastable immiscibility gap in the undercooling range of 51–329 K (0.19T L ). Macroscopic phase separation occurs once undercooling exceeds 196 K and causes the formation of a floating Fe-rich zone and a descending Cu-rich zone. Solute redistribution induces the depletion of Sn concentration in the Fe-rich zone and its enrichment in the Cu-rich zone. The primary Fe phase grows dendritically and its growth velocity increases with undercooling until the appearance of notable macrosegregation, but will decrease if undercooling further increases beyond 236 K. The microsegregation degrees of both solutes in Fe and Cu phases vary only slightly with undercooling. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  14. Precipitation kinetics of the phase. gamma. ' in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Pozarnik, F.

    1984-04-01

    The authors investigated the precipitation and coalescence kinetics of the ..gamma..'phase in alloy 800, an austenitic steel with 33% Ni, 20% Cr and small amounts of Ti and Al. The results led to a law concerning the variation with temperature, ageing, and chemical composition of the particle size in the ..gamma..'phase. This law was used to calculate the variation of the elasticity limit of the alloy due to the formation of the ..gamma..'phase. The calculations were based on the theories of interaction of (weakly and strongly coupled) dislocation pairs with coherent particles ordered without constraint; the anisotropy of tension along the dislocation line was taken into account as well as the influence of the deformation induced by the misfit. A comparison with experimental results shows that averaging does not occur until 2x10/sup 5/ h at operating temperatures below 800 K.

  15. Gamma Radiolytic Formation of Alloyed Ag-Pt Nanocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Temgire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal dispersions of Ag-Pt composite nanoparticles were prepared by gamma radiolysis technique in the presence of nonionic surfactant Brij'97. Simultaneous as well as sequential reduction methods were employed in order to study the structural formation of Ag-Pt bimetallic clusters. Similar shape and trend was observed in optical spectra for both methods. Radiolysis yielded nearly spherical Ag-Pt bimetallic clusters by use of AgNO3 instead of AgClO4. The disappearance of the silver resonance and the simultaneous growth of the 260 nm resonance are independent of cluster structure and degree of alloying. To understand formation of Ag-Pt aggregate, the optical studies were also done as a function of amount of dose absorbed, concentration of surfactant, that is, Brij'97. The shape of the absorption spectrum did not change with increase in gamma radiation dose. TEM analysis exhibited fine dispersions of Ag-Pt clusters surrounded by a mantle when capped with Brij'97. The particle size obtained was in the range of 5–9 nm. On the basis of optical, XRD, and TEM analysis, alloy formation is discussed.

  16. Phase formation in contact of dissimilar metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvin, V S; Kazachkova, Yu A; Povzner, A A [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Mira st., 19, A-203, Yekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: savvin-vs@yandex.ru

    2008-02-15

    Formation and growth of intermediate phases in contact of the crystalline samples forming a two-component eutectic system is considered. It is shown that during the competition to a growing liquid phase the intermediate solid phases cannot grow by diffusion. The alternative is formation of metastable areas of a liquid phase. Measurements of liquid layers extent in Pb-Bi and In-Bi systems have allowed to define the composition of liquid on interface where formation of metastable liquid is possible. The results show that the concentration interval of a liquid layer corresponds to a stable constitution diagram. In order to explain the experimental results the hypothesis according to which the intermediate solid phases are formed as a result of precipitation from metastable melt is considered. The experimental confirmation of formation and crystallization of a metastable liquid is the fact that intergrowth of the samples forming system with an intermetallic phase at temperatures below the temperature of fusion of the most low-melting eutectic is observed. The possibility of the processes concerned with the occurrence of metastable areas of a liquid is showed by means of computer imitation.

  17. The porosity formation mechanism in the laser-MIG hybrid welded joint of Invar alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Gao, Qiyu; Gu, Cheng; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jicheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-10-01

    The porosity formation mechanism in the laser-metal inter gas (MIG) multi-layer hybrid welded (HW) joint of 19.05 mm thick Invar alloy is investigated. The microstructure characteristics and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are analyzed. The phase identification was conducted by the X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Experimental results show that the generation of porosity is caused by the relatively low laser power in the root pass and low current in the cover pass. It is also indicated that the microstructures of the welded joints are mainly observed to be columnar crystal and equiaxial crystal, which are closely related to the porosity formation. The EDS results show that oxygen content is significantly high in the inner wall of the porosity. The XRD results indicate that the BM and the WB of laser-MIG HW all are composed of Fe0.64Ni0.36 and γ-(Fe,Ni). When the weld pool is cooled quickly, [NiO] [FeO] and [MnO] are formed that react on C to generate CO/CO2 gases. The porosity of laser-MIG HW for Invar alloy is oxygen pore. The root source of metallurgy porosity formation is that the dissolved gases are hard to escape sufficiently and thus exist in the weld pool. Furthermore, 99.99% pure Argon is recommended as protective gas in the laser-MIG HW of Invar alloy.

  18. High-temperature phase transformation in Cr added TiAl base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, E.; Niinobe, K.; Nobuki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1999-07-01

    The authors have investigated a microstructure evolution of a Ti-48Al-3.5Cr (in at.%) alloy at high-temperatures ({gt} 1,473K). In the alloy annealed at 1673K for 1.8ks, followed by air-cooling, a characteristic microstructure with a feathery fashion was uniformly formed. From a cooling-rate-controlling study, it was found that formation of the feathery structure is accomplished during continuous cooling from 1673K to 1573K, within the {alpha} + {gamma} two-phase region. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the feathery structure is composed of lamellar colonies (5--10{micro}m) which are crystallographically tilted slightly (a few degree) with their neighbors. A surprising fact is that lamellae in each colony are mostly the {gamma} phase with few {alpha}{sub 2} phase less than 5% in volume. This suggests that the feathery structure is a metastable product and has not resulted from the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation above 1,573 K. Instead, the feathery structure formation should be attributed to the non-equilibrium {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} transformation which occurs at high-temperatures with a small degree of supercooling. The authors discuss this interesting phase transformation in terms of the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} massive transformation, based on the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram constructed for the present alloy.

  19. Experimental study of the oxide film structural phase state in the E635 and E110 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevyakov, A. Yu.; Shishov, V. N.; Novikov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure, phase and element compositions of oxide films of E110 (Zr-1%Nb) and E635 (Zr-1%Nb-0,35%Fe-1,2%Sn) alloys after autoclave tests in pure water had been studied by the method of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). TEM investigations of oxide film structure were carried on different oxide layers according to their thickness (near interface of “metal-oxide”, in central part of the oxide film and near outer surface) and in cross-section. The results of the tests show that oxide films of the alloys have different microstructure (grain size, fraction of tetragonal phase, content of defects, etc) and the phase compositions. The crystal structure of oxide films is mainly monoclinic, however, at the “metal-oxide” interface there are a significant fraction of the tetragonal phase. Researching of oxides on different stages of oxidation allow us to determine the kinetics of the second phase precipitate structure change: a) in E635 alloy at early oxidation stages of the amorphization process of the Laves phase precipitates begins with decreasing the content of iron and niobium; b) in E110 alloy the amorphization process of β-Nb precipitates begins at a later stage of oxidation. The influence of changes of the crystal structure and the chemical composition of the second phase precipitates on protective properties of the oxides had been determined. Researching of alloying element redistribution in E635 alloy oxide film shows that iron and niobium are concentrated in pores. Increased porosity of the E635 alloy oxide films at a later oxidation stage, in comparison with the E110 alloy, shows the influence of change composition and subsequent dissolution of the Laves phase particles on the pore formation in the oxide. (authors)

  20. The three phases of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn; Bower, Richard G.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the origin of the Hubble sequence by analysing the evolution of the kinematic morphologies of central galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological simulation. By separating each galaxy into disc and spheroidal stellar components and tracing their evolution along the merger tree, we find that the morphology of galaxies follows a common evolutionary trend. We distinguish three phases of galaxy formation. These phases are determined primarily by mass, rather than redshift. For M* ≲ 109.5M⊙ galaxies grow in a disorganised way, resulting in a morphology that is dominated by random stellar motions. This phase is dominated by in-situ star formation, partly triggered by mergers. In the mass range 109.5M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1010.5M⊙ galaxies evolve towards a disc-dominated morphology, driven by in-situ star formation. The central spheroid (i.e. the bulge) at z = 0 consists mostly of stars that formed in-situ, yet the formation of the bulge is to a large degree associated with mergers. Finally, at M* ≳ 1010.5M⊙ growth through in-situ star formation slows down considerably and galaxies transform towards a more spheroidal morphology. This transformation is driven more by the buildup of spheroids than by the destruction of discs. Spheroid formation in these galaxies happens mostly by accretion at large radii of stars formed ex-situ (i.e. the halo rather than the bulge).

  1. Formation of amorphous Ti-50at.%Pt by solid state reactions during mechanical alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlatji, ML

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying of an equiatomic mixture of crystalline elemental powders of Ti and Pt in a high-energy ball mill results in formation of an amorphous alloy by solid-state reactions. Mechanical alloying was carried out in an argon atmosphere...

  2. Effect of alloying elements on martensitic transformation in the binary NiAl(β) phase alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, R.; Ohtani, H.; Ishida, K.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the B2(β) to L1 0 (β') martensitic transformation in NiAl base alloys containing a small amount of third elements have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that in addition to the normal L1 0 (3R) martensite, the 7R martensite is also present in the ternary alloys containing Ti, Mo, Ag, Ta, or Zr. While the addition of third elements X (X: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Si) to the binary Ni 64 Al 36 alloy stabilizes the parent β phase, thereby lowering the M s temperature, addition of third elements such as Co, Cu, or Ag destabilizes the β phase, increasing the M s temperature. The occurrence of the 7R martensite structure is attributed to solid solution hardening arising from the difference in atomic size between Ni and Al and the third elements added. The variation in M s temperature with third element additions is primarily ascribed to the difference in lattice stabilities of the bcc and fcc phases of the alloying elements

  3. Study of Oxide Formation on Alloy 800 by Potentiostatic Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Momenib, M.; Wren, C. J. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of study are to investigate the effect of potential on oxide formation and conversion on alloy 800 under potentiostatic conditions. For this study we have focused primarily on corrosion at pH{sub 25.}deg. C8.4. The results presented in Figures 1 show that in the range from -0.8 V{sub SCE} to +0.2 V{sub SCE} there are four potential regions having distinctly different short- and long-term characteristics in the log |i| vs. log t and Q vs. t plots. At a potential below -0.8 V{sub SCE}, the current becomes cathodic immediately (< 10 s) upon polarization, indicating negligible metal oxidation and hence is not of interest. In nuclear power plants, it is used for steam generator tubing in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. However, failures resulting from localized corrosion such as pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been observed in the service environments. There exists still considerable controversy over the type of oxide that can be formed and the mechanism of oxide formation on Alloy 800.

  4. Formation and evolution of the hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barucca, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Ferragut, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, LNESS and CNISM, Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Fiori, F. [Dipartimento SAIFET, Sezione di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Lussana, D. [Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Mengucci, P., E-mail: p.mengucci@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Moia, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, LNESS and CNISM, Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Riontino, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The formation and evolution of hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd (WE43) alloy during artificial ageing at 150 and 210 deg. C is followed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, Vickers microhardness tests and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. A quantitative description of the alloy studied during the early and advanced stages of the precipitation sequence is presented. In situ SAXS evolution at 210 deg. C of the size, volume fraction and number density of the subnanometer and nanometer particles that evolve in the {beta}'' phase was obtained. TEM and microhardness results indicate that the hardening mechanism is based on {beta}'' transformation of pre-precipitates and their growth at 150 deg. C, while at 210 deg. C hardening is mainly associated with {beta}'' {yields} {beta}' transformation.

  5. Formation and evolution of the hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucca, G.; Ferragut, R.; Fiori, F.; Lussana, D.; Mengucci, P.; Moia, F.; Riontino, G.

    2011-01-01

    The formation and evolution of hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd (WE43) alloy during artificial ageing at 150 and 210 deg. C is followed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, Vickers microhardness tests and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. A quantitative description of the alloy studied during the early and advanced stages of the precipitation sequence is presented. In situ SAXS evolution at 210 deg. C of the size, volume fraction and number density of the subnanometer and nanometer particles that evolve in the β'' phase was obtained. TEM and microhardness results indicate that the hardening mechanism is based on β'' transformation of pre-precipitates and their growth at 150 deg. C, while at 210 deg. C hardening is mainly associated with β'' → β' transformation.

  6. Effect of Ce addition on microstructure of Al20Cu2Mn3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhongwei; Chen Pei; Li Shishun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy. ► Patterns of the particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. ► The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. ► The twins of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn casting alloys. - Abstract: Effects of Ce addition on microstructure of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase and mechanical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and tensile test. The results show that rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn alloy. Compared with the Ce containing alloy, patterns of particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. In addition, twins of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn alloy.

  7. Silicon effects on formation of EPO oxide coatings on aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Nie, X.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic plasma processes (EPP) can be used for cleaning, metal-coating, carburizing, nitriding, and oxidizing. Electrolytic plasma oxidizing (EPO) is an advanced technique to deposit thick and hard ceramic coatings on a number of aluminum alloys. However, the EPO treatment on Al-Si alloys with a high Si content has rarely been reported. In this research, an investigation was conducted to clarify the effects of silicon contents on the EPO coating formation, morphology, and composition. Cast hypereutectic 390 alloys (∼ 17% Si) and hypoeutectic 319 alloys (∼ 7% Si) were chosen as substrates. The coating morphology, composition, and microstructure of the EPO coatings on those substrates were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A stylus roughness tester was used for surface roughness measurement. It was found that the EPO process had four stages where each stage was corresponding to various coating surface morphology, composition, and phase structures, characterised by different coating growth mechanisms

  8. Full Electroresistance Modulation in a Mixed-Phase Metallic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Li, L.; Gai, Z.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hsu, S. L.; Wong, A. T.; Fan, L. S.; Lin, M.-W.; Rouleau, C. M.; Ward, T. Z.; Lee, H. N.; Sefat, A. S.; Christen, H. M.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report a giant, ˜22 %, electroresistance modulation for a metallic alloy above room temperature. It is achieved by a small electric field of 2 kV /cm via piezoelectric strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling and the resulting magnetic phase transition in epitaxial FeRh /BaTiO3 heterostructures. This work presents detailed experimental evidence for an isothermal magnetic phase transition driven by tetragonality modulation in FeRh thin films, which is in contrast to the large volume expansion in the conventional temperature-driven magnetic phase transition in FeRh. Moreover, all the experimental results in this work illustrate FeRh as a mixed-phase model system well similar to phase-separated colossal magnetoresistance systems with phase instability therein.

  9. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  10. Influence of Laser Welding Speed on the Morphology and Phases Occurring in Spray-Compacted Hypereutectic Al-Si-Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gietzelt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Normally, the weldability of aluminum alloys is ruled by the temperature range of solidification of an alloy according to its composition by the formation of hot cracks due to thermal shrinkage. However, for materials at nonequilibrium conditions, advantage can be taken by multiple phase formation, leading to an annihilation of temperature stress at the microscopic scale, preventing hot cracks even for alloys with extreme melting range. In this paper, several spray-compacted hypereutectic aluminum alloys were laser welded. Besides different silicon contents, additional alloying elements like copper, iron and nickel were present in some alloys, affecting the microstructure. The microstructure was investigated at the delivery state of spray-compacted material as well as for a wide range of welding speeds ranging from 0.5 to 10 m/min, respectively. The impact of speed on phase composition and morphology was studied at different disequilibrium solidification conditions. At high welding velocity, a close-meshed network of eutectic Al-Si-composition was observed, whereas the matrix is filled with nearly pure aluminum, helping to diminish the thermal stress during accelerated solidification. Primary solidified silicon was found, however, containing considerable amounts of aluminum, which was not expected from phase diagrams obtained at the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  11. Short range order and phase separation in Ti-rich Ti-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Many metals and alloys are used in service under conditions in which they are metastable or unstable with respect to phase separation or transformation. Analytical and numerical models exist for relatively simple decomposition processes, such as nucleation and growth mechanisms and spinodal decomposition. In reality, however, more complex phase transformations may occur which are less well understood. For example, reactions involving coupled ordering and phase separation, such as the 'conditional spinodal mechanism', have been predicted. A 'conditional spinodal' is defined as a reaction in which compositional phase separation is thermodynamically possible only after a prior process, such as ordering at the parent composition. There is some debate regarding which real alloy systems exhibit such complex behaviour. Previous atom probe field ion microscopy work on titanium-rich titanium-aluminium based alloys has led to the suggestion that formation of the α 2 phase in this system may occur by a complex phase separation process. As well as being of interest from the point of view of fundamental materials science, this has potential engineering significance as the Ti-Al system forms the basis of the current generation of high-temperature Ti-based alloys for compressor applications in jet engines. This thesis describes an investigation into the phase decomposition process taking place in a titanium-rich Ti-Al alloy lying in the two-phase α+α 2 region. Experimentally, a binary alloy containing 15at% aluminium was heat-treated and examined using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atom probe field ion microscopy and mechanical testing methods. Neutron diffraction experiments were also completed on this system for the first time. In addition, fully three-dimensional atomistic simulations were conducted using a Monte Carlo computer model based on first principles thermodynamic stability calculations of the Ti-Al system. The results provide an insight into many aspects

  12. Influence of oxygen on omega phase stability in the Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Hendrickson, Mandana; Nandwana, Peeyush; Alam, Talukder; Choudhuri, Deep; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on stability of isothermal omega precipitates in Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr was examined using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. Two alloys with 0.1 and 0.4 mass% oxygen were subjected to single step, and two-step annealing heat-treatments to respectively promote omega and alpha formation. After second step annealing, large volume fraction of omega precipitates was retained in 0.4 mass% O alloy while mainly alpha phase was observed in TNTZ-0.1O. The enhanced stability of omega in the higher oxygen containing TNTZ alloys questions the conventionally accepted understanding that oxygen destabilizes the omega phase in titanium alloys.

  13. Solid solution and amorphous phase in Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn systems synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: claudio.aguilar@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guzman, P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Lascano, S. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Parra, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Bejar, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Medina, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58000, Michoacán (Mexico); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Atacama, Av. España 485, Copiapó (Chile)

    2016-06-15

    This work discusses the formation of Ti–30Nb–13Ta–xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt%) solid solution by mechanical alloying using a shaker mill. A solid solution was formed after 15 h of milling and an amorphous phase was formed after 30 h of milling, according to X-ray diffraction results. Disappearance of strongest X-ray diffraction peaks of Nb, Ta and Mn indicated the formation of solid solution, while, X-ray diffraction patterns of powders milled for 30 h showed an amorphous hump with crystalline peaks in the angular range of 35–45° in 2θ. TEM image analysis showed the presence of nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds embedded in an amorphous matrix. Mn{sub 2}Ti, MnTi and NbTi{sub 4} intermetallic compounds were detected and revealed crystallites with size ranging from 3 to 20 nm. The Gibbs free energy for the formation of solid solution and amorphous phase of three ternary systems (Ti–Nb–Ta, Ti–Nb–Mn and Ti–Ta–Mn) was calculated using extended Miedema's model. Experimental and thermodynamic data confirmed that solid solution was first formed in the alloy with 6wt% Mn followed by the formation of an amorphous phase as milling time increases. The presence of Mn promoted the formation of amorphous phase because the atomic radius difference between Mn with Ti, Nb and Ta. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics analysis of extension of solid solution of the Ti–Nb–Ta–Mn system. • Formation of amorphous phase and intermetallic compounds were observed. • Nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds were formed with the sizes between 3 and 20 nm.

  14. Formation of hypereutectic silicon particles in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys under the influence of high-intensity ultrasonic vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Jian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The modification of eutectic silicon is of general interest since fine eutectic silicon along with fine primary aluminum grains improves mechanical properties and ductilities. In this study, high intensity ultrasonic vibration was used to modify the complex microstructure of aluminum hypoeutectic alloys. The ultrasonic vibrator was placed at the bottom of a copper mold with molten aluminum. Hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy specimens with a unique in-depth profile of microstructure distribution were obtained. Polyhedral silicon particles, which should form in a hypereutectic alloy, were obtained in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy near the ultrasonic radiator where the silicon concentration was higher than the eutectic composition. The formation of hypereutectic silicon near the radiator surface indicates that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration can be used to influence the phase transformation process of metals and alloys. The size and morphology of both the silicon phase and the aluminum phase varies with increasing distance from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. Silicon morphology develops into three zones. Polyhedral primary silicon particles present in zone I, within 15 mm from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. Transition from hypereutectic silicon to eutectic silicon occurs in zone II about 15 to 20 祄 from the ultrasonic probe/radiator. The bulk of the ingot is in zone III and is hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy containing fine lamellar and fibrous eutectic silicon. The grain size is about 15 to 25 祄 in zone I, 25 to 35 祄 in zone II, and 25 to 55 祄 in zone III. The morphology of the primary ?Al phase is also changed from dendritic (in untreated samples to globular. Phase evolution during the solidification process of the alloy subjected to ultrasonic vibration is described.

  15. Interplay between lattice distortions, vibrations and phase stability in NbMoTaW high entropy alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormann, F.H.W.; Sluiter, M.H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys (HEA), such as BCC NbMoTaW, represent a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications, due to their extraordinary mechanical properties. A characteristic feature of HEAs is the formation of single-phase solid solutions. For BCC NbMoTaW,

  16. High-temperature superconducting phase in rare earth alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyaev, A.V.; Molodykh, O.Eh.; Savchenko, M.A.; Stefanovich, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    A possibility of high-temperature superconducting phase existence in rare e arth alloys with aluminium: TbAl-NdAl is predicted. Such a phase is shown t o exist at t approximately 40 k, however its existence is possible only in a nar row temperature range and it might be metastable. A possibility of a supercondu cting phase occurrence in spin glass is studied. It is shown that the first kin d phase transition to superconducting state may first occur under definite condi tions in the system. But the phase in question will be a low-temperature one be cause of rather inefficient elctron-phonon interaction. Further temperature dec rease would lead to an appearance of magnetic order and to disappearance of the superconductivity

  17. The electrochemical properties and mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Okido, Masazumi

    2003-01-01

    The electronchemical properties and the mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg alloys containing 0-15 mass% Al, when anodized in NaOH solution, were investigated by focusing on the effects of anodizing potential, Al content, and anodizing time. The intensity ratio of Mg(OH) 2 in the XRD analysis decreased with increasing applied potential, while that of MgO increased. Mg(OH) 2 was barely detected at 80 V, while MgO was readily detected. The anti-corrosion properties of anodized specimens at each constant potential were better than those of non-anodized specimens. The specimen anodized at an applied potential of 3 V had the best anti-corrosion property. The intensity ratio of the β phase increased with aluminum content in Mg-Al alloys. During anodizing, the active dissolution reaction occurred preferentially in β phase until about 4 min, and then the current density increased gradually until 7 min. The dissolution reaction progressed in α phase, which had a lower Al content. In the anodic polarization test in 0.017 mol·dm -3 NaCl and 0.1 mol·dm -3 Na 2 SO 4 at 298 K, the current density of Mg-15 mass% Al alloy anodized for 10 min increased, since the anodic film that forms on the α phase is a non-compacted film. The anodic film on the α phase at 30 min was a compact film as compared with that at 10 min

  18. The electrochemical properties and mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Okido, Masazumi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The electronchemical properties and the mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg alloys containing 0-15 mass% Al, when anodized in NaOH solution, were investigated by focusing on the effects of anodizing potential, Al content, and anodizing time. The intensity ratio of Mg(OH){sub 2} in the XRD analysis decreased with increasing applied potential, while that of MgO increased. Mg(OH){sub 2} was barely detected at 80 V, while MgO was readily detected. The anti-corrosion properties of anodized specimens at each constant potential were better than those of non-anodized specimens. The specimen anodized at an applied potential of 3 V had the best anti-corrosion property. The intensity ratio of the {beta} phase increased with aluminum content in Mg-Al alloys. During anodizing, the active dissolution reaction occurred preferentially in {beta} phase until about 4 min, and then the current density increased gradually until 7 min. The dissolution reaction progressed in {alpha} phase, which had a lower Al content. In the anodic polarization test in 0.017 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} NaCl and 0.1 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 298 K, the current density of Mg-15 mass% Al alloy anodized for 10 min increased, since the anodic film that forms on the {alpha} phase is a non-compacted film. The anodic film on the {alpha} phase at 30 min was a compact film as compared with that at 10 min.

  19. Interface-driven alloying and metallic glass formation in nano-multilayers in an immiscible Y-Nb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.G.; Liu, B.X.; Nanjing Univ.

    1999-01-01

    Several new amorphous alloys were obtained in an immiscible Y-Nb system by room temperature 190 keV xenon ion mixing of Y-Nb multilayered films, which were designed to include a sufficient fraction of interfacial atoms and thus possessed a high free energy comparable to that of the amorphous state. In addition, two metastable f.c.c. phases were formed in Y-rich and Nb-rich multilayered films, respectively. The growth kinetics of the f.c.c. phases and their effect on the composition range of amorphization are also discussed. To understand the observed unusual alloying behaviors, a Gibbs free-energy diagram was constructed based on Miedema's model. The diagram included the free-energy curves of all the involved phases as well as that of the Y-Nb multilayered films including the extra interfacial free energy and thus gave a qualitative and reasonable interpretation to the formation of metastable alloys upon ion mixing. Furthermore, some multilayered films with a sufficient fraction of interfacial atoms were subjected to steady-state thermal annealing, which also resulted in the formation of the Y-Nb amorphous phases, suggesting that alloying in this immiscible system was actually driven by the interfacial free energy

  20. Mechanisms of oxide layer formation and destruction on a chromia former nickel base alloy in HTR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouillard, F.

    2007-10-01

    Haynes 230 alloy which contains 22 wt.% chromium could be a promising candidate material for structures and heat exchangers (maximum operating temperature: 850-950 C) in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). The feasibility demonstration involves to valid its corrosion resistance in the reactor specific environment namely impure helium. The alloys surface reactivity was investigated at temperatures between 850 and 1000 C. We especially focused on the influence of different parameters such as concentrations of impurities in the gas phase (carbon monoxide and methane, water vapour/hydrogen ratio), alloy composition (activities of Cr and C, alloying element contents) and temperature. Two main behaviours have been revealed: the formation of a Cr/Mn rich oxide layer at 900 C and its following reduction at higher temperatures. At 900 C, the water vapour is the main oxidizing gas. However in the initial times, the carbon monoxide reacts at the metal/oxide interface which involves a gaseous transport through the scale; CO mainly oxidizes the minor alloying elements aluminium and silicon. Above a critical temperature TA, the carbon in solution in the alloy reduces chromia. To ascribe the scale destruction, a model is proposed based on thermodynamic interfacial data for the alloy, oxide layer morphology and carbon monoxide partial pressure in helium; the model is then validated regarding experimental results and observations. (author)

  1. Formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in dilute Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, H.; Hood, G.M.; Roy, J.A.; Schultz, R.J.

    1993-02-01

    The formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in two α-Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys with nominal compositions (I, 50 ppma Fe, and II, 650 ppma Fe) have been investigated (the maximum solid solubility of Fe in α-Zr is 180 ppma - 800 C). Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to examine the characteristics of Fe-rich precipitates. SEM and TEM micrographs show that in as-grown alloy II, Zr 2 Fe precipitates are located at 'stringers'. Precipitates were not observed in as-grown alloy I. During annealing, below the solvus, Fe diffuses to the surfaces to form Zr 3 Fe precipitates in both alloys. The precipitates on the surfaces of alloy I tend to be star-like (0001) or pyramidal (1010), and their distribution is heterogeneous. Dissolution of Zr 3 Fe surface precipitates of alloy I (annealing above the solvus) leaves precipitate-like features on the surfaces. Zr 2 Fe precipitates in as-grown alloy II can be dissolved only by β-phase annealing. (Author) 8 figs., 18 refs

  2. Glass-formation and hardness of Cu-Y alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satta, Marta; Rizzi, Paola [Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS/INSTM/CNISM, Universita di Torino, v. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Baricco, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.baricco@unito.i [Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS/INSTM/CNISM, Universita di Torino, v. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2009-08-26

    Metallic glasses exhibit particularly attractive mechanical properties, like high stresses to fracture and large elastic strain (up to 2%), but they show generally low plasticity. Aim of this work is to investigate the glass forming range in the Cu-Y system, in order to form the ductile CuY phase (CsCl structure) upon crystallization. Cu{sub 58}Y{sub 42}, Cu{sub 50}Y{sub 50} and Cu{sub 33}Y{sub 67} alloys have been prepared by rapid solidification and copper mould casting, obtaining ribbons and cylindrical shaped ingots, with diameter of 2 mm. Fully amorphous, partially amorphous and fully crystalline samples have been obtained for different compositions and quenching conditions. In some cases, the X-ray diffraction results, analysed using the Rietveld method, showed CuY nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. The microstructure was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the presence of nanocrystals of the ductile phase CuY has been confirmed. Microhardness results showed a softening of the amorphous phase due to the presence of CuY nanocrystals and a hardening due to the Cu{sub 2}Y phase.

  3. Glass-formation and hardness of Cu-Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satta, Marta; Rizzi, Paola; Baricco, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    Metallic glasses exhibit particularly attractive mechanical properties, like high stresses to fracture and large elastic strain (up to 2%), but they show generally low plasticity. Aim of this work is to investigate the glass forming range in the Cu-Y system, in order to form the ductile CuY phase (CsCl structure) upon crystallization. Cu 58 Y 42 , Cu 50 Y 50 and Cu 33 Y 67 alloys have been prepared by rapid solidification and copper mould casting, obtaining ribbons and cylindrical shaped ingots, with diameter of 2 mm. Fully amorphous, partially amorphous and fully crystalline samples have been obtained for different compositions and quenching conditions. In some cases, the X-ray diffraction results, analysed using the Rietveld method, showed CuY nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. The microstructure was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the presence of nanocrystals of the ductile phase CuY has been confirmed. Microhardness results showed a softening of the amorphous phase due to the presence of CuY nanocrystals and a hardening due to the Cu 2 Y phase.

  4. The influence of microstructure on blistering and bubble formation by He ion irradiation in Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, S.R.; Tolley, A.; Sánchez, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of microstructure and composition on the effects of ion irradiation in Al alloys was studied combining Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For this purpose, irradiation experiments with 20 keV He + ions at room temperature were carried out in Al, an Al–4Cu (wt%) supersaturated solid solution, and an Al-5.6Cu-0.5Si-0.5Ge (wt.%) alloy with a very high density of precipitates, and the results were compared. In Al and Al–4Cu, He bubbles were found with an average size in between 1 nm and 2 nm that was independent of fluence. The critical fluence for bubble formation was higher in Al–4Cu than in Al. He bubbles were also observed below the critical fluence after post irradiation annealing in Al–4Cu. The incoherent interfaces between the equilibrium θ phase and the Al matrix were found to be favorable sites for the formation of He bubbles. Instead, no bubbles were observed in the precipitate rich Al-5.6Cu-0.5Si-0.5Ge alloy. In all alloys, blistering was observed, leading to surface erosion by exfoliation. The blistering effects were more severe in the Al-5.6Cu-0.5Si-0.5Ge alloy, and they were enhanced by increasing the fluence rate. - Highlights: • In Al and Al–4Cu, He bubbles were formed, but no bubbles were observed in Al-5.6Cu-0.5Si-0.5Ge. • Bubble formation was enhanced at incoherent matrix/precipitate interfaces in Al–4Cu. • The bubble size was insensitive to displacement rate in pure Al. • In Al and Al-5.6Cu-0.5Si-0.5Ge blistering was observed, which was more severe in the alloy. • Blistering effects were enhanced by increasing the displacement rate in Al and Al–4Cu.

  5. New Fuel Alloys Seeking Optimal Solidus and Phase Behavior for High Burnup and TRU Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, R.D.; Porter, D.L.; Kennedy, J.R.; Hayes, S.L.; Blackwood, V.S.; Jones, Z.S.; Olson, D.L.; Mishra, B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent modifications to fast reactor metallic fuels have been directed toward improving the melting and phase behaviors of the fuel alloy, for the purpose of ultra-high burnup and transuranic (TRU) burning. Improved melting temperatures increase the safety margin for uranium-based fast reactor fuel alloys, which is especially important for transuranic burning because the introduction of plutonium and neptunium acts to lower the alloy melting temperature. Improved phase behavior—single-phase, body-centered cubic—is desired because the phase is isotropic and the alloy properties are more predictable. An optimal alloy with both improvements was therefore sought through a comprehensive literature survey and theoretical analyses, and the creation and testing of some alloys selected by the analyses. Summarized here are those analyses, the impact of alloy modifications, and recent experimental results for selected pseudo-binary alloy systems that are hoped to accomplish the goals in a short timeframe. (author)

  6. Influence of mobile dislocations on phase separation in binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Leonard, Francois

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a continuum model to describe the phase separation of a binary alloy in the presence of mobile dislocations. The kinetics of the local composition and dislocation density are coupled through their elastic fields. We show both analytically and numerically that mobile dislocations modify the standard spinodal decomposition process, and lead to several regimes of growth. Depending on the dislocation mobility and observation time, the phase separation may be accelerated, decelerated, or unaffected by mobile dislocations. For any finite dislocation mobility, we show that the domain growth rate asymptotically becomes independent of the dislocation mobility, and is faster than the dislocation-free growth rate

  7. Formation of barrier-type anodic films on ZE41 magnesium alloy in a fluoride/glycerol electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-López, J.M.; Němcová, A.; Zhong, X.L.; Liu, H.; Arenas, M.A.; Haigh, S.J.; Burke, M.G.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Barrier anodic films formed on ZE41 Mg alloy in glycerol/fluoride electrolyte. • Films contain oxygen and fluorine species; formation ratio ∼1.3 nm V −1 . • Nanocrystalline film structure, with MgO and MgF 2. • Zinc enrichment in alloy beneath anodic film. • Modified film formed above Mg-Zn-RE second phase. - Abstract: Barrier-type, nanocrystalline anodic films have been formed on a ZE41 magnesium alloy under a constant current density of 5 mA cm −2 in a glycerol/fluoride electrolyte, containing 5 vol.% of added water, at 293 K. The films contain magnesium, fluorine and oxygen as the major species, and lower amounts of alloying element species. The films grow at an efficiency of ∼0.8 to 0.9, with a formation ratio in the range of ∼1.2 to 1.4 nm V −1 at the matrix regions and with a ratio of ∼1.8 nm V −1 at Mg-Zn-RE second phase. At the former regions, rare earth species are enriched at the film surface and zinc is enriched in the alloy. A carbon- and oxygen-rich band within the film suggests that the films grow at the metal/film and film/electrolyte interfaces

  8. Hydride formation on deformation twin in zirconium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Dae [Korea Institute of Material Science (KIMS), 797 Changwondaero, Changwon, Gyeongnam, 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jonghun, E-mail: yooncsmd@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Hydrides deteriorate the mechanical properties of zirconium (Zr) alloys used in nuclear reactors. Intergranular hydrides that form along grain boundaries have been extensively studied due to their detrimental effects on cracking. However, it has been little concerns on formation of Zr hydrides correlated with deformation twins which is distinctive heterogeneous nucleation site in hexagonal close-packed metals. In this paper, the heterogeneous precipitation of Zr hydrides at the twin boundaries was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. It demonstrates that intragranular hydrides in the twinned region precipitates on the rotated habit plane by the twinning and intergranular hydrides precipitate along the coherent low energy twin boundaries independent of the conventional habit planes. Interestingly, dislocations around the twin boundaries play a substantial role in the nucleation of Zr hydrides by reducing the misfit strain energy.

  9. Bubble formation in Zr alloys under heavy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, L. Jr.; Motta, A.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Birtcher, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1995-12-01

    Kr ions were used in the HVEM/Tandem facility at ANL to irradiate several Zr alloys, including Zircaloy-2 and -4, at 300-800 C to doses up to 2{times}10{sup 16}ion.cm{sup -2}. Both in-situ irradiation of thin foils as well as irradiation of bulk samples with an ion implanter were used in this study. For the thin foil irradiations, a distribution of small bubbles in the range of 30-100 {angstrom} was found at all temperatures with the exception of the Cr-rich Valloy where 130 {angstrom} bubbles were found. Irradiation of bulk samples at 700-800 C produced large faceted bubbles up to 300 {angstrom} after irradiation to 2{times}10{sup 16}ion.cm{sup -2}. Results are examined in context of existing models for bubble formation and growth in other metals.

  10. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Prosthodontics and Restorative Science, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + 3 mM NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings.

  11. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO 3 ) 2 + 3 mM NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings

  12. Fe-15Ni-13Cr austenitic stainless steels for fission and fusion reactor applications. I. Effects of minor alloying elements on precipitate phases in melt products and implication in alloy fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to develop alloys for fission and fusion reactor applications, 28Fe-15Ni-13Cr base alloys were fabricated by adding various combinations of the minor alloying elements, Mo, Ti, C, Si, P, Nb, and B. The results showed that a significant fraction of undesirable residual oxygen was removed as oxides when Ti, C, and Si were added. Accordingly, the concentrations of the latter three essential alloying elements were reduced also. Among these elements, Ti was the strongest oxide former, but the largest oxygen removal (over 80%) was observed when carbon was added alone without Ti, since gaseous CO boiled off during melting. This paper recommends an alloy melting procedure to mitigate solute losses while reducing the undesirable residual oxygen. In this work, 14 different types of precipitate phases were identified. Compositions of precipitate phases and their crystallographic data are documented. Finally, stability of precipitate phases was examined in view of Gibbs free energy of formation

  13. Phase selection and microstructure in directional solidification of glass forming Pd-Si-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yang

    Phase selection and microstructure formation during the rapid solidification of alloy melts has been a topic of substantial interest over the last several decades, attributed mainly to the access to novel structures involving metastable crystalline and non-crystalline phases. In this work, Bridgeman type directional solidification was conducted in Pd-Si-Cu glass forming system to study such cooling rate dependent phase transition and microstructure formation. The equilibrium state for Pd-Si-Cu ternary system was investigated through three different works. First of all, phase stabilities for Pd-Si binary system was accessed with respects of first-principles and experiments, showing Pd5Si, Pd9Si2, Pd3Si and Pd 2Si phase are stable all way to zero Kevin while PdSi phase is a high temperature stable phase, and Pd2Si phase with Fe2P is a non-stoichiometry phase. A thermodynamic database was developed for Pd-Si system. Second, crystal structures for compounds with ternary compositions were studied by XRD, SEM and TEM, showing ordered and disordered B2/bcc phases are stable in Pd-rich part. At last, based on many phase equilibria and phase transitions data, a comprehensive thermodynamic discrption for Pd-Si-Cu ternary system was first time to be developed, from which different phase diagrams and driving force for kinetics can be calculated. Phase selection and microstructure formation in directional solidification of the best glass forming composition, Pd 77.5Si16.5Cu6, in this system with growth velocities from 0.005 to 7.5mm/s was systematically studied and the solidification pathways at different conditions were interpreted from thermodynamic simulation. The results show that for growth velocities are smaller than 0.1mm/s Pd 3Si phase is primary phase and Pd9Si2 phase is secondary phase, the difficulty for Pd9Si2 phase nucleation gives rise to the formation of two different eutectic structure. For growth velocities between 0.4 and 1mm/s, instead of Pd3Si phase, Pd9Si2

  14. Phase composition of iron-rich R-Fe-Si (R=Dy, Ho, Er) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, G.V.; Makarova, G.M.; Shcherbakova, E.V.; Belozerov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    Phase composition is studied in iron-rich alloys of R-Fe-Si (R=Dy, Ho, Er). In the as-cast state R 2 (Fe, Si) 17 of type Th 2 Ni 17 and R(Fe, Si) 12 compounds are observed; in the alloys of rated composition of R(Fe 0.85 Si 0.15 ) 8.5 (R=Dy, Er) a compound R 2 (Fe, Si) 17 of Th 2 Zn 17 -type is revealed as well. The annealing at 1273 K results in formation of Dy 3 (Fe, Si) 29 and also the compounds with the presumed composition of Dy 4 (Fe, Si) 41 and Ho 4 (Fe, Si) 41 . As this takes place the alloys contain a transition structure as well that represents a set of small-sized areas with various type short-range order in mutual displacement of Fe-Fe(Si) dumpbell chains. The process of phase formation at 1273 K is faced with difficulties. Even the annealing for 1000 h does not result in the state of equilibrium [ru

  15. Beta-Tin Grain Formation in Aluminum-Modified Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    The limited number of independent β-Sn grain orientations that typically form during solidification of Sn-based solders and the resulting large β-Sn grain size have major effects on overall solder performance and reliability. This study analyzes whether additions of Al to Sn-Cu and Sn-Cu-Ag alloys can be used to change the grain size, morphology, and twinning structures of atomized (as-solidified) and re-melted (reflowed) β-Sn dendrites as determined using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction for as-solidified and reflow cycled (20-250°C, 1-5 cycles) Sn-Cu-Al and Sn-Ag-Cu-Al drip atomized spheres (260 μm diameter). The resulting microstructures were compared to as-solidified and reflow cycled Sn-Ag-Cu spheres (450 μm diameter) as well as as-solidified Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag microstructures from the literature. Previous literature observations reporting reductions in undercooling and β-Sn grain size with Al micro-alloying additions could not be correlated to the presence of the Cu9Al4 phase or Al solute. The as-solidified spheres displayed no change in β-Sn dendrite structure or grain size when compared to non-Al-modified alloys, and the reflow cycled spheres produced high undercoolings (22-64°C), indicating a lack of potent nucleation sites. The current findings highlighted the role of Ag in the formation of the interlaced twinning structure and demonstrated that with deliberate compositional choices, formation of the alloy's β-Sn grain structure (cyclical twinning versus interlaced twinning) could be influenced, in both the as-solidified and reflow cycled states, though still not producing the fine-grain sizes and multiple orientations desired for improved thermomechanical properties.

  16. Phases stability of shape memory alloys Cu based under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelaya, Maria Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the relative phase stability of phases related by a martensitic transformation in copper based shape memory alloys were studied in this work.Different kind of particles and energies were employed in the irradiation experiments.The first kind of irradiation was performed with 2,6 MeV electrons, the second one with 170 keV and 300 keV Cu ions and the third one with swift heavy ions (Kr, Xe, Au) with energies between 200 and 600 MeV.Stabilization of the 18 R martensite in Cu-Zn-Al-Ni induced by electron irradiation was studied.The results were compared to those of the stabilization induced by quenching and ageing in the same alloy, and the ones obtained by irradiation in 18 R-Cu-Zn-Al alloys.The effects of Cu irradiation over b phase were analyzed with several electron microscopy techniques including: scanning electron microscopy (S E M), high resolution electron microscopy (H R E M), micro diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (E D S). Structural changes in Cu-Zn-Al b phase into a closed packed structure were induced by Cu ion implantation.The closed packed structures depend on the irradiation fluence.Based on these results, the interface between these structures (closed packed and b) and the stability of disordered phases were analyzed. It was also compared the evolution of long range order in the Cu-Zn-Al and in the Cu-Zn-Al-Ni b phase as a function of fluence.The evolution of the g phase was also compared. Both results were discussed in terms of the mobility of irradiation induced point defects.Finally, the effects induced by swift heavy ions in b phase and 18 R martensite were studied. The results of the irradiation in b phase were qualitatively similar to those produced by irradiation with lower energies. On the contrary, nano metric defects were found in the irradiated 18 R martensite.These defects were characterized by H R E M.The characteristic contrast of the defects was associated to a local change in the

  17. First-principles surface interaction studies of aluminum-copper and aluminum-copper-magnesium secondary phases in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago H.; Nelson, Eric B.; Williamson, Izaak; Efaw, Corey M.; Sapper, Erik; Hurley, Michael F.; Li, Lan

    2018-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory-based calculations were performed to study θ-phase Al2Cu, S-phase Al2CuMg surface stability, as well as their interactions with water molecules and chloride (Cl-) ions. These secondary phases are commonly found in aluminum-based alloys and are initiation points for localized corrosion. Density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations provide insight into the origins of localized (pitting) corrosion processes of aluminum-based alloys. For both phases studied, Cl- ions cause atomic distortions on the surface layers. The nature of the distortions could be a factor to weaken the interlayer bonds in the Al2Cu and Al2CuMg secondary phases, facilitating the corrosion process. Electronic structure calculations revealed not only electron charge transfer from Cl- ions to alloy surface but also electron sharing, suggesting ionic and covalent bonding features, respectively. The S-phase Al2CuMg structure has a more active surface than the θ-phase Al2Cu. We also found a higher tendency of formation of new species, such as Al3+, Al(OH)2+, HCl, AlCl2+, Al(OH)Cl+, and Cl2 on the S-phase Al2CuMg surface. Surface chemical reactions and resultant species present contribute to establishment of local surface chemistry that influences the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys.

  18. Sputtering of two-phase AgxCuγ alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibic, N.; Milosavljevic, M.; Perusko, D.; Wilson, I.H.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental sputtering yields from two phase AgCu alloys were measured for 20, 40 and 50 at % Ag. Argon ion bombardment energies were in the range 35-55 keV and the ion dose was 1 x 10 19 ions cm -2 . The sputtering yield for silver was found to be considerably below what was expected by simple selective sputtering of a two component alloy. Analysis by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy of the eroded surface indicated that surface diffusion of copper from copper rich grains and geometrical constraints in the dense cone forest on Cu/Ag eutectic regions combine to reduce the sputtering yield for silver. (author)

  19. Phase transformation and hardness of SS 316 L steel cast alloy after heat treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, S.; Prayitno, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Heat treatment Study of SS 316 L cast alloy at high temperature was conducted. The alloy of SS 316 L was melted by arc melting furnace in argon atmosphere. Heat treatment of SS 316 L casting alloy was carried out in tube furnace at 1400 o C for period of 1/2, 1, and 2 hours. The optical microscopic characterization showed that SS 316 L cast has got dendritic micro structure with ferrite as the primary phase. After the heat treatment, the ferrite phase underwent gradual decrease followed by an increase of the austenite phase. The heat treatment process also resulted in the formation of the new grain boundary. The hardness examination revealed that for longer period of the heat treatment, the hardness of SS 316 L increased. (author)

  20. Assessment of phase constitution on the Al-rich region of rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, W., E-mail: witorw@gmail.com [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C., E-mail: cbolfa@ufscar.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Kiminami, C.S., E-mail: kiminami@ufscar.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Botta, W.J., E-mail: wjbotta@ufscar.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    The formation of quasicrystalline approximants in rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys was investigated. Alloys of atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}, Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were produced using melt spinning and arc melting methods and their microstructural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Up to the present there is no consensus in the literature regarding the formation of quasicrystalline phase or quasicrystalline approximants in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy. This work presents, for the first time, a detailed structural characterization of selected alloys in the Al-Co-Fe-Cr system close to the atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}. The results indicated the samples to be composed, mostly, by two intermetallic phases, which are quaternary extensions of Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} and Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} and are quasicrystalline approximants. Although the Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} phase has already been reported in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the presence of the monoclinic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} is now identified for the first time in the as cast state. In the binary Al-Co system a quasicrystalline phase is known to form in a rapidly solidified alloy with composition close to the monoclinic and orthorhombic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phases. This binary quasicrystalline phase presents an average valence electron per atom (e/a) between 1.7 and 1.9; thus, in addition to the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the compositions Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were chosen to be within the region of formation of the quaternary extension of the Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phase and also within the (e/a) of 1.7 to 1.9. However, no quasicrystalline phase is present in any of the studied alloys. The Al-Co-Fe-Cr system

  1. Assessment of phase constitution on the Al-rich region of rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, W.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of quasicrystalline approximants in rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys was investigated. Alloys of atomic composition Al 71 Co 13 Fe 8 Cr 8 , Al 77 Co 11 Fe 6 Cr 6 and Al 76 Co 19 Fe 4 Cr 1 were produced using melt spinning and arc melting methods and their microstructural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Up to the present there is no consensus in the literature regarding the formation of quasicrystalline phase or quasicrystalline approximants in the Al 71 Co 13 Fe 8 Cr 8 alloy. This work presents, for the first time, a detailed structural characterization of selected alloys in the Al-Co-Fe-Cr system close to the atomic composition Al 71 Co 13 Fe 8 Cr 8 . The results indicated the samples to be composed, mostly, by two intermetallic phases, which are quaternary extensions of Al 5 Co 2 and Al 13 Co 4 and are quasicrystalline approximants. Although the Al 5 Co 2 phase has already been reported in the Al 71 Co 13 Fe 8 Cr 8 alloy, the presence of the monoclinic Al 13 Co 4 is now identified for the first time in the as cast state. In the binary Al-Co system a quasicrystalline phase is known to form in a rapidly solidified alloy with composition close to the monoclinic and orthorhombic Al 13 Co 4 phases. This binary quasicrystalline phase presents an average valence electron per atom (e/a) between 1.7 and 1.9; thus, in addition to the Al 71 Co 13 Fe 8 Cr 8 alloy, the compositions Al 77 Co 11 Fe 6 Cr 6 and Al 76 Co 19 Fe 4 Cr 1 were chosen to be within the region of formation of the quaternary extension of the Al 13 Co 4 phase and also within the (e/a) of 1.7 to 1.9. However, no quasicrystalline phase is present in any of the studied alloys. The Al-Co-Fe-Cr system, around the compositions studied, is composed of quaternary extensions of Al-Co intermetallic phases, which present solubility of Fe and Cr at Co atomic sites. - Highlights: •The Al rich region of the Al

  2. Phase decomposition and morphology characteristic in thermal aging Fe–Cr alloys under applied strain: A phase-field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongsheng; Zhu Hao; Zhang Lei; Cheng Xiaoling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of variation mobility and applied strain on phase decomposition of Fe–Cr alloy were studied. ► Rate of phase decomposition rises as aging temperature and concentration increase. ► Phase transformation mechanism affects the volume fraction of equilibrium phase. ► Elongate morphology is intensified at higher aging temperature under applied strain. - Abstract: The phase decomposition and morphology evolution in thermal aging Fe–Cr alloys were investigated using the phase field method. In the simulation, the effects of atomic mobility, applied strain, alloy concentration and aging temperature were studied. The simulation results show that the rate of phase decomposition is influenced by the aging temperature and the alloy concentration, the equilibrium volume fractions (V f e ) of Cr-rich phase increases as aging temperature rises for the alloys of lower concentration, and the V f e decreases for the alloys with higher concentration. Under the applied strain, the orientation of Cr-rich phase is intensified as the aging temperature rises, and the stripe morphology is formed for the middle concentration alloys. The simulation results are helpful for understanding the phase decomposition in Fe–Cr alloys and the designing of duplex stainless steels working at high temperature.

  3. Surface mechanical attrition treatment induced phase transformation behavior in NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.; Wen, C.S.; Lu, J.; Wu, S.L.; Xin, Y.C.; Zhang, W.J.; Chu, C.L.; Chung, J.C.Y.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase constituents and transformation behavior of the martensite B19' NiTi shape memory alloy after undergoing surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) are investigated. SMAT is found to induce the formation of a parent B2 phase from the martensite B19' in the top surface layer. By removing the surface layer-by-layer, X-ray diffraction reveals that the amount of the B2 phase decreases with depth. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) further indicates that the deformed martensite in the sub-surface layer up to 300 μm deep exhibits the martensite stabilization effect. The graded phase structure and transformation behavior in the SMATed NiTi specimen can be attributed to the gradient change in strain with depth.

  4. Process of film formation by anodizing AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Jiangang; Li Di; Zhang Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China)

    2005-07-01

    The kinetics of film-forming process by anodizing AZ91D Mg alloy has been studied by ways of voltage-time and thickness-time curve, and the surface morphology, structure, composition and valence of element, phase constituent of anodic films have been analyzed by SEM, EDS, XPS and XRD respectively. The results show that the film-forming course can be divided into four stages. Formation of dense layer before sparking is the first stage. Formation of porous layer accompanied with a bit of small sparking is the second stage. Porous layer fast growth along with middle sparking is the third stage. Porous layer slowly-growth along with bigger sparking is the fourth stage. The anodic films contains approximately Mg,O,Si and B, which is composed mainly of MgO, MgSiO{sub 3} and Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6}. (orig.)

  5. Effect of oxide film formation on the fatigue behavior of aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Cheon; Cheong, Seong Kyun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of surface oxide film formation on the fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were analyzed in terms of the corrosion time of the alloy. The aluminum material used is known to have high corrosion resistance due to the passivation phenomenon that prevents corrosion. Aluminum alloys have been widely used in various industrial applications such as aircraft component manufacturing because of their lighter weight and higher strength than other materials. Therefore, studies on the fatigue behavior of materials and passivation properties that prevent corrosion are required. The fatigue behavior in terms of the corrosion time was analyzed by using a four pointing bending machine, and the surface corrosion level of the aluminum material in terms of the corrosion time was estimated by measuring the surface were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that corrosion actively progressed for four weeks during the initial corrosion phase, the fatigue life significantly decreased, and the surface roughness increased. However, after four weeks, the corrosion reaction tended to slow down due to the passivation phenomenon of the material. Therefore, on the basis of SEM analysis results, it was concluded that the growth of the surface oxide film was reduced after four weeks and then the oxide film on the material surface served as a protection layer and prevented further corrosion

  6. Entropic stabilisation of topologically close-packed phases in binary transition-metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerschmidt, Thomas; Fries, Suzana G.; Steinbach, Ingo; Drautz, Ralf [ICAMS, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Seiser, Bernhard; Pettifor, David G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The formation of topologically close-packed (tcp) phases in Ni-based superalloys leads to the degradation of the mechanical properties of the alloys. The precipitation of the tcp phases is attributed to refractory elements that are added in low concentration to improve creep resistance. It is well known that the structural stability of the tcp phases A15, {sigma} and {chi} is driven by the average d-band filling. For a direct comparison to experimental phase diagrams, we carried out extensive density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of the tcp phases A15, C14, C15, C36, {mu}, {sigma}, and {chi} in tcp-forming binary transition-metal (TM) systems. We observe several systems such as W-Re with positive values of the heat of formation for all tcp phases although some of the phases are observed experimentally. By combining our DFT total energies with the CALPHAD methodology, we can demonstrate that configurational entropy can stabilise the tcp phases in these systems.

  7. Crystallization of amorphous phase in niobium alloys with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanenko, V.M.; Samojlenko, Z.A.; Revyakin, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Crystallization and subsequent phase transformations of amorphous phase during annealings in the system Nb-O are studied. It is shown that quenching from liquid state of niobium alloys with oxygen with a rate of 10 5 -10 6 K/s results in partial crystallization of the melt. Phase transition from amorphous to crystal state at 670 K in all probability takes place without the change of chemical composition. After crystallization the decomposition of oversaturated solid solution on the basis of NbO takes place with the separation of low- temperature modification, γ-Nb 2 O 5 . Niobium pentoxide of both modifications during prolong annealings at 770 K and short- time annealings higher 1070 K disappears completely [ru

  8. Magnetic phase diagram of HoxTm1-x alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarthour, R.S.; Cowley, R.A.; Ward, R.C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of the competing anisotropy system, Ho/Tm, has been determined by neutron-scattering techniques and the results compared with calculations based on a mean-field model. The crystal-field interactions in Ho favor alignment of the magnetic moments in the basal plane whereas......, with long-range order, were identified and the magnetic phase diagram, including a pentacritical point, determined. A mean-field model was used to explain the results and the results are in good agreement with the experimental results....... in Tm they favor alignment along the c axis. Single-crystal alloys were grown with molecular-beam epitaxy techniques in Oxford. The components of the magnetic moment alone the c direction and in the basal plane were determined from the neutron-scattering measurements. Five distinct magnetic phases...

  9. The structural and phase state formed in construction titanium alloy by radial forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, Galina V.; Danilov, Vladimir I.; Orlova, Dina V.; Zuev, Lev B. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Zavodchikov, Aleksandr S. [Perm State Technical University, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of rod manufacture from construction titanium alloy using radial forging on a high duty machine SXK16 was investigated. The investigations were carried on for titanium rod samples using the methods of metallography, electron transmission microscophy and X-ray analysis. The results obtained are described herein. It is found that radial forging results in the formation of homogeneous fine-grained structure.Using radial forging process, high-quality items are produced. As-worked material has submicrocrystalline globular structure and an optimal α:β phase ratio. Besides, the technology is more cost-effective relative to conventional flow charts. Key words: forging, titanium alloy, fine-grain structure, substructure, pore size.

  10. σ and η Phase formation in advanced polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, Stoichko, E-mail: santonov@hawk.iit.edu [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Northwestern University Center for Atom Probe Tomography (NUCAPT), 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Helmink, Randolph C.; Sun, Eugene [Rolls-Royce Corporation, 450 S. Meridian Street, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (United States); Tin, Sammy [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, grain boundary precipitation of secondary phases can be significant due to the effects they pose on the mechanical properties. As new alloying concepts for polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys are being developed to extend their temperature capability, the effect of increasing levels of Nb alloying additions on long term phase stability and the formation of topologically close packed (TCP) phases needs to be studied. Elevated levels of Nb can result in increased matrix supersaturation and promote the precipitation of secondary phases. Long term thermal exposures on two experimental powder processed Ni-base superalloys containing various levels of Nb were completed to assess the stability and precipitation of TCP phases. It was found that additions of Nb promoted the precipitation of η-Ni{sub 6}AlNb along the grain boundaries in powder processed, polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, while reduced Nb levels favored the precipitation of blocky Cr and Mo – rich σ phase precipitates along the grain boundary. Evaluation of the thermodynamic stability of these two phases in both alloys using Thermo-calc showed that while σ phase predictions are fairly accurate, predictions of the η phase are limited.

  11. A Study of Phase Composition and Structure of Alloys of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybaeva, A. D.; Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Smagulov, D. U.; Islamkulov, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Thermo-Calc software is used to compute the phase transformations occurring during cooling of alloys. Polythermal and isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe system are plotted. The phase composition and the structure of aluminum alloys in cast condition and after a heat treatment are studied experimentally.

  12. Phase characterisation in spark plasma sintered TiPt alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info chikosha_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4354 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name chikosha_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 PHASE CHARACTERISATION IN SPARK... to form “necks”  Radiant Joule heat and pressure drives “neck” growth and material transfer © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Page 6 Objective  Produce TiPt alloy compacts by Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of equiatomic...

  13. Effects of Undercooling and Cooling Rate on Peritectic Phase Crystallization Within Ni-Zr Alloy Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, P.; Wang, H. P.

    2018-04-01

    The liquid Ni-16.75 at. pct Zr peritectic alloy was substantially undercooled and containerlessly solidified by an electromagnetic levitator and a drop tube. The dependence of the peritectic solidification mode on undercooling was established based on the results of the solidified microstructures, crystal growth velocity, as well as X-ray diffraction patterns. Below a critical undercooling of 124 K, the primary Ni7Zr2 phase preferentially nucleates and grows from the undercooled liquid, which is followed by a peritectic reaction of Ni7Zr2+L → Ni5Zr. The corresponding microstructure is composed of the Ni7Zr2 dendrites, peritectic Ni5Zr phase, and inter-dendritic eutectic. Nevertheless, once the liquid undercooling exceeds the critical undercooling, the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from this undercooled liquid. However, a negligible amount of residual Ni7Zr2 phase still appears in the microstructure, indicating that nucleation and growth of the Ni7Zr2 phase are not completely suppressed. The micromechanical property of the peritectic Ni5Zr phase in terms of the Vickers microhardness is enhanced, which is ascribed to the transition of the peritectic solidification mode. To suppress the formation of the primary phase completely, this alloy was also containerlessly solidified in free fall experiments. Typical peritectic solidified microstructure forms in large droplets, while only the peritectic Ni5Zr phase appears in smaller droplets, which gives an indication that the peritectic Ni5Zr phase directly precipitates from the undercooled liquid by completely suppressing the growth of the primary Ni7Zr2 phase and the peritectic reaction due to the combined effects of the large undercooling and high cooling rate.

  14. Phase-Field Simulation of Microstructure Evolution in Industrial A2214 Alloy During Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Lijun; Sun, Weihua; Du, Yong

    2015-07-01

    By linking to the thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases in Al alloys well established in our research group, the microstructure evolution in industrial A2214 alloy (Al-4.5Cu-0.5Mg-1.0Si, in wt pct) during solidification process was studied by means of two-dimensional phase-field simulation via MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field formalism. The thermophysical parameters including interfacial energies and interfacial mobilities were carefully chosen for reproducing the experimental features. The solidification sequence due to the present phase-field simulation conforms to both equilibrium calculation and Scheil simulation. The predicted microstructure reproduces the experimental data very well. These facts indicate that a quantitative phase-field simulation was achieved in the present work. Moreover, the mechanisms of characteristic patterns and microstructure formation were revealed with the aid of the phase-field simulation. In addition, the effect of cooling rate on the secondary dendrite arm spacing and microsegregation was also investigated through comprehensive comparison with the experimental data.

  15. Phase transformations during sintering of mechanically alloyed TiPt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Page 307 SMA alloys have been successfully used in several applications including medical, automotive and aerospace as stents, couplings and actuators. The most successful shape memory alloys currently are the NiTi alloys. These are however...

  16. Phase composition and microstructure of WC-Co alloys obtained by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmyrov, Roman S.; Shevchukov, Alexandr P.; Gusarov, Andrey V.; Tarasova, Tatyana V.

    2018-03-01

    Phase composition and microstructure of initial WC, BK8 (powder alloy 92 wt.% WC-8 wt.% Co), Co powders, ball-milled powders with four different compositions (1) 25 wt.% WC-75 wt.% Co, (2) 30 wt.% BK8-70 wt.% Co, (3) 50 wt.% WC-50 wt.% Co, (4) 94 wt.% WC-6 wt.% Co, and bulk alloys obtained by selective laser melting (SLM) from as-milled powders in as-melted state and after heat treatment were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Initial and ball-milled powders consist of WC, hexagonal α-Co and face-centered cubic β-Co. The SLM leads to the formation of major new phases W3Co3C, W4Co2C and face-centered cubic β-Co-based solid solution. During the heat treatment, there occurs partial decomposition of the face-centered cubic β-Co-based solid solution with the formation of W2C and hexagonal α-Co solid solution. The microstructure of obtained bulk samples, in general, corresponds to the observed phase composition.

  17. Origin of the modified orientation relationship for S(S'')-phase in Al-Mg-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, L.; Miller, M.K.; Court, S.A.; Mills, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of S-phase with a modified orientation relationship (OR) has been previously observed in several Al-Cu-Mg alloys. In this paper, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Z-contrast imaging have been used to study the origin of the modified OR in an alloy with low Cu/Mg ratio and small Si addition. Based on the observations, and supported by ab initio simulations, the formation is governed by coherency at the (0 2 1) S //(0 1 4) Al S-phase/matrix interface, which is shown to coexist with the more commonly reported (0 0 1) S //(0 2 1) Al interface. This new (0 2 1) S //(0 1 4) Al S-phase/matrix interface explanation is compared with previously published explanations based on the invariant line concept and establishment of a different S-phase/matrix interface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atom probe tomography indicate that the S-phase is slightly enriched in Si. The role of Si as well as the overall alloy composition is discussed. Because of the similarities between our results and the early work of Bagaryatsky, the S''-phase notation is adopted for this early-forming, strained version of the S-phase

  18. Steady state creep during metastable phase transition in Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H.; Youssef, S.B.; Mahmoud, M.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1998-08-16

    The early stages of decomposition of Guinier-Preston zones (G.P. zones) in Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys were investigated through creep measurements and electron microscopy observations. It was found that the strengthening and softening of the alloys has been achieved during the formation of metastable phases (G.P. zones and {gamma}`-phase) in the ageing temperature range (428 to 498 K). TEM investigations confirmed that the addition of zirconium to the Al-Ag alloy accelerates the formation and coarsening of the metastable phases. The mean values of activation energy of both alloys were found to be equal to that quoted for precipitate-dislocation interactions. (orig.) 23 refs.

  19. Influences of hydrostatic pressure during casting and Pd content on as-cast phase in Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Pd bulk alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hidemi; Inoue, Akihisa; Saida, Junji

    2004-01-01

    The influences of sample diameter (D), Pd content (x), and hydrostatic pressure (P) in a chamber during casting on the structure of as cast Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 17.5-x Pd x (x=10,17.5 at.%) bulk alloys were investigated. Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Pd 10 and Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Pd 17.5 alloys (D=3 mm) cast in a vacuum chamber (P∼4.0x10 -3 Pa) were mainly of the tetragonal-Zr 2 Ni equilibrium phase and nanosize icosahedral primary phase, respectively, while the same alloys cast in inert argon gas at atmospheric pressure (P∼0.1 MPa) were of the single glassy phase. Due to the higher cooling rate obtained by decreasing the sample diameter (D=2 mm) even in the vacuum chamber, the Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Pd 17.5 alloy was still of the icosahedral phase, while the Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Pd 10 alloy froze into a single glassy phase. These results indicate that the temperature- and time- transformation curves for the icosahedral and subsequent equilibrium phase formations in the alloy system shifts to a shorter time side with decreasing P, and the pressure sensitivity of the icosahedral phase formation increases with x

  20. Characterisation and modelling of defect formation in direct-chill cast AZ80 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, D.; Robson, J.D.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Turski, M. [Magnesium Elektron UK, Rake Lane, Manchester, M27 8BF (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Wrought magnesium alloys for demanding structural applications require high quality defect free cast feedstock. The aim of this study was to first identify and characterise typical defects in direct chill cast magnesium–aluminium–zinc (AZ) alloy billet and then use modelling to understand the origins of these defects so they can be prevented. Defects were first located using ultrasonic inspection and were then characterised using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and serial sectioning, establishing the presence of oxide films and intermetallic particles Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} in all defects. A model was developed to predict the flow patterns and growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases during casting, which influence the formation of defects. Simulation of the growth of the intermetallic particles demonstrated that precipitation from the liquid occurs in the mould. The combination of the entrained oxide films and intermetallic particles recirculates in the liquid metal and continues to grow, until large enough to settle, which is predicted to occur at the centre of the mould where the flow is the slowest. Based on these predictions, strategies to reduce the susceptibility to defect formation are suggested. - Highlights: • Casting defects in magnesium direct chill casting have been imaged and characterised in 3-dimensions. • The occurrences of co-located clusters of particles and oxide films have been characterised and explained. • A coupled model has been developed to help interpret the observed trend for defects located towards the centre of billets.

  1. Characterisation and modelling of defect formation in direct-chill cast AZ80 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, D.; Robson, J.D.; Withers, P.J.; Turski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wrought magnesium alloys for demanding structural applications require high quality defect free cast feedstock. The aim of this study was to first identify and characterise typical defects in direct chill cast magnesium–aluminium–zinc (AZ) alloy billet and then use modelling to understand the origins of these defects so they can be prevented. Defects were first located using ultrasonic inspection and were then characterised using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and serial sectioning, establishing the presence of oxide films and intermetallic particles Al 8 Mn 5 in all defects. A model was developed to predict the flow patterns and growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases during casting, which influence the formation of defects. Simulation of the growth of the intermetallic particles demonstrated that precipitation from the liquid occurs in the mould. The combination of the entrained oxide films and intermetallic particles recirculates in the liquid metal and continues to grow, until large enough to settle, which is predicted to occur at the centre of the mould where the flow is the slowest. Based on these predictions, strategies to reduce the susceptibility to defect formation are suggested. - Highlights: • Casting defects in magnesium direct chill casting have been imaged and characterised in 3-dimensions. • The occurrences of co-located clusters of particles and oxide films have been characterised and explained. • A coupled model has been developed to help interpret the observed trend for defects located towards the centre of billets

  2. Phase transition of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy powders prepared by vibration ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, B.; Chen, F.; Tong, Y.X.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The vibration ball milling with a high milling energy introduces the atomic disorder and large lattice distortion in the alloy during milling and makes the formation of disordered fcc structure phase in the alloy. → The transition temperature and activation energy for disordered fcc → disordered bcc are ∼320 o C and 209 ± 8 kJ/mol, respectively. → The alloy powders annealed at 800 o C for 1 h show a one-stage martensitic transformation with quite lower latent heat compared to the bulk alloy. - Abstract: This study investigated the phase transformation of the flaky shaped Ni-Mn-Ga powder particles with thickness around 1 μm prepared by vibration ball milling and post-annealing. The SEM, XRD, DSC and ac magnetic susceptibility measurement techniques were used to characterize the Ni-Mn-Ga powders. The structural transition of Heusler → disordered fcc occurred in the powders prepared by vibration ball milling (high milling energy) for 4 h, which was different from the structural transition of Heusler → disordered fct of the powders fabricated by planetary ball milling (low milling energy) for 4 h. The two different structures after ball milling should be due to the larger lattice distortion occurred in the vibration ball milling process than in the planetary ball milling process. The structural transition of disordered fcc → disordered bcc took place at ∼320 o C during heating the as-milled Ni-Mn-Ga powders, which was attributed to the elimination of lattice distortion caused by ball milling. The activation energy for this transition was 209 ± 8 kJ/mol. The Ni-Mn-Ga powder annealed at 800 o C mainly contained Heusler austenite phase at room temperature and showed a low volume of martensitic transformation upon cooling. The inhibition of martensitic transformation might be attributed to the reduction of grain size in the annealed Ni-Mn-Ga particles.

  3. Alloy formation during chromium electrodeposition at niobium cathode in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Glagolevskaya, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Alloy formation during electrodeposition of chromium at niobium cathode is studied in salt melts. It is shown that during chromium electrodeposition at niobium support intermetallic compound Cr 2 Nb is formed. Thermodynamic characteristics of Cr 0.66 Nb 0.33 alloy are determined. 10 refs., 1 fig

  4. Inhibitory effect of Ti-Ag alloy on artificial biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Kazuko; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Okuno, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Titanium-silver (Ti-Ag) alloy has been improved for machinability and mechanical properties, but its anti-biofilm properties have not been elucidated yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ti-Ag alloy on biofilm formation and bacterial viability in comparison with pure Ti, pure Ag and silver-palladium (Ag-Pd) alloy. Biofilm formation on the metal plates was evaluated by growing Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the presence of metal plates. Bactericidal activity was evaluated using a film contact method. There were no significant differences in biofilm formation between pure Ti, pure Ag and Ag-Pd alloy, while biofilm amounts on Ti-20% Ag and Ti-25% Ag alloys were significantly lower (p<0.05). In addition, Ti-Ag alloys and pure Ti were not bactericidal, although pure Ag and Ag-Pd alloy killed bacteria. These results suggest that Ti-20% Ag and Ti-25% Ag alloys are suitable for dental material that suppresses biofilm formation without disturbing healthy oral microflora.

  5. A study of phase transformation in a TiAlNb alloy and the effect of Cr addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Michael S.; Goyel, Sonalika; Rios, Orlando [University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cupid, Damian M. [University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Freiberg (Germany); Seifert, Hans J. [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Institute of Materials Science, Freiberg (Germany); Ebrahimi, Fereshteh, E-mail: febra@mse.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The phase transformation paths, transformation temperatures and phase equilibria of Ti-45Al-27Nb and Ti-45Al-22Nb-5Cr (at%) alloys were evaluated over a temperature range from 865 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. Both alloys solidified as single {beta}-phase and transformed to {gamma} + {sigma} phases upon slow cooling. The addition of Cr did not affect the {beta} {yields} {gamma} transformation temperature upon slow cooling. In contrast, the temperature, at which the {sigma}-phase formed, was reduced noticeably. Upon heating, the temperature at which the {beta}-phase evolves from the {gamma} + {sigma} microstructure was found to decrease significantly with the addition of Cr. In the ternary alloy the formation of the {gamma}-phase could not be retarded on quenching, however, the substitution of Nb with Cr allowed for the retainment of the {beta}-phase to room temperature. These results are explained by the partitioning of Cr into the {beta}-phase, which in addition to thermodynamic stability reduces the kinetics of transformations at lower temperatures.

  6. A study of phase transformation in a TiAlNb alloy and the effect of Cr addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Michael [University of Florida, Gainesville; Goyel, Sonalika [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Cupid, Damian M [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology; Seifert, Hans J [Freiberg University of Mining and Technology; Ebrahimi, Fereshteh [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2010-01-01

    The phase transformation paths, transformation temperatures and phase equilibria of Ti-45Al-27Nb and Ti-45Al-22Nb-5Cr (at%) alloys were evaluated over a temperature range from 865 C to 1600 C. Both alloys solidified as single {beta}-phase and transformed to {gamma} + {sigma} phases upon slow cooling. The addition of Cr did not affect the {beta} {yields} {gamma} transformation temperature upon slow cooling. In contrast, the temperature, at which the {sigma}-phase formed, was reduced noticeably. Upon heating, the temperature at which the {beta}-phase evolves from the {gamma} + {sigma} microstructure was found to decrease significantly with the addition of Cr. In the ternary alloy the formation of the {gamma}-phase could not be retarded on quenching, however, the substitution of Nb with Cr allowed for the retainment of the {beta}-phase to room temperature. These results are explained by the partitioning of Cr into the {beta}-phase, which in addition to thermodynamic stability reduces the kinetics of transformations at lower temperatures.

  7. A study of phase transformation in a TiAlNb alloy and the effect of Cr addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Michael S.; Goyel, Sonalika; Rios, Orlando; Cupid, Damian M.; Seifert, Hans J.; Ebrahimi, Fereshteh

    2010-01-01

    The phase transformation paths, transformation temperatures and phase equilibria of Ti-45Al-27Nb and Ti-45Al-22Nb-5Cr (at%) alloys were evaluated over a temperature range from 865 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. Both alloys solidified as single β-phase and transformed to γ + σ phases upon slow cooling. The addition of Cr did not affect the β → γ transformation temperature upon slow cooling. In contrast, the temperature, at which the σ-phase formed, was reduced noticeably. Upon heating, the temperature at which the β-phase evolves from the γ + σ microstructure was found to decrease significantly with the addition of Cr. In the ternary alloy the formation of the γ-phase could not be retarded on quenching, however, the substitution of Nb with Cr allowed for the retainment of the β-phase to room temperature. These results are explained by the partitioning of Cr into the β-phase, which in addition to thermodynamic stability reduces the kinetics of transformations at lower temperatures.

  8. Electrochemical formation of uranium-zirconium alloy in LiCl-KCl melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: m-tsuyo@criepi.denken.or.j [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kato, Tetsuya; Kurata, Masaki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Yamana, Hajimu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Since zirconium is considered an electrochemically active species under practical conditions of the electrorefining process, it is crucial to understand the electrochemical behavior of zirconium in LiCl-KCl melts containing actinide ions. In this study, the electrochemical codeposition of uranium and zirconium on a solid cathode was performed. It was found that the delta-(U, Zr) phase, which is the only intermediate phase of the uranium-zirconium binary alloy system, was deposited on a tantalum substrate by potentiostatic electrolysis at -1.60 V (vs. Ag{sup +}/Ag) in LiCl-KCl melts containing 0.13 in mol% UCl{sub 3} and 0.23 in mol% ZrCl{sub 4} at 773 K. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrochemical formation of the delta-(U, Zr) phase. The relative partial molar properties of uranium in the delta-(U, Zr) phase were evaluated by measuring the open-circuit-potentials of the electrochemically prepared delta-phase electrode.

  9. Electrochemical formation of uranium-zirconium alloy in LiCl-KCl melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Tetsuya; Kurata, Masaki; Yamana, Hajimu

    2009-01-01

    Since zirconium is considered an electrochemically active species under practical conditions of the electrorefining process, it is crucial to understand the electrochemical behavior of zirconium in LiCl-KCl melts containing actinide ions. In this study, the electrochemical codeposition of uranium and zirconium on a solid cathode was performed. It was found that the δ-(U, Zr) phase, which is the only intermediate phase of the uranium-zirconium binary alloy system, was deposited on a tantalum substrate by potentiostatic electrolysis at -1.60 V (vs. Ag + /Ag) in LiCl-KCl melts containing 0.13 in mol% UCl 3 and 0.23 in mol% ZrCl 4 at 773 K. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrochemical formation of the δ-(U, Zr) phase. The relative partial molar properties of uranium in the δ-(U, Zr) phase were evaluated by measuring the open-circuit-potentials of the electrochemically prepared δ-phase electrode.

  10. Site preference and phase stability of Ti doping Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Chen, Baishu; Meng, Xianglong; Cai, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Site preference and phase stability of NiMnGaTi are studied by first-principles. •The Ti atoms prefer to occupy the Ga sites in the Ni 2 MnGa austenitic phase. •The phase stability becomes worse when Ga is replaced by Ti. •The phase stability is discussed based on the densities of states. -- Abstract: The effects of Ti content on martensitic transformation and phase stability of Ni 50 Mn 25 Ga 25−x Ti x shape memory alloys were investigated from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The formation energy results indicate that the added Ti preferentially occupies the Ga sites in Ni 2 MnGa alloy due to the lowest formation energy. The total energy difference between austenite and martensite increases with Ti alloying, being relevant to the experimentally reported changes in martensitic transformation temperature. The phase stability of Ni 50 Mn 25 Ga 25−x Ti x austenite decreases with increasing Ti content, which results from the reduced Ni 3d–Mn 3d hybridization when Ga is replaced by Ti

  11. Phase fields of nickel silicides obtained by mechanical alloying in the nanocrystalline state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, M. K.; Pabi, S. K.; Murty, B. S.

    2000-06-01

    Solid state reactions induced by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental blends of Ni and Si have been studied over the entire composition range of the Ni-Si system. A monotonous increase of the lattice parameter of the Ni rich solid solution, Ni(Si), is observed with refinement of crystallite size. Nanocrystalline phase/phase mixtures of Ni(Si), Ni(Si)+Ni31Si12, Ni31Si12+Ni2Si, Ni2Si+NiSi and NiSi+Si, have been obtained during MA, over the composition ranges of 0-10, 10-28, 28-33, 33-50, and >50 at. % Si, respectively. The results clearly suggest that only congruent melting phases, Ni31Si12, Ni2Si, and NiSi form, while the formation of noncongruent melting phases, Ni3Si, Ni3Si2, and NiSi2, is bypassed in the nanocrystalline state. The phase formation during MA has been discussed based on thermodynamic arguments. The predicted phase fields obtained from effective free energy calculations are quite consistent with those obtained during MA.

  12. A new method for determining the formation energy of a vacancy in concentrated alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, C.; Kitajima, S.; Eguchi, T.

    1978-01-01

    The disadvantages in the conventional method which determines the formation energy of a vacancy in concentrated alloys from their kinetic behavior during annealing after quenching are pointed out, and an alternative method for overcoming these disadvantages is proposed. (Auth.)

  13. Study of formation mechanism of incipient melting in thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kang, E-mail: du126kang@126.com; Zhu, Qiang, E-mail: zhu.qiang@grinm.com; Li, Daquan, E-mail: lidaquan@grinm.com; Zhang, Fan, E-mail: sk_zf@163.com

    2015-08-15

    Mechanical properties of thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys can be enhanced by T61 heat treatment. Copper and magnesium atoms in aluminum matrix can form homogeneously distributed precipitations after solution and aging treatment which harden the alloys. However, microsegregation of these alloying elements could form numerous tiny multi-compound phases during solidification. These phases could cause incipient melting defects in subsequent heat treatment process and degrade the macro-mechanical properties of productions. This study is to present heterogeneous distribution of Cu, Si, and Mg elements and formation of incipient melting defects (pores). In this study, incipient melting pores that occurred during solution treatment at various temperatures, even lower than common melting points of various intermetallic phases, were identified, in terms of a method of investigating the same surface area in the samples before and after solution treatment in a vacuum environment. The results also show that the incipient melting mostly originates at the clusters with fine intermetallic particles while also some at the edge of block-like Al{sub 2}Cu. The fine particles were determined being Al{sub 2}Cu, Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} and Al{sub 8}Mg{sub 3}FeSi{sub 2}. Tendency of the incipient melting decreases with decreases of the width of the clusters. The formation mechanism of incipient melting pores in solution treatment process was discussed using both the Fick law and the LSW theory. Finally, a criterion of solution treatment to avoid incipient melting pores for the thixo-cast alloys is proposed. - Highlights: • In-situ comparison technique was used to analysis the change of eutectic phases. • The ralationship between eutectic phase size and incipient melting was studied. • Teat treatment criterion for higher incipient melting resistance was proposed.

  14. Study of formation mechanism of incipient melting in thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Kang; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Daquan; Zhang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of thixo-cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys can be enhanced by T61 heat treatment. Copper and magnesium atoms in aluminum matrix can form homogeneously distributed precipitations after solution and aging treatment which harden the alloys. However, microsegregation of these alloying elements could form numerous tiny multi-compound phases during solidification. These phases could cause incipient melting defects in subsequent heat treatment process and degrade the macro-mechanical properties of productions. This study is to present heterogeneous distribution of Cu, Si, and Mg elements and formation of incipient melting defects (pores). In this study, incipient melting pores that occurred during solution treatment at various temperatures, even lower than common melting points of various intermetallic phases, were identified, in terms of a method of investigating the same surface area in the samples before and after solution treatment in a vacuum environment. The results also show that the incipient melting mostly originates at the clusters with fine intermetallic particles while also some at the edge of block-like Al 2 Cu. The fine particles were determined being Al 2 Cu, Al 5 Cu 2 Mg 8 Si 6 and Al 8 Mg 3 FeSi 2 . Tendency of the incipient melting decreases with decreases of the width of the clusters. The formation mechanism of incipient melting pores in solution treatment process was discussed using both the Fick law and the LSW theory. Finally, a criterion of solution treatment to avoid incipient melting pores for the thixo-cast alloys is proposed. - Highlights: • In-situ comparison technique was used to analysis the change of eutectic phases. • The ralationship between eutectic phase size and incipient melting was studied. • Teat treatment criterion for higher incipient melting resistance was proposed

  15. An XRD technique for quantitative phase analysis of Al-U-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.B.; Kulkarni, N.K.; Jain, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    In several nuclear research reactors all over the world, Al-U alloy is used as fuel. To stabilise less brittle phase UAl 3 in Al-U alloy, a small amount of Zr (1 to 3 wt% ) is added. A rapid, non destructive and simple x-ray diffraction technique has been developed for quantitative phase analysis Al-U-Zr alloy system containing UAl 4 , UAl 3 and Al. (author)

  16. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of high-alloy tool steels : theoretical and experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of tool steels and high-speed steels has led to a significant increase in alloy additions, such as Co, Cr, Mo, N, V, and W. Knowledge about the phase relations in these multicomponent alloys, that is, the relative stability between different carbides or the solubility of different elements in the carbides and in the matrix phase, is essential for understanding the behaviour of these alloys in heat treatments. This information is also the basis for improving the properti...

  17. Unexpected formation of hydrides in heavy rare earth containing magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mg–RE (Dy, Gd, Y alloys show promising for being developed as biodegradable medical applications. It is found that the hydride REH2 could be formed on the surface of samples during their preparations with water cleaning. The amount of formed hydrides in Mg–RE alloys is affected by the content of RE and heat treatments. It increases with the increment of RE content. On the surface of the alloy with T4 treatment the amount of formed hydride REH2 is higher. In contrast, the amount of REH2 is lower on the surfaces of as-cast and T6-treated alloys. Their formation mechanism is attributed to the surface reaction of Mg–RE alloys with water. The part of RE in solid solution in Mg matrix plays an important role in influencing the formation of hydrides.

  18. The mechanism of formation of a fine duplex microstructure in Ti-48Al-2Mn-2Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujan, R.V.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of formation of the fine duplex microstructure resulting from the α → γ transformation in water-quenched Ti-48Al-2Mn-2Nb alloys was studied using transmission and analytical electron microscopy. As-cast Ti-48Al-2Mn-2Nb alloys were heat treated in the α phase field and water quenched to room temperature. The resulting microstructure (referred to as a fine duplex microstructure) consisted of equiaxed grains and abutting lath colonies. Both the colonies and the grains were composed of the γ phase, twinned γ laths, and α 2 laths. It was found that the transformation from α to γ in the fine duplex microstructure took place through long range diffusional processes, and competitive growth between the equiaxed and lath morphology occurred. Nucleation of the γ phase from the α matrix can occur through nucleation on stacking faults, followed by growth through the sympathetic nucleation and growth of new γ laths on a substrate lath. The observed misorientations and the interfacial structures between the laths were found to be consistent with such a mechanism. Competition between such nucleation and growth mechanisms for the equiaxed and lath morphologies of γ leads to the formation of lath colonies (of γ and α 2 ) interspersed with equiaxed grains in these alloys

  19. The effect of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of casting Al-Cu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasijević Ivana I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is one of the main alloying elements for aluminum casting alloys. As an alloying element, copper significantly increases the tensile strength and toughness of alloys based on aluminum. The copper content in the industrial casting aluminum alloys ranges from 3,5 to 11 wt.%. However, despite the positive effect on the mechanical properties, copper has a negative influence on the corrosion resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In order to further improve the properties of Al-Cu alloys they are additional alloyed with elements such as zinc, magnesium and others. In this work experimental and analytical examination of the impact of zinc on the microstructure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys was carried out. In order to determine the effect of the addition of zinc to the structure and phase transformations of Al-Cu alloys two alloys of Al-Cu-Zn system with selected compositions were prepared and then examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The experimental results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria.

  20. Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut Ia, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s.

  1. Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s

  2. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  3. Concerted Electrodeposition and Alloying of Antimony on Indium Electrodes for Selective Formation of Crystalline Indium Antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Eli; Rafson, Jessica; Lancaster, Mitchell; Maldonado, Stephen

    2017-09-19

    The direct preparation of crystalline indium antimonide (InSb) by the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb) onto indium (In) working electrodes has been demonstrated. When Sb is electrodeposited from dilute aqueous electrolytes containing dissolved Sb 2 O 3 , an alloying reaction is possible between Sb and In if any surface oxide films are first thoroughly removed from the electrode. The presented Raman spectra detail the interplay between the formation of crystalline InSb and the accumulation of Sb as either amorphous or crystalline aggregates on the electrode surface as a function of time, temperature, potential, and electrolyte composition. Electron and optical microscopies confirm that under a range of conditions, the preparation of a uniform and phase-pure InSb film is possible. The cumulative results highlight this methodology as a simple yet potent strategy for the synthesis of intermetallic compounds of interest.

  4. Formation of Ni(Al, Mo) solid solutions by mechanical alloying and their ordering on heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, V.K.; Tomilin, I.A.; Blinov, A.M.; Kulik, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Ni(Al, Mo) solid solutions with different crystalline lattice periods (0.3592 and 0.3570 nm correspondingly) are formed in the course of the Ni 70 Al 25 Mo 5 and Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 powder mixtures mechanical alloying (MA) (through the mechanical activation in a vibrating mill). After MA the Mo atoms in the Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 mixture completely replace the aluminium positions with formation of the Ni 75 (AlMo) 25 (the L1 2 -type) ternary ordered phase, whereby such a distribution remains after heating up to 700 deg C. The Ni(Al, Mo) metastable solution is formed by MA in the Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 mixture, which decays with the release of molybdenum and the remained aluminide undergoes ordering by the L1 2 -type [ru

  5. Study of Shell Zone Formation in Lithographic and Anodizing Quality Aluminum Alloys: Experimental and Numerical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Christine; Larouche, André; Hark, Robert

    Shell thickness is an important quality factor for lithographic and anodizing quality aluminum alloys. Increasing pressure is placed on casting plants to produce a thinner shell zone for these alloys. This study, based on plant trials and mathematical modelling highlights the most significant parameters influencing shell zone formation. Results obtained show the importance of metal temperature and distribution and mould metal level on shell zone formation. As an answer to specific plant problems, this study led to the development of improved metal distribution systems for DC casting of litho and anodizing quality alloys.

  6. The effect of Sn addition on phase stability and phase evolution during aging heat treatment in Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Mariana G. de, E-mail: marianagm@fem.unicamp.br; Salvador, Camilo F., E-mail: csalvador@fem.unicamp.br; Cremasco, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra@fem.unicamp.br; Caram, Rubens, E-mail: caram@fem.unicamp.br

    2015-12-15

    Increases in life expectancy and improvements in necessary healthcare attach great importance to the development of biomaterials. Ti alloys containing β stabilizing elements are often used as biomaterials due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, unusual biocompatibility and low elastic moduli, which benefit bone tissues close to an implant. This study deals with phase stability in β Ti–Mo–Sn alloys processed under different conditions and was performed according to the following steps: a study of the effect of Sn content (a) on phase stability in Ti–Mo alloys, (b) on the suppression of α″ and ω phase precipitation; (c) on α-phase precipitation during aging heat treatments and (d) on mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, as measured using tensile tests and acoustic techniques. The alloys were prepared by arc melting under a controlled atmosphere followed by homogenization heat treatment and hot rolling. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for characterization purposes. Samples were also submitted to solution treatment above the β transus temperature and aging heat treatments under a controlled atmosphere. The results suggest that Sn suppresses the formation of the ω and α″ phases in Ti–Mo system. - Highlights: • Sn addition to Ti alloys decreases elastic modulus by suppressing ω phase precipitation. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of martensite decomposition. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of α phase precipitation and β transus. • Mechanical strength decreases with increasing Sn content.

  7. The effect of Sn addition on phase stability and phase evolution during aging heat treatment in Ti–Mo alloys employed as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Mariana G. de; Salvador, Camilo F.; Cremasco, Alessandra; Caram, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Increases in life expectancy and improvements in necessary healthcare attach great importance to the development of biomaterials. Ti alloys containing β stabilizing elements are often used as biomaterials due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, unusual biocompatibility and low elastic moduli, which benefit bone tissues close to an implant. This study deals with phase stability in β Ti–Mo–Sn alloys processed under different conditions and was performed according to the following steps: a study of the effect of Sn content (a) on phase stability in Ti–Mo alloys, (b) on the suppression of α″ and ω phase precipitation; (c) on α-phase precipitation during aging heat treatments and (d) on mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, as measured using tensile tests and acoustic techniques. The alloys were prepared by arc melting under a controlled atmosphere followed by homogenization heat treatment and hot rolling. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were employed for characterization purposes. Samples were also submitted to solution treatment above the β transus temperature and aging heat treatments under a controlled atmosphere. The results suggest that Sn suppresses the formation of the ω and α″ phases in Ti–Mo system. - Highlights: • Sn addition to Ti alloys decreases elastic modulus by suppressing ω phase precipitation. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of martensite decomposition. • Sn addition decreases the temperature of α phase precipitation and β transus. • Mechanical strength decreases with increasing Sn content.

  8. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming; Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  9. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei, E-mail: weilu@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan); Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi [Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  10. Investigations of binary and ternary phase change alloys for future memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of phase change materials is of great importance because it enables us to predict properties and tailor alloys which might be even better suitable to tackle challenges of future memory applications. Within this thesis two topics have been approached: on the one hand the understanding of the alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 and on the other hand the so called resistivity drift of amorphous Ge-Sn-Te phase change materials. The main topic covers an in depth discussion of the ternary alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 . At first glance, this alloy does not fit into the established concepts of phase alloys: e.g. the existence of resonant bonding in the crystalline phase is not obvious and the number of p-electrons is very low compared to other phase change alloys. Furthermore amorphous phase change alloys with high indium content are usually not discussed in literature, an exception being the recent work by Spreafico et al. on InGeTe 2 . For the first time a complete description of In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 alloy is given in this work for the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and crystallization process. In addition comparisons are drawn to typical phase change materials like Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 /GeTe or prototype systems like AgInTe 2 and InTe. The second topic of this thesis deals with the issue of resistivity drift, i.e. the increase of resistivity of amorphous phase change alloys with aging. This drift effect greatly hampers the introduction of multilevel phase change memory devices into the market. Recently a systematic decrease of drift coefficient with stoichiometry has been observed in our group going from GeTe over Ge 3 Sn 1 Te 4 to Ge 2 Sn 2 Te 4 . These alloys are investigated with respect to constraint theory.

  11. Microstructures and formation mechanism of W–Cu composite coatings on copper substrate prepared by mechanical alloying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Yunfei; Shen, Yifu; Chen, Cheng; Li, Yongcan; Feng, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, high-energy mechanical alloying (MA) method was applied to prepare tungsten–copper composite coatings on pure copper surface using a planetary ball mill. During mechanical alloying process, grains on the surface layer of substrate were refined and the substrate surface was activated as a result of repeated collisions by a large number of flying balls along with powder particles. The repeated ball-to-substrate collisions resulted in the deposition of coatings. The microstructures and elemental and phase composition of mechanically alloyed coatings at different milling durations during mechanical alloying process were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Microhardness tests were carried out to examine the mechanical properties of the coatings. The results showed that the coatings and the substrates were well bonded, and with the increase of the milling duration, multi-layered coatings with different structures were generated and the coatings became denser. The microhardness tests showed that the maximum microhardness of the coatings reached HV 0.1 228, showing a threefold improvement upon the substrate. And the cross-sectional microhardness values of the processed sample changed gradually, which gave a proof for the cushioning and sustaining functions of the multi-layered coatings. A reasonable formation mechanism of coatings on bulk materials with metallic immiscible system by mechanical alloying method was presented.

  12. Morphology of intermetallic phases in Al-Si cast alloys and their fracture behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hurtalová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Al-Si cast alloys in recent years have increased especially in the automotive industry (dynamic exposed cast, en-gine parts, cylinder heads, pistons and so on. Controlling the microstructure of secondary aluminium cast alloys is very important, because these alloys contain more additional elements that form various intermetallic phases in the structure. Therefore, the contribution is dealing with the valuation type of intermetallic phases and their identification with using optical and scanning microscopy. Some of the intermetallic phases could be identified on the basis of morphology but some of them must be identified according EDX analysis. The properties of alu-minium alloy are affected by morphology of intermetallic phases and therefore it is necessary to study morphology and its fracture behav-iour. The present work shows morphology and typical fracture behaviour as the most common intermetallic phases forming in Al-Si alloys.

  13. Pore formation during C.W.Nd: YAG laser welding of aluminum alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, M.; Zhao, H.; DebRoy, T.

    2000-01-01

    Pore formation is an important concern in laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys. This paper investigates the influence of the laser beam defocusing on pore formation during continuous wave Nd:YAG laser welding of aluminum automotive alloys 5182 and 5754. It was found that the instability of the keyhole during welding was a dominant cause of pore formation while hydrogen rejection played an insignificant role. The defocusing of the laser beam greatly affected the stability of the keyhole. Finally, the mechanism of the collapse of the keyhole and pore formation is proposed. (Author) 45 refs

  14. Secondary phases in Al_xCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys: An in-situ TEM heating study and thermodynamic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phases, either introduced by alloying or heat treatment, are commonly present in most high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Understanding the formation of secondary phases at high temperatures, and their effect on mechanical properties, is a critical issue that is undertaken in the present paper, using the Al_xCoCrFeNi (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) as a model alloy. The in-situ transmission-electron-microscopy (TEM) heating observation, an atom-probe-tomography (APT) study for the reference starting materials (Al_0_._3 and Al_0_._5 alloys), and thermodynamic calculations for all three alloys, are performed to investigate (1) the aluminum effect on the secondary-phase fractions, (2) the annealing-twinning formation in the face-centered-cubic (FCC) matrix, (3) the strengthening effect of the secondary ordered body-centered-cubic (B2) phase, and (4) the nucleation path of the σ secondary phase thoroughly. Finally, the present work will substantially optimize the alloy design of HEAs and facilitate applications of HEAs to a wide temperature range.

  15. Phase transformations in a Cu−Cr alloy induced by high pressure torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneva, Anna; Straumal, Boris; Kilmametov, Askar; Chulist, Robert; Straumal, Piotr; Zięba, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Phase transformations induced by high pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature in two samples of the Cu-0.86 at.% Cr alloy, pre-annealed at 550 °C and 1000 °C, were studied in order to obtain two different initial states for the HPT procedure. Observation of microstructure of the samples before HPT revealed that the sample annealed at 550 °C contained two types of Cr precipitates in the Cu matrix: large particles (size about 500 nm) and small ones (size about 70 nm). The sample annealed at 1000 °C showed only a little fraction of Cr precipitates (size about 2 μm). The subsequent HPT process resulted in the partial dissolution of Cr precipitates in the first sample and dissolution of Cr precipitates with simultaneous decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in another. However, the resulting microstructure of the samples after HPT was very similar from the standpoint of grain size, phase composition, texture analysis and hardness measurements. - Highlights: • Cu−Cr alloy with two different initial states was deformed by HPT. • Phase transformations in the deformed materials were studied. • SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for microstructure analysis. • HPT leads to formation the same microstructure independent of the initial state.

  16. Two-step nucleation of the g-phase in a Ti-45Al-18Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyel, Sonalika [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Kesler, Michael [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ebrahimi, Fereshteh [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2010-01-01

    Phase transformations in a high Nb TieAleNb alloy (Ti-45Al-18Nb at%) upon cooling were studied. This alloy solidifies as single b-phase, which upon cooling under equilibrium conditions, is expected to follow the b / b g / b g s / g s transformation path. The DTA analysis confirmed two transformation events as manifested by two peaks upon cooling. However, compositional and structural characterization of samples with different heat treatment schedules, including slow cooling (9 C/min), revealed that the s-phase did not form upon cooling. The two DTA peaks observed in the cooling cycle of the alloy are proven to be associated with the two-stage formation of the g-phase. Detailed microstructural evaluations showed that the g-phase nucleated in two discrete stages and exhibited two different morphologies. The absence of the s-phase is believed to be due to the lack of enough driving force at high temperatures. The aging of a fast cooled sample, yielding an equilibrated microstructure, substantiated the presence of the s-phase.

  17. Cluster-assisted nucleation of silicon phase in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloy with further inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Hongliang; Liu, Yue; Shi, Lei; Xu, Rongfu; Tian, Xuelei

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the responses of eutectic silicon and eutectic cells in Al–10Si alloy upon inoculation with an Al–10Si–2Fe master alloy. The further inoculation hardly destroys the modification effect of Sr but significantly refines the eutectic cells in Sr-modified samples, while in unmodified samples, it stimulates the occurrences of polyhedral silicon particles and divorced eutectic. Thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy have been used to elucidate the underlying mechanism. A cluster-assisted nucleation mechanism responsible for the enhanced nucleation of silicon phase upon inoculation is proposed. Icosahedral (AlFeSi) clusters are speculated to evolve from the added Al–10Si–2Fe master alloy in Al–10Si melt, around which aggregations of silicon atoms form. Through a series of structural evolutions, these clusters transform into precursors of a silicon crystal. The subsequent formation of silicon particles is achieved by the agglomerations and attachments of these precursors and individual silicon atoms. This hypothesis is further consolidated by the increased characteristic temperatures of eutectic and the anomalous appearance of a high density of nanoscale particles, as well as the abnormal disappearance of Sr-induced twins in further inoculated silicon particles. The increased characteristic temperatures are strong indications of the enhanced nucleation of the silicon phase. The high density of nanoscale particles with an indeterminate crystal structure are the survivors of these precursors. In an Sr-modified and further inoculated sample, the formation of Sr-induced twins is consequently inhibited due to the participation of these precursors during the growth of silicon particles. Furthermore, based on the proposed nucleation mechanism, the dependence of eutectic cell size on Sr level is elucidated in detail

  18. Structure formation of 5083 alloy during friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikina, A. A.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.; Ivanov, K. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of structures obtained by friction stir welding and sliding friction of 5083 Al alloy. Optical and electron microscopy reveals identical fine-grained structures with a grain size of ˜5 µm both in the weld nugget zone and subsurface layer in friction independently of the initial grain size of the alloy. It has been suggested that the grain boundary sliding is responsible for the specific material flow pattern in both techniques considered.

  19. Microsegregation in multicomponent alloy analysed by quantitative phase-field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, M; Takaki, T; Shibuta, Y

    2015-01-01

    Microsegregation behaviour in a ternary alloy system has been analysed by means of quantitative phase-field (Q-PF) simulations with a particular attention directed at an influence of tie-line shift stemming from different liquid diffusivities of the solute elements. The Q-PF model developed for non-isothermal solidification in multicomponent alloys with non-zero solid diffusivities was applied to analysis of microsegregation in a ternary alloy consisting of fast and slow diffusing solute elements. The accuracy of the Q-PF simulation was first verified by performing the convergence test of segregation ratio with respect to the interface thickness. From one-dimensional analysis, it was found that the microsegregation of slow diffusing element is reduced due to the tie-line shift. In two-dimensional simulations, the refinement of microstructure, viz., the decrease of secondary arms spacing occurs at low cooling rates due to the formation of diffusion layer of slow diffusing element. It yields the reductions of degrees of microsegregation for both the fast and slow diffusing elements. Importantly, in a wide range of cooling rates, the degree of microsegregation of the slow diffusing element is always lower than that of the fast diffusing element, which is entirely ascribable to the influence of tie-line shift. (paper)

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn-Y alloy containing LPSO phase and I-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhijian; Teng, Xinying; Lou, Gui; Zhou, Guorong; Leng, Jinfeng

    2017-08-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn-Y alloy including LPSO phase and I-phase was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and differential scanning calorimeter analysis reveal that the LPSO (long period stacking ordered structure) phase and I-phase can co-exist within the α-Mg matrix. Wherein, the quasicrystal phases exist in the (I-phase  +  α-Mg) eutectic structures. In the Mg-Zn-Y alloy, it is also found that 14 H type LPSO phases consist of LPSO phase and I-phase. With the addition of quasicrystal master alloy content, the microstructures are refined, and the mechanical properties are enhanced.

  1. The Formation Mechanism and Corrosion Resistance of a Composite Phosphate Conversion Film on AM60 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiangna; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qinyong

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium alloy AM60 has high duc and toughness, which is expected to increase in demand for automotive applications. However, it is too active, and coatings have been extensively studied to prevent corrosion. In this work, a Ba-containing composite phosphate film has been prepared on the surface of AM60. The composition and formation mechanism of the film have been investigated using a scanning electronic microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry tests. The corrosion resistance of the film has been measured by electrochemical and immersion tests. The results show that the deposition film has fully covered the substrate but there are some micro-cracks. The structure of the film is complex, and consists of MgHPO4·3H2O, MnHPO4·2.25H2O, BaHPO4·3H2O, BaMg2(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2·22H2O, Ca3(PO4)2·xH2O, and some amorphous phases. The composite phosphate film has better anticorrosion performance than the AM60 and can protect the bare alloy from corrosion for more than 12 h in 0.6 M NaCl. PMID:29518038

  2. The Formation Mechanism and Corrosion Resistance of a Composite Phosphate Conversion Film on AM60 Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lan, Xiangna; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qinyong

    2018-03-08

    Magnesium alloy AM60 has high duc and toughness, which is expected to increase in demand for automotive applications. However, it is too active, and coatings have been extensively studied to prevent corrosion. In this work, a Ba-containing composite phosphate film has been prepared on the surface of AM60. The composition and formation mechanism of the film have been investigated using a scanning electronic microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry tests. The corrosion resistance of the film has been measured by electrochemical and immersion tests. The results show that the deposition film has fully covered the substrate but there are some micro-cracks. The structure of the film is complex, and consists of MgHPO₄·3H₂O, MnHPO₄·2.25H₂O, BaHPO₄·3H₂O, BaMg₂(PO₄)₂, Mg₃(PO₄)₂·22H₂O, Ca₃(PO₄)₂·xH₂O, and some amorphous phases. The composite phosphate film has better anticorrosion performance than the AM60 and can protect the bare alloy from corrosion for more than 12 h in 0.6 M NaCl.

  3. Mg-controlled formation of Mg–Ag co-clusters in initial aged Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Song; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhou, Xuanwei; Xia, Peng; Zeng, Sumin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The strongest age-hardening response was found in 0.81Mg alloy. • Quantitative APT study showed strong dependence of Mg–Ag co-clustering on Mg content. • A critical Mg content related to the greatest Mg–Ag co-clustering was revealed. • The evolution from Mg–Ag co-clusters to Ω phase was accelerated in 1.18Mg alloy. - Abstract: The effect of Mg variations on the number density, solute concentrations and sizes of Mg–Ag co-clusters at the early aging stage, as well as the age-hardening response of different Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys, was well investigated by a combination of Vickers hardness measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). The strongest age-hardening response at 165 °C was found in 0.81Mg alloy, accompanied by the highest nucleation rate of Mg–Ag co-clusters after aging for 0.5 h. However, the least response was revealed in 0.39Mg alloy. By quantitative APT analysis, the observed trend in the total number density of Mg–Ag co-clusters suggested the following order: 0.81Mg alloy > 0.39Mg alloy > 1.18Mg alloy. This parabolic change in the total number density of Mg–Ag co-clusters with increasing Mg highlighted the existence of a critical Mg content, which contributed to the greatest nucleation kinetics of Mg–Ag co-clusters. As Mg increased from 0.39 to 0.81, the formation of small Mg–Ag co-clusters was significantly promoted, whereas the number density of large Mg–Ag co-clusters almost remained constant. Moreover, the remarkable enrichment of Cu within Mg–Ag co-clusters indicated that the accelerated evolution from Mg–Ag co-clusters to Ω phase was responsible for the lowest number density of Mg–Ag co-clusters in 1.18Mg alloy after aging at 165 °C for 0.5 h

  4. Hydrogen storage performance of Ti-V-based BCC phase alloys with various Fe content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X.B.; Feng, S.L.; Wu, Z.; Xia, B.J.; Xu, N.X.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Fe content on hydrogen storage characteristics of Ti-10Cr-18Mn-(32-x)V-xFe (x = 0, 2, 3, 4, 5) alloys has been investigated at 353 K. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the alloys present BCC and C14 two-phase structures for all of the Fe-containing alloys. With the increasing Fe content, the lattice parameters of the BCC phase decrease, which results in an increase of the hydrogen desorption plateau pressure of the alloys. Among the studied alloys, Ti-10Cr-18Mn-27V-5Fe alloy exhibits the smallest PCT plateau slope and a more suitable plateau pressure (0.1 MPa equ <1 MPa). The maximum and effective capacities of the alloy are 3.32 wt.% and 2.26 wt.%, respectively, which are higher than other reported Fe-containing BCC phase alloys. In addition, the V/Fe ratio in this alloy is close to that of (VFe) alloy, whose cost is much lower than that of pure V

  5. Phase transformation and microstructure evolution of the deformed Ti-30Zr-5Nb shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Wentao, E-mail: wtqu@xsyu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China); Sun, Xuguang; Yuan, Bifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China); Xiong, Chengyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Nie, Yongsheng [Lanzhou Seemine SMA Co. Ltd., Lanzhou 730010 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The phase transformation and microstructures of the deformed Ti-30Zr-5Nb shape memory alloy were investigated. The X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy was composed of a single orthorhombic α″-martensite phase. The alloy exhibited one yielding behavior in the tensile test, with a critical stress of ~ 600 MPa and a tensile strain of approximately 15%. A shape memory recovery accompanied by a permanent strain was exhibited in the deformed alloys when heated at 873 K. The permanent strain increased with increasing pre-strain. The microstructure evolution of the deformed alloy was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the martensite reorientation occurred and the dislocations were generated during deformation. The alloy displayed a reversible martensite transformation start temperature as high as 763 K. However, no strain-induced martensite stabilization was found in the deformed alloy with different pre-strain levels, potentially because the large chemical energy of the Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy depressed the effects of the elastic energy and the dissipative energy. - Highlights: • Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy is composed of single orthorhombic α″-martensite phase with M{sub s} of 721 K. • No martensite stabilization has been found in Ti-30Zr-5Nb alloy with different pre-strain. • Ti-30Zr-5Nb shows the maximum shape memory effect of 2.75% with a pre-strain of 8%.

  6. Phase transformation in a Ni-Mo-Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.; Wrobel, M.; Blicharski, M.; Dollar, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives a characteristic of a nickel-based superalloy containing 25 wt.% Mo and 8 wt.% Cr with particular attention to the influence of a thermochemical and heat treatment on phase transformations. The applied heat treatments are comprised of soaking temperature 1100 o C followed by aging at 650 o C at three conditions: conventional aging for 72 hours, prolonged aging for 4000 hours and prolonged aging for 4000 hours followed by cold working and subsequent aging for 1000 hours. The conventional aging led to the formation of lenticular precipitates of the dispersed metastable Ni 2 (Mo,Cr) phase. The aging for 4000 hours brought about coarsening of the ordered domains without changing their crystallographic and ordering characteristics. The plastic deformation preceded the further aging for 1000 hours accelerated the decomposition of the Ni 2 (Mo,Cr) phase on the mixture of the Ni 3 Mo and Ni 4 Mo-based phases. (author)

  7. Influence of the ion implantation on the nanoscale intermetallic phases formation in Ni-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, M.P.; Kurzina, I.A.; Bozhko, I.A.; Kozlov, E.V.; Fortuna, S.V.; Sivin, D.O.; Stepanov, I.B.; Sharkeev, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ion implantation at a high intensity mode is an effective method for modification of the surface properties of metals and alloys. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of irradiated materials using the high intensity implantation is connected with an element composition and microstructure modification of the surface and subsurface layers. One shows a great interest in intermetallic phase's synthesis by ion implantation, because of unique physical-mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds. The influence of the irradiation conditions on the structural state and surface properties of implanted materials is not clear enough. The study of the factors influencing on the formation of the surface ion - alloyed layers of metal targets having the high tribological and mechanical properties by high intensity ion implantation is actual. The aim of the present work is a study of the microstructure, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of the ion-alloyed Ni surfaces formed at high intensity implantation of Ti ions. The implantation Ti ions into Ni samples at high intensity mode was realized using ion source 'Raduga - 5'. The implantation Ti ions into Ni was carried out at accelerating voltage 20 kV for 2 h. The regimes were differed in the samples temperature (580 - 700 K), the distance from the ion implanted samples to the ion source (0.43-0.93 m) and the dose of irradiated ions (0.3·10 18 -2.9·10 18 ion/cm -2 ). The element composition of the implanted samples was analyzed by the electron spectroscopy. The structural-phase state of the Ni ion-modified layers was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Additionally, the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties of the implanted Ni samples was carried out. It was established that the maximum thickness of the ion-alloyed nickel layers at high intensity mode allows forming the nanoscale intermetallic phases (Ni

  8. Electron concentration and phase stability in NbCr2-based Laves phase alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-05-12

    Phase stability in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases was studied, based on the data reported for binary X-Cr, Nb-X, and ternary Nb-Cr-X phase diagrams. It was shown that when the atomic size ratios are kept identical, the average electron concentration factor, e/a, is the dominating factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases. The e/a ratios for different Laves polytypes were determined as followed: with e/a < 5.76, the C15 structure is stabilized; at an e/a range of 5.88--7.53, the C14 structure is stabilized; with e/a > 7.65, the C15 structure is stabilized again. A further increase in the electron concentration factor (e/a > 8) leads to the disordering of the alloy. The electron concentration effect on the phase stability of Mg-based Laves phases and transition-metal A{sub 3}B intermetallic compounds is also reviewed and compared with the present observations in transition-metal Laves phases. In order to verify the e/a/phase stability relationship experimentally, additions of Cu (with e/a = 11) were selected to replace Cr in the NbCr{sub 2} Laves phase. Experimental results for the ternary Nb-Cr-Cu system are reported and discussed in terms of the correlation between the e/a ratio and phase stability in NbCr{sub 2}-based Laves phases. A new phase was found, which has an average composition of Nb-47Cr-3Cu. Within the solubility limit, the electron concentration and phase stability relationship is obeyed in the Nb-Cr-Cu system.

  9. Alloy formation during the electrochemical growth of a Ag-Cd ultrathin film on Au(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, M.C. del; Garcia, S.G.; Salinas, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The electrodeposition of a Ag/Cd ultrathin film on a Au(1 1 1) surface and the formation of a surface alloy during this process have been studied using classical electrochemical techniques and in situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The films were obtained from separate electrolytes containing Ag + or Cd 2+ ions and from a multicomponent solution containing both ions. First, the polarization conditions were adjusted in order to form a Ag film by overpotential deposition. Afterwards, a Cd monolayer was formed onto this Au(1 1 1)/Ag modified surface by underpotential deposition. The voltammetric behavior of the Cd UPD and the in situ STM images indicated that the ultrathin Ag films were uniformly deposited and epitaxially oriented with respect to the Au(1 1 1) surface. Long time polarization experiments showed that a significant Ag-Cd surface alloying accompanied the formation of the Cd monolayer on the Au(1 1 1)/Ag modified surface, independent of the Ag film thickness. In the case of an extremely thin Ag layer (1 Ag ML) the STM images and long time polarization experiments revealed a solid state diffusion process of Cd, Ag, and Au atoms which can be responsible for the formation of different Ag-Cd or Au-Ag-Cd alloy phases.

  10. Searching for Next Single-Phase High-Entropy Alloy Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Alman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable technological interest in high-entropy alloys (HEAs since the initial publications on the topic appeared in 2004. However, only several of the alloys investigated are truly single-phase solid solution compositions. These include the FCC alloys CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi based on 3d transition metals elements and BCC alloys NbMoTaW, NbMoTaVW, and HfNbTaTiZr based on refractory metals. The search for new single-phase HEAs compositions has been hindered by a lack of an effective scientific strategy for alloy design. This report shows that the chemical interactions and atomic diffusivities predicted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations which are closely related to primary crystallization during solidification can be used to assist in identifying single phase high-entropy solid solution compositions. Further, combining these simulations with phase diagram calculations via the CALPHAD method and inspection of existing phase diagrams is an effective strategy to accelerate the discovery of new single-phase HEAs. This methodology was used to predict new single-phase HEA compositions. These are FCC alloys comprised of CoFeMnNi, CuNiPdPt and CuNiPdPtRh, and HCP alloys of CoOsReRu.

  11. Design of high density gamma-phase uranium alloys for LEU dispersion fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Ray, Allison E.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium alloys are candidates for the fuel phase in aluminium matrix dispersion fuels requiring high uranium loading. Certain uranium alloys have been shown to have good irradiation performance at intermediate burnup. previous studies have shown that acceptable fission gas swelling behavior and fuel-aluminium interaction is possible only if the fuel alloy can be maintained in the high temperature body-centered-cubic γ-phase during fabrication and irradiation, at temperatures at which αU is the equilibrium phase. transition metals in Groups V through VIII are known to allow metastable retention of the gamma phase below the equilibrium isotherm. These metals have varying degrees of effectiveness in stabilizing the gamma phase. Certain alloys are metastable for very long times at the relatively low fuel temperatures seen in research operation. In this paper, the existing data on the gamma stability of binary and ternary uranium alloys is analysed. The mechanism and kinetics of decomposition of the gamma phase are assessed with the help of metal alloy theory. Alloys with the highest possible uranium content, good gamma-phase stability, and good neutronic performance are identified for further metallurgical studies and irradiation tests. Results from theory will be compared with experimentally generated data. (author)

  12. Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Aaron M; Siol, Sebastian; Ndione, Paul F; Peng, Haowei; Deml, Ann M; Matthews, Bethany E; Schelhas, Laura T; Toney, Michael F; Gordon, Roy G; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Ginley, David S; Gorman, Brian P; Tate, Janet; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys. We distinguish two types of heterostructural alloys, that is, those between commensurate and incommensurate phases. Because of the structural transition around the critical composition, the properties change in a highly nonlinear or even discontinuous fashion, providing a mechanism for materials design that does not exist in conventional isostructural alloys. The novel phase diagram behavior follows from standard alloy models using mixing enthalpies from first-principles calculations. Thin-film deposition demonstrates the viability of the synthesis of these metastable single-phase domains and validates the computationally predicted phase separation mechanism above the upper temperature bound of the nonequilibrium single-phase region.

  13. Ostwald ripening of decomposed phases in Cu-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Santiago, Felipe; Lopez-Hirata, Victor; Dorantes-Rosales, Hector J.; Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge L.; Paniagua-Mercado, Ana Ma.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the coarsening process of the decomposed phases was carried out in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys using transmission electron microscopy. As aging progressed, the morphology of the coherent decomposed Ni-rich phase changed from cuboids to platelets aligned in the Cu-rich matrix directions. Prolonged aging caused the loss of coherency between the decomposed phases and the morphology of the Ni-rich phase changed to ellipsoidal. The variation of mean radius of the coherent decomposed phases with aging time followed the modified LSW theory for thermally activated growth in ternary alloy systems. The linear variation of the density number of precipitates and matrix supersaturation with aging time, also confirmed that the coarsening process followed the modified LSW theory in both alloys. The coarsening rate was faster in the symmetrical Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloy due to its higher volume fraction of precipitates. The activation energy for thermally activated growth was determined to be about 182 and 102 kJ mol -1 in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys, respectively. The lower energy for the former alloy seems to be related to an increase in the atomic diffusion process as the chromium content increases. The size distributions of precipitates in the Cu-Ni-Cr alloys were broader and more symmetric than that predicted by the modified LSW theory for ternary alloys

  14. Investigation on the formation of Cu-Fe nano crystalline super-saturated solid solution developed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, M., E-mail: m.mojtahedi@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goodarzi, M.; Aboutalebi, M.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, UNAM-Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Soleimanian, V. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deformation of the mechanically alloyed Cu-Fe powder is anisotropic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld method is more proper and results in smaller crystallite size than the Scherer and Williamson-Hall methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual phase super saturated solid solution achieved after 96 h of milling of the mixtures with 30, 50 and 70 wt.% of Iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A final proportion of approximately 85% FCC and 15% BCC structure obtained in all of the applied compositions. - Abstract: In this study, the formation of super saturated solid solution in the binary Cu-Fe system was investigated. Three powder blends with 30, 50 and 70 wt.% of Fe were milled for different times to 96 h. The variations of lattice parameter and inter-planar spacing were calculated and analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis (XDA). The anisotropy of lattice deformation in the FCC phase was studied and the obtained results were compared to milled pure Cu powder. Furthermore, crystallite size was calculated using Scherer formula in comparison with Rietveld full profile refinement method. Considering the previous studies about the formation of non-equilibrium FCC and BCC phases, the phase evolution has been discussed and the proportion of each phase was calculated using Rietveld refinement method. Supplementary studies on the evolution of microstructure and formation of solid solution were carried out using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Finally, high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging was utilized to find out the level of homogeneity in the resulting phases. While true alloying takes place in each phase, the final structure consists of both FCC and BCC nano-crystallites.

  15. A mechanism for the formation of equiaxed grains in welds of aluminum-lithium alloy 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D.C.; Wang, G.-X.; Srivatsan, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this technical note, the formation and presence of a zone of equiaxed grains (EQZ) along the fusion boundary of welded aluminum-lithium alloy 2090 using filler metals containing zirconium and lithium is presented and discussed. However, no EQZ was evident in welded joints of alloy 2090 using the commercial filler metals: aluminum alloy 2319 and 4145. Under identical conditions, aluminum-lithium alloy 2090 was fusion welded using several new filler metals containing various amounts of zirconium and lithium. Results reveal an increase in the width of the zone of equiaxed grains with an increase in zirconium and lithium content in the filler metal. A viable mechanism for the formation of equiaxed grains and its relationship to filler metal composition is highlighted

  16. A phase-field and electron microscopy study of phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstroem, Peter, E-mail: pheds@kth.se [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Baghsheikhi, Saeed [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Liu, Ping [Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden); Odqvist, Joakim [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental characterization and Phase-field modeling of phase separation in Fe-Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition from particle-like to spinodal-like structure observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural evolution generates increased hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in agreement with recent thermodynamic description. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative kinetic modeling must include thermal noise and improved kinetic data. - Abstract: Phase separation in the binary Fe-Cr system, the basis for the entire stainless steel family, is considered responsible for the low temperature embrittlement in ferritic, martensitic and duplex stainless steels. These steels are often used in load-bearing applications with considerable service time at elevated temperature. Thus, understanding the effect of microstructure on mechanical properties and predicting dynamics of phase separation are key issues. In the present work, experimental evaluation of structure and mechanical properties in binary Fe-Cr alloys as well as phase-field modeling, using a new thermodynamic description of Fe-Cr, is conducted. A significant hardening evolution with time is found for alloys aged between 400 and 550 Degree-Sign C, and it can be attributed to phase separation. The decomposed structure changed with increasing Cr content at 500 Degree-Sign C, with a more particle-like structure at 25 wt% Cr and a more spinodal-like structure at 30 wt% Cr. The observed transition of structure agrees with the thermodynamically predicted spinodal, although the transition is expected to be gradual. The phase-field simulations qualitatively agree with experiments. However, to enable accurate quantitative predictions, the diffusional mobilities must be evaluated further and thermal fluctuations as well as 3D diffusion fields must be properly accounted for.

  17. The microstructure and composition of equilibrium phases formed in hypoeutectic Te-In alloy during solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baoguang [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu, Jinwu [Center of Failure Analysis, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Chongyun; Yang, Wenhui [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Tian, Wenhuai, E-mail: wenhuaitian@ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-03-15

    As a key tellurium atoms evaporation source for ultraviolet detection photocathode, the hypoeutectic Te{sub 75}In{sub 25} alloy was prepared by employing a slow solidification speed of about 10{sup −2} K/s. The microstructure and chemical composition of the equilibrium phases formed in the as-prepared alloy were studied in this research work. The experimental results show that the as-prepared Te-In alloy was constituted by primary In{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase and eutectic In{sub 2}Te{sub 5}/Te phases. The eutectic In{sub 2}Te{sub 5}/Te phases are distributed in the grain boundaries of primary In{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase. With the slow solidification speed, a pure eutectic Te phase without any excessive indium solute was obtained, where Te content of eutectic Te phase is 100 mass%. Moreover, it can be considered that the stress between the In{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Te phases plays an important role in reducing the tellurium vapor pressure in Te{sub 75}In{sub 25} alloy. - Highlights: • The microstructure of Te-In alloy as an evaporation source was analyzed. • A pure eutectic Te phase was obtained by using a slow solidification speed method. • The relation between vapor pressure and inner-stress in the alloy was discussed.

  18. Direct visualization of β phase causing intergranular forms of corrosion in Al–Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Young-Ki, E-mail: deltag@naver.com; Allen, Todd

    2013-06-15

    For a more effective examination of microstructure in Al–Mg alloys, a new etching solution has been developed; dissolved ammonium persulfate in water. It is demonstrated how β phase (Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}) in Al–Mg alloys respond to this solution using samples of a binary Al–Mg alloy and a commercial 5083 aluminum alloy. Nanometer sized β phase is clearly visualized for the first time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) instead of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is anticipated that direct and unambiguous visualization of β phase will greatly augment intergranular corrosion research in 5xxx series aluminum alloys. - Highlights: • Nanometer sized β phase in Al-10% Mg is first clearly visualized with SEM. • Nanometer sized β phase in wrought alloy 5083 is first clearly visualized with SEM. • Grain boundary decorating β phase and isolated sponge-like β phase are shown. • This phase is confirmed to be β phase using composition analysis.

  19. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  20. Investigations of carbon diffusion and carbide formation in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Bongartz, K.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Nickel, H.

    1989-11-01

    The present thesis describes the carburization behaviour of nickel based alloys in heavily carburizing environments. The mechanisms of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in NiCr alloys with and without ternary additions of iron, cobalt or molybdenum have been investigated. Using the results of carburization experiments, a mathematical model which describes carbon diffusion and carbide formation, was developed. The simulation of the carburization process was carried out by an iterative calculation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the alloy. An accurate description of the carbon profiles as a function of time became possible by using a finite-difference calculation. (orig.) [de

  1. On the formation and stability of Y-Ti-O nanoparticles in ODS alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal and radiation stability of Y-Ti-O nanoparticles in oxide dispersion strengthened steels is a topic of interest, given that these nanoparticles bestow the crucial high temperature creep strength, and these ferritic alloys are candidate materials for cladding and structural materials for fast and fusion reactors. In addition, there is also interest in obtaining a basic understanding of the various issues, such as the role of alloying element Ti, on the formation of uniform sized and small nanoparticles in these alloys that are formed using the powder metallurgy route of ball milling followed by consolidation using hot extrusion

  2. Liquid phase diffusion bonding of A1070 by using metal formate coated Zn sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, K.; Koyama, S.; shohji, I.

    2017-05-01

    Aluminium alloy have high strength and easily recycle due to its low melting point. Therefore, aluminium is widely used in the manufacturing of cars and electronic devices. In recent years, the most common way for bonding aluminium alloy is brazing and friction stir welding. However, brazing requires positional accuracy and results in the formation of voids by the flax residue. Moreover, aluminium is an excellent heat radiating and electricity conducting material; therefore, it is difficult to bond together using other bonding methods. Because of these limitations, liquid phase diffusion bonding is considered to the suitable method for bonding aluminium at low temperature and low bonding pressure. In this study, the effect of metal formate coating processing of zinc surface on the bond strength of the liquid phase diffusion bonded interface of A1070 has been investigated by SEM observation of the interfacial microstructures and fractured surfaces after tensile test. Liquid phase diffusion bonding was carried out under a nitrogen gas atmosphere at a bonding temperature of 673 K and 713 K and a bonding load of 6 MPa (bonding time: 15 min). As a result of the metal formate coating processing, a joint having the ultimate tensile strength of the base aluminium was provided. It is hypothesized that this is because metallic zinc is generated as a result of thermal decomposition of formate in the bonded interface at lower bonding temperatures.

  3. Behavior and effect of Ti2Ni phase during processing of NiTi shape memory alloy wire from cast ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagyaraj, J.; Ramaiah, K.V.; Saikrishna, C.N.; Bhaumik, S.K.; Gouthama

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ti 2 Ni second phase particles forms in different sizes and shapes in cast ingot. •TEM evidences showed shearing/fragmentation of Ti 2 Ni during processing. •Matrix close to Ti 2 Ni experienced severe plastic deformation lead to amorphisation. •Ti 2 Ni interfaces were mostly faceted and assist in nucleation of martensite. •Heterogeneity of microstructure observed near to and away from Ti 2 Ni. -- Abstract: Binary NiTi alloy is one of the commercially successful shape memory alloys (SMAs). Generally, the NiTi alloy composition used for thermal actuator application is slightly Ti-rich. In the present study, vacuum arc melted alloy of 50.2Ti–Ni (at.%) composition was prepared and characterized using optical, scanning and transmission electron microcopy. Formation of second phase particles (SPPs) in the cast alloy and their influence on development of microstructure during processing of the alloy into wire form has been investigated. Results showed that the present alloy contained Ti 2 Ni type SPPs in the matrix. In the cast alloy, the Ti 2 Ni particles form in varying sizes (1–10 μm) and shapes. During subsequent thermo-mechanical processing, these SPPs get sheared/fragmented into smaller particles with low aspect ratio. The presence of SPPs plays a significant role in refinement of the microstructure during processing of the alloy. During deformation of the alloy, the matrix phase around the SPPs experiences conditions similar to that observed in severe plastic deformation of metallic materials, leading to localized amorphisation of the matrix phase

  4. Microstructural evolution and tensile behavior of Ti{sub 2}AlNb alloys based α{sub 2}-phase decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: gackmol@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zeng, Weidong, E-mail: zengwd@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Dong; Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Youping [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liang, Xiaobo [Beijing Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-04-26

    The formation mechanism of the fine plate-like O-phases within α{sub 2}-phases and tensile behavior of an isothermally forged Ti–22Al–25Nb (at%) orthorhombic alloy at 1040 °C during heat treatment were investigated. The investigation indicated that the alloys were heat-treated in O+B2 phase region after α{sub 2}+B2 phase region isothermally forging, the equiaxed α{sub 2}-phase was not stable and decomposed into O+α{sub 2} phases. The α{sub 2} phases formed during isothermal forging process have higher concentration of Nb and begun to decompose during O+B2 phase region heat treatment. And then the α{sub 2} phases separated into Niobium-lean and Niobium-rich regions through the Niobium diffusion: α{sub 2}→α{sub 2} (Nb-lean)+O (Nb-rich). Nb-rich regions with composition similar to Ti{sub 2}AlNb transformed to the O-phase, while the Nb-lean regions remained untransformed and retained the α{sub 2}-phase. The deformation behavior and fracture mechanism of Ti–22Al–25Nb alloy at room temperature were discussed. The deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of this alloy at different temperatures and stain rates were also investigated using uniaxial tensile test.

  5. Salt fog corrosion behavior in a powder-processed icosahedral-phase-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, T.J.; Gordillo, M.A.; Ernst, A.T.; Bedard, B.A.; Aindow, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting corrosion resistance has been evaluated for an Al-Cr-Mn-Co-Zr alloy. • Pit densities and depths are far lower than for other high-strength Al alloys. • Corrosion proceeds by selective oxidation of the Al matrix around the other phases. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion resistance has been evaluated for a powder-processed Al-Cr-Mn-Co-Zr alloy which contains ≈35% by volume of an icosahedral quasi-crystalline phase and a little Al 9 Co 2 in an Al matrix. ASTM standard salt fog exposure tests show that the alloy exhibits far lower corrosion pit densities and depths than commercial high-strength aerospace Al alloys under the same conditions. Electron microscopy data show that the salt fog exposure leads to the selective oxidation of the face-centered cubic Al matrix around the other phases, and to the development of a porous outer oxide scale.

  6. Effect of different factors on phase transformations in Fe-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balychev, Yu.M.; Tkachenko, F.K.

    1983-01-01

    Phase transformations proceeding under Fe-Mn alloy heating are studied and the effect of previous working conditions, particularly, cooling rate on these transformations is investigated. Investigations have been conducted on pure Fe-Mn alloys with 2-15% Mn. Phase transformations are shown to proceed according to α → #betta# and epsilon → #betta# reaction in Fe-Mn alloys containing 2-15% Mn under heating. Cooling rate in the range of approximately 5-1000 deg/min in preliminary working essentially affects phase transformations under subsequent heating

  7. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium in system Ti-B-Si-C, synthesis and phases composition of borides and carbides layers on titanic alloyVT-1 at electron beam treatment in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnyagina, N. N.; Khaltanova, V. M.; Lapina, A. E.; Dasheev, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Composite layers on the basis of carbides and borides the titan and silicon on titanic alloy VT-1 are generated at diffused saturation in vacuum. Formation in a composite of MAX phase Ti3SiC2 is shown. Thermodynamic research of phase equilibrium in systems Ti-Si-C and Ti-B-C in the conditions of high vacuum is executed. The thermodynamics, formation mechanisms of superfirm layers borides and carbides of the titan and silicon are investigated.

  8. Phase-field simulation of solidification in multicomponent alloys coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijie; Jing Tao; Jie Wanqi; Liu Baicheng

    2006-01-01

    To simulate quantitatively the microstructural evolution in the solidification process of multicomponent alloys, we extend the phase-field model for binary alloys to multicomponent alloys with consideration of the solute interactions between different species. These interactions have a great influence not only on the phase equilibria but also on the solute diffusion behaviors. In the model, the interface region is assumed to be a mixture of solid and liquid with the same chemical potential, but with different compositions. The simulation presented is coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases, which can accurately predict the phase equilibria and the solute diffusion transportation in the whole system. The phase equilibria in the interface and other thermodynamic quantities are obtained using Thermo-Calc through the TQ interface. As an example, two-dimensional computations for the dendritic growth in Al-Cu-Mg ternary alloy are performed. The quantitative solute distributions and diffusion matrix are obtained in both solid and liquid phases

  9. Strengthening behavior of beta phase in lamellar microstructure of TiAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Seo, D. Y.; Maruyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    β phase can be introduced to TiAl alloys by the additions of β stabilizing elements such as Cr, Nb, W, and Mo. The β phase has a body-centered cubic lattice structure and is softer than the α2 and γ phases in TiAl alloys at elevated temperatures, and hence is thought to have a detrimental effect on creep strength. However, fine β precipitates can be formed at lamellar interfaces by proper heat treatment conditions and the β interfacial precipitate improves the creep resistance of fully lamellar TiAl alloys, since the phase interface of γ/β retards the motion of dislocations during creep. This paper reviews recent research on high-temperature strengthening behavior of the β phase in fully lamellar TiAl alloys.

  10. Effect of high-order multicomponent on formation and properties of Zr-based bulk glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A., E-mail: ainouebmg@yahoo.co.jp [International Institute of Green Materials, Josai International University, Togane 283-8555 (Japan); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Wang, Z.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Han, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Kong, F.L. [International Institute of Green Materials, Josai International University, Togane 283-8555 (Japan); Shalaan, E.; Al-Marzouki, F. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • A multicomponent Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 6}Co{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}Pd{sub 6}Ag{sub 5} bulk glassy alloy was formed. • The high-order multiplication suppression of the decrease in mechanical strength. • The BGAs show good corrosion resistance and slow growth rate of primary precipitates. - Abstract: We examined the formation, thermal stability, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of a multicomponent Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 6}Co{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}Pd{sub 6}Ag{sub 5} bulk glassy alloy, with the aim of clarifying the effect of high-order multiplication of the number of components on their properties. The bulk glassy alloy rods of 2 and 6 mm in diameter were formed by suction casting even at the low total content of typical glass-forming 3-d late transition metals like Co, Ni and Cu. The Vickers hardness is different in the center region and in the outer surface region. The difference seems to reflect the relaxation level of glassy structure. The Young’s modulus and the compressive fracture strength are nearly the same for the base Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 5}Cu{sub 30} alloy in spite of the existence of immiscible atomic pairs. Moreover, the multicomponent alloy exhibits better corrosion resistance than that for the base alloy. The glassy phase changes to a supercooled liquid state at 720 K and then starts to crystallize at 754 K with a single exothermic peak, in contrast to the appearance of a wide supercooled liquid region for the base alloy. The primary crystalline phase precipitates with very short incubation time and very low growth rate, which are different from those for the base alloy. The extremely low growth rate of the crystallites is presumably due to the reduction of diffusivity of late transition metal elements resulting from multiplication. Thus, the high-order multiplication has the features of (1) the maintenance of high glass-forming ability even at the lower Co, Ni and Cu content and in the absence of

  11. Phase transformations in the B2 phase of Co-rich Co-Al binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, K.; Omori, T.; Nagasako, M.; Oikawa, K.; Kainuma, R.; Ishida, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bainitic transformation and a martensite-like structure from B2-CoAl were observed depending on quenching rate. → The phase separation into the metastable A2 + B2 structure was found in the as-quenched B2-CoAl. → The two-phase structure of A2 and B2 was found to show some coercive force after aging under a magnetic field. - Abstract: Phase transformations in the β (B2) phase of Co-21 and -23 at.% Al alloys were examined using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures obtained from as-quenched specimens were found to be strongly affected by the quenching condition. While relatively thick sheet-specimens with a lower quenching rate showed bainitic plate precipitates with a fcc structure, a martensite-like structure was observed by optical microscopy in relatively thin specimens with a higher quenching rate. Regardless of the quenching condition, a spinodal-like microstructure composed of A2 and B2 phases was also detected and the A2 phase changed to a metastable hcp phase during further aging.

  12. Phase-Field simulation of phase decomposition in Fe-Cr-Co alloy under an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki; Onodera, Hidehiro

    2004-07-01

    Phase decomposition during isothermal aging of a Fe-Cr-Co ternary alloy under an external magnetic field is simulated based on the phase-field method. In this simulation, since the Gibbs energy available from the thermodynamic CALPHAD database of the equilibrium phase diagram is employed as a chemical free energy, the present calculation provides the quantitative microstructure changes directly linked to the phase diagram. The simulated microstructure evolution demonstrates that the lamella like microstructure elongated along the external magnetic field is evolved with the progress of aging. The morphological and temporal developments of the simulated microstructures are in good agreement with experimental results that have been obtained for this alloy system.

  13. Crystallographic information of intermediate phases in binary Mg–X (X=Sn, Y, Sc, Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The compositions and structures of thermodynamically stable or metastable precipitations in binary Mg-X (X=Sn, Y, Sc, Ag alloys are predicted using ab-initio evolutionary algorithm. The geometry optimizations of the predicted intermetallic compounds are carried out in the framework of density functional theory (DFT [1]. A complete list of the optimized crystallographic information (in cif format of the predicted intermetallic phases is presented here. The data is related to “Predictions on the compositions, structures, and mechanical properties of intermediate phases in binary Mg–X (X=Sn, Y, Sc, Ag alloys” by Liu et al. [2].

  14. Effect of Sn addition on phases stability and mechanical properties of aged Ti-10Mo Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, F.F.; Lopes, E.S.N.; Cremasco, A.; Contieri, R.J.; Mello, M.G.; Caram, R.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays there is considerable effort in order to develop new titanium alloys using non-toxic elements such as Mo and Sn. This work deals with the alloys Ti-Mo-Sn. The samples were melted, homogenized and hot swaged. Afterwards they were solubilized and water quenched. The alloys were also aged at several temperatures Characterization involved determination of Young's modulus, hardness, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of athermal and isothermal ω phase for Ti-10Mo alloy. One also evidenced that the Vickers hardness varies with the temperature and the time of aging heat treatment. (author)

  15. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  16. Effect of a Traveling Magnetic Field on Micropore Formation in Al-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjin Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of traveling magnetic fields (TMFs on the grain and micro-pore formation in an Al alloy was studied by scanning electron microscope and X-ray microtomography in this work. The results show that with the increasing magnetic flux density, the three-dimensional morphology of the micro-pores transformed from dendrite to a relatively equiaxed structure. Quantified results show that both the micro-pore volume fraction and the average grain size of the primary phase decreased as the TMF density increased. The analyses show that the forced convection induced by TMF can break the dendrites, refine the grain size, and promote the liquid feeding, leading to the decrease in the volume fraction of the porosity and improved mechanical property. The TMF performed at different stages during solidification reveal that the maximum effect of TMF on reducing the micro-pore formation was found when TMF was applied in the stage of nucleation and the early stage of grain growth during solidification.

  17. Influence of transport mechanisms on nucleation and grain structure formation in DC cast aluminium alloy ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, M.; Založnik, M.; Kumar, A.; Combeau, H.; Jarry, P.; Waz, E.

    2012-01-01

    The grain structure formation in direct chill (DC) casting is directly linked to nucleation, which is generally promoted by inoculation. Inoculation prevents defects, but also modifies the physical properties by changing the microstructure. We studied the coupling of the nucleation on inoculant particles and the grain growth in the presence of melt flow induced by thermosolutal convection and of the transport of free-floating equiaxed grains. We used a volume-averaged two-phase multiscale model with a fully coupled description of phenomena on the grain scale (nucleation on grain refiner particles and grain growth) and on the product scale (macroscopic transport). The transport of inoculant particles is also modeled, which accounts for the inhomogeneous distribution of inoculant particles in the melt. The model was applied to an industrial sized (350mm thick) DC cast aluminium alloy ingot. A discretised nuclei size distribution was defined and the impact of different macroscopic phenomena on the grain structure formation was studied: the zone and intensity of nucleation and the resulting grain size distribution. It is shown that nucleation in the presence of macroscopic transport cannot be explained only in terms of cooling rate, but variations of composition, nuclei density and grain density, all affected by transport, must be accounted for.

  18. Formation of SmFe5(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    SmFe 5 (0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe 5 structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 . The Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  19. Formation of SmFe{sub 5}(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: yabuhara@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    SmFe{sub 5}(0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe{sub 5} structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5}. The Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5} film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  20. Nano-scale clusters formed in the early stage of phase decomposition of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirosawa, S.; Sato, T. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The formation of nano-scale clusters (nanoclusters) prior to the precipitation of the strengthening {beta}'' phase significantly influences two-step aging behavior of Al-Mg-Si alloys. In this work, the existence of two kinds of nanoclusters has been verified in the early stage of phase decomposition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP). Pre-aging treatment at 373 K before natural aging was also found to form preferentially one of the two nanoclusters, resulting in the remarkable restoration of age-hardenability at paint-bake temperatures. Such microstructural control by means of optimized heat-treatments; i.e. nanocluster assist processing (NCAP), possesses great potential for enabling Al-Mg-Si alloys to be used more widely as a body-sheet material of automobiles. (orig.)

  1. Growth of a Copper-Gold Alloy Phase by Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Investigated by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per

    1995-01-01

    the potential in the double-layer charging region from 500 to -100 mV and back to 500 mV at a sweep rate of 1 mV/s in an acidified copper sulfate electrolyte (0.01M H2SO4, 0.01M CuSO4, and Millipore water). After completion of the first cycle the gold surface had recrystallized and nuclei of an alloy phase were...... in peak potential for the anodic current transient from E = 20 mV to E = -2 mV was observed after completion of four subsequent cycles of copper electrodeposition/dissolution. The shift is suggested to be equal to the change in potential of the working electrode owing to the formation of the alloy phase....

  2. Precipitation of the sigma-phase in Mo-Re alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freze, N.I.; Levitskij, A.D.; Tyumentsev, A.N.; Korotaev, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Disintegration processes in thin foils and replicas of alloys Mo+(52 - 56) wpc Re and Mo+(52 - 56)% Re+(0.05 - 0.10)% Fe wpc were studied by electronic microscopy. Alloying with iron was conducted to determine the effect of iron atom segregations at the grain boundaries on separation of the sigma-phase in these regions. Since the nature of disintegration in all alloys was identical, the experimental data were considered on the example of alloy Mo + 54 wpc Re. The laminated specimens of 1 - 2 mm in thickness subjected to cold rolling with subsequent tempering at T = 1100 deg C for 15 min were characterized by intensive disintegration. As a result finelydispersed laminated sigma-phase uniformly distributed throughout the entire volume of the material was formed. The non-deformed specimens did not show separation of the sigma-phase. As a result of separation of the finely-dispersed sigma-phase plasticity of the alloys was increased. So that a foil of Δh = 0.2 mm in thickness can be produced by cold rolling of the laminated specimens without intermediate annealing. By changing the initial state of the specimens and temperature of annealing dispersity and spatial distribution of the sigma-phase may be substantially modified. It provides for considerably increasing plasticity of the two-phase alloys. During separation of the sigma-phase hardness of the deformed specimens becomes greater. Therefore the low-temperature disintegration accompanied by separation of the sigma-phase may be employed for disperse strengthening of the Mo-Re alloys. The refractory properties of such alloye will not be high, since it is coagulated the finely-dispersed segregations of the sigma-phase even at T > 1100 deg C

  3. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  4. Martensitic phase transformation in shape-memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golestaneh, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Isothermal studies are described of the shape-recovery phenomenon, stress-strain behavior, electrical resistivity and thermo-electric power associated with the martensite-parent phase reaction in the Ni-Ti shape-memory alloys. The energy-balance equation that links the reaction kinetics with the strain energy change during the cooling-deforming and heating cycle is analyzed. The strain range in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation satisfactorily describes this reaction is determined. A large change in the Young's modulus of the specimen is found to be associated with the M → P reaction. A hysteresis loop in the resistivity-temperature plot is found and related to the anomaly in the athermal resistivity changes during cyclic M → P → M transformation. An explanation for the resistivity anomaly is offered. The M structure is found to be electrically negative relative to the P structure. A thermal emf of greater than or equal to 0.12 mV is found at the M-P interface

  5. Phase transformation and precipitation in aged Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.L.; Cai, W.; Zheng, Y.F.; Zhao, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    More attention has been paid to ternary Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to their high phase transformation temperatures, good thermal stability and low cost. However, the Ti-Ni-Hf alloys have been found to have low ductility and only about 3% shape memory effect and these have hampered their applications. It is well known that there are three methods to improve the shape memory properties of high-temperature SMAs: (a) cold rolling + annealing; (b) adding another element to the alloy; (c) aging. These methods are not suitable to improve the properties of Ti-Ni-Hf alloys. In this paper, a method of conditioning Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys as high-temperature SMAs by aging is presented. For Ni-rich Ti 80-x Ni x Hf 20 alloys (numbers indicate at.%) the phase transformation temperatures are on average increased by more than 100 K by aging at 823 K for 2 h. Especially for those alloys with Ni contents less than 50.6 at.%, the martensitic transformation start temperatures (M s ) are higher than 473 K after aging. Transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 precipitates after aging. Compared with the precipitation of Ti 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys, the precipitation of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys needs higher temperatures and longer times

  6. Application of invariant plane strain (IPS) theory to {gamma} hydride formation in dilute Zr-Nb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, D. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)]. E-mail: dsrivastavabarc@yahoo.co.in; Neogy, S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Banerjee, S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Ranganathan, S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2005-04-25

    The crystallographic aspects associated with the formation of the {gamma} hydride phase (fct) from the {alpha} (hcp) phase and the {beta} (bcc) phase in Zr-Nb alloys have been studied in two distinct situations, viz., in the {alpha} matrix in pure Zr and Zr-2.5Nb and in the {beta} matrix in {beta} stabilized Zr-20Nb alloy. The {beta}-{gamma} formation can be treated primarily as a simple shear on the basal plane involving a change in the stacking sequence. A possible mechanism for {alpha}-{gamma} transformation has been presented in this paper. In this paper the {beta}->{gamma} transformation has been considered in terms of the invariant plane strain theory (IPS) in order to predict the crystallographic features of the {gamma} hydride formed. The lattice invariant shear (LIS) (110){sub {beta}}[1-bar 10]{sub {beta}}||(111){sub {gamma}}[12-bar 1]{sub {gamma}} has been considered and the crystallographic parameters associated with bcc->fct transformation, such as the habit plane and the magnitude of the LIS and the shape strain have been computed. The predictions made in the present analysis have been compared with experimentally observed habit planes. The {alpha}/{gamma} and {beta}/{gamma} interface has been examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) technique to compare with the interfaces observed in martensitic transformations.

  7. Application of invariant plane strain (IPS) theory to γ hydride formation in dilute Zr-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.; Neogy, S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.; Ranganathan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallographic aspects associated with the formation of the γ hydride phase (fct) from the α (hcp) phase and the β (bcc) phase in Zr-Nb alloys have been studied in two distinct situations, viz., in the α matrix in pure Zr and Zr-2.5Nb and in the β matrix in β stabilized Zr-20Nb alloy. The β-γ formation can be treated primarily as a simple shear on the basal plane involving a change in the stacking sequence. A possible mechanism for α-γ transformation has been presented in this paper. In this paper the β->γ transformation has been considered in terms of the invariant plane strain theory (IPS) in order to predict the crystallographic features of the γ hydride formed. The lattice invariant shear (LIS) (110) β [1-bar 10] β ||(111) γ [12-bar 1] γ has been considered and the crystallographic parameters associated with bcc->fct transformation, such as the habit plane and the magnitude of the LIS and the shape strain have been computed. The predictions made in the present analysis have been compared with experimentally observed habit planes. The α/γ and β/γ interface has been examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) technique to compare with the interfaces observed in martensitic transformations

  8. Near Net Shape Fabrication Technology for Shape Memory Alloy Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I effort proposes to develop an innovative, affordable processing route for larger-sized shape memory alloy (SMA) components. Despite significant...

  9. Influence of pressure on the solid state phase transformation of Cu–Al–Bi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li; Jian-Hua, Liu; Wen-Kui, Wang; Ri-Ping, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The solid state phase transformation of Cu-Al-Bi alloy under high pressure was investigated by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results show that the initial crystalline phase in the Cu-Al-Bi alloy annealed at 750 °C under the pressures in the range of 0–6 GPa is α-Cu solid solution (named as α-Cu phase below), and high pressure has a great influence on the crystallisation process of the Cu-Al-Bi alloy. The grain size of the α-Cu phase decreases with increasing pressure as the pressure is below about 3 GPa, and then increases (P > 3 GPa). The mechanism for the effects of high pressure on the crystallisation process of the alloy has been discussed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  10. Oxidation kinetics of a Pb-64 at.% In single-phase alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.X.; Chang, Y.A.; Marcotte, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The solid-state oxidation kinetics of a Pb-64 at.% IN(50 wt.%) single-phase alloy were studied from room temperature to 150C using AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) depth profiling technique. The general oxidation behavior of this alloy is different from that of a Pb-3 at.% In alloy but similar to that of a Pb-30 at.% In alloy. The oxide formed on this alloy is almost pure In oxide (In 2 O 3 ) with the possible existence of some In suboxide near the oxide/alloy interface. At room temperature, oxidation of the alloy follows a direct logarithmic law, and the results can be described by the model proposed previously by Zhang, Chang, and Marcotte. At temperatures higher than 75C, rapid oxidation occurred initially followed by a slower parabolic oxidation at longer time. These data were described quantitatively by the model which assumes the existence of short-circuit diffusion in addition to lattice diffusion in the oxide as proposed by Smeltzer, Haering, and Kirkaldy. The effects of alloy composition in the oxidation kinetics of (pb, In) alloy are also examined by comparing the data for Pb-3, 30, and 64 at.% In alloys

  11. Controlling the formation and stability of ultra-thin nickel silicides - An alloying strategy for preventing agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, F. A.; van Stiphout, K.; Nanakoudis, A.; Bals, S.; Vantomme, A.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2018-02-01

    The electrical contact of the source and drain regions in state-of-the-art CMOS transistors is nowadays facilitated through NiSi, which is often alloyed with Pt in order to avoid morphological agglomeration of the silicide film. However, the solid-state reaction between as-deposited Ni and the Si substrate exhibits a peculiar change for as-deposited Ni films thinner than a critical thickness of tc = 5 nm. Whereas thicker films form polycrystalline NiSi upon annealing above 450 ° C , thinner films form epitaxial NiSi2 films that exhibit a high resistance toward agglomeration. For industrial applications, it is therefore of utmost importance to assess the critical thickness with high certainty and find novel methodologies to either increase or decrease its value, depending on the aimed silicide formation. This paper investigates Ni films between 0 and 15 nm initial thickness by use of "thickness gradients," which provide semi-continuous information on silicide formation and stability as a function of as-deposited layer thickness. The alloying of these Ni layers with 10% Al, Co, Ge, Pd, or Pt renders a significant change in the phase sequence as a function of thickness and dependent on the alloying element. The addition of these ternary impurities therefore changes the critical thickness tc. The results are discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory.

  12. The study on binary Mg-Co hydrogen storage alloys with BCC phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Tsushio, Yoshinori; Enoki, Hirotoshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2005-01-01

    Novel Mg-Co binary alloys were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying. These alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), pressure-composition-isotherms measurements (P-C-T) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both XRD Rietveld analysis and TEM observation confirmed that these binary alloys contain BCC phase and that the BCC phase existed in the range from 37 to 80 at.% Co. The lattice parameter of the BCC phase increased with the increase of the Co content from 37 to 50 at.%. When the Co content reached 50 at.%, the lattice parameter reached a maximum value, and then turned to decrease gradually with further increase of the Co content. Most of Mg-Co BCC alloys absorbed hydrogen at 373 K under 6 MPa of hydrogen pressure. The Mg 60 Co 40 alloy showed the highest hydrogen absorption capacity, about 2.7 mass% hydrogen. However, all the Mg-Co alloys studied did not desorb hydrogen at 373 K. By means of DSC measurements and in situ XRD analysis, it was found that under 4 MPa hydrogen atmosphere, Mg 50 Co 50 alloy transformed from BCC solid solution to Mg 2 CoH 5 tetragonal hydride at 413 K

  13. Effects of substrate microstructure on the formation of oriented oxide nanotube arrays on Ti and Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.P. [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Department of Materials Engineering (Dema/FEM), CP 6122, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, M.C. [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Instituto de Química, CP 6154, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Caram, R. [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Department of Materials Engineering (Dema/FEM), CP 6122, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Bertazzoli, R., E-mail: rbertazzoli@fem.unicamp.br [State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Department of Materials Engineering (Dema/FEM), CP 6122, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, C.A. [Federal University of São Paulo – Campus Diadema (UNIFESP – Campus Diadema), Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Rua São Nicolau n° 210, 09913-030 Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The formation of nanotubular oxide layers on Ti and Ti alloys has been widely investigated for the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds due to their excellent catalytic efficiency, chemical stability, and low cost and toxicity. Aiming to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of this nanostructured oxide, this work investigated the influence of substrate grain size on the growth of nanotubular oxide layers. Ti and Ti alloys (Ti–6Al, Ti–6Al–7Nb) were produced by arc melting with non-consumable tungsten electrode and water-cooled copper hearth under argon atmosphere. Some of the ingots were heat-treated at 1000 °C for 12 and 24 h in argon atmosphere, followed by slow cooling rates to reduce crystalline defects and increase the grain size of their microstructures. Three types of samples were anodized: commercial substrate, as-prepared and heat-treated samples. The anodization was performed using fluoride solution and a cell potential of 20 V. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The heat treatment preceding the anodization process increased the grain size of pure Ti and Ti alloys and promoted the formation of Widmanstätten structures in Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 7}Nb. The nanotubes layers grown on smaller grain and thermally untreated samples were more regular and homogeneous. In the case of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which presents a α + β phase microstructure, the morphology of nanotubes nucleated on α matrix was more regular than those of nanotubes nucleated on β phase. After the annealing process, the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy presented full diffusion process and the growth of equilibrium phases resulting in the appearance of regions containing higher concentrations of Nb, i.e. beta phase. In those regions the dissolution rate of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is lower than that of TiO{sub 2}, resulting in a nanoporous layer. In general, heat treating reduces crystalline defects and promotes

  14. Modeling of metastable phase formation diagrams for sputtered thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; To Baben, Moritz; Lange, Dennis; Bolvardi, Hamid; Schneider, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    A method to model the metastable phase formation in the Cu-W system based on the critical surface diffusion distance has been developed. The driver for the formation of a second phase is the critical diffusion distance which is dependent on the solubility of W in Cu and on the solubility of Cu in W. Based on comparative theoretical and experimental data, we can describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation. Metastable phase formation diagrams for Cu-W and Cu-V thin films are predicted and validated by combinatorial magnetron sputtering experiments. The correlative experimental and theoretical research strategy adopted here enables us to efficiently describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation during magnetron sputtering.

  15. Formation of long-period stacking ordered structures in Mg88M5Y7 (M = Ti, Ni and Pb) casting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Qian-Qian; Fang, Can-Feng; Mi, Shao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Apart from 18R-LPSO, 14H-LPSO structure was determined in the Mg-Ni-Y alloys. •The appearance of twin-related structure in 18R-LPSO structure results from the stacking faults in the stacking sequence of the closely packed planes. •A new (Pb, Mg) 2 Y phase with a body-centered orthorhombic structure was determined in the Mg-Pb-Y alloy. •No LPSO structures were found in the Mg-Pb-Y and Mg-Ti-Y casting alloys. -- Abstract: Formation of long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) structures is investigated in Mg 88 M 5 Y 7 (M = Ti, Ni and Pb) casting alloys by means of electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the Mg 88 Ni 5 Y 7 casting alloy, 14H-LPSO structure is observed in a small amount, which coexists with 18R-LPSO structure. The appearance of stacking faults in 18R-LPSO structure results in twin-related structure in the stacking sequence of the closely packed planes. A new (Pb, Mg) 2 Y phase with a body-centered orthorhombic structure is determined in the Mg 88 Pb 5 Y 7 alloy. No LPSO structures are found in the Mg 88 Pb 5 Y 7 and Mg 88 Ti 5 Y 7 casting alloys. In terms of the atomic radius and heat of mixing, the formation ability of LPSO structure in the present alloys is discussed

  16. Stability of mechanically alloyed vacancy ordered phase in Al{sub 70}Cu{sub 15}Ni{sub 15} alloy during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Thakur Prasad; Tiwari, Radhey Shyam; Srivastava, Onkar Nath [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Nilay Krishna, E-mail: hepons@yahoo.co, E-mail: yadavtp@gmail.co [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005 (India)

    2010-04-01

    A nano {tau}{sub 3} vacancy-ordered phase in the Al-Cu-Ni alloy system has been synthesized with a composition close to Al{sub 70}Cu{sub 15}Ni{sub 15} by mechanical alloying a mixture of elemental powder in a high-energy ball mill by varying milling time from 10 to 100 hours. The stability of nano-crystalline {tau}{sub 3} vacancy-ordered phase has been studied under thermal annealing in vacuum as well as in air. The x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques were employed for characterization of the milled and annealed samples. The powder after 100 h of milling was found to contain mostly nano {tau}{sub 3} phase with the partial ordering, and with crystallite sizes in the range of 10-20 nm along with a lattice strain of {approx}0.67 %. The milled powder, after annealing in vacuum at 700 {sup 0}C for 60 h, revealed the formation of a strain-free and ordered {tau}{sub 3} phase with a crystallite size of 80 nm, indicating grain coarsening. It is interesting to note that the milled powder annealed in air at 700 {sup 0}C for 60 h showed the formation of (Cu,Ni)Al{sub 2}O{sub 4} type spinel phase with the lattice parameter of 8.1 A and the lattice strain as 0.52 %. The average grain size of spinel phase was found to be {approx} 40 nm.

  17. Features of structure formation in the low modulus quasi-single crystal from Zr-25%Nb alloy at cold rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaenkova, M.; Perlovich, Yu.; Fesenko, V.; Babich, Y.; Zaripova, M.; Krapivka, N.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of the regularities of the structure and texture formation during rolling of single crystals of Zr-25%Nb alloy differing in their initial orientations relative to the external principal directions in the rolled plate: normal (ND) and rolling directions (RD). The features of rolled single crystals with initial orientations of planes {001}, {011} or {111} parallel to the rolling plane and different crystallographic directions along RD are considered. A comparison of the peculiarities of plastic deformation in a polycrystalline alloy of the same composition is made. For the samples studied, a decrease in the lattice parameter of the β-phase has been recorded, the minimum of the parameter being observed for different degrees of deformation, varying from 20 to 50%. Observed decrease in the unit cell parameter can be connected with the precipitation of the α(α')-Zr phase from the deformed nonequilibrium β-phase of the Zr-25%Nb alloy, i.e. change in the composition of the solid solution. Distributions of the increase in the dimensions of the deformed single crystal along RD and the transverse direction (TD) with its deformation up to 30% in thickness, which indicate the anisotropy of the plasticity of single crystals during their rolling, are constructed on stereographic projection. It is shown, that the deformation of single crystals occurs practically without increasing of their dimensions in the direction with a total thickness deformation of up to 30%. Direction is characterized by maximum hardening (microhardness) with indentation along it, which causes low plasticity of deformed and annealed foils from Zr-25%Nb alloy at the stretching along and across RD, that is connected with the features of their crystallographic texture.

  18. Formation and Applications of Bulk Glassy Alloys in Late Transition Metal Base System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Shen Baolong

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent results of the formation, fundamental properties, workability and applications of late transition metal (LTM) base bulk glassy alloys (BGAs) developed since 1995. The BGAs were obtained in Fe-(Al,Ga)-(P,C,B,Si), Fe-(Cr,Mo)-(C,B), Fe-(Zr,Hf,Nb,Ta)-B, Fe-Ln-B(Ln=lanthanide metal), Fe-B-Si-Nb and Fe-Nd-Al for Fe-based alloys, Co-(Ta,Mo)-B and Co-B-Si-Nb for Co-based alloys, Ni-Nb-(Ti,Zr)-(Co,Ni) for Ni-based alloys, and Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf)-(Ni,Co) and Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf)-(Ag,Pd) for Cu-based alloys. These BGAs exhibit useful properties of high mechanical strength, large elastic elongation and high corrosion resistance. In addition, Fe- and Co-based glassy alloys have good soft magnetic properties which cannot be obtained for amorphous and crystalline type magnetic alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based BGAs have already been used in some application fields. These LTM base BGAs are promising as new metallic engineering materials

  19. Interrelation of material microstructure, ultrasonic factors, and fracture toughness of two phase titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The pivotal role of an alpha-beta phase microstructure in governing fracture toughness in a titanium alloy, Ti-662, is demonstrated. The interrelation of microstructure and fracture toughness is demonstrated using ultrasonic measurement techniques originally developed for nondestructive evaluation and material property characterization. It is shown that the findings determined from ultrasonic measurements agree with conclusions based on metallurgical, metallographic, and fractographic observations concerning the importance of alpha-beta morphology in controlling fracture toughness in two phase titanium alloys.

  20. Scanning Precession Electron Diffraction Study of 2xxx Series Aluminium Alloys Exhibiting Several Coexisting Strengthening Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Sunde, Jonas Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this thesis, scanning precession electron diffraction is applied to heat-treated Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Cu-Ag alloys, shedding light on the distribution of phases present and the complex interplay between these microstructural features. The employed technique yielded high quality data sets, which through subsequent data processing enabled a detailed phase mapping of these multi-component Al alloys. Among the main results presented, are virtual dark field images highlighting all separat...

  1. A phenomenological two-phase constitutive model for porous shape memory alloys

    KAUST Repository

    El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-07-01

    We present a two-phase constitutive model for pseudoelastoplastic behavior of porous shape memory alloys (SMAs). The model consists of a dense SMA phase and a porous plasticity phase. The overall response of the porous SMA is obtained by a weighted average of responses of individual phases. Based on the chosen constitutive model parameters, the model incorporates the pseudoelastic and pseudoplastic behavior simultaneously (commonly reported for porous SMAs) as well as sequentially (i.e. dense SMAs; pseudoelastic deformation followed by the pseudoplastic deformation until failure). The presented model also incorporates failure due to the deviatoric (shear band formation) and volumetric (void growth and coalescence) plastic deformation. The model is calibrated by representative volume elements (RVEs) with different sizes of spherical voids that are solved by unit cell finite element calculations. The overall response of the model is tested against experimental results from literature. Finally, application of the presented constitutive model has been presented by performing finite element simulations of the deformation and failure in unaixial dog-bone shaped specimen and compact tension (CT) test specimen. Results show a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Film on Mg-Gd-Zn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Z. X.; Dong, Q. S.; Kong, S. X.; Zhang, X. B.; Xue, Y. J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    An environment-friendly technique for depositing a Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT) (Mg6Al2(OH)16-CO3ṡ4H2O) conversion film was developed to protect the Mg-Gd-Zn alloy from corrosion. The morphology and chemical compositions of the film were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. The electrochemical test and hydrogen evolution test were employed to evaluate the biocorrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn alloy coated with the Mg-Al HT film in the simulated body fluid (SBF). It was found that the formation of Mg-Al HT film was a transition from amorphous precursor to a crystalline HT structure. The HT film can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. It indicates that the process provides a promising approach to modify Mg-Gd-Zn alloy.

  3. Formation of incoherent deformation twin boundaries in a coarse-grained Al-7Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. B.; Zhang, K.; Bjørge, R.; Tao, N. R.; Marthinsen, K.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. J.

    2015-08-01

    Deformation twinning has rarely been observed in coarse grained Al and its alloys except under some extreme conditions such as ultrahigh deformation strain or strain rates. Here, we report that a significant amount of Σ3 deformation twins could be generated in a coarse-grained Al-7 Mg alloy by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). A systematic investigation of the Σ3 boundaries shows that they are Σ3{112} type incoherent twin boundaries (ITBs). These ITBs have formed by gradual evolution from copious low-angle deformation bands through -twist Σ boundaries by lattice rotation. These findings provide an approach to generate deformation twin boundaries in high stacking fault energy metallic alloys. It is suggested that high solution content of Mg in the alloy and the special deformation mode of DPD played an important role in formation of the Σ and ITBs.

  4. Altering the cooling rate dependence of phase formation during rapid solidification in the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branagan, D.J. [USDOE, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab.]|[Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; McCallum, R.W. [USDOE, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab.]|[Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-04-26

    In order to evaluate the effects of additions on the solidification behavior of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, a stoichiometric alloy was modified with elemental additions of Ti or C and a compound addition of Ti with C. For each alloy, a series of wheel speed runs was undertaken, from which the optimum wheel speeds and optimum energy products were determined. On the BH{sub max} versus wheel speed plots, regions were identified in order to analyze the changes with cooling rates leading to phase formation brought about by the alloy modifications. The compilation of the regional data of the modified alloys showed their effects on altering the cooling rate dependence of phase formation. It was found that the regions of properitectic iron formation, glass formation, and the optimum cooling rate can be changed by more than a factor of two through appropriate alloying additions. The effects of the alloy modifications can be visualized in a convenient fashion through the use of a model continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram which represents phase formation during the solidification process under continuous cooling conditions for a wide range of cooling rates from rapid solidification to equilibrium cooling. ((orig.)).

  5. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy

  6. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  7. Phase evolution during early stages of mechanical alloying of Cu–13 wt.% Al powder mixtures in a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudina, Dina V.; Lomovsky, Oleg I.; Valeev, Konstantin R.; Tikhov, Serguey F.; Boldyreva, Natalya N.; Salanov, Aleksey N.; Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Andreev, Andrey S.; Lapina, Olga B.; Sadykov, Vladislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase formation during early stages of Cu–Al mechanical alloying was studied. • The products of mechanical alloying are of highly non-equilibrium character. • X-ray amorphous phases are present in the products of mechanical alloying. • An Al-rich X-ray amorphous phase is distributed between the crystallites. - Abstract: We report the phase and microstructure evolution of the Cu–13 wt.% Al mixture during treatment in a high-energy planetary ball mill with a particular focus on the early stages of mechanical alloying. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction phase analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential dissolution, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy/elemental analysis, have been combined to study the evolution of the phase composition of the mechanically alloyed powders and describe the microstructure of the multi-phase products of mechanical alloying at different length scales. The following reaction sequence has been confirmed: Cu + Al → CuAl 2 (+Cu) → Cu 9 Al 4 + (Cu) → Cu(Al). The phase evolution was accompanied by the microstructure changes, the layered structure of the powder agglomerates disappearing with milling time. This scheme is further complicated by the processes of copper oxidation, reduction of copper oxides by metallic aluminum, and by variation of the stoichiometry of Cu(Al) solid solutions with milling time. Substantial amounts of X-ray amorphous phases were detected as well. Differential dissolution technique has revealed that a high content of aluminum in the Cu(Al) solid solution-based powders is due to the presence of Al-rich phases distributed between the Cu(Al) crystallites

  8. Formation of solid solutions of gallium in Fe–Cr and Fe–Co alloys: Mössbauer studies and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serikov, V.V. [Institute of Metal Physics UB RAS, S. Kovalevskaya str. 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kleinerman, N.M., E-mail: kleinerman@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics UB RAS, S. Kovalevskaya str. 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vershinin, A.V.; Mushnikov, N.V.; Protasov, A.V.; Stashkova, L.A. [Institute of Metal Physics UB RAS, S. Kovalevskaya str. 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gorbatov, O.I. [Institute of Metal Physics UB RAS, S. Kovalevskaya str. 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE - 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Ruban, A.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE - 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Gornostyrev, Yu.N. [Institute of Metal Physics UB RAS, S. Kovalevskaya str. 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Structure features of the formation of quasibinary solid solutions Fe–Co–Ga and Fe–Cr–Ga are found. • The first-principles calculation of mixing and solubility energies for Ga in an Fe–X alloy are given. • Ga handicaps the processes of phase separation in the Fe–Cr system and ordering in the Fe–Co system. • Preference of Ga entering in the neighborhood of a second element can help study multielement alloys. - Abstract: Investigation of Ga influence on the structure of Fe–Cr and Fe–Co alloys was performed with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The experimental results are compared with results of first-principles calculations of the mixing and solubility energies for Ga in an Fe–X (X = Co, Cr) alloy both in ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states. It is shown that Ga mainly goes into the solid solutions of the base alloys. In the alloys of the Fe–Cr system, doping with Ga handicaps the decomposition of solid solutions, observed in the binary alloys, and increases its stability. In the alloys with Co, Ga also favors the uniformity of solid solutions. The results of the first-principles calculations testify in favor of a preferable dissolution of Ga in the FeCo regions of a multicomponent structure rather than FeCr regions, both types of regions being in the ferromagnetic state at the temperature of annealing. The analysis of Mössbauer experiments gives some grounds to conclude that if, owing to liquation, clusterization, or initial stages of phase separation, there exist regions enriched in iron, some amount of Ga atoms prefer to enter the nearest surroundings of iron atoms, thus forming binary Fe–Ga regions (or phases)

  9. Liquid-phase synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials on preheated alloy substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and related nanocarbons were selectively synthesized on commercially available alloy substrates by a simple liquid-phase technique. Fe- and Ni-rich stainless-steel (JIS SUS316L and Inconel®600, respectively) and Ni-Cu alloy (Monel®400) substrates were used for the synthesis, and each substrate was preheated in air to promote the self-formation of catalyst nanolayers on the surface. The substrates were resistance heated in ethanol without any addition of catalysts to grow CNTs. The yield of the CNTs effectively increased when the preheating process was employed. Highly aligned CNT arrays grew on the SUS316L substrate, while non-aligned CNTs and distinctive twisted fibers were observed on the other substrates. An Fe oxide layer was selectively formed on the preheated SUS316L substrate promoting the growth of the CNT arrays. Characterizations including cyclic voltammetry for the arrays revealed that the CNTs possess a comparatively defect-rich surface, which is a desirable characteristic for its application such as electrode materials for capacitors.

  10. Cu-Al alloy formation by thermal annealing of Cu/Al multilayer films deposited by cyclic metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hock Key; Yoon, Jaehong; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2013-05-01

    One of the most important issues in future Cu-based interconnects is to suppress the resistivity increase in the Cu interconnect line while decreasing the line width below 30 nm. For the purpose of mitigating the resistivity increase in the nanoscale Cu line, alloying Cu with traces of other elements is investigated. The formation of a Cu alloy layer using chemical vapor deposition or electroplating has been rarely studied because of the difficulty in forming Cu alloys with elements such as Al. In this work, Cu-Al alloy films were successfully formed after thermal annealing of Cu/Al multilayers deposited by cyclic metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (C-MOCVD). After the C-MOCVD of Cu/Al multilayers without gas phase reaction between the Cu and Al precursors in the reactor, thermal annealing was used to form Cu-Al alloy films with a small Al content fraction. The resistivity of the alloy films was dependent on the Al precursor delivery time and was lower than that of the aluminum-free Cu film. No presence of intermetallic compounds were detected in the alloy films by X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron spectroscopy.

  11. Oxidation-induced phase transformations and lifetime limits of chromia-forming nickel-base alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrkin, Anton

    2011-12-05

    For its high creep resistance the commercial nickel-base alloy 625 relies on solid solution strengthening in combination with precipitation hardening by formation of δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb and (Ni,Mo,Si){sub 6}C precipitates during high-temperature service. In oxidizing environments the alloy forms a slow growing, continuous chromia layer on the material surface which protects the alloy against rapid oxidation attack. The growth of the chromia base oxide scale results during exposure at 900-1000 C in oxidation-induced chromium depletion in the subsurface zone of the alloy. Microstructural analyses of the cross-sectioned specimens revealed that this process results in formation of a wide subsurface zone in which the mentioned strengthening phases are dissolved, in spite of the fact that both phases do not contain substantial amounts of the scale-forming element chromium. The cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in parallel to the formation of a precipitate depleted zone, a thin, continuous layer of niobium-rich intermetallic precipitates formed in the immediate vicinity of the scale/alloy interface. The Subsurface Phase Enrichment (abbreviated as SPE) was shown to be the result of an uphill-diffusion of niobium, i.e. the element stabilizing the strengthening precipitates δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb, in the chromium activity gradient and is thus a natural consequence of the oxidation-induced chromium depletion beneath the chromia scale. The thermodynamic calculations carried out using the Thermo-Calc/DICTRA software packages revealed that in alloy 625 the chemical activity of niobium decreases with decreasing chromium content. As chromium is being continuously removed from the alloy as the result of the chromia scale growth, the zone of lowest Nb-activity is formed in the location with the lowest chromium concentration, i.e. the scale/alloy interface. This creates a driving force for Nb to diffuse towards the scale/alloy interface against its own concentration gradient, which is known

  12. Structure and phase stability of a Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.W., E-mail: David.Wheeler@awe.co.uk; Ennaceur, S.M.; Matthews, M.B.; Roussel, P.; Bayer, P.D.

    2016-08-01

    In plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloys that have a Ga content of 0.3–0.4 wt%, their readiness to transform to α′ renders them of particular interest in efforts to understand the tenuous nature of δ phase stability. The present study is a comprehensive examination of the structure and phase stability of a cast Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy, the Ga content being close to the minimum amount needed to retain the δ phase to ambient temperature. The alloy was characterised in both the as-cast condition as well as following a homogenising heat treatment. The 250-h heat treatment at 450 °C was shown to achieve an apparently stable δ-Pu phase. However, the stability of the δ-Pu phase was shown to be marginal: partial transformation to α′-Pu was observed when the alloy was subjected to hydrostatic compression. Similar transformation was also apparent during metallographic preparation as well as during hardness indentation. The results provide new understanding of the nature of δ phase stability. - Highlights: • New insights into the delta phase stability of a Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy. • Density and DSC of as-cast alloy both show α-Pu contents of approximately 30%. • The heat-treated alloy has a largely δ-Pu structure at ambient temperature. • Heat-treated alloy susceptible to δ → α transformation during hardness indentation.

  13. Formation of omega phase under shock pressure, hydrostatic pressure and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    The omega transformation is one of the most intriguing phase transformations. The aspects which make it unique and interesting are the facts that this phase can form from two different parent phases viz. the alpha phase and the beta phase. The alpha to omega transformation has been observed under shock and static pressure and the mechanism involved has been studied in detail. Starting from the nucleation stage to the completion of the transformation, various interesting aspects of the mechanism of transformation has emerged in these studies. Although the parent and product phases are same under these conditions of transformation, a variation in the morphology and the kinetics of the product phase indicate different pathways for alpha to omega transformations. Similarly, the beta to omega transformation is also replete with several interesting features. This transformation can occur under application of pressure, thermal activation and also under irradiation. Here again the morphology of the product phase, the nucleation mechanisms and the kinetics of the phase transformation depend on the path of transformation, though the parent and product phases are same in each path. This presentation highlights the formation of the omega phase under different activations including the ones in extreme conditions in pure Zr and Zr based alloys. Theoretical aspects of the feasibility, pathways and kinetics of the transformations are also emphasized. (author)

  14. Formation, transformation and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    The basic mechanisms of film growth, transformation, and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces are discussed. Film growth can occur via solid-state processes or via substrate (usally metal or alloy) dissolution, followed by local supersaturation and precipitation of an insoluble phase. The phase(s) formed may be metastable and transform to a more stable phase, via either solid-state or dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Film dissolution reactions can also occur via a variety of mechanisms, including: (i) direct chemical dissolution when no oxidation state change occurs; (ii) redox dissolution when the film dissolves via a redox reaction involving a reducing or oxidizing agent in solution; and (iii) autoreduction, where film dissolution is coupled to metal dissolution. Such film-growth and dissolution processes, which often produce complex multilayer films, are common in the nuclear industry. A number of examples are discussed

  15. Mechanical behaviour of δ-phase Pu-Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschner, G.C.; Stout, M.G.; Hecker, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Paper describes a model to ensure prediction of the mechanical behaviour of gallium stabilized plutonium FCC-alloys representing the mechanical threshold strength (MSS) constitutive model based on the effect of temperature, of strain rate, of grain size and of alloy composition. One performed the comparative analysis of the design data derived by means of the elaborated mathematical techniques and of the published results of the mechanical tests of Pu-Ga system various alloys. The model is shown to be adequate to predict the tensile strength and the yield strength values [ru

  16. Investigations of binary and ternary phase change alloys for future memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Pascal

    2012-09-13

    The understanding of phase change materials is of great importance because it enables us to predict properties and tailor alloys which might be even better suitable to tackle challenges of future memory applications. Within this thesis two topics have been approached: on the one hand the understanding of the alloy In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} and on the other hand the so called resistivity drift of amorphous Ge-Sn-Te phase change materials. The main topic covers an in depth discussion of the ternary alloy In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2}. At first glance, this alloy does not fit into the established concepts of phase alloys: e.g. the existence of resonant bonding in the crystalline phase is not obvious and the number of p-electrons is very low compared to other phase change alloys. Furthermore amorphous phase change alloys with high indium content are usually not discussed in literature, an exception being the recent work by Spreafico et al. on InGeTe{sub 2}. For the first time a complete description of In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} alloy is given in this work for the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and crystallization process. In addition comparisons are drawn to typical phase change materials like Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}/GeTe or prototype systems like AgInTe{sub 2} and InTe. The second topic of this thesis deals with the issue of resistivity drift, i.e. the increase of resistivity of amorphous phase change alloys with aging. This drift effect greatly hampers the introduction of multilevel phase change memory devices into the market. Recently a systematic decrease of drift coefficient with stoichiometry has been observed in our group going from GeTe over Ge{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}Te{sub 4} to Ge{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. These alloys are investigated with respect to constraint theory.

  17. Void formation in NiTi shape memory alloys by medium-voltage electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossmacher, P.; Stober, T.

    1995-01-01

    In-situ electron irradiation experiments of NiTi shape memory alloys, using high-voltage transmission electron microscopes, result in amorphization of the intermetallic compound. In all of these experiments high-voltages more than 1.0 MeV had to be applied in order to induce the crystalline-to-amorphous transformation. To their knowledge no irradiation effects of medium-voltage electrons of e.g. 0.5 MeV have been reported in the literature. In this contribution, the authors describe void formation in two different NiTi shape memory alloys, resulting from in-situ electron irradiation, using a 300 kV electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. First evidence is presented that void formation is correlated with the total oxygen content of the alloys

  18. Phase composition and microhardness of rapidly quenched Al-Fe alloys after high pressure torsion deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Gunderov, D.V.; Afonina, E.A.; Brodova, I.G.; Stolyarov, V.V.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Shelekhov, E.V.; Tomilin, I.A

    2004-07-15

    Aluminium-based Al-Fe alloys with Fe content of 2, 8, and 10 wt.% were prepared by rapid quenching (RQ) from the melt at a rate of 10{sup 6} K/s. Structure of the alloys was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Phase transformations of RQ alloys by high pressure torsion (HPT) were studied. Dependences of phase composition on the intensity of HPT were investigated. Microhardness measurements of HPT alloys show a considerable structural heterogeneity of specimens, the dependence of microhardness on the radius of the pills was found out. Phase composition and microhardness during the heating were investigated. At the initial step of heating (120-150 deg. C), an increase in microhardness was observed, whereas further heating leads to a decrease in the microhardness.

  19. Atomic bonding of precipitate and phase transformation of Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yingjun; Hou Xianhua; Mo Qifeng; Wei Chengyang; Qin Xiaobing

    2007-01-01

    Atomic bonding of the GPB zone and S'' phase of Al-Cu-Mg alloys in early aging stage are calculated using the empirical electron theory (EET) in solid. The results show that not only the covalence bond-network is very strong in GPB zone, but the whole covalence bond energy of S'' phase is also very large, and all the primary bond-net framework of these precipitates can consolidate the matrix of alloy. Phase transformation from GPB zone to S'' phase is explained reasonably based on atomic bonding and total binding capacity of Al and Cu atoms in these precipitates

  20. Ultra-precision machining induced phase decomposition at surface of Zn-Al based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, S.; Zhu, Y.H.; Lee, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructural changes and phase transformation of an ultra-precision machined Zn-Al based alloy were examined using X-ray diffraction and back-scattered electron microscopy techniques. Decomposition of the Zn-rich η phase and the related changes in crystal orientation was detected at the surface of the ultra-precision machined alloy specimen. The effects of the machining parameters, such as cutting speed and depth of cut, on the phase decomposition were discussed in comparison with the tensile and rolling induced microstrucutural changes and phase decomposition

  1. First-principles study on the elastic properties of B′ and Q phase in Al-Mg-Si (-Cu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Rong-Kai; Ma Li; Bian Nan; Wang Minghui; Li Pengbo; Tang Biyu; Peng Liming; Ding Wenjiang

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations within the density functional theory have been carried out to study the structural, elastic and electronic properties of B′ and Q phases in Al-Mg-Si (-Cu) alloys. The obtained lattice constant a is reduced while c is increased with the addition of Cu into B′ phase Al 3 Mg 9 Si 7 . The lower formation enthalpy of Q phase Al 3 Cu 2 Mg 9 Si 7 shows that the structural stability is improved after the addition of Cu into the B′ phase. The calculated elastic constants C ij with the exception of C 13 for Q phase are larger than for B′ phase. In addition, the derived bulk, shear, Young's modulus and Debye temperature except Poisson's ratio are also significantly increased with Cu addition, indicating that Q phase has a favorable improvement of hardness. The elastic anisotropies of the two phases are discussed in detail using several criteria, showing that the anisotropy degree of B′ phase is larger than of Q phase. The electronic structures show that the two phases possess a mixed bonding character of covalent and ionic, and Cu-Si bonding is beneficial in stabilizing the Q phase due to the hybridization of Cu 3d and Si 3p orbits.

  2. Techniques for intergranular crack formation and assessment in alloy 600 base and alloy 182 weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Hong Deok; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A technique developed to produce artificial intergranular stress corrosion cracks in structural components was applied to thick, forged alloy 600 base and alloy 182 weld metals for use in the qualification of nondestructive examination techniques for welded components in nuclear power plants. An externally controlled procedure was demonstrated to produce intergranular stress corrosion cracks that are comparable to service-induced cracks in both the base and weld metals. During the process of crack generation, an online direct current potential drop method using array probes was used to measure and monitor the sizes and shapes of the cracks. A microstructural characterization of the produced cracks revealed realistic conformation of the crack faces unlike those in machined notches produced by an electrodischarge machine or simple fatigue loading using a universal testing machine. A comparison with a destructive metallographic examination showed that the characteristics, orientations, and sizes of the intergranular cracks produced in this study are highly reproducible.

  3. Phase separation and nanocrystal formation in Al-based metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonowicz, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystallization in a group of Al-RE and Al-RE-TM (RE = rare earth, TM = transition metal) melt-spun amorphous alloys was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS/WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SAXS/WAXS measurements were carried out during isothermal annealing at temperatures close to crystallization point. A continuously growing interference maximum shifting progressively toward lower angles was found to develop in SAXS regime. Simultaneously taken WAXS spectra reveal formation of the primary fcc-Al nanocrystalline phase. The presence of the SAXS signal maximum indicates the spatial correlation between the compositional fluctuations. The peak position decay is an evidence of an increase of the fluctuation spacing characteristic for the coarsening stage of phase separation. The SAXS/WAXS data analysis indicates that amorphous phase decomposition triggers and controls the fcc-Al nanocrystalline phase formation. The glassy phase initially decomposes into Al-rich and RE-rich regions with typical lengths scale of about 10 nm. The nanocrystals nucleate preferentially inside the Al-rich amorphous regions and their growth is constrained by the region size because of the sluggish atomic diffusion in the RE-rich zones. A different crystallization mechanism is demonstrated in Al-Y-Ni-Co glass where WAXS spectra show formation of the fcc-Al primary phase but no interference peak in SAXS regime was found

  4. On the competition in phase formation during the crystallisation of Al-Ni-Y metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, M.J.; Sun, W.W.; East, D.R.; Kimpton, J.A.; Gibson, M.A.; Hutchinson, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Glassy metals exhibit a range of interesting properties including high strength and corrosion resistance, but often have poor toughness and tensile ductility in the fully amorphous state. It has been shown that combinations of desirable properties can be achieved by the partial crystallisation of glass-forming alloys, either during controlled solidification or by annealing a fully amorphous glass. The aim of this investigation is to understand the competition in phase formation during the crystallisation of metallic glasses in the Al-Ni-Y system. High-resolution, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to quantitatively follow the evolution of phases in 5 different alloys between Al 87 Ni 9 Y 4 and Al 75 Ni 15 Y 10 , as they were continuously heated to melting and subsequently cooled back to ambient temperature. Upon heating, the first crystallisation product was found to vary from FCC Al to the intermetallic Al 9 Ni 2 phase with increasing Ni concentration. In addition, the crystallisation sequence also changed from a two-stage to a three-stage process. High number densities of crystallites (∼10 23  m −3 ) were observed initially for both FCC Al and Al 9 Ni 2 . Upon cooling, the partially disordered Al 9 Ni 3 Y phase was found to form preferentially over the intermetallic phases observed during heating. The difference in competition in phase formation during heating and cooling are discussed in terms of nucleation barriers calculated using a recent thermodynamic assessment of the Al-Ni-Y system. The role of compositional heterogeneities in the as-quenched glasses and long-range diffusion on the nucleation process is discussed. - Graphical abstract: High-resolution, in situ synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to quantitatively follow the evolution of phases in 5 different alloys between Al 87 Ni 9 Y 4 and Al 75 Ni 15 Y 10 , as they were continuously heated to melting and subsequently cooled back to ambient temperature. Upon heating, the

  5. Mechanisms of oxide layer formation and destruction on a chromia former nickel base alloy in HTR environment; Mecanismes de formation et de destruction de la couche d'oxyde sur un alliage chrominoformeur en milieu HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouillard, F

    2007-10-15

    Haynes 230 alloy which contains 22 wt.% chromium could be a promising candidate material for structures and heat exchangers (maximum operating temperature: 850-950 C) in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). The feasibility demonstration involves to valid its corrosion resistance in the reactor specific environment namely impure helium. The alloys surface reactivity was investigated at temperatures between 850 and 1000 C. We especially focused on the influence of different parameters such as concentrations of impurities in the gas phase (carbon monoxide and methane, water vapour/hydrogen ratio), alloy composition (activities of Cr and C, alloying element contents) and temperature. Two main behaviours have been revealed: the formation of a Cr/Mn rich oxide layer at 900 C and its following reduction at higher temperatures. At 900 C, the water vapour is the main oxidizing gas. However in the initial times, the carbon monoxide reacts at the metal/oxide interface which involves a gaseous transport through the scale; CO mainly oxidizes the minor alloying elements aluminium and silicon. Above a critical temperature TA, the carbon in solution in the alloy reduces chromia. To ascribe the scale destruction, a model is proposed based on thermodynamic interfacial data for the alloy, oxide layer morphology and carbon monoxide partial pressure in helium; the model is then validated regarding experimental results and observations. (author)

  6. Twin solution calorimeter determines heats of formation of alloys at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, J. B., Jr.; Kleb, R.; Kleppa, O. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calvert-type, twin liquid metal solution calorimeter determines the heats of formation of transition metal alloys at high temperatures. The twin differential calorimeter measures the small heat effects generated over extended periods of time, has maximum operating temperature of 1073 degrees K and an automatic data recording system.

  7. Bulk synthesis by spray forming of Al–Cu–Fe and Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloys containing a quasicrystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Cui, C.; Uhlenwinkel, V.; Schulz, A.; Mukhopadhyay, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 40 kg Bulk material spray formed based on Al–Cu–Fe and Al–Cu–Fe + Sn. • Deposited Al–Cu–Fe alloy showed single phase bulk quasicrystals(QC). • DSC, XRD and microscopic analyses were done to ascertain the QC nature. • Sn does not help in single phase quasicrystal formation in the deposit. • The possible structural evolution mechanisms have been discussed in detail. - Abstract: In this study, Al–Cu–Fe alloys without and with the addition of Sn and containing a quasicrystalline phase were spray deposited. The spray-deposited bulk materials were characterized in terms of microstructure and hardness. The results showed that the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 alloy contains the icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (i-phase) along with the minor λ-Al 13 Fe 4 phase, whereas the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 + Sn alloy contains five phases: the major i-phase and the crystalline phases of Sn, θ-Al 2 Cu, λ-Al 13 Fe 4 and β-AlFe(Cu) phases. These results have been corroborated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hardness value of the Al–Cu–Fe alloy reached 10.5 GPa at 50 g load and then decreased steadily with increase in the applied load, while that for Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloy it was originally somewhat lower, then decreased dramatically with slight increase in the applied load but stayed constant with further load increase. The hardness indentations in Al–Cu–Fe alloy introduced cracking in the material, whereas in the case of Al–Cu–Fe–Sn alloy the Sn-rich areas inhibited the crack growth. The present study provides an insight into the mechanism of phase and microstructural evolutions during spray forming of the studied alloys. Furthermore, the role of Sn in terms of microstructure and properties is highlighted

  8. The effect of microstructure and temperature on the oxidation behavior of two-phase Cr-Cr2X (X=Nb,Ta) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.P.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(X) solid solution (Cr ss ) and Cr 2 X Laves phases (X = Nb, Ta) was studied individually and in combination at 950--1,100 C in air. The Cr ss phase was significantly more oxidation resistant than the Cr 2 X Laves phase. At 950 C, two-phase alloys of Cr-Cr 2 Nb and Cr-Cr 2 Ta exhibited in-situ internal oxidation, in which remnants of the Cr 2 X Laves phase were incorporated into a growing chromia scale. At 1,100 C, the Cr-Cr 2 Nb alloys continued to exhibit in-situ internal oxidation, which resulted in extensive O/N penetration into the alloy ahead of the alloy-scale interface and catastrophic failure during cyclic oxidation. IN contrast, the Cr-Cr 2 Ta alloys exhibited a transition to selective Cr oxidation and the formation of a continuous chromia scale. The oxidation mechanism is interpreted in terms of multiphase oxidation theory

  9. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.

    2016-04-15

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.

  10. Magnesium nitride phase formation by means of ion beam implantation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeche, Daniel; Blawert, Carsten; Cavellier, Matthieu; Busardo, Denis; Gloriant, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen implantation technique (Hardion + ) has been applied in order to modify the surface properties of magnesium and Mg-based alloys (AM50, AZ31). Nitrogen ions with an energy of approximately 100 keV were used to form the Mg 3 N 2 phase leading to improved surface properties. The samples were investigated using various characterization methods. Mechanical properties have been tested by means of nanoindention, the electrochemical behavior was measured by potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy, phase formation by using grazing incidence Xray diffraction, the chemical state was determined by means of Xray induced photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and depth profiling by using secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Additionally, the results were compared to calculated depth profiles using SRIM2008. The correlation of the results shows the nitride formation behavior to a depth of about 600 nm.

  11. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests

  12. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W L [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Div. (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests.

  13. Phase transformations in interstitial Fe-N alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapina, T.

    2005-04-15

    Nitriding is a prominent thermochemical heat-treatment procedure leading to various types of surface property improvements of the treated iron and steel. Many questions regarding even very basic properties of these compound layers and the relevant nitride phases are still open. Some of these open questions related with the behaviour of iron nitrides and, in particular, of iron nitride compound layers occurring below the usual process temperatures are addressed to in this thesis, as relevant e.g. for the cooling procedure after nitriding. The most important iron nitrides occurring in iron-nitride compound layers are the {gamma}'- and {epsilon}-phases in the Fe-N system. It is shown that for relatively low nitrogen contents of epsilon-iron nitrides (around Fe{sub 3}N) the cooling rate upon going down from an elevated annealing temperature to room temperature has a significant effect on the lattice parameters. X-ray and neutron diffraction analysis revealed that the lattice parameter values observed after fast cooling are affected by the higher degree of nitrogen disorder at elevated temperature, thus changing the c/a ratio. New relations between the lattice parameters of {epsilon}-iron nitrides and the nitrogen content are suggested for different types of cooling. The investigation by TEM of the decomposition upon annealing (633 K, 673 K) of initially homogeneous {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N powders revealed that the {gamma}'-formation occurs in only a few powder particles in a grain-like form. Moreover, diffraction line-profile analysis revealed N transport occurring from particle to particle, leading to inhomogeneities of N content in the epsilon-phase. It was shown that {gamma}'-iron nitride formation can occur by backwards growth of the existing {gamma}'-sublayer at the cost of the {epsilon}-sublayer increasing N concentration in the {epsilon}-layer. Another process, which may additionally occur in the compound layer upon annealing, is diffusion of N

  14. α″ Martensite and Amorphous Phase Transformation Mechanism in TiNbTaZr Alloy Incorporated with TiO2 Particles During Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ruoshi; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Liqiang; Lu, Eryi; Xie, Lechun; Lu, Weijie; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhang, Lai-Chang

    2018-06-01

    This work studied the formation of the α″ martensite and amorphous phases of TiNbTaZr alloy incorporated with TiO2 particles during friction stir processing. Formation of the amorphous phase in the top surface mainly results from the dissolution of oxygen, rearrangement of the lattice structure, and dislocations. High-stress stemming caused by dislocations and high-stress concentrations at crystal-amorphous interfaces promote the formation of α″ martensite. Meanwhile, an α″ martensitic transformation is hindered by oxygen diffusion from TiO2 to the matrix, thereby increasing resistance to shear.

  15. Heat treatments and thermomechanical cycling influences on the R-phase in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Henrique Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies changes observed on the R-phase thermoelastic behavior in a near-equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy. Three kinds of procedures have been performed: different treatments, thermomechanical cycling under constant loading in shape memory helical springs and thermal cycling in as-treated and trained samples. Several heat treatments were carried out to investigate evolution of the R-phase by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. A heat treatment was chosen on which R-phase is absent. Shape memory springs were produced and submitted to a training process in an apparatus by tensioning the springs under constant loading. Thermal cycling in DSC was realized in as-treated and trained samples. Several aspects of one-step (B2→B19' and two-steps (B2→R→B19' martensitic transformations and R-phase formation and their evolution during tests were observed and discussed.

  16. Formation Mechanism of Surface Crack in Low Pressure Casting of A360 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Ying, Tao; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shen, Hong-Xian; Guo, Shu; Sun, Jian-Fei

    2017-12-01

    A surface crack defect is normally found in low pressure castings of Al alloy with a sudden contraction structure. To further understand the formation mechanism of the defect, the mold filling process is simulated by a two-phase flow model. The experimental results indicate that the main reason for the defect deformation is the mismatching between the height of liquid surface in the mold and pressure in the crucible. In the case of filling, a sudden contraction structure with an area ratio smaller than 0.5 is obtained, and the velocity of the liquid front increases dramatically with the influence of inertia. Meanwhile, the pressurizing speed in the crucible remains unchanged, resulting in the pressure not being able to support the height of the liquid level. Then the liquid metal flows back to the crucible and forms a relatively thin layer solidification shell on the mold wall. With the increasing pressure in the crucible, the liquid level rises again, engulfing the shell and leading to a surface crack. As the filling velocity is characterized by the damping oscillations, surface cracks will form at different heights. The results shed light on designing a suitable pressurizing speed for the low pressure casting process.

  17. Formation mechanism of precipitate T{sub 1} in AlCuLi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Z. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Liu, J.Z., E-mail: jzliu123@hnu.edu.cn [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Chen, J.H., E-mail: jhchen123@hnu.edu.cn [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Duan, S.Y.; Liu, Z.R.; Ming, W.Q.; Wu, C.L. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • We found that T{sub 1}-precipitates nucleate directly from GP{sub T1} zones. • We found that T{sub 1}-precipitates grow thicker in two possible paths. • We determined the structure of GP{sub T1} zones by advanced atomic imaging techniques. • We suggested a possible structural evolution from GP{sub T1} zones to precipitate T{sub 1}. • The suggested structural evolution was proved to be energetically reasonable. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of the plate-like strengthening T{sub 1}-phase in an Al–4.15Cu–1.15Li (wt.%) alloy has been revealed by means of advanced imaging techniques and the first-principle calculations. It is shown that T{sub 1}-precipitates nucleate directly from their own GP{sub T1} zones and grow thicker in two possible paths. One is regular by repeating T{sub 1}-cells, and the other is abnormal via T{sub 1}-variants. Structural model of GP{sub T1} zones has been suggested, and refined by image simulation. A possible structural evolution from GP{sub T1} zones to precipitate T{sub 1} at atomic level is suggested and proved to be energetically reasonable.

  18. Electron Backscatter Diffraction Studies on the Formation of Superlattice Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of a series of La-Mg-Ni-based superlattice metal hydride alloys produced by a novel method of interaction of a LaNi5 alloy and Mg vapor were studied using a combination of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The conversion rate of LaNi5 increased from 86.8% into 98.2%, and the A2B7 phase abundance increased from 42.5 to 45.8 wt % and reduced to 39.2 wt % with the increase in process time from four to 32 h. During the first stage of reaction, Mg formed discrete grains with the same orientation, which was closely related to the orientation of the host LaNi5 alloy. Mg then diffused through the ab-phase of LaNi5 and formed the AB2, AB3, and A2B7 phases. Diffusion of Mg stalled at the grain boundary of the host LaNi5 alloy. Good alignments in the c-axis between the newly formed superlattice phases and LaNi5 were observed. The density of high-angle grain boundary decreased with the increase in process time and was an indication of lattice cracking.

  19. Effect of phase formation on valence band photoemission and photoresonance study of Ti/Ni multilayers using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents investigation of Ti-Ni alloy phase formation and its effect on valence band (VB) photoemission and photoresonance study of as-deposited as well as annealed Ti/Ni multilayers (MLs) up to 600 deg. C using synchrotron radiation. For this purpose [Ti (50 A)/Ni (50 A)]X 10 ML structures were deposited by using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Formation of different phases of Ti-Ni alloy due to annealing treatment has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD pattern corresponding as-deposited ML sample shows crystalline nature of both Ti and Ni deposited layers, whereas 300 deg. C annealed ML sample show solid-state reaction (SSR) leading to amorphization and subsequent recrystallisation at higher temperatures of annealing (≥400 deg. C) with the formation of TiNi, TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. The survey scans corresponding to 400, 500 and 600 deg. C annealed ML sample shows interdiffusion and intermixing of Ni atoms into Ti layers leading to chemical Ti-Ni alloys phase formation at interface. The corresponding recorded VB spectra using synchrotron radiation at 134 eV on as-deposited ML sample with successive sputtering shows alternately photoemission bands due to Ti 3d and Ni 3d, respectively, indicating there is no mixing of the consequent layers and any phase formation at the interface during deposition. However, ML samples annealed at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C show a clear shift in Ni 3d band and its satellite peak position to higher BE side indicates Ti-Ni alloy phase formation. In addition to this, reduction of satellite peak intensity and Ni 3d density of states (DOS) near Fermi level is also observed due to Ti-Ni phase formation with higher annealing temperatures. The variable photon energy VB measurements on as-deposited and ML samples annealed at 400 deg. C confirms existence and BE position of observed Ni 3d satellite

  20. Decomposition of the γ phase in as-cast and quenched U–Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irukuvarghula, S., E-mail: sandeep.irukuvarghula@manchester.ac.uk [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station (United States); School of Materials, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Ahn, Sangjoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, UNIST (Korea, Republic of); McDeavitt, S.M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station (United States)

    2016-05-15

    An investigation of the decomposition of the high temperature γ phase in as-cast and quenched U–Zr alloys was conducted. Differential scanning calorimetry data clearly showed δ⇌γ transformations in alloys with <10 wt% Zr while XRD data did not contain any peaks which uniquely identify it's presence. Since δ phase forms via ω transformation, a comparison of the theoretical diffraction patterns for ω and δ revealed that the intensities of the peaks which uniquely identify the existence of δ when α-U is present, were either very weak, or were zero in ω, suggesting that the ambiguity can be explained if the phase present in these alloys is ω as opposed to δ. Our data are consistent with the presence of δ and ω in as-cast and quenched U–50Zr alloy, respectively, and (α + ω) in rest of the as-cast and quenched alloys. Based on the experimental data, the transformation sequence from γ phase in U–Zr alloys is proposed.

  1. Effects of phosphorus on the δ-Ni3Nb phase precipitation and the stress rupture properties in alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.R.; Guo, S.R.; Hu, Z.Q.; Park, N.K.; Yoo, Y.S.; Choe, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus on the phase transformation and stress rupture properties of alloy 718 were investigated. The nucleation of δ-phase, which does not contain phosphorus, was suppressed by the enrichment of phosphorus at grain boundaries. A low level of phosphorus resulted in the formation of faults-containing film-like δ-phase along the grain boundaries, while a higher level of phosphorus favored the long lath-like δ-phase precipitation. Phosphorus greatly prolonged the stress rupture life of the alloy in the range of 0.0008-0.013 wt.%, while it reduced the stress rupture life in the range of 0.013-0.049 wt.%. The effect of phosphorus on the stress rupture properties was closely related to its interaction with oxygen. Phosphorus atoms, in the range of 0.0008-0.013 wt.%, enhanced the resistance to oxygen intrusion along the grain boundaries, protected the grain boundaries from decohesion by oxygen atoms and oxidation, and subsequently prolonged the rupture life of the alloy. The protection effect of P is clearly demonstrated by the phenomenon that the crack initiation site was shifted from the surface to the center in the stress-ruptured samples with increasing addition of P. Over 0.013 wt.%, the protection effect of phosphorus is excessive and phosphorus began to display its inherent effect of damaging the grain boundary strength: the stress rupture life of the alloy was reduced accordingly. Maximum stress rupture life was thus obtained at ∼0.013 wt.% P. (orig.)

  2. Identification of Intermetallic Compounds and Its Formation Mechanism in Boron Steel Hot-Dipped in Al-7 wt.% Mn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Kwak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In laser welding and hot stamping Al-Si-coated boron steel, there is a problem that the strength of the joint is lowered due to ferrite formation in the fusion zone. The purpose of this study is to develop an Al-7 wt.% Mn hot-dip coating in which Mn, an austenite stabilizing element, replaces the ferrite stabilizing element Si. The nucleation and formation mechanism of the reaction layer was studied in detail by varying the dipping time between 0 and 120 s at 773 °C. The microstructure and phase constitution of the reaction layer were investigated by various observational methods. Phase formation is discussed using a phase diagram calculated by Thermo-CalcTM. Under a 30 s hot-dipping process, no reaction occurred due to the formation of a Fe3O4 layer on the steel surface. The Fe3O4 layer decomposed by a reduction reaction with Al-Mn molten alloy, constituent elements of steel dissolved into a liquid, and the reaction-layer nucleus was formed toward the liquid phase. A coated layer consists of a solidified layer of Al and Al6Mn and a reactive layer formed beneath it. The reaction layer is formed mainly by inter-diffusion of Al and Fe in the solid state, which is arranged on the steel in the order of Al11Mn4 → FeAl3 (θ → Fe2Al5 (η phases, and the Fe3AlC (κ in several nm bands formed at the interface between the η-phase and steel.

  3. Formation of nano sized ODS clusters in mechanically alloyed NiAl-(Y,Ti,O) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Deog; Bae Seong Man; Wirth, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is the key component in determining the lifetime of nuclear power plants because it is subject to the significant aging degradation by irradiation and thermal aging, and there is no practical method for replacing that component. Advanced reactors with much larger capacity than current reactor require the usage of higher strength materials inevitably. The SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are larger than in conventional RPV steels, could be a promising RPV material offering improved strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. For a structural integrity of RPV, the effect of neutron irradiation on the material property is one of the key issues. The RPV materials suffer from the significant degradation of transition properties by the irradiation embrittlement when its strength is increased by a hardening mechanism. Therefore, the potential for application of SA508 Gr.4N steel as the structural components for nuclear power reactors depends on its ability to maintain adequate transition properties against the operating neutron does. However, it is not easy to fine the data on the irradiation effect on the mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.4N steel. In this study, the irradiation embrittlement of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was evaluated by using specimens irradiated in research reactor. For comparison, the variations of mechanical properties by neutron irradiation for commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel were also evaluated

  4. Influence of Cu on modifying the beta phase and enhancing the mechanical properties of recycled Al-Si-Fe cast alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, C B; Babu, N Hari

    2017-07-18

    High iron impurity affects the castability and the tensile properties of the recycled Al-Si alloys due to the presence of the Fe containing intermetallic β-Al 9 Fe 2 Si 2 phase. To date only Mn addition is known to transform the β-Al 9 Fe 2 Si 2 phase in the Al-Si-Fe system. However, for the first time, as reported here, it is shown that β-phase transforms to the ω-Al 7 Cu 2 Fe phase in the presence of Cu, after solutionization at 793 K. The ω-phase decomposes below 673 K resulting into the formation of θ-Al 2 Cu phase. However, the present thermodynamic description of the Al-Si-Fe-Cu system needs finer tuning to accurately predict the stability of the ω-phase in these alloys. In the present study, an attempt was made to enhance the strength of Al-6wt%Si-2wt%Fe model recycled cast alloy with different amount of Cu addition. Microstructural and XRD analysis were carried out in detail to show the influence of Cu and the stability range of the ω-phase. Tensile properties and micro-hardness values are also reported for both as-cast and solutionized alloys with different amount of Cu without and with ageing treatment at 473 K. The increase in strength due to addition of Cu, in Fe-rich Al-Si alloys is promising from the alloy recyclability point of view.

  5. Phase constituents and microstructure of laser cladding Al2O3/Ti3Al reinforced ceramic layer on titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianing; Chen Chuanzhong; Lin Zhaoqing; Squartini, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this study, Fe 3 Al has been chosen as cladding powder due to its excellent properties of wear resistance and high strength, etc. → Laser cladding of Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer, which can increase wear resistance of substrate. → In cladding process, Al 2 O 3 can react with TiB 2 leading to formation of Ti 3 Al and B. → This principle can be used to improve the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 laser-cladded coating. - Abstract: Laser cladding of the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer, which can greatly increase wear resistance of titanium alloy. In this study, the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer has been researched by means of electron probe, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and micro-analyzer. In cladding process, Al 2 O 3 can react with TiB 2 leading to formation of amount of Ti 3 Al and B. This principle can be used to improve the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 laser cladded coating, it was found that with addition of Al 2 O 3 , the microstructure performance and micro-hardness of the coating was obviously improved due to the action of the Al-Ti-B system and hard phases.

  6. Designing new biocompatible glass-forming Ti75-x Zr10 Nbx Si15 (x = 0, 15) alloys: corrosion, passivity, and apatite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Somayeh; Oswald, Steffen; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Helth, Arne; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Calin, Mariana; Schultz, Ludwig; Eckert, Jürgen; Gebert, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Glass-forming Ti-based alloys are considered as potential new materials for implant applications. Ti75 Zr10 Si15 and Ti60 Zr10 Nb15 Si15 alloys (free of cytotoxic elements) can be produced as melt-spun ribbons with glassy matrix and embedded single β-type nanocrystals. The corrosion and passivation behavior of these alloys in their homogenized melt-spun states have been investigated in Ringer solution at 37°C in comparison to their cast multiphase crystalline counterparts and to cp-Ti and β-type Ti-40Nb. All tested materials showed very low corrosion rates as expressed in corrosion current densities icorr  alloys passive states in a wide potential range. This corresponds to low passive current densities ipass  = 2 ± 1 µA/cm(2) based on the growth of oxide films with thickness d alloys is beneficial for stable surface passivity. The addition of Nb does not only improve the glass-forming ability and the mechanical properties but also supports a high pitting resistance even at extreme anodic polarization up to 4V versus SCE were oxide thickness values of d ∼35 nm are reached. With regard to the corrosion properties, the Nb-containing nearly single-phase glassy alloy can compete with the β-type Ti-40Nb alloy. SBF tests confirmed the ability for formation of hydroxyapatite on the melt-spun alloy surfaces. All these properties recommend the new glass-forming alloys for application as wear- and corrosion-resistant coating materials for implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Beryllium-rich intermediate phases in beryllium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a survey of the factors affecting the formation of phases of stoichiometry MBe 5 , M 2 Be 17 , MBe 12 and MBe 13 are presented. Using published information it is shown that the structures adopted at the higher Be:M ratios involve different characteristics from those adopted at lower Be:M ratios. In the ThMn 12 and NaZn 13 structures adopted in the former case dsub(M-Be) > (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)), (where the atomic radii refer to coordination number 12) and the dsub(Be-Be) distances are contracted. In the CaCu 5 structure adopted at composition MBe 5 , dsub(M-Be) < (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)) and interactions between unlike atoms are significant. The structural characteristics, occurrence, and the stabilities of these phases, and of the others mentioned above, are discussed in terms of atomic radius ratios, the position of the M component in the periodic table, and the value of the univalent ionic radius of the M component, taken as a measure of the extension in space of the hard incompressible ionic core. Though the compound-forming characteristics of beryllium are largely dictated by its small atomic diameter, other factors such as the nature of the bonding which can be exerted by the partner atoms are also significant. In particular, the proportions of the volumes of the atoms which are occupied by the hard incompressible ionic cores assume importance. (author)

  8. Omega phase in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Vohra, Y.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is reviewed under the headings: introduction; occurrence and some systematics of omega phase; crystallography; physical properties; kinetics of formation, synthesis and metastability of omega phase; electronic structure of omega phase; electronic basis for omega phase stability; omega phase formation under combined thermal and pressure treatment in alloys; transformation mechanisms and models for diffuse omega phase; conclusion. The following elements of nuclear interest (or their alloys) are included: Zr, Hf, Nb, V, Mo. (U.K.)

  9. Mechanisms of the porosity formation during the fiber laser lap welding of aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When joining the aluminum alloys, one of the biggest challenges is the formation of porosity, which deteriorates mechanical properties of welds. In this study, the lap welding was conducted on an aluminum alloy 5754 metal sheets with a thickness of 2 mm. The effects of various laser welding parameters on the weld quality were investigated. The porosity content was measured by X-ray inspections. The key is to control the solidification duration of molten pool. When the solidification duration of molten pool is large enough, more bubbles can escape from the molten pool and less remain as porosity.

  10. Regularities of structure formation on different stages of WC-Co hard alloys fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyavskij, K S

    1987-03-01

    Some regularities of structural transformations in powder products of the hard alloys fabrication have been formulated on the basis of results of the author works and other native and foreign reseachers. New data confirming the influene of technological prehistory of carbide powder on the mechanism of its particle grinding as well as the influence of the structural-energy state of WC powder on the course of the WC-Co alloy structure formation processes are given. Some possibilities for the application in practice of the regularities studied are considered.

  11. Gibbs free energy of formation of liquid lanthanide-bismuth alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiawei; Yamana, Hajimu; Moriyama, Hirotake

    2001-01-01

    The linear free energy relationship developed by Sverjensky and Molling provides a way to predict Gibbs free energies of liquid Ln-Bi alloys formation from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous trivalent lanthanides (Ln 3(5(6+ ). The Ln-Bi alloys are divided into two isostructural families named as the LnBi 2 (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Pm) and LnBi (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb). The calculated Gibbs free energy values are well agreed with experimental data

  12. Phase characterisation and mechanical behaviour of Fe–B modified Cu–Zn–Al shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kanayo Alaneme

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures, phase characteristics and mechanical behaviour of Cu–Zn–Al alloys modified with Fe, B, and Fe–B mixed micro-alloying additions has been investigated. Cu–Zn–Al alloys were produced by casting with and without the addition of the microelements (Fe, B and Fe–B. The alloys were subjected to a homogenisation – cold rolling – annealing treatment schedule, before the alloys were machined to specifications for tensile test, fracture toughness, and hardness measurement. Optical, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were utilised for microstructural and phase characterisation of the alloys. A distinct difference in grain morphology was observed in the alloys produced – the unmodified alloy had predominantly needle-like lath martensite structure with sharp grain edges while significantly larger transverse grain size and curve edged/near elliptical grain shape was observed for the modified Cu–Zn–Al alloys. Cu–Zn with fcc structure was the predominant phase identified in the alloys while Cu–Al with bcc structure was the secondary phase observed. The hardness of the unmodified Cu–Zn–Al alloy was higher than that of the modified alloys with reductions in hardness ranging between 32.4 and 51.5%. However, the tensile strength was significantly lower than that of the modified alloy grades (28.37–52.74% increase in tensile strength was achieved with the addition of micro-alloying elements. Similarly, the percent elongation and fracture toughness (10–23% increase of the modified alloy was higher than that of the unmodified alloy grade. The modified alloy compositions mostly exhibited fracture features indicative of a fibrous micro-mechanism to crack initiation and propagation, characterised by the prevalence of dimpled rupture.

  13. Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy, which explains discrepancies between actual growth results and predictions on the basis of the bulk-phase equilibria. Our findings provide the basis for tailoring vapor-liquid-solid growth to achieve complex one-dimensional materials geometries.

  14. Microstructural aspects of fatigue failure of two-phase titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, R.; Sieniawski, J.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations conducted in this work were aimed at obtaining information on the influence of the microstructure of the two-phase titanium alloys on fatigue strength. A course of fatigue failure depends on both dispersion and a number of secondary α-phase particles. The lamellar structure is formed during controlled cooling from the temperature range of β-phase stability. The cooling rate influences the geometrical parameters of the microstructure and finally the fatigue strength of the alloy. (author). 20 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Density functional simulations of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gabardi, S; Caravati, S; Bernasconi, M; Parrinello, M

    2012-01-01

    We generated models of the amorphous phase of Sb rich GeSbTe phase change alloys by quenching from the melt within density functional molecular dynamics. We considered the two compositions Ge 1Sb 1Te 1 and Ge 2Sb 4Te 5. Comparison with previous results on the most studied Ge 2Sb 2Te 5 allowed us to draw some conclusions on the dependence of the structural properties of the amorphous phase on the alloy composition. Vibrational and electronic properties were also scrutinized. Phonons at high fr...

  16. Microstructures and mechanical properties of two-phase alloys based on NbCr{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.C.; Kotula, P.G.; Cady, C.M.; Mauro, M.E.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    A two-phase, NbCrTi alloy (bcc + C15 Laves phase) has been developed using several alloy design methodologies. In efforts to understand processing-microstructure-property relationships, different processing routes were employed. The resulting microstructures and mechanical properties are discussed and compared. Plasma arc melted (PAM) samples served to establish baseline, as-cast properties. In addition, a novel processing technique, involving decomposition of a supersaturated and metastable precursor phase during hot isostatic pressing (HIP), was used to produce a refined, equilibrium two-phase microstructure. Quasi-static compression tests as a function of temperature were performed on both alloy types. Different deformation mechanisms were encountered based upon temperature and microstructure.

  17. Effect of elemental composition of ion beam on the phase formation and surface strengthening of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdienko, K.I.; Avdienko, A.A.; Kovalenko, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation results are reported on the influence of ion beam element composition on phase formation, wear resistance and microhardness of surface layers of titanium alloys VT-4 and VT-16 as well as stainless steel 12Kh18N10T implanted with nitrogen, oxygen and boron. It is stated that ion implantation into structural materials results in surface hardening and is directly dependent on element composition of implanted ion beam. The presence of oxygen in boron or nitrogen ion beams prevents the formation of boride and nitride phases thus decreasing a hardening effect [ru

  18. Observation of polyamorphism in the phase change alloy Ge1Sb2Te4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B.; Sen, S.; Cho, J.-Y.; Joo, Y.-C.; Clark, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    A high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of the phase change alloy Ge1Sb2Te4 demonstrates the existence of a polyamorphic phase transition between the "as deposited" low density amorphous (LDA) phase and a high density amorphous (HDA) phase at ˜10 GPa. The entropy of the HDA phase is expected to be higher than that of the LDA phase resulting in a negative Clapeyron slope for this transition. These phase relations may enable the polyamorphic transition to play a role in the memory and data storage applications.

  19. Phase analysis and magnetocaloric properties of Zr substituted Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabahar, K.; Raj Kumar, D.M.; Manivel Raja, M.; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure, microstructure, magneto-structural transition and magnetocaloric effect have been investigated in series of (Gd 5-x Zr x )Si 2 Ge 2 alloys with 0≤x≥0.20. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed the presence of orthorhombic structure for Zr containing alloys at room temperature in contrast to the monoclinic structure observed in the parent Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 alloy. The microstructural studies reveal that, low Zr addition (x≤0.1) resulted in low volume fraction of detrimental Gd 5 Si 3 -type secondary phase compared to that present in the parent alloy. All the Zr containing alloys have shown the presence of only second order magnetic transition unlike the parent alloy showing both first order structural and second order magnetic transition. A moderate (ΔS) M value of -5.5 J/kg K was obtained for the x=0.05 alloy at an enhanced operating temperature of 292 K compared to -7.8 J/kg K at 274 K of the parent alloy for an applied field of 2 T. The interesting feature of Zr (x=0.05) containing alloy is the wide operating temperature range of ∼25 K than that of ∼10-12 K for the parent, which resulted in enhanced net refrigerant capacity of 103 J/kg compared to that of 53 J/kg for the parent alloy. - Research highlights: → Zr addition in Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 alloy has been investigated for the first time to reduce the 5:3-type (Gd 5 Si 3 ) secondary phase formed when using commercial grade elements in Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 alloy. → It is interesting to observe that Zr addition decrease the volume fraction 5:3. → The refrigerator capacity and transition temperature of Zr added alloy is greater than the pure Gd 5 Si 2 Ge 2 which makes this alloy promising for room temperature application.

  20. Cube-phase in excess Hg-type Al-Mg-Si alloy studied by EFTEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matsuda, K.; Ishida, Y.; Müllerová, Ilona; Frank, Luděk; Ikeno, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2006), s. 2605-2610 ISSN 0022-2461 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Al-Mg-Si alloy * beta-phase * cube-phase * EFTEM * EDS Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.999, year: 2006

  1. Effects in Mg-Zn-based alloys strengthened by quasicrystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlček, M; Čížek, J; Lukáč, F; Melikhova, O; Hruška, P; Procházka, I; Vlach, M; Stulíková, I; Smola, B; Jäger, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium Mg-based alloys are promising lightweight structural materials for automotive, aerospace and biomedical applications. Recently Mg-Zn-Y system attracted a great attention due to a stable icosahedral phase (I-phase) with quasicrystalline structure which is formed in these alloys. Positron lifetime spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to study thermal stability of I-phase and precipitation effects in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg- Zn-Al alloys. All alloys containing quasicrystalline I-phase exhibit misfit defects characterized by positron lifetime of ∼ 300 ps. These defects are associated with the interfaces between I- phase particles and Mg matrix. The quasicrystalline I-phase particles were found to be stable up to temperatures as high as ∼ 370°C. The W-phase is more stable and melts at ∼ 420°C. Concentration of defects associated with I-phase decreases after annealing at temperatures above ∼ 300°C. (paper)

  2. Unirradiated characteristics of U-Si alloys as dispersed-phase fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domagala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.

    1987-06-01

    To satisfy the power demands of many research reactors, a new LEU fuel with a high density and U content was needed. Any fuel must be compatible with Al and its alloys so that it may be fabricable as a dispersed-phase in Al alloy and Al matrix plate-type elements following, as nearly as possible, established commercial manufacturing techniques. U-Si and U-Si-Al alloys at or near the composition of U 3 Si were immediately attractive because of work documented by the Canadians. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Growth of second phase particles in a copper--beryllium alloy. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, R.; Wells, R.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Growth of second phase particles from a solid solution of copper-beryllium was studied to determine this alloy's suitability for acoustic emission testing. Optical and Scanning Electron microscopes were used to study the microstructure. Micro and macro hardness tests were also performed. A hardness curve for aging at 550 0 F was determined. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of large inclusions which make this alloy unsuitable for the acoustic tests envisioned

  4. Microstructure and phase stability of W-Cr alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Illková, Ksenia; Lukáč, František; Matějíček, Jiří; Klečka, Jakub; Leitner, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, February (2018), s. 173-178 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-23964S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tungsten-chromium alloy * Phase stability * Decomposition * Thermal conductivity * Self-passivating alloys * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092037961830005X

  5. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  6. Phase decomposition in a mechanically alloyed Cu-44.5 at%Ni-22.5 at%Fe alloy during isothermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Hirata, Victor M.; Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L.; Diaz-Barriga-Arceo, Lucia G.

    2006-01-01

    A supersaturated solid solution of Cu-44.5 at%Ni-22.5 at%Fe alloy was produced by ball milling of a pure chemical elemental mixture for 1080 ks. An fcc supersaturated solid solution with a grain size of about 20 nm was obtained after milling. This alloy was subsequently aged at 803, 898 and 1003 K for different times. The growth kinetics of the modulation wavelength was determined from the X-ray diffraction results and followed the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory for a diffusion-controlled coarsening in the MA alloy after aging. The growth kinetics of composition modulation wavelength for the MA alloy was faster at 803 and 898 K than that for the same alloy composition obtained by a conventional processing and then aged at the same temperatures. The activation energy for the decomposed phase coarsening process in the MA alloy was lower than that corresponding to the conventionally-processed alloy. (author)

  7. Liquid demixing and microstructure formation in ternary Al-Sn-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, D.; Groebner, J. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-07-25

    The complex features of the Al-Sn-Cu phase diagram, dominated by ternary liquid demixing, are revealed by a combination of thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies. Nine ternary alloys were selected to cover all essential features involving the liquidus surface and the invariant solidification reactions. These were analyzed by differential thermal analysis as well as microstructural and local chemical analysis of solidified microstructures. Three different monotectic invariant reactions occur in this system. Small changes in alloy composition may produce distinctly different microstructures with primary crystallization and secondary demixing or vice versa.

  8. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanjun [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Huang, Huawei [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Pan, Yong, E-mail: yongpanyn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E{sub F} decrease. The cubic Pt{sub 3}Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure.

  9. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt3Al alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Huawei; Pan, Yong; Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt 3 Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt 3 Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt 3 Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt 3 Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E F decrease. The cubic Pt 3 Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure

  10. Linear phase formation by noise simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, G.; Por, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new simulation technique is introduced to study noise propagation in nuclear power plants. Noise processes are considered as time functions, and the dynamic behaviour of the reactor core is modelled by ordinary and partial differential equations. The equations are solved by numerical methods and the results (time series) are considered as virtual measurements. The auto power spectral density and the cross power spectral density of these time series are calculated by traditional techniques. The spectrum obtained is compared with the analytical solution to validate the new simulation approach. After validation, the simulator is expanded to investigate some physical phenomena which are unmanageable by analytical calculations. Propagating disturbances are studied, and the effect of non-flat flux shape on phase curves is demonstrated. Numerical problems also are briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Formation of InN phase by sequential ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhana Raman, P.; Ravichandran, V.; Nair, K.G.M.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Kalavathi, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Dhara, S.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of InN phase by sequentially implanting nitrogen on indium implanted silica was demonstrated. The growth of embedded InN phase on as-implanted and post-implantation annealed sample was studied using Glancing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Existence of both cubic and hexagonal phases of InN was observed. Results of irradiation induced ripening of In nanoclusters due to N + ion implantation was also studied. (author)

  12. Phase evolution, mechanical and corrosion behavior of Fe(100-x) Ni(x) alloys synthesized by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neera; Parkash, Om; Kumar, Devendra

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, Fe(100-x) Ni(x) alloys (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) were synthesized through the evolution of γ-taenite and α-kamacite phases by powder metallurgy route using commercially available Fe and Ni powders. Mechanically mixed powders of Fe and Ni were compacted at room temperature and sintered at three different temperatures 1000, 1200 and 1250 °C for 1 h. Both Ni concentration and sintering temperature have shown a strong impact on the phase formation, tribological and electrochemical behavior. Micro structural study has shown the formation of taenite (γ-Fe,Ni) and kamacite (α-Fe,Ni) phases in the sintered specimens. An increase in Ni fraction resulted in formation of more taenite which reduces hardness and wear resistance of specimens. Increasing the sintering temperature decreased the defect concentration with enhanced taenite formation, aiding to higher densification. Taenite formed completely in Fe50Ni50 after sintering at 1250 °C. Tribological test revealed the maximum wear resistance for Fe70Ni30 specimen due to the presence of both kamacite and taenite in significant proportions. The formation of taenite as well as the decrease in defect concentration improves the corrosion resistance of the specimens significantly in 1M HCl solution. A maximum corrosion protection efficiency of around ∼87% was achieved in acidic medium for Fe50Ni50, sintered at 1250 °C.

  13. Transient liquid phase bonding of titanium-, iron- and nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. H. M. Esfakur

    The operating temperature of land-based gas turbines and jet engines are ever-increasing to increase the efficiency, decrease the emissions and minimize the cost. Within the engines, complex-shaped parts experience extreme temperature, fatigue and corrosion conditions. Ti-based, Ni-based and Fe-based alloys are commonly used in gas turbines and jet engines depending on the temperatures of different sections. Although those alloys have superior mechanical, high temperature and corrosion properties, severe operating conditions cause fast degradation and failure of the components. Repair of these components could reduce lifecycle costs. Unfortunately, conventional fusion welding is not very attractive, because Ti reacts very easily with oxygen and nitrogen at high temperatures, Ni-based superalloys show heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking, and stainless steels show intergranular corrosion and knife-line attack. On the other hand, transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding method has been considered as preferred joining method for those types of alloys. During the initial phase of the current work commercially pure Ti, Fe and Ni were diffusion bonded using commercially available interlayer materials. Commercially pure Ti (Ti-grade 2) has been diffusion bonded using silver and copper interlayers and without any interlayer. With a silver (Ag) interlayer, different intermetallics (AgTi, AgTi2) appeared in the joint centerline microstructure. While with a Cu interlayer eutectic mixtures and Ti-Cu solid solutions appeared in the joint centerline. The maximum tensile strengths achieved were 160 MPa, 502 MPa, and 382 MPa when Ag, Cu and no interlayers were used, respectively. Commercially pure Fe (cp-Fe) was diffusion bonded using Cu (25 m) and Au-12Ge eutectic interlayer (100 microm). Cu diffused predominantly along austenite grain boundaries in all bonding conditions. Residual interlayers appeared at lower bonding temperature and time, however, voids were observed in the joint

  14. Stability study of the γ phase in U-Nb-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arico, S.F; Hermida, J.D; Gribaudo, L.M

    2006-01-01

    The development of new low enrichment nuclear fuels for research and radioisotope production reactors imposes the knowledge of properties and behaviors about a series of alloys which the reducing of U 235 (fissionable) concentration is compensated with a greater density of this element inside the fuel. One of these series is composed by U alloys with different contents of alloying, that allow to retain the body centered cubic structure solid solution recognized as phase α in metastable condition at low temperatures. For the present work 10 U based alloys were manufactured with different concentrations containing up to 43,7 % zirconium weight and up to 7,3 % niobium weight. An arch oven was utilized with argon atmosphere. The identification of the present phases in massive samples from the melting was carried out through X-rays diffraction analysis. The results obtained in this work are compared with others results published since the year 1957. In the samples melted the intermetallic UZr 2 diminishes in quantity with the reduction of the composition of Zr in the alloys. In all of them were identified, besides, Zr 6 Fe 3 O, ZrO 0,35 , α and U 3 O 8 present in quantities reduced. The quantity of the two last phases diminishes at the same time with the content in Zr. The parameter of network of the cubic phase γU in these alloys can be represented for the equation: α=(3,5796 -0,1616.x Nb +0,1155.x Zr )/(1.0306+0,003.x Nb -0,0068.x Zr . The parameter of network of the γ phase was measured. Comparing it measured with the value calculated, for eight alloys, the proposed equation showed a very good adjustment (HC)

  15. Phase stability of CuAlMn shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárubová, Niva; Novák, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 378, - (2004), s. 216-221 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : CuAlMn * shape memory alloys * martensitic transformation * - stress -strain tests * tension-compression cycling * history dependent phenomena Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  16. Peculiarities of phase transformation in Ni3Fe powder alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzhdin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ordering process in sintered powder alloy Ni 3 Fe by normal and high temperatures was studied. Thermal stresses connected with porosity level of material effect on transformation peculiarities. The changes of electric conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus during transformation were studied. The analysis of this changes was made

  17. Formation of Al70Cu20Fe10 icosahedral quasicrystal by mechanically alloyed method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shilong; Bian Qing; Qian Liying; Zhang Aimei

    2007-01-01

    The structural evolutions of the mechanically alloyed ternary Al 70 Cu 20 Fe 10 powders with the milling time and the annealing treatment have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (XAFS) techniques. Results show that an Al 2 Cu compound forms with short-time milling, while a Cu 9 Al 4 compound forms with long-time milling. Fe can react with Al-Cu alloy by annealing treatment. Al 7 Cu 2 Fe compound with tetragonal structure or Al (Cu, Fe) solid solution with cubic structure may form at lower temperature, while a quasicrystal phase of Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy may form at higher temperature

  18. Density-functional theory computer simulations of CZTS0.25Se0.75 alloy phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagarov, E.; Sardashti, K.; Kummel, A. C.; Haight, R.; Mitzi, D. B.

    2016-01-01

    Density-functional theory simulations of CZTS, CZTSe, and CZTS 0.25 Se 0.75 photovoltaic compounds have been performed to investigate the stability of the CZTS 0.25 Se 0.75 alloy vs. decomposition into CZTS, CZTSe, and other secondary compounds. The Gibbs energy for vibrational contributions was estimated by calculating phonon spectra and thermodynamic properties at finite temperatures. It was demonstrated that the CZTS 0.25 Se 0.75 alloy is stabilized not by enthalpy of formation but primarily by the mixing contributions to the Gibbs energy. The Gibbs energy gains/losses for several decomposition reactions were calculated as a function of temperature with/without intermixing and vibration contributions to the Gibbs energy. A set of phase diagrams was built in the multidimensional space of chemical potentials at 300 K and 900 K temperatures to demonstrate alloy stability and boundary compounds at various chemical conditions. It demonstrated for CZTS 0.25 Se 0.75 that the chemical potentials for stability differ between typical processing temperature (∼900 K) and operating temperature (300 K). This implies that as cooling progresses, the flux/concentration of S should be increased in MBE growth to maintain the CZTS 0.25 Se 0.75 in a thermodynamically stable state to minimize phase decomposition.

  19. Density-functional theory computer simulations of CZTS0.25Se0.75 alloy phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagarov, E.; Sardashti, K.; Haight, R.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kummel, A. C.

    2016-08-01

    Density-functional theory simulations of CZTS, CZTSe, and CZTS0.25Se0.75 photovoltaic compounds have been performed to investigate the stability of the CZTS0.25Se0.75 alloy vs. decomposition into CZTS, CZTSe, and other secondary compounds. The Gibbs energy for vibrational contributions was estimated by calculating phonon spectra and thermodynamic properties at finite temperatures. It was demonstrated that the CZTS0.25Se0.75 alloy is stabilized not by enthalpy of formation but primarily by the mixing contributions to the Gibbs energy. The Gibbs energy gains/losses for several decomposition reactions were calculated as a function of temperature with/without intermixing and vibration contributions to the Gibbs energy. A set of phase diagrams was built in the multidimensional space of chemical potentials at 300 K and 900 K temperatures to demonstrate alloy stability and boundary compounds at various chemical conditions. It demonstrated for CZTS0.25Se0.75 that the chemical potentials for stability differ between typical processing temperature (˜900 K) and operating temperature (300 K). This implies that as cooling progresses, the flux/concentration of S should be increased in MBE growth to maintain the CZTS0.25Se0.75 in a thermodynamically stable state to minimize phase decomposition.

  20. Microstructure, mechanical property and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical property, and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of as-cast single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy were investigated and compared with a commercial as-cast AZ91D alloy. The results show that the Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy had a single-phase solid solution structure, with an average grain size of 34.7 ± 13.1 μm. The alloy exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 168 ± 2.0 MPa, yield strength of 83 ± 0.6 MPa, and elongation of 9.1 ± 0.6%. Immersion tests and electrochemical measurements reveal that the alloy displayed lower biocorrosion rate and more uniform corrosion mode than AZ91D in Hank's solution. The elimination of intensive galvanic corrosion reactions and the formation of a much more compact and uniform corrosion film mainly account for the better biocorrosion properties of the Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy than AZ91D.

  1. Porosity in fiber laser formation of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang Chun; Wang, Chun Ming; Hu, Xi Yuan; Wang, Jun; Yu, Sheng Fu [HUST, Wuhan (China)

    2010-05-15

    The mechanism of porosity formation and its suppression methods in laser formation of aluminum alloy have been studied using a 4kW fiber laser to weld 5A06 aluminum alloy with SAl-Mg5 filler. It was found that the porosity formation is closely related to the stability of the keyhole and fluctuation of the molten pool in the laser welding aluminum alloy. The filling wire increased the instability of the keyhole and weld pool, thus further increasing the amount of gas cavities in the joint. Prefabrication of a suitable gap for the butt joint can provide a natural passage for the flow of the liquid metal, which can weaken, and even completely eliminate the disturbance of the filling wire on the formation of keyhole. The gap can also provide a passage for the escape of the bubble. Thus, this method can greatly decrease the sheet's susceptibility to porosity. Moreover, for a thin sheet, if the power of the laser is sufficient to form a keyhole with stable penetration through the weld sheet, a weld bead without porosity can also be obtained because closing the keyhole is almost impossible

  2. Porosity in fiber laser formation of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang Chun; Wang, Chun Ming; Hu, Xi Yuan; Wang, Jun; Yu, Sheng Fu

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of porosity formation and its suppression methods in laser formation of aluminum alloy have been studied using a 4kW fiber laser to weld 5A06 aluminum alloy with SAl-Mg5 filler. It was found that the porosity formation is closely related to the stability of the keyhole and fluctuation of the molten pool in the laser welding aluminum alloy. The filling wire increased the instability of the keyhole and weld pool, thus further increasing the amount of gas cavities in the joint. Prefabrication of a suitable gap for the butt joint can provide a natural passage for the flow of the liquid metal, which can weaken, and even completely eliminate the disturbance of the filling wire on the formation of keyhole. The gap can also provide a passage for the escape of the bubble. Thus, this method can greatly decrease the sheet's susceptibility to porosity. Moreover, for a thin sheet, if the power of the laser is sufficient to form a keyhole with stable penetration through the weld sheet, a weld bead without porosity can also be obtained because closing the keyhole is almost impossible

  3. Liquid phase formation due to solid/solid chemical interaction and its modelling: applications to zircaloy/stainless steel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.A.; Piotrkowski, R.; Denis, A.; Kovacs, J.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical interaction at high temperatures between Zircaloy (Zry) and stainless steel (SS) and the liquid phase formation due to eutectic reactions were studied. In a previous work the Zry/Inconel system was modelled assuming that the kinetics of phase growth is controlled by diffusion. The same model and the obtained Zr diffusion coefficient in the liquid phase were applied in the present work. In order to obtain an adequate description of the Zry/SS the major component of both alloys and also Cr and Ni had to be considered. (author)

  4. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL AND PHASE TRANSITIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT ALLOYS UNDER PULSED LASER EXPOSURE IN THE AIR BY METHODS OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veiko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with computational thermodynamic method for determination of phase chemical composition of metal alloys surface formed under laser action in the atmosphere, depending on its volume components, conditions of laser exposure and atmosphere composition. By giving an example of laser heating of complex alloy (alloyed steel in the air it is demonstrated that from a set of various possible reactions of interaction between iron, nickel or chrome with air components (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, their compounds, atmospheric moisture, etc., only strictly defined reactions are realized. Primarily, these are metal oxidation processes with the formation of an oxide film, whose phase and chemical composition is determined by temperature and heating time. Calculation data are confirmed by the experimental data provided by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  5. Kinetics of sigma phase formation in a Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Magnabosco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determines the kinetics of sigma phase formation in UNS S31803 Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS, describing the phase transformations that occur in isothermal aging between 700 and 900 ºC for time periods up to 1032 hours, allowing the determination of the Time-Temperature-Precipitation (TTP diagram for sigma phase and proposing a model to predict the kinetics of sigma phase formation using a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA type expression. The higher kinetics of sigma phase formation occurs at 850 ºC. However, isothermal aging between 700 and 900 ºC for time periods up to 1032 hours are not sufficient to the establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium. Activation energy for both nucleation and growth of sigma phase is determined (185 kJ.mol-1 and its value is equivalent to the activation energy for Cr diffusion in ferrite, indicating that diffusion of Cr is probably the major thermally activated process involved in sigma phase formation. The determined JMA type expression presents good fit with experimental data between 700 and 850 ºC.

  6. Dynamic globularization of a-phase in Ti6Al4V alloy during hot compression

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available composition dependence of the martensite start temperature (Ms) has been done for Ti-Fe, Ti-Cr, Ti-Mo, Ti-V, Ti-Nb, Ti-Zr and Ti-Al alloys [1], [2]. The beneficial effect on the formation of hexagonal-structured martensite (α′) of Al, Mn, Cr, Sn and Fe... alloying elements, has been discussed by Lin et al [4]. However, the formation of the orthorhombic-structured martensite (α′′) which is favoured by elements such as Nb, Mo, Zr, W and V (strong β stabilizers) or H (a strong β stabilizer), has been reported...

  7. Porosity formation in Al-Si casting alloys: role of Sr oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Samuel, A.M.; Samuel, F.H.; Doty, H.W.; Valtierra, S.

    2002-01-01

    The strength and quality of an Al-Si alloy casting are determined by its microstructure and the amount of porosity present in the casting. Modification is one of the processes used to improve the microstructural quality, where the addition of a modifying agent alters the shape of the eutectic Si from an acicular to a fibrous form that is extremely beneficial to the mechanical properties. Among various modifiers, strontium, although easy to handle and resistant to fading, also causes porosity formation in these alloys, attributed variously to an increase in the hydrogen level of the melt, feedability problems in the mushy zone, changes in the mode of eutectic nucleation, etc. The present study shows how the presence of oxides is responsible for the porosity formation, and that the difference in porosity characteristics with the addition of Sr depends on the amount of Sr oxides present the solidified structure. Both Sr and Al oxides are favourable sites for the nucleation of other microconstituents. A number of experimental (binary Al-Si) and industrial (319 and 356) alloys have been studied, to cover various alloy freezing ranges. Thermal analysis, optical microscopy, SEM/EDX and EPMA analyses were employed to obtain the results. (author)

  8. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies of δ′ phase coarsening in Al–Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletcher, B.A.; Wang, K.G.; Glicksman, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental characterization of microstructure evolution in three binary Al–Li alloys provides critical tests of both diffusion screening theory and multiparticle diffusion simulations, which predict late-stage phase-coarsening kinetics. Particle size distributions, growth kinetics and maximum particle sizes obtained using quantitative, centered dark-field transmission electron microscopy are compared quantitatively with theoretical and computational predictions. We also demonstrate the dependence on δ′ precipitate volume fraction of the rate constant for coarsening and the microstructure’s maximum particle size, both of which remained undetermined for this alloy system for nearly a half century. Our experiments show quantitatively that the diffusion-screening theoretical description of phase coarsening yields reasonable kinetic predictions, and that useful simulations of microstructure evolution are obtained via multiparticle diffusion. The tested theory and simulation method will provide useful tools for future design of two-phase alloys for elevated temperature applications.

  9. Effect of Various SPD Techniques on Structure and Superplastic Deformation of Two Phase MgLiAl Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jan; Bobrowski, Piotr; Rusz, Stanislav; Hilser, Ondrej; Tański, Tomasz A.; Borek, Wojciech; Łagoda, Marek; Ostachowski, Paweł; Pałka, Paweł; Boczkal, Grzegorz; Kuc, Dariusz; Mikuszewski, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    range 10-5 to 5 × 10-3. Tensile samples deformed superplastically showed grain growth and void formation caused by grain boundary slip. Summarizing, all methods applied resulted in sufficient grain refinement to obtain the effect of superplastic deformation for alloys of two phase α + β structure.

  10. On the quantitative X-ray phase analysis of R-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, V.A.; Lyubushkina, L.M.; Vetoshkin, I.D.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of quantitative X-ray phase analysis two-phase (RCo 5 -R 2 Co 17 ) alloys Sm-Co and Pr-Co have been studied. The investigations are made using the DRON-2.0 dif,ractometer in filtrated FeKα-radiation. Calibration diagrams for model binary mixtures are built, their use is recommended for express-evaluation of the amount of the phase determined. Test of the technique suggested is carried out

  11. Influence of W-phase on mechanical properties and damping capacity of Mg–Zn–Y–Nd–Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hao, E-mail: haofeng804@gmail.com [College of Science, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000, Hebei (China); Yang, Yang [College of Science, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000, Hebei (China); Chang, Haixia [College of Law and Politics, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China)

    2014-07-15

    This work mainly investigated the influence of W-phase on the mechanical properties and damping capacities of as-cast Mg–Zn–Y–Nd–Zr alloys with Zn/RE (rare element) ratio about 1.0. Obtained results indicate that the alloys with Zn and RE addition are composed of α-Mg matrix and W-phase. With the contents of Zn and RE increasing, the diffraction peaks of W-phase are gradually intensified and the morphology of W-phase transforms from fine-network microstructure to coarse-network microstructure. The tensile strength and fracture mechanism are strongly dependent on the quality of W-phase and the alloy with W-phase content of 8.0% has the highest strength as a result of strong atomic bonding between the W-phase and the Mg matrix. The damping capacities of Mg–Zn–Y–Nd–Zr alloys decrease gradually with the increasing amount of W-phase and then maintain at high level at high strain amplitude. The decline of damping capacity can be explained by the forming of W-phase, which makes more phases and interfaces form in the alloys. And the mobile dislocation densities in the alloys increase as residual stress at the interface of W-phase/Mg matrix and long dislocations generate in the α-Mg matrix. Therefore, the damping of alloy with high W-phase content improves accordingly with the increasing amount of moving dislocations.

  12. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.

    2017-02-01

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.

  13. Stacking faults in Zr(Fe, Cr)2 Laves structured secondary phase particle in Zircaloy-4 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengze; Li, Geping; Yuan, Fusen; Han, Fuzhou; Zhang, Yingdong; Gu, Hengfei

    2018-02-01

    Stacking faults (SFs) in secondary phase particles (SPPs), which generally crystallize in the Laves phase in Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) alloy, have been frequently observed by researchers. However, few investigations on the nano-scale structure of SFs have been carried out. In the present study, an SF containing C14 structured SPP, which located at grain boundaries (GBs) in the α-Zr matrix, was chosen to be investigated, for its particular substructure as well as location, aiming to reveal the nature of the SFs in the SPPs in Zr-4 alloy. It was indicated that the SFs in the C14 structured SPP actually existed in the local C36 structured Laves phase, for their similarities in crystallography. The C14 → C36 phase transformation, which was driven by synchroshearing among the (0001) basal planes, was the formation mechanism of the SFs in the SPPs. By analyzing the strained regions near the SPP, a model for understanding the driving force of the synchroshear was proposed: the interaction between SPP and GB resulted in the Zener pinning effect, leading to the shearing parallel to the (0001) basal planes of the C14 structured SPP, and the synchroshear was therefore activated.

  14. Characterization of phase changes during fabrication of copper alloys, crystalline and non-crystalline, prepared by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rojas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of alloys in solid state has many differences with the conventional melting (casting process. In the case of high energy milling or mechanical alloying, phase transformations of the raw materials are promoted by a large amount of energy that is introduced by impact with the grinding medium; there is no melting, but the microstructural changes go from microstructural refinement to amorphization in solid state. This work studies the behavior of pure metals (Cu and Ni, and different binary alloys (Cu-Ni and Cu-Zr, under the same milling/mechanical alloying conditions. After high-energy milling, X ray diffraction (XRD patterns were analyzed to determine changes in the lattice parameter and find both microstrain and crystallite sizes, which were first calculated using the Williamson-Hall (W-H method and then compared with the transmission electron microscope (TEM images. Calculations showed a relatively appropriate approach to observations with TEM; however, in general, TEM observations detect heterogeneities, which are not considered for the W-H method. As for results, in the set of pure metals, we show that pure nickel undergoes more microstrain deformations, and is more abrasive than copper (and copper alloys. In binary systems, there was a complete solid solution in the Cu-Ni system and a glass-forming ability for the Cu-Zr, as a function of the Zr content. Mathematical methods cannot be applied when the systems have amorphization because there are no equations representing this process during milling. A general conclusion suggests that, under the same milling conditions, results are very different due to the significant impact of the composition: nickel easily forms a solid solution, while with a higher zirconium content there is a higher degree of glassforming ability.

  15. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on <