WorldWideScience

Sample records for alloy anode catalysts

  1. Nanotemplated platinum fuel cell catalysts and copper-tin lithium battery anode materials for microenergy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, J.F., E-mail: james.rohan@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Hasan, M.; Holubowitch, N. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Anodic Aluminum oxide formation on Si substrate. > High density nanotemplated Pt catalyst on Si for integrated energy and electronics. > CuSn alloy deposition from a single, high efficiency methanesulfonate plating bath. > Nanotemplated CuSn Li anode electrodes with high capacity retention. - Abstract: Nanotemplated materials have significant potential for applications in energy conversion and storage devices due to their unique physical properties. Nanostructured materials provide additional electrode surface area beneficial for energy conversion or storage applications with short path lengths for electronic and ionic transport and thus the possibility of higher reaction rates. We report on the use of controlled growth of metal and alloy electrodeposited templated nanostructures for energy applications. Anodic aluminium oxide templates fabricated on Si for energy materials integration with electronic devices and their use for fuel cell and battery materials deposition is discussed. Nanostructured Pt anode catalysts for methanol fuel cells are shown. Templated CuSn alloy anodes that possess high capacity retention with cycling for lithium microbattery integration are also presented.

  2. Pt -based anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Bibian; Sanchez, Carlos; Gonzalez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this work it is studied the electro-catalytic behavior of pure platinum and platinum-based alloys with Ru, Sn, Ir, and Os supported on carbon to the ethanol electro-oxidation in aims to develop anodic catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells, additionally, porous electrodes and membrane electrode assemblies were built for proton exchange membrane fuel cells in which the electrodes were tested. Catalysts characterization was made by cyclic voltammetry whereas the fuel cells behavior tests were made by current-potential polarization curves. in general, all alloys show a lower on-set reaction potential and a higher catalytic activity than pure platinum. However, in the high over potential zone, pure platinum has higher catalytic activity than the alloys. In agreement with these results, the alloys studied here could be useful in fuel cells operating on moderated and low current

  3. Low-Pt-Content Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Combinatorial experiments have led to the discovery that a nanophase alloy of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Zr is effective as an anode catalyst material for direct methanol fuel cells. This discovery has practical significance in that the electronic current densities achievable by use of this alloy are comparable or larger than those obtained by use of prior Pt/Ru catalyst alloys containing greater amounts of Pt. Heretofore, the high cost of Pt has impeded the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. By making it possible to obtain a given level of performance at reduced Pt content (and, hence, lower cost), the discovery may lead to reduction of the economic impediment to commercialization.

  4. Carbon monoxide tolerant anodes for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. 1. Catalyst development approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleck, G L; Pasquariello, D M; Clauson, S L

    1998-07-01

    PEM fuel cells are highly attractive for distributed power and cogeneration systems. They are efficient and function virtually without noise or pollution. To be competitive PEM fuel cells must operate on fuel mixtures obtained by reforming of widely available natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons. Reformed fuel gas mixtures invariably contain CO, a strong poison for Pt. Therefore CO tolerant anode catalysts are essential for wide spread PEMFC introduction. It is the objective to develop effective CO tolerant fuel cell catalysts based on multi-component platinum-transition metal alloys. Towards this goal the authors have developed a novel approach for the synthesis and performance evaluation of multifunctional ternary alloy fuel cell catalysts. The alloys are prepared as well-defined thin films on standard TFE-bonded carbon substrates via a dc magnetron sputtering technique. The anodes are laminated to Nafion membranes and the electrochemical performance is measured in a representative fuel cell configuration with H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CO gas mixtures. The multi-target sputtering technique permits one to reproducibly synthesize true alloy films of controlled composition. The deposit morphology and electrode structure are determined by the standardized TFE bonded carbon substrate. The thin catalyst layer is concentrated at the electrode ionomer interface where it can be fully utilized in a representative fuel cell configuration. Thus, a true comparative fuel cell catalyst evaluation is possible. The effectiveness of this approach will be demonstrated with Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-X catalyzed anodes.

  5. Methanol electro-oxidation and direct methanol fuel cell using Pt/Rh and Pt/Ru/Rh alloy catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ho; Park, Kyung-Won; Park, In-Su; Nam, Woo-Hyun; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2004-01-01

    Pt-based binary or ternary catalysts containing Rh for use as anodes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) were synthesized by borohydride reduction method combined with freeze-drying. The resulting catalysts had a specific surface area of approximately 65-75 m 2 /g. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the catalysts were well alloyed and the average size of alloy catalysts was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Pt/Rh (2:1) and Pt/Ru/Rh (5:4:1) alloy catalysts showed better catalytic activities for methanol electro-oxidation than Pt or Pt/Ru (1:1), respectively

  6. Low Pt content Pt-Ru-Ir-Sn quaternary catalysts for anodic methanol oxidation in DMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neburchilov, Vladimir; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    In this communication we report our research work on low Pt content Pt-Ru-Ir-Sn quaternary catalysts for use in DMFC anodes. The carbon-supported quaternary metal alloy catalyst was synthesized according to the solution reduction method and was deposited onto a carbon fiber paper or a carbon aerogel nanofoam to form the anode for direct methanol fuel cells. The Pt loading of the electrode is 0.1 mg/cm{sup 2}. The testing results from a three-electrode electrochemical cell show that the simultaneous use of higher Ir (25-35 wt.%) and Sn (10 wt.%) content gives satisfactory stability and higher activity for methanol oxidation than the commercially available E-TEK anode (80%[0.5Pt 0.5Ru]/C on carbon cloth). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Bruner-Emmett-Teller method (BET) measurements were carried out to characterize the composition, structure, morphology, and surface area of the developed catalysts. (author)

  7. Electro-catalysts for hydrogen production from ethanol for use in SOFC anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Guedes, Bruna C.; Pontes, Luiz A.; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Nickel and cobalt catalysts, supported on YSZ, were prepared by wet impregnation, with and without citric acid; the metal load was 10 and 35% by weight. The catalyst composition was studied by XRF, XPS and SEM-EDS. At low metal concentration, the results of these techniques presented comparables figures; at high concentration, SEM-EDS suggested a non-uniform distribution. The analysis showed that the solids were mixed oxides and formed an alloy after reduction. The surface passivation was possible under controlled conditions. The catalytic test with the steam reforming of ethanol indicated that the metal load had almost no effect on the catalytic activity, but decreased its selectivity. Afterwards, a unitary SOFC was prepared with deposition of the cathode layer. AFM and EIS were used for the characterization of SOFC components. They showed that the electro-catalyst surface was almost all covered with the metal phase, including the large pore walls of the anode. The YSZ phase dominates the material conductance of the complete SOFC assembly (anode/electrolyte/cathode). The unitary SOFC was tested with hydrogen, gaseous ethanol or natural gas; the SOFC operating with ethanol and hydrogen fuel presented virtually no over-potential. (orig.)

  8. Anodic oxidation of Ta/Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mato, S.; Alcala, G.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Shimizu, K.; Habazaki, H.; Quance, T.; Graham, M.J.; Masheder, D.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of iron during anodizing of sputter-deposited Ta/Fe alloys in ammonium pentaborate electrolyte has been examined by transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anodic films on Ta/1.5 at.% Fe, Ta/3 at.% Fe and Ta/7 at.% Fe alloys are amorphous and featureless and develop at high current efficiency with respective formation ratios of 1.67, 1.60 and 1.55 nm V -1 . Anodic oxidation of the alloys proceeds without significant enrichment of iron in the alloy in the vicinity of the alloy/film interface and without oxygen generation during film growth, unlike the behaviour of Al/Fe alloys containing similar concentrations of iron. The higher migration rate of iron species relative to that of tantalum ions leads to the formation of an outer iron-rich layer at the film surface

  9. Anodic electrochemical treatment of amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, N.I.; Yakovlev, V.B.; Osipov, Eh.K.; Isaev, A.V.; Trofimova, E.A.; Vasil'ev, V.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to reveal peculiarities of the process of anodic oxidation and properties of anode oxide films, formed on the surface of amorphous alloys. Amorphous alloys on the base of rectifying metals of Zr-Ni, Zr-Cu-Ni, Zr-Al-Ni, Zr-Cu-Sn, Zr-Al, Zr-Mo systems are studied. Electrolytes which do not dissolve or weakly dissolve oxide film, such as boric acid electrolyte (40-45 g/l H 3 BO 3 and 18 cm 3 /l of the 25% aqueous NH 4 OH solution) and 20% H 2 SO 4 solution, are used for oxidation. Results of investigations, carried out on amorphous alloys, contaning noticeable quantities of non-rectifying components - Cu, Ni, Sn, Fe, Mo etc - have shown that non-rectifying components harden a process of anodic oxidation and decrease the current efficiency. Amorphous alloys, containing only rectifying components are oxidated in anodic way, the regularities of film growth being similar to those obtained for crystalline materials

  10. Anodic behavior of alloy 22 in bicarbonate containing media: Effect of alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N S; Giordano, C M; Rebak, R B; Ares, A E; Carranza, R M

    2012-01-01

    Alloy 22 is one of the candidates for the manufacture of high level nuclear waste containers. These containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions.It is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is necessary to produce cracking, . It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media at potentials below transpassivity. The aim of this work is to study the effect of alloying elements on the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions at different concentrations and temperatures. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-22% Cr-13% Mo), Ni-Mo (Ni-28, 5% Mo) and Ni-Cr (Ni-20% Cr) in the following solutions: 1 mol/L NaCl at 90 o C, and 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 ; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl, at 90 o C, 75 o C, 60 o C and 25 o C. It was found that alloy 22 has a anodic current density peak at potentials below transpassivity, only in the presence of bicarbonate ions. Curves performed in 1 mol/L NaCl did not show any anodic peak, in any of the tested alloys. The curves made on alloys Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr in the presence of bicarbonate ions, allowed to determine that Cr, is responsible for the appearance of the anodic peak in alloy 22. The curves of alloy Ni-Mo showed no anodic peak in the studied conditions. The potential at which the anodic peak appears in alloy 22 and Ni-Cr alloy, increases with decreasing temperature. The anodic peak was also affected by solution composition. When chloride ion is added to bicarbonate solutions, the anodic peak is shifted to higher potential and current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions (author)

  11. Pt and Ru X-ray absorption spectroscopy of PtRu anode catalysts in operating direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Chung, Eun-Hyuk; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Segre, Carlo U; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2006-05-25

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ex situ X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray powder diffraction enabled detailed core analysis of phase segregated nanostructured PtRu anode catalysts in an operating direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). No change in the core structures of the phase segregated catalyst was observed as the potential traversed the current onset potential of the DMFC. The methodology was exemplified using a Johnson Matthey unsupported PtRu (1:1) anode catalyst incorporated into a DMFC membrane electrode assembly. During DMFC operation the catalyst is essentially metallic with half of the Ru incorporated into a face-centered cubic (FCC) Pt alloy lattice and the remaining half in an amorphous phase. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis suggests that the FCC lattice is not fully disordered. The EXAFS indicates that the Ru-O bond lengths were significantly shorter than those reported for Ru-O of ruthenium oxides, suggesting that the phases in which the Ru resides in the catalysts are not similar to oxides.

  12. Pt-Ni and Pt-M-Ni (M = Ru, Sn Anode Catalysts for Low-Temperature Acidic Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermete Antolini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of a possible use as anode materials in acidic direct alcohol fuel cells, the electro-catalytic activity of Pt-Ni and Pt-M-Ni (M = Ru, Sn catalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation has been widely investigated. An overview of literature data regarding the effect of the addition of Ni to Pt and Pt-M on the methanol and ethanol oxidation activity in acid environment of the resulting binary and ternary Ni-containing Pt-based catalysts is presented, highlighting the effect of alloyed and non-alloyed nickel on the catalytic activity of these materials.

  13. Novel anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, S; Kamarudin, S K; Daud, W R W; Yaakob, Z; Kadhum, A A H

    2014-01-01

    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.

  14. Density functional theory study for the enhanced sulfur tolerance of Ni catalysts by surface alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bohyun; Kwon, Hyunguk; Ko, Jeonghyun; Kim, Byung-Kook; Han, Jeong Woo

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur compounds in fuels deactivate the surface of anode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which adversely affect the long-term durability. To solve this issue, it is important to design new SOFC anode materials with high sulfur tolerance. Unfortunately, it is difficult to completely replace the traditional Ni anode owing to its outstanding reactivity with low cost. As an alternative, alloying Ni with transition metals is a practical strategy to enhance the sulfur resistance while taking advantage of Ni metal. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of transition metal (Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Pt, and Au) doping into a Ni catalyst on not only the adsorption of H2S, HS, S, and H but also H2S decomposition using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The dopant metals were selected rationally by considering the stability of the Ni-based binary alloys. The interactions between sulfur atoms produced by H2S dissociation and the surface are weakened by the dopant metals at the topmost layer. In addition, the findings show that H2S dissociation can be suppressed by doping transition metals. It turns out that these effects are maximized in the Au-doped Ni catalyst. Our DFT results will provide useful insights into the design of sulfur-tolerant SOFC anode materials.

  15. A Facile Synthesis of Hollow Palladium/Copper Alloy Nanocubes Supported on N-Doped Graphene for Ethanol Electrooxidation Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Bai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a catalyst of hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on nitrogen-doped graphene support (H-PdCu/ppy-NG is successfully synthesized using a simple one-pot template-free method. Two other catalyst materials such as solid PdCu alloy particles supported on this same nitrogen-doped graphene support (PdCu/ppy-NG and hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on the reduced graphene oxide support (H-PdCu/RGO are also prepared using the similar synthesis conditions for comparison. It is found that, among these three catalyst materials, H-PdCu/ppy-NG gives the highest electrochemical active area and both the most uniformity and dispersibility of H-PdCu particles. Electrochemical tests show that the H-PdCu/ppy-NG catalyst can give the best electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the ethanol electrooxidation when compared to other two catalysts. Therefore, H-PdCu/ppy-NG should be a promising catalyst candidate for anodic ethanol oxidation in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  16. Novel Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni and iron (Fe. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR. The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2–5 nm PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g−1 catalyst.

  17. Particle size dependence of CO tolerance of anode PtRu catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Wang, Guoxiong; Muhamad, Ernee Noryana; Ueda, Wataru

    An anode catalyst for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell must be CO-tolerant, that is, it must have the function of hydrogen oxidation in the presence of CO, because hydrogen fuel gas generated by the steam reforming process of natural gas contains a small amount of CO. In the present study, PtRu/C catalysts were prepared with control of the degree of Pt-Ru alloying and the size of PtRu particles. This control has become possible by a new method of heat treatment at the final step in the preparation of catalysts. The CO tolerances of PtRu/C catalysts with the same degree of Pt-Ru alloying and with different average sizes of PtRu particles were thus compared. Polarization curves were obtained with pure H 2 and CO/H 2 (CO concentrations of 500-2040 ppm). It was found that the CO tolerance of highly dispersed PtRu/C (high dispersion (HD)) with small PtRu particles was much higher than that of poorly dispersed PtRu/C (low dispersion (LD)) with large metal particles. The CO tolerance of PtRu/C (HD) was higher than that of any commercial PtRu/C. The high CO tolerance of PtRu/C (HD) is thought to be due to efficient concerted functions of Pt, Ru, and their alloy.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of a multi-component catalyst by using a co-sputtering system for anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Usui, Y.; Kimura, O. [Environmental Technology R and D Center, Ricoh Company, Ltd., 16-1 Shinei-cho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama 224-0035 (Japan); Umeda, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ojima, H.; Uchida, I. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aoba 07, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    In this study, a remarkable promotion of ethanol electrooxidation by a Pt--Ru-W alloy is reported for an improvement of the anodic reaction of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). Pt-based binary and ternary electrocatalysts including Pt-Ru-W deposited onto a Au substrate were prepared by co-sputtering process. By using this process, several metals can be arranged simultaneously and uniformly. The catalysts deposited onto Au were evaluated for anodic electrode in 1moldm{sup -3} ethanol+0.5 moldm{sup -3} sulfuric acid by electrochemical measurements. The performance of Pt-Ru-W was desirable in comparison to that of binary alloys, such as Pt-W, Pt-Sn and Pt-Ru, which exhibit higher catalytic activity than single Pt metal layer electrode. Ethanol electrooxidation on Pt-Ru-W alloy showed a cathodic shift in the onset potential and a higher current density than the binary alloy electrodes. It was found that Pt-Ru-W ternary catalyst effects to not only methanol oxidation reaction but also ethanol oxidation reaction and that the current density of ethanol oxidation with Pt-Ru-W is about 2/3 to that of methanol at 0.5V versus Ag/AgCl. The onset potentials for the ethanol oxidation reaction matched well the anodic peak potentials of the background volutammograms, i.e., 0.15V versus Ag/AgCl for Pt-Ru-W and 0.35V versus Ag/AgCl for Pt-W and Pt-Ru electrodes. That is, it was postulated that the background peak current indicates the generation of oxide species like metal-OH necessary to complete the ethanol oxidation to CO{sub 2}. (author)

  19. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  20. The characteristics of anodic coating of Al-alloy claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Zou Benhui; Guo Hong; Du Yanhua; Bai Zhiyong; Cai Zhenfang

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum alloy claddings of research reactor fuel elements should be corroded by sodium hydroxide solution and anodized in sulfuric acid solution, but there are often some uneven color phenomena on surfaces, and sometimes regions of 'black and white stripes' appear. In order to study the relationship of colorful stripes on coatings and the surface morphology of aluminum alloy claddings corroded by sodium hydroxide solution, surface microstructures and second phase particles of the aluminum alloy claddings, which were corroded by sodium hydroxide solution, are investigated metallographically and via SEM analysis; Meanwhile, thickness, microstructure, chemical composition and construction of anodic oxidation coatings on aluminum coatings are analyzed. It is shown that: 1) the darker the surface color of corroded aluminum alloy claddings is, the darker of anodic oxidation coating; 2) there are many micro-pores on anodized oxidation coatings, which is much similar to that of corroded aluminum alloy claddings according to the morphology and distribution. So, it can be deduced that the surface morphology of anodic coatings is inherited from the corroded surfaces. (authors)

  1. Impact of anode catalyst layer porosity on the performance of a direct formic acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauskar, Akshay S.; Rice, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lithium carbonate is used as a pore-former to increase porosity of anode catalyst layer. ► Maximum power density increased by 25%. ► Onset potential for formic acid electro-oxidation reduced by 30 mV for anode catalyst layer with 17.5 wt% pore-former. ► Electrochemical impedance spectra confirm increased formic acid concentration inside the anode catalyst layer pores. - Abstract: Direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs) have attracted much attention in the last few years for portable electronic devices, due to their potential of being high efficiency power sources. They have the potential to replace the state-of-the-art batteries in cell phones, PDAs, and laptop computers if their power density and durability can be improved. In the present investigation, the influence of increased anode catalyst layer porosity on DFAFC power density performance is studied. Lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) was used as a pore-former in this study because of its facile and complete removal after catalyst layer fabrication. The anode catalyst layers presented herein contained unsupported Pt/Ru catalyst and Li 2 CO 3 (in the range of 0–50 wt%) bound with proton conducting ionomer. Higher DFAFC performance is obtained because of the increased porosity within the anode catalyst layer through enhanced reactant and product mass transport. The maximum power density of DFAFC increased by 25% when pore-former was added to the anode catalyst ink. The formic acid onset potential for the anode catalyst layer with 17.5 wt% pore-former was reduced by 30 mV. A constant phase element based equivalent-circuit model was used to investigate anode impedance spectra. Fitted values for the anode impedance spectra confirm the improvement in performance due to an increase in formic acid concentration inside the anode catalyst layer pores along with efficient transport of reactants and products.

  2. Effects of Alclad Layer and Anodizing Time on Sulfuric Acid Anodizing and Film Properties of 2E12 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Gao-hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alclad and unclad 2E12 aerospace aluminum alloy were treated by sulfuric acid anodic oxidation. The effects of alclad layer and anodizing time on the anodization behaviour and corrosion resistance of anodic oxide layer on 2E12 aluminum alloy were studied. Surface and cross-section morphology of anodic oxide films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of anodic oxide films were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the protective anodic oxide layers are formed on alclad and unclad 2E12 aluminum alloy. The film thickness increases with anodizing time extending. The copper rich second phase particles lead to more cavity defects and even micro cracks on anodic oxide films of unclad 2E12 aluminum alloy. The anodic oxide films on alclad 2E12 aluminum alloy are thicker and have fewer cavity defects, resulting in better corrosion resistance. The films obtained after 30min and 45min anodic oxidation treatment exhibit lower corrosion current and higher impedance of the porous layer than other anodizing time.

  3. Performance comparison of low-temperature direct alcohol fuel cells with different anode catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W. J.; Zhou, B.; Li, W. Z.; Zhou, Z. H.; Song, S. Q.; Sun, G. Q.; Xin, Q.; Douvartzides, S.; Goula, M.; Tsiakaras, P.

    Low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells directly fed by methanol and ethanol were investigated employing carbon supported Pt, PtSn and PtRu as anode catalysts, respectively. Employing Pt/C as anode catalyst, both direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) showed poor performances even in presence of high Pt loading on anode. It was found that the addition of Ru or Sn to the Pt dramatically enhances the electro-oxidation of both methanol and ethanol. It was also found that the single cell adopting PtRu/C as anode shows better DMFC performance, while PtSn/C catalyst shows better DEFC performance. The single fuel cell using PtSn/C as anode catalyst at 90 °C shows similar power densities whenever fueled by methanol or ethanol. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and single fuel cell tests indicated that PtRu is more suitable for DMFC while PtSn is more suitable for DEFC.

  4. Effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on fatigue life of TA15 titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chunjuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anodizing is always used as an effective surface modification method to improve the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of titanium alloy. The sodium tartrate anodizing is a new kind of environmental anodizing method. In this work, the effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on mechanical property were studied. The oxide film was performed on the TA15 titanium alloy using sodium tartrate as the film former. The effects of this anodizing and the traditional acid anodizing on the fatigue life of TA15 alloy were compared. The results show that the sodium tartrate anodizing just caused a slight increase of hydrogen content in the alloy, and had a slight effect on the fatigue life. While, the traditional acid anodizing caused a significant increase of hydrogen content in the substrate and reduced the fatigue life of the alloy significantly.

  5. An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalysts for multi-reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2014-05-01

    An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalyst was prepared by a two-step impregnation method. The trace amount 0.08 wt% of Pt doping efficiently suppressed the nickel particle sintering and improved the nickel oxides reducibility. The prepared Ni-Pt catalyst showed excellent performance during steam reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol under both 3000 h stationary and 500-time daily start-up and shut-down operation modes. Self-activation ability of this catalyst was evidenced, which was considered to be resulted from the hydrogen spillover effect over Ni-Pt alloy. In addition, an integrated combustion-reforming reactor was proposed in this study. However, the sintering of the alumina support is still a critical issue for the industrialization of Ni-Pt catalyst. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasmall PdmMn1-mOx binary alloyed nanoparticles on graphene catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Park, Dongchul; Jeon, Seungwon

    2016-03-01

    A rare combination of graphene (G)-supported palladium and manganese in mixed-oxides binary alloyed catalysts (BACs) have been synthesized with the addition of Pd and Mn metals in various ratios (G/PdmMn1-mOx) through a facile wet-chemical method and employed as an efficient anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline fuel cells. The as prepared G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been characterized by several instrumental techniques; the transmission electron microscopy images show that the ultrafine alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are excellently monodispersed onto the G. The Pd and Mn in G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been alloyed homogeneously, and Mn presents in mixed-oxidized form that resulted by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performances, kinetics and stability of these catalysts toward EOR have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. Among all G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs, the G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox catalyst has shown much superior mass activity and incredible stability than that of pure Pd catalysts (G/Pd1Mn0Ox, Pd/C and Pt/C). The well dispersion, ultrafine size of NPs and higher degree of alloying are the key factor for enhanced and stable EOR electrocatalysis on G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of anode catalyst layers with structural variations for DMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dazhi; Shi, Peng; Zhou, Peng; Mao, Qing; Liang, Junsheng; Wang, Suli; Li, Yang; Ren, Tongqun; Sun, Gongquan

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the electrohydrodynamic jet (E-Jet) Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition technique was employed to produce anode catalyst layer (CL) structure for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The CLs with different thickness and porosity were fabricated with the control of the E-Jet deposition parameters. Then, the deposited anode CLs with structural variations were assembled to membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The results showed that the anode CL with higher porosity contributed higher dispersed catalyst, which further induced greater electrochemical active surface area (ESA) and higher performance. At optimized working condition the anode CL with high-dispersed catalyst of was produced using the E-Jet LbL deposition technique. It was observed that the peak power density is 72.8 mW cm‑2 for the cell having a porosity of 0.63, which has an increase of about 33% after modification of the CL structure.

  8. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  9. Effects of Alclad Layer and Anodizing Time on Sulfuric Acid Anodizing and Film Properties of 2E12 Aluminum Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Gao-hong; HU Yuan-sen; YU Mei; LIU Jian-hua; LI Guo-ai

    2017-01-01

    Alclad and unclad 2E12 aerospace aluminum alloy were treated by sulfuric acid anodic oxidation. The effects of alclad layer and anodizing time on the anodization behaviour and corrosion resistance of anodic oxide layer on 2E12 aluminum alloy were studied. Surface and cross-section morphology of anodic oxide films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of anodic oxide films were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance ...

  10. Improved Anode for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas; Narayanan, Sekharipuram

    2005-01-01

    A modified chemical composition has been devised to improve the performance of the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell. The main feature of the modified composition is the incorporation of hydrous ruthenium oxide into the anode structure. This modification can reduce the internal electrical resistance of the cell and increase the degree of utilization of the anode catalyst. As a result, a higher anode current density can be sustained with a smaller amount of anode catalyst. These improvements can translate into a smaller fuel-cell system and higher efficiency of conversion. Some background information is helpful for understanding the benefit afforded by the addition of hydrous ruthenium oxide. The anode of a direct methanol fuel cell sustains the electro-oxidation of methanol to carbon dioxide in the reaction CH3OH + H2O--->CO2 + 6H(+) + 6e(-). An electrocatalyst is needed to enable this reaction to occur. The catalyst that offers the highest activity is an alloy of approximately equal numbers of atoms of the noble metals platinum and ruthenium. The anode is made of a composite material that includes high-surface-area Pt/Ru alloy particles and a proton-conducting ionomeric material. This composite is usually deposited onto a polymer-electrolyte (proton-conducting) membrane and onto an anode gas-diffusion/current-collector sheet that is subsequently bonded to the proton-conducting membrane by hot pressing. Heretofore, the areal density of noble-metal catalyst typically needed for high performance has been about 8 mg/cm2. However, not all of the catalyst has been utilized in the catalyzed electro-oxidation reaction. Increasing the degree of utilization of the catalyst would make it possible to improve the performance of the cell for a given catalyst loading and/or reduce the catalyst loading (thereby reducing the cost of the cell). The use of carbon and possibly other electronic conductors in the catalyst layer has been proposed for increasing the utilization of the

  11. Evaluation of colloidal Pd and Pd-alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, M.H. [General Motors R and D Technical Center, Warren, MI (United States); Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    An evaluation was conducted to assess the use of colloidal palladium (Pd) and Pd alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cell applications. A modified Bonneman method was used to investigate borohydride oxidation on supported Pd and Pd-alloy nano-electrocatalysts. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry, and single fuel cell test stations were used to determine Tafel slopes, exchange current densities, oxidation peak potentials, and fuel cell performance. The study also investigated the influence of temperature and oxidant flow and fuel flow rates on fuel cell performance. The study showed that the current density of the fuel cell increased with increases in temperature for all the investigated Pd electrocatalysts. However, the increase in current density was not as high as expected when fuel flow rates were increased. A current density of 50 mA cm{sup -2} was observed at 298 K with a Pd-Ir anode catalyst operating at a cell voltage of 0.5 V. 28 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  12. Incorporation of transition metal ions and oxygen generation during anodizing of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habazaki, H.; Konno, H.; Shimizu, K.; Nagata, S.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    Enrichment of nickel at the alloy/film interface and incorporation of nickel species into the anodic film have been examined for a sputtering-deposited Al-1.2at.%Ni alloy in order to assist understanding of oxygen generation in barrier anodic alumina films. Anodizing of the alloy proceeds in two stages similarly to other dilute aluminium alloys, for example Al-Cr and Al-Cu alloys, where the Gibbs free energies per equivalent for formation of alloying element oxide exceeds the value for alumina. In the first stage, a nickel-free alumina film is formed, with nickel enriching in an alloy layer, 2 nm thick, immediately beneath the anodic oxide film. In the second stage, nickel atoms are oxidized together with aluminium, with oxygen generation forming gas bubbles within the anodic oxide film. This stage commences after accumulation of about 5.4 x 10 15 nickel atoms cm -2 in the enriched alloy layer. Oxygen generation also occurs when a thin layer of the alloy, containing about 2.0 x 10 19 nickel atoms m -2 , on electropolished aluminium, is completely anodized, contrasting with thin Al-Cr and Al-Cu alloy layers on electropolished aluminium, for which oxygen generation is essentially absent. A mechanism of oxygen generation, based on electron impurity levels of amorphous alumina and local oxide compositions, is discussed in order to explain the observations

  13. Pt based anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weijiang; Zhou, Zhenhua; Song, Shuqin; Li, Wenzhen; Sun, Gongquan; Xin, Qin [Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 110, Dalian 116023 (China); Tsiakaras, Panagiotis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessalia, Pedion Areos, GR 38334 Volos (Greece) 7

    2003-11-10

    In the present work several Pt-based anode catalysts supported on carbon XC-72R were prepared with a novel method and characterized by means of XRD, TEM and XPS analysis. It was found that all these catalysts are consisted of uniform nanosized particles with sharp distribution and Pt lattice parameter decreases with the addition of Ru or Pd and increases with the addition of Sn or W. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements and single direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) tests jointly showed that the presence of Sn, Ru and W enhances the activity of Pt towards ethanol electro-oxidation in the following order: Pt{sub 1}Sn{sub 1}/C>Pt{sub 1}Ru{sub 1}/C>Pt{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C>Pt{sub 1}Pd{sub 1}/C>Pt/C. Moreover, Pt{sub 1}Ru{sub 1}/C further modified by W and Mo showed improved ethanol electro-oxidation activity, but its DEFC performance was found to be inferior to that measured for Pt{sub 1}Sn{sub 1}/C. Under this respect, several PtSn/C catalysts with different Pt/Sn atomic ratio were also identically prepared and characterized and their direct ethanol fuel cell performances were evaluated. It was found that the single direct ethanol fuel cell having Pt{sub 1}Sn{sub 1}/C or Pt{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}/C or Pt{sub 2}Sn{sub 1}/C as anode catalyst showed better performances than those with Pt{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}/C or Pt{sub 4}Sn{sub 1}/C. It was also found that the latter two cells exhibited higher performances than the single cell using Pt{sub 1}Ru{sub 1}/C, which is exclusively used in PEMFC as anode catalyst for both methanol electro-oxidation and CO-tolerance. This distinct difference in DEFC performance between the catalysts examined here would be attributed to the so-called bifunctional mechanism and to the electronic interaction between Pt and additives. It is thought that an amount of -OH{sub ads}, an amount of surface Pt active sites and the conductivity effect of PtSn/C catalysts would determine the activity of PtSn/C with different Pt/Sn ratios. At lower temperature values or at low

  14. Bifunctional anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter; Tritsaris, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties......: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation....... Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts....

  15. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yimin; Zelenay, Piotr

    2006-03-21

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  16. Hydrogen effects in anodic grinding of WC-Co sintered alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunarska, E.; Zaborski, St.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of anodic polarization applied in grinding of sintered WC C o alloy on properties of surface layer, quality of ground surface and efficiency of the treatment were studied. The nonmonotonical change of the surface roughness, the energy consumption and the wear of tool was stated at increasing anodic polarization. The optimum values of above parameters were achieved at application of anodic polarization at which the Co selective dissolution and hydrogen ingress into the ground metal. affecting the internal friction spectra were stated. The assistance of hydrogen induced deterioration and Co selective dissolution in the surface layer in the anodic grinding of WC-Co alloy has been discussed. (author)

  17. Surface nanotopography of an anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy enhances cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Ping [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Sun, Ying-Sui [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Yang, Wei-En [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzu-Hsin, E-mail: biomaterials@hotmail.com [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Oral Medicine Center, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. • Anodized surface had a nontoxic nanoporous topography. • Anodized surface increased proteins adsorption due to nanotopography. • Anodized surface enhanced cell growth due to nanotopography. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment. - Abstract: The α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy is a potential replacement for α/β-type Ti–6Al–4V alloy, which is widely used in biomedical implant applications. The biological response to implant material is dependent on the surface characteristics of the material. In the present study, a simple and fast process was developed to perform an electrochemical anodization treatment on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The proposed process yielded a thin surface nanotopography, which enhanced cell growth on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The surface characteristics, including the morphology, wettability, and protein adsorption, were investigated, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993-5 specifications. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The anodization process produced a surface nanotopography (pore size <100 nm) on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which enhanced the wettability, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell mineralization. The results showed that the surface nanotopography produced using the proposed electrochemical anodization process enhanced cell growth on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications.

  18. Surface nanotopography of an anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy enhances cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung; Wu, Chia-Ping; Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En; Lee, Tzu-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. • Anodized surface had a nontoxic nanoporous topography. • Anodized surface increased proteins adsorption due to nanotopography. • Anodized surface enhanced cell growth due to nanotopography. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment. - Abstract: The α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy is a potential replacement for α/β-type Ti–6Al–4V alloy, which is widely used in biomedical implant applications. The biological response to implant material is dependent on the surface characteristics of the material. In the present study, a simple and fast process was developed to perform an electrochemical anodization treatment on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The proposed process yielded a thin surface nanotopography, which enhanced cell growth on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The surface characteristics, including the morphology, wettability, and protein adsorption, were investigated, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993-5 specifications. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The anodization process produced a surface nanotopography (pore size <100 nm) on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which enhanced the wettability, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell mineralization. The results showed that the surface nanotopography produced using the proposed electrochemical anodization process enhanced cell growth on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications

  19. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenyong, E-mail: lwy@iccas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technology for Packaging, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Luo Yuting; Sun Linyu [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Wu Ruomei, E-mail: cailiaodian2004@126.com [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Jiang Haiyun [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Liu Yuejun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technology for Packaging, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy fabricated by anodizing and polymeric coating. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anodizing and polymeric coating were used to prepare a superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic surfaces with a high water contact angle of 162 Degree-Sign and a low rolling angle of 2 Degree-Sign were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is facile, and the materials are inexpensive, and is expected to be used widely. - Abstract: We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162 Degree-Sign and the sliding angle of 2 Degree-Sign was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed

  20. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyong; Luo Yuting; Sun Linyu; Wu Ruomei; Jiang Haiyun; Liu Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy fabricated by anodizing and polymeric coating. Highlights: ► Anodizing and polymeric coating were used to prepare a superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy. ► Superhydrophobic surfaces with a high water contact angle of 162° and a low rolling angle of 2° were obtained. ► The method is facile, and the materials are inexpensive, and is expected to be used widely. - Abstract: We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low

  1. Porous anodic film formation on an Al-3.5 wt% Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, M.A.; Bustos, O.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Shimizu, K.; Wood, G.C.

    2000-03-01

    Anodic film growth has been undertaken on an electropolished Al-3.5 wt % Cu alloy to determine the influence of copper in solid solution on the anodizing behavior. At the commencement of anodizing of the electropolished alloy, in the presence of interfacial enrichment of copper, Al{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions egress and O{sup 2{minus}} ion ingress proceed; film growth occurs at the alloy/film interface though O{sup 2{minus}} ion ingress, with outwardly mobile Al{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions ejected at the film/electrolyte interface, and field-assisted dissolution proceeding at the bases of pores. Oxidation of copper, in the presence of the enriched layer, is also associated with O{sub 2} gas generation, leading to development of oxygen-filled voids. As a result of significant pressures in the voids, film rupture proceeds, with electrolyte access to the alloy, dissolution of the enriched interfacial layer and re-anodizing. The consequence of such processes in the development of anodic films of increased porosity and reduced efficiency of film formation compared with anodizing of superpure aluminum under similar conditions.

  2. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  3. Photo-electrochemical and impedance investigation of passive layers grown anodically on titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, N.T.C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, CP 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Biaggio, S.R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, CP 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Piazza, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: piazza@dicpm.unipa.it; Sunseri, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Di Quarto, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2004-10-15

    The anodic behaviour of two titanium cast alloys, obtained by fusion in a voltaic arc under argon atmosphere, was analyzed in aerated aqueous solutions having different pH values. In all solutions the alloys, having nominal compositions Ti-50Zr at.% and Ti-13Zr-13Nb wt.%, displayed a valve-metal behaviour, owing to the formation of barrier-type oxide films. Passive films, grown potentiodynamically up to about 9 V, were investigated by photocurrent spectroscopy (PCS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These passive layers show photoactivity under anodic polarizations, with optical gaps close to 3.55 and 3.25 eV for the binary and the ternary alloy, respectively, independent of the anodizing electrolyte. Films grown on the binary alloy present insulating behaviour and anodic impedance spectra with one time constant; this was interpreted in terms of a single-layer mixed Ti-Zr oxide enriched in Ti with respect to the alloy composition. Also for the ternary alloy the results are consistent with the formation, upon anodization, of Ti-Nb-Zr mixed oxide films, but they display n-type semiconducting behaviour, owing to their poor content of ZrO{sub 2} groups.

  4. Anodic dissolution and corrosion of alloy Cu30Ni in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The anodic and corrosion behavior of alloy Cu30Ni is studied in a solution of 3 N NaCl + 0.01 N HCl by a radiometric method using gamma isotopes of 58 Co (as a marker for Ni) and 64 Cu in combination with electrochemical measurements. It was established that under stationary conditions there was uniform dissolution of the alloy both during free corrosion and anodic polarization. The authors obtained partial anodic dissolution curves for the components of the alloy. It was shown that the dissolution kinetics differed from the mechanisms controlling dissolution of the corresponding pure metals. During corrosion of the alloy in an oxygen atmosphere a back precipitation of copper on the surface of the alloy was not observed. The characteristics observed in the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of the alloy in concentrated chloride solutions can be explained by the presence of Ni on the surface of the dissolving alloy

  5. Elaboration, physical and electrochemical characterizations of CO tolerant PEMFC anode materials. Study of platinum-molybdenum and platinum-tungsten alloys and composites; Elaborations et caracterisations electrochimiques et physiques de materiaux d'anode de PEMFC peu sensibles a l'empoisonnement par CO: etude d'alliages et de composites a base de platine-molybdene et de platine-tungstene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrelade, E.

    2005-06-15

    PEMFC development is hindered by the CO poisoning ability of the anode platinum catalyst. It has been previously shown that the oxidation potential of carbon monoxide adsorbed on the platinum atoms can be lowered using specific Pt based catalysts, either metallic alloys or composites. The objective is then to realize a catalyst for which the CO oxidation is compatible with the working potential of a PEMFC anode. In our approach, to enhance the CO tolerance of platinum based catalyst supported on carbon, we studied platinum-tungsten and platinum-molybdenum alloys and platinum-metal oxide materials (Pt-WO{sub x} and Pt-MoO{sub x}). The platinum based alloys demonstrate a small effect of the second metal towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The platinum composites show a better tolerance to carbon monoxide. Electrochemical studies on both Pt-MoO{sub x} and Pt-WO{sub x} demonstrate the ability of the metal-oxides to promote the ability of Pt to oxidize CO at low potentials. However, chrono-amperometric tests reveal a bigger influence of the tungsten oxide. Complex chemistry reactions on the molybdenum oxide surface make it more difficult to observe. (author)

  6. Colloidal Au and Au-alloy catalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells: Electrocatalysis and fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Macdonald, Charles L. B.; Northwood, Derek O.; Gyenge, Elod L.

    Supported colloidal Au and Au-alloys (Au-Pt and Au-Pd, 1:1 atomic ratio) on Vulcan XC-72 (with 20 wt% metal load) were prepared by the Bönneman method. The electrocatalytic activity of the colloidal metals with respect to borohydride electro-oxidation for fuel cell applications was investigated by voltammetry on static and rotating electrodes, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. The fundamental electrochemical techniques showed that alloying Au, a metal that leads to the maximum eight-electron oxidation of BH 4 -, with Pd or Pt, well-known catalysts of dehydrogenation reactions, improved the electrode kinetics of BH 4 - oxidation. Fuel cell experiments corroborated the kinetic studies. Using 5 mg cm -2 colloidal metal load on the anode, it was found that Au-Pt was the most active catalyst giving a cell voltage of 0.47 V at 100 mA cm -2 and 333 K, while under identical conditions the cell voltage using colloidal Au was 0.17 V.

  7. Colloidal Au and Au-alloy catalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells: Electrocatalysis and fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Northwood, Derek O. [Department of Mechanical, Auto and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor (Canada N9B 3P4); Macdonald, Charles L.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor (Canada N9B 3P4); Gyenge, Elod L. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1Z4)

    2006-07-14

    Supported colloidal Au and Au-alloys (Au-Pt and Au-Pd, 1:1 atomic ratio) on Vulcan XC-72 (with 20wt% metal load) were prepared by the Bonneman method. The electrocatalytic activity of the colloidal metals with respect to borohydride electro-oxidation for fuel cell applications was investigated by voltammetry on static and rotating electrodes, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. The fundamental electrochemical techniques showed that alloying Au, a metal that leads to the maximum eight-electron oxidation of BH{sub 4}{sup -}, with Pd or Pt, well-known catalysts of dehydrogenation reactions, improved the electrode kinetics of BH{sub 4}{sup -} oxidation. Fuel cell experiments corroborated the kinetic studies. Using 5mgcm{sup -2} colloidal metal load on the anode, it was found that Au-Pt was the most active catalyst giving a cell voltage of 0.47V at 100mAcm{sup -2} and 333K, while under identical conditions the cell voltage using colloidal Au was 0.17V. (author)

  8. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyong; Luo, Yuting; Sun, Linyu; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low surface free energy, the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  9. Corrosion resistance of plasma-anodized AZ91D magnesium alloy by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchiche, C.-E.; Rocca, E.; Juers, C.; Hazan, J.; Steinmetz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Anodic coatings formed on magnesium alloys by plasma anodization process are mainly used as protective coatings against corrosion. The effects of KOH concentration, anodization time and current density on properties of anodic layers formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated to obtain coatings with improved corrosion behaviour. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The film is porous and cracked, mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO), but contains all the elements present in the electrolyte and alloy. The corrosion behaviour of anodized Mg alloy was examined by using stationary and dynamic electrochemical techniques in corrosive water. The best corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical methods is obtained in the more concentrated electrolyte 3 M KOH + 0.5 M KF + 0.25 M Na 3 PO 4 .12 H 2 O, with a long anodization time and a low current density. A double electrochemical effects of the anodized layer on the magnesium corrosion is observed: a large inhibition of the cathodic process and a stabilization of a large passivation plateau

  10. Performance of lithium alloy/lithium and calcium/lithium anodes in thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keister, P.; Greenwood, J.M.; Holmes, C.F.; Mead, R.T.

    1985-08-01

    A laminar composite anode construction comprising an inner metal completely surrounded by Li foil was studied as a means of obtaining an end-of-life indicator in a thionyl chloride cell. Inner metals of Ca, 14-2.9 at.% Ca in Li alloys, and 6.7-2.1 at.% Mg in Li alloys were evaluated. Discharge characteristics of cells using these sandwich anodes as well as cells containing the inner anode material alone were determined. It was concluded that cells made with inner anode materials of Ca and Ca/Li alloys containing more than 7 at.% Ca showed promise as a means of obtaining a reliable end-of-life indication. (orig.).

  11. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University

    2013-09-19

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  12. Electrocatalysis on bimetallic and alloy surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Bimetallic surfaces and alloys are well known to have unique catalytic properties for many important chemical transformations [1]. In electrocatalysis, bimetallic and alloy catalysts have been a particularly active area of research in relation to low-temperature fuel cells [2]. On the anode side,

  13. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X. [Univ of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Centre for Superconducting and Electronic Materials

    1996-12-31

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg{sub 2}Ni; (2) by composite of Mg{sub 2}Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  14. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg 2 Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg 2 Ni; (2) by composite of Mg 2 Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg 2 Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  15. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Wei Zhongling [Magnesium Technology Co., Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaxing 314051 (China); Yang Fuwei [Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang Zhao, E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, Jiaxing 314051 (China)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. > NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. > The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. > Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. > The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz{sup -} on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  16. Pd-Au/C catalysts with different alloying degrees for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yuan-Hang; Li, Yunfeng; Lv, Ren-Liang; Wang, Tie-Lin; Wang, Wei-Guo; Wang, Cun-Wen

    2014-01-01

    High alloyed Pd-Au/C catalyst is prepared through a rate-limiting strategy in water/ethylene glycol solution. Pd/C and low alloyed Pd-Au/C catalysts are prepared with trisodium citrate and sodium borohydride as stabilizing and reducing agents, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the synthesized Pd(Au) particles are well dispersed on the catalysts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that the high alloyed Pd-Au/C catalyst presents a relatively homogenous structure while the low alloyed Pd-Au/C catalyst presents a Pd-rich shell/Au-rich core structure. Electrochemical characterization shows that the low alloyed Pd-Au/C catalyst exhibits the best catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline media, which could be attributed to its relatively large exposed Pd surface area as compared with the high alloyed Pd-Au/C catalyst due to its Pd-rich shell structure and its enhanced adsorption of OH ads as compared with Pd/C catalyst due to its core-shell structure

  17. Influence of Alkali Treatment on Anodized Titanium Alloys in Wollastonite Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kazek-Kęsik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of titanium alloys is an effective method to improve their biocompatibility and tailor the material to the desired profile of implant functionality. In this work, technologically-advanced titanium alloys—Ti-15Mo, Ti-13Nb-13Zr and Ti-6Al-7Nb—were anodized in suspensions, followed by treatment in alkali solutions, with wollastonite deposition from the powder phase suspended in solution. The anodized samples were immersed in NaOH or KOH solution with various concentrations with a different set of temperatures and exposure times. Based on their morphologies (observed by scanning electron microscope, the selected samples were investigated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Titaniate compounds were formed on the previously anodized titanium surfaces. The surface wettability significantly decreased, mainly on the modified Ti-15Mo alloy surface. Titanium alloy compounds had an influence on the results of the titanium alloys’ surface modification, which caused the surfaces to exhibit differential physical properties. In this paper, we present the influence of the anodization procedure on alkali treatment effects and the properties of obtained hybrid coatings.

  18. Anodic behavior of nickel alloys in media containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S; Carranza, R. M.; Giordano, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Alloy 22 has been designed to resist corrosion in oxidizing and reducing conditions. Thanks to these properties it is considered a possible candidate for the fabrication of containers of high-level radioactive waste. Since the containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions, it is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is required in order to produce cracking. It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media potentials below trans-passivity. The aim of this work is to study the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in different media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions in various concentrations and temperatures and compare the results with other alloys containing nickel, and relate them to the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a future job. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo), 600 (Ni- Cr-Fe), 800h (Ni-Fe- Cr) and 201 (Ni commercially pure) in the following environments: 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 , 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The tests were performed at the following temperatures: 90°C, 75°C, 60°C and 25°C. It was found that alloy 22 has a current peak in the anodic domain at potentials below trans-passivity between 200 and 300 m VECS, when the test temperature was 90°C. The potential, at which this peak occurred, increased with decreasing temperature. Also there was a variation of the peak with the composition of the solution. When bicarbonate ions were added to a solution containing chloride ions, the peak potential shifted to higher current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions. It was found that diminishing the content of

  19. Effect of Copper and Silicon on Al-5%Zn Alloy as a Candidate Low Voltage Sacrificial Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesa, Yudha; Ferdian, Deni; Togina, Inez

    2017-05-01

    One common method used for corrosion protection is a sacrificial anode. Sacrificial anodes that usually employed in the marine environment are an aluminum alloy sacrificial anode, especially Al-Zn-In. However, the electronegativity of these alloys can cause corrosion overprotection and stress cracking (SCC) on a high-strength steel. Therefore, there is a development of the sacrificial anode aluminum low voltage to reduce the risk of overprotection. The addition of alloying elements such as Cu, Si, and Ge will minimize the possibility of overprotection. This study was conducted to analyze the effect of silicon and copper addition in Al-5Zn. The experiment started from casting the sacrificial anode aluminum uses electrical resistance furnace in a graphite crucible in 800°C. The results alloy was analyzed using Optical emission spectroscopy (OES), Differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and metallography. Aluminum alloy with the addition of a copper alloy is the most suitable and efficient to serve as a low-voltage sacrificial anode aluminum. Charge transfer resistivity of copper is smaller than silicon which indicates that the charge transfer between the metal and the electrolyte is easier t to occur. Also, the current potential values in coupling with steel are also in the criteria range of low-voltage aluminum sacrificial anodes.

  20. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy by electrochemical anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 404 Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung, 413 Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Ping; Sun, Ying-Sui; Huang, Hsun-Miao [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzu-Hsin, E-mail: biomaterials@hotmail.com [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 402 Taiwan (China); Oral Medicine Center, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 402 Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-31

    The biocompatibility of implants is largely determined by their surface characteristics. This study presents a novel method for performing electrochemical anodization on β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy with a low elastic modulus (approximately 70 GPa). This method results in a thin hybrid layer capable of enhancing the surface characteristics of the implants. We investigated the surface topography and microstructure of the resulting Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993–5 specification. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The anodization produced a thin (approximately 40 nm-thick) hybrid oxide layer with a nanoporous outer sublayer (pore size < 15 nm) and a dense inner layer. The thin hybrid oxide layer increased the corrosion resistance of the Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy by increasing the corrosion potential and decreasing both the corrosion rate and passive current. Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloys with and without anodization treatment were non-toxic. Surface nanotopography on the anodized Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy enhanced protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Our results demonstrate that electrochemical anodization increases the corrosion resistance and cell adhesion of β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy while providing a lower elastic modulus suitable for implant applications. - Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy surface. • Anodized surface had nanoscale hybrid oxide layer. • Anodized surface increased corrosion resistance due to dense inner sublayer. • Anodized surface enhanced cell adhesion due to nanoporous outer sublayer. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment.

  1. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy by electrochemical anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung; Wu, Chia-Ping; Sun, Ying-Sui; Huang, Hsun-Miao; Lee, Tzu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    The biocompatibility of implants is largely determined by their surface characteristics. This study presents a novel method for performing electrochemical anodization on β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy with a low elastic modulus (approximately 70 GPa). This method results in a thin hybrid layer capable of enhancing the surface characteristics of the implants. We investigated the surface topography and microstructure of the resulting Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993–5 specification. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The anodization produced a thin (approximately 40 nm-thick) hybrid oxide layer with a nanoporous outer sublayer (pore size < 15 nm) and a dense inner layer. The thin hybrid oxide layer increased the corrosion resistance of the Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy by increasing the corrosion potential and decreasing both the corrosion rate and passive current. Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloys with and without anodization treatment were non-toxic. Surface nanotopography on the anodized Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy enhanced protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Our results demonstrate that electrochemical anodization increases the corrosion resistance and cell adhesion of β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy while providing a lower elastic modulus suitable for implant applications. - Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy surface. • Anodized surface had nanoscale hybrid oxide layer. • Anodized surface increased corrosion resistance due to dense inner sublayer. • Anodized surface enhanced cell adhesion due to nanoporous outer sublayer. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment

  2. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Wei Zhongling; Yang Fuwei; Zhang Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. → NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. → The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. → Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. → The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz - on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  3. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.; Borca, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at. %. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms...... are not located in a TiO2 unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2 eV (300–135 nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al2O3 has a direct...

  4. The influence of Ti and Sr alloying elements on electrochemical properties of aluminum sacrificial anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, M.; Sina, H.; Keyvani, A.; Emamy, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Department, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365/4563, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    Aluminum sacrificial anodes are widely used in cathodic protection of alloys in seawater. The interesting properties due to low specific weight, low electrode potential and high current capacity are often hindered by the presence of a passive oxide film which causes several difficulties in their practical application. In this investigation, the electrochemical behavior of Al- 5Zn-0.02In sacrificial anode is studied in 3 wt. % sodium chloride solution. The experiments focused on the influence of Ti and Sr as alloying elements on electrochemical behavior of aluminum sacrificial anode. Ti and Sr are used in different concentrations from 0.03 to 0.1 wt.% 0.01 to 0.05 wt.%, respectively. NACE efficiency and polarization tests are used in this case. It is shown that by using 0.03 wt.% Ti and 0.01 wt.% Sr as the alloying elements to investigate the anodic behavior of the anodes, homogeneous microstructures are obtained which results in improvement of electrochemical properties of aluminum sacrificial anode such as current capacity and anode efficiency. (authors)

  5. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  6. Mesostructured platinum-free anode and carbon-free cathode catalysts for durable proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangzhi; Shi, Jianlin; Wang, Yongxia; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lingxia; Hua, Zile

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important clean energy sources, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been a topic of extensive research focus for decades. Unfortunately, several critical technique obstacles, such as the high cost of platinum electrode catalysts, performance degradation due to the CO poisoning of the platinum anode, and carbon corrosion by oxygen in the cathode, have greatly impeded its commercial development. A prototype of a single PEMFC catalyzed by a mesostructured platinum-free WO3/C anode and a mesostructured carbon-free Pt/WC cathode catalysts is reported herein. The prototype cell exhibited 93% power output of a standard PEMFC using commercial Pt/C catalysts at 50 and 70 °C, and more importantly, CO poisoning-free and carbon corrosion-resistant characters of the anode and cathode, respectively. Consequently, the prototype cell demonstrated considerably enhanced cell operation durability. The mesostructured electrode catalysts are therefore highly promising in the future development and application of PEMFCs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Investigation of cerium salt/sulfuric acid anodizing technology for 1420 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Li; Yue Peng Deng; Bao Lan Guo; Guo Qiang Li [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of cerium addition agent on the property of anodized coating of 1420 Al alloy has been studied by corrosion experiment (immersion test and neutral salt spray test), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and measurement of polarization curves. The result show that only pitting could be observed in all corrosion tests while intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion did not appear on 1420 Al-Li alloys. When organic carboxylic acid S or the cerium (IV) salt was added into sulfuric acid anodizing electrolyte separately, there was no significant improvement in corrosion resistance of anodized film. However, in the case of adding them into sulfuric acid anodizing electrolyte together, the corrosion resistance of anodized film increased greatly owing to synergistic effect. The synergistic effect may relate to the formation of cerium-organic carboxylic acid S complex compound and its effects on film growth and film structure. (orig.)

  8. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  9. The electrochemical properties and mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Okido, Masazumi

    2003-01-01

    The electronchemical properties and the mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg alloys containing 0-15 mass% Al, when anodized in NaOH solution, were investigated by focusing on the effects of anodizing potential, Al content, and anodizing time. The intensity ratio of Mg(OH) 2 in the XRD analysis decreased with increasing applied potential, while that of MgO increased. Mg(OH) 2 was barely detected at 80 V, while MgO was readily detected. The anti-corrosion properties of anodized specimens at each constant potential were better than those of non-anodized specimens. The specimen anodized at an applied potential of 3 V had the best anti-corrosion property. The intensity ratio of the β phase increased with aluminum content in Mg-Al alloys. During anodizing, the active dissolution reaction occurred preferentially in β phase until about 4 min, and then the current density increased gradually until 7 min. The dissolution reaction progressed in α phase, which had a lower Al content. In the anodic polarization test in 0.017 mol·dm -3 NaCl and 0.1 mol·dm -3 Na 2 SO 4 at 298 K, the current density of Mg-15 mass% Al alloy anodized for 10 min increased, since the anodic film that forms on the α phase is a non-compacted film. The anodic film on the α phase at 30 min was a compact film as compared with that at 10 min

  10. Enhanced performance of a novel anodic PdAu/VGCNF catalyst for electro-oxidation in a glycerol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N; Kamarudin, S K; Karim, N A; Masdar, M S; Loh, K S

    2017-11-25

    This study presents a novel anodic PdAu/VGCNF catalyst for electro-oxidation in a glycerol fuel cell. The reaction conditions are critical issues affecting the glycerol electro-oxidation performance. This study presents the effects of catalyst loading, temperature, and electrolyte concentration. The glycerol oxidation performance of the PdAu/VGCNF catalyst on the anode side is tested via cyclic voltammetry with a 3 mm 2 active area. The morphology and physical properties of the catalyst are examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Then, optimization is carried out using the response surface method with central composite experimental design. The current density is experimentally obtained as a response variable from a set of experimental laboratory tests. The catalyst loading, temperature, and NaOH concentration are taken as independent parameters, which were evaluated previously in the screening experiments. The highest current density of 158.34 mAcm -2 is obtained under the optimal conditions of 3.0 M NaOH concentration, 60 °C temperature and 12 wt.% catalyst loading. These results prove that PdAu-VGCNF is a potential anodic catalyst for glycerol fuel cells.

  11. The effect of different aluminum alloy surface compositions on barrier anodic film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have grown barrier anodic coatings on samples of aluminum alloy with different elemental surface compositions. In one series of experiments, they characterized the surface composition present on 6061 aluminum alloy samples after different chemical treatments including a detergent-water and methyl-ethyl ketone solvent clean, a 50% nitric acid-water etch, and a concentrated nitric acid-ammonium bifluoride etch. They anodized samples which were prepared similarly to those analyzed to evaluate the practical effects of the three different surface compositions. The anodization voltage rise time to 950V at constant current was used as a figure of merit. The solvent cleaned and the 50% nitric acid etched samples required, respectively, 113% and 41% more time to reach 950V than the concentrated nitric acidammonium bifloride etched samples. In a second series of experiments, they alternately anodized groups of either 6061 or 1100 (commercially pure) aluminum alloy, observed rise times to 950V, and measured chloride ion concentrations in the electrolyte. Longer rise times and higher chloride ion concentrations were observed for the 1100 samples. It was observed that the chloride ion concentration fell from initially high levels when 6061 samples were anodized. The results of both series of experiments augment the results of other investigators, who report that the surface species initially present on aluminum have a significant effect on anodic film formation

  12. Role of Ca in Modifying Corrosion Resistance and Bioactivity of Plasma Anodized AM60 Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anawati, Anawati; Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The effect of alloying element Ca (0, 1, and 2 wt%) on corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the as-received and anodized surface of rolled plate AM60 alloys was investigated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was carried out to form anodic oxide film in 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. The corrosion behavior was studied by polarization measurements while the in vitro bioactivity was tested by soaking the specimens in Simulated Body Fluid (1.5xSBF). Optical micrograph and elemental analysis of the substrate surfaces indicated that the number of intermetallic particles increased with Ca content in the alloys owing to the formation of a new phase Al2Ca. The corrosion resistance of AM60 specimens improved only slightly by alloying with 2 wt% Ca which was attributed to the reticular distribution of Al2Ca phase existed in the alloy that might became barrier for corrosion propagation across grain boundaries. Corrosion resistance of the three alloys was significantly improved by coating the substrates with anodic oxide film formed by PEO. The film mainly composed of magnesium phosphate with thickness in the range 30 - 40 μm. The heat resistant phase of Al{sub 2}Ca was believed to retard the plasma discharge during anodization and, hence, decreased the film thickness of Ca-containing alloys. The highest apatite forming ability in 1.5xSBF was observed for AM60-1Ca specimens (both substrate and anodized) that exhibited more degradation than the other two alloys as indicated by surface observation. The increase of surface roughness and the degree of supersaturation of 1.5xSBF due to dissolution of Mg ions from the substrate surface or the release of film compounds from the anodized surface are important factors to enhance deposition of Ca-P compound on the specimen surfaces.

  13. The electrochemical properties and mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Okido, Masazumi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The electronchemical properties and the mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg alloys containing 0-15 mass% Al, when anodized in NaOH solution, were investigated by focusing on the effects of anodizing potential, Al content, and anodizing time. The intensity ratio of Mg(OH){sub 2} in the XRD analysis decreased with increasing applied potential, while that of MgO increased. Mg(OH){sub 2} was barely detected at 80 V, while MgO was readily detected. The anti-corrosion properties of anodized specimens at each constant potential were better than those of non-anodized specimens. The specimen anodized at an applied potential of 3 V had the best anti-corrosion property. The intensity ratio of the {beta} phase increased with aluminum content in Mg-Al alloys. During anodizing, the active dissolution reaction occurred preferentially in {beta} phase until about 4 min, and then the current density increased gradually until 7 min. The dissolution reaction progressed in {alpha} phase, which had a lower Al content. In the anodic polarization test in 0.017 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} NaCl and 0.1 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 298 K, the current density of Mg-15 mass% Al alloy anodized for 10 min increased, since the anodic film that forms on the {alpha} phase is a non-compacted film. The anodic film on the {alpha} phase at 30 min was a compact film as compared with that at 10 min.

  14. Mixed phase Pt-Ru catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell anode by flame aerosol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Debasish; Bischoff, H.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2005-01-01

    A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst wa......Ru1/Vulcan carbon. The kinetics of methanol oxidation on the mixed phase catalyst was also explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (c) 2005 The Electrochemical Society.......A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst...... was found to be a mixture of nanocrystalline, mostly unalloyed Pt and an amorphous phase mostly of Ru and to a lesser extent of Pt oxides on top of the crystalline phase. The flame-produced Pt1Ru1 demonstrated similar onset potential but similar to 60% higher activity compared to commercially available Pt1...

  15. Evaluation of colloidal Ag and Ag-alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Northwood, Derek O. [Mechanical, Auto, and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Gyenge, Elod L. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Colombia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    In this study, colloidal silver and silver-alloys (Ag-Pt, Ag-Au, Ag-Ir, and Ag-Pd) prepared by the Boenneman technique were evaluated as anode catalysts for sodium borohydride oxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), chronopotentiometry (CP) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. The CV results show that the colloidal Ag-alloys were electrochemically active towards borohydride oxidation with oxidation potentials ranging between -0.7 and 0.4 V vs. Hg/HgO (MOE). The most negative oxidation potential was recorded on Ag-Pt. CA results show that the steady state current density was highest on Ag-Pt, followed by Ag-Ir, Ag-Au, and Ag-Pd. The lowest overpotential was recorded on Ag-Ir for a current step change of 10mAcm{sup -2}. A significant temperature effect and a small rotation speed effect were found in the rotating disc voltammetry for all the investigated colloids. The highest peak current was recorded on Ag-Au, while the most negative peak potential was recorded on Ag-Ir. (author)

  16. Improvements in the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of biomedical Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy using an electrochemical anodization treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Ping; Sun, Ying-Sui [Department of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzu-Hsin, E-mail: biomaterials@hotmail.com [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-01

    The biocompatibility of an implant material is determined by its surface characteristics. This study investigated the application of an electrochemical anodization surface treatment to improve both the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications. The electrochemical anodization treatment produced an Al-free oxide layer with nanoscale porosity on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. The surface topography and microstructure of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy were analyzed. The corrosion resistance was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements in simulated blood plasma (SBP). The adhesion and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to test specimens were evaluated using various biological analysis techniques. The results showed that the presence of a nanoporous oxide layer on the anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy increased the corrosion resistance (i.e., increased the corrosion potential and decreased both the corrosion rate and the passive current) in SBP compared with the untreated Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. Changes in the nanotopography also improved the cell adhesion and proliferation on the anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. We conclude that a fast and simple electrochemical anodization surface treatment improves the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for biomedical implant applications. - Highlights: ► Simple/fast electrochemical anodization was applied to biomedical Ti–6Al–7Nb surface. ► Anodized surface had nano-porous topography and contained Al-free oxide layer. ► Anodized surface raised corrosion resistance in three simulated biological solutions. ► Anodized surface enhanced cell adhesion and cell proliferation. ► Electrochemical anodization has potential as biomedical implant surface treatment.

  17. Improvements in the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of biomedical Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy using an electrochemical anodization treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung; Wu, Chia-Ping; Sun, Ying-Sui; Lee, Tzu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    The biocompatibility of an implant material is determined by its surface characteristics. This study investigated the application of an electrochemical anodization surface treatment to improve both the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications. The electrochemical anodization treatment produced an Al-free oxide layer with nanoscale porosity on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. The surface topography and microstructure of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy were analyzed. The corrosion resistance was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements in simulated blood plasma (SBP). The adhesion and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to test specimens were evaluated using various biological analysis techniques. The results showed that the presence of a nanoporous oxide layer on the anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy increased the corrosion resistance (i.e., increased the corrosion potential and decreased both the corrosion rate and the passive current) in SBP compared with the untreated Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. Changes in the nanotopography also improved the cell adhesion and proliferation on the anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. We conclude that a fast and simple electrochemical anodization surface treatment improves the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for biomedical implant applications. - Highlights: ► Simple/fast electrochemical anodization was applied to biomedical Ti–6Al–7Nb surface. ► Anodized surface had nano-porous topography and contained Al-free oxide layer. ► Anodized surface raised corrosion resistance in three simulated biological solutions. ► Anodized surface enhanced cell adhesion and cell proliferation. ► Electrochemical anodization has potential as biomedical implant surface treatment

  18. Evaluation of lithium alloy anode materials for Li-TiS2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.-K.; Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to select candidate lithium alloy anode materials and establish selection criteria. Some of the selected alloy materials were evaluated for their electrochemical properties and performance. This paper describes the criteria for the selection of alloys and the findings of the studies. Li-Si and Li-Cd alloys have been found to be unstable in the EC+2-MeTHF-based electrolyte. The Li-Al alloy system was found to be promising among the alloy systems studied in view of its stability and reversibility. Unfortunately, the large volume changes of LiAl alloys during charge/discharge cycling cause considerable 'exfoliation' of its active mass. This paper also describes ways how to address this problem. The rate of disintegration of this anode would probably be surpressed by the presence of an inert solid solution or a uniform distribution of precipitates within the grains of the active mass. It was discovered that the addition of a small quantity of Mn may improve the mechanical properties of LiAl. In an attempt to reduce the Li-Al alloy vs. Li voltage, it was observed that LiAlPb(0.1)Cd(0.3) material can be cycled at 1.5 mA/sq cm without exfoliation of the active mass.

  19. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni3Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Cieślak, Grzegorz; Norek, Małgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwik, Paweł; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anodic porous alumina was formed by Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy anodization. ► The anodizations were conducted in 0.3 M citric acid. ► Nanopores geometry depends on anodizing voltage. ► No barrier layer was formed during anodization. - Abstract: Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 μm/h was found for the anodization at 0 °C and 2.0 V. The highest one – 2.29 μm/h – was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 °C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 °C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 °C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/μm 2 (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 94.9 pores/μm 2 (12.0 V, 0 °C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the operating conditions.

  20. Effect of Annealing on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Anodized Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, In Joon; Nakano, Hiroaki; Oue, Satoshi; Fukushima, Hisaaki; Horita, Zenji [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeo [Kyushu Sangyo University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    The effect of annealing on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy (AA5052) processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated by electrochemical techniques in a solution containing 0.2 mol/L of AlCl{sub 3} and also by surface analysis. The Al-Mg alloy was annealed at a fixed temperature between 473 and 573 K for 120 min in air after ECAP. Anodizing was conducted for 40 min at 100-400 A/m{sup 2} at 293 K in a solution containing 1.53 mol/L of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.0185 mol/L of Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The internal stress generated in anodic oxide films during anodization was measured with a strain gauge to clarify the effect of ECAP on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy. The time required to initiate the pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Mg alloy was shorter in samples subjected to ECAP, indicating that ECAP decreased the pitting corrosion resistance. however, the pitting corrosion resistance was greatly improved by annealing after ECAP. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion increased with increasing annealing temperature. The strain gauge attached to Al-Mg alloy revealed that the internal stress present in the anodic oxide films was compressive stress, and that the stress was larger with ECAP than without. The compressive internal stress gradually decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cracks occurred in the anodic oxide film on Al-Mg alloy during initial corrosion and that the cracks were larger with ECAP than without. The ECAP process of severe plastic deformation produces large internal stresses in the Al-Mg alloy: the stresses remain in the anodic oxide films, increasing the likelihood of cracks. it is assumed that the pitting corrosion is promoted by these cracks as a result of the higher internal stress resulting from ECAP. The improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized AlMg alloy as a result of annealing appears to be

  1. Effect of Annealing on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Anodized Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, In Joon; Nakano, Hiroaki; Oue, Satoshi; Fukushima, Hisaaki; Horita, Zenji; Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2007-01-01

    The effect of annealing on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy (AA5052) processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated by electrochemical techniques in a solution containing 0.2 mol/L of AlCl 3 and also by surface analysis. The Al-Mg alloy was annealed at a fixed temperature between 473 and 573 K for 120 min in air after ECAP. Anodizing was conducted for 40 min at 100-400 A/m 2 at 293 K in a solution containing 1.53 mol/L of H 2 SO 4 and 0.0185 mol/L of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . The internal stress generated in anodic oxide films during anodization was measured with a strain gauge to clarify the effect of ECAP on the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized Al-Mg alloy. The time required to initiate the pitting corrosion of anodized Al-Mg alloy was shorter in samples subjected to ECAP, indicating that ECAP decreased the pitting corrosion resistance. however, the pitting corrosion resistance was greatly improved by annealing after ECAP. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion increased with increasing annealing temperature. The strain gauge attached to Al-Mg alloy revealed that the internal stress present in the anodic oxide films was compressive stress, and that the stress was larger with ECAP than without. The compressive internal stress gradually decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cracks occurred in the anodic oxide film on Al-Mg alloy during initial corrosion and that the cracks were larger with ECAP than without. The ECAP process of severe plastic deformation produces large internal stresses in the Al-Mg alloy: the stresses remain in the anodic oxide films, increasing the likelihood of cracks. it is assumed that the pitting corrosion is promoted by these cracks as a result of the higher internal stress resulting from ECAP. The improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance of anodized AlMg alloy as a result of annealing appears to be attributable to a decrease in

  2. PEO of pre-anodized Al–Si alloys: Corrosion properties and influence of sealings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, M., E-mail: marta.mohedano@hzg.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Magnesium Innovation Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Matykina, E.; Arrabal, R.; Mingo, B.; Pardo, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A356 gravity-cast and rheocast pre-anodized aluminium alloys were coated by PEO. • Different sealing techniques were applied after the coating process. • Iron-rich constituents of the substrate occlude the continuity of the porous anodic film. • PEO coatings consisted of a mixture of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mullite. • Post-treatments improved both hydrophobic and corrosion properties. - Abstract: Voltage-controlled PEO coatings were developed on A356 aluminum alloys (gravity-cast and rheocast) with a pre-anodized layer. The influence of the alloy manufacturing process and the effect of Si-rich phase on the structure and composition of the oxide layers were evaluated using SEM, EDS and XRD. The pre-anodized oxide layer preserves the microstructure of the substrate due to the presence of secondary phases that have a different behavior relative to the matrix during anodizing. PEO coatings consisted of a mixture of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mullite. The corrosion behavior and the effectiveness of different sealing techniques based on salts of nickel, cobalt, cerium and phosphonic acid were also studied. Post-treatments improved the hydrophobic properties of the coatings and showed a beneficial effect, significantly increasing the coating impedance and thereby reducing the susceptibility to corrosion.

  3. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  4. Enhanced activity of Pt/CNTs anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells using Ni2P as co-catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Lanping; Peng, Feng; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao

    2018-03-01

    The direct methanol fuel cell is a promising energy conversion device because of the utilization of the state-of-the-art platinum (Pt) anode catalyst. In this work, novel Pt/Ni2P/CNTs catalysts were prepared by the H2 reduction method. It was found that the activity and stability of Pt for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) could be significantly enhanced while using nickel phosphide (Ni2P) nanoparticles as co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the existence of Ni2P affected the particle size and electronic distribution of Pt obviously. Pt/CNTs catalyst, Pt/Ni2P/CNTs catalysts with different Ni2P amount were synthesized, among which Pt/6%Ni2P/CNTs catalyst exhibited the best MOR activity of 1400 mAmg-1Pt, which was almost 2.5 times of the commercial Pt/C-JM catalyst. Moreover, compared to other Pt-based catalysts, this novel Pt/Ni2P/CNTs catalyst also exhibited higher onset current density and better steady current density. The result of this work may provide positive guidance to the research on high efficiency and stability of Pt-based catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

  5. Evaluation of Pt-Ru-Ni and Pt-Sn-Ni catalysts as anodes in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribadeneira, Esteban; Hoyos, Bibian A. [Escuela de Procesos y Energia, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2008-05-15

    In this study, the electrooxidation of ethanol on carbon supported Pt-Ru-Ni and Pt-Sn-Ni catalysts is electrochemically studied through cyclic voltammetry at 50 C in direct ethanol fuel cells. All electrocatalysts are prepared using the ethylene glycol-reduction process and are chemically characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). For fuel cell evaluation, electrodes are prepared by the transfer-decal method. Nickel addition to the anode improves DEFC performance. When Pt{sub 75}Ru{sub 15}Ni{sub 10}/C is used as an anode catalyst, the current density obtained in the fuel cell is greater than that of all other investigated catalysts. Tri-metallic catalytic mixtures have a higher performance relative to bi-metallic catalysts. These results are in agreement with CV results that display greater activity for PtRuNi at higher potentials. (author)

  6. Electrochemical machining of titanium alloys with the use of anodal activating pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.D.; Klepikov, R.P.; Moroz, I.I.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative investigation of electrochemical machining of VT-6 titanium alloy by direct current and in different pulse mode is carried out taking into account the peculiarities of anodal behaviour of titanium alloys at high current desities. The mode of electrochemical machining of VT-6 alloy with activating pulses is chosen. It allows to conduct a process at lower voltages and small interelectrode gaps

  7. Anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells utilizing directly solar light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daobao; Wang, Shuxi; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Jian; Zha, Longwu; Hou, Yuanyuan; He, Jianguo; Xiao, Ying; Lin, Huashui; Tian, Zhaowu

    2009-01-01

    Shine a light: A PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells shows photocatalytic activity. The peak current density for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination is 2-3 times greater than that in the absence of solar light. Ethanol is oxidized by light-generated holes, and the electrons are collected by the TiO(2) support to generate the oxidation current.Novel PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) were prepared from PtNiRu nanoparticles (1:1:1 atomic ratios) and a nanoporous TiO(2) film by a sol-gel and electrodeposition method. The performances of the catalysts for ethanol oxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate a remarkable enhancement of activity for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination. Under solar light illumination, the generated oxidation peak current density is 24.6 mA cm(-2), which is about 2.5 times higher than that observed without solar light (9.9 mA cm(-2)). The high catalytic activity of the PtNiRu/TiO(2) complex catalyst for the electrooxidation of ethanol may be attributed to the modified metal/nanoporous TiO(2) film, and the enhanced electrooxidation of ethanol under solar light may be due to the photogeneration of holes in the modified nanoporous TiO(2) film.

  8. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided by Fundamental Atomistics Insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suljo Linic

    2006-08-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a novel hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, Sn/Ni alloy as a potential carbon tolerant reforming catalyst. Sn/Ni alloy was synthesized and tested in steam reforming of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalyst is carbon-tolerant under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by a few characteristics: (a) Knowledge-based, bottom-up approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) The focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  9. FeCrO Nanoparticles as Anode Catalyst for Ethane Proton Conducting Fuel Cell Reactors to Coproduce Ethylene and Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hui Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene and electrical power are cogenerated in fuel cell reactors with FeCr2O4 nanoparticles as anode catalyst, La0.7Sr0.3FeO3- (LSF as cathode material, and BaCe0.7Zr0.1Y0.2O3- (BCZY perovskite oxide as proton-conducting ceramic electrolyte. FeCr2O4, BCZY and LSF are synthesized by a sol-gel combustion method. The power density increases from 70 to 240 mW cm−2, and the ethylene yield increases from about 14.1% to 39.7% when the operating temperature of the proton-conducting fuel cell reactor increases from 650∘C to 750∘C. The FeCr2O4 anode catalyst exhibits better catalytic performance than nanosized Cr2O3 anode catalyst.

  10. Sn buffered by shape memory effect of NiTi alloys as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Renzong; Zhu Min; Wang Hui; Liu Jiangwen; Liuzhang Ouyang; Zou Jin

    2012-01-01

    By applying the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloys to buffer the Sn anodes, we demonstrate a simple approach to overcome a long-standing challenge of Sn anode in the applications of Li-ion batteries – the capacity decay. By supporting the Sn anodes with NiTi shape memory alloys, the large volume change of Sn anodes due to lithiation and delithiation can be effectively accommodated, based on the stress-induced martensitic transformation and superelastic recovery of the NiTi matrix respectively, which leads to a decrease in the internal stress and closing of cracks in Sn anodes. Accordingly, stable cycleability (630 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.7C) and excellent high-rate capabilities (478 mA h g −1 at 6.7C) were attained with the NiTi/Sn/NiTi film electrode. These shape memory alloys can also combine with other high-capacity metallic anodes, such as Si, Sb, Al, and improve their cycle performance.

  11. Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery Johanna K. Star 1 , Yi Ding 2 , and Paul A. Kohl ,1, * 1...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED 01-11-2011 to 01-11-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DENDRITE-FREE ELECTRODEPOSITION AND REOXIDATION OF LITHIUM-SODIUM...can short circuit the anode and cathode . Anode- cathode short circuits are especially dangerous when a flammable organic solvent is used as the

  12. Microscopic observation of pattern attack by aggressive ions on finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhammad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Azali Muhammad; Mohd Shaari Ripin; Rusni Rejab; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic observation on submerged finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode. Experimental tests were carried out on polished surface aluminium anode exposed to seawater containing aggressive ions in order to observe of pattern corrosion attack on corroding surface of anode. Results have shown, at least under the present testing condition, that surface of sacrificial anode were attack by an aggressive ion such as chloride along grain boundaries. In addition, results of microanalysis showed that the corrosion products on surface of aluminium alloy have Al, Zn and O element for all sample and within the pit was consists of Al, Zn, O and Cl element. (author)

  13. Characterization and Tribological Properties of Hard Anodized and Micro Arc Oxidized 5754 Quality Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ovundur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to compare the tribological performances of a 5754 quality aluminum alloy after hard anodic oxidation and micro arc oxidation processes. The structural analyses of the coatings were performed using XRD and SEM techniques. The hardness of the coatings was determined using a Vickers micro-indentation tester. Tribological performances of the hard anodized and micro arc oxidized samples were compared on a reciprocating wear tester under dry sliding conditions. The dry sliding wear tests showed that the wear resistance of the oxide coating generated by micro arc oxidation is remarkably higher than that of the hard anodized alloy.

  14. Study of Shell Zone Formation in Lithographic and Anodizing Quality Aluminum Alloys: Experimental and Numerical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Christine; Larouche, André; Hark, Robert

    Shell thickness is an important quality factor for lithographic and anodizing quality aluminum alloys. Increasing pressure is placed on casting plants to produce a thinner shell zone for these alloys. This study, based on plant trials and mathematical modelling highlights the most significant parameters influencing shell zone formation. Results obtained show the importance of metal temperature and distribution and mould metal level on shell zone formation. As an answer to specific plant problems, this study led to the development of improved metal distribution systems for DC casting of litho and anodizing quality alloys.

  15. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepniowski, Wojciech J., E-mail: wstepniowski@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of New Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2 Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Cieslak, Grzegorz; Norek, Malgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domanska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jozwik, Pawel; Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of New Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2 Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anodic porous alumina was formed by Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy anodization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anodizations were conducted in 0.3 M citric acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanopores geometry depends on anodizing voltage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No barrier layer was formed during anodization. - Abstract: Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 {mu}m/h was found for the anodization at 0 Degree-Sign C and 2.0 V. The highest one - 2.29 {mu}m/h - was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 Degree-Sign C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 Degree-Sign C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/{mu}m{sup 2} (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 94.9 pores/{mu}m{sup 2} (12.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the

  16. Structure, activity, and stability of platinum alloys as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    In this thesis I present our work on theoretical modelling of platinum alloys as catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). The losses associated with the kinetics of the ORR is the main bottleneck in low-temperature fuel cells for transport applications, and more active catalysts...... are essential for wide-spread use of this technology. platinum alloys have shown great promise as more active catalysts, which are still stable under reaction conditions. We have investigated these systems on multiple scales, using either Density Functional Theory (DFT) or Effective Medium Theory (EMT......), depending on the length and time scales involved. Using DFT, we show how diffusion barriers in transition metal alloys in the L12 structure depend on the alloying energy, supporting the assumption that an intrinsically more stable alloy is also more stable towards diffusion-related degradation...

  17. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  18. A Study on Sealing Process of Anodized Al Alloy Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Tsukahara, Sonoko; Ishikawa, Yuuichi

    Since sealing is an important process to improve the corrosion resistance in practical application of anodized aluminum, we prepared anodic oxide films on A5052 alloy in an oxalic acid bath and a sulfuric acid bath, sealed them at various conditions, and analyzed them by scanning electron microscopy, acid-dissolution examination, admittance measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The pore radius of the oxalic acid anodized film was about 5 times larger than that of sulfuric acid anodized film, while the corrosion resistance of the former showed about 2 times higher value than the latter with the same sealed state and amount of hydroxide formed by sealing process of the former was 6 times larger than the latter, respectively. Steam sealing formed dense hydroxide and boiling water sealing formed big coral-like hydroxide, whereas the corrosion resistance of the film sealed by the former showed about 1.5 times higher value than that sealed by the latter, respectively. Thus microstructure of anodic oxide films and their surface morphology after sealing process clearly depended on their anodizing solution and the sealing condition and showed obvious relation to electric and corrosive properties.

  19. PEO of pre-anodized Al-Si alloys: Corrosion properties and influence of sealings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, M.; Matykina, E.; Arrabal, R.; Mingo, B.; Pardo, A.

    2015-08-01

    Voltage-controlled PEO coatings were developed on A356 aluminum alloys (gravity-cast and rheocast) with a pre-anodized layer. The influence of the alloy manufacturing process and the effect of Si-rich phase on the structure and composition of the oxide layers were evaluated using SEM, EDS and XRD. The pre-anodized oxide layer preserves the microstructure of the substrate due to the presence of secondary phases that have a different behavior relative to the matrix during anodizing. PEO coatings consisted of a mixture of α-Al2O3, γ-Al2O3 and mullite. The corrosion behavior and the effectiveness of different sealing techniques based on salts of nickel, cobalt, cerium and phosphonic acid were also studied. Post-treatments improved the hydrophobic properties of the coatings and showed a beneficial effect, significantly increasing the coating impedance and thereby reducing the susceptibility to corrosion.

  20. Pt/Cr and Pt/Ni catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction: to alloy or not to alloy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaño, Mary Clare; Gyenge, Elod; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2011-04-01

    Bimetallic systems such as Pt-based alloys or non-alloys have exhibited interesting catalytic properties but pose a major challenge of not knowing a priori how the electronic and chemical properties will be modified relative to the parent metals. In this work, we present the origin of the changes in the reactivity of Pt/Cr and Pt/Ni catalysts, which have been of wide interest in fuel cell research. Using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations, we have shown that the modification of Pt surface reactivity in Pt/Ni is purely of geometric origin (strain). We have also found that the Pt-Ni bonding is very weak, which explains the observed instability of Pt-Ni catalysts under electrochemical measurements. On the other hand, Pt/Cr systems are governed by strong ligand effect (metal-metal interaction), which explains the experimentally observed reactivity dependence on the relative composition of the alloying components. The general characteristics of the potential energy curves for O2 dissociative adsorption on the bimetallic systems and the pure Pt clarify why the d-band center still works for Pt/Cr despite the strong Pt-Cr bonding and high spin polarization of Pt d-states. On the basis of the above clarifications, viable Pt-Cr and Pt-Ni structures, which involve nano-sized alloys and non-alloy bulk catalyst, which may strike higher than the currently observed oxidation reduction reaction activity are proposed.

  1. Anodic characteristics and stress corrosion cracking behavior of nickel rich alloys in bicarbonate and buffer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, Natalia S.; Giordano, Mabel C.; Ares, Alicia E.; Carranza, Ricardo M.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate which element in alloy C-22 may be responsible for the cracking susceptibility of the high nickel alloy. • Six nickel based alloys with different amount of Cr and Mo were selected for the electrochemical tests and response to SSRT. • Polarization tests showed that an anodic peak appear in the passive region in Cr containing alloys. • Cracking of Ni alloys in carbonate solutions seem to be a consequence of the instability of the passivating chromium oxide. • Alloys containing both Cr and Mo have the highest susceptibility. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate which alloying element in C-22 is responsible for the cracking susceptibility of the alloy in bicarbonate and two buffer solutions (tungstate and borate). Six nickel based alloys, with different amount of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) were tested using electrochemical methods and slow strain rate tests (SSRT) at 90 °C. All Cr containing alloys had transgranular cracking at high anodic potential; however, C-22 containing high Cr and high Mo was the most susceptible alloy to cracking. Bicarbonate was the most aggressive of three tested environments of similar pH.

  2. Structure of the Copper–Enriched Layer Introduced by Anodic Oxidation of Copper-Containing Aluminium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Zhou, X.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the structure of the copper–enriched layer formed at the alloy/anodic film interface during anodizing of Al–2 wt.% Cu binary alloy using transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that θ′ phase was formed within the copper–enriched layer. For the copper–enriched layer formed on {1 0 0} aluminum planes, the interface between the aluminum matrix and the θ′ phase within the copper-enriched layer is coherent. For the copper–enriched layer formed on {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} aluminum planes, the interfaces between the aluminum matrix and the θ′ phase within the copper-enriched layer are semi-coherent or incoherent. The interfacial coherency influences the formation of oxygen gas bubbles within the resultant anodic films.

  3. Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan; Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Jayaraj, Jeganathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy

    2009-05-30

    The present study provides an electrocoagulation process for the remediation of phosphate-contaminated water using aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel as the anodes and stainless steel as the cathode. The various parameters like effect of anode materials, effect of pH, concentration of phosphate, current density, temperature and co-existing ions, and so forth, and the adsorption capacity was evaluated using both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption of phosphate preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved with aluminium alloy anode at a current density of 0.2 A dm(-2), at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption process follows second-order kinetics.

  4. Effect of temperature on the anodizing process of aluminum alloy AA 5052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theohari, S.; Kontogeorgou, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of temperature (10-40 °C) during the anodizing process of AA 5052 for 40 min in 175 g/L sulfuric acid solution at constant voltage (15 V) was studied in comparison with pure aluminum. The incorporated magnesium species in the barrier layer result in the further increase of the minimum current density passed during anodizing, as the temperature increases, by about 42% up to 30 °C and then by 12% up to 40 °C. Then during the anodizing process for 40 min a blocking effect on oxide film growth was gradually observed as the temperature increased until 30 °C. The results of EDAX analysis on thick films reveal that the mean amount of the magnesium species inside the film is about 50-70% less than that in the bulk alloy, while it is higher at certain locations adjacent to the film surface at 30 °C. The increase of anodizing temperature does not influence the porosity of thin films (formed for short times) on pure aluminum, while it reduces it on the alloy. At 40 °C the above mentioned blocking effects disappear. It means that the presence of magnesium species causes an impediment to the effect of temperature on iss, on the film thickness and on the porosity of thin films, only under conditions where film growth takes place without significant loss of the anodizing charge to side reactions.

  5. Nano-composite of PtRu alloy electrocatalyst and electronically conducting polymer for use as the anode in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongho Choi; Kyungwon Park; Hyekyung Lee; Youngmin Kim; Jaesuk Lee; Yungeun Sung [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju (Korea)

    2003-08-15

    Nano-composites comprised of PtRu alloy nanoparticles and an electronically conducting polymer for the anode electrode in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were prepared. Two conducting polymers of poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and poly(9-(4-vinyl-phenyl)carbazole) were used for the nano-composite electrodes. Structural analyses were carried out using Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, AC impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrocatalytic activities were investigated by voltammetry and chronoamperometry in a 2 M CH{sub 3}OH/{sub 0.5} M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the data compared with a carbon-supported PtRu electrode. XRD patterns indicated good alloy formation and nano-composite formation was confirmed by TEM. Electrochemical measurements and DMFC unit-cell tests indicate that the nano-composites could be useful in a DMFC, but its performance would be slightly lower than that of a carbon-supported electrode. The interfacial property between the PtRu-polymer nano-composite anode and the polymer electrolyte was good, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. For better performance in a DMFC, a higher electric conductivity of the polymer and a lower catalyst loss are needed in nano-composite electrodes. (Author)

  6. Metamorphosis of the mixed phase PtRu anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells after exposure of methanol: In situ and ex situ characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Debasish [Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Aerosol Laboratory, Nano.DTU, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Chorkendorff, Ib [Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Johannessen, Tue [Aerosol Laboratory, Nano.DTU, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-11-08

    The change in the mixed phase heavily oxidized PtRu anode with the exposure of methanol in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The investigation had two major objectives: (i) to explore the original state of the active catalyst and (ii) to understand if alloying of Pt and Ru is a requirement for higher methanol oxidation activity. It was found that the methanol oxidation activity gradually improved for {proportional_to}2 h of exposure. The impedance spectra were taken at different times within this time of improvement of activity. The impedance spectra were deconvoluted in different contributions like membrane resistance (R{sub m}), charge transfer resistance (R{sub Ct}), adsorption resistance (R{sub ad}), and oxidation resistance (R{sub ox}). The improvement of the activity was explained in terms of the effect of the pretreatment on different contributions. XRD was done on the virgin and methanol exposed sample as a possible mean to identify the difference. It was postulated that the reduction of the as prepared PtRu after exposure was responsible for the activity improvement. Also, it was shown that bulk alloy formation is not a necessary condition for higher methanol activity of PtRu catalysts. (author)

  7. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  8. Highly Durable Platinum Single-Atom Alloy Catalyst for Electrochemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jiwhan; Roh, Chi-Woo; Sahoo, Suman Kalyan

    2018-01-01

    Single atomic Pt catalyst can offer efficient utilization of the expensive platinum and provide unique selectivity because it lacks ensemble sites. However, designing such a catalyst with high Pt loading and good durability is very challenging. Here, single atomic Pt catalyst supported on antimony...... functional theory calculations show that replacing Sb sites with Pt atoms in the bulk phase or at the surface of SbSn or ATO is energetically favorable. The Pt1/ATO shows superior activity and durability for formic acid oxidation reaction, compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The single atomic Pt...... structure is retained even after a harsh durability test, which is performed by repeating cyclic voltammetry in the range of 0.05–1.4 V for 1800 cycles. A full cell is fabricated for direct formic acid fuel cell using the Pt1/ATO as an anode catalyst, and an order of magnitude higher cell power is obtained...

  9. Formation of barrier-type anodic films on ZE41 magnesium alloy in a fluoride/glycerol electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-López, J.M.; Němcová, A.; Zhong, X.L.; Liu, H.; Arenas, M.A.; Haigh, S.J.; Burke, M.G.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Barrier anodic films formed on ZE41 Mg alloy in glycerol/fluoride electrolyte. • Films contain oxygen and fluorine species; formation ratio ∼1.3 nm V −1 . • Nanocrystalline film structure, with MgO and MgF 2. • Zinc enrichment in alloy beneath anodic film. • Modified film formed above Mg-Zn-RE second phase. - Abstract: Barrier-type, nanocrystalline anodic films have been formed on a ZE41 magnesium alloy under a constant current density of 5 mA cm −2 in a glycerol/fluoride electrolyte, containing 5 vol.% of added water, at 293 K. The films contain magnesium, fluorine and oxygen as the major species, and lower amounts of alloying element species. The films grow at an efficiency of ∼0.8 to 0.9, with a formation ratio in the range of ∼1.2 to 1.4 nm V −1 at the matrix regions and with a ratio of ∼1.8 nm V −1 at Mg-Zn-RE second phase. At the former regions, rare earth species are enriched at the film surface and zinc is enriched in the alloy. A carbon- and oxygen-rich band within the film suggests that the films grow at the metal/film and film/electrolyte interfaces

  10. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  11. Alloyed Ni-Fe nanoparticles as catalysts for NH3 decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chakraborty, Debasish; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    A rational design approach was used to develop an alloyed Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalyst for decomposition of ammonia. The dependence of the catalytic activity is tested as a function of the Ni-to-Fe ratio, the type of Ni-Fe alloy phase, the metal loading and the type of oxide support. In the tests with high...... temperatures and a low NH3-to-H2 ratio, the catalytic activity of the best Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be comparable or even better to that of a more expensive Ru-based catalyst. Small Ni-Fe nanoparticle sizes are crucial for an optimal overall NH3 conversion because of a structural effect favoring...

  12. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young's Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetatsu Tanaka

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young's modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young's modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank's solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion.

  13. Discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys as anodes for Mg-air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Naiguang; Wang, Richu; Peng, Chaoqun; Peng, Bing; Feng, Yan; Hu, Chengwang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the effect of indium on the discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb alloy. • We evaluate the performance of Mg-air batteries with Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In anodes. • We analyze the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy in the discharge process. - Abstract: The discharge behaviour of Mg-Al-Pb and Mg-Al-Pb-In alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is investigated by electrochemical techniques, and compared with that of pure magnesium. The results show that Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy provides a more negative potential and exhibits a higher utilization efficiency in contrast with Mg-Al-Pb alloy and pure magnesium during the half-cell test at a large current density, and gives desirable discharge performance when used as anode for Mg- air battery. The peak power density of the Mg-air battery with Mg-Al-Pb-In anode is 94.5 mW cm −2 , which is comparable with those of Mg-H 2 O 2 semi-fuel batteries. Moreover, the activation mechanism of Mg-Al-Pb-In alloy during the discharge process is also analyzed

  14. Investigation of nano Pt and Pt-based alloys electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Suo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalysts used in micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC, such as Pt/C and Pt alloy/C, prepared by liquid-phase NaBH4 reduction method have been investigated. XC-72 (Cobalt corp. Company, U.S.A is chosen as the activated carrier for the electrocatalysts to keep the catalysts powder in the range of several nanometers. The XRD, SEM, EDX analyses indicated that the catalysts had small particle size in several nanometers, in excellent dispersed phase and the molar ratio of the precious metals was found to be optimal. The performances of the DMFCs using cathodic catalyst with Pt percentage of 30wt% and different anodic catalysts (Pt-Ru, Pt-Ru-Mo were tested. The polarization curves and power density curves of the cells were measured to determine the optimal alloy composition and condition for the electrocatalysts. The results showed that the micro direct methanol fuel cell with 30wt% Pt/C as the cathodic catalyst and n(Pt:n(Ru:n(Mo = 3:2:2 PtRuMo/C as the anodic catalyst at room temperature using 2.0mol/L methanol solution has the best performances.

  15. Genetic Algorithm Procreation Operators for Alloy Nanoparticle Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Steen; Landis, David Dominic; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The long-term stability of binary nanoparticles and clusters is one of the main challenges in the development of novel (electro-)catalysts for e.g. CO2 reduction. Here, we present a method for predicting the optimal composition and structure of alloy nanoparticles and clusters, with particular...

  16. Formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Sil [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The goal of this study was to investigate the formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on the surface of cast Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing. The anodization technique for creating the nanotubes utilized a potentiostat and an electrolyte containing 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with 0.8 wt.% NaF. The grain size of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys increased as the Ta content increased. Using X-ray diffraction, for the Ti–30Nb alloy the main peaks were identified as α″ martensite with strong peaks of β phase. The phases in the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys changed from a duplex (α″ + β) microstructure to solely β phase with increasing Ta content. The nanotubes that formed on the surface of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys were amorphous TiO{sub 2} without an evidence of the crystalline anatase or rutile forms of TiO{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the average diameters of the small and large nanotubes on the Ti–30Nb alloy not containing Ta were approximately 100 nm and 400 nm, respectively, whereas the small and large nanotubes on the alloy had diameters of approximately 85 nm and 300 nm, respectively. As the Ta content increased from 0 to 15 wt.%, the average lengths of the nanotubes increased from 2 μm to 3.5 μm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the nanotubes were principally composed of Ti, Nb, Ta, O and F. Contact angle measurements showed that the nanotube surface had good wettability by water droplets. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers on anodized Ti-30Nb-xTa alloys have been investigated. • Nanotube surface had an amorphous structure without heat treatment. • Nanotube diameter of Ti-30Nb-xTa decreased, whereas tube layer increased with Ta content. • The nanotube surface exhibited the low contact angle and good wettability.

  17. Formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Sil; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes on the surface of cast Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys by anodizing. The anodization technique for creating the nanotubes utilized a potentiostat and an electrolyte containing 1 M H 3 PO 4 with 0.8 wt.% NaF. The grain size of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys increased as the Ta content increased. Using X-ray diffraction, for the Ti–30Nb alloy the main peaks were identified as α″ martensite with strong peaks of β phase. The phases in the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys changed from a duplex (α″ + β) microstructure to solely β phase with increasing Ta content. The nanotubes that formed on the surface of the Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys were amorphous TiO 2 without an evidence of the crystalline anatase or rutile forms of TiO 2 . Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the average diameters of the small and large nanotubes on the Ti–30Nb alloy not containing Ta were approximately 100 nm and 400 nm, respectively, whereas the small and large nanotubes on the alloy had diameters of approximately 85 nm and 300 nm, respectively. As the Ta content increased from 0 to 15 wt.%, the average lengths of the nanotubes increased from 2 μm to 3.5 μm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the nanotubes were principally composed of Ti, Nb, Ta, O and F. Contact angle measurements showed that the nanotube surface had good wettability by water droplets. - Highlights: • TiO 2 nanotube layers on anodized Ti-30Nb-xTa alloys have been investigated. • Nanotube surface had an amorphous structure without heat treatment. • Nanotube diameter of Ti-30Nb-xTa decreased, whereas tube layer increased with Ta content. • The nanotube surface exhibited the low contact angle and good wettability

  18. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured mechanically alloyed Pt-Co catalyst for oxygen gas-diffusion-electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharkya, P.; Farhat, Z.; Czech, E.; Hawthorne, H.; Alfantazi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of PEM fuel cells depends largely upon the cost of materials, processing and fabrication. The cost of Pt catalyst is a significant cost of a fuel cell. Alternative low cost catalyst that promotes high rate of oxygen reduction is needed. To achieve this, a mechanochemical technique was employed to refine the catalyst layer structure (i.e. increasing the effective catalyst surface area) and reducing the amount of Pt used, by alloying with a cheaper element. An investigation is carried out to study the relationship between the new catalyst structure refinement, morphology, microstructure and its electrocatalytic behaviour. Nanostructured Pt, Co and Pt 0.2 5 Co 0.75 alloy was fabricated from high purity Pt (99.9%) and Co (99.5%) powders using a Laboratory Planetary Ball Mill 'Pulverisette 6'. Optimum milling conditions, that produce fine, uniform and mechanically alloyed microstructure, were determined during fabrication, by varying process parameters (i.e., rpm, milling time, ball to powder ratio, milling atmosphere, surface-agents and milling/cooling cycle). Mechanically induced chemical and physical reactions and thermal effects were monitored 'in-situ' using a GTM system, which recorded temperature and pressure changes during milling. The alloy catalysts were characterized using TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD and BET techniques. Electrochemical tests were carried out on prepared powders. Exchange currents were determined from a potentiodynamic polarization tests and used to compare relative electrocatalytic behaviour of the new catalyst. Structure/property relationships were discussed and conclusions were drawn on the production of improved low cost catalyst. (author)

  19. Anodic Fabrication of Ti-Ni-O Nanotube Arrays on Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification with oxide nanostructures is one of the efficient ways to improve physical or biomedical properties of shape memory alloys. This work reports a fabrication of highly ordered Ti-Ni-O nanotube arrays on Ti-Ni alloy substrates through pulse anodization in glycerol-based electrolytes. The effects of anodization parameters and the annealing process on the microstructures and surface morphology of Ti-Ni-O were studied using scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. The electrolyte type greatly affected the formation of nanotube arrays. A formation of anatase phase was found with the Ti-Ni-O nanotube arrays annealed at 450 °C. The oxide nanotubes could be crystallized to rutile phase after annealing treatment at 650 °C. The Ti-Ni-O nanotube arrays demonstrated an excellent thermal stability by keeping their nanotubular structures up to 650 °C.

  20. Design of a surface alloy catalyst for steam reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Chorkendorff, Ib; Clausen, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed studies of elementary chemical processes on well-characterized single crystal surfaces have contributed substantially to the understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. insight into the structure of surface alloys combined with an understanding of the relation between the surface compositi...... and reactivity is shown to lead directly to new ideas for catalyst design, The feasibility of such an approach is illustrated by the synthesis, characterization, and tests of a high-surface area gold-nickel catalyst for steam reforming....

  1. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W.; Shih, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al x CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 Ωcm 2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 Ωcm 2 ). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H 2 SO 4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al 0.3 CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 and Al 0.3 CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al x CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

  2. Effects of benzotriazole on anodized film formed on AZ31B magnesium alloy in environmental-friendly electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinghua; An Maozhong; Yang Peixia; Li Haixian; Su Caina

    2009-01-01

    An environmental-friendly electrolyte of silicate and borate, which contained an addition agent of 1H-benzotriazole (BTA) with low toxicity (LD50 of 965 mg/kg), was used to prepare an anodized film on AZ31B magnesium alloy under the constant current density of 1.5 A/dm 2 at room temperature. Effects of BTA on the properties of the anodized film were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), loss weight measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results demonstrated that anodized growth process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependant on the BTA concentration, which might be attributed to the formation of an BTA adsorption layer on magnesium substrate surface. When the BTA concentration was 5 g/L in the electrolyte, a compact and thick anodized film could provide excellent corrosion resistance for AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  3. Apatite Formation and Biocompatibility of a Low Young’s Modulus Ti-Nb-Sn Alloy Treated with Anodic Oxidation and Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidetatsu; Mori, Yu; Noro, Atsushi; Kogure, Atsushi; Kamimura, Masayuki; Yamada, Norikazu; Hanada, Shuji; Masahashi, Naoya; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely prevalent as a material for orthopaedic implants because of its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. However, the discrepancy in Young’s modulus between metal prosthesis and human cortical bone sometimes induces clinical problems, thigh pain and bone atrophy due to stress shielding. We designed a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with a low Young’s modulus to address problems of stress disproportion. In this study, we assessed effects of anodic oxidation with or without hot water treatment on the bone-bonding characteristics of a Ti-Nb-Sn alloy. We examined surface analyses and apatite formation by SEM micrographs, XPS and XRD analyses. We also evaluated biocompatibility in experimental animal models by measuring failure loads with a pull-out test and by quantitative histomorphometric analyses. By SEM, abundant apatite formation was observed on the surface of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy discs treated with anodic oxidation and hot water after incubation in Hank’s solution. A strong peak of apatite formation was detected on the surface using XRD analyses. XPS analysis revealed an increase of the H2O fraction in O 1s XPS. Results of the pull-out test showed that the failure loads of Ti-Nb-Sn alloy rods treated with anodic oxidation and hot water was greater than those of untreated rods. Quantitative histomorphometric analyses indicated that anodic oxidation and hot water treatment induced higher new bone formation around the rods. Our findings indicate that Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water showed greater capacity for apatite formation, stronger bone bonding and higher biocompatibility for osteosynthesis. Ti-Nb-Sn alloy treated with anodic oxidation and hot water treatment is a promising material for orthopaedic implants enabling higher osteosynthesis and lower stress disproportion. PMID:26914329

  4. Water and oil wettability of anodized 6016 aluminum alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S. P.; Alves, C. F. Almeida; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the control of wettability behaviour of a 6000 series aluminum (Al) alloy surface (Al6016-T4), which is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries. In order to induce the surface micro-nanostructuring of the surface, a combination of prior mechanical polishing steps followed by anodization process with different conditions was used. The surface polishing with sandpaper grit size 1000 promoted aligned grooves on the surface leading to static water contact angle (WCA) of 91° and oil (α-bromonaphthalene) contact angle (OCA) of 32°, indicating a slightly hydrophobic and oleophilic character. H2SO4 and H3PO4 acid electrolytes were used to grow aluminum oxide layers (Al2O3) by anodization, working at 15 V/18° C and 100 V/0 °C, respectively, in one or two-steps configuration. Overall, the anodization results showed that the structured Al surfaces were hydrophilic and oleophilic-like with both WCA and OCA below 90°. The one-step configuration led to a dimple-shaped Al alloy surface with small diameter of around 31 nm, in case of H2SO4, and with larger diameters of around 223 nm in case of H3PO4. The larger dimples achieved with H3PO4 electrolyte allowed to reach a slight hydrophobic surface. The thicker porous Al oxide layers, produced by anodization in two-step configuration, revealed that the liquids can penetrate easily inside the non-ordered porous structures and, thus, the surface wettability tended to superhydrophilic and superoleophilic character (CA OCA. This inversion in favour of the hydrophilic-oleophobic surface behaviour is of great interest either for lubrication of mechanical components or in water-oil separation process.

  5. Palladium-alloy catalysts as ethanol tolerant cathodes for direct alcohol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie; Varela, F.J.R. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Coahuila (Mexico). Unidad Saltillo

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that electroactive palladium (Pd) and Pd-alloy catalysts prepared using a sputtering technique possess a similar degree of activity as platinum (Pt) electrodes. This study demonstrated that Pd and Pd-alloys show a high degree of tolerance to ethanol during oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) processes. The onset potential of the ORR process in the presence of 0.5M of ethanol decreased by only 33 mV and 18 mV on Pd and Pd-cobalt (Co) catalysts. Linear sweep voltammetry experiments showed that no peak current density caused by the electro-oxidation of ethanol was observed in the Pd-based catalysts. The selective behaviour of the Pd and Pd-Co catalysts was attributed to a slow rate of adsorption of the ethanol as well as the presence of reaction intermediates on the catalytic surface. Results suggested that the Pd and Pd-Co catalysts are suitable candidates for direct alcohol fuel cell applications. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Structured Ni catalysts on porous anodic alumina membranes for methane dry reforming: NiAl 2 O 4 formation and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2015-06-29

    This communication presents the successful design of a structured catalyst based on porous anodic alumina membranes for methane dry reforming. The catalyst with a strong Ni-NiAl2O4 interaction shows both excellent activity and stability. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Structured Ni catalysts on porous anodic alumina membranes for methane dry reforming: NiAl 2 O 4 formation and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu; Guo, Y.; Basset, Jean-Marie; Kameyama, H.

    2015-01-01

    This communication presents the successful design of a structured catalyst based on porous anodic alumina membranes for methane dry reforming. The catalyst with a strong Ni-NiAl2O4 interaction shows both excellent activity and stability. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics of Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite anode for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hong; Zhao Hailei; Jia Xidi; Qiu Weihua; Cui Fenge

    2007-01-01

    Micro-scaled Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite was synthesized from oxides of Sn, Sb and Ni via carbothermal reduction. The phase composition and electrochemical properties of the Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite anode material were studied. The prepared alloy composite electrode exhibits a high specific capacity and a good cycling stability. The lithiation capacity was 530 mAh g -1 in the first cycle and maintained at 370-380 mAh g -1 in the following cycles. The good electrochemical performance may be attributed to its relatively large particle size and multi-phase characteristics. The former reason leads to the lower surface impurity and thus the lower initial capacity loss, while the latter results in a stepwise lithiation/delithiation behavior and a smooth volume change of electrode in cycles. The Sn-Sb-Ni alloy composite material shows a good candidate anode material for the rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  9. ROLE OF ULTRASOUND IN MECHANISMS OF ANODE-CATHODE INTERACTIONS DURING ELECTROSPARK ALLOYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Chigrinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals results of investigations on mass transfer kinetics and dynamics of coating formation while using integral electrospark alloying method with additional ultrasonic exposure at different stages of formation. Nowadays, a classical method for electrospark alloying with hard-alloy anodes and impulse AC voltage frequency on the vibration exciter coil from 20 to 1600 Hz has been mainly used for application of protective and strengthening coatings within permissible thickness and characteristics. The key aspect of ultrasonic exposure application (frequency 22–44 kHz during electrospark alloying is the possibility to increase further thickness of coatings to be formed even after reaching a brittle fracture threshold of the coating material. Methodology of the executed research activity has been based on integrated studies (gravimetric, metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic of coatings which are to be formed through compositions produced while using method of high-energy hot compaction and a “refractory carbide (WC and a binding material“ system in the form of alloy based on nickel from the series of “colmonoy” Ni – Ni3B system which is alloyed with additions of copper and silicon. The initial surface treatment within ultrasonic frequency range (22–44 kHz contributes to a noticeable increase in the mass transfer rate, which is primarily determined by chemical composition and thermodynamic stability of anodes. It is due to surface activation in the process of its preliminary deformation at ultrasonic frequency which creates additional conditions for striking of a spark.The final ultrasonic treatment improves coating quality due to its additional forging that leads to an increase of its structure homogeneity and density.

  10. Influence of 8-hydroxyquinoline on properties of anodic coatings obtained by micro arc oxidation on AZ91 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.F. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Surface Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhang, S.F., E-mail: zhangshufang790314@sina.com [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Surface Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Yang, N.; Yao, L.J.; He, F.X.; Zhou, Y.P.; Xu, X.; Chang, L.; Bai, S.J. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2012-10-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-HQ can promote the coating formation and change the coating color. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-HQ can increase the coating thickness and decrease the pore size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insoluble Mg(HQ){sub 2} is formed in anodic coatings in an alkaline solution with 8-HQ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-HQ improves the corrosion resistance of the anodized magnesium alloys. - Abstract: The influence of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) on formation and properties of anodic coatings obtained by micro arc oxidation (MAO) on AZ91 magnesium alloys was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The results demonstrate that 8-HQ can decrease the solution conductivity, take part in the coating formation and change the coating color. By developing anodic coatings with increasing thickness, insoluble Mg(HQ){sub 2} and small pore size, 8-HQ improves the corrosion resistance of the anodized magnesium alloys. The coating shows the best corrosion resistance in the solution of 10 g/L NaOH and 18 g/L Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} with 2 g/L 8-HQ.

  11. Boric/sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum alloys 2024 and 7075: Film growth and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.E.; Zhang, L.; Smith, C.J.E.; Skeldon, P.

    1999-11-01

    The influence of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) additions to sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were examined for the anodizing of Al 2024-T3 (UNS A92024) and Al 7075-T6 (UNS A97075) alloys at constant voltage. Alloys were pretreated by electropolishing, by sodium dichromate (Na{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7})/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (CSA) etching, or by alkaline etching. Current-time responses revealed insignificant dependence on the concentration of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} to 50 g/L. Pretreatments affected the initial film development prior to the establishment of the steady-state morphology of the porous film, which was related to the different compositions and morphologies of pretreated surfaces. More detailed studies of the Al 7075-T6 alloy indicated negligible effects of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} on the coating weight, morphology of the anodic film, and thickening rate of the film, or corrosion resistance provided by the film. In salt spray tests, unsealed films formed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or mixed acid yielded similar poor corrosion resistances, which were inferior to that provided by anodizing in chromic acid (H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}). Sealing of films in deionized water, or preferably in chromate solution, improved corrosion resistance, although not matching the far superior performance provided by H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} anodizing and sealing.

  12. PdRu/C catalysts for ethanol oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liang; He, Hui; Hsu, Andrew; Chen, Rongrong

    2013-11-01

    Carbon supported PdRu catalysts with various Pd:Ru atomic ratios were synthesized by impregnation method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical half-cell tests, and the anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cell (AEM-DEFC) tests. XRD results suggest that the PdRu metal exists on carbon support in an alloy form. TEM study shows that the bimetallic PdRu/C catalysts have slightly smaller average particle size than the single metal Pd/C catalyst. Lower onset potential and peak potential and much higher steady state current for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media were observed on the bimetallic catalysts (PdxRuy/C) than on the Pd/C, while the activity for ethanol oxidation on the pure Ru/C was not noticeable. By using Pd/C anode catalysts and MnO2 cathode catalysts, AEM-DEFCs free from the expensive Pt catalyst were assembled. The AEM DEFC using the bimetallic Pd3Ru/C anode catalyst showed a peak power density as high as 176 mW cm-2 at 80 °C, about 1.8 times higher than that using the single metal Pd/C catalyst. The role of Ru for enhancing the EOR activity of Pd/C catalysts is discussed.

  13. Polyol Synthesis of Cobalt–Copper Alloy Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Laiza V.P.; Snider, Jonathan L.; Fleischman, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Novel catalysts for the selective production of higher alcohols from syngas could offer improved pathways towards synthetic fuels and chemicals. Cobalt–copper alloy catalysts have shown promising results for this reaction. To improve control over particle properties, a liquid phase nanoparticle s...

  14. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  15. Manufacturing and characterization of magnesium alloy foils for use as anode materials in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloffer, Daniel; Bozorgi, Salar; Sherstnev, Pavel; Lenardt, Christian; Gollas, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    The fabrication of thin foils of magnesium for use as anode material in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries is described. In order to improve its workability, the magnesium was alloyed by melting metallurgy with zinc and/or gadolinium, producing saturated solid solutions. The material was extruded to thin foils and rolled to a thickness of approximately 100 μm. The electrochemical behavior of Mg-1.63 wt% Zn, Mg-1.55 wt% Gd and Mg-1.02 wt% Zn-1.01 wt% Gd was studied in (PhMgCl)2-AlCl3/THF electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in symmetrical cells. Analysis of the current-potential curves in the Tafel region and the linear region close to the equilibrium potential show almost no effect of the alloying elements on the exchange current densities (5-45 μA/cm2) and the transfer coefficients. Chemical analyses of the alloy surfaces and the electrolyte demonstrate that the alloying elements not only dissolve with the magnesium during the anodic half-cycles, but also re-deposit during the cathodic half-cycles together with the magnesium and aluminum from the electrolyte. Given the negligible corrosion rate in aprotic electrolytes under such conditions, no adverse effects of alloying elements are expected for the performance of magnesium anodes in secondary batteries.

  16. Formic acid oxidation at platinum-bismuth catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ksenija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of heterogeneous catalysis, specifically catalysis on bimetallic surfaces, has seen many advances over the past few decades. Bimetallic catalysts, which often show electronic and chemical properties that are distinct from those of their parent metals, offer the opportunity to obtain new catalysts with enhanced selectivity, activity, and stability. The oxidation of formic acid is of permanent interest as a model reaction for the mechanistic understanding of the electrooxidation of small organic molecules and because of its technical relevance for fuel cell applications. Platinum is one of the most commonly used catalysts for this reaction, despite the fact that it shows a few significant disadvantages: high cost and extreme susceptibility to poisoning by CO. To solve this problem, several approaches have been used, but generally, they all consist in the modification of platinum with a second element. Especially, bismuth has received significant attention as Pt modifier. According to the results presented in this survey dealing with the effects influencing the formic acid oxidation it was found that two types of Pt-Bi bimetallic catalysts (bulk and low loading deposits on GC showed superior catalytic activity in terms of the lower onset potential and oxidation current density, as well as exceptional stability compared to Pt. The findings in this report are important for the understanding of mechanism of formic acid electrooxidation on a bulk alloy and decorated surface, for the development of advanced anode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells, as well as for the synthesis of novel low-loading bimetallic catalysts. The use of bimetallic compounds as the anode catalysts is an effective solution to overcoming the problems of the formic acid oxidation current stability for long term applications. In the future, the tolerance of both CO poisoning and electrochemical leaching should be considered as the key factors in the development

  17. Using sewage sludge pyrolytic gas to modify titanium alloy to obtain high-performance anodes in bio-electrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Ying, Kang; Shen, Dongsheng; Huang, Lijie; Ying, Xianbin; Huang, Haoqian; Cheng, Kun; Chen, Jiazheng; Zhou, Yuyang; Chen, Ting; Feng, Huajun

    2017-12-01

    Titanium is under consideration as a potential stable bio-anode because of its high conductivity, suitable mechanical properties, and electrochemical inertness in the operating potential window of bio-electrochemical systems; however, its application is limited by its poor electron-transfer capacity with electroactive bacteria and weak ability to form biofilms on its hydrophobic surface. This study reports an effective and low-cost way to convert a hydrophobic titanium alloy surface into a hydrophilic surface that can be used as a bio-electrode with higher electron-transfer rates. Pyrolytic gas of sewage sludge is used to modify the titanium alloy. The current generation, anodic biofilm formation surface, and hydrophobicity are systematically investigated by comparing bare electrodes with three modified electrodes. Maximum current density (15.80 A/m2), achieved using a modified electrode, is 316-fold higher than that of the bare titanium alloy electrode (0.05 A/m2) and that achieved by titanium alloy electrodes modified by other methods (12.70 A/m2). The pyrolytic gas-modified titanium alloy electrode can be used as a high-performance and scalable bio-anode for bio-electrochemical systems because of its high electron-transfer rates, hydrophilic nature, and ability to achieve high current density.

  18. Characterization and performances of cobalt-tungsten and molybdenum-tungsten carbides as anode catalyst for PEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izhar, Shamsul; Yoshida, Michiko; Nagai, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of carbon-supported cobalt-tungsten and molybdenum-tungsten carbides and their activity as an anode catalyst for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell were investigated. The electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen oxidation reaction over the catalysts was evaluated using a single-stack fuel cell and a rotating disk electrode. The characterization of the catalysts was performed by XRD, temperature-programmed carburization, temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The maximum power densities of the 30 wt% 873 K-carburized cobalt-tungsten and molybdenum-tungsten mixed with Ketjen carbon (cobalt-tungsten carbide (CoWC)/Ketjen black (KB) and molybdenum-tungsten carbide (MoWC)/KB) were 15.7 and 12.0 mW cm -2 , respectively, which were 14 and 11%, compared to the in-house membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared from a 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst. The CoWC/KB catalyst exhibited the highest maximum power density compared to the MoWC/KB and WC/KB catalysts. The 873 K-carburized CoW/KB catalyst formed the oxycarbided and/or carbided CoW that are responsible for the excellent hydrogen oxygen reaction

  19. Aluminum alloy for cladding excellent in sacrificial anode property and erosion-corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, S.; Mikami, K.; Yamada, K.

    1980-01-01

    An aluminum alloy for cladding excellent in sacrificial anode property and erosion-corrosion resistance, which consists essentially of, in weight percentage: zinc - 0.3 to 3.0%, magnesium - 0.2 to 4.0%, manganese - 0.3 to 2.0%, and, the balance aluminum and incidental impurities; said alloy including an aluminum alloy also containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of, in weight percentage: indium - 0.005 to 0.2%, tin - 0.01 to 0.3%, and, bismuth - 0.01 to 0.3%; provided that the total content of indium, tin and bismuth being up to 0.3%

  20. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  1. Impact of ac/dc spark anodizing on the corrosion resistance of Al-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsrayheen, Enam, E-mail: ealsrayh@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); McLeod, Eric, E-mail: hmolero@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Rateick, Richard, E-mail: richard.rateick@honeywell.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Molero, Hebert, E-mail: Eric.McLeod@stmu.ab.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Birss, Viola, E-mail: birss@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    An ac/dc spark anodization method was used to deposit an oxide film (6 {+-} 3 {mu}m in thickness) on the Al-Cu alloy AA2219. The oxide films were formed at 10 mA/cm{sup 2} for 30 min in an alkaline silicate solution, showing three main stages of growth. Scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis revealed that the oxide films are not uniform and consist of three main layers, an inner Al-rich barrier layer ({approx}1 {mu}m), an intermediate Al-Si mixed oxide layer ({approx}2 {+-} 1 {mu}m), and an outer porous Si-rich layer ({approx}3 {+-} 3 {mu}m). In addition, microscopic analysis showed that the Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallics present in the alloy have not been excessively oxidized during the anodization process and thus are retained beneath the oxide film, as desired. The coating passivity and corrosion resistance, evaluated using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in pH 7 borate buffer solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.86 M NaCl solution, respectively, were both significantly improved after spark-anodization.

  2. Recent development of active nanoparticle catalysts for fuel cell reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Vismadeb; Lee, Youngmin; Sun, Shouheng [Department of Chemistry Brown University Providence, RI (United States)

    2010-04-23

    This review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis of nanoparticle (NP) catalysts of Pt-, Pd- and Au-based NPs as well as composite NPs. First, new developments in the synthesis of single-component Pt, Pd and Au NPs are summarized. Then the chemistry used to make alloy and composite NP catalysts aiming to enhance their activity and durability for fuel cell reactions is outlined. The review next introduces the exciting new research push in developing CoN/C and FeN/C as non-Pt catalysts. Examples of size-, shape- and composition-dependent catalyses for oxygen reduction at cathode and formic acid oxidation at anode are highlighted to illustrate the potentials of the newly developed NP catalysts for fuel cell applications. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Anodizing of magnesium alloy AZ31 in alkaline solutions with silicate under continuous sparking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Liyuan; Yu Xia; Yang Zhihui; Wang Yunyan; Okido, Masazumi

    2008-01-01

    Anodization is a useful technique for forming protective films on magnesium alloys and improves its corrosion resistance. Based on the alkaline electrolyte solution with primary oxysalt developed previously, the optimum secondary oxysalt was selected by comparing the anti-corrosion property of anodic film. The structure, component and surface morphology of anodic film and cross-section were analyzed using energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion process was detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that secondary oxysalt addition resulted in different anodizing processes, sparking or non-sparking. Sodium silicate was the most favorable additive of electrolyte, in which anodic film with the strongest corrosion resistance was obtained. The effects of process parameters, such as silicate concentration, applied current density and temperature, were also investigated. High temperature did not improve anti-property of anodic film, while applying high current density resulted in more porous surface of film

  4. Process of film formation by anodizing AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Jiangang; Li Di; Zhang Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China)

    2005-07-01

    The kinetics of film-forming process by anodizing AZ91D Mg alloy has been studied by ways of voltage-time and thickness-time curve, and the surface morphology, structure, composition and valence of element, phase constituent of anodic films have been analyzed by SEM, EDS, XPS and XRD respectively. The results show that the film-forming course can be divided into four stages. Formation of dense layer before sparking is the first stage. Formation of porous layer accompanied with a bit of small sparking is the second stage. Porous layer fast growth along with middle sparking is the third stage. Porous layer slowly-growth along with bigger sparking is the fourth stage. The anodic films contains approximately Mg,O,Si and B, which is composed mainly of MgO, MgSiO{sub 3} and Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6}. (orig.)

  5. Sodium citrate assisted facile synthesis of AuPd alloy networks for ethanol electrooxidation with high activity and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanling; Zhu, Zhijun; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhou, H. Susan

    2016-10-01

    The direct ethanol fuel cell is an emerging energy conversion device for which palladium is considered as the one of the most effective components for anode catalyst, however, its widespread application has been still limited by the activity and durability of the anode catalyst. In this work, AuPd alloy networks (NWs) are synthesized using H2PdCl4 and HAuCl4 as precursors reduced by NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate (SC). The results reveal that SC plays significant role in network structure, resulting in the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst. This self-supported AuPd NWs catalyst exhibits much higher electrochemical catalytic activity than commercial Pd/C catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. Significantly, AuPd NWs catalyst shows extremely high durability at the beginning of the chronoamperometry test, and as high as 49% of the mass current density (1.41 A/mgPd) remains after 4000 s current-time test at -0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in N2-saturated KOH-ethanol solution. This strategy provides a facile method for the preparation of alloy networks with high electrochemical activity, and can be potentially expanded to a variety of electrochemical applications.

  6. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Co-Ru Alloy Particle Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kurtinaitienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of μm and sub-μm-sized Co, Ru, and Co-Ru alloy species by hydrothermal approach in the aqueous alkaline solutions (pH ≥ 13 containing CoCl2 and/or RuCl3, sodium citrate, and hydrazine hydrate and a study of their catalytic properties for hydrogen generation by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution. This way provides a simple platform for fabrication of the ball-shaped Co-Ru alloy catalysts containing up to 12 wt% Ru. Note that bimetallic Co-Ru alloy bowls containing even 7 at.% Ru have demonstrated catalytic properties that are comparable with the ones of pure Ru particles fabricated by the same method. This result is of great importance in view of the preparation of cost-efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from borohydrides. The morphology and composition of fabricated catalyst particles have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

  7. Magnesium-Based Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection Coatings (Mg-Rich Primers for Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Blanton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is electrochemically the most active metal employed in common structural alloys of iron and aluminum. Mg is widely used as a sacrificial anode to provide cathodic protection of underground and undersea metallic structures, ships, submarines, bridges, decks, aircraft and ground transportation systems. Following the same principle of utilizing Mg characteristics in engineering advantages in a decade-long successful R&D effort, Mg powder is now employed in organic coatings (termed as Mg-rich primers as a sacrificial anode pigment to protect aerospace grade aluminum alloys against corrosion. Mg-rich primers have performed very well on aluminum alloys when compared against the current chromate standard, but the carcinogenic chromate-based coatings/pretreatments are being widely used by the Department of Defense (DoD to protect its infrastructure and fleets against corrosion damage. Factors such as reactivity of Mg particles in the coating matrix during exposure to aggressive corrosion environments, interaction of atmospheric gases with Mg particles and the impact of Mg dissolution, increases in pH and hydrogen gas liberation at coating-metal interface, and primer adhesion need to be considered for further development of Mg-rich primer technology.

  8. Investigation of the Performance of Aucore-Pdshell/C as the Anode Catalyst of Direct Borohydride-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon-supported bimetallic Au-Pd catalyst with core-shell structure is prepared by successive reduction method. The core-shell structure, surface morphology, and electrochemical performances of the catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry, linear sweep voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry. The results show that the Au-Pd/C catalyst with core-shell structure exhibits much higher catalytic activity for the direct oxidation of NaBH4 than pure Au/C catalyst. A direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell, in which the Au-Pd/C with core-shell structure is used as the anode catalyst and the Au/C as the cathode catalyst, shows as high as 68.215 mW cm−2 power density.

  9. Investigation of ethanol electrooxidation on a Pt-Ru-Ni/C catalyst for a direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Yin, Ge-Ping; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Ying-Chao; Shi, Peng-Fei [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China 150001)

    2006-09-29

    This research is aimed to improve the utilization and activity of anodic alloy catalysts and thus to lower the contents of noble metals and the catalyst loading on anodes for ethanol electrooxidation. The DEFC anodic catalysts, Pt-Ru-Ni/C and Pt-Ru/C, were prepared by a chemical reduction method. Their performances were tested by using a glassy carbon working electrode and cyclic voltammetric curves, chronoamperometric curves and half cell measurement in a solution of 0.5molL{sup -1} CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH and 0.5molL{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The composition of the Pt-Ru-Ni and Pt-Ru surface particles were determined by EDAX analysis. The particle size and lattice parameter of the catalysts were determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that both of the catalysts exhibited face centered cubic structures and had smaller lattice parameters than a Pt-alone catalyst. Their particle sizes were small, about 4.5nm. No significant differences in the ethanol electrooxidation on both electrodes were found using cyclic voltammetry, especially regarding the onset potential for ethanol electrooxidation. The electrochemically active specific areas of the Pt-Ru-Ni/C and Pt-Ru/C catalysts were almost the same. But, the catalytic activity of the Pt-Ru-Ni/C catalyst was higher for ethanol electrooxidation than that of the Pt-Ru/C catalyst. Their tolerance to CO formed as one of the intermediates of ethanol electrooxidation, was better than that of the Pt-Ru/C catalyst. (author)

  10. Activity and Stability of Dispersed Multi Metallic Pt-based Catalysts for CO Tolerance in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Ticianelli, Edson A

    2018-01-01

    Studies aiming at improving the activity and stability of dispersed W and Mo containing Pt catalysts for the CO tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) anodes are revised for the following catalyst systems: (1) a carbon supported PtMo electrocatalyst submitted to heat treatments; (2) Pt and PtMo nanoparticles deposited on carbon-supported molybdenum carbides (Mo2C/C); (3) ternary and quaternary materials formed by PtMoFe/C, PtMoRu/C and PtMoRuFe/C and; (4) Pt nanoparticles supported on tungsten carbide/carbon catalysts and its parallel evaluation with carbon supported PtW catalyst. The heat-treated (600 oC) Pt-Mo/C catalyst showed higher hydrogen oxidation activity in the absence and in the presence of CO and better stability, compared to all other Mo-containing catalysts. PtMoRuFe, PtMoFe, PtMoRu supported on carbon and Pt supported on Mo2C/C exhibited similar CO tolerances but better stability, as compared to as-prepared PtMo supported on carbon. Among the tungsten-based catalysts, tungsten carbide supported Pt catalyst showed reasonable performance and reliable stability in comparison to simple carbon supported PtW catalyst, though an uneven level of catalytic activity towards H2 oxidation in presence of CO is observed for the former as compared to Mo containing catalyst. However, a small dissolution of Mo, Ru, Fe and W from the anodes and their migration toward cathodes during the cell operation is observed. These results indicate that the fuel cell performance and stability has been improved but not yet totally resolved.

  11. Activity and Stability of Dispersed Multi Metallic Pt-based Catalysts for CO Tolerance in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYAZ HASSAN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies aiming at improving the activity and stability of dispersed W and Mo containing Pt catalysts for the CO tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC anodes are revised for the following catalyst systems: (1 a carbon supported PtMo electrocatalyst submitted to heat treatments; (2 Pt and PtMo nanoparticles deposited on carbon-supported molybdenum carbides (Mo2C/C; (3 ternary and quaternary materials formed by PtMoFe/C, PtMoRu/C and PtMoRuFe/C and; (4 Pt nanoparticles supported on tungsten carbide/carbon catalysts and its parallel evaluation with carbon supported PtW catalyst. The heat-treated (600 oC Pt-Mo/C catalyst showed higher hydrogen oxidation activity in the absence and in the presence of CO and better stability, compared to all other Mo-containing catalysts. PtMoRuFe, PtMoFe, PtMoRu supported on carbon and Pt supported on Mo2C/C exhibited similar CO tolerances but better stability, as compared to as-prepared PtMo supported on carbon. Among the tungsten-based catalysts, tungsten carbide supported Pt catalyst showed reasonable performance and reliable stability in comparison to simple carbon supported PtW catalyst, though an uneven level of catalytic activity towards H2 oxidation in presence of CO is observed for the former as compared to Mo containing catalyst. However, a small dissolution of Mo, Ru, Fe and W from the anodes and their migration toward cathodes during the cell operation is observed. These results indicate that the fuel cell performance and stability has been improved but not yet totally resolved.

  12. Influence of annealing and deformation on optical properties of ultra precision diamond turned and anodized 6060 aluminium alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabrizian-Ghalehno, Naja; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hansen, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Influence of cold forging, and subsequent heat treatment and diamond turning on optical quality of anodized film on 6060 (AlMgSi) alloy was investigated and compared with microstructural changes. Heat treatment of the samples was carried out either prior to forging, post-forging, or both. The sur......Influence of cold forging, and subsequent heat treatment and diamond turning on optical quality of anodized film on 6060 (AlMgSi) alloy was investigated and compared with microstructural changes. Heat treatment of the samples was carried out either prior to forging, post-forging, or both...

  13. Low voltage aluminium anodes. Optimization of the insert-anode bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guyader, Herve; Debout, Valerie; Grolleau, Anne-Marie [DCN Cherbourg, Departement 2EI, Place Bruat, BP 440, 50104 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Pautasso, Jean-Pierre [DGA/CTA 16 bis, avenue Prieur de la Cote D' Or, 94 114 Arcueil Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Zinc or Al/Zn/In sacrificial anodes are widely used to protect submerged marine structures from corrosion. Their Open Circuit Potential range from - 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for Zn anodes to -1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for Al/Zn/In. These potentials are sufficiently electronegative as to reduce the threshold for stress corrosion cracking and/or hydrogen embrittlement, KISCC, especially in the presence of high strength alloys. In the 90's, an extensive research programme was initiated by DGA/DCN to implement a new low voltage material. Laboratory and full scale marine tests performed on industrial castings, as previously reported, led to the development of a new patented Al- 0.1%Ga alloy having a working potential of - 0.80 to - 0.83 V vs. Ag/AgCl. This alloy was also evaluated at full scale at the Naval Research Laboratory anode qualification site in Key West, Fl, and gave satisfactory results. Around 500 cylindrical AlGa anodes were then installed on a submerged marine structure replacing the classical zinc anode. A first inspection, carried out after a few months of service, showed that some of the anodes had not operated as expected, which led to further investigations. The examinations performed indicated that the problem was due to a bad metallurgical compatibility between the insert and the sacrificial materials inducing a poor bond between the anode and the plain rod insert. Progressive loss of contact between the anode and the structure to be protected was then induced by penetration of sea water and corrosion at the anode-insert interface. This phenomenon was aggravated by seawater pressure. Additional studies were therefore launched with two aims: (1) find temporary remedies for the anodes already installed on the structure; (2) correct the anode original design and/or manufacturing process to achieve the maximum performance on new anodes lots. This paper describes the various solutions investigated to improve the insert-anode bond: design of the anode, rugosity and

  14. Bi-Sn alloy catalyst for simultaneous morphology and doping control of silicon nanowires in radial junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhongwei; Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Wang, Junzhuan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Misra, Soumyadeep; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Yu, Linwei

    2015-01-01

    Low-melting point metals such as bismuth (Bi) and tin (Sn) are ideal choices for mediating a low temperature growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for radial junction thin film solar cells. The incorporation of Bi catalyst atoms leads to sufficient n-type doping in the SiNWs core that exempts the use of hazardous dopant gases, while an easy morphology control with pure Bi catalyst has never been demonstrated so far. We here propose a Bi-Sn alloy catalyst strategy to achieve both a beneficial catalyst-doping and an ideal SiNW morphology control. In addition to a potential of further growth temperature reduction, we show that the alloy catalyst can remain quite stable during a vapor-liquid-solid growth, while providing still sufficient n-type catalyst-doping to the SiNWs. Radial junction solar cells constructed over the alloy-catalyzed SiNWs have demonstrated a strongly enhanced photocurrent generation, thanks to optimized nanowire morphology, and largely improved performance compared to the reference samples based on the pure Bi or Sn-catalyzed SiNWs

  15. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  16. Effect of the thickness of the anode electrode catalyst layers on the performance in direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Dean E.; Olah, George A.; Prakash, G. K. Surya

    2017-06-01

    For the large scale fuel cell manufacture, the catalyst loading and layer thickness are critical factors affecting the performance and cost of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The influence of catalyst layer thicknesses at the anode of a PEM based direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has been investigated. Catalysts were applied with the drawdown method with varied thicknesses ranging from 1 mil to 8 mils (1 mil = 25.4 μm) with a Pt/Ru anode loading of 0.25 mg cm-2 to 2.0 mg cm-2. The MEAs with the thicker individual layers (8 mils and 4 mils) performed better overall compared to the those with the thinner layers (1 mil and painted). The peak power densities for the different loading levels followed an exponential decrease of Pt/Ru utilization at the higher loading levels. The highest power density achieved was 49 mW cm-2 with the 4 mil layers at 2.0 mg cm-2 catalyst loading whereas the highest normalized power density was 116 mW mg-1 with the 8 mil layers at 0.25 mg cm-2 loading. The 8 mil drawdowns displayed a 50% and 23% increase in normalized power density compared to the 1 mil drawdowns at 0.25 mg cm-2 and 0.5 mg cm-2 loadings, respectively.

  17. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  18. The Effect of Grain Size on Mechanical Instability in Single-Phase Li-Alloy Anodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfenstine, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    .... The results of this study suggest that decreasing the particle and/or grain size is not a practical approach to solving the mechanical instability problem of single phase Li alloys that are intended to be used as anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  19. Effect of Silica Sol on Boric-sulfuric Acid Anodic Oxidation of LY12CZ Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Hui-cong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy anodizing coatings were prepared for LY12CZ in the boric-sulfuric acid solution (45g/L sulfuric acid,8g/L boric acid with the addition of 10%,20%,30% (volume fractionsilica sol,with the gradient voltage of 15V. The current and voltage transients of the anodizing process were collected by data collection instrument. The surface morphologies,microstructure and chemical composition of the anodic coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The corrosion resistance was examined by neutral salt spray,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS test and titrating test. The results show that the different concentration of silica sol addition can influence the forming and dissolution of anodizing coatings,improve the compactness smoothness and corrosion resistance during the anodizing process in the boric-sulfuric acid solution.

  20. Anodic behaviours, dissolution and passivation of iron-nickel alloys in sulphuric environment. Influence of friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponthiaux, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of anodic dissolution and passivation of iron-nickel alloys (10, 20 and 31 pc nickel) in a sulphuric environment, with or without friction, by using anodic polarization curves. Without friction, the three alloys have a similar behaviour as pure iron. The analysis reveals different dissolution and passivation mechanisms with pure iron, and highlights the influence of nickel content on corresponding kinetics. The influence of cyclic plane-on-plane friction has been studied for the 31 pc nickel alloy which has an unsteady austenitic structure. Fretting results in some modifications of polarization curves. These modifications are analysed with respect to fretting parameters (relative speed of antagonist surfaces, contact pressure). They reveal the specific influence of the following phenomena: material strain hardening, martensitic transformation induced by strain hardening, partial destruction of adsorbates and/or of the passive film. Modifications of polarization curves give also information on the evolution of friction characteristics with respect to speed (a phenomenon of lubrication by the electrolyte occurs) [fr

  1. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-12-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 {omega}cm{sup 2} as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 {omega}cm{sup 2}). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} and Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion.

  2. Behavior of alloying elements during anodizing of Mg-Cu and Mg-W alloys in a fluoride/glycerol electrolyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palagonia, M. S.; Němcová, A.; Kuběna, Ivo; Šmíd, Miroslav; Gao, S.; Liu, H.; Zhong, X. L.; Haigh, S. J.; Santamaria, M.; Di Quarto, F.; Habazaki, H.; Skeldon, P.; Thomson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 9 (2015), C487-C494 ISSN 0013-4651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : alloying element * anodizing * ion beam analysis * magnesium * TEM Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015 http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/162/9/C487.full

  3. To alloy or not to alloy? Cr modified Pt/C cathode catalysts for PEM fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Peter P; Qian, Yangdong; King, Colin R; Wiltshire, Richard J K; Crabb, Eleanor M; Smart, Lesley E; Thompsett, David; Russell, Andrea E

    2008-01-01

    The cathode electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are commonly platinum and platinum based alloy nanoparticles dispersed on a carbon support. Control over the particle size and composition has, historically, been attained empirically, making systematic studies of the effects of various structural parameters difficult. The controlled surface modification methodology used in this work has enabled the controlled modification of carbon supported Pt nanoparticles by Cr so as to yield nanoalloy particles with defined compositions. Subsequent heat treatment in 5% H2 in N2 resulted in the formation of a distinct Pt3Cr alloy phase which was either restricted to the surface of the particles or present throughout the bulk of the particle structure. Measurement of the oxygen reduction activity of the catalysts was accomplished using the rotating thin film electrode method and the activities obtained were related to the structure of the nanoalloy catalyst particles, largely determined using Cr K edge and Pt L3 edge XAS.

  4. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  5. A Facile Synthesis of Hollow Palladium/Copper Alloy Nanocubes Supported on N-Doped Graphene for Ethanol Electrooxidation Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengyu Bai; Rumeng Huang; Lu Niu; Qing Zhang; Lin Yang; Jiujun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a catalyst of hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on nitrogen-doped graphene support (H-PdCu/ppy-NG) is successfully synthesized using a simple one-pot template-free method. Two other catalyst materials such as solid PdCu alloy particles supported on this same nitrogen-doped graphene support (PdCu/ppy-NG) and hollow PdCu alloy nanocubes supported on the reduced graphene oxide support (H-PdCu/RGO) are also prepared using the similar synthesis conditions for comparison. It is f...

  6. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain); Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.es; Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Smith, R.W. [Unidad de Microanalisis de Materiales, Parque Cientifico de Madrid (PCM), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M60 1QD England (United Kingdom); Lavia, A.; Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  7. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rubio, M.; Ocon, P.; Climent-Font, A.; Smith, R.W.; Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Lavia, A.; Garcia, I.

    2009-01-01

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  8. Electrical Properties of a Thin Anodized Capacitor Made of Y-Doped Al Alloy Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Tomotake; Sasaki, Hayato; Mikuni, Naohiro; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Yamane, Misao; Abe, Yoshio

    2005-09-01

    We have prepared an Al-Y anodized capacitor using sputter-deposited Al-Y alloy film with 5 at. % Y atoms, and evaluated the capacitor properties and the leakage current properties before and after heat treatment. In addition, the characterization of Al-Y anodized films was examined by X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. As a result, it is revealed that the thermal stability of an Al-Y anodized capacitor is superior to that of a pure Al anodized capacitor because of its excellent passive nature, and the loss properties can be improved by increasing the heat treatment temperature in air because of the reduction of the equivalent series resistance. Furthermore, it is clarified that the cause of the short-circuited state observed at 550°C is the formation of a narrow capillary-like conduction path of metallic Al atoms as a result of the interdiffusion of Al.

  9. Electrochemical formation of a Pt/Zn alloy and its use as a catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Aya; Li, Winton; Yang, Yanguo; Wong, Phillip C; Gyenge, Elod; Mitchell, Keith A R; Bizzotto, Dan

    2006-05-04

    The characterization of an electrochemically created Pt/Zn alloy by Auger electron spectroscopy is presented indicating the formation of the alloy, the oxidation of the alloy, and the room temperature diffusion of the Zn into the Pt regions. The Pt/Zn alloy is stable up to 1.2 V/RHE and can only be removed with the oxidation of the base Pt metal either electrochemically or in aqua regia. The Pt/Zn alloy was tested for its effectiveness toward oxygen reduction. Kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were measured using a rotating disk electrode (RDE), and a 30 mV anodic shift in the potential of ORR was found when comparing the Pt/Zn alloy to Pt. The Tafel slope was slightly smaller than that measured for the pure Pt electrode. A simple procedure for electrochemically modifying a Pt-containing gas diffusion electrode (GDE) with Zn was developed. The Zn-treated GDE was pressed with an untreated GDE anode, and the created membrane electrode assembly was tested. Fuel cell testing under two operating conditions (similar anode and cathode inlet pressures, and a larger cathode inlet pressure) indicated that the 30 mV shift observed on the RDE was also evident in the fuel cell tests. The high stability of the Pt/Zn alloy in acidic environments has a potential benefit for fuel cell applications.

  10. Partial oxidation of dimethyl ether using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al prepared through the anodic oxidation of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B Y; Lee, K H; Kim, K; Byun, D J; Ha, H P; Byun, J Y

    2011-07-01

    The partial oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) was investigated using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al. The porous Al2O3 layer was synthesized on the aluminum plate through anodic oxidation in an oxalic-acid solution. It was observed that about 20 nm nanopores were well developed in the Al2O3 layer. The thickness of Al2O3 layer can be adjusted by controlling the anodizing time and current density. After pore-widening and hot-water treatment, the Al2O3/Al plate was calcined at 500 degrees C for 3 h. The obtained delta-Al2O3 had a specific surface area of 160 m2/g, making it fit to be used as a catalyst support. A microchannel reactor was designed and fabricated to evaluate the catalytic activity of Rh/Al2O3/Al in the partial oxidation of DME. The structured catalyst showed an 86% maximum hydrogen yield at 450 degrees C. On the other hand, the maximum syngas yield by a pack-bed-type catalyst could be attained by using a more than fivefold Rh amount compared to that used in the structured Rh/Al2O3/Al catalyst.

  11. Prevention of Crevice Corrosion of STS 304 Stainless Steel by a Mg-alloy Galvanic Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, U. J.; Yun, B. D.; Kim, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Prevention of crevice corrosion was studied for STS 304 stainless steel using a Mg-alloy galvanic anode in solutions with various specific resistivity. The crevice corrosion and corrosion protection characteristics of the steel was investigated by the electrochemical polarization and galvanic corrosion tests. Experimental results show that the crevice corrosion of STS 304 stainless steel does not occur in solutions of high specific resistivity, but it occurs in solutions of low specific resistivity like in solutions with resistivities of 30, 60 and 115 Ω · m. With decreasing specific resistivity of the solution, the electrode potential of STS 304 stainless steel in the crevice is lowered. The potential of STS 304 stainless steel in the crevice after coupling is cathodically polarized more by decreasing specific resistivity indicating that the crevice corrosion of STS 304 stainless steel is prevented by the Mg-alloy galvanic anode

  12. Promotion of Pt-Ru/C catalysts driven by heat treated induced surface segregation for methanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yuchen; Liu Chenwei; Chang Weijung; Wang Kuanwen

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thermal treatments on the Pt-Ru/C induce different extents of surface segregation. → O 2 treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO 2 . → Catalysts treated in H 2 have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability. → N 2 treatment suppresses the surface Pt depletion and hence promotes the MOR. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru/C (1:1) alloy catalysts supplied by E-TEK are widely used for fuel cell research. Heat treatments in various atmospheres are conducted for the promotion of the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the investigation of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the catalysts. The alloy structures, surface compositions, surface species, and electro-catalytic activities of the alloy catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. The as-received Pt-Ru/C catalysts have a Ru rich in the inner core and Pt rich on the outer shell structure. Thermal treatments on the catalysts induce Ru surface segregation in different extents and thereby lead to their alteration of the alloying degrees. O 2 treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO 2 . Catalysts treated in H 2 have the highest I f /I b value in the CV scans among all samples, indicating the catalysts have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability as evidenced by anodic CO stripping experiments. N 2 treatment may serve as an adjustment process for the surface composition and structure of the catalysts, which can suppress the surface Pt depletion (∼60% Pt on the surface), make the components stable and hence promote the MOR significantly.

  13. Promotion of Pt-Ru/C catalysts driven by heat treated induced surface segregation for methanol oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Yuchen; Liu Chenwei; Chang Weijung [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wang Kuanwen, E-mail: kuanwen.wang@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-12

    Research highlights: > Thermal treatments on the Pt-Ru/C induce different extents of surface segregation. > O{sub 2} treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO{sub 2}. > Catalysts treated in H{sub 2} have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability. > N{sub 2} treatment suppresses the surface Pt depletion and hence promotes the MOR. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru/C (1:1) alloy catalysts supplied by E-TEK are widely used for fuel cell research. Heat treatments in various atmospheres are conducted for the promotion of the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the investigation of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the catalysts. The alloy structures, surface compositions, surface species, and electro-catalytic activities of the alloy catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. The as-received Pt-Ru/C catalysts have a Ru rich in the inner core and Pt rich on the outer shell structure. Thermal treatments on the catalysts induce Ru surface segregation in different extents and thereby lead to their alteration of the alloying degrees. O{sub 2} treatment results in obvious Ru segregation and formation of RuO{sub 2}. Catalysts treated in H{sub 2} have the highest I{sub f}/I{sub b} value in the CV scans among all samples, indicating the catalysts have the excellent CO de-poisoning ability as evidenced by anodic CO stripping experiments. N{sub 2} treatment may serve as an adjustment process for the surface composition and structure of the catalysts, which can suppress the surface Pt depletion ({approx}60% Pt on the surface), make the components stable and hence promote the MOR significantly.

  14. A durable PtRu/C catalyst with a thin protective layer for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yuzuru; Hayasaka, Sho; Koyama, Tsubasa; Nagao, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Konno, Mikio

    2010-11-15

    A methanol oxidation catalyst with improved durability in acidic environments is reported. The catalyst consists of PtRu alloy nanoparticles on a carbon support that were stabilized with a silane-coupling agent. The catalyst was prepared by reducing ions of Pt and Ru in the presence of a carbon support and the silane-coupling agent. The careful choice of preparatory conditions such as the concentration of the silane-coupling agent and solution pH resulted in the preparation of catalyst in which the PtRu nanoparticles were dispersively adsorbed onto the carbon support. The catalytic activity was similar to that of a commercial catalyst and was unchanged after immersion in sulfuric acid solution for 1000 h, suggesting the high durability of the PtRu catalyst for the anode of direct methanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on Pt-structured anodic alumina catalysts for catalytic combustion of toluene: Effects of competitive adsorbents and competitive impregnation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Luan, Hongjuan; Li, Tao; Wu, Yongqiang; Ni, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Novel competitive impregnation methods were used to prepare high dispersion Pt-structured anodic alumina catalysts. It is found that competitive adsorbents owning different acidity result in different Pt loading amount and also exert great effects on Pt distribution, particle size and redox ability. The suitable adsorption ability of lactic acid led to its best activity for catalytic combustion of toluene. Co-competitive and pre-competitive impregnation methods were also compared and the mechanisms of two competitive methods were proposed. Co-competitive impregnation made Pt distribute more uniformly through pore channels and resulted in better catalytic activity, because of the weaker spatial constraint effect of lactic acid. Furthermore, the optimized Pt-structured anodic alumina catalyst also showed a good chlorine-resistance under moisture atmosphere, because water could promote the reaction of dichloromethane (DCM) transformation and clean chloride by-products to release more active sites.

  16. Corrosion and Discharge Behaviors of Mg-Al-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn-In Alloys as Anode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn and Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-(1%, 1.5%, 2%In alloys were prepared by melting and casting. Their microstructures were investigated via metallographic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis. Moreover, hydrogen evolution and electrochemical tests were carried out in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution aiming at identifying their corrosion mechanisms and discharge behaviors. The results suggested that indium exerts an improvement on both the corrosion rate and the discharge activity of Mg-Al-Zn alloy via the effects of grain refining, β-Mg17Al12 precipitation, dissolving-reprecipitation, and self-peeling. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.5%In alloy with the highest corrosion rate at free corrosion potential did not perform desirable discharge activity indicating that the barrier effect caused by the β-Mg17Al12 phase would have been enhanced under the conditions of anodic polarization. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.0%In alloy with a relative low corrosion rate and a high discharge activity is a promising anode material for both cathodic protection and chemical power source applications.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and optimization of platinum-alloy nanoparticle catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ratndeep

    Renewable hydrogen-fuelled proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cells have consistently demonstrated great promise as a future source of energy due to their high conversion efficiency, lower temperature of operation and lack of greenhouse emissions. One of the major impediments in the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is the insufficient catalytic reactivity and higher cost of Pt electrocatalysts which are utilized for the electroreduction of oxygen from air. This dissertation focuses primarily on a family of Pt alloy fuel cell electrocatalysts referred to as de-alloyed core-shell electrocatalysts. These materials are bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles, mostly supported on conductive supports which were first described in a dissertation by Dr. S. Koh earlier in 2009.1 De-alloyed Pt nanoparticle electrocatalysts are formed from base metal rich binary Pt-M and ternary Pt-M1-M 2 (M, M1, M2 = Cu, Co, Ni, Fe and Cr) alloy nanoparticle precursors. The precursors are transformed and activated by electrochemical selective dissolution of the less noble metal component of the precursors (de-alloying). They have shown exceptional activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in idealized electrochemical half cell measurements, in particular rotating disk electrode experiments. However, these materials were never tested or implemented in realistic Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) and single PEM fuel cells. The objective of this work was to implement de-alloyed Pt particle catalysts in realistic fuel cell electrode layers as well as a detailed characterization of their behavior and stability. The major challenges of MEA implementation consists of the behavior of the new nanostructured electrocatalysts inside the complex three-phase interface of polymer membrane ionomer, liquid water, metal catalyst, support, and reactant gas. Activity measurements were followed by medium and long-term durability analysis by potential cycling of the membrane

  18. Anodization of Zr-Nb-Cu alloy in mandelic acid - effect of solvent and anionic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavanya, A.; Raghunath Reddy, G.; Ch Anjaneyulu

    2004-01-01

    Anodization of zirconium-niobium-copper (ZNC) alloy in 0.1 M mandelic acid has been carried out. The effect of solvent (ethylene glycol) and added anionic impurities (sulphates, phosphates and carbonates) showed better kinetic results (formation rate, current efficiency and differential field of formation). (author)

  19. 25th anniversary article: Understanding the lithiation of silicon and other alloying anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Matthew T; Lee, Seok Woo; Nix, William D; Cui, Yi

    2013-09-25

    Alloying anodes such as silicon are promising electrode materials for next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries because of their ability to reversibly incorporate a high concentration of Li atoms. However, alloying anodes usually exhibit a short cycle life due to the extreme volumetric and structural changes that occur during lithium insertion/extraction; these transformations cause mechanical fracture and exacerbate side reactions. To solve these problems, there has recently been significant attention devoted to creating silicon nanostructures that can accommodate the lithiation-induced strain and thus exhibit high Coulombic efficiency and long cycle life. In parallel, many experiments and simulations have been conducted in an effort to understand the details of volumetric expansion, fracture, mechanical stress evolution, and structural changes in silicon nanostructures. The fundamental materials knowledge gained from these studies has provided guidance for designing optimized Si electrode structures and has also shed light on the factors that control large-volume change solid-state reactions. In this paper, we review various fundamental studies that have been conducted to understand structural and volumetric changes, stress evolution, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of nanostructured Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries and compare the reaction process of Si to other novel anode materials. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A Practical Anodic and Cathodic Curve Intersection Model to Understand Multiple Corrosion Potentials of Fe-Based Glassy Alloys in OH- Contained Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Wang, Y G; An, B; Xu, H; Liu, Y; Zhang, L C; Ma, H Y; Wang, W M

    2016-01-01

    A practical anodic and cathodic curve intersection model, which consisted of an apparent anodic curve and an imaginary cathodic line, was proposed to explain multiple corrosion potentials occurred in potentiodynamic polarization curves of Fe-based glassy alloys in alkaline solution. The apparent anodic curve was selected from the measured anodic curves. The imaginary cathodic line was obtained by linearly fitting the differences of anodic curves and can be moved evenly or rotated to predict the number and value of corrosion potentials.

  1. An AC impedance study of self-discharge mechanism of nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery using Mg{sub 2}Ni-type hydrogen storage alloy anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, N.; Luo, J.L. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The self-discharge mechanism during storage in open-circuit states of a Ni-MH battery using a Mg{sub 2}Ni-type hydrogen storage alloy anode was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The loss of discharge capacity for this battery can be ascribed to two causes: (i) desorption of hydrogen from the Mg{sub 1.95}Y{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 0.92}Al{sub 0.08} hydride anode; and (ii) anode surface degradation resulting from oxidation of the magnesium alloy in the electrolyte. At the higher open-circuit voltages (OCV), the former was mainly responsible for a high self-discharge rate, while the latter might dominate the loss of capacity at the lower OCV. XRD results confirmed that Mg(OH){sub 2} formed on the magnesium alloy anode after storage in an open-circuit condition for 20 days. (author)

  2. Electrocatalytic properties of carbon-supported Pt-Ru catalysts with the high alloying degree for formic acid electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu.; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China)

    2010-07-01

    A series of carbon-supported bimetallic Pt-Ru catalysts with high alloying degree and different Pt/Ru atomic ratio have been prepared by a chemical reduction method in the H{sub 2}O/ethanol/tetrahydrofuran (THF) mixture solvent. The structural and electronic properties of catalysts are characterized using X-ray reflection (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation of formic acid on these Pt-Ru nanoparticles are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping measurements. The results of electrochemical measurements illustrate that the alloying degree and Pt/Ru atomic ratio of Pt-Ru catalyst play an important role in the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Ru/C catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation due to the bifunctional mechanism and the electronic effect. Since formic acid is an intermediate in the methanol electrooxidation on Pt electrode in acidic electrolyte, the observation provides an additional fundamental understanding of the structure-activity relationship of Pt-Ru catalyst for methanol electrooxidation. (author)

  3. Electro-oxidation of ethanol and ethylene glycol on carbon-supported nano-Pt and -PtRu catalyst in acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Moitrayee; Chatterjee, Abhik; Ghosh, Susanta; Basumallick, I.

    2009-01-01

    Present paper reports kinetics of electro-oxidation of ethanol (EtOH) and ethylene glycol (EG) onto Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts of different compositions in the temperature range of 298-318 K. These catalysts have been characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, CV and amperometry. It has been observed that apparent activation energies for oxidation of EtOH and EG pass through a minimum at about 15-20 at.% of Ru in the PtRu alloy catalysts. Anodic peak current vs. composition curve also shows a maximum around this composition. The results have been explained by a geometric model, which proposes requirement of an ensemble of three Pt atoms with an adjacent Ru atom onto PtRu surface for an efficient electro-oxidation of EtOH or EG. This is further supported from statistical data analysis of probability of occurrence of such ensembles onto PtRu alloy surface. Present results also suggest that electro-oxidation of EG onto nano-PtRu catalyst surfaces follows a different path from that of EtOH at alloy composition less than 15 at.% of Ru.

  4. Electro-oxidation of ethanol and ethylene glycol on carbon-supported nano-Pt and -PtRu catalyst in acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Moitrayee; Chatterjee, Abhik; Ghosh, Susanta [Electrochemical Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Basumallick, I., E-mail: ibasumallick@yahoo.co.u [Electrochemical Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)

    2009-12-01

    Present paper reports kinetics of electro-oxidation of ethanol (EtOH) and ethylene glycol (EG) onto Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts of different compositions in the temperature range of 298-318 K. These catalysts have been characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, CV and amperometry. It has been observed that apparent activation energies for oxidation of EtOH and EG pass through a minimum at about 15-20 at.% of Ru in the PtRu alloy catalysts. Anodic peak current vs. composition curve also shows a maximum around this composition. The results have been explained by a geometric model, which proposes requirement of an ensemble of three Pt atoms with an adjacent Ru atom onto PtRu surface for an efficient electro-oxidation of EtOH or EG. This is further supported from statistical data analysis of probability of occurrence of such ensembles onto PtRu alloy surface. Present results also suggest that electro-oxidation of EG onto nano-PtRu catalyst surfaces follows a different path from that of EtOH at alloy composition less than 15 at.% of Ru.

  5. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, Ni2+ release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability of Ni-Ti-O nanopores anodically grown on biomedical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Bai, Long; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Husheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-08-01

    In the present work, nickel-titanium-oxygen nanopores with different length (0.55-114 μm) were anodically grown on nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, nickel ion (Ni 2+ ) release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability were investigated by electrochemical, analytical chemistry, and biological methods. The results show constructing nanoporous structure on the NiTi alloy improve its corrosion resistance. However, the anodized samples release more Ni 2+ than that of the bare NiTi alloy, suggesting chemical dissolution of the nanopores rather than electrochemical corrosion governs the Ni 2+ release. In addition, the Ni 2+ release amount increases with nanopore length. The anodized samples show good cytocompatibility when the nanopore length is covers the one (1-11 μm) that the nanopores showing favorable antibacterial ability. Consequently, the nanopores with length in the range of 1-11 μm are promising as coatings of biomedical NiTi alloy for anti-infection, drug delivery, and other desirable applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethane dehydrogenation over nano-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} anode catalyst in proton ceramic fuel cell reactors to co-produce ethylene and electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xian-Zhu; Luo, Xiao-Xiong; Luo, Jing-Li; Chuang, Karl T.; Sanger, Alan R. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G2G6 (Canada); Krzywicki, Andrzej [NOVA Chemicals Corp., Calgary, Alberta T2P5C6 (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Ethane and electrical power are co-generated in proton ceramic fuel cell reactors having Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as anode catalyst, BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.15}Nd{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCYN) perovskite oxide as proton conducting ceramic electrolyte, and Pt as cathode catalyst. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles are synthesized by a combustion method. BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.15}Nd{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCYN) perovskite oxides are obtained using a solid state reaction. The power density increases from 51 mW cm{sup -2} to 118 mW cm{sup -2} and the ethylene yield increases from about 8% to 31% when the operating temperature of the solid oxide fuel cell reactor increases from 650 C to 750 C. The fuel cell reactor and process are stable at 700 C for at least 48 h. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} anode catalyst exhibits much better coke resistance than Pt and Ni catalysts in ethane fuel atmosphere at 700 C. (author)

  7. A Pd/C-CeO2 Anode Catalyst for High-Performance Platinum-Free Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hamish A; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco; Marelli, Marcello; Di Benedetto, Francesco; D'Acapito, Francesco; Paska, Yair; Page, Miles; Dekel, Dario R

    2016-05-10

    One of the biggest obstacles to the dissemination of fuel cells is their cost, a large part of which is due to platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts. Complete removal of Pt is a difficult if not impossible task for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM-FCs). The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEM-FC) has long been proposed as a solution as non-Pt metals may be employed. Despite this, few examples of Pt-free AEM-FCs have been demonstrated with modest power output. The main obstacle preventing the realization of a high power density Pt-free AEM-FC is sluggish hydrogen oxidation (HOR) kinetics of the anode catalyst. Here we describe a Pt-free AEM-FC that employs a mixed carbon-CeO2 supported palladium (Pd) anode catalyst that exhibits enhanced kinetics for the HOR. AEM-FC tests run on dry H2 and pure air show peak power densities of more than 500 mW cm(-2) . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Anodic galvanostatic polarization of AA2024-T3 aircraft alloy in conventional mineral acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukharov, S., E-mail: stephko1980@abv.bg [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Girginov, Ch. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Avramova, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 11 “Georgi Bonchev” Str., 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Machkova, M. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the determination of the impact of the anodization of AA2024-T3 alloys in HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the samples’ surface morphology and properties. Subsequent systematic assessments were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). These observations were combined with Linear Voltammetry (LVA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) after 48 and 168 h of exposure to a 3.5% NaCl model corrosive medium. The main result is, that completely different effects were observed in accordance to the acid used. It was established that the monoprotonic acids have a deep destructive effect due to dissolution of the alloy components, whereas the polyprotonic ones possess either indistinguishable influence, or surface film formation. - Highlights: • AA2024 was polarized anodically in 15%{sub wt} acid solutions at 15 mA cm{sup −2} for 2 h. • Four mineral acids were selected for investigation: HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • SEM, EDX and XPS were applied for morphological description. • Electrochemical characterizations were performed by EIS and linear voltammetry. • The acid used predetermines completely different interaction with the AA2024 alloy.

  9. Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, Piotr; Davey, John; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Thomas, Sharon C.

    2004-02-24

    Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

  10. Electrocatalytic activity of carbon-supported catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, F.J. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Saltillo, Coahuila, (Mexico). Grupo de Investigacion en Energia; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) can be fueled with hydrogen, alcohols, hydrocarbons and acetals. Ethanol is an important fuel candidate because it can be electro-oxidized to carbon dioxide on platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at relatively low temperatures. This study investigated the electrocatalytic activity of some carbon-supported electrocatalysts towards the ethanol oxidation (EOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the presence of ethanol. Compared to other anode catalysts such as Pt, PtRu and Pt oxide, anodes based on PtSn alloys have a higher catalytic activity for the EOR. When tested in a DEFC, the current density at 0.4V and 90 degrees C based on a PtSn/C anode and a Pt/C cathode was 2 times higher than that of a cell based on a PtRu/C-Pt/C membrane electrode assembly (MEA) configuration. In addition, cathode catalysts based on Ru/C had good catalytic activity for the ORR and exhibited high selectivity for this reaction in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that in the presence of 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 M ethanol concentrations, a decrease in onset potential of about 60, 62 and 68 mV emerged, respectively. These values were about 10 times lower than those measured for some Pt-based cathode catalysts tested in this study in the presence of 0.125 M EtOH. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Carbon-shell-constrained silicon cluster derived from Al-Si alloy as long-cycling life lithium ion batteries anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junming; Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Siyang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Aishui

    2018-03-01

    Although silicon is the most promising anode material for Li-ion batteries, large volume expansion during lithiation and delithiation is the main obstacle limiting the commercial application of silicon anodes. There are two ways to alleviate volume expansion and prevent further pulverization of a Si anode: fabrication of a rational nanostructure possessing void spaces and uniform distribution of the conducting sites, without a good balance effect in mitigating the limiting factors and enhancing battery performance. In this paper, we propose a novel nanostructure - a carbon-shell-constrained Si cluster (Si/C shell) with both adequate void space and good distribution of electrical contact sites to guarantee homogeneous lithiation in the initial cycle. Benefiting from the ability to maintain electrical conductivity of the outer carbon shell, even after cluster fragmentation, the Si/C shell synthesized from low-cost commercial Al-Si alloy spheres can deliver 0.03% capacity loss from 100th to 1000th cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1. The Si/C shell sample with the dual functional structure mentioned above can also maintain its own nanostructure during cycling and deliver excellent rate performance. It is a concise and scalable strategy which can simplify the preparation of other alloy anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  12. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  13. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  14. Study of anodic dissolution of Fe-Ru alloy with the aid of mossbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlystov, A.S.; Fasman, A.B.; Kil'dibekova, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper uses Fe 57 Mossbauer spectroscopy, whereby iron compounds may be identified quantitatively and their composition and structure can be determined, for the study of the relationships of slime formation from Fe-Ru binary alloys. Both the products of dissolution and the composition and state of intermediate phases formed at various stages of anodic dissolution were studied simultaneously. It was found that the slimes formed both during chemical and during electrochemical destruction of ruthenium-iron alloys are finely dispersed systems of complex composition, analogous to those formed in the course of electrochemical dissolution of Ni-Ru alloys, which were found to contain oxide phases of ruthenium (by x-ray spectroscopy and ESCA) and of nickel (by x-ray phase analysis). The difference between the slime compositions is determined mainly by kinetic factors

  15. Anode behaviors of aluminum antimony synthesized by mechanical alloying for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, H.; Sakaguchi, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Esaka, T.

    2003-01-01

    AlSb was synthesized as an anode active material for lithium secondary battery using mechanical alloying (MA). Electrochemical performance was examined on the electrodes of AlSb synthesized with different MA time. The first charge (lithium-insertion) capacity of the AlSb electrodes decreased with increasing the MA time. The discharge capacity on repeating charge-discharge cycle, however, did not show the same dependence. The electrode, consisting of the 20 h MA sample exhibited the longest charge-discharge life cycle, suggesting that there is the optimum degree of internal energy derived from the strain and/or the amorphization due to mechanical alloying. These results were evaluated using ex situ X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry

  16. Bifunctional Pt-Si Alloys for Small Organic Molecule Electro-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permyakova, Anastasia Aleksandrovna; Suntivich, Jin; Han, Binghong

    Designing highly active catalysts for electro-oxidation of small organic molecules can help to reduce the anodic overpotential for more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon fuels. The challenge in developing more active electrocatalysts for electro-oxidation reactions is to satisfy the stringent...... adsorption site. We will discuss the enhanced activity of Pt-Si alloys for small organic molecule oxidation, which can be attributed to the improved CO electro-oxidation kinetics on Pt-Si....

  17. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  18. Cermet anode with continuously dispersed alloy phase and process for making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions and methods for making are disclosed which comprise NiO--NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 --Cu--Ni. Addition of an effective amount of a metallic catalyst/reactant to a composition of a nickel/iron/oxide, NiO, copper, and nickel produces a stable electrode having significantly increased electrical conductivity. The metallic catalyst functions to disperse the copper and nickel as an alloy continuously throughout the oxide phase of the cermet to render the electrode compositon more highly electrically conductive than were the third metal not present in the base composition. The third metal is preferably added to the base composition as elemental metal and includes aluminum, magnesium, sodium and gallium. The elemental metal is converted to a metal oxide during the sintering process.

  19. Anodization and Optical Appearance of Sputter Deposited Al-Zr Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2014-01-01

    of the anodized layer. The microstructure of the coating is found to influence the appearance of anodized layer owing to the presence of completely or partially dissolved second phases during anodizing process. Oxidation status of the second phase particles in the coatings affected the light absorption......Anodized Al alloy components are extensively used in various applications like architectural, decorative and automobiles for corrosion protection and/or decorative optical appearance. However, tailoring the anodized layer for specific optical appearance is limited due to variation in composition...... and microstructure of the commercial alloys, and even more difficult with recycled alloys. Sputter coating methods promise to control the chemical composition of the Al alloy surfaces and eventually modify the microstructure of the surfaces with heat treatments thus enabling the freedom on the substrate quality...

  20. Energy conversion using Pt-Pd/C anode catalyst in direct 2-propanol fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Mahapatra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pt-Pd/C electrocatalyst was synthesized on graphite substrate by the electrochemical codeposition technique. The Physico-chemical characterization of the catalyst was done by SEM, XRD and EDX. The electrochemical characterization of the Pt-Pd/C catalyst for 2-propanol electro-oxidation was studied over a range of 2-propanol concentrations in alkaline medium using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The activity of 2-propanol oxidation increased with the increase of 2-propanol concentration, at 2-propanol concentration greater than 1.0 M, no change in the oxidation peak current density is because of excess 2-propanol at the electrode surface and/or depletion of OH− at the electrode surface. The Pt-Pd/C catalyst shows good stability and the low value of charge transfer resistance. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes is ascribed to the synergistic effect of higher electrochemical surface area, preferred OH− adsorption and ad-atom contribution on the alloyed surface.

  1. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  2. The thermal properties of controllable diameter carbon nanotubes synthesized by using AB5 alloy of micrometer magnitude as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiyan; Chen Yiming; Zeng Guoxun; Huang Huiping; Xie Zhiwei; Jie Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized multi-wall carbon nanotubes by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) method using an AB 5 hydrogen storage alloy with diameter ranging from 38 to 150 μm as a catalyst. The H 2 uptake capacity of the carbon nanotubes prepared using an AB 5 alloy as a catalyst is about 4 wt.% through to the pressure of 8 MPa at room temperature. Differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA) technique has been applied to investigate the effect of the diameters of the AB 5 alloy catalyst of micrometer magnitude and the technique conditions in the CCVD process on the thermal properties of carbon nanotubes. As the catalyst diameter increases from 38 to 150 μm, the average diameter of the prepared carbon nanotubes increases and the diameter distribution also enlarges. Electron microscope, Raman spectrum and thermal analysis all indicated that the catalyst sizes affect the diameter and the thermal properties of the carbon nanotubes. When the catalyst diameter increases, the initial weight loss temperature and the differential thermal peak temperature of the carbon nanotubes increases, which shows that the lager the diameter of the carbon nanotubes is, the higher the oxidation temperature, and the better the anti-oxidizablity. However, if the diameter of the catalyst is larger than 100 μm, the anti-oxidizablity does not rise anymore but tend to be invariableness. In the CCVD preparation process, the anti-oxidizability of the carbon nanotubes increases, when raising the ratio of the hydrogen gas in the reaction gas in our experimental range (4:1, 3:1, and 2:1, respectively)

  3. Exploring As-Cast PbCaSn-Mg Anodes for Improved Performance in Copper Electrowinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Jodie A.; Clancy, Marie; Chen, Xiaobo; Birbilis, Nick

    2018-06-01

    Lead calcium tin (PbCaSn) alloys are the common anodes used in copper electrowinning (Cu EW). Given a large amount of energy consumed in Cu EW process, anodes with controlled oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics and a lower OER overpotential are advantageous for reducing the energy consumption. To date, magnesium (Mg) has never been studied as an alloying element for EW anodes. As-cast PbCaSn anodes with the addition of Mg were examined herein, revealing an improved performance compared to that of the industrial standard PbCaSn anode. The alloy performances in the early stages of anode life and passivation were established from electrochemical studies which were designed to simulate industrial Cu EW process. The 24-hour polarization testing revealed that the Mg alloying depolarizes the anode potential up to 80 mV; thus, resulting in a higher Cu EW efficiency. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the alteration of the alloy microstructure and the corresponding interfacial reactions contribute to the changes of the anode electrochemical performances. The present study reveals for the first time the potency of Mg alloying in reducing the overpotential of PbCaSn anode.

  4. Anodic solubility and electrochemical machining of hard alloys on the base of chromium and titanium carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, A D; Klepikov, A N; Malofeeva, A N; Moroz, I I

    1985-01-01

    The regularities of anodic behaviour and electrochemical machining (ECM) of the samples of three materials with the following compositions: 25% of Cr/sub 3/C/sub 2/, 15% of Ni, 70% of TiC, 25% of Ni, 5% of Cr, 70% of TiC, 15% of Ni, 15% of Mo are investigated. It is shown that the electrochemical method is applicable to hard alloys machining on the base of chromium and titanium carbides, the machining of which mechanically meets serious difficulties. The alloys machining rate by a mobile cathode constitutes about 0.5 mm/min.

  5. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  6. Rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of nano-flakes like AgCd alloy electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, Nimai; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Ingole, Pravin P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, for the first time, we report rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of an electro-catalyst based on AgCd alloy nanoparticles with flakes like geometry which shows highly efficient activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A simple potentiostatic deposition method has been employed for co-depositing AgCd alloy nanostructures with flakes like shapes along with dendrites on the surface of carbon fibre paper. The chemico-physical properties of the catalyst are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Electro-catalytic activity of AgCd alloy based electro-catalyst towards ORR is studied in alkaline medium by cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) technique. Electrochemical in-situ FTIR measurements are also performed to identify the species generated during ORR process. Based on the results from electro-catalysis experiment, it is concluded that nano-alloyed AgCd electrodeposited on carbon paper shows excellent activity for ORR, following four electron pathways with H_2O_2 yield less than 15%. The combination of low cost of Ag and Cd, fast and facile method of its fabrication and higher activity towards ORR makes the AgCd electro-catalyst an attractive catalyst of choice for alkaline fuel cell.

  7. Selective anodic dissolution of cerium from aluminium alloys under potentiostatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, S.L.; Raspopin, S.P.; Seleznev, V.D.; Tunin, A.V.; Fedorov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of selective anodic dissolution of aluminum alloys containing cerium in concentrations from 0.5 to 10% by mass. The electropurification was carried out with the aid of a potentiostatic setup at 700 deg C in atmosphere of purified argon. Liquid aluminum served as the cathode, with chlorine half-cell as reference electrode and the melt of equimolar KCl-NaCl mixture as the electrolyte. The ''current-time'' plots are presented for selective ionization of cerium from aluminum alloys at preset potential values on the installation. For PHIsub(preset)=-2.04 v the current of potentiostatic electrolysis fades out to that of the supporting electrolyte, and the process itself proceeds at a rate that provides maximal extraction of cerium from the alloy (csub9finite)approximately equal to 0.002% by mass) at minimal ionization of the metalsolvent (Δ Msub(Al)approximately equal to 0.2). Alloys containing not less then 1% by mass of Ce exhibit a characteristic abrupt change of the attenuation coefficient apparently owing to nonlinear dependence of unbalance (ΔE) of signals at the input of the potentiostat. The ''ΔE-c'' function for Al alloy containing 0.5% by mass of Ce can be approximated by linear function. In this case the current of potentiostatic electrolysis approaches the value of the limiting diffusion current. To obtain the relationship between the magnitude of the limiting current of Ce ionization and the initial composition of the dissolving alloy, measurements were made under potentiodynamic conditions at a scanning rate of approximately equal to 500 mv/min. The results indicate that isub(intermediate) is directly proportional to csub(initial). It was shown that under the conditions employed, practically complete (csub(finite)<=0.004% by mass) extraction of the electronegative component is possible without noticeable ionization of the metal-solvent

  8. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.J.; Day, S.D.; Ilevbare, G.O.; Whalen, M.T.; King, K.J.; Hust, G.A.; Wong, L.L.; Estill, J.C.; Rebak, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl 2 at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy

  9. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid in Water into g-Valerolactone over Bulk Structure of Inexpensive Intermetallic Ni-Sn Alloy Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A bulk structure of inexpensive intermetallic nickel-tin (Ni-Sn alloys catalysts demonstrated highly selective in the hydrogenation of levulinic acid in water into g-valerolactone. The intermetallic Ni-Sn catalysts were synthesized via a very simple thermochemical method from non-organometallic precursor at low temperature followed by hydrogen treatment at 673 K for 90 min. The molar ratio of nickel salt and tin salt was varied to obtain the corresponding Ni/Sn ratio of 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, and 0.75. The formation of Ni-Sn alloy species was mainly depended on the composition and temperature of H2 treatment. Intermetallics Ni-Sn that contain Ni3Sn, Ni3Sn2, and Ni3Sn4 alloy phases are known to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for levulinic acid hydrogenation giving very excellence g-valerolactone yield of >99% at 433 K, initial H2 pressure of 4.0 MPa within 6 h. The effective hydrogenation was obtained in H2O without the formation of by-product. Intermetallic Ni-Sn(1.5 that contains Ni3Sn2 alloy species demonstrated very stable and reusable catalyst without any significant loss of its selectivity. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. Received: 26th February 2015; Revised: 16th April 2015; Accepted: 22nd April 2015  How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Astuti, M.D., Ghofur, A., Sembiring, K.C. (2015. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid in Water into g-Valerolactone over Bulk Structure of Inexpensive Intermetallic Ni-Sn Alloy Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 192-200. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8284.192-200Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8284.192-200  

  10. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Zirconium Alloy with Nano structured Oxide Layer in Air Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, J. W.; Cho, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    If the temperature of the cladding materials increases above 1000 .deg. C, which can be caused by a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), Zr becomes an auto-oxidation catalyst and hence produces a huge amount of hydrogen gas from water. Therefore, many investigations are being carried out to prevent (or reduce) the hydrogen production from Zr-based cladding materials in the nuclear reactors. Our team has developed an anodization technique by which nanostructured oxide can be formed on various flat metallic elements such as Al, Ti, and Zr-based alloy. Anodization is a simple electrochemical technique and requires only a power supply and an electrolyte. In this study, Zr-based alloys with nanostructured oxide layers were oxidized by using Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and compared with the pristine one. It reveals that the nanostructured oxide layer can prevent oxidation of substrate metal in air. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA). In comparison with the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy, weight gain of the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer is lower than 10% even for 12 hours oxidation in air.

  11. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  12. Electrochemical Random Signal Analysis during Localized Corrosion of Anodized 1100 Aluminum Alloy in Chloride Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakairi, M.; Shimoyama, Y.; Nagasawa, D.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of electrochemical random signal (electrochemical noise) analysis technique was applied to localized corrosion of anodic oxide film formed 1100 aluminum alloy in 0.5 kmol/m 3 H 3 BO 4 /0.05 kmol/m 3 Na 2 B 4 O 7 with 0.01 kmol/m 3 NaCl. The effect of anodic oxide film structure, barrier type, porous type, and composite type on galvanic corrosion resistance was also examined. Before localized corrosion started, incubation period for pitting corrosion, both current and potential slightly change as initial value with time. The incubation period of porous type anodic oxide specimens are longer than that of barrier type anodic oxide specimens. While pitting corrosion, the current and potential were changed with fluctuations and the potential and the current fluctuations show a good correlation. The records of the current and potential were processed by calculating the power spectrum density (PSD) by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. The potential and current PSD decrease with increasing frequency, and the slopes are steeper than or equal to minus one (-1). This technique allows observation of electrochemical impedance changes during localized corrosion

  13. Ni nanotube array-based electrodes by electrochemical alloying and de-alloying for efficient water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xue; Wang, Jianying; Ji, Lvlv; Lv, Yaokang; Chen, Zuofeng

    2018-05-17

    The design of cost-efficient earth-abundant catalysts with superior performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is extremely important for future renewable energy production. Herein, we report a facile strategy for constructing Ni nanotube arrays (NTAs) on a Ni foam (NF) substrate through cathodic deposition of NiCu alloy followed by anodic stripping of metallic Cu. Based on Ni NTAs, the as-prepared NiSe2 NTA electrode by NiSe2 electrodeposition and the NiFeOx NTA electrode by dipping in Fe3+ solution exhibit excellent HER and OER performance in alkaline conditions. In these systems, Ni NTAs act as a binder-free multifunctional inner layer to support the electrocatalysts, offer a large specific surface area and serve as a fast electron transport pathway. Moreover, an alkaline electrolyzer has been constructed using NiFeOx NTAs as the anode and NiSe2 NTAs as the cathode, which only demands a cell voltage of 1.78 V to deliver a water-splitting current density of 500 mA cm-2, and demonstrates remarkable stability during long-term electrolysis. This work provides an attractive method for the design and fabrication of nanotube array-based catalyst electrodes for highly efficient water-splitting.

  14. Study of the alloying additives and alkaline zincate solution effects on the commercial aluminum as galvanic anode for use in alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashvand avei, M.; Jafarian, M.; Moghanni Bavil Olyaei, H.; Gobal, F.; Hosseini, S.M.; Mahjani, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of different grades of commercial aluminum such as AA1040, AA5083, AA6060 and AA7075 in ZnO-containing 4 M NaOH has been determined by using open circuit potential-time measurements (OCP), galvanostatic and potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) reveal that ZnO produces the inhibition effect by the formation of a zinc-containing deposit layer on the surface of aluminum electrodes. Although the influence of zincating on the performance of aluminum alloys and considering the amount of alloying elements such as zinc, magnesium and manganese in AA7075 and AA5083 alloys is much more than AA6060 one, the AA6060 aluminum exhibits negligible corrosion rate. Alloying aluminum with other elements and modifying the composition of the electrolyte is a necessary condition for reducing the self-corrosion of the aluminum anodes, whereas the proportion of the amount of additive elements is sufficient and important condition. As AA6060 with a low amount of Zn and Mg, but the high value of the ratio of (Mg/Zn) content (>400) can serve as a good galvanic anode in the alkaline media. - Highlights: • Decreasing the corrosion rate of tested alloys in 4 M NaOH solution specially AA6060. • Lowering the extent of anodic polarization at a current density of 50 mA cm −2 . • High inhibitor efficiency about 97% for AA6060

  15. Study of the alloying additives and alkaline zincate solution effects on the commercial aluminum as galvanic anode for use in alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashvand avei, M. [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, M., E-mail: mjafarian@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghanni Bavil Olyaei, H. [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gobal, F. [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, S.M. [Jahad Organization – Science and Technology Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahjani, M.G. [Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-16

    The corrosion behavior of different grades of commercial aluminum such as AA1040, AA5083, AA6060 and AA7075 in ZnO-containing 4 M NaOH has been determined by using open circuit potential-time measurements (OCP), galvanostatic and potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) reveal that ZnO produces the inhibition effect by the formation of a zinc-containing deposit layer on the surface of aluminum electrodes. Although the influence of zincating on the performance of aluminum alloys and considering the amount of alloying elements such as zinc, magnesium and manganese in AA7075 and AA5083 alloys is much more than AA6060 one, the AA6060 aluminum exhibits negligible corrosion rate. Alloying aluminum with other elements and modifying the composition of the electrolyte is a necessary condition for reducing the self-corrosion of the aluminum anodes, whereas the proportion of the amount of additive elements is sufficient and important condition. As AA6060 with a low amount of Zn and Mg, but the high value of the ratio of (Mg/Zn) content (>400) can serve as a good galvanic anode in the alkaline media. - Highlights: • Decreasing the corrosion rate of tested alloys in 4 M NaOH solution specially AA6060. • Lowering the extent of anodic polarization at a current density of 50 mA cm{sup −2}. • High inhibitor efficiency about 97% for AA6060.

  16. Phase formation in alloy-type anode materials in the quaternary system Li-Sn-Si-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druee, Martin; Seyring, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto Schott Inst. of Materials Research; Liang, Song-Mao; Kozlov, Artem; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Metallurgy; Song, Xiaoyan [Beijing Univ. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Functional Materials; Rettenmayr, Markus [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto Schott Inst. of Materials Research; Jena Univ. (Germany). Center for Energy and Environmental

    2017-11-15

    Investigations on the thermodynamics of alloy-type anode materials have been carried out for the quaternary Li-C-Si-Sn system. Phase equilibria and phase stabilities were characterized in the binary subsystems Li-C, Li-Si, Li-Sn. The Calphad method was first used to optimize or completely re-establish all binary subsystems containing Li. For reasons of consistency, the binary subsystem Si-C had to be revisited and its Calphad description was modified. The ternary phase diagrams were then tentatively calculated by extrapolation from the binary subsystems and confirmed by key experiments. No ternary compounds were found. In order to verify the applicability of the anode materials in real batteries, some of the materials were nanostructured by ball milling and spark plasma sintering, the corresponding nanostructures were characterized. Theoretical predictions that nanograined Li{sub 2}C{sub 2} can also be used as cathode material were verified experimentally. The methodologies worked out in the present project (e.g. nanoscale structure transmission electron microscopy analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy) were also employed in other projects and led to publications concerning other materials such as Mg alloys, carbon nanofibers and an Mn-based antiperovskite.

  17. One-step synthesis of PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles on graphene with superior methanol electrooxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuzhen; Gu Yonge; Lin Shaoxiong; Wei Jinping; Wang Zaihua [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du Yongling; Ye Weichun [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > PtPdAu nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via chemical reduction method. > The prepared PtPdAu nanoparticles were ternary alloy with fcc structure. > The catalyst exhibited superior catalytic activity and stability for MOR in alkaline. - Abstract: Well-dispersed PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via a simple one-step chemical reduction method in ethylene glycol (EG) and water system, in which EG served as both reductive and dispersing agent. The electrocatalytic activity of PtPdAu/G was tested by methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The catalyst was further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated that the as-synthesized PtPdAu nanoparticles with alloy structures were successfully dispersed on the graphene sheets. Electrocatalytic properties of the catalyst for MOR in alkaline have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and Tafel curves. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of PtPdAu/G were superior to PtPd/G, PtAu/G and Pt/G. In addition, the anodic peak current on PtPdAu/G catalyst was proportional to the concentration of methanol in the range of 0.05-1.00 M. This study implies that the prepared catalyst have great potential applications in fuel cells.

  18. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  19. The aluminum anode in deep ocean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of field and mini-plant studies are presented for A1 + 0.045% Hg + 0.1% Si + 0.45% Zn* and A1 + 0.015% In + 0.1% Si + 3% Zn** anodes in varying depths of natural seawater. Current capacity and potential information are presented. In addition to information on anode current capacity and potential, polarization curves were obtained on both aluminum alloys using potentiostatic techniques at a simulated ocean depth of 1090 ft. (332 m). These data were compared with similarly run experiments at ocean surface pressures. As a basis of comparison, zinc anodes (U.S. Mil-A-18001H) were included as a companion alloy. Information gained on zinc is sufficient to accurately represent the behavior of this alloy. Results conclude that conditions of high pressure (and low temperature) associated with the alloys under test did not alter their galvanic behavior from that noted at the ocean surface

  20. Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafont, C.J.; Alvarez, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO 3 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 , at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO 3 and 0.06M NaH 2 PO 4 + 0.04M Na 2 HPO 4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Non-sparking anodization process of AZ91D magnesium alloy under low AC voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weiping; Li, Wen; Zhu, Liqun; Liu, Huicong; Wang, Xiaofang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Four different processes appear on magnesium alloys with applied voltage increase. ► Non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V AC. ► The film was composed of Mg 2 SiO 4 with a stable growth rate in 30 min. ► Film growth was a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition. -- Abstract: Anodization is widely recognized as one of the most important surface treatments for magnesium alloys. However, since high voltage oxidation films are limited in some applications due to porosity and brittleness, it is worthwhile to explore the non-sparking oxidizing process. In this work, AZ91D was electrochemically anodized at different AC voltages in an electrolyte containing 120 g/L NaOH and 80 g/L Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O. The effects of voltage on the surface morphology, composition and reaction process, especially the non-sparking discharge anodic film formation process, were investigated. The results showed that four different processes would appear according to the applied voltage variation from 6 V to 40 V, and that the non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V. The film formed on the AZ91D surface under 10 V AC was mainly composed of Mg 2 SiO 4 with a lamellar structure. The horizontal and vertical expansion of the lamellar structure resulted in the formation of a multi-layered structure with a stable, linear growth rate for 30 min. The non-sparking film formation process can be considered to be the result of a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition reaction

  2. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexandra P; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone-implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study provides a viable method to anodize an already color coded, anodized titanium alloy to potentially increase bone growth for numerous implant applications.

  3. Electric charging/discharging characteristics of super capacitor, using de-alloying and anodic oxidized Ti-Ni-Si amorphous alloy ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Sugawara, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Charging/discharging behaviors of de-alloyed and anodic oxidized Ti-Ni-Si amorphous alloy ribbons were measured as a function of current between 10 pA and 100 mA, using galvanostatic charge/discharging method. In sharp contrast to conventional electric double layer capacitor (EDLC), discharging behaviors for voltage under constant currents of 1, 10 and 100 mA after 1.8 ks charging at 100 mA show parabolic decrease, demonstrating direct electric storage without solvents. The supercapacitors, devices that store electric charge on their amorphous TiO2-x surfaces that contain many 70-nm sized cavities, show the Ragone plot which locates at lower energy density region near the 2nd cells, and RC constant of 800 s (at 1 mHz), which is 157,000 times larger than that (5 ms) in EDLC.

  4. The influence of the deoxidization on the aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Wu, X.; Wang, W. [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    2000-07-01

    Though the composition of the 7075 and 7050 aluminum alloys are quite similar, the anodic behaviors of the two alloys were quite different. Unlike the 7075 alloy, a chromic acid anodic film could not be formed on the 7050 alloy surface with a conventional anodizing process, unless a so-called deoxidization was employed. Therefore, the effects of the deoxidization were studied. The results showed that the deoxidization affected the 7050 quite obviously, introducing numerous number of the ''pits'' to the sample surface, and hence the film obtained was relatively thick but rather weak. In addition, the anodizing voltage also brought remarkable effect to the anodic behavior of the 7050 alloy. The test results showed that the deoxidization lowered the corrosion resistance of the 7050 alloys. By contrast, neither oxidization nor the voltage affected the anodic behavior and the corrosion resistance of the 7075 alloy very much. (orig.)

  5. Electrochemical behavior of anodized AA6063-T6 alloys affected by matrix structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yung-Sen; Shih, Teng-Shih; Wu, Chen-En

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deformation after solution treatment introduced Al matrix to have deformation bands and few Si particles. ► Dislocations remained in the matrix lift up field potential and produce AlOOH oxide in the AAO film. ► The silicon-containing particles were found to trap in the AAO film. ► The silicon particles and the Al(OOH) oxide is significantly to influence the electrochemical behavior of AAO films. - Abstract: AA 6063 alloys were cold-rolled (CR) either before or after solution treatment (S) and then different samples were artificially aged (T6) to obtain different samples (CRST6 and SCRT6). The highest dislocation density was observed in the SCRT6 sample which also showed the lowest particle count among the three samples; ST6, CRST6 and SCRT6. Subsequently, all samples were anodized in a 15 wt% sulfuric acid solution for different time spans to obtain anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. The anodized samples were further analyzed with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. We determined that the constituent phases in the AAO film were composed of hydrated amorphous alumina, hydrated oxide (Al(OH) 3 ) and oxyhydroxide (AlOOH) phases together with some silicon-containing particles trapped in the films on all samples. In the electrochemical test, the silicon-containing particles and hydrated Al(OH) 3 oxide that existed at the electrolyte/film (e/f) interface were found to inversely influence the corrosion resistance of the anodized samples.

  6. Influence of the heat treatment condition of alloy AlCu4Mg1 on the microstructure and properties of anodic oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R.; Dietrich, D.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties, high-strength, age-hardenable aluminum alloys offer a high potential for lightweight security-related applications. However, the use of copper-alloyed aluminum is limited because of their susceptibility to selective corrosion and their low wear resistance. These restrictions can be overcome and new applications can be opened up by the generation of protective anodic aluminum oxide layers. In contrast to the anodic oxidation of unalloyed aluminum, oxide layers produced on copper-rich alloys exhibit a significantly more complex pore structure. It is the aim of the investigation to identify the influence of microstructural parameters such as size and distribution of the strengthening precipitations on the coating microstructure. The aluminum alloy EN AW-2024 (AlCu4Mg1) in different heat treatment conditions serves as substrate material. The influence of the strengthening precipitations’ size and distribution on the development of the pore structure is investigated by the use of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Integral coating properties are characterized by non-destructive and light-microscopic thickness measurements and instrumented indentation tests.

  7. Unsupported NiPt alloy metal catalysts prepared by water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion method for methane cracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2016-05-18

    Unsupported NiPt metal catalyst with Ni/Pt molar ratio of 88/12 is prepared by water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion method in this study. Compared to monometallic Ni and Pt catalysts, the NiPt catalyst exhibits superior activity and stability for methane cracking. By XRD (X-ray powder diffraction), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and TEM (Transmission electron microscopy) analyses, the formation of Ni(0)Pt(0) alloy is believed to be the main reason for the reactivity improvement of this catalyst. Carbon nano tube (CNT) with Ni(0)Pt(0) particles anchored on the top of tube are found for the NiPt catalyst. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Pt Monolayer Shell on Nitrided Alloy Core—A Path to Highly Stable Oxygen Reduction Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate activity and stability of Pt as a cathode catalyst under the severe operation conditions are the critical problems facing the application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. Here we report on a novel route to synthesize highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts by depositing Pt monolayer on a nitrided alloy core. The prepared PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst retains 89% of the initial electrochemical surface area after 50,000 cycles between potentials 0.6 and 1.0 V. By correlating electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses with electrochemical measurements, we found that the significant improvement of stability of the PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst is caused by nitrogen doping while reducing the total precious metal loading.

  9. Performance of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ni-Cu alloy nanowires through composition modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi-Ke; Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Li-de; Yang, Chao; Pi, Zhen-Bang; Zhang, Su-Xin

    2008-05-28

    To reduce the cost of the catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells and improve its catalytic activity, highly ordered Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays have been fabricated successfully by differential pulse current electro-deposition into the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane (AAMs). The energy dispersion spectrum, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the composition and morphology of the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays. The results reveal that the nanowires in the array are uniform, well isolated and parallel to each other. The catalytic activity of the nanowire electrode arrays for ethanol oxidation was tested and the binary alloy nanowire array possesses good catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. The performance of ethanol electro-oxidation was controlled by varying the Cu content in the Ni-Cu alloy and the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire electrode shows much better stability than the pure Ni one.

  10. Performance of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ni-Cu alloy nanowires through composition modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xike; Zhao Xiaoyu; Yang Chao; Pi Zhenbang; Zhang Lide; Zhang Suxin

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the cost of the catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells and improve its catalytic activity, highly ordered Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays have been fabricated successfully by differential pulse current electro-deposition into the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane (AAMs). The energy dispersion spectrum, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the composition and morphology of the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays. The results reveal that the nanowires in the array are uniform, well isolated and parallel to each other. The catalytic activity of the nanowire electrode arrays for ethanol oxidation was tested and the binary alloy nanowire array possesses good catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. The performance of ethanol electro-oxidation was controlled by varying the Cu content in the Ni-Cu alloy and the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire electrode shows much better stability than the pure Ni one

  11. Palladium-Based Catalysts as Electrodes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: A Last Ten Years Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Calderón Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based materials are accepted as the suitable electrocatalysts for anodes and cathodes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Nonetheless, the increased demand and scarce world reserves of Pt, as well as some technical problems associated with its use, have motivated a wide research focused to design Pd-based catalysts, considering the similar properties between this metal and Pt. In this review, we present the most recent advancements about Pd-based catalysts, considering Pd, Pd alloys with different transition metals and non-carbon supported nanoparticles, as possible electrodes in DMFCs. In the case of the anode, different reported works have highlighted the capacity of these new materials for overcoming the CO poisoning and promote the oxidation of other intermediates generated during the methanol oxidation. Regarding the cathode, the studies have showed more positive onset potentials, as fundamental parameter for determining the mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and thus, making them able for achieving high efficiencies, with less production of hydrogen peroxide as collateral product. This revision suggests that it is possible to replace the conventional Pt catalysts by Pd-based materials, although several efforts must be made in order to improve their performance in DMFCs.

  12. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra P Ross, Thomas J WebsterSchool of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone–implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study

  13. A novel high performance composite anode with in situ growth of Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles for intermediate solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Yu, Yan; Yin, Yi-Mei; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A composite anode with endogenous Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles has been prepared. • The redox reversibility of the anode has been confirmed by XRD. • The E_a of H_2 oxidation at the anode is much smaller than that at Ni-YSZ anode. • A ScSZ supported cell achieves MPD of 0.71 Wcm"−"2 and R_p of 0.16 Ω cm"2 at 800 °C. • The single cell shows stable output during 105 h testing at 800 °C 0.7 V in wet H_2". - Abstract: A redox reversible composite anode with Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles in situ growth on SrLaFeO_4-type and LaFeO_3-type oxide substrates has been prepared for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) by reducing perovskite precursor La_0_._4Sr_0_._6Fe_0_._7_5Ni_0_._1Nb_0_._1_5O_3_-_δ (LSFNNb) in wet H_2 at 900 °C for 1 h. The anode has shown an excellent electrochemical catalytic activity for oxidation of hydrogen with much smaller E_a (25.1 ∼ 68.9 kJ mol"−"1) than the value (>160 kJ mol"−"1) at Ni-YSZ anode. A scandium stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) electrolyte supported SOFC with the anode achieves maximum power densities of 0.71, 0.52, 0.35, and 0.21 W cm"−"2 at 800, 750, 700 and 650 °C, respectively in wet H_2 (3% H_2O), and the corresponding R_p of 0.16, 0.21, 0.35, and 0.60 Ω cm"2 under OCV. Moreover, the single cell shows stable power output during ∼105 h operation at 800 °C under 0.7 V in wet H_2 after a initial degradation, indicating that R-LSFNNb is an excellent candidate as anode of IT-SOFC.

  14. Non-sparking anodization process of AZ91D magnesium alloy under low AC voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weiping, E-mail: liweiping@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Wen [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institue, Beijing 100024 (China); Zhu, Liqun; Liu, Huicong; Wang, Xiaofang [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► Four different processes appear on magnesium alloys with applied voltage increase. ► Non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V AC. ► The film was composed of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} with a stable growth rate in 30 min. ► Film growth was a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition. -- Abstract: Anodization is widely recognized as one of the most important surface treatments for magnesium alloys. However, since high voltage oxidation films are limited in some applications due to porosity and brittleness, it is worthwhile to explore the non-sparking oxidizing process. In this work, AZ91D was electrochemically anodized at different AC voltages in an electrolyte containing 120 g/L NaOH and 80 g/L Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O. The effects of voltage on the surface morphology, composition and reaction process, especially the non-sparking discharge anodic film formation process, were investigated. The results showed that four different processes would appear according to the applied voltage variation from 6 V to 40 V, and that the non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V. The film formed on the AZ91D surface under 10 V AC was mainly composed of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} with a lamellar structure. The horizontal and vertical expansion of the lamellar structure resulted in the formation of a multi-layered structure with a stable, linear growth rate for 30 min. The non-sparking film formation process can be considered to be the result of a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition reaction.

  15. Evaluation of shot peening on the fatigue strength of anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Midori Yoshikawa Pitanga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly design requirements for modern engineering applications resulted in the development of new materials with improved mechanical properties. Low density, combined with excellent weight/strength ratio as well as corrosion resistance, make the titanium attractive for application in landing gears. Fatigue control is a fundamental parameter to be considered in the development of mechanical components. The aim of this research is to analyze the fatigue behavior of anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the influence of shot peening pre treatment on the experimental data. Axial fatigue tests (R = 0.1 were performed, and a significant reduction in the fatigue strength of anodized Ti-6Al-4V was observed. The shot peening superficial treatment, which objective is to create a compressive residual stress field in the surface layers, showed efficiency to increase the fatigue life of anodized material. Experimental data were represented by S-N curves. Scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM was used to observe crack origin sites.

  16. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  17. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    was inspired by a computational screening, suggesting that alloys such as Ni-Fe, Co-Ni, and Co-Fe should show superior activity to the industrially used nickel catalyst. Especially the Ni-Fe system was considered to be interesting, since such alloy catalysts should be both more active and cheaper than the Ni...... catalyst. The results from the screening were experimentally verified for CO hydrogenation, CO2 hydrogenation, and simultaneous CO and CO2 hydrogenation by bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts. These catalysts were found to be highly active and selective. The Co-Ni and Co-Fe systems were investigated for CO...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...

  18. Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, Martin A.; Lizcano-Valbuena, William H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density, by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus (φ 2 ) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit function of the position in the layer. In spite of this, the equations presented here for the anodic overpotential allow the derivation of new semi-empirical equations

  19. Effect of heat treatment on stability of gold particle modified carbon supported Pt-Ru anode catalysts for a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Liu Juanying; Huang Qinghong; Vogel, Walter; Akins, Daniel L.; Yang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Carbon supported Au-PtRu (Au-PtRu/C) catalysts were prepared as the anodic catalysts for the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The procedure involved simple deposition of Au particles on a commercial Pt-Ru/C catalyst, followed by heat treatment of the resultant composite catalyst at 125, 175 and 200 o C in a N 2 atmosphere. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements indicated that the Au nanoparticles were attached to the surface of the Pt-Ru nanoparticles. We found that the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Au-PtRu/C catalysts for methanol oxidation is better than that of the PtRu/C catalyst. An enhanced stability of the electrocatalyst is observed and attributable to the promotion of CO oxidation by the Au nanoparticles adsorbed onto the Pt-Ru particles, by weakening the adsorption of CO, which can strongly adsorb to and poison Pt catalyst. XPS results show that Au-PtRu/C catalysts with heat treatment lead to surface segregation of Pt metal and an increase in the oxidation state of Ru, which militates against the dissolution of Ru. We additionally find that Au-PtRu/C catalysts heat-treated at 175 o C exhibit the highest electrocatalytic stability among the catalysts prepared by heat treatment: this observation is explained as due to the attainment of the highest relative concentration of gold and the highest oxidation state of Ru oxides for the catalyst pretreated at this temperature.

  20. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  1. Effects of half-wave and full-wave power source on the anodic oxidation process on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximei; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Li, Yihong

    2009-03-01

    Anodic films have been prepared on the AZ91D magnesium alloys in 1 mol/L Na 2SiO 3 with 10 vol.% silica sol addition under the constant voltage of 60 V at room temperature by half-wave and full-wave power sources. The weight of the anodic films has been scaled by analytical balance, and the thickness has been measured by eddy current instrument. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and structure of the anodic films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the thickness and weight of the anodic films formed by the two power sources both increase with the anodizing time, and the films anodized by full-wave power source grow faster than that by half-wave one. Furthermore, we have fitted polynomial to the scattered data of the weight and thickness in a least-squares sense with MATLAB, which could express the growth process of the anodic films sufficiently. The full-wave power source is inclined to accelerate the growth of the anodic films, and the half-wave one is mainly contributed to the uniformity and fineness of the films. The anodic film consists of crystalline Mg 2SiO 4 and amorphous SiO 2.

  2. Effects of half-wave and full-wave power source on the anodic oxidation process on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ximei [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)], E-mail: wangximei126@126.com; Zhu Liqun; Li Weiping; Liu Huicong; Li Yihong [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Anodic films have been prepared on the AZ91D magnesium alloys in 1 mol/L Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} with 10 vol.% silica sol addition under the constant voltage of 60 V at room temperature by half-wave and full-wave power sources. The weight of the anodic films has been scaled by analytical balance, and the thickness has been measured by eddy current instrument. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and structure of the anodic films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the thickness and weight of the anodic films formed by the two power sources both increase with the anodizing time, and the films anodized by full-wave power source grow faster than that by half-wave one. Furthermore, we have fitted polynomial to the scattered data of the weight and thickness in a least-squares sense with MATLAB, which could express the growth process of the anodic films sufficiently. The full-wave power source is inclined to accelerate the growth of the anodic films, and the half-wave one is mainly contributed to the uniformity and fineness of the films. The anodic film consists of crystalline Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and amorphous SiO{sub 2}.

  3. The role of anodic dissolution in the stress corrosion cracking of Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheit, R.G. Jr.; Wall, F.D.; Stoner, G.E.; Moran, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The short-transverse (S-T) stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Al-Li-CU alloy 2090 was studied using a static load SCC test technique. Time to failure was measured as a function of applied potential in several different environments. Rapid SCC failures ( br, T1 applied br, matrix where potentials refer to the breakaway potentials of the subgrain boundary T 1 (Al 2 CuLi) phase and the α-Al matrix phase. E br values were measured using potentiodynamic polarization of bulk materials intended to simulate the individual phases found in the subgrain boundary region. Results strongly suggest an anodic dissolution based SCC mechanism for this alloy where selective dissolution of T 1 on the subgrain boundary is a critical step. The unusual pre-exposure embrittlement phenomenon demonstrated by Al- Li alloys is also shown to be consistent with these simple SCC criteria. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  4. CO-Tolerant Pt–BeO as a Novel Anode Electrocatalyst in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjung Kwon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs requires less expensive catalysts and higher operating voltage. Substantial anodic overvoltage with the usage of reformed hydrogen fuel can be minimized by using CO-tolerant anode catalysts. Carbon-supported Pt–BeO is manufactured so that Pt particles with an average diameter of 4 nm are distributed on a carbon support. XPS analysis shows that a peak value of the binding energy of Be matches that of BeO, and oxygen is bound with Be or carbon. The hydrogen oxidation current of the Pt–BeO catalyst is slightly higher than that of a Pt catalyst. CO stripping voltammetry shows that CO oxidation current peaks at ~0.85 V at Pt, whereas CO is oxidized around 0.75 V at Pt–BeO, which confirms that the desorption of CO is easier in the presence of BeO. Although the state-of-the-art PtRu anode catalyst is dominant as a CO-tolerant hydrogen oxidation catalyst, this study of Be-based CO-tolerant material can widen the choice of PEMFC anode catalyst.

  5. The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Thomas; Argyle, Morris; Popa, Tiberiu

    2009-06-30

    This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a

  6. Excitation of anodized alumina films with a light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.

    Optical properties of anodized aluminium alloys were determined by optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of such films. Samples with different concentrations of dopants were excited with a white-light source combined with an integrating sphere for fast determination of diffuse reflectance....... The UV-VIS reflectance of Ti-doped anodized aluminium films was measured over the wavelength range of 200 nm to 900 nm. Titanium doped-anodized aluminium films with 5-15 wt% Ti were characterized. Changes in the diffuse light scattering of doped anodized aluminium films, and thus optical appearance......, with doping are discussed. Using the Kubelka-Munk model on the diffuse reflectance spectra of such films, the bandgap Eg of the oxide alloys can be determined....

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of New Composite Tio2 Carbon Nanofiber Anodic Catalyst Support for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell via Electrospinning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Shyuan, L. K.; Karim, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Platinum (Pt) is the common catalyst used in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). However, Pt can lead towards catalyst poisoning by carbonaceous species, thus reduces the performance of DMFC. Thus, this study focuses on the fabrication of a new composite TiO2 carbon nanofiber anodic catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) via electrospinning technique. The distance between the tip and the collector (DTC) and the flow rate were examined as influencing parameters in the electrospinning technique. To ensure that the best catalytic material is fabricated, the nanofiber underwent several characterizations and electrochemical tests, including FTIR, XRD, FESEM, TEM, and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that D18, fabricated with a flow rate of 0.1 mLhr-1 and DTC of 18 cm, is an ultrafine nanofiber with the smallest average diameter, 136.73 ± 39.56 nm. It presented the highest catalyst activity and electrochemical active surface area value as 274.72 mAmg-1 and 226.75m2 g-1 PtRu, respectively, compared with the other samples.

  8. A novel tin-bismuth alloy electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, D.; Yin, T.; Qin, W.; Zhang, L.; Zhuang, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a novel tin-bismuth alloy electrode (SnBiE) for the determination of trace concentrations of zinc ions by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry without deoxygenation. The SnBiE has the advantages of easy fabrication and low cost, and does not require a pre-treatment (in terms of modification) prior to measurements. A study on the potential window of the electrode revealed a high hydrogen overvoltage though a limited anodic range due to the oxidation of tin. The effects of pH value, accumulation potential, and accumulation time were optimized with respect to the determination of trace zinc(II) at pH 5. 0. The response of the SnBiE to zinc(II) ion is linear in the 0.5-25 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 50 nM (after 60 s of accumulation). The SnBiE was applied to the determination of zinc(II) in wines and honeys, and the results were consistent with those of AAS. (author)

  9. Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.; Karraker, D.G.

    1987-03-01

    In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control

  10. First-principles study for the enhanced sulfur tolerance of Ni(1 1 1) surface alloyed with Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxing; Yang, Zongxian

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of H2S, HS, S, H and the dissociation of H2S on the Ni2Pb/Ni (1 1 1) are systematically studied using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. It is found that H2S dissociation barriers are greatly increased by alloying with Pb atoms in the Ni(1 1 1) surface, while the barrier for H2S formation is greatly reduced. In addition, the adsorption of sulfur atom is weakened a lot. The results indicate that alloying with Pb may be a good way to increase the sulfur tolerance of Ni based anode catalysts of solid oxide fuel cells.

  11. Hierarchical Pd-Sn alloy nanosheet dendrites: an economical and highly active catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures.

  12. Three-dimensional anode engineering for the direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, A.; Oloman, C.W.; Gyenge, E.L. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-09-05

    Catalyzed graphite felt three-dimensional anodes were investigated in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) operated with sulfuric acid supporting electrolyte. With a conventional serpentine channel flow field the preferred anode thickness was 100 {mu}m, while a novel flow-by anode showed the best performance with a thickness of 200-300 {mu}m. The effects of altering the methanol concentration, anolyte flow rate and operating temperature on the fuel cell superficial power density were studied by full (2{sup 3} + 1) factorial experiments on a cell with anode area of 5 cm{sup 2} and excess oxidant O{sub 2} at 200 kPa(abs). For operation in the flow-by mode with 2 M methanol at 2 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and 353 K the peak power density was 2380 W m{sup -2} with a PtRuMo anode catalyst, while a PtRu catalyst yielded 2240 W m{sup -2} under the same conditions. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional anode engineering for the direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Oloman, C. W.; Gyenge, E. L.

    Catalyzed graphite felt three-dimensional anodes were investigated in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) operated with sulfuric acid supporting electrolyte. With a conventional serpentine channel flow field the preferred anode thickness was 100 μm, while a novel flow-by anode showed the best performance with a thickness of 200-300 μm. The effects of altering the methanol concentration, anolyte flow rate and operating temperature on the fuel cell superficial power density were studied by full (2 3 + 1) factorial experiments on a cell with anode area of 5 cm 2 and excess oxidant O 2 at 200 kPa(abs). For operation in the flow-by mode with 2 M methanol at 2 cm 3 min -1 and 353 K the peak power density was 2380 W m -2 with a PtRuMo anode catalyst, while a PtRu catalyst yielded 2240 W m -2 under the same conditions.

  14. Electrode kinetics of ethanol oxidation on novel CuNi alloy supported catalysts synthesized from PTFE suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, S.; Datta, J.

    An understanding of the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of ethanol is of considerable interest for the optimization of the direct ethanol fuel cell. In this paper, the electro-oxidation of ethanol in sodium hydroxide solution has been studied over 70:30 CuNi alloy supported binary platinum electrocatalysts. These comprised mixed deposits of Pt with Ru or Mo. The electrodepositions were carried out under galvanostatic condition from a dilute suspension of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) containing the respective metal salts. Characterization of the catalyst layers by scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) indicated that this preparation technique yields well-dispersed catalyst particles on the CuNi alloy substrate. Cyclic voltammetry, polarization study and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of ethanol electro-oxidation over a range of NaOH and ethanol concentrations. The relevant parameters such as Tafel slope, charge transfer resistance and the reaction orders in respect of OH - ions and ethanol were determined.

  15. Initial stages of AZ91 Mg alloy micro-arc anodizing: Growth mechanisms and effect on the corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veys-Renaux, Delphine; Rocca, Emmanuel; Martin, Julien; Henrion, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The dielectric breakdown occurs for a specific value of capacitance. • Before breakdown, Si is incorporated to the anodic film under MgSiO 3 form. • After breakdown, Si is incorporated to the anodic film also under Mg 2 SiO 4 form. • The presence of Mg 2 SiO 4 in the anodic film provides good corrosion resistance due to sealing of the porosities. - Abstract: In the framework of the new ecological regulations, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) appears as an alternative to usual processes in the field of corrosion protection of Mg alloys. In this work, the initial stages of anodic layer growth in KOH-based electrolytes are studied up to and beyond the initiation of the micro-arc regime. The properties of the first anodized film preceding the occurrence of the dielectric breakdown (corresponding to the start of the micro-arc regime) are mainly determined by the incorporation of additives (fluorides or silicates) in the film, as shown by in situ electrochemical measurements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveal both the change of morphology and chemical state of silicate and fluoride in the anodized layer before and after the micro-arc regime. In terms of electrochemical behaviour, investigated by stationary methods and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in reference corrosive water, the anodic film grown in the silicate medium provides the best corrosion resistance thanks to a thick layer containing Mg 2 SiO 4 , whose degradation products seal the porosities of the coating

  16. Crevice corrosion propagation on alloy 625 and alloy C276 in natural seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, E.; Bogar, F.D.; Thomas, E.D. II; Creegan, C.A.; Lucas, K.E.; Kaznoff, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical composition of the aqueous solution within crevices on two different Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe alloys immersed in natural seawater was determined using a semiquantitative thin-layer chromatographic method. Active crevices were found to contain concentrated amounts of dissolved Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Mo 3+ , and Fe 2+ ions. Propagation of crevice corrosion for the two alloys was determined from anodic polarization curves in model crevice solutions based upon stoichiometric dissolution or selective dissolution of alloy components. Both alloys 625 (UNS N06625) and C276 (UNS N10276) underwent crevice corrosion in the model crevice electrolytes. For the model crevice solution based upon selective dissolution of alloy constituents, the anodic dissolution rate for alloy 625 was higher than that for alloy C276. This trend was reversed for the model crevice solution based upon uniform dissolution of alloy constituents

  17. Combinatorial investigation of Pt-Ru-Sn alloys as an anode electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Young Hwan [Department of New Energy.Resource Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Sangji University, 124, Sangjidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-Do 220-702 (Korea); Shul, Yong Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    Low-temperature direct alcohol fuel cells fed with different kinds of alcohol (methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol) have been investigated by employing ternary electrocatalysts (Pt-Ru-Sn) as anode catalysts. Combinatorial chemistry has been applied to screen the 66-PtRuSn-anode arrays at the same time to reduce cost, time, and effort when we select the optimum composition of electrocatalysts for DAFCs (Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells). PtRuSn (80:20:0) showed the lowest onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation, PtRuSn (50:0:50) for ethanol, and PtRuSn (20:70:10) for 2-propanol in CV results respectively, and single cell performance test indicated that Ru is more suitable for direct methanol fuel cell system, Sn for direct ethanol fuel cell system, and 2-propanol could be applied as fuel with low platinum composition anode electrocatalyst. The single cell performance results and electrochemical results (CV) were well matched with the combinatorial electrochemical results. As a result, we could verify the availability of combinatorial chemistry by comparing the results of each extreme electrocatalysts compositions as follows: PtRuSn (80:20:0) for methanol, PtRuSn (50:0:50) for ethanol and PtRuSn (20:70:10) for 2-propanol. (author)

  18. Mechanism of Early Stage Corrosion for Boric-sulfuric Acid Anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li Alloy Under Tropical Marine Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy(OM, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, EDX and EIS combined with ultramicrotomy were employed to investigate the micro morphology, chemical composition and electrochemical properties of anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li alloy before and after atmospheric corrosion. The results show that when electrolytes containing combinations of tartaric-sulfuric or boric-sulfuric acid are used to grow the films at different temperatures, boric acid addition and higher temperature allow for higher current density that speeds up the film growth. The pore geometry and structure is similar for different electrolytes. Dispersive dark rusty spots composed of O, Al, Cl, Cu are present on the boric-sulfuric acid anodized specimen after exposure in tropical marine atmosphere for 1 month. Deposition of white corrosion product is found on the specimen surface as well. Severe pitting occurs and develops deeply into the alloy substrate after elongated outdoor exposure. Corrosion propagation is associated with θ-phase particles.

  19. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  20. Performance of Platinum Nanoparticles / Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes / Bacterial Cellulose Composite as Anode Catalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Fonda Aritonang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly dispersed platinum (Pt nanoparticles / multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs on bacterial cellulose (BC as anode catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC were prepared with various precursors and their electro-catalytic activities towards hydrogen oxidation at 70 oC under non-humidified conditions. The composite was prepared by deposition of Pt nanoparticles and MWCNTs on BC gel by impregnation method using a water solution of metal precursors and MWCNTs followed by reducing reaction using a hydrogen gas. The composite was characterized by using TEM (transmission electron microscopy, EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy, and XRD (X-ray diffractometry techniques. TEM images and XRD patterns both lead to the observation of spherical metallic Pt nanoparticles with mean diameter of 3-11 nm well impregnated into the BC fibrils. Preliminary tests on a single cell indicate that renewable BC is a good prospect to be explored as a membrane in fuel cell field. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 21st November 2016; Revised: 26th February 2017; Accepted: 27th February 2017 How to Cite: Aritonang, H.F., Kamu, V.S., Ciptati, C., Onggo, D., Radiman, C.L. (2017. Performance of Platinum Nanoparticles / Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes / Bacterial Cellulose Composite as Anode Catalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 287-292 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.803.287-292 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.803.287-292

  1. Anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In sacrificial anodes at different concentration of zinc and indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, Ahmad [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saremi, Mohsen [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saeri, Mohammad Reza [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2012-12-15

    Al-Zn-In anodes show better performance due to the beneficial effects of Zn and In on prevention of aluminum passivity and producing a homogeneous structure for uniform corrosion of the anodes. However, there are different views about the optimum concentration of each element in the anode. In this study, the anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In alloy with different concentrations of zinc from 1 to 6wt.% and indium from 0.01 to 0.05wt.% are studied. The NACE efficiency test and polarization are used in 3wt.% NaCl solution for corrosion characterization. The results showed that zinc and indium change the anode potential to more active potentials and improve the microstructure uniformity of anodes. The latter leads to more uniform corrosion. Optimum concentrations of zinc (5wt.%) and indium (0.02wt.%) were found in this respect. (orig.)

  2. Effect of the structural characteristics of binary Pt-Ru and ternary Pt-Ru-M fuel cell catalysts on the activity of ethanol electrooxidation in acid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Ermete

    2013-06-01

    In view of their possible use as anode materials in acid direct ethanol fuel cells, the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-M catalysts for ethanol oxidation has been investigated. This minireview examines the effects of the structural characteristics of Pt-Ru, such as the degree of alloying and Ru oxidation state, on the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation studied by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromi, Chikako; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Akira; Abe, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sputtered Pt and Ru form the Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles on the carbon support. → The deposited Pt-Ru alloy particles have uniform Pt:Ru atomic ratios. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of the Pt-Ru/C for methanol oxidation is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of 58:42 shifts to 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. → The polygonal barrel-sputtering method is useful to prepare the DMFC anode catalyst. - Abstract: The optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of a carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy (Pt-Ru/C) used in a practical direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode was investigated. The samples were prepared by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method. Based on the physical properties of the prepared Pt-Ru/C samples, the Pt-Ru alloy was found to be deposited on a carbon support. The microscopic characterization showed that the deposited alloy forms nanoparticles, of which the atomic ratios of Pt and Ru (Pt:Ru ratios) are uniform and are in accordance with the overall Pt:Ru ratios of the samples. The formation of the Pt-Ru alloy is also supported by the electrochemical characterization. Based on these results, methanol oxidation on the Pt-Ru/C samples was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results indicated that the methanol oxidation activities of the prepared samples depended on the Pt:Ru ratios, of which the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C and 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. This temperature dependence of the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is well explained by the relationship between the methanol oxidation reaction process and the temperature, which is reflected in the rate-determining steps considered from the activation energies. It should be noted that at 25-60 deg. C, the Pt-Ru/C with Pt:Ru = 50:50 at.% prepared by our sputtering method has the higher methanol oxidation activity than that of a commercially available sample with the identical overall Pt:Ru ratio. Consequently, the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

  4. CuAu–ZnO–graphene nanocomposite: A novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst with its enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hong; Ye, Xiaoliang; Duan, Kaiyue; Xue, Muyin; Du, Yongling; Ye, Weichun; Wang, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we have successfully synthesized a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite, and which behaved an enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • A bimetallic alloy-based catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr is synthesized. • CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity. • The detailed explanation of photocatalytic mechanism of CuAu–ZnO–Gr. - Abstract: The bimetallic alloy CuAu nanoparticles (NPs) can produce more photogenerated electrons when compared with single metal Au NPs. Moreover, graphene (Gr) sheets can help the charge separation and slow down the recombination of the electron hole pairs of ZnO. Hence, a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is synthesized. Due to the synergistic effect among CuAu NPs, ZnO nanopyramids, and Gr sheets, CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic colorants methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), indigotin (IN), sunset yellow (SY), and tartrazine (TT) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the apparent rate constants (k app ) of MO, MB, IN, SY, and TT degradation are estimated respectively. In addition, the as-prepared CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and EDX mapping. As a result of the facile synthesis route and the enhanced photocatalytic activity, this new material CuAu–ZnO–Gr can be a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes

  5. CuAu–ZnO–graphene nanocomposite: A novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst with its enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ye, Xiaoliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Duan, Kaiyue; Xue, Muyin; Du, Yongling; Ye, Weichun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-07-05

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we have successfully synthesized a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite, and which behaved an enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • A bimetallic alloy-based catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr is synthesized. • CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity. • The detailed explanation of photocatalytic mechanism of CuAu–ZnO–Gr. - Abstract: The bimetallic alloy CuAu nanoparticles (NPs) can produce more photogenerated electrons when compared with single metal Au NPs. Moreover, graphene (Gr) sheets can help the charge separation and slow down the recombination of the electron hole pairs of ZnO. Hence, a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is synthesized. Due to the synergistic effect among CuAu NPs, ZnO nanopyramids, and Gr sheets, CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic colorants methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), indigotin (IN), sunset yellow (SY), and tartrazine (TT) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the apparent rate constants (k{sub app}) of MO, MB, IN, SY, and TT degradation are estimated respectively. In addition, the as-prepared CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and EDX mapping. As a result of the facile synthesis route and the enhanced photocatalytic activity, this new material CuAu–ZnO–Gr can be a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on anodic activation of aluminium by trace element indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graver, Brit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Nisancioglu, Kemal, E-mail: kemal.nisancioglu@material.ntnu.n [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Indium segregation activates AlIn alloy surface anodically in chloride solution. {yields} Enrichment of In on Al surface can occur thermally by heat treatment at 300 {sup o}C. {yields} Increasing temperature homogenises indium in aluminium reducing anodic activation. {yields} Indium can activate AlIn surface by segregating through dealloying of aluminium. {yields} Anodic activation is caused by AlIn amalgam formation at aluminium surface. - Abstract: The presence of trace elements in Group IIIA-VA is known to activate aluminium anodically in chloride environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface segregation of trace element In by heat treatment and resulting surface activation. Model binary AlIn alloys, containing 20 and 1000 ppm by weight of In, were characterized after heat treatment at various temperatures by use of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electrochemical polarization. Heat treatment for 1 h at 300 {sup o}C gave significant segregation of discrete In particles (thermal segregation), which activated the surface. Indium in solid solution with aluminium, obtained by 1 h heat treatment at 600 {sup o}C, also activated by surface segregation of In on alloy containing 1000 ppm In, resulting from the selective dissolution of the aluminium component during anodic oxidation (anodic segregation). The effect of anodic segregation was reduced by decreasing indium concentration in solid solution; it had negligible effect at the 20 ppm level. The segregated particles were thought to form a liquid phase alloy with aluminium during anodic polarization, which in turn, together with the chloride in the solution destabilized the oxide.

  7. Platinum nanocube catalysts for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang-Beom; Song, You-Jung; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jy-Yeon; Park, Kyung-Won [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea)

    2008-07-15

    We prepared Pt nanocube catalyst with about 3.6 nm in size by a polyol process in the presence of PVP as a stabilizer and Fe ion as a kinetic controller. The crystal structure of Pt nanocube with {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces was confirmed by field-emission transmission electron microscopy. In a cyclic voltammogram, we found that the Pt nanocube catalyst showed relatively high ratio of the forward anodic peak current to the reverse anodic peak current resulting in less accumulation of residues on the catalyst. The Pt nanocube catalyst with the edge of stepped {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces was preferable to breakage of CH{sub 3}OH and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH compared to polycrystalline Pt nanocatalyst. In an electrochemical measurement for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation, the Pt nanocube catalyst showed an excellent catalytic activity, i.e., lower onset potential and higher current density, compared to the polycrystalline Pt nanocatalyst. (author)

  8. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of nano-sized Co-Sn alloy anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianchao; Zhao Hailei; Wang Jing; Wang Jie; Chen Jingbo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys were synthesized by hydrothermal route. → Li 2 O and CoSn can buffer the large volume change associated with lithiation of Sn. → A two-step reaction mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed. - Abstract: Nano-sized Co-Sn alloys with a certain amount of Sn oxides used as potential anode materials for lithium ion batteries were synthesized by hydrothermal route. The effects of hydrothermal conditions and post annealing on the phase compositions and the electrochemical properties of synthesized powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis and galvanostatic cycling tests. Prolonging the dwelling time at the same hydrothermal temperature can increase the content of Sn oxides, which will lead to a high initial irreversible capacity loss but a better cycling stability owing to the buffer effect of irreversible product Li 2 O. Heat-treatment can increase the crystallinity and cause the presence of a certain amount of inert CoSn component, which both have positive impact on the cycling stability of Co-Sn electrode. By comparison with the lithiation/delithiation processes of metal Sn, a two-step mechanism of CoSn 2 alloy during cycling was confirmed.

  10. Characteristics of Film Formed on Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in Water Containing lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Seong Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Ju Yup

    1999-01-01

    Anodic polarization behaviors of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 have been studied as a function of lead content in the solution of pH 4 and 10 at 90 .deg. C. As the amount of lead in the solution increased, critical current densities and passive current densities of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 increased, while the breakdown potential of the alloys decreased. The high critical current density in the high lead solution was thought to come from the combination of an enhanced dissolution of constituents on the surface of the alloys by the lead and an anodic dissolution of metallic lead deposited on the surface of the specimens. The morphology of lead precipitated on the specimen after the anodic scan changed with the pH of solution: small irregular particles were precipitated on the surface of the specimen in the solution of pH 4, while the high density of regular sized particles was formed on it in the solution of pH 10.Pb was observed to enhance Cr depletion from the outer surface of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 and also to increase the ratio of O 2- /OH - in the surface film formed in the high lead solution. The SCC resistance of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 may have decreased due to the poor quality of the passive film formed and the enhanced oxygen evolution in the solution containing lead

  11. Influence of silver on the anodic corrosion and gas evolution of Pb-Sb-As-Se alloys as positive grids in lead acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizpar, A.; Ghasemi, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of silver addition in the range 0.01-0.09 wt.% on the anodic corrosion and gas evolution of Pb-Sb-As-Se alloy in 1.28 sp.gr. H 2 SO 4 solution at 25 deg. C was studied using linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, weight loss measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The results drawn from different techniques are comparable. The effect of different concentration of silver on the corrosion behavior of Pb-Sb-As-Se was investigated. The experimental results show that the silver added to Pb-Sb-As-Se alloy inhibits the growth of anodic corrosion layer. A decrease in the oxygen evolution overpotential and an increase in the hydrogen evolution overpotential with the addition of Ag were also observed during the experiments. Cyclic voltammetric measurements provided information on the effect of Ag on the oxidation of PbSO 4 to PbO 2

  12. An investigation into the mechanical and tribological properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation and hard-anodized coatings on 6082 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malayoglu, Ugur; Tekin, Kadir C.; Malayoglu, Ufuk; Shrestha, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mechanical properties of PEO and anodised coatings were studied using ultra-micro hardness tester. → Elastic modulus and hardness of the PEO coating were found much higher than those of the anodised coating. → Improved sliding wear of PEO coating is due to presence of hard α and γ-Al 2 O 3 phases. - Abstract: A ceramic coating on AA6082 aluminum alloy prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has been studied and compared against a sulphuric acid hard-anodized coating on the same alloy. Surface morphology and microstructures of the coatings have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the phase composition of the coatings. The adhesion strength of the coatings has been evaluated using a scratch test method. The coating's mechanical properties such elastic modulus and hardness data have been generated using a dynamic ultra-microhardness tester. Sliding wear tests with different loading rates are performed on the coatings in order to assess their wear resistance. Test results show that the PEO treated samples exhibit significantly better mechanical properties compared to hard anodized samples. The elastic modulus and hardness of the PEO coating are 2-3 times greater than of the hard anodized coating and subsequently, an improved wear resistance of the PEO coating has been achieved. The mechanical properties of the coatings and their relations to their tribological performance are discussed.

  13. Group IVA Element (Si, Ge, Sn)-Based Alloying/Dealloying Anodes as Negative Electrodes for Full-Cell Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Liu, Zheng Jiao; Li, Xiuwan; Xie, Wenhe; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qiming; Fu, Yujun; He, Deyan

    2017-12-01

    To satisfy the increasing energy demands of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and miniaturized energy storage devices, improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are required to provide higher energy/power densities and longer cycle lives. Group IVA element (Si, Ge, Sn)-based alloying/dealloying anodes are promising candidates for use as electrodes in next-generation LIBs owing to their extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities, low working voltages, and natural abundances. However, due to the violent volume changes that occur during lithium-ion insertion/extraction and the formation of an unstable solid electrolyte interface, the use of Group IVA element-based anodes in commercial LIBs is still a great challenge. Evaluating the electrochemical performance of an anode in a full-cell configuration is a key step in investigating the possible application of the active material in LIBs. In this regard, the recent progress and important approaches to overcoming and alleviating the drawbacks of Group IVA element-based anode materials are reviewed, such as the severe volume variations during cycling and the relatively brittle electrode/electrolyte interface in full-cell LIBs. Finally, perspectives and future challenges in achieving the practical application of Group IVA element-based anodes in high-energy and high-power-density LIB systems are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pt-Ni/WC Alloy Nanorods Arrays as ORR Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Mahbuba; Yurukcu, Mesut; Yurtsever, Fatma; Ergul, Busra; Kariuki, Nancy; Myers, Deborah J.; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-08-24

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) among the other types of fuel cell technology are attractive power sources, especially for electric vehicle applications. While significant progress and plausible prospects of PEMFCs have been achieved, there are still some challenges related to the performance, durability, and cost that need to be overcome to make them economically viable for widespread commercialization. Our strategy is to develop thin films of high-active and stable catalyst coated on vertically aligned nanorod arrays of conductive and stable support. In this work, we fabricated tungsten carbide (WC) nanorods as support and coated them with a platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) alloy shell denoted as Pt-Ni/WC catalysts. The Pt- Ni/WC nanorods were deposited on glassy carbon disks as well as on silicon substrates for evaluation of their electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and physical properties. Cyclic voltammetry experiments using rotating disk electrode were performed in perchloric acid (0.1 M HClO4) electrolyte at room temperature to characterize the ORR activity and stability of Pt-Ni/WC nanorods catalysts. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the morphology and crystallographic properties, respectively.

  15. Engineering Platinum Alloy Electrocatalysts in Nanoscale for PEMFC Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ting [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    Fuel cells are expected to be a key next-generation energy source used for vehicles and homes, offering high energy conversion efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. However, due to large overpotentials on anode and cathode, the efficiency is still much lower than theoretically predicted. During the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate synergy effect of platinum alloyed with base metals. But, engineering the alloy particles in nanoscale has been a challenge. Most important challenges in developing nanostructured materials are the abilities to control size, monodispersity, microcomposition, and even morphology or self-assembly capability, so called Nanomaterials-by-Design, which requires interdisciplinary collaborations among computational modeling, chemical synthesis, nanoscale characterization as well as manufacturing processing. Electrocatalysts, particularly fuel cell catalysts, are dramatically different from heterogeneous catalysts because the surface area in micropores cannot be electrochemically controlled on the same time scale as more transport accessible surfaces. Therefore, electrocatalytic architectures need minimal microporous surface area while maximizing surfaces accessible through mesopores or macropores, and to "pin" the most active, highest performance physicochemical state of the materials even when exposed to thermodynamic forces, which would otherwise drive restructuring, crystallization, or densification of the nanoscale materials. In this presentation, results of engineering nanoscale platinum alloy particles down to 2 ~ 4 nm will be discussed. Based on nature of alloyed base metals, various synthesis technologies have been studied and developed to achieve capabilities of controlling particle size and particle microcomposition, namely, core-shell synthesis, microemulsion technique, thermal decomposition process, surface organometallic chemical method, etc. The results show that by careful engineering the

  16. Applications Ni59Nb40Pt(1-x) Xx (X= Sn,Sby and Ru) amorphous alloy as anodes for direct methanol (DMFC) fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Pierna, A

    2005-01-01

    The search of new anode materials of amorphous nature for methanol fuel cells is one of the aims of this work.The main problem that fuel cells present is related to the catalytic material and its distribution in a suitable matrix.Amorphous alloys are particularly attractive materials as catalyst supports because of their high conductivity, high corrosion resistance in sulphuric acid, as well as the possibility of a good distribution of the electrocatalytic particles, mainly platinum and platinum-tin, on a conducting matrix.The electrooxidation of methanol, in percloric acid medium, has been used as probe to evaluate the performance of metallic amorphous electrodes, with compositions Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 1 , Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 0 .6Sn0.4, Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 0 .6Sb 0 .4 and Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 0 .6Ru 0 .4.The electrocatalytic activity of the alloyed ribbons of compositions (x = 0.6, 1% at. in platinum) is improved considerably, so much for the change in their composition, as for the roughness degree that the catalytic surfaces present. The increase of the tolerance to adsorbed species, and better resistance to the poisoning of their catalytic centers, can be observed by means of voltammetric experiments at different activation times with HF 48%. The electrooxidation of methanol in the amorphous alloy of composition Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 1 , is influenced by the nature of the used electrolyte, presenting smaller values of current density in solutions 1M H 2 SO 4 than in 1M of HClO 4 .This behavior is not observed in the alloy Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 0 .6Sn 0 .4, Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 0 .6Sb 0 .4 and Ni 5 9Nb 4 0Pt 0 .6Ru 0 .4which does not present a poisoning of the catalytic centers depending on the used electrolyte.Adding tin to the alloys showed the existence of a synergetic effect in the methanol electrooxidation process, attaining to a descent of 20 mV vs Ag/AgCl in the onset potential, and about 200 mV in the maximun peak potential

  17. Effect of Sn4+ Additives on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Anodic Coating Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Alkaline Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, S. A.; Kuroda, K.; Saito, N.; Okido, M.

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal with high specific strength and good mechanical properties. However, poor corrosion resistance limits its widespread use in many applications. Magnesium is usually treated with Chromate conversion coatings. However, due to changing environmental regulations and pollution prevention requirements, a significant push exists to find new, alternative for poisonous Cr6+. Therefore, we aim to improve corrosion resistance of anodic coatings on AZ31 alloys using low cost non-chromate electrolyte. Anodizing was carried out in alkaline solutions with tin additives. The effect of tin additives on the coating film was characterized by SEM and XRD. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using anodic and cathodic polarizations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion resistance property was improved with tin additives and the best anti-corrosion property was obtained with addition of 0.03 M Na2SnO3.3H2O to anodizing solution.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Pt-Sn-Ni alloys to application as catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.L. da; Correa, P.S.; Oliveira, E.L. de; Takimi, A.S.; Malfatti, C.F.; Radtke, C.

    2010-01-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) have been the focus of recent research due its application in mobile energy sources. In order to obtain the maximum efficiency from these systems, it is necessary the total ethanol oxidation, which implies in C-C bond break. Different catalysts described in literature are employed with this intent. This work consists in studying PtSnNi catalysts supported on carbon Vulcan XC72R, to application in DEFCs. Thus, it was used the impregnation/reduction method, varying the atomic proportion among Pt, Sn and Ni. The alloys were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Cyclic Voltammetry and Transmission Microscopy. Preliminary results show that predominant structure on the catalysts is the face centered cubic platinum and the densities currents are dependent on the platinum amount. (author)

  19. Growing Platinum-Ruthenium-Tin ternary alloy nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for strong ligand effect toward enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing Qing; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Zhi Liang; Li, Chang Ming

    2017-11-15

    Uniform Pt 1 Ru 0.5 Sn 0.5 ternary alloy nanoparticles are in situ deposited on reduced graphene oxide (Pt 1 Ru 0.5 Sn 0.5 -RGO) through its functional groups and defects as nucleation sites to greatly electrocatalyze ethanol oxidation reaction for much higher mass current densities, larger apparent specific current densities and better stability than commercial Pt-C catalyst (Pt-C(commer)). Mechanistic studies indicate that the excellent electrocatalytic activity and anti-poisoning are resulted from a strong ligand effect of the ternary alloy components, in which the charge transfer is boosted while decreasing the density of states close to the Fermi level of Pt to reduce bond energy between Pt and CO-like adsorbates for greatly improved anti-poisoning ability. This work holds a great promise to fabricate a high performance anode catalyst with a low Pt loading for direct ethanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fabrication of CoPd alloy nanowire arrays on an anodic aluminum oxide/Ti/Si substrate and their enhanced magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cailing; Li Hua; Xue Tong; Li Hulin

    2006-01-01

    An anodic aluminum oxide/Ti/Si substrate was successfully synthesized by the anodization of an aluminum film on a Ti/Si substrate and then used as a template to grow 10 nm diameter CoPd alloy nanowires. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersed X-ray patterns indicated that Co 0.97 Pd 0.03 nanowire arrays with a preferential orientation of (0 0 2) were formed during electrodeposition. High coercivity (about 1700 Oe) and squareness (about 0.85) were obtained in the samples when the magnetic field was applied parallel to the axis of the nanowires; these values are much larger than those of pure Co nanowire arrays with the same diameters

  1. Enhancing hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode performance using Ag2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid-direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of a molten slurry of solid carbon black and (Li-K)2CO3 added to the anode chamber of a solid oxide fuel cell, was characterized using current-potential-power density curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Two...... types of experimental setups were employed in this study, an anode-supported full cell configuration (two electrodes, two atmospheres setup) and a 3-electrode electrolyte-supported half-cell setup (single atmosphere). Anode processes with and without catalysts were investigated as a function...... of temperature (700-800 °C) and anode sweep gas (N2, 4-100% CO2 in N2-CO2). It was shown that the addition of silver based catalysts (Ag, Ag2O, Ag2CO3) into the carbon-carbonate slurry enhanced the performance of the HDCFC....

  2. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  3. High-performance bimetallic alloy catalyst using Ni and N co-doped composite carbon for the oxygen electro-reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won Suk

    2018-03-15

    In this study, a novel synthesis method for the bimetallic alloy catalyst is reported, which is subsequently used as an oxygen reduction catalyst in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The support prepared from the Ni-chelate complex shows a mesoporous structure with a specific surface area of ca. 400 m 2  g -1 indicating the suitable support for PEMFC applications. Ethylenediamine is converted to the nitrogen and carbon layers to protect the Ni particles which will diffuse into the Pt lattice at 800 °C. The PtNi/NCC catalyst with PtNi cores and Pt-rich shells is successfully formed when acid-treated as evidenced by line scan profiles. The catalyst particles thus synthesized are well-dispersed on the N-doped carbon support, while the average particle size is ca. 3 nm. In the PEMFC test, the maximum power density of the PtNi/NCC catalyst shows approximately 25% higher than that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The mass activity of the PtNi/NCC catalyst showed approximately 3-fold higher than that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The mass activity strongly depends on the ratio of Pt to Ni since the strain effect can be strong for catalysts due to the mismatch of lattice parameters of the Ni and Pt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  5. A Platinum Monolayer Core-Shell Catalyst with a Ternary Alloy Nanoparticle Core and Enhanced Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiong Nan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize a platinum monolayer core-shell catalyst with a ternary alloy nanoparticle core of Pd, Ir, and Ni. A Pt monolayer is deposited on carbon-supported PdIrNi nanoparticles using an underpotential deposition method, in which a copper monolayer is applied to the ternary nanoparticles; this is followed by the galvanic displacement of Cu with Pt to generate a Pt monolayer on the surface of the core. The core-shell Pd1Ir1Ni2@Pt/C catalyst exhibits excellent oxygen reduction reaction activity, yielding a mass activity significantly higher than that of Pt monolayer catalysts containing PdIr or PdNi nanoparticles as cores and four times higher than that of a commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst. In 0.1 M HClO4, the half-wave potential reaches 0.91 V, about 30 mV higher than that of Pt/C. We verify the structure and composition of the carbon-supported PdIrNi nanoparticles using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and we perform a stability test that confirms the excellent stability of our core-shell catalyst. We suggest that the porous structure resulting from the dissolution of Ni in the alloy nanoparticles may be the main reason for the catalyst’s enhanced performance.

  6. Direct methanol fuel cells: Pt-Ni/C binary electrocatalysts; Celulas a combutivel de metanol direto: eletrocatalisadores binarios de Pt-Ni/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Jose Ricardo Cezar; Antolini, Ermete; Santos, Ana Maria dos; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: salgado@iqsc.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells use platinum alloys as more efficient catalysts than platinum. In the case of binary alloys, the second metal affects several properties of platinum, like the interatomic distance, the electronic density and the capacity of forming oxygenated species at lower potentials. In this work, Pt-Ni catalysts supported on high surface area carbon (Pt-Ni/C) were prepared and characterized, and tested as catalysts in the anode and the cathode in direct methanol fuel cells. In both cases the performance of the material was better than that of Pt/C, and comparing the two situations it was better when the material was used in the cathode. The improved performance in the cathode was attributed to the nickel that forms a true alloy with platinum, while the better performance in the anode was attributed to the presence of nickel oxides. (author)

  7. Application of EIS to In Situ Characterization of Hydrothermal Sealing of Anodized Aluminum Alloys: Comparison between Hexavalent Chromium-Based Sealing, Hot Water Sealing and Cerium-Based Sealing

    OpenAIRE

    Carangelo, Anna; Curioni, Michele; Acquesta, Annalisa; Monetta, Tullio; Bellucci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Chromic acid anodizing has been used for almost a century to enhance corrosion protection of aerospace alloys. For some applications,hydrothermal sealing in hexavalent chromium-containing solution is required to enhance further the corrosion resistance but, due toenvironmental concerns, the use of hexavalent chromium must be discontinued. Good progress has been made to replace chromatesduring anodizing but comparatively less effort has focused on the sealing process. In this work, for the fir...

  8. The forming of coke by catalytic cracking of black mineral oil by catalysts on the base of activated aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaeva, L.M.; Akhverdiev, R.B.; Aliev, Eh.T.; Gusejnova, A.D.; Gadzhi-Kasumov, V.S.; Akerson, V.I.; Sarmurzina, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with an investigation in coke formation under black mineral oil reactions on oxide catalysts which care based on activated aluminium alloys containing 2-20% of active components of In and Ga. The coke yield is of extreme nature and depends on the content of active components in the catalyst composition. The application of thermogravimetric method shows that the oxidation of coke depositions after black mineral oil cracking proceeds in the same temperature range while after the steam-water treatment of coked catalysts the oxidation of coke deposition proceeds at higher temperatures with different temperature maximums which points to the inhomogeneity of coke depositions. It is shown that the catalyst phase composition changes significantly during the reaction under the effect of reaction mixture. 4 refs., 3 figs

  9. Effect of the Pd/MWCNTs anode catalysts preparation methods on their morphology and activity in a direct formic acid fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesiak, B., E-mail: blesiak-orlowska@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, M.; Malolepszy, A. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Mierzwa, B.; Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Juchniewicz, K.; Borodzinski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162-53 Prague 6, Cukrovarnicka 10 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Catalysts properties studied by XRD, STEM, XPS methods. • Differences in Pd particle size, content of Pd, functional groups, PdC{sub x.}. • Catalytic activity studied in a Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell. • Highest activity–catalyst prepared using a strong reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}). - Abstract: Impact of Pd/MWCNTs catalysts preparation method on the catalysts morphology and activity in a formic acid electrooxidation reaction was investigated. Three reduction methods of Pd precursor involving reduction in a high pressure microwave reactor (Pd1), reduction with NaBH{sub 4} (Pd2) and microwave-assisted polyol method (Pd3) were used in this paper. Crystallites size and morphology were studied using the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas elemental composition, Pd chemical state and functional groups content by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared catalysts were tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) as an anode material. The catalytic activity was correlated with a mean fraction of the total Pd atoms exposed at the surface (FE). The value of FE was calculated from the crystallites size distribution determined by the STEM measurements. Non-linear dependence of a current density versus FE, approaching the maximum at FE≈0.25 suggests that the catalytic process proceeded at Pd nanocrystallites faces, with inactive edges and corners. Pd2 catalyst exhibited highest activity due to its smallest Pd crystallites (3.2 nm), however the absence of Pd crystallites aggregation and low content of carbon in PdC{sub x} phase, i.e. x = 4 at.% may also affect the observed.

  10. Effect of the Pd/MWCNTs anode catalysts preparation methods on their morphology and activity in a direct formic acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiak, B.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Mierzwa, B.; Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Juchniewicz, K.; Borodzinski, A.; Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalysts properties studied by XRD, STEM, XPS methods. • Differences in Pd particle size, content of Pd, functional groups, PdC x. . • Catalytic activity studied in a Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell. • Highest activity–catalyst prepared using a strong reducing agent (NaBH 4 ). - Abstract: Impact of Pd/MWCNTs catalysts preparation method on the catalysts morphology and activity in a formic acid electrooxidation reaction was investigated. Three reduction methods of Pd precursor involving reduction in a high pressure microwave reactor (Pd1), reduction with NaBH 4 (Pd2) and microwave-assisted polyol method (Pd3) were used in this paper. Crystallites size and morphology were studied using the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas elemental composition, Pd chemical state and functional groups content by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared catalysts were tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) as an anode material. The catalytic activity was correlated with a mean fraction of the total Pd atoms exposed at the surface (FE). The value of FE was calculated from the crystallites size distribution determined by the STEM measurements. Non-linear dependence of a current density versus FE, approaching the maximum at FE≈0.25 suggests that the catalytic process proceeded at Pd nanocrystallites faces, with inactive edges and corners. Pd2 catalyst exhibited highest activity due to its smallest Pd crystallites (3.2 nm), however the absence of Pd crystallites aggregation and low content of carbon in PdC x phase, i.e. x = 4 at.% may also affect the observed.

  11. Ternary Pt9RhFex Nanoscale Alloys as Highly Efficient Catalysts with Enhanced Activity and Excellent CO-Poisoning Tolerance for Ethanol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yin, Shibin; Wen, Ying; Tian, Zhiqun; Wang, Ningzhang; Key, Julian; Wang, Shuangbao; Shen, Pei Kang

    2017-03-22

    To address the problems of high cost and poor stability of anode catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), ternary nanoparticles Pt 9 RhFe x (x = 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) supported on carbon powders (XC-72R) have been synthesized via a facile method involving reduction by sodium borohydride followed by thermal annealing in N 2 at ambient pressure. The catalysts are physically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their catalytic performance for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is evaluated by cyclic and linear scan voltammetry, CO-stripping voltammograms, and chronopotentiometry. All the Pt 9 RhFe x /C catalysts of different atomic ratios produce high EOR catalytic activity. The catalyst of atomic ratio composition 9:1:3 (Pt/Rh/Fe) has the highest activity and excellent CO-poisoning tolerance. Moreover, the enhanced EOR catalytic activity on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C when compared to Pt 9 Rh/C, Pt 3 Fe/C, and Pt/C clearly demonstrates the presence of Fe improves catalytic performance. Notably, the onset potential for CO oxidation on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C (0.271 V) is ∼55, 75, and 191 mV more negative than on Pt 9 Rh/C (0.326 V), Pt 3 Fe/C (0.346 V), and Pt/C (0.462 V), respectively, which implies the presence of Fe atoms dramatically improves CO-poisoning tolerance. Meanwhile, compared to the commercial PtRu/C catalyst, the peak potential on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C for CO oxidation was just slightly changed after several thousand cycles, which shows high stability against the potential cycling. The possible mechanism by which Fe and Rh atoms facilitate the observed enhanced performance is also considered herein, and we conclude Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C offers a promising anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy for characterisation of catalysts for PEM fuel cells; Roentgenabsorptionsspektroskopie zur Charakterisierung von Katalysatoren fuer die PEM-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehl, G.

    2001-10-01

    The investigation of bimetallic nanoparticles is of great interest for the development of powerful anode catalysts in PEM fuel cells. The determination of their electronic and geometric structure is crucial for the optimization of the activity and selectivity in the fuel cell. Especially carbon supported PtRu particles have shown superior activity as anode catalysts due to their high CO tolerance. To state the reason on an atomic level, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with synchrotron radiation has been used to examine several Pt and PtRu nanoparticle systems. They were either prepared on the basis of preformed PtRu alloy colloids stabilized by different surfactants or by chemical reduction of precursors, Na{sub 6}Pt(SO{sub 3}){sub 4} and Na{sub 6}Ru(SO{sub 3}){sub 4}. Although a PtRu interaction was observed in all systems, a nonstatistical distribution of Pt and Ru atoms in the nanoparticles could be verified. In additional investigations the reaction mechanism during the synthesis of an organometallic stabilized Pt colloid was examined. In-situ measurements revealed the formation of an hitherto unknown Pt complex as intermediate state prior to the nucleation of the particles. (orig)

  13. Copper based anodes for bio-ethanol fueled low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondakindi, R.R.; Karan, K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Laboratory studies have been conducted to develop a low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fueled by bio-ethanol. SOFCs are considered to be a potential source for clean and efficient electricity. The use of bio-ethanol to power the SOFC contributes even further to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The main barrier towards the development of the proposed SOFC is the identification of a suitable anode catalyst that prevents coking during electro-oxidation of ethanol while yielding good electrical performance. Copper was selected as the catalyst for this study. Composite anodes consisting of copper catalysts and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) electrolytes were prepared using screen printing of GDC and copper oxide on dense GDC electrolytes and by wet impregnation of copper nitrate in porous GDC electrolytes followed by calcination and sintering. The electrical conductivity of the prepared anodes was characterized to determine the percolation threshold. Temperature-programmed reduction and the Brunner Emmett Teller (BET) methods were used to quantify the catalyst dispersion and surface area. Electrochemical performance of the single-cell SOFC with a hydrogen-air system was used to assess the catalytic activities. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was used to probe the electrode kinetics.

  14. Iron migration from the anode surface in alumina electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, Elena N.; Drozdova, Tatiana N.; Ponomareva, Svetlana V. [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Kirik, Sergei D., E-mail: kiriksd@yandex.ru [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion destruction of two-component iron-based alloys in high-temperature aluminum electrolysis in the cryolite alumina melt has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that at the first stage oxidative polarization of iron atoms on the anode surface into Fe{sup 2+} takes place. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+} interacts with cryolite melt producing FeF{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FeF{sub 2} gives oxides FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The participation of oxygen in the corrosion has not been observed. - Abstract: Corrosion destruction of two-component iron-based alloys used as an anode in high-temperature alumina electrolysis in the melt of NaF/KF/AlF{sub 3} electrolyte has been considered. Ni, Si, Cu, Cr, Mn, Al, Ti in the amount of up to 10% have been tested as the dopants to an anode alloys. The composition of the corrosion products has been studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. It has been established that the anode corrosion is induced by a surface electrochemical polarization and iron atom oxidation. Iron ions come into an exchange interaction with the fluoride components of the melted electrolyte, producing FeF{sub 2}. The last interacts with oxyfluoride species transforming into the oxide forms: FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Due to the low solubility, the iron oxides are accumulated in the near-electrode sheath. The only small part of iron from anode migrates to cathode that makes an production of high purity aluminum of a real task. The alloy dopants are also subjected to corrosion in accordance with electromotive series resulting corrosion tunnels on the anode surface. The oxides are final compounds which collect in the same area. The corrosion products form an anode shell which is electronic conductor at electrolysis temperature. The

  15. Effect of friction on anodic polarization properties of metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu

    2002-05-01

    The effect of friction on the anodic polarization properties of metallic biomaterials in a physiological saline solution was investigated. The current density during friction becomes higher than during the static condition. The fluctuation range of the current density caused by the destruction and formation of passive film was observed. For SUS316L stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy, the fluctuation range was observed in the passivity zone. Otherwise, for Ti alloys, the fluctuation range was observed in both the activity and passivity zones. The decrease of the corrosion potential for Ti alloys due to friction was much larger than that of SUS316L stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy. From this result, it was considered that in a the frictional environment, the stressing zone turned anodic and its periphery cathodic, and corrosion tended to progress more than in the static environment. The effect of wear on the anodic polarization curves also changed depending on the frictional load, potential zone and the pH of the solution. A rapid increase in current density due to corrosion starting from the frictional area was found in the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al alloys containing Al. However, for the new Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy, this rapid increase was not seen in the high-potential region. The effect of the lateral reciprocal speed was also negligible for the new Ti alloy. It was found that the new Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy exhibited excellent corrosion resistance under friction.

  16. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  17. Pore development in anodic alumina in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Habakaki, H.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic films on an Al-3.5 at.%W alloy is compared in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes in order to investigate pore development processes. The findings disclose that for anodizing in sulphuric acid, the pores develop mainly due to the influences of field-induced plasticity of the film and growth stresses; in borax, field-assisted dissolution dominates. The films formed in sulphuric acid are consequently much thicker than the layer of oxidized alloy and tungsten species are retained in the film. In contrast, with borax, the films and oxidized alloy layers are of similar thickness and tungsten species are lost to the electrolyte. Efficiencies of film growth are also significantly different, about 65% in sulphuric acid and about 52% in borax. The retention of tungsten species during anodizing in sulphuric acid is due to the localization of tungsten in the inner regions of the barrier layer and cell walls, with a layer of anodic alumina separating the tungsten-containing regions from the electrolyte. For borax, the tungsten is distributed more uniformly through the film material, enabling loss of tungsten species to the electrolyte from the pore base

  18. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  19. Direct ethanol fuel cells with catalysed metal mesh anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, Raghuram; Scott, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Platinum based binary and ternary catalysts prepared by thermal decomposition on titanium mesh were characterised and compared in terms of the electrochemical activity for ethanol oxidation. An enhancement in the catalytic activity was observed for the binary catalyst containing tin and ruthenium in their compositions with platinum. The catalysts were tested in single direct ethanol fuel cells and the result obtained with PtRu and PtSn showed that the mesh based electrodes show competitive performance in comparison to the conventional carbon based anodes

  20. New electrocatalysts for hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattabriga, R. A.; Giner, J.; Parry, J.; Swette, L. L.

    1970-01-01

    Platinum-silver, palladium-gold, and platinum-gold alloys serve as oxygen reduction catalysts in high-current-density cells. Catalysts were tested on polytetrafluoroethylene-bonded cathodes and a hydrogen anode at an operating cell temperature of 80 degrees C.

  1. Porous carbon-free SnSb anodes for high-performance Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Ha, Choong-Wan; Choi, Hae-Young; Seong, Jae-Wook; Park, Cheol-Min; Lee, Sang-Min

    2018-05-01

    A simple melt-spinning/chemical-etching process is developed to create porous carbon-free SnSb anodes. Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) incorporating these anodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performances by accomodating large volume changes during repeated cycling. The porous carbon-free SnSb anode produced by the melt-spinning/chemical-etching process shows a high reversible capacity of 481 mAh g-1, high ICE of 80%, stable cyclability with a high capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles, and a fast rate capability of 327 mAh g-1 at 4C-rate. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that the synthesized porous carbon-free SnSb anodes involve the highly reversible reaction with sodium through the conversion and recombination reactions during sodiation/desodiation process. The novel and simple melt-spinning/chemical-etching synthetic process represents a technological breakthrough in the commercialization of Na alloy-able anodes for SIBs.

  2. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp produced by powder metallurgy (PM were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA. In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050 anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film.

  3. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sonia C.; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A.; Rocha, Luis A.; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film. PMID:28788295

  4. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiC np ) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiC np on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiC np . The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiC np volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiC np . The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiC np composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiC np in the anodic film.

  5. Discovery of fuel cell anode electrocatalysts and dehydrogenation catalysts using combinatorial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benny Chun Wai

    A gas diffusion optical screening method was developed for the discovery of catalysts for the electro-oxidation of reformate gas (H2 with 100 ppm CO). The screening cell was designed to accommodate a gas diffusion layer, 715 member catalyst array, and an electrolyte container. Since protons are generated during H2 oxidation, a pH sensitive fluorphore was used to identify active compositions. The cell showed no detectable iR drop across the array and ranked activity of two commercial PtRu and one Pt catalysts. Over 95% of a given catalyst fluoresced at the initial onset potential and a 5 mV difference in onset potential of two different catalysts was statistically different. A gas diffusion half cell was designed similar to the optical screening cell to obtain current-potential curves of bulk catalysts. The screening results correlated with half cell and fuel cell data, internally validating the method. The combinatorial method was then applied to search for catalysts in the PtRuMoIrRh composition space. The catalysts on the array were prepared by hydrogen reduction of the metals salts on carbon. The most active catalysts were from the Pt enriched regions of the PtRuMoRh quaternary. Bulk catalysts were prepared from the active regions and tested in the gas diffusion half cell. The most active catalysts in the optical screening were also the most active catalysts in the half cell. When any homemade catalysts were compared to commercial PtRu, however, the performance was worse. A high surface area, high catalyst activity synthetic method is the most important factor to reliably screen catalysts for "real world" fuel cell application. High surface area catalysts were tested for direct methanol oxidation activity. The optical screening method was compared with disk electrode, high throughput fuel cell testing, and fuel cell testing. Six catalysts examined included two commercial PtRu catalysts, a Pt catalyst, and three homemade PtRu catalysts of varying activity

  6. Pt/Cu single-atom alloys as coke-resistant catalysts for efficient C-H activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Darby, Matthew T.; Liu, Jilei; Wimble, Joshua M.; Lucci, Felicia R.; Lee, Sungsik; Michaelides, Angelos; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Stamatakis, Michail; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2018-03-01

    The recent availability of shale gas has led to a renewed interest in C-H bond activation as the first step towards the synthesis of fuels and fine chemicals. Heterogeneous catalysts based on Ni and Pt can perform this chemistry, but deactivate easily due to coke formation. Cu-based catalysts are not practical due to high C-H activation barriers, but their weaker binding to adsorbates offers resilience to coking. Using Pt/Cu single-atom alloys (SAAs), we examine C-H activation in a number of systems including methyl groups, methane and butane using a combination of simulations, surface science and catalysis studies. We find that Pt/Cu SAAs activate C-H bonds more efficiently than Cu, are stable for days under realistic operating conditions, and avoid the problem of coking typically encountered with Pt. Pt/Cu SAAs therefore offer a new approach to coke-resistant C-H activation chemistry, with the added economic benefit that the precious metal is diluted at the atomic limit.

  7. Pt/Cu single-atom alloys as coke-resistant catalysts for efficient C–H activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Darby, Matthew T.; Liu, Jilei; Wimble, Joshua M.; Lucci, Felicia R.; Lee, Sungsik; Michaelides, Angelos; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Stamatakis, Michail; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2018-01-08

    The recent availability of shale gas has led to a renewed interest in C-H bond activation as the first step towards synthesis of fuels and fine chemicals. Heterogeneous catalysts based on Ni and Pt can perform this chemistry, but deactivate easily due to coke formation. Cu- based catalysts are not practical for this chemistry due to high C-H activation barriers, but their weaker binding to adsorbates offers resilience to coking. Utilizing Pt/Cu single atom alloys (SAAs) we examine C-H activation in a number of systems including methyl groups, methane, and butane using a combination of simulations, surface science, and catalysis studies. We find that Pt/Cu SAAs activate C-H bonds more efficiently than Cu, are stable for days under realistic operating conditions, and avoid the problem of coking typically encountered with Pt. Pt/Cu SAAs therefore offer a new approach to coke resistant C-H activation chemistry with the added economic benefit that the precious metal is diluted at the atomic limit.

  8. Low platinum catalyst and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Chong, Lina

    2017-11-21

    A low platinum catalyst and method for making same. The catalyst comprises platinum-transition metal bimetallic alloy microcrystallites over a transition metal-nitrogen-carbon composite. A method of making a catalyst comprises preparation of transition metal organic frameworks, infusion of platinum, thermal treatment, and reduction to form the microcrystallites and composite.

  9. Pengaruh Rapat Arus Anodizing terhadap Nilai Kekerasan pada Plat Aluminium Paduan Aa Seri 2024-t3

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum alloy AA 2024-T3 is widely applied in the aircraft industry because it has good mechanical properties such as; light weight, good conductivity and the corrosion resistance. However Aluminium 2024-T3 susceptible to wearing. One method to improve the wear resistance o f AA 2024-T3 is the anodizing process. The aims of this research to study the effect of current density and anodizing time against the hardness of aluminum alloy AA 2024-T3. The process of anodizing was carried out using ...

  10. Small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene as highly efficient anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruihong; Xie, Ying; Shi, Keying; Wang, Jianqiang; Tian, Chungui; Shen, Peikang; Fu, Honggang

    2012-06-11

    The synergistic effect between Pt and WC is beneficial for methanol electro-oxidation, and makes Pt-WC catalyst a promising anode candidate for the direct methanol fuel cell. This paper reports on the design and synthesis of small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene that bring the synergistic effect into full play. Firstly, DFT calculations show the existence of a strong covalent interaction between WC and graphene, which suggests great potential for anchoring WC on graphene with formation of small-sized, well-dispersed WC particles. The calculations also reveal that, when Pt attaches to the pre-existing WC/graphene hybrid, Pt particles preferentially grow on WC rather than graphene. Our experiments confirmed that highly disperse WC nanoparticles (ca. 5 nm) can indeed be anchored on graphene. Also, Pt particles 2-3 nm in size are well dispersed on WC/graphene hybrid and preferentially grow on WC grains, forming contacting Pt-WC nanostructures. These results are consistent with the theoretical findings. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy further confirms the intimate contact between Pt and WC, and demonstrates that the presence of WC can facilitate the crystallinity of Pt particles. This new Pt-WC/graphene catalyst exhibits a high catalytic efficiency toward methanol oxidation, with a mass activity 1.98 and 4.52 times those of commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  12. Pt-Ni and Pt-Co Catalyst Synthesis Route for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Kisor, Adam; Narayan, Sri R.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) at the cathode are the rate-limiting step in fuel cell performance. The ORR is 100 times slower than the corresponding hydrogen oxidation at the anode. Speeding up the reaction at the cathode will improve fuel cell efficiency. The cathode material is generally Pt powder painted onto a substrate (e.g., graphite paper). Recent efforts in the fuel cell area have focused on replacing Pt with Pt-X alloys (where X = Co, Ni, Zr, etc.) in order to (a) reduce cost, and (b) increase ORR rates. One of these strategies is to increase ORR rates by reducing the powder size, which would result in an increase in the surface area, thereby facilitating faster reaction rates. In this work, a process has been developed that creates Pt-Ni or Pt-Co alloys that are finely divided (on the nano scale) and provide equivalent performance at lower Pt loadings. Lower Pt loadings will translate to lower cost. Precursor salts of the metals are dissolved in water and mixed. Next, the salt mixtures are dried on a hot plate. Finally, the dried salt mixture is heattreated in a furnace under flowing reducing gas. The catalyst powder is then used to fabricate a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for electrochemical performance testing. The Pt- Co catalyst-based MEA showed comparable performance to an MEA fabri cated using a standard Pt black fuel cell catalyst. The main objective of this program has been to increase the overall efficiencies of fuel cell systems to support power for manned lunar bases. This work may also have an impact on terrestrial programs, possibly to support the effort to develop a carbon-free energy source. This catalyst can be used to fabricate high-efficiency fuel cell units that can be used in space as regenerative fuel cell systems, and terrestrially as primary fuel cells. Terrestrially, this technology will become increasingly important when transition to a hydrogen economy occurs.

  13. Enhancing substrate utilization and power production of a microbial fuel cell with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Gábor Márk; Lóránt, Bálint; Lóka, Máté; Nagy, Balázs; László, Krisztina

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic efficiency of a nitrogen-doped, mesoporous carbon aerogel cathode catalyst was investigated in a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) applying graphite felt as base material for cathode and anode, utilizing peptone as carbon source. This mesoporous carbon aerogel containing catalyst layer on the cathode increased the maximum power density normalized to the anode volume to 2.7 times higher compared to the maximum power density obtained applying graphite felt cathode without the catalyst layer. At high (2 and 3) cathode/anode volume ratios, maximum power density exceeded 40 W m -3 . At the same time, current density and specific substrate utilization rate increased by 58% resulting in 31.9 A m -3 and 18.8 g COD m -3  h -1 , respectively (normalized to anode volume). Besides the increase of the power and the rate of biodegradation, the investigated catalyst decreased the internal resistance from the range of 450-600 to 350-370 Ω. Although Pt/C catalyst proved to be more efficient, a considerable decrease in the material costs might be achieved by substituting it with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel in MFCs. Such cathode still displays enhanced catalytic effect.

  14. Anodic aluminium oxide membranes used for the growth of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vicente; Morant, Carmen; Márquez, Francisco; Zamora, Félix; Elizalde, Eduardo

    2009-11-01

    The suitability of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes as template supported on Si substrates for obtaining organized iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth has been investigated. The iron catalyst was confined in the holes of the AAO membrane. CVD synthesis with ethylene as carbon source led to a variety of carbon structures (nanotubes, helices, bamboo-like, etc). In absence of AAO membrane the catalyst was homogeneously distributed on the Si surface producing a high density of micron-length CNTs.

  15. XPS/STM study of model bimetallic Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V., E-mail: avb@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Prosvirin, Igor P., E-mail: prosvirin@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I., E-mail: vib@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The model Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts preparation has been studied by XPS and STM. • Model “core–shell” type Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts with different Pd/Au ratios were prepared. • Heating of the “core–shell” Pd–Au/HOPG samples up to 400 °C leads to alloy formation. • Contribution of parameters controlling the properties of Pd–Au alloyed particles has been discussed. - Abstract: The preparation of model bimetallic Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts has been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Initially, model “core–shell” type Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts with similar particle size distribution (5–8 nm), but with different densities of particle locations on the HOPG surface and Pd/Au atomic ratios are prepared. Further, their thermal stability is studied within a temperature range of 50–500 °C at UHV conditions. It has been shown that annealing the model catalysts at a temperature range of 300–400 °C leads to formation of Pd–Au alloyed particles. Enhancement of heating temperature up to 500 °C results in sintering of bimetallic nanoparticles. Contribution of different parameters controlling the properties of Pd–Au alloyed particles has been discussed.

  16. High-temperature electrochemical characterization of Ru core Pt shell fuel cell catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokach, D.; Fuente, J.L.G. de la; Tsypkin, M.; Ochal, P.; Tunold, R.; Sunde, S.; Seland, F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Sem Saelands veg 12, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Endsjoe, I.C. [Washington Mills AS, NO-7300 Orkanger (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    The electrooxidation of methanol was studied at elevated temperature and pressure by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential experiments at real fuel cell electrocatalysts. Ruthenium core and platinum shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a sequential polyol route, and characterized electrochemically by CO stripping at room temperature to quickly confirm the structure of the synthesized core-shell structure as compared to pure commercial Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C alloy catalysts. A significant promotional effect of Pt decorated Ru cores in the methanol oxidation was found at elevated temperatures and rather high-electrode potentials. A negative potential shift of the methanol oxidation peak is observed for the Ru rate at Pt/C core-shell catalyst at moderate temperatures, while a significant shift to positive potentials of the methanol oxidation peak occurs for Pt/C catalysts. The onset potential for methanol oxidation is lowered some 200 mV from room temperature and up to 120 C for all electrocatalysts, indicating that it is the thermal activity of water adsorption that dictates the onset potential. Direct methanol fuel cell experiments showed only small performance differences between Ru rate at Pt/C and Pt/C anode electrocatalysts, suggesting the necessity of render possible the formation of surface oxygen species at lower electrode potentials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Copper-Silver Alloy Depositions Using Thermionic Vacuum ARC (TVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akan, T.

    2004-01-01

    TVA is a plasma source generating pure metal vapor plasma and consists of a heated cathode emitting thermo electrons and an anode containing material to be evaporated. We used Cu and Ag pieces as anode materials and produced their alloys by electron bombarding. Cu-Ag alloys in various mass ratios were prepared by using the TVA and the TVA discharges were generated in the vapors of these alloys. The volt-ampere characteristics of the TVA discharges generated in the vapors of these alloys were investigated with respect to the ratio of Ag in the Cu-Ag alloy. Cu-Ag alloy thin films with various mass ratios were deposited onto the glass substrates by using their TVA discharges. The ratios of Cu and Ag in the thin Cu-Ag alloy films were found using scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive xray (SEM-EDX) microanalyses

  18. Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.

  19. Iron alloy Fischer-tropsch catalysts--1. Oxidation-reduction studies of the Fe-Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unmuth, E.E.; Schwartz, L.H.; Butt, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Catalysts containing 5% iron, nickel, or 4:1 iron-nickel on silica were hydrogen-reduced at 425/sup 0/C for 12 or 24 hr, reoxidized in air for 2 or 4 hr, reduced again in hydrogen for 12 hr, and studied at each treatment step by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and temperature-programed desorption. The nickel was reduced directly to the metal, redispersed during the oxidation, and gave 20% smaller particles in the second reduction than in the first reduction. The ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ reduced via an Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ intermediate and yielded approx. 70% metallic iron and the second reduction produced about the same particle size as the first reduction. The alloy catalyst reduced into a mixture of two phases, a face-centered cubic phase containing approx. 37.5% Ni, i.e., the bulk equilibrium value, and a body-centered cubic phase, and the particle sizes obtained in the first and second reductions were similar. The activation energies for the reduction were determined.

  20. Development of Fe-Ni/YSZ-GDC electro-catalysts for application as SOFC anodes. XRD and TPR characterization, and evaluation in ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Electro-catalysts based on Fe-Ni alloys were prepared using physical mixture and modified Pechini methods; they were supported on a composite of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia Doped Ceria (GDC). The composites had compositions of 35% metal load and 65% support (70% wt. YSZ and 30% wt. GDC mixture) (cermets). The samples were characterized by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C for six hours and in the temperature range 300 - 900 C. The XRD results showed that the bimetallic sample calcined at 800 C formed a mixed oxide (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in spinel structure; after reducing the sample in hydrogen, Ni-Fe alloys were formed. The presence of Ni decreased the final reduction temperature of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. The addition of Fe to Ni anchored to YSZ-GDC increased the hydrogen production and inhibits the carbon deposition. The bimetallic 30Fe5Ni samples reached an ethanol conversion of about 95%, and a hydrogen yield up to 48% at 750 C. In general, the ethanol conversion and hydrogen production were independent of the metal content in the electro-catalyst. However, the substitution of Ni for Fe significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the electro-catalyst: 74, 31 and 9 wt. % in the 35Ni, 20Fe15Ni, and 30Fe5Ni samples, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Electronic states of carbon alloy catalysts and nitrogen substituent effects on catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomoyuki; Ushiyama, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, Carbon Alloy Catalysts (CACs) are attracting attention as a candidate for non-platinum-based cathode catalysts in fuel cells. Oxygen reduction reactions at the cathode are divided into two elementary processes, electron transfer and oxygen adsorption. The electron transfer reaction is the rate-determining, and by comparison of energy levels, catalytic activity can be evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, to begin with, adsorption mechanism is obscure. The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of nitrogen substitution and oxygen adsorption mechanism, by first-principle electronic structure calculations for nitrogen substituted models. To reproduce the elementary processes of oxygen adsorption, we assumed that the initial structures are formed based on the Pauling model, a CACs model and nitrogen substituted CACs models in which various points are replaced with nitrogen. When we try to focus only on the DOS peaks of oxygen, in some substituted model that has high adsorption activity, a characteristic partial occupancy state was found. We conclude that this state will affect the adsorption activity, and discuss on why partially occupied states appear with simplification by using an orbital correlation diagram.

  2. New Construction and Catalyst Support Materials for Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    4 reports results of testing dierent types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials for HTPEMEC. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions of high temperature PEM...... steam electrolyzer. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to evaluate the stability of the mentioned materials. It was found that stainless steels were the least resistant to corrosion under strong anodic...... stainless steel showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media, while passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 °C. Today, there is a high interest in the eld towards investigation of new catalyst materials...

  3. Structure-activity relationship of surfactant for preparing DMFC anodic catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yi; Xue Xinzhong; Xu Weilin; Liu Changpeng; Xing Wei; Zhou Xiaochun; Tian Tian; Lu Tianhong

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of surfactants as stabilizer were applied to the preparation of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The catalysts have been characterized by examining their catalytic activities, morphologies and particle sizes by means of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the surfactants with different structures have a significantly influence on the catalyst shape and activity. The catalysts prepared with non-ionic surfactants as the stabilizer show higher activity for direct oxidation of methanol. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis has been explored and the effect of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB value) has also been discussed

  4. Etching Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang

    2014-11-01

    The etching treatment is an important process step in influencing the surface quality of anodized aluminum alloy extrusions. The aim of etching is to produce a homogeneously matte surface. However, in the etching process, further surface imperfections can be generated on the extrusion surface due to uneven materials loss from different microstructural components. These surface imperfections formed prior to anodizing can significantly influence the surface quality of the final anodized extrusion products. In this article, various factors that influence the materials loss during alkaline etching of aluminum alloy extrusions are investigated. The influencing variables considered include etching process parameters, Fe-rich particles, Mg-Si precipitates, and extrusion profiles. This study provides a basis for improving the surface quality in industrial extrusion products by optimizing various process parameters.

  5. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS. - Highlights: • Micro-textured features formed after the anodization of magnesium alloys. • Contact angle increased and surface free energy decreased by anodization. • Corrosion rate increased for anodized surfaces compared to untreated samples. • Cell viability was greater than 75% implying the cytocompatibility of Mg alloys

  6. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haiderw@utpa.edu

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS. - Highlights: • Micro-textured features formed after the anodization of magnesium alloys. • Contact angle increased and surface free energy decreased by anodization. • Corrosion rate increased for anodized surfaces compared to untreated samples. • Cell viability was greater than 75% implying the cytocompatibility of Mg alloys.

  7. Fuel cell testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared and pretreated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, Wojciech; Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta; Czerwiński, Andrzej; Piela, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared multiwall carbon nanotube (MCNT) supports was performed to elucidate the influence of the different supports on the operating characteristics of the catalysts under real direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode and H 2 -PEMFC anode conditions. The MCNTs were either thin, entangled or thick, disentangled. Pretreatment of the MCNTs was also done and it was either high-temperature KOH etching or annealing (graphitization). The performance of the catalysts was compared against the performance of a commercial Pt–Ru catalyst supported on a high-surface-area carbon black. Among the different MCNT supports, the graphitized, entangled support offered the best performance in all tests, which was equal to the performance of the commercial catalyst, despite the MCNT catalyst layer was ca. 2.2 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer. Even for an MCNT catalyst layer, which was almost 7 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer, the transport limitations were not prohibitive. This confirmed the expected potential of nanotube supports for providing superior reactant transport properties of the PEMFC catalyst layers

  8. Effects of anodic passivation on the constitution, stability and resistance to corrosion of passive film formed on an Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.S.; Zhu, X.M.; Liu, M.; Che, R.X.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of anodic aging time and potential on the corrosion resistance, stability and constitution of the passive film formed on an Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy in 50% HNO 3 solution were studied by using combined electrochemical measurements and Auger electron spectroscopic (AES)/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. In the anodic passive region, prolonged anodic aging time or increased passivating potential can induce better protective and stable properties of the passive film and better resistance to corrosion. With increasing aging time from 15 min to 5 h, the time required for the potential decay from the passive to active state increases from about 300 up to above 12,000 s, and the corrosion resistance in 1 mol l -1 Na 2 SO 4 solution of Fe-24Mn-4Al-5Cr alloy, characterized by polarization curves, is superior to that of Fe-13% Cr-0.1% C stainless steel. AES and XPS analyses of the aging passive film show that these improvements of properties are related to modifications of the passive layer with time. The increase of resistance to corrosion is attributed to Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 enrichment and oxides of Fe and Mn depletion in the passive film and a thickening of the effective barrier layer of oxides

  9. Research progress of aluminium alloy endplates for PEMFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yu.; Hou, Junbo [Fuel Cell system and Engineering Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hou, Ming; Yan, Xiqiang; Luo, Xiaokuan; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian [Fuel Cell system and Engineering Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2007-04-15

    The endplate is a crucial component in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. It can provide the necessary rigidity and strength for the stack. An aluminium alloy is one of the ideal materials for PEMFC endplates because of its low density and high rigidity. But it does not meet the requirements of corrosion resistance and electrical insulation in PEMFC environments. In this work, methods of sealing treatments and the conditions of aluminium alloy anodization were investigated. Corrosion resistances of the samples prepared by different technologies were evaluated in simulated PEMFC environments. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of the samples sealed by epoxy resin was greatly improved compared with those sealed in boiling water, and the samples anodized at a constant current density performed better than those anodized at a constant voltage. By insulation measurements, all of the samples showed good electrical insulation. The aluminium alloy endplate anodized at a constant current density and sealed with thermosetting bisphenol-A epoxy resin exhibited promising potential for practical applications by assembling it in a PEMFC stack and applying a life test. (author)

  10. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Gunceler, Deniz; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Archer, Lynden A.

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes.

  11. Electroless Formation of Hybrid Lithium Anodes for Fast Interfacial Ion Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-08-17

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes.

  12. In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, F.; Evertsson, J.; Messing, M. E.; Mikkelsen, A.; Lundgren, E.; Zhang, F.; Pan, J.; Carlà, F.; Nilsson, J.-O.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performances of new antimony-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailly, A.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    2002-01-01

    Graphite intercalation intercalated with metal alloys able to alloy reversibly lithium constitute a large set of new anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries of significantly improved reversible capacities. Especially, graphite intercalated with cesium-antimony alloys can be used as materials for anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical insertion of lithium in such chemically modified precursors shows that lithium both intercalates in the empty van der Waals spaces of graphite and alloys reversibly with antimony. The total electrochemical reversible capacities, measured between 0 and 2 V vs Li + /Li, close to 700 mAh g -1 have been currently obtained

  14. Highly cost-effective and sulfur/coking resistant VOx-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles as an efficient anode catalyst for direct conversion of dry sour methane in solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.; Yan, N.; Vincent, A.; Singh, A.; Hill, J.M.; Chuang, K. T.; Luo, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we show that grafted metal oxide can be a highly cost-effective and active anode for solid oxide fuel cells for sour methane conversion. The developed electro-catalyst was composed of vanadium oxide grafted TiO2 nanoparticles (VOx/TiO2) infiltrated into a porous La0.4Sr0.5Ba0.1TiO3+δ

  15. A Dealloying Synthetic Strategy for Nanoporous Bismuth-Antimony Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Niu, Jiazheng; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Zhangquan; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2018-04-24

    Metal-based anodes have recently aroused much attention in sodium ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their high theoretical capacities and low sodiation potentials. However, their progresses are prevented by the inferior cycling performance caused by severe volumetric change and pulverization during the (de)sodiation process. To address this issue, herein an alloying strategy was proposed and nanoporous bismuth (Bi)-antimony (Sb) alloys were fabricated by dealloying of ternary Mg-based precursors. As an anode for SIBs, the nanoporous Bi 2 Sb 6 alloy exhibits an ultralong cycling performance (10 000 cycles) at 1 A/g corresponding to a capacity decay of merely 0.0072% per cycle, due to the porous structure, alloying effect and proper Bi/Sb atomic ratio. More importantly, a (de)sodiation mechanism ((Bi,Sb) ↔ Na(Bi,Sb) ↔ Na 3 (Bi,Sb)) is identified for the discharge/charge processes of Bi-Sb alloys by using operando X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations.

  16. Effect of nickel content on the anodic dissolution and passivation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of systematic increase of Ni on the anodic dissolution and passivation of Zn–Ni alloys in various concentrations of KOH solution (0.1–1 M) was investigated. The anodic dissolution and passivation behaviour for each pure Zn and Ni in the same studied solutions was also investigated, and the obtained data were ...

  17. Sample preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy anodized Al-Li-SiC metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Thomson, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Along with improved mechanical properties, metal matrix composites (MMC) have a disadvantage of enhanced corrosion susceptibility in aggressive environments. Recent studies on corrosion behaviour of an Al-alloy 8090/SiC MMC, revealed considerably high corrosion rates of the MMC in near neutral solutions containing chloride ions. Anodizing is one of the potential surface treatment for the MMC to provide protective coating against corrosion. The surface and cross section of the anodized MMC can easily be observed using scanning electron microscope. The anodizing behaviour of the MMC can be understood further if the anodized cross section in examined under transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, it is relatively difficult to prepare small (3 mm diameter) electron transparent specimens of the MMC supporting an anodic film. In the present study a technique has been developed for preparing thin electron transparent specimens of the anodized MMC. This technique employed conventional ion beam thinning process but the preparation of small discs was a problem. A MMMC consisting of Al-alloy 8090 with 20 % (by weight) SiC particulate with an average size of 5 Mu m, was anodized and observed in TEM after preparing the samples using the above mentioned techniques. (author)

  18. Methanol Electro-Oxidation on Pt-Ru Alloy Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangchuan Xing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated in recent years as a catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Improved catalyst activities were observed and attributed to metal-support interactions. We report a study on the kinetics of methanol electro-oxidation on CNT supported Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles. Alloy catalysts with different compositions, Pt53Ru47/CNT, Pt69Ru31/CNT and Pt77Ru23/CNT, were prepared and investigated in detail. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures, electrode potentials, and methanol concentrations. It was found that the reaction order of methanol electro-oxidation on the PtRu/CNT catalysts was consistent with what has been reported for PtRu alloys with a value of 0.5 in methanol concentrations. However, the electro-oxidation reaction on the PtRu/CNT catalysts displayed much lower activation energies than that on the Pt-Ru alloy catalysts unsupported or supported on carbon black (PtRu/CB. This study provides an overall kinetic evaluation of the PtRu/CNT catalysts and further demonstrates the beneficial role of CNTs.

  19. Method for hydrogen production and metal winning, and a catalyst/cocatalyst composition useful therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1987-10-13

    A catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition of matter is useful in electrolytically producing hydrogen or electrowinning metals. Use of the catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition causes the anode potential and the energy required for the reaction to decrease. An electrolyte, including the catalyst/cocatalyst composition, and a reaction medium composition further including organic material are also described.

  20. Porous-Nickel-Scaffolded Tin-Antimony Anodes with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties for Li/Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiachen; Pu, Jun; Liu, Ziqiang; Wang, Jian; Wu, Wenlu; Zhang, Huigang; Ma, Haixia

    2017-08-02

    The energy and power densities of rechargeable batteries urgently need to be increased to meet the ever-increasing demands of consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Alloy anodes are among the most promising candidates for next-generation high-capacity battery materials. However, the high capacities of alloy anodes usually suffer from some serious difficulties related to the volume changes of active materials. Porous supports and nanostructured alloy materials have been explored to address these issues. However, these approaches seemingly increase the active material-based properties and actually decrease the electrode-based capacity because of the oversized pores and heavy mass of mechanical supports. In this study, we developed an ultralight porous nickel to scaffold with high-capacity SnSb alloy anodes. The porous-nickel-supported SnSb alloy demonstrates a high specific capacity and good cyclability for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Its capacity retains 580 mA h g -1 at 2 A g -1 after 100 cycles in Li-ion batteries. For a Na-ion battery, the composite electrode can even deliver a capacity of 275 mA h g -1 at 1 A g -1 after 1000 cycles. This study demonstrates that combining the scaffolding function of ultralight porous nickel and the high capacity of the SnSb alloy can significantly enhance the electrochemical performances of Li/Na-ion batteries.

  1. Pt and PtRu catalyst bilayers increase efficiencies for ethanol oxidation in proton exchange membrane electrolysis and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarawneh, Rakan M.; Pickup, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    Polarization curves, product distributions, and reaction stoichiometries have been measured for the oxidation of ethanol at anodes consisting of Pt and PtRu bilayers and a homogeneous mixture of the two catalysts. These anode structures all show synergies between the two catalysts that can be attributed to the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced at the PtRu catalyst by the Pt catalyst. The use of a PtRu layer over a Pt layer produces the strongest effect, with higher currents than a Pt on PtRu bilayer, mixed layer, or either catalyst alone, except for Pt at high potentials. Reaction stoichiometries (average number of electrons transferred per ethanol molecule) were closer to the values for Pt alone for both of the bilayer configurations but much lower for PtRu and mixed anodes. Although Pt alone would provide the highest overall fuel cell efficiency at low power densities, the PtRu on Pt bilayer would provide higher power densities without a significant loss of efficiency. The origin of the synergy between the Pt and PtRu catalysts was elucidated by separation of the total current into the individual components for generation of carbon dioxide and the acetaldehyde and acetic acid byproducts.

  2. Flow-through 3D biofuel cell anode for NAD+-dependent enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, Rosalba A.; Lau, Carolin; Garcia, Kristen E.; Atanassov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    NAD + -dependent enzymes require the presence of catalysts for cofactor regeneration in order to be employed in enzymatic biofuel cells. Poly-(methylene green) catalysts have proven to help the oxidation reaction of NADH allowing for the use of such enzymes in electrocatalytic oxidation reactions. In this paper we present the development of 3D anode based on NAD + -dependent malate dehydrogenase. The 3D material chosen was reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) which was modified with poly-(MG) for NADH oxidation and it also accommodated the porous immobilization matrix for MDH consisting of MWCNTs embedded in chitosan; allowing for mass transport of the substrate to the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used in order to characterize the poly-(MG)-modified RVC, and electrochemical evaluation of the anode was performed.

  3. A Comparative Electrochemical Study of AZ31 and AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Salman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study has been carried out on AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloys in order to understand the electrochemical behavior in both alkaline and chloride containing solutions. The open circuit potential (OCP was examined in 1 M NaOH and 3.5 mass % NaCl solutions. AZ31 magnesium alloy shows several potential drops throughout the immersion in 1 M NaOH solution, though AZ91 does not show this phenomenon. The specimens were anodized at a constant potential of 3 V for 30 minutes at 298 K in 1 M NaOH solution. The anticorrosion behavior of the anodized specimens was better than those of nonanodized specimens. The anodized AZ91 has better corrosion resistance compared to nonanodized specimen and anodized AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  4. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  5. A review of refractory materials for vapor-anode AMTEC cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, refractory alloys have been considered as structural materials for vapor-anode Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion (AMTEC) cells, for extended (7-15 years) space missions. This paper reviewed the existing database for refractory metals and alloys of potential use as structural materials for vapor-anode sodium AMTEC cells. In addition to requiring that the vapor pressure of the material be below 10-9 torr (133 nPa) at a typical hot side temperature of 1200 K, other screening considerations were: (a) low thermal conductivity, low thermal radiation emissivity, and low linear thermal expansion coefficient; (b) low ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, high yield and rupture strengths and high strength-to-density ratio; and (c) good compatibility with the sodium AMTEC operating environment, including high corrosion resistance to sodium in both the liquid and vapor phases. Nb-1Zr (niobium-1% zirconium) alloy is recommended for the hot end structures of the cell. The niobium alloy C-103, which contains the oxygen gettering elements zirconium and hafnium as well as titanium, is recommended for the colder cell structure. This alloy is stronger and less thermally conductive than Nb-1Zr, and its use in the cell wall reduces parasitic heat losses by conduction to the condenser. The molybdenum alloy Mo-44.5Re (molybdenum-44.5% rhenium) is also recommended as a possible alternative for both structures if known problems with oxygen pick up and embrittlement of the niobium alloys proves to be intractable. .

  6. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthi, Vivek S.; Izzo, Elise; Bi, Wu; Guerrero, Sandra; Protsailo, Lesia

    2013-01-08

    Achieving DOE's stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  7. The mineralogical characterization of tellurium in copper anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. T.; Dutrizac, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    A mineralogical study of a «normal» commercial copper anode and six tellurium-rich copper anodes from the CCR Refinery of the Noranda Copper Smelting and Refining Company was carried out to identify the tellurium carriers and their relative abundances. In all the anodes, the major tellurium carrier is the Cu2Se-Cu2Te phase which occurs as a constituent of complex inclusions at the copper grain boundaries. In tellurium-rich anodes, the molar tellurium content of the Cu2Se-Cu2Te phase can exceed that of selenium. Although >85 pct of the tellurium occurs as the Cu2Se-Cu2Te phase, minor amounts are present in Cu-Pb-As-Bi-Sb oxide, Cu-Bi-As oxide, and Cu-Te-As oxide phases which form part of the grain-boundary inclusions. About 1 pct of the tellurium content of silver-rich anodes occurs in various silver alloys, but gold tellurides were never detected. Surprising is the fact that 2 to 8 pct of the total tellurium content of the anodes occurs in solid solution in the copper-metal matrix, and presumably, this form of tellurium dissolves at the anode interface during electrorefining.

  8. Design of Pd-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for ORR: A DFT Calculation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing Pd-lean catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is the key for large-scale application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. In the present paper, we have proposed a multiple-descriptor strategy for designing efficient and durable ORR Pd-based alloy catalysts. We demonstrated that an ideal Pd-based bimetallic alloy catalyst for ORR should possess simultaneously negative alloy formation energy, negative surface segregation energy of Pd, and a lower oxygen binding ability than pure Pt. By performing detailed DFT calculations on the thermodynamics, surface chemistry and electronic properties of Pd-M alloys, Pd-V, Pd-Fe, Pd-Zn, Pd-Nb, and Pd-Ta, are identified theoretically to have stable Pd segregated surface and improved ORR activity. Factors affecting these properties are analyzed. The alloy formation energy of Pd with transition metals M can be mainly determined by their electron interaction. This may be the origin of the negative alloy formation energy for Pd-M alloys. The surface segregation energy of Pd is primarily determined by the surface energy and the atomic radius of M. The metals M which have smaller atomic radius and higher surface energy would tend to favor the surface segregation of Pd in corresponding Pd-M alloys.

  9. Long-term performance of different aluminum alloy designs as sacrificial anodes for rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rincón, O.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of various cathodic-protection designs using Aluminum alloys to protect prestressed piles. The results obtained with different system designs (bracelete type-Al/Zn/In alloy, thermosprayed aluminum (3-year evaluation and conventional Al/Zn/In anocies in an epoxy-painted steel bracelet (12-year evaluation, indicated that all of these systems may be used as sacrificial anodes for pile protection. However, the thermosprayed aluminum type can not be used in prestressed concrete piles because the very negative potentials ( < -1100 mV vs. Cu/CuSO4 they supply to the reinforcement could lead to hydrogen embrittlement.

    Este trabajo presenta la realización de varios diseños de protección catódica utilizando aleaciones de aluminio para la protección de pilotes pretensados. Los resultados obtenidos con diferentes diseños (aleación de Al/Zn/In, tipo brazalete y aluminio termorociado (3 años de evaluación y ánodos convencionales de Al/Zn/In colocados en un brazalete de acero pintado con epoxy (12 años de evaluación, indicaron que todos estos sistemas pueden ser utilizados como ánodos de sacrificio para la protección de los pilotes. Sin embargo, el sistema con aluminio termorociado no puede ser utilizado en pilotes de acero pretensado debido al potencial muy negativo alcanzado por la armadura (<-1100 mV vs Cu/CuSO4, lo cual podría inducir a daños por hidrógeno.

  10. PtNi alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays for photo-assisted methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Huichao; Xiao, Peng; Zhou, Ming; Liu, Feila; Yu, Shujuan; Qiao, Lei; Zhang, Yunhuai

    2013-01-01

    To develop anode catalysts for photo-assisted direct methanol fuel cell (PDMFC), carbon-doped TiO 2 nanotube arrays-supported PtNi alloy nanoparticles with different Pt/Ni atomic ratio (PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs) prepared by pulsed electrodeposition method are evaluated as catalysts for photo-assisted methanol oxidation. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry results show that the PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs prepared at t onPt :t onNi : = 10:7 (t on is the current-on time) with a Pt:Ni atomic ratio of 6.1:5.7 presents the highest catalytic activity for methanol oxidation both in the dark and under illumination. In addition, according to the results obtained from the CO stripping voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, it was found that the light play an accelerative role in the oxidation of methanol on PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs under illumination. The effect of illumination which enhancing the catalytic activity of PtNi/C-TiO 2 NTs are attributed to (1) methanol and the intermediates be oxidized directly on C-TiO 2 NTs for the light-induced catalytic effect; (2) more abundant oxygen-donating species be produced on C-TiO 2 NTs in the presence of light; (3) less CO ads adsorbing on catalysts due to the presence of stronger metal–support interactions between PtNi alloy nanoparticles and C-TiO 2 NTs under illumination

  11. A new bonded catalyst for safe lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F.; Hopewood, J.

    1982-08-01

    The goal of the research effort was to demonstrate that a new class of organometallic cathode catalysts, the TAAs, are stable in thionyl chloride and that they significantly improve the power performance of lithium-thionyl chloride primary batteries. A number of TAAs were evaluated and shown to be active catalysts. Included in this evaluation were TAAs which were covalently bonded to the supporting carbon electrode material; a covalently bonded catalyst has the potential advantage that it will not dissolve into the electrolyte and negatively affect anode performance. During the six month research program, the TAAS were shown to: significantly improve cathode performance in Li/SOCl2 cells; improve cathode capacity; improve cathode performance throughout long-term tests; and not affect anode performance. Further work is needed to develop data in cell studies on temperature range, shelf life, voltage delay effects, energy/power density as a function of rate, and factors affecting electrode capacity. Battery performance in stress tests to develop safety and cost data is also needed.

  12. Electroless formation of hybrid lithium anodes for fast interfacial ion transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Stalin, Sanjuna; Vu, Duylinh; Fawole, Kristen; Archer, Lynden A. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Tu, Zhengyuan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Gunceler, Deniz [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Sundararaman, Ravishankar [Material Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes are of interest for fundamental and application-focused studies of chemical and physical kinetics of liquids at solid interfaces. Approaches that allow facile creation of uniform coatings on these metals to prevent physical contact with liquid electrolytes, while enabling fast ion transport, are essential to address chemical instability of the anodes. Here, we report a simple electroless ion-exchange chemistry for creating coatings of indium on lithium. By means of joint density functional theory and interfacial characterization experiments, we show that In coatings stabilize Li by multiple processes, including exceptionally fast surface diffusion of lithium ions and high chemical resistance to liquid electrolytes. Indium coatings also undergo reversible alloying reactions with lithium ions, facilitating design of high-capacity hybrid In-Li anodes that use both alloying and plating approaches for charge storage. By means of direct visualization, we further show that the coatings enable remarkably compact and uniform electrodeposition. The resultant In-Li anodes are shown to exhibit minimal capacity fade in extended galvanostatic cycling when paired with commercial-grade cathodes. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Three-dimensional carbon network confined antimony nanoparticle anodes for high-capacity K-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunhua; Han, Kang; Wang, Xuanpeng; Wang, Chenyang; Li, Qi; Meng, Jiashen; Xu, Xiaoming; He, Qiu; Luo, Wen; Wu, Liming; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-04-19

    Antimony (Sb) represents a promising anode for K-ion batteries (KIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity and suitable working voltage. However, the large volume change that occurs in the potassiation/depotassiation process can lead to severe capacity fading. Herein, we report a high-capacity anode material by in situ confining Sb nanoparticles in a three-dimensional carbon framework (3D SbNPs@C) via a template-assisted freeze-drying treatment and subsequent carbothermic reduction. The as-prepared 3D SbNPs@C hybrid material delivers high reversible capacity and good cycling stability when used as the anode for KIBs. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and in situ X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the intrinsic mechanism of a K-Sb alloying reaction. Therefore, this work is of great importance to understand the electrochemical process of the Sb-based alloying reaction and will pave the way for the exploration of high performance KIB anode materials.

  14. Pre-coating of LSCM perovskite with metal catalyst for scalable high performance anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir; Cassidy, Mark; Djurado, Elisabeth; Irvine, John Ts S; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    then dispersed into organic based vehicles to form a screen-printable ink which was deposited and fired to form SOFC anode layers. Electrochemical tests show a considerable enhancement of the pre-coated anode performances under 50 ml/min wet H2 flow

  15. Effect of Solution Temperature for Al Alloy Anodizing on Cavitation Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Jun [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hyung; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Haeyangdaehak-ro 91, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The commercialization of aluminum had been delayed than other metals because of its high oxygen affinity. Anodizing is a process in which oxide film is formed on the surface of a valve metal in an electrolyte solution by anodic oxidation reaction. Aluminum has thin oxide film on surface but the oxide film is inhomogeneous having a thickness only in the range of several nanometers. Anodizing process increases the thickness of the oxide film significantly. In this study, porous type oxide film was produced on the surface of aluminum in sulfuric acid as a function of electrolyte temperature, and the optimum condition were determined for anodizing film to exhibit excellent cavitation resistance in seawater environment. The result revealed that the oxide film formed at 10 ℃ represented the highest cavitation resistance, while the oxide film formed at 15 ℃ showed the lowest resistance to cavitation in spite of its high hardness.

  16. In situ XAFS studies of the oxygen reduction reaction on carbon supported platinum and platinum nickel nano-scale alloys as cathode catalysts in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qingying

    Platinum based bimetallic alloys have been investigated by conducting Pt L3 and Ni K edge in situ XAFS measurements on carbon supported Pt and PtNi(1:1) nanoscale catalysts under a wide range of operating potentials. We observed that (1) the Pt-Pt bond distance in PtNi alloys is shorter than that of Pt, and the bond distance between Pt and oxygen adsorbate is longer for PtNi. (2) Pt has a tendency to stay on the surface while Ni is mostly underneath the surface. (3) While a change in oxidation of pure Pt was clearly observed at different potentials, the Pt in the PtNi alloy remained nearly oxygen-free at all potentials, but an accompanying oxidation change of Ni was observed instead. (4) PtNi has higher open circuit voltage than Pt/C. These results indicate that the chemisorption energy between Pt and oxygen adsorbate is reduced in PtNi alloys, which prevents the poison of oxygen adsorbate and hence improves the reactivity. In addition, the strain and ligand effects in PtNi nanoparticle alloys were studied by FEW calculations using experimental data as a guide to understand the factors causing the reduction of chemisorptions energy of Pt. Our calculation indicates that Pt d-band is broader and lower in energy when the bond distance between Pt is shorter, resulting in weaker chemisorption energy between Pt and absorbed oxygen atom on top, and vice verse. Meanwhile, the investigation of ligand effect shows two trends in modifying Pt's properties within alloyed transition metals. The strain effect dominates in PtNi bimetallic system, corresponding to weaker chemisorptions energy and lower white intensity of Pt L3 edge, which is in consistent with our experimental results. The implications of these results afford a good guideline in understanding the reactivity enhancement mechanism and in the context of alloy catalysts design.

  17. Spectra of luminescence due to microdischarges on an aluminum valve anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizikov, A.M.; Vol'f, V.G.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum of visible and near-UV luminescence due to a microdischarge on an AMg-6 aluminum alloy was studied under conditions of valve anodization in solutions of sodium carbonate and other electrolytes. It was shown that emission spectra exhibit lines that characterize anodic (aluminum and magnesium) and electrolytic (sodium) components. The dependence of the temperature of the microdischarge on the electrolyte concentration and composition is discussed

  18. SnSe2 2D Anodes for Advanced Sodium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fan

    2016-08-22

    A simple synthesis method to prepare pure SnSe2 nanosheet anodes for Na ion batteries is reported. The SnSe2 2D sheets achieve a stable and reversible specific capacity of 515 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles, with excellent rate performance. The sodiation and desodiation process in this anode material is shown to occur via a combination of conversion and alloying reactions.

  19. Effect of aluminum coatings on corrosion properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu Liuho; Lin Hsingan; Chen Chunchin; Yang Chihfu [Dept. of materials engineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Chang Chiahua; Wu Jenchin [Physical chemistry section, chemical systems research div., Chung-Shan Inst. of Science and Technology, Tao-Yuan (Taiwan)

    2003-07-01

    This investigation aimed to increase the corrosion resistance of an AZ31 magnesium alloy by an aluminum arc spray coating and a post-treatment consisted of hot pressing and anodizing. It was found that the aluminum arc spraying alone was incapable of protection against corrosion due to the high amount of pores present in the coating layer. In order to solve the problem, densification of the Al arc-sprayed layer was carried out by hot pressing the coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate under an appropriate range of temperature, time and pressure. After hot pressing the Al coated AZ31 Mg alloy plate exhibited a much improved corrosion resistance. A final anodizing treatment applied to the AZ31 alloy with the dense Al coating further improved its resisting to corrosion. The results showed that, by adopting the Al arc spraying, hot pressing and anodizing process, the corrosion current density of the AZ31 alloy in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was from 2.1 x 10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2} (original AZ31) to 3.7 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} (after the surface treatment), which value is close to that of an anodized aluminum plate. (orig.)

  20. Study of localized corrosion in aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in 2219-T87 aluminum (Al) alloy, 2195 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy, and welded 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 filler) have been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique (SRET). Anodic sites are more frequent and of greater strength in the 2195 Al-Li alloy than in the 2219-T87 Al alloy, indicating a greater tendency toward pitting for the latter. However, the overall corrosion rates are about the same for these two alloys, as determined using the polarization resistance technique. In the welded 2195 Al-Li alloy, the weld bean is entirely cathodic, with rather strongly anodic heat affected zones (HAZ) bordering both sides, indicating a high probability of corrosion in the HAZ parallel to the weld bead.

  1. Vertical single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes grown from modified porous anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Franklin, Aaron D; Amama, Placidus B; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Stach, Eric A; Sands, Timothy D; Fisher, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Vertical single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT and DWNT) arrays have been grown using a catalyst embedded within the pore walls of a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The initial film structure consisted of a SiO x adhesion layer, a Ti layer, a bottom Al layer, a Fe layer, and a top Al layer deposited on a Si wafer. The Al and Fe layers were subsequently anodized to create a vertically oriented pore structure through the film stack. CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The resulting structure is expected to form the basis for development of vertically oriented CNT-based electronics and sensors

  2. Alloy composition dependence of formation of porous Ni prepared by rapid solidification and chemical dealloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Zhen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: zh_zhang@sdu.edu.cn; Jia Haoling [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Qu Yingjie [Shandong Labor Occupational Technology College, Jingshi Road 388, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu Guodong; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-20

    In this paper, the effect of alloy composition on the formation of porous Ni catalysts prepared by chemical dealloying of rapidly solidified Al-Ni alloys has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption experiments. The experimental results show that rapid solidification and alloy composition have a significant effect on the phase constituent and microstructure of Al-Ni alloys. The melt spun Al-20 at.% Ni alloy consists of {alpha}-Al, NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, while the melt spun Al-25 and 31.5 at.% Ni alloys comprise NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}. Moreover, the formation and microstructure of the porous Ni catalysts are dependent upon the composition of the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. The morphology and size of Ni particles in the Ni catalysts inherit from those of grains in the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. Rapid solidification can extend the alloy composition of Al-Ni alloys suitable for preparation of the Ni catalysts, and obviously accelerate the dealloying process of the Al-Ni alloys.

  3. Surface treatments for aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, M.; Lascău, S.; Ardelean, E.; Josan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Typically, in contact with the atmosphere, the aluminium surface is covered with an aluminium oxide layer, with a thickness of less than 1-2μm. Due to its low thickness, high porosity and low mechanical strength, this layer does not protect the metal from corrosion. Anodizing for protective and decorative purposes is the most common method of superficial oxidation processes and is carried out through anodic oxidation. The oxide films, resulted from anodizing, are porous, have a thickness of 20-50μm, and are heat-resistant, stable to water vapour and other corrosion agents. Hard anodizing complies with the same obtains principles as well as decorative and protective anodization. The difference is in that hard anodizing is achieved at low temperatures and high intensity of electric current. In the paper are presented the results of decorative and hard anodization for specimens made from several aluminium alloys in terms of the appearance of the specimens and of the thickness of the anodized.

  4. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  5. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M R; Korchagin, O V; Kuzov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references

  6. Flow-through 3D biofuel cell anode for NAD{sup +}-dependent enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, Rosalba A.; Lau, Carolin; Garcia, Kristen E. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Center for Emerging Energy Technologies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Atanassov, Plamen, E-mail: plamen@unm.ed [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Center for Emerging Energy Technologies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NAD{sup +}-dependent enzymes require the presence of catalysts for cofactor regeneration in order to be employed in enzymatic biofuel cells. Poly-(methylene green) catalysts have proven to help the oxidation reaction of NADH allowing for the use of such enzymes in electrocatalytic oxidation reactions. In this paper we present the development of 3D anode based on NAD{sup +}-dependent malate dehydrogenase. The 3D material chosen was reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) which was modified with poly-(MG) for NADH oxidation and it also accommodated the porous immobilization matrix for MDH consisting of MWCNTs embedded in chitosan; allowing for mass transport of the substrate to the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used in order to characterize the poly-(MG)-modified RVC, and electrochemical evaluation of the anode was performed.

  7. Studies of localized corrosion in welded aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Nunes, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in welded samples of 2219-T87 Al alloy (2319 filler), 2090 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers), and 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 and 2319 fillers) has been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique. The weld beads are cathodic in all cases, leading to reduced anode/cathode ratios. A reduction in anode/cathode ratio leads to an increase in the corrosion rates of the welded metals, in agreement with results obtained in previous electrochemical and stress corrosion studies involving the overall corrosion rates of welded samples. The cathodic weld beads are bordered on both sides by strong anodic regions, with high propensity for corrosion.

  8. An Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Anodized Aluminum Film at High Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Guoying; Yu, Yundan; Guo, Yuemei; Zhang, Ao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new environmental-friendly electrolyte containing sulfuric acid and tartaric acid has been used as the substitute of chromic acid for anodization. The work discussed the influence of anodizing voltages on the fatigue life of anodized Al 2024-T3 by performing fatigue tests with 0.1 stress ratio (R) at 320 MPa. Meanwhile the fatigue cycles to failure, yield strength, tensile strength and fracture surface of anodic films at different conditions were investigated. The results showed that the fatigue life of anodized and sealed specimens reduced a lot compared to aluminum alloy, which can be attributed to the crack sites initiated at the oxide layer. The fracture surface analyses also revealed that the number of crack initiation sites enlarged with the increase of anodizing voltage.

  9. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  10. A novel binary Pt 3Te x/C nanocatalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meihua; Wang, Fei; Li, Lirong; Guo, Yonglang

    The Pt 3Te x/C nanocatalyst was prepared and its catalytic performance for ethanol oxidation was investigated for the first time. The Pt 3Te/C nanoparticles were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy equipped with TEM (TEM-EDX). The Pt 3Te/C catalyst has a typical fcc structure of platinum alloys with the presence of Te. Its particle size is about 2.8 nm. Among the synthesized catalysts with different atomic ratios, the Pt 3Te/C catalyst has the highest anodic peak current density. The cyclic voltammograms (CV) show that the anodic peak current density for the Pt 3Te/C, commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts reaches 1002, 832 and 533 A g -1, respectively. On the current-time curve, the anodic current on the Pt 3Te/C catalyst was higher than those for the catalysts reported. So, these findings show that the Pt 3Te/C catalyst has uniform nanoparticles and the best activity among the synthesized catalysts, and it is better than commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts for ethanol oxidation at room temperature.

  11. Overcoming the Instability of Nanoparticle-Based Catalyst Films in Alkaline Electrolyzers by using Self-Assembling and Self-Healing Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwe, Stefan; Masa, Justus; Andronescu, Corina; Mei, Bastian; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Ventosa, Edgar

    2017-07-10

    Engineering stable electrodes using highly active catalyst nanopowders for electrochemical water splitting remains a challenge. We report an innovative and general approach for attaining highly stable catalyst films with self-healing capability based on the in situ self-assembly of catalyst particles during electrolysis. The catalyst particles are added to the electrolyte forming a suspension that is pumped through the electrolyzer. Particles with negatively charged surfaces stick onto the anode, while particles with positively charged surfaces stick to the cathode. The self-assembled catalyst films have self-healing properties as long as sufficient catalyst particles are present in the electrolyte. The proof-of-concept was demonstrated in a non-zero gap alkaline electrolyzer using NiFe-LDH and Ni x B catalyst nanopowders for anode and cathode, respectively. Steady cell voltages were maintained for at least three weeks during continuous electrolysis at 50-100 mA cm -2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nano-Engineered Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Nosang; Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Wiberg, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Nano-engineered catalysts, and a method of fabricating them, have been developed in a continuing effort to improve the performances of direct methanol fuel cells as candidate power sources to supplant primary and secondary batteries in a variety of portable electronic products. In order to realize the potential for high energy densities (as much as 1.5 W h/g) of direct methanol fuel cells, it will be necessary to optimize the chemical compositions and geometric configurations of catalyst layers and electrode structures. High performance can be achieved when catalyst particles and electrode structures have the necessary small feature sizes (typically of the order of nanometers), large surface areas, optimal metal compositions, high porosity, and hydrophobicity. The present method involves electrodeposition of one or more catalytic metal(s) or a catalytic-metal/polytetrafluoroethylene nanocomposite on an alumina nanotemplate. The alumina nanotemplate is then dissolved, leaving the desired metal or metal/polytetrafluoroethylene-composite catalyst layer. Unlike some prior methods of making fine metal catalysts, this method does not involve processing at elevated temperature; all processing can be done at room temperature. In addition, this method involves fewer steps and is more amenable to scaling up for mass production. Alumina nanotemplates are porous alumina membranes that have been fabricated, variously, by anodizing either pure aluminum or aluminum that has been deposited on silicon by electronbeam evaporation. The diameters of the pores (7 to 300 nm), areal densities of pores (as much as 7 x 10(exp 10)sq cm), and lengths of pores (up to about 100 nm) can be tailored by selection of fabrication conditions. In a given case, the catalytic metal, catalytic metal alloy, or catalytic metal/ polytetrafluoroethylene composite is electrodeposited in the pores of the alumina nanotemplate. The dimensions of the pores, together with the electrodeposition conditions

  13. Novel Non-Carbonate Based Electrolytes for Silicon Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ye [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Yang, Johnny [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Cheng, Gang [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Carroll, Kyler [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Clemons, Owen [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Strand, Diedre [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Substantial improvement in the energy density of rechargeable lithium batteries is required to meet the future needs for electric and plug-in electric vehicles (EV and PHEV). Present day lithium ion battery technology is based on shuttling lithium between graphitic carbon and inorganic oxides. Non-graphitic anodes, such as silicon can provide significant improvements in energy density but are currently limited in cycle life due to reactivity with the electrolyte. Wildcat/3M proposes the development of non-carbonate electrolyte formulations tailored for silicon alloy anodes. Combining these electrolytes with 3M’s anode and an NMC cathode will enable up to a 20% increase in the volumetric cell energy density, while still meeting the PHEV/EV cell level cycle/calendar life goals.

  14. Electrochemical performance and stability of Ni1-xCox-based cermet anode for direct methane-fuelled solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicharee Wongsawatgul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon deposition on Ni-based anode is well-known as a major barrier for the practical use and commercialization of hydrocarbon-fuelled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs. In this work, Co alloying in Ni-YSZ was studied as an alternative anode material for using CH4 as a fuel. The Ni-YSZ and Ni-Co alloyed-YSZ were prepared by the traditional impregnation method without further mixing processes. After sintering and reduction in H2 atmosphere, the introduced Co can completely dissolved into the Ni lattice and changed the morphology with an increase in the Ni-YSZ grain size and showed a better uniform microstructure. The Co alloying also enhanced the electrochemical performance under CH4 fuel by reducing the resistance and anodic overvoltage. Moreover, the Co addition enhanced the stability of the cell with CH4 a constant load current of 80 mA for 60 h. This performance related to the carbon deposition on the anode surface. The Co alloying showed a high efficiency to suppress the carbon deposition and improved the electrochemical performance of an SOFC cell operating under CH4 fuel.

  15. Microstructure and optical appearance of anodized friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Bordo, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate Ti, Y and Ce oxide powders into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The FSP processed surface composite was subsequently anodized with an aim to develop optical effects in the anodized layer owing to the presence of incorporated...... oxide particles which will influence the scattering of light. This paper presents the investigations on relation between microstructure of the FSP zone and optical appearance of the anodized layer due to incorporation of metal oxide particles and modification of the oxide particles due to the anodizing...

  16. Discovery of technical methanation catalysts based on computational screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Emil; Kustov, Arkadii

    2007-01-01

    Methanation is a classical reaction in heterogeneous catalysis and significant effort has been put into improving the industrially preferred nickel-based catalysts. Recently, a computational screening study showed that nickel-iron alloys should be more active than the pure nickel catalyst and at ...

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y; Qin, H; Liu, Q; Singh, M; Zhu, B

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC, 300-600 degrees C) is developed with advantages compared to conventional SOFC (800-1000 degrees C). The electrodes with good catalytic activity, high electronic and ionic conductivity are required to achieve high power output. In this work, a LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst is prepared by slurry method. The structure and morphology of the prepared LiNiCuZn oxides are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The LiNiCuZn oxides prepared by slurry method are nano Li0.28Ni0.72O, ZnO and CuO compound. The nano-crystallites are congregated to form ball-shape particles with diameter of 800-1000 nm. The LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes exhibits high ion conductivity and low polarization resistance to hydrogen oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction at low temperature. The LTSOFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes demonstrates good cell performance of 1000 mW cm(-2) when it operates at 470 degrees C. It is considered that nano-composite would be an effective way to develop catalyst for LTSOFC.

  18. High-performance alkaline direct methanol fuel cell using a nitrogen-postdoped anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joghee, Prabhuram; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Wood, Kevin; Bender, Guido; O'Hayre, Ryan

    2014-07-01

    A commercial PtRu/C catalyst postdoped with nitrogen demonstrates a significantly higher performance (~10-20% improvement) in the anode of an alkaline direct methanol fuel cell than an unmodified commercial PtRu/C catalyst control. The enhanced performance shown herein is attributed at least partially to the increased electrochemical surface area of the PtRu/C after postdoping with nitrogen. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. MnO2/CNT supported Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; Wang, Hongjuan; Peng, Feng; Liang, Jiahua; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jian

    2009-07-07

    Pt/MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT) and PtRu/MnO2/CNT nanocomposites were synthesized by successively loading hydrous MnO2 and Pt (or PtRu alloy) nanoparticles on CNTs and were used as anodic catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The existence of MnO2 on the surface of CNTs effectively increases the proton conductivity of the catalyst, which then could remarkably improve the performance of the catalyst in methanol electro-oxidation. As a result, Pt/MnO2/CNTs show higher electrochemical active surface area and better methanol electro-oxidation activity, compared with Pt/CNTs. As PtRu alloy nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of MnO2/CNTs instead of Pt, the PtRu/MnO2/CNT catalyst shows not only excellent electro-oxidation activity to methanol with forward anodic peak current density of 901 A/gPt but also good CO oxidation ability with lower preadsorbed CO oxidation onset potential (0.33 V vs Ag/AgCl) and peak potential (0.49 V vs Ag/AgCl) at room temperature.

  20. Improved Catalysis of Green-Synthesized Pd-Ag Alloy-Nanoparticles for Anodic Oxidation of Methanol in Alkali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chowdhury, Sreya; Ghosh, Srabanti; Bhattachrya, Swapan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pd and Pd x Ag y nanoalloys are synthesised by simple green synthetic method without using any capping agent. • Increased electrochemical surface area and roughness factor in case of Pd x Ag y alloy generates enhanced catalytically active sites which help methanol oxidation reaction. • By analysing the products of MOR reaction by CV, FTIR and HPLC plausible mechanism of the reaction is proposed. • Among different compositions Pd 4 Ag and Pd are the best electrodes for oxidation of methanol and formate respectively in alkali. - Abstract: Monometallic Pd, Ag and bimetallic Pd x Ag y alloy nanoparticles were synthesized in a single pot using a green synthetic protocol in absence of any capping agent. X-ray, electron diffraction, microscopic and spectroscopic studies of synthesized material demonstrate the formation of nanoballs with radius of 10–20 nm of face centred cubic metals and alloys. The electrochemical studies of as-synthesized materials loaded on carbon support reveal that the Pd 4 Ag nanoparticles exhibit the best and synergistic electro-catalytic activity in reference to oxidation of methanol in alkali. The most active Pd 4 Ag nanoparticles show higher peak current (201 mA mg −1 ) in comparison to that (133 mA mg −1 ) of Pd in cyclic voltammetric study. The electrode shows the highest exchange current density (1.95 × 10 −2 mA mg −1 of Pd) for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and higher catalytic activity for oxidation of possible intermediates like formaldehyde and sodium formate of MOR. Ex-situ infrared spectrometry and chromatographic studies of reaction products reveal that Ag accelerates the formation of formate rather than carbonate elucidating the plausible mechanism of the reaction. These findings have important implications for further fine-tuning of the Pd nano alloys toward highly active and selective catalysts for alcohol fuel cells.

  1. Processing of copper anodic-slimes for extraction of valuable metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A M

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on processing of anodic slimes obtained from an Egyptian copper electrorefining plant. The anodic slimes are characterized by high concentrations of copper, lead, tin and silver. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of two leaching stages for the extraction of copper (H(2)SO(4)-O(2)) and silver (thiourea-Fe3+), and pyrometallurgical treatment of the remaining slimes for production of Pb-Sn soldering alloy. Factors affecting both the leaching and smelting stages were studied.

  2. Friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites: Anodization and optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate metal oxide (TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2) particles into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The surface composites were then anodized in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The effect of anodizing parameters on the resulting optical...... dark to greyish white. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the metal oxide particles incorporated into the anodic alumina matrix. The metal oxide particles in the FSP zone electrochemically shadowed the underlying Al matrix and modified the local...

  3. Nanostructured Platinum Alloys for Use as Catalyst Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A series of binary and ternary Pt-alloys, that promote the important reactions for catalysis at an alloy surface; oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and hydrogen and oxygen evolution. The first two of these reactions are essential when applying the alloy for use in a PEMFC.

  4. Advances in catalysts for internal reforming in high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, A. L.

    Catalytic steam reforming of natural gas is an attractive method of producing the hydrogen required by the present generation of fuel cells. The molten carbonate (MCFC) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells operate at high enough temperatures for the endothermic steam reforming reaction to be carried out within the stack. For the MCFC, the conventional anodes have insufficient activity to catalyse the steam reforming of natural gas. For these cells, internal reforming can be achieved only with the addition of a separate catalyst, preferably located in close proximity to the anode. However, in the so-called `Direct Internal Reforming' configuration, attack from alkali in the MCFC may severely limit catalyst lifetime. In the case of the state-of-the-art SOFC, natural gas can be reformed directly on the nickel cermet anode. However, in the SOFC, temperature variations in the cell caused by the reforming reaction may limit the amount of internal reforming that can be allowed in practice. In addition, some external pre-reforming may be desirable to remove high molecular weight hydrocarbons from the fuel gas, which would otherwise crack to produce elemental carbon. Degradation of the SOFC anode may also be a problem when internal reforming is carried out. This has prompted several research groups to investigate the use of alternative anode materials.

  5. ANODE CATALYST MATERIALS FOR USE IN FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    Catalyst materials having a surface comprising a composition M¿x?/Pt¿3?/Sub; wherein M is selected from the group of elements Fe, Co, Rh and Ir; or wherein M represent two different elements selected from the group comprising Fe, CO, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, CU, Ag, Au and Sn; and wherein Sub represents...

  6. The Influence of the Electrolyte Nature and PEO Process Parameters on Properties of Anodized Ti-15Mo Alloy Intended for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Banakh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO of Ti-15Mo alloys conducted in electrolytes containing Ca and P compounds can be an efficient process with which to obtain bioactive coatings. This paper reports on the influence of the nature of the electrolyte, its concentration, and PEO process parameters on the properties of anodized layers on Ti-15Mo. A wide range of Ca- and P-containing alkaline and acidic solutions was employed to incorporate Ca and P ions into the anodized layer. The efficiency of the incorporation was evaluated by the Ca/P ratio in the coating as compared to that in the electrolyte. It was found that alkaline solutions are not suitable electrolytes for the formation of good quality, uniform PEO coatings. Only acidic electrolytes are appropriate for obtaining well-adherent homogeneous layers on Ti-15Mo. However, the maximum Ca/P ratios reached in the coatings were rather low (close to 1. The variation of electrical signal (negative-to-positive current ratio, frequency and time of electrolysis do not result in a substantial change of this value. The processing time, however, did influence the coating thickness. Despite their low Ca/P ratio, the anodized layers demonstrate good biological activity, comparable to pure microrough titanium.

  7. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Elod L.; Oloman, Colin W. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness {proportional_to}350 {mu}m) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m{sup -2}, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m{sup -2}, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m{sup -2} with PtRuMo at 5500 A m{sup -2} and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m{sup -2}. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation. (author)

  8. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Előd L.; Oloman, Colin W.

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness ∼350 μm) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m -2, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m -2, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m -2 with PtRuMo at 5500 A m -2 and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m -2. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel–titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO 2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces. (paper)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  12. Anodic behavior of mechanically alloyed Cu–Ni–Fe and Cu–Ni–Fe–O electrodes for aluminum electrolysis in low-temperature KF-AlF3 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goupil, G.; Helle, S.; Davis, B.; Guay, D.; Roué, L.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study on the anodic behavior of Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 and (Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 ) 98.6 O 1.4 materials during the electrolysis of aluminum was conducted. Both materials were prepared in powder form by ball milling and subsequently consolidated to form dense pellets that were used as anodes. The electrochemical characterization was performed at 700 °C in a potassium cryolite-based electrolyte, and the composition-morphology of the oxide scales formed on both anodes were determined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. On Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 , a thick (170 μm) and porous oxide scale is formed after 15 min of electrolysis that readily dissolves (or spalls) before a denser oxide layer is formed after a longer electrolysis time (1 and 5 h). In comparison, a thin (2 μm) and dense oxide layer mainly composed of NiFe 2 O 4 is observed on a (Cu 65 Ni 20 Fe 15 ) 98.6 O 1.4 electrode after 15 min of electrolysis. The thickness of this oxide layer increases to 10 and 30 μm after 1 h and 5 h of electrolysis. However, the outward diffusion of Cu to form CuO x at the surface of the electrode is not totally hampered by the presence of NiFe 2 O 4 and a porous Cu-depleted region is formed at the oxide/alloy interface. As a result, electrolyte penetration occurs in the scale, which favors the progressive formation of an iron fluoride layer at the oxide/alloy interface

  13. Metalloporphyrin catalysts for oxygen reduction developed using computer-aided molecular design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.N.; Hobbs, J.D.; Shelnutt, J.A. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of metalloporphyrin materials used as catalsyts for use in fuel cell applications. The metalloporphyrins are excellent candidates for use as catalysts at both the anode and cathode. The catalysts reduce oxygen in 1 M potassium hydroxide, as well as in 2 M sulfuric acid. Covalent attachment to carbon supports is being investigated. The computer-aided molecular design is an iterative process, in which experimental results feed back into the design of future catalysts.

  14. Comparison of sodium borohydride hydrolysis kinetics on Co-based nanocomposite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Georgi; Chorbadzhiyska, Elitsa; Mitov, Mario; Rashkov, Rashko; Hubenova, Yolina

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared the results, obtained with several Co-based nanocomposites (CoMnB, CoNiMnB and CoNiMoW) produced by electrodeposition on Ni-foam, as catalysts for the sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction. Based on the comparative analyses, we propose CoNiMnB electrodeposits as most suitable catalysts for development of Hydrogen-on-Demand (HOD) system, while CoNiMoW ones as potential anodes for Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFCs). Keywords: Hydrogen-on-Demand (HOD), Nanocomposites, Hydrolysis, Catalyst, Kinetic

  15. Increasing Wear Resistance of Titanium Alloys by Anode Plasma Electrolytic Saturation with Interstitial Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, P. N.; Kusmanov, S. A.; Dyakov, I. G.; Silkin, S. A.; Smirnov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    In our previous studies, we have shown that anode plasma electrolytic saturation of titanium alloys with nitrogen and carbon can improve their tribological properties. Obtained structure containing oxide layer and solid solution of diffused element in titanium promotes the enhancement of running-in ability and the decrease in the wear rate in some special cases. In this paper, further investigations are reported regarding the tribological properties of alpha- and beta-titanium alloys in wear test against hardened steel (50 HRC) disk using pin-on-disk geometry and balls of Al2O3 (6.25 mm in diameter) or bearing steel (9.6 mm in diameter) with ball-on-plate one and normal load from 5 to 209 N. Reproducible results were obtained under testing samples treated by means of the plasma electrolytic nitriding (PEN) with the mechanical removal of the oxide layer. Friction coefficient of nitrided samples is 0.5-0.9 which is somewhat higher than that for untreated one (0.48-0.75) during dry sliding against Al2O3 ball. An increase in the sliding speed results in the polishing of nitrided samples and reduction of their wear rate by 60 times. This result is obtained for 5 min at 850 °C using PEN in electrolyte containing 5 wt.% ammonia and 10 wt.% ammonium chloride followed by quenching in solution. Optical microscope was employed to assist in the evaluation of the wear behavior. Sizes of wear tracks were measured by profilometer TR200.

  16. Cobalt oxide-based catalysts deposited by cold plasma for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierski, P.; Jozwiak, L.; Sielski, J.; Tyczkowski, J., E-mail: jacek.tyczkowski@p.lodz.pl

    2015-11-02

    In proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), both the anodic hydrogen oxidation reaction and the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) require appropriate catalysts. So far, platinum-based catalysts are still the best option for this purpose. However, because these catalysts are too expensive for making commercially viable fuel cells, extensive research over the past decade has focused on developing noble metal-free alternative catalysts. In this paper, an approach based on cobalt oxide films fabricated by plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is presented. Such a material can be used to prepare catalysts for ORR in PEMFC. The films containing CoO{sub X} were deposited on a carbon paper thereby forming the electrode. Morphology and atomic composition of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The possibility of their application as the electro-catalyst for ORR in PEMFC was investigated and the electro-catalytic activities were evaluated by the electrochemical measurements and single cell tests. It was found that the fuel cell with Pt as the anode catalyst and CoO{sub X} deposit as the cathode catalyst was characterized by the open circuit voltage of 635 mV, Tafel slope of approx. 130 mV/dec and the maximum power density of 5.3 W/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Cobalt oxide catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells was plasma deposited. • The catalyst exhibits activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. • Morphology and atomic composition of the catalyst were determined.

  17. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel

  18. Electrochemical performance of Sn-Sb-Cu film anodes prepared by layer-by-layer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qianlei; Xue Ruisheng; Jia Mengqiu

    2012-01-01

    A novel layer-by-layer electrodeposition and heat-treatment approach was attempted to obtain Sn-Sb-Cu film anode for lithium ion batteries. The preparation of Sn-Sb-Cu anodes started with galvanostatic electrochemically depositing antimony and tin sequentially on the substrate of copper foil collector. Sn-Sb and Cu-Sb alloys were formed when heated. The SEM analysis showed that the crystalline grains become bigger and the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu anode becomes more denser after annealing. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the antimony, tin and copper were alloyed to form SnSb and Cu 2 Sb after heat treatment. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu electrode was covered by a thin oxide layer. Electrochemical measurements showed that the annealed Sn-Sb-Cu anode has high reversible capacity and good capacity retention. It exhibited a reversible capacity of about 962 mAh/g in the initial cycle, which still remained 715 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  19. Co-catalytic effect of Ni in the methanol electro-oxidation on Pt-Ru/C catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.B.; Yin, G.P.; Zhang, J.; Sun, Y.C.; Shi, P.F.

    2006-01-01

    This research is aimed to improve the utilization and activity of anodic catalysts, thus to lower the contents of noble metals loading in anodes for methanol electro-oxidation. The direct methanol fuel cell anodic catalysts, Pt-Ru-Ni/C and Pt-Ru/C, were prepared by chemical reduction method. Their performances were tested by using a glassy carbon working electrode through cyclic voltammetric curves, chronoamperometric curves and half-cell measurement in a solution of 0.5 mol/L CH 3 OH and 0.5 mol/L H 2 SO 4 . The composition of the Pt-Ru-Ni and Pt-Ru surface particles were determined by EDAX analysis. The particle size and lattice parameter of the catalysts were determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that both of the catalysts exhibited face-centered cubic structures and had smaller lattice parameters than Pt-alone catalyst. Their sizes are small, about 4.5 nm. No significant differences in the methanol electro-oxidation on both electrodes were found by using cyclic voltammetry, especially regarding the onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation. The electrochemically active-specific areas of the Pt-Ru-Ni/C and Pt-Ru/C catalysts are almost the same. But, the catalytic activity of the Pt-Ru-Ni/C catalyst is higher for methanol electro-oxidation than that of the Pt-Ru/C catalyst. Its tolerance performance to CO formed as one of the intermediates of methanol electro-oxidation is better than that of the Pt-Ru/C catalyst

  20. Corrosion Prevention of Steel Reinforcement in 7.5% NaCl Solution using Pure Magnesium Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer Murthy, Yogesh; Gandhi, Sumit; Kumar, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    The current work investigates the performance of pure Magnesium on corrosion prevention of steel reinforcements by way of sacrificial anoding. Two set of six steel reinforcements were tested for half-cell potential, weight loss, anode efficiency and tensile strength for each of the sacrificial anodes in a high chloride atmosphere of 7.5% NaCl in tap water. Significant reduction in weight of anode was observed during the initial 12 days. The reduction in weight of steel reinforcements tied with anodes was found to be negligible, while that of reinforcements without anodes was significantly higher. Five distinct zones of corrosion were observed during the test. The tensile strength of steel cathodically protected by Mg alloy anodes was found less affected. It could be concluded that pure Mg anode provides an effective way of corrosion mitigation.

  1. Synthesis And Electrochemical Characteristics Of Mechanically Alloyed Anode Materials SnS2 For Li/SnS2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, tin disulfide (SnS2, as one of the most attractive anode candidates for the next generation high-energy rechargeable Li-ion battery, have been paid more and more attention because of its high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. In this study, a new, simple and effective process, mechanical alloying (MA, has been developed for preparing fine anode material tin disulfides, in which ammonium chloride (AC, referred to as process control agents (PCAs, were used to prevent excessive cold-welding and accelerate the synthesis rates to some extent. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the mean size of SnS2 powder particles and improve the contact areas between the active materials, wet milling process was also conducted with normal hexane (NH as a solvent PCA. The prepared powders were both characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field emission-scanning electron microscopeand particle size analyzer. Finally, electrochemical measurements for Li/SnS2 cells were takenat room temperature, using a two-electrode cell assembled in an argon-filled glove box and the electrolyte of 1M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC/dimethylcarbonate (DMC/ethylene methyl carbonate (EMC (volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  2. Kinetic study on recovery of metal values in anode slime from used lead batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.; Nagasaka, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Studies; Ono, J.; Hino, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2004-07-01

    Oxidation experiments were conducted with pure antimony and antimony-lead bismuth alloys to examine the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms used to treat the anode slime produced during lead electrorefining and recovery of antimony from used lead batteries. In order to recycle and recover valuable metals from the used lead batteries, the oxidation experiments were conducted with pure liquid antimony at temperatures between 973 and 1373 K. The study showed that the gas phase mass transfer step is the basic mechanisms that controls the oxidation rate for pure antimony. It was noted that the oxidation rate of the alloy was identical to that of the pure antimony, suggesting that an oxidation reaction of the anode slime proceeds at the same rate as pure antimony. This is one of the advantages of treating anode slime through oxidation. Mass transfer in the gas phase was the rate-determining step in the alloy oxidation reaction. It was concluded that a higher oxygen partial pressure and sufficient gas flow rate at temperature of 1073 K is needed to conserve energy and recovery antimony oxide. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of SnCo alloy shells on orderly rod-shaped Cu current collectors as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Fangwei; Zhang, Hui, E-mail: meszhanghui@zju.edu.cn; Qi, Yue; Wang, Jiazheng; Du, Ning; Yang, Deren

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •Nanostructured SnCo/Cu electrodes have been successfully fabricated. •A simple electrodeposition approach was employed. •The Cu arrays offer large surface area and improve electronic/ionic conductivity. •The electrodes show improved performance as anode for Li-ion batteries. •The improved performance was attributed to the nanostructured current collectors. -- Abstract: In this article, we report a two-step electrodeposition method for the synthesis of Cu/SnCo core–shell rod-shaped arrays as anodes of lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, the arrayed Cu nanorods with diameters of 200 nm were fabricated on a Cu foil through an electrodeposition method with alumina oxide membrane (AAO) as the template. Secondly, the SnCo alloy shells were subsequently electrodeposited on the surface of the rod-shaped Cu arrays to form the hybrid nanostructures. These hybrid electrodes delivered the enhanced cyclic performance and high rate capability serving as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The improved electrochemical performance might be attributed to the large surface-to-volume area, sufficient buffering space, and high electronic conductivity associated with these 3-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  4. The effect of zinc (Zn) content to cell potential value and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akranata, Ahmad Ridho; Sulistijono, Awali, Jatmoko

    2018-04-01

    Sacrificial anode is sacirifial component that used to protect steel from corrosion. Generally, the component are made of aluminium and zinc in water environment. Sacrificial anode change the protected metal structure become cathodic with giving current. The advantages of aluminium is corrosion resistance, non toxicity and easy forming. Zinc generally used for coating in steel to prevent steel from corrosion. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of zinc content to the value of cell potential and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode with sand casting method in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment. The sacrificial anode fabrication made with alloying aluminium and zinc metals with variation composition of alloy with pure Al, Al-3Zn, Al-6Zn, and Al-9Zn with open die sand casting process. The component installed with ASTM A36 steel. After the research has been done the result showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential, protection efficiency, and anode efficiency from steel plate. Cell potential value measurement and weight loss measurement showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential value into more positive that can protected the ASTM A36 steel more efficiently that showed in weight loss measurement where the protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of Al-9Zn sacrificial anode is better than protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of pure Al. The highest protection efficiency gotten by Al-9Zn alloy

  5. On the increasing of adhesive strength of nanotube layers on beta titanium alloys for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fojt, Jaroslav, E-mail: fojtj@vscht.cz; Filip, Vladimir; Joska, Ludek

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanostructured surface on Ti–36Nb–6Ta alloy was prepared by anodic oxidation. • The nanotubes properties were modified by electrochemical process parameters. • The composition and mechanical properties of the anodized surface were investigated. • The adhesive strength of the nanostructures was over 30 MPa. - Abstract: The nanostructuring of titanium and its alloys surfaces is used inter alia for increasing the medical implants osseointegration. Many papers about this topic were published. However, in most cases there were no informations about nanostructures adhesion to the surface, which is crucial from the application point of view. The aim of this study was to prepare nanostructures on titanium beta alloy and optimized its adhesion to the alloy surface. Nanotubes were formed by anodic polarization in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. The composition of the nanotubes was described by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nanostructures adhesion was tested by pull-of method. The nanotubes on the Ti–36Nb–6Ta beta alloy surface were prepared by anodization. The nanostructures properties were modified by electrochemical process parameters. The adhesion of the nanotubes prepared in this work was satisfactory for implantological applications.

  6. CO methanation over supported bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts: From computational studies towards catalyst optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustov, Arkadii; Frey, Anne Mette; Larsen, Kasper Emil

    2007-01-01

    with compositions 25Fe75Ni and 50Fe50Ni showed significantly better activity and in some cases also a higher selectivity to methane compared with the traditional monometallic Ni and Fe catalysts. A catalyst with composition 25Fe75Ni was found to be the most active in CO hydrogenation for the MgAl2O4 support at low...... metal loadings. At high metal concentrations, the maximum for the methanation activity was found for catalysts with composition 50Ni50Fe both on the MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 supports. This difference can be attributed to a higher reducibility of the constituting metals with increasing metal concentration......DFT calculations combined with a computational screening method have previously shown that bimetallic Ni-Fe alloys should be more active than the traditional Ni-based catalyst for CO methanation. That was confirmed experimentally for a number of bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts supported on MgAl2O4. Here...

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Optimization of Novel Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth C.

    This dissertation presents research on the development of novel materials and fabrication procedures for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The work discussed here is divided into three main categories: all-oxide anodes, catalyst exsolution oxide anodes, and Ni-infiltrated anodes. The all-oxide and catalyst exsolution anodes presented here are further classi?ed as Ni-free anodes operating at the standard 700-800°C SOFC temperature while the Ni-infiltrated anodes operate at intermediate temperatures (≤650°C). Compared with the current state-of-the-art Ni-based cermets, all-oxide, Ni-free SOFC anodes offer fewer coking issues in carbon-containing fuels, reduced degradation due to fuel contaminants, and improved stability during redox cycling. However, electrochemical performance has proven inferior to Ni-based anodes. The perovskite oxide Fe-substituted strontium titanate (STF) has shown potential as an anode material both as a single phase electrode and when combined with Gd-doped ceria (GDC) in a composite electrode. In this work, STF is synthesized using a modified Pechini processes with the aim of reducing STF particle size and increasing the electrochemically active area in the anode. The Pechini method produced particles ? 750 nm in diameter, which is signi°Cantly smaller than the typically micron-sized solid state reaction powder. In the first iteration of anode fabrication with the Pechini powder, issues with over-sintering of the small STF particles limited gas di?usion in the anode. However, after modifying the anode firing temperature, the Pechini cells produced power density comparable to solid state reaction based cells from previous work by Cho et al. Catalyst exsolution anodes, in which metal cations exsolve out of the lattice under reducing conditions and form nanoparticles on the oxide surface, are another Ni-free option for standard operating temperature SOFCs. Little information is known about the onset of nanoparticle formation, which

  8. Nanoporous PdCo Catalyst for Microfuel Cells: Electrodeposition and Dealloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tominaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PdCo alloy is a promising catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction of direct methanol fuel cells because of its high activity and the tolerance to methanol. We have applied this catalyst in order to realize on-chip fuel cell which is a membraneless design. The novel design made the fuel cells to be flexible and integratable with other microdevices. Here, we summarize our recent research on the synthesis of nanostructured PdCo catalyst by electrochemical methods, which enable us to deposit the alloy onto microelectrodes of the on-chip fuel cells. First, the electrodeposition of PdCo is discussed in detail, and then, dealloying for introducing nanopores into the electrodeposits is described. Finally, electrochemical response and activities are fully discussed.

  9. Plant-scale anodic dissolution of unirradiated IFR fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, E.C.; Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses anodic dissolution which is a major operation in the pyrometallurgical process for recycling spent metal fuels from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor design developed at Argonne National Laboratory. This process involves electrorefining the heavy metals (uranium and plutonium) from chopped, steel-clad fuel segments. The heavy metals are electrotransported from anodic dissolution baskets to solid and liquid cathodes in a molten salt electrolyte (LiCl-KCI) at 500 degrees C. Uranium is recovered on a solid cathode mandrel, while a uranium-plutonium mixture is recovered in a liquid cadmium cathode. The anode configuration consists of four baskets mounted on an anode shaft. These baskets provide parallel circuits in the electrolyte and salt flow through the chopped fuelbed as the baskets are rotated. The baskets for the engineering-scale tests were sized to contain up to 2.5 kg of heavy metal. Anodic dissolution of 10 kg batches of chopped, steel-clad simulated tuel (U-10% Zr and U-Zr-Fs alloy) was demonstrated

  10. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    surface of the alloy C was seen under scanning electron microscope at different magnifications. ... oxygen evolution for alloy C. The reverse scan revealed an inverted anodic peak at. 458 mV followed .... Scanning electron microscope picture.

  11. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fedkiw, Peter [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Khan, Saad [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huang, Alex [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fan, Jiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  12. Pd and polyaniline nanocomposite on carbon fiber paper as an efficient direct formic acid fuel cell anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh K.

    2018-03-01

    Direct formic acid fuel cells are advantageous as portable power generating devices. In the present work, an anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) is presented which has good catalytic activity for formic acid oxidation. The catalyst is composed of Pd and conducting polymer polyaniline (Pd-PANI) nanocomposite. The catalyst was prepared by using a single step galvanostatic electrochemical deposition method. The Pd-PANI catalyst was electrodeposited at different time durations and a comparison of the catalytic activity at each deposition time was carried out and optimized.

  13. CO tolerance of PdPt/C and PdPtRu/C anodes for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Amanda C.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of H 2 /O 2 proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) fed with CO-contaminated hydrogen was investigated for anodes with PdPt/C and PdPtRu/C electrocatalysts. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and 'in situ' X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Experiments were conducted in electrochemical half and single cells by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and I-V polarization measurements, while DEMS was employed to verify the formation of CO 2 at the PEMFC anode outlet. A quite high performance was achieved for the PEMFC fed with H 2 + 100 ppm CO with the PdPt/C and PdPtRu/C anodes containing 0.4 mg metal cm -2 , with the cell presenting potential losses below 200 mV at 1 A cm -2 , with respect to the system fed with pure H 2 . For the PdPt/C catalysts no CO 2 formation was seen at the PEMFC anode outlet, indicating that the CO tolerance is improved due to the existence of more free surface sites for H 2 electrooxidation, probably due to a lower Pd-CO interaction compared to pure Pd or Pt. For PdPtRu/C the CO tolerance may also have a contribution from the bifunctional mechanism, as shown by the presence of CO 2 in the PEMFC anode outlet

  14. A novel binary Pt{sub 3}Te{sub x}/C nanocatalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Meihua; Wang, Fei; Li, Lirong; Guo, Yonglang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2008-03-15

    The Pt{sub 3}Te{sub x}/C nanocatalyst was prepared and its catalytic performance for ethanol oxidation was investigated for the first time. The Pt{sub 3}Te/C nanoparticles were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy equipped with TEM (TEM-EDX). The Pt{sub 3}Te/C catalyst has a typical fcc structure of platinum alloys with the presence of Te. Its particle size is about 2.8 nm. Among the synthesized catalysts with different atomic ratios, the Pt{sub 3}Te/C catalyst has the highest anodic peak current density. The cyclic voltammograms (CV) show that the anodic peak current density for the Pt{sub 3}Te/C, commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts reaches 1002, 832 and 533 A g{sup -1}, respectively. On the current-time curve, the anodic current on the Pt{sub 3}Te/C catalyst was higher than those for the catalysts reported. So, these findings show that the Pt{sub 3}Te/C catalyst has uniform nanoparticles and the best activity among the synthesized catalysts, and it is better than commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. (author)

  15. Deuterium absorption in Mg70Al30 thin films with bilayer catalysts: A comparative neutron reflectometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Eric; Harrower, Chris T.; Kalisvaart, Peter; Bird, Adam; Teichert, Anke; Wallacher, Dirk; Grimm, Nico; Steitz, Roland; Mitlin, David; Fritzsche, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mg 70 Al 30 thin films studied for hydrogen absorption using in situ neutron reflectometry. → Films with Ta/Pd, Ti/Pd and Ni/Pd bilayer catalysts systematically compared. → Measurements reveals deuterium spillover from the catalysts to the MgAl phase. → The use of Ti-Pd bilayer offers best results in terms of amount absorbed and kinetics. → Key results cross-checked with X-ray reflectometry. - Abstract: We present a neutron reflectometry study of deuterium absorption in thin films of Al-containing Mg alloys capped with a Ta/Pd, Ni/Pd and Ti/Pd-catalyst bilayer. The measurements were performed at room temperature over the 0-1 bar pressure range under quasi-equilibrium conditions. The modeling of the measurements provided a nanoscale representation of the deuterium profile in the layers at different stages of the absorption process. The absorption mechanism observed was found to involve spillover of atomic deuterium from the catalyst layer to the Mg alloy phase, followed by the deuteration of the Mg alloy. Complete deuteration of the Mg alloy occurs in a pressure range between 100 and 500 mbar, dependent on the type of bilayer catalyst. The use of a Ti/Pd bilayer catalyst yielded the best results in terms of both storage density and kinetic properties.

  16. Development of biologically modified anodes for energy harvesting using microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, James J.; Ganguli, Rahul; Chmelka, Brad

    2012-06-01

    Biological fuel cells hold promise as an alternative energy source to batteries for unattended ground sensor applications due to the fact that they can be extremely long lived. This lifetime can be extended over batteries by scavenging fuel from the deployed environment. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are one class of such sources that produce usable energy from small organic compounds (i.e. sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and biopolymers) which can be easily containerized or scavenged from the environment. The use of microorganisms as the anodic catalysts is what makes these systems unique from other biofuel cell designs. One of the main drawbacks of engineering a sensor system powered by an MFC is that power densities and current flux are extremely low in currently reported systems. The power density is limited by the mass transfer of the fuel source to the catalyst, the metabolism of the microbial catalysts and the electron transfer from the organism to the anode. This presentation will focus on the development of a new style of microbially-modified anodes which will increase power density to a level where a practical power source can be engineered. This is being achieved by developing a three dimensional matrix as an artificial, conductive biofilm. These artificial biofilms will allow the capture of a consortium of microbes designed for efficient metabolism of the available fuel source. Also it will keep the microbes close to the electrode allowing ready access by fuel and providing a low resistance passage of the liberated electrons from fuel oxidation.

  17. Anodic behavior of stainless-steel substrate in organic electrolyte solutions containing different lithium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated anodic behavior of stainless-steel in organic electrolytes for advanced capacitor. • Anion of the electrolyte affected the anodic stability of the alloy. • Anodic passivation occurs in LiPF 6 solution but pitting or active dissolution proceeds in other electrolyte solutions. • Fluoride source in the solution contributes to forming a stable surface layer on the stainless steel. - Abstract: The anodic behavior of austenitic stainless-steel, SUS304, as a current collector of positive electrode in lithium-ion battery/capacitor has been investigated in organic electrolyte solutions based on a mixed alkyl carbonate solvent with different lithium salts. Stable passivation characteristics were observed for the stainless-steel in the LiPF 6 solution, but pitting corrosion or active dissolution proceeded in the solutions containing other anions, BF 4 - , (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - (TFSA - ) and ClO 4 - . The mass ratios of the dissolved metal species in the solutions of LiTFSA and LiClO 4 were equivalent to that of the alloy composition, which suggests that no preferential dissolution occurs during the anodic polarization in these electrolyte solutions. An HF component formed by decomposition of PF 6 - with the contaminate water will act as an F - source for the formation of a surface fluoride layer, that will contribute to the anodic stability of SUS304 in the LiPF 6 solution. The anodic corrosion in the LiTFSA solution was suppressed in part by mixing the PF 6 salt or adding HF in the electrolyte

  18. PdRu alloy nanoparticles of solid solution in atomic scale: outperformance towards formic acid electro-oxidation in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Kanghua; Luo, Yun; Zou, Jiasui; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Fengqi; Huang, Lin; Huang, Jie; Kang, Xiongwu; Chen, Shaowei

    2017-01-01

    Developing catalyst of high performance and low cost toward the electro-oxidation of formic acid on the anode of fuel cell is critical for the commercialization of direct formic acid fuel cells. Here we reported the synthesis of Pd x Ru 10-x (x = 1,3,5,7,9) nanoparticles (NPs) by concurrent reduction of Pd 2+ and Ru 2+ in polyol solution at 200 °C. The particle size of the obtained NPs was confined at 5–15 nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure for Pd x Ru 10-x (x = 3,5,7,9), with the lattice parameter proportional to the Pd content. The formation of the solid solution in atomic scale was confirmed for the alloy nanoparticles by XRD and the elemental mapping. Williamson-Hall method revealed that the stacking fault was dependent on the alloying extent of the alloy nanoparticles and reached the minimum for Pd 5 Ru 5 , which exhibited the highest activity towards formic acid oxidation among all these prepared samples, with mass activity of 12.6 times higher than that of commercial Pd/C. It was observed that the highest catalytic activity was in agreement with the minimum of the stacking fault of the alloy nanoparticles.

  19. Platinum and Palladium Alloys Suitable as Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt, Pd and mixtures thereof alloyed with a further element selected from Sc, Y and La as well as any mixtures thereof, wherein said alloy is supported on a conductive...

  20. Metal oxides and lithium alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available -generation anode materials for lithium–ion batteries with high prospect of replacing graphite. Most of these anode materials have higher specific capacities between the range of 600-1000 mA h g(sup-1) compared with 340 mA h g(sup-1) of graphite. These high...

  1. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  2. In silico search for novel methane steam reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yue; Lausche, Adam C; Khan, Tuhin S; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix; Nørskov, Jens K; Bligaard, Thomas; Wang, Shengguang

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for screening transition metal and metal alloy catalysts based on their predicted rates and stabilities for a given catalytic reaction. This method involves combining reaction and activation energies (available to the public via a web-based application ‘CatApp’) with a microkinetic modeling technique to predict the rates and selectivities of a prospective material. This paper illustrates this screening technique using the steam reforming of methane to carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a test reaction. While catalysts are already commercially available for this process, the method demonstrated in this paper is very general and could be applied to a wide range of catalytic reactions. Following the steps outlined herein, such an analysis could potentially enable researchers to understand reaction mechanisms on a fundamental level and, on this basis, develop leads for new metal alloy catalysts. (paper)

  3. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-03-17

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1(st) step) and solvothermal (2(nd) step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g(-1) at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g(-1), respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1) after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance.

  4. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1st step) and solvothermal (2nd step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g−1 at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1 after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance. PMID:25776280

  5. Anodically-grown TiO_2 nanotubes: Effect of the crystallization on the catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Adriano; Garino, Nadia; Lamberti, Andrea; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Quaglio, Marzia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Anodically-grown TiO_2 nanotubes as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. • Amorphous NTs compared to thermal- and vapor-treated crystalline nanostructures. • The selection of the crystallization conditions leads to performance similar to Pt. - Abstract: In this work we investigated the behavior of TiO_2 nanotube (NT) arrays, grown by anodic oxidation of Ti foil, as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline water solution. In particular, as-grown amorphous NTs were compared to crystalline anatase nanostructures, obtained following two different procedures, namely thermal and vapor-induced crystallizations. The catalytic activity of these materials toward the ORR was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry measurements. ORR polarization curves, combined with the rotating disk technique, indicated a predominant four-electrons reduction path, especially for crystalline samples. The effect of the structural characteristics of the investigated materials on the catalytic activity was analyzed in details by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of the crystalline NTs is only slightly lower with respect to the reference material for fuel cell applications, namely platinum, but is in line with other cost-effective catalysts recently proposed in the literature. However, if compared to the larger part of these low-cost catalysts, anodically-grown TiO_2 NTs are characterized by a synthesis route which is highly reproducible and easily up-scalable.

  6. NiCo as catalyst for magnetically induced dry reforming of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, F.; Bellusci, M.; Provini, A.; Petrecca, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report the activation of the dry reforming reaction by induction heating of a NiCo alloy. The catalyst plays a double role, serving both as a promoter for the reforming reaction and producing the heat induced by dissipation of the electromagnetic energy. The elevated temperatures imposed by the reforming reaction suggest the choice of an alloy with a Curie temperature >800°C. In this respect Ni:Co ratio 60:40 was chosen. Alloy active sites for CH4and CO2activation are created by a mechanochemical treatment of the alloy that increases solid-state defects. The catalyst has been successfully tested in a continuous-flow reactor working under atmospheric pressure. Methane conversion and hydrogen production yields have been measured as a function of the applied magnetic field, reactant flow rate and time on stream.

  7. Improvement of performance in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells operated on ethanol and air mixtures using Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M.; Espiell, F.; Segarra, M.

    2015-10-01

    Anode-supported single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells with and without Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst layers deposited on the anode support have been operated on ethanol and air mixtures. The cells consist of gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte, Ni-doped ceria anode, and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ-doped ceria cathode. Catalyst layers with different Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 ratios are deposited and sintered at several temperatures. Since the performance of single-chamber fuel cells strongly depends on catalytic properties of electrodes for partial oxidation of ethanol, the cells are electrochemically characterized as a function of the temperature, ethanol-air molar ratio and gas flow rate. In addition, catalytic activities of supported anode, catalytic layer-supported anode and cathode for partial oxidation of ethanol are analysed. Afterwards, the effect of composition and sintering temperature of catalyst layer on the cell performance are determined. The results indicate that the cell performance can be significantly enhanced using catalyst layers of 30:35:35 and 40:30:30 wt.% Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 sintered at 1100 °C, achieving power densities above 50 mW cm-2 under 0.45 ethanol-air ratio at temperatures as low as 450 °C. After testing for 15 h, all cells present a gradual loss of power density, without carbon deposition, which is mainly attributed to the partial re-oxidation of Ni at the anode.

  8. DC electrodeposition of NiGa alloy nanowires in AAO template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, K. [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanjabi, S., E-mail: sanjabi@modares.ac.ir [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alemipour, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from an acidic sulfate bath into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO). This template was fabricated by two-step anodizing. The effects of bath composition and current density were explored on the Ga content of electrodeposited nanowires. The Ga content in the deposits was increased by increasing both Ga in the bath composition and electrodepositing current density. The NiGa alloy nanowires were synthesized for Ga content up to 2–4% without significant improving the magnetic properties. Above this threshold Ga clusters were formed and decreased the magnetic properties of the nanowires. For Ga content of the alloy above 30%, the wires were too short and incomplete. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the significant increase of Ga content in the nanowires, changes the FCC crystal structure of Ni to an amorphous phase. It also causes a sizeable increase in the Ga cluster size; these both lead to a significant reduction in the coercivity and the magnetization respectively. - Highlights: • NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from acidic sulphate baths into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO) template. • The Ga content was increased by increasing the Ga in the bath composition and electrodeposition current density. • The magnetic parameters such as coercivity and magnetization were not changed for the alloy nanowire with Ga content less than 4%.

  9. Influence of electrical parameters on morphology of nanostructured TiO2 layers developed by electrochemical anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy micro rough surfaces with TiO2 self-organized nanostructured layers were synthesized using electrochemical anodization in phosphate/fluoride electrolyte, at different end potentials (5V, 10V, 15V, and 20 V. The current – time characteristics were recorded, and the link between current evolution and the morphology of developing oxide layers was investigated. On flat surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloy we developed TiO2 layers with different morphologies (random pores, nanopores of 25…50 nm, and highly organized nanotubes of 50…100 nm in diameter depending on electrical parameters of anodization process. In our anodization cell, in optimized conditions, we are able to superimpose nanostructured oxide layers (nanotubular or nanoporous over micro structured surfaces of titanium based materials used for biomedical implants.

  10. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  11. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-01-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide–sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (I corr ) and higher corrosion potential (E corr ) than those of the substrate.

  12. Morphology and performances of the anodic oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy formed in alkaline-silicate electrolyte with aminopropyl silane addition under low potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiali; Wang, Jinwei, E-mail: wangjw@ustb.edu.cn; Yuan, Hongye

    2013-11-01

    Oxide films on Ti6Al4V alloy are prepared using sodium hydroxide–sodium silicate as the base electrolyte with addition of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) as additive by potentiostatic anodizing under 10 V. APS is incorporated into the films during anodizing and the surface morphology of the oxide films is changed from particle stacked to honeycomb-like porous surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDX). The surface roughness and aminopropyl existence on the oxide films result in their differences in wettability as tested by the surface profile topography and contact angle measurements. The anti-abrasive ability of the anodic films is improved with the addition of APS due to its toughening effects and serving as lubricants in the ceramic oxide films as measured by ball-on-disk friction test. Also, potentiodynamic corrosion test proves that their anticorrosive ability in 3.5 wt.% NaCl is greatly improved as reflected by their much lower corrosion current (I{sub corr}) and higher corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) than those of the substrate.

  13. A STUDY ABOUT CELL ACTIVITY ON ANODIZED Ti-6Al-4V BY MEANS OF PULSED CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUANA M. R. VASCONCELLOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and some of its alloys exhibit excellent anti-corrosive and biocompatibility properties due to rapid formation of a passive film on their surfaces when exposed to the atmosphere. However, such materials presentpoor osteoindutive properties. Surfaces modified via anodization are being proposed in this study to promote a chemical interaction between implants and bone cells. For this purpose, samples in Ti-6Al-4V alloy discs were anodized in a phosphoric acid solution using pulsed current for being applied in orthopaedic implants. The pulsed current is based on duty cycle (DC, which was supplied by a square wave pulse rectifier at 100 Hz and maximum tension of 30 V. A scanning electron microscope was used to obtain images of the anodized surfaces, thus revealing the presence of uniformly distributed pores over the entire surface, measuring approximately 2 m in diameter. Osteogenic cells grown on the surface of the control and anodized samples were assayed for cytotoxicity and mineralized matrix formation. The anodized surfaces presented a higher rate of viable cells after 10 days, as well as a higher amount of nodules (p = 0.05. In conclusion, these results suggest that the nanotopography promoted by anodization using pulsed current induces beneficial modulatory effects on osteoblastic cells.

  14. Catalytic activity of Pd-doped Cu nanoparticles for hydrogenation as a single-atom-alloy catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinrui; Fu, Qiang; Luo, Yi

    2014-05-14

    The single atom alloy of extended surfaces is known to provide remarkably enhanced catalytic performance toward heterogeneous hydrogenation. Here we demonstrate from first principles calculations that this approach can be extended to nanostructures, such as bimetallic nanoparticles. The catalytic properties of the single-Pd-doped Cu55 nanoparticles have been systemically examined for H2 dissociation as well as H atom adsorption and diffusion, following the concept of single atom alloy. It is found that doping a single Pd atom at the edge site of the Cu55 shell can considerably reduce the activation energy of H2 dissociation, while the single Pd atom doped at the top site or in the inner layers is much less effective. The H atom adsorption on Cu55 is slightly stronger than that on the Cu(111) surface; however, a larger nanoparticle that contains 147 atoms could effectively recover the weak binding of the H atoms. We have also investigated the H atom diffusion on the 55-atom nanoparticle and found that spillover of the produced H atoms could be a feasible process due to the low diffusion barriers. Our results have demonstrated that facile H2 dissociation and weak H atom adsorption could be combined at the nanoscale. Moreover, the effects of doping one more Pd atom on the H2 dissociation and H atom adsorption have also been investigated. We have found that both the doping Pd atoms in the most stable configuration could independently exhibit their catalytic activity, behaving as two single-atom-alloy catalysts.

  15. Confinement dependence of electro-catalysts for hydrogen evolution from water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela Lindgren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory is utilized to articulate a particular generic deconstruction of the electrode/electro-catalyst assembly for the cathode process during water splitting. A computational model was designed to determine how alloying elements control the fraction of H2 released during zirconium oxidation by water relative to the amount of hydrogen picked up by the corroding alloy. This model is utilized to determine the efficiencies of transition metals decorated with hydroxide interfaces in facilitating the electro-catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. A computational strategy is developed to select an electro-catalyst for hydrogen evolution (HE, where the choice of a transition metal catalyst is guided by the confining environment. The latter may be recast into a nominal pressure experienced by the evolving H2 molecule. We arrived at a novel perspective on the uniqueness of oxide supported atomic Pt as a HE catalyst under ambient conditions.

  16. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium

  17. Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

    2014-12-30

    An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

  18. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  19. Studies on black anodic coatings for spacecraft thermal control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Rani, R.; Subba Rao, Y.; Sharma, A.K. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Thermal Systems Group

    2011-10-15

    An inorganic black colouring process using nickel sulphate and sodium sulphide was investigated on anodized aluminium alloy 6061 to provide a flat absorber black coating for spacecraft thermal control applications. Influence of colouring process parameters (concentration, pH) on the physico-optical properties of black anodic film was investigated. The nature of black anodic film was evaluated by the measurement of film thickness, micro hardness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies confirmed the presence of nickel and sulphur in the black anodic coating. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The environmental tests, namely, humidity, corrosion resistance, thermal cycling and thermo vacuum performance tests were used to evaluate the space worthiness of the coating. Optical properties of the film were measured before and after each environmental test to ascertain its stability in harsh space environment. The black anodic films provide higher thermal emittance ({proportional_to} 0.90) and solar absorptance ({proportional_to} 0.96) and their high stability during the environmental tests indicated their suitability for space and allied applications. (orig.)

  20. High-performance Platinum-free oxygen reduction reaction and hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Priji; Ghosh, Arpita; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2018-02-26

    The integration of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack into vehicles necessitates the replacement of high-priced platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalyst, which contributes to about 45% of the cost of the stack. The implementation of high-performance and durable Pt metal-free catalyst for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) could significantly enable large-scale commercialization of fuel cell-powered vehicles. Towards this goal, a simple, scalable, single-step synthesis method was adopted to develop palladium-cobalt alloy supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Pd 3 Co/NG) nanocomposite. Rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) studies for the electrochemical activity towards ORR indicates that ORR proceeds via nearly four-electron mechanism. Besides, the mass activity of Pd 3 Co/NG shows an enhancement of 1.6 times compared to that of Pd/NG. The full fuel cell measurements were carried out using Pd 3 Co/NG at the anode, cathode in conjunction with Pt/C and simultaneously at both anode and cathode. A maximum power density of 68 mW/cm 2 is accomplished from the simultaneous use of Pd 3 Co/NG as both anode and cathode electrocatalyst with individual loading of 0.5 mg/cm 2 at 60 °C without any backpressure. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first of its kind of a fully non-Pt based PEM full cell.

  1. Boosting the performance of Pt electro-catalysts toward formic acid electro-oxidation by depositing sub-monolayer Au clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Xuanxuan; Wang Rongyue; Ding Yi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Au decoration on Pt nanoparticles simultaneously increases the activity and stability. → Sub-monolayer Au decoration changes the reaction path and results in the activity improvement. → Increasing the Au coverage will increase the specific activity. → Proper Au coverage results in a maximum mass specific activity. - Abstract: CO poisoning is the main obstacle to the application of Pt nanoparticles as anode catalysts in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). Significant types of Pt alloys have been investigated, which often demonstrate evidently improved catalytic performance governed by difference mechanisms. By using a well-known electrochemical technique of under potential deposition and in situ redox replacement, sub-monolayer Au clusters are deposited onto Pt nanoparticle surfaces in a highly controlled manner, generating a unique surface alloy structure. Under optimum conditions, the modified Pt nanoparticles can exhibit greatly enhanced specific activity (up to 23-fold increase) at potential of -0.2 V vs. MSE toward formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO). Interestingly, the mass specific activity can also be improved by a factor of 2.3 at potential of -0.35 V vs. MSE although significant amount of surface Pt atoms are covered by the overlayer Au clusters. The much enhanced catalytic activity can be ascribed to a Pt surface ensemble effect, which induces change of the reaction path. Moreover, the sub-monolayer Au coating on the surface also contributes to the enhanced catalyst durability by inhibiting the Pt oxidation. These results show great potential to rationally design more active and stable nanocatalysts by modifying the Pt surface with otherwise inactive materials.

  2. Anodically-grown TiO{sub 2} nanotubes: Effect of the crystallization on the catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.sacco@iit.it [Center for Sustainable Future Technologies @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129, Torino (Italy); Garino, Nadia [Center for Sustainable Future Technologies @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129, Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Lamberti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.lamberti@polito.it [Center for Sustainable Future Technologies @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129, Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Pirri, Candido Fabrizio [Center for Sustainable Future Technologies @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129, Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Quaglio, Marzia [Center for Sustainable Future Technologies @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129, Torino (Italy)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Anodically-grown TiO{sub 2} nanotubes as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. • Amorphous NTs compared to thermal- and vapor-treated crystalline nanostructures. • The selection of the crystallization conditions leads to performance similar to Pt. - Abstract: In this work we investigated the behavior of TiO{sub 2} nanotube (NT) arrays, grown by anodic oxidation of Ti foil, as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline water solution. In particular, as-grown amorphous NTs were compared to crystalline anatase nanostructures, obtained following two different procedures, namely thermal and vapor-induced crystallizations. The catalytic activity of these materials toward the ORR was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry measurements. ORR polarization curves, combined with the rotating disk technique, indicated a predominant four-electrons reduction path, especially for crystalline samples. The effect of the structural characteristics of the investigated materials on the catalytic activity was analyzed in details by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of the crystalline NTs is only slightly lower with respect to the reference material for fuel cell applications, namely platinum, but is in line with other cost-effective catalysts recently proposed in the literature. However, if compared to the larger part of these low-cost catalysts, anodically-grown TiO{sub 2} NTs are characterized by a synthesis route which is highly reproducible and easily up-scalable.

  3. Electrochemical Partial Reforming of Ethanol into Ethyl Acetate Using Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets as a Highly Selective Anode Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Qin, Qing; Zhao, Xiaojing; Xu, Chaofa; Hu, Chengyi; Mo, Shiguang; Wang, Yu Olivia; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-08-24

    Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. With abundant active sites on Co3O4 (111), the as-synthesized ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activities toward water and ethanol oxidations in alkaline media. More importantly, over the Co3O4 nanosheets, the electrooxidation from ethanol to ethyl acetate was so selective that no other oxidation products were yielded. With such a high selectivity, an electrolyzer cell using Co3O4 nanosheets as the anode electrocatalyst and Ni-Mo nanopowders as the cathode electrocatalyst has been successfully built for ethanol reforming. The electrolyzer cell was readily driven by a 1.5 V battery to achieve the effective production of both H2 and ethyl acetate. After the bulk electrolysis, about 95% of ethanol was electrochemically reformed into ethyl acetate. This work opens up new opportunities in designing a material system for building unique devices to generate both hydrogen and high-value organics at room temperature by utilizing electric energy from renewable sources.

  4. Lithium based alloy-thionyl chloride cells for applications at temperatures to 200 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.; Epstein, J.; Lindsey, A.

    A long-life lithium battery for industrial applications at temperatures up to 200 C was developed by combining Li-based alloy anodes with oxyhalide electrolytes. Cathodes were fabricated by rolling the blend of polycarbonomonofluoride, a conductive carbon additive, and a binder, while anodes were fabricated as those used in oxyhalide cells, incorporating a modified anode current collector designed to prevent the formation of 'lithium islands' at the end of discharge; nonwoven glass fiber separators were pretreated to remove excessive binders and lubricants. Various active electrode surface areas were combined with a corresponding thickness of electrodes and separators, matched in capacity. Tests of the high-rate electrode structure, using Li-Mg alloy anode in conjunction with thionyl chloride electrolyte, have demonstrated that the battery with this anode can be used under abusive conditions such as short circuit and external heating (at 175 C). Raising the operating temperature to 200 C did require some modifications of regular cell hardware.

  5. Deuterium absorption in Mg{sub 70}Al{sub 30} thin films with bilayer catalysts: A comparative neutron reflectometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Eric [National Research Council Canada/Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Bldg. 459, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Harrower, Chris T.; Kalisvaart, Peter [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada/National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bird, Adam [National Research Council Canada/Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Bldg. 459, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Teichert, Anke [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wallacher, Dirk; Grimm, Nico; Steitz, Roland [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Mitlin, David [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada/National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9 (Canada); Fritzsche, Helmut, E-mail: Helmut.Fritzsche@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada/Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Bldg. 459, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2011-05-05

    Highlights: > Mg{sub 70}Al{sub 30} thin films studied for hydrogen absorption using in situ neutron reflectometry. > Films with Ta/Pd, Ti/Pd and Ni/Pd bilayer catalysts systematically compared. > Measurements reveals deuterium spillover from the catalysts to the MgAl phase. > The use of Ti-Pd bilayer offers best results in terms of amount absorbed and kinetics. > Key results cross-checked with X-ray reflectometry. - Abstract: We present a neutron reflectometry study of deuterium absorption in thin films of Al-containing Mg alloys capped with a Ta/Pd, Ni/Pd and Ti/Pd-catalyst bilayer. The measurements were performed at room temperature over the 0-1 bar pressure range under quasi-equilibrium conditions. The modeling of the measurements provided a nanoscale representation of the deuterium profile in the layers at different stages of the absorption process. The absorption mechanism observed was found to involve spillover of atomic deuterium from the catalyst layer to the Mg alloy phase, followed by the deuteration of the Mg alloy. Complete deuteration of the Mg alloy occurs in a pressure range between 100 and 500 mbar, dependent on the type of bilayer catalyst. The use of a Ti/Pd bilayer catalyst yielded the best results in terms of both storage density and kinetic properties.

  6. Reverse microemulsion prepared Ni–Pt catalysts for methane cracking to produce COx-free hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2017-09-08

    A monodispersed 15 nm Ni9Pt1 catalyst synthesized via a reverse microemulsion method, shows a lower activation energy than both Ni and Pt catalysts during the methane cracking reaction. Thanks to the synergic effect of Ni–Pt alloy, this catalyst presents a stable H2 formation rate at 700 °C, and forms carbon nanotubes, anchoring the catalyst particles on top.

  7. Reverse microemulsion prepared Ni–Pt catalysts for methane cracking to produce COx-free hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu; Harb, Moussab; Enakonda, Linga Reddy; Al Mana, Noor; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    A monodispersed 15 nm Ni9Pt1 catalyst synthesized via a reverse microemulsion method, shows a lower activation energy than both Ni and Pt catalysts during the methane cracking reaction. Thanks to the synergic effect of Ni–Pt alloy, this catalyst presents a stable H2 formation rate at 700 °C, and forms carbon nanotubes, anchoring the catalyst particles on top.

  8. Application of anodizing as a pre-treatment for nickel plating on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, M.; Ahmad, J.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, M.; Akhtar, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of anodizing on subsequent electroplating of nickel on aluminum was investigated. Electroplated nickel did not exhibit any adhesion with un-anodized aluminum. Formation of a very thin anodized alumina film prior to nickel plating led to an excellent adhesion between the nickel film and the substrate. If the thickness of the alumina film increased, adhesion of electroplated nickel was significantly deteriorated and became similar to that of un-anodized bare aluminum. The study revealed that deposition proceeded through pores and defects in the insulator alumina film. These pores and defects also acted as nucleation and anchor points for nickel deposit. There was larger number of nucleation/ anchor points on thin alumina films. This provided better adhesion of nickel with the substrate as well as excellent coverage in relatively shorter times. On the other hand, very rough and poorly adherent nickel deposits formed on thick anodized films. Therefore, it may be used as precursor for producing nickel powder with controlled particle size as well as a catalyst with high specific surface area for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. (author)

  9. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2 h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Formation of Sn-M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) alloy nanoparticles by DC arc-discharge and their electrochemical properties as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Huang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Yu, Jieyi; Gao, Jian; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Chunjing; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-10-01

    A direct current arc-discharge method was applied to prepare the Sn-M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) bi-alloy nanoparticles. Thermodynamic is introduced to analyze the energy circumstances for the formation of the nanoparticles during the physical condensation process. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared Sn-M alloy nanoparticles are systematically investigated as anodes of Li-ion batteries. Among them, Sn-Fe nanoparticles electrode exhibits high Coulomb efficiency (about 71.2%) in the initial charge/discharge (257.9 mA h g-1/366.6 mA h g-1) and optimal cycle stability (a specific reversible capacity of 240 mA h g-1 maintained after 20 cycles) compared with others. Large differences in the electrochemical behaviors indicate that the chemical composition and microstructure of the nanoparticles determine the lithium-ion storage properties and the long-term cyclic stability during the charge/discharge process.

  11. Bimetallic Nickel/Ruthenium Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition for Low-Temperature Direct Methanol Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heonjae; Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Joonsuk; An, Jihwan; Lee, Tonghun; Prinz, Fritz B; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2016-11-09

    Nickel and ruthenium bimetallic catalysts were heterogeneously synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as the anode of direct methanol solid oxide fuel cells (DMSOFCs) operating in a low-temperature range. The presence of highly dispersed ALD Ru islands over a porous Ni mesh was confirmed, and the Ni/ALD Ru anode microstructure was observed. Fuel cell tests were conducted using Ni-only and Ni/ALD Ru anodes with approximately 350 μm thick gadolinium-doped ceria electrolytes and platinum cathodes. The performance of fuel cells was assessed using pure methanol at operating temperatures of 300-400 °C. Micromorphological changes of the anode after cell operation were investigated, and the content of adsorbed carbon on the anode side of the operated samples was measured. The difference in the maximum power density between samples utilizing Ni/ALD Ru and Pt/ALD Ru, the latter being the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, was observed to be less than 7% at 300 °C and 30% at 350 °C. The improved electrochemical activity of the Ni/ALD Ru anode compared to that of the Ni-only anode, along with the reduction of the number of catalytically active sites due to agglomeration of Ni and carbon formation on the Ni surface as compared to Pt, explains this decent performance.

  12. Balancing activity, stability and conductivity of nanoporous core-shell iridium/iridium oxide oxygen evolution catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Lopes, Pietro Papa; Park, Shin-Ae; Lee, A-Yeong; Lim, Jinkyu; Lee, Hyunjoo; Back, Seoin; Jung, Yousung; Danilovic, Nemanja; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Erlebacher, Jonah; Snyder, Joshua; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2017-11-13

    The selection of oxide materials for catalyzing the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in acid-based electrolyzers must be guided by the proper balance between activity, stability and conductivity – a challenging mission of great importance for delivering affordable and environmentally friendly hydrogen. Here we report that the highly conductive nanoporous architecture of an iridium oxide shell on a metallic iridium core, formed through the fast dealloying of osmium from an Ir25Os75 alloy, exhibits an exceptional balance between oxygen evolution activity and stability as quantified by the Activity-Stability FactorASF. Based on this metric, the nanoporous Ir/IrO2 morphology of dealloyed Ir25Os75 shows a factor of ~30 improvement ASFrelative to conventional Ir-based oxide materials and a ~8 times improvement over dealloyed Ir25Os75 nanoparticles due to optimized stability and conductivity, respectively. We propose that the Activity-Stability FactorASF is the key “metric” for determining the technological relevance of oxide-based anodic water electrolyzer catalysts.

  13. Effect of CrO3 Sealing Time on Anodized A12024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Akhmad A.; Hidayat, R. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of CrO3 sealing time on anodized aluminum alloy has been investigated. A1 2024-T3 were used as substrate. Anodizing was carried out using chromic acid. CrO3 sealing was conducted in CrO3 solution for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. As comparison, other specimens were also prepared as anodized and boiled water sealing. Thickness of the coating was observed by optical microscope. Anodized and sealing layer was analyzed by X- ray diffraction. The hardness of as anodized, boiled water sealing and CrO3 sealing were compared. The highest hardness is achieved by CrO3 sealed specimen and followed by boiled water sealing and as anodized specimens. The longer the processes of CrO3 sealing the higher layer thickness and therefore the higher hardness of the oxide layer. The best resistance to electrolyte penetration is achieved by the CrO3 sealed specimen followed by boiled water sealed and as anodized specimens. The higher thickness of oxide layer, the higher the resistance against electrolyte penetration.

  14. Effect of CrO_3 Sealing Time on Anodized A12024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korda, Akhmad A; Hidayat, R Z

    2016-01-01

    The effect of CrO_3 sealing time on anodized aluminum alloy has been investigated. A1 2024-T3 were used as substrate. Anodizing was carried out using chromic acid. CrO_3 sealing was conducted in CrO_3 solution for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. As comparison, other specimens were also prepared as anodized and boiled water sealing. Thickness of the coating was observed by optical microscope. Anodized and sealing layer was analyzed by X- ray diffraction. The hardness of as anodized, boiled water sealing and CrO_3 sealing were compared. The highest hardness is achieved by CrO_3 sealed specimen and followed by boiled water sealing and as anodized specimens. The longer the processes of CrO3 sealing the higher layer thickness and therefore the higher hardness of the oxide layer. The best resistance to electrolyte penetration is achieved by the CrO_3 sealed specimen followed by boiled water sealed and as anodized specimens. The higher thickness of oxide layer, the higher the resistance against electrolyte penetration. (paper)

  15. Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

    An important issue that has limited the potential of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for portable applications is its high operating temperatures (800-1000 ºC). Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 400-600 ºC enable a wider material selection, reduced degradation and increased lifetime....... On the other hand, low-temperature operation poses serious challenges to the electrode performance. Effective catalysts, redox stable electrodes with improved microstructures are the prime requisite for the development of efficient SOFC anodes. The performance of Nb-doped SrT iO3 (STN) ceramic anodes...... at 400ºC. The potential of using WO3 ceramic as an alternative anode materials has been explored. The relatively high electrode polarization resistance obtained, 11 Ohm cm2 at 600 ºC, proved the inadequate catalytic activity of this system for hydrogen oxidation. At the end of this thesis...

  16. Formation of Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) alloy nanoparticles by DC arc-discharge and their electrochemical properties as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song; Huang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Yu, Jieyi; Gao, Jian; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Chunjing; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    A direct current arc-discharge method was applied to prepare the Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) bi-alloy nanoparticles. Thermodynamic is introduced to analyze the energy circumstances for the formation of the nanoparticles during the physical condensation process. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared Sn–M alloy nanoparticles are systematically investigated as anodes of Li-ion batteries. Among them, Sn–Fe nanoparticles electrode exhibits high Coulomb efficiency (about 71.2%) in the initial charge/discharge (257.9 mA h g −1 /366.6 mA h g −1 ) and optimal cycle stability (a specific reversible capacity of 240 mA h g −1 maintained after 20 cycles) compared with others. Large differences in the electrochemical behaviors indicate that the chemical composition and microstructure of the nanoparticles determine the lithium-ion storage properties and the long-term cyclic stability during the charge/discharge process. - Graphical abstract: The growth mechanism and electrochemical performance of Sn-based alloy nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analyses of oxides on Sn-M nanoparticles surface. • The relationship between chemical components and electrochemical responses. • Sn-Fe nanoparticles show excellent electrode performance.

  17. Formation of Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) alloy nanoparticles by DC arc-discharge and their electrochemical properties as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Song [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, Hao, E-mail: huanghao@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Aimin; Yu, Jieyi; Gao, Jian; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Chunjing [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    A direct current arc-discharge method was applied to prepare the Sn–M (M=Fe, Al, Ni) bi-alloy nanoparticles. Thermodynamic is introduced to analyze the energy circumstances for the formation of the nanoparticles during the physical condensation process. The electrochemical properties of as-prepared Sn–M alloy nanoparticles are systematically investigated as anodes of Li-ion batteries. Among them, Sn–Fe nanoparticles electrode exhibits high Coulomb efficiency (about 71.2%) in the initial charge/discharge (257.9 mA h g{sup −1}/366.6 mA h g{sup −1}) and optimal cycle stability (a specific reversible capacity of 240 mA h g{sup −1} maintained after 20 cycles) compared with others. Large differences in the electrochemical behaviors indicate that the chemical composition and microstructure of the nanoparticles determine the lithium-ion storage properties and the long-term cyclic stability during the charge/discharge process. - Graphical abstract: The growth mechanism and electrochemical performance of Sn-based alloy nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analyses of oxides on Sn-M nanoparticles surface. • The relationship between chemical components and electrochemical responses. • Sn-Fe nanoparticles show excellent electrode performance.

  18. Titania Supported Pt and Pt/Pd Nano-particle Catalysts for the Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Johannessen, Tue; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    2006-01-01

    Several types of titania (anatase) were used as supports for pure platinum and Pt–Pd bimetallic alloy catalysts. The preparation methods, normal wet impregnation technique and flame aerosol synthesis, obtained metal loadings of 2% by weight. The prepared catalysts were tested for SO2 oxidation...... activity at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 250–600 °C. The SO2 to SO3 conversion efficiency of the Pt–Pd alloy was significantly higher than that of the individual metals. The effects of the preparation method and the titania type used on the properties and activity of the resulting catalyst...

  19. Deposition of nano-size particles on reticulated vitreous carbon using colloidal precursors : three-dimensional anodes for borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In addition to their inherently larger specific surface area, mesoscopic materials also possess a higher density of surface constrained sites, which could serve as active sites in catalysis as well as facilitate the surface diffusion of small molecules and ions relevant to various catalytic steps. This study investigated the organosol method for the deposition of platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir), gold (Au) and nickel (Ni) nano-particles on reticulated vitreous carbon to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity for BH{sub 4} oxidation by both fundamental electrochemical studies and fuel cell experiments. The application of the organosol nanometal preparation technique was based on the quaternary ammonium compound N(C{sub 8}H{sub 17}){sub 4}B(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}H acting as both reductant and colloid stabilizer. A current assisted variant was also studied where the reticulated vitreous carbon substrate served as the cathode operating at superficial current densities between 1.0 and 2.5 mA per cm{sup 2}. The organosol method produced a low catalyst load on reticulated vitreous carbons between 0.01 and 0.12 mg per cm{sup 2}. The electrodes were evaluated for catalytic activity toward the electro-oxidation of BH{sub 4} by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. Borohydride fuel cells with liquid electrolyte (2 M NaOH) were assembled using a 3-dimensional anode, a cation exchange membrane and a commercial oxygen cathode. Results showed that the anode catalyst mass activity was higher for the 3-D design compared to the case when a gas diffusion electrode served as the anode. It was concluded that the extended reaction zone of the three-dimensional anode with liquid electrolyte improved the catalyst utilization efficiency by allowing the reduction of the catalyst load. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Aluminum as anode for energy storage and conversion: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    Aluminum has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer on the aluminum surface is however detrimental to the battery performance, contributing to failure to achieve the reversible potential and causing the delayed activation of the anode. By developing aluminum alloys as anodes and solution additives to electrolytes, a variety of aluminum batteries have been extensively investigated for various applications. From molten salt and other non-aqueous electrolytes, aluminum can be electrodeposited and therefore be suitable for developing rechargable batteries. Considerable efforts have been made to develop secondary aluminum batteries of high power density. In the present paper, these research activities are reviewed, including aqueous electrolyte primary batteries, aluminum-air batteries and molten salt secondary batteries.

  1. Complex anticorrosion coating for ZK30 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Knoernschild, G.; Snihirova, D.V.; Taryba, M.G.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at developing a new complex anticorrosion protection system for ZK30 magnesium alloy. This protective coating is based on an anodic oxide layer loaded with corrosion inhibitors in its pores, which is then sealed with a sol-gel hybrid polymer. The porous oxide layer is produced by spark anodizing. The sol-gel film shows good adhesion to the oxide layer as it penetrates through the pores of the anodized layer forming an additional transient oxide-sol-gel interlayer. The thickness of this complex protective coating is about 3.7-7.0 μm. A blank oxide-sol-gel coating system or one doped with Ce 3+ ions proved to be effective corrosion protection for the magnesium alloy preventing corrosion attack after exposure for a relatively long duration in an aggressive NaCl solution. The structure and the thickness of the anodized layer and the sol-gel film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of the ZK30 substrates pre-treated with the complex coating was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), and scanning ion-selective electrode techniques (SIET).

  2. Stable anodes for lithium ion batteries made of self-organized mesoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, Sascha J; Köntges, Marc; Brendel, Rolf; Bahnemann, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Alloy-forming compounds, such as electrodes for lithium ion batteries, stand out in terms of their theoretical specific charge capacity while still lacking in mechanical stability due to significant volume changes during operation. Herein, we examine the approach of combining low structural dimensions of the active material with built-in expansion volumes and assess their benefit for silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries. Consequently, self-organized mesoporous silicon is prepared as a suitable anode material for lithium ion batteries without any pre-structuring methods. The anodes are made by employing electrochemical etching methods in a scalable process and are characterized by ellipsometry. Thermally evaporated copper is utilized as the current collector. A sheet of freestanding silicon in contact with copper is used as an anode material with a thickness of 3 μm. After an initialization phase, electrochemical characterization reveals an anode stability of more than 160 cycles with a specific charge capacity of 730 mAh/g. The mechanical stability of the anode is examined by taking SEM measurements of the used electrode material. (paper)

  3. Enhanced tribological behavior of anodic films containing SiC and PTFE nanoparticles on Ti6Al4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Songmei; Zhu, Mengqi; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Jindan; Liang, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly sodium tartrate (C 4 O 6 H 4 Na 2 ) electrolyte is used. • SiC and PTFE nanoparticles reduce friction coefficient of composite films. • SiC and PTFE nanoparticles demonstrate a favorable synergistic effect on improving tribological properties of composite films. • Lubricating mechanisms of SiC and PTFE nanoparticles are discussed. - Abstract: Anodic films containing SiC and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V alloy by using anodic oxidation method in an environmental friendly electrolyte. The morphology, structure and composition of the films were studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the film contained a layered structure and have a surface full of petaloid bulges, which was totally different from the common anodic oxide film of the porous kind. The tribological properties of the films were investigated with dry friction tests in terms of the friction coefficient, wear rate and the morphology of worn surfaces. The results indicated that the SiC/PTFE composite film exhibited much better anti-wear and anti-friction performances than that of the SiC composite film, the PTFE composite film and the ordinary film without nanoparticles. The SiC/PTFE composite film has friction coefficient of 0.1 and wear rate of 20.133 mg/m, which was decreased respectively by 80% and 44.5% compared with that of the ordinary film. The lubricating mechanisms of the composite film containing SiC and PTFE nanoparticles were discussed. PTFE nanoparticles could lead to the formation of lubricating layer while SiC nanoparticles inside the lubricating layer turned sliding friction to rolling friction

  4. Dealloyed Ruthenium Film Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Chemical Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis B. Serin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin-film ruthenium (Ru and copper (Cu binary alloys have been prepared on a Teflon™ backing layer by cosputtering of the precious and nonprecious metals, respectively. Alloys were then selectively dealloyed by sulfuric acid as an etchant, and their hydrogen generation catalysts performances were evaluated. Sputtering time and power of Cu atoms have been varied in order to tailor the hydrogen generation performances. Similarly, dealloying time and the sulfuric acid concentration have also been altered to tune the morphologies of the resulted films. A maximum hydrogen generation rate of 35 mL min−1 was achieved when Cu sputtering power and time were 200 W and 60 min and while acid concentration and dealloying time were 18 M and 90 min, respectively. It has also been demonstrated that the Ru content in the alloy after dealloying gradually increased with the increasing the sputtering power of Cu. After 90 min dealloying, the Ru to Cu ratio increased to about 190 times that of bare alloy. This is the key issue for observing higher catalytic activity. Interestingly, we have also presented template-free nanoforest-like structure formation within the context of one-step alloying and dealloying used in this study. Last but not least, the long-time hydrogen generation performances of the catalysts system have also been evaluated along 3600 min. During the first 600 min, the catalytic activity was quite stable, while about 24% of the catalytic activity decayed after 3000 min, which still makes these systems available for the development of robust catalyst systems in the area of hydrogen generation.

  5. Nanosized Hydroxyapatite Precipitation on the Ti—30Ta—xHf Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; Jang, Jae- In; Han-Cheol, Choe

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we prepared hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer on the alkali treated Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys using electrochemical deposition method. Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys was anodized in 5 M NaOH solution at 0.3 A for 10 min. Alkali treated Ti–30Ta–xHf surface formed by anodization step which acted as templates and anchorage for growth of the HAp during subsequent pulsed electrochemical deposition process at 85 °C. The phase and morphologies of deposited HAp layer were affected by the Hf contents of Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys. The nano-scale rod-like HAp layer was formed on untreated Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys with partially low crystallinity. In the case of alkali treated Ti–30Ta–xHf, nano-sized needle-like layers were transferred to nano-flake surface and denser morphology as Hf content increased.

  6. Fast ion transport at solid-solid interfaces in hybrid battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Choudhury, Snehashis; Zachman, Michael J.; Wei, Shuya; Zhang, Kaihang; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2018-04-01

    Carefully designed solid-electrolyte interphases are required for stable, reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage in batteries. We report that hybrid battery anodes created by depositing an electrochemically active metal (for example, Sn, In or Si) on a reactive alkali metal electrode by a facile ion-exchange chemistry lead to very high exchange currents and stable long-term performance of electrochemical cells based on Li and Na electrodes. By means of direct visualization and ex situ electrodeposition studies, Sn-Li anodes are shown to be stable at 3 mA cm-2 and 3 mAh cm-2. Prototype full cells in which the hybrid anodes are paired with high-loading LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2(NCA) cathodes are also reported. As a second demonstration, we create and study Sn-Na hybrid anodes and show that they can be cycled stably for more than 1,700 hours with minimal voltage divergence. Charge storage at the hybrid anodes is reported to involve a combination of alloying and electrodeposition reactions.

  7. Study and development of membrane electrode assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) with palladium based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, Rafael Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    PEMFC systems are capable of generating electricity with high efficiency and low or no emissions, but durability and cost issues prevent its large commercialization. In this work MEA with palladium based catalysts were developed, Pd/C, Pt/C and alloys PdPt/C catalysts with different ratios between metals and carbon were synthesized and characterized. A study of the ratio between catalyst and Nafion Ionomer for formation of high performance triple-phase reaction was carried out, a mathematical model to implement this adjustment to catalysts with different relations between metal and support taking into account the volumetric aspects of the catalyst layer was developed and then a study of the catalyst layer thickness was performed. X-ray diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive, Gas Pycnometry, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, Gas adsorption according to the BET and BJH equations, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis techniques were used for characterization and particle size, specific surface areas and lattice parameters determinations were also carried out. All catalysts were used on MEAs preparation and evaluated in 5 cm 2 single cell from 25 to 100 °C at 1 atm and the best composition was also evaluated at 3 atm. In the study of metals for reactions, to reduce the platinum applied to the electrodes without performance losses, Pd/C and PdPt/C 1:1 were selected for anodes and cathodes, respectively. The developed MEA structure used 0,25 mgPt.cm -2 , showing power densities up to 550 mW.cm -2 and power of 2.2 kW net per gram of platinum. The estimated costs showed that there was a reduction of up to 64.5 %, compared to the MEA structures previously known. Depending on the temperature and operating pressure, values from US$ 1,475.30 to prepare MEAs for each installed kilowatt were obtained. Taking into account recent studies, it was concluded that the cost of the developed MEA is compatible with PEMFC stationary application

  8. Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering studies of copper in 2024-T3 aluminum following electrochemical anodization in phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of the electrochemical anodization of dioxidized 2024-T3 aluminum on copper were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering. Anodization was performed in phosphoric acid at constant potential. Data is presented which shows that constant potential anodization of 2024-T3 is more efficient than aluminum in terms of oxide growth rates for short anodization times. However the maximum anodic oxide thickness achievable on the alloy is less than the pure metal. Copper is shown to be enriched at the oxide metal interface because of its diffusion from the bulk during anodization. The presence of copper at the oxide-metal interface is shown to affect oxide morphology.

  9. Conversion Coatings Produced on AZ61 Magnesium Alloy by Low-Voltage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The resultes of anodic oxide conversion coatings on wrought AZ61 magnesium alloy production are describe. The studies were conducted in a solution containing: KOH (80 g/l and KF (300 g/l using anodic current densities of 3, 5 and 10 A/dm2 and different process durations. The obtained coatings were examined under a microscope and corrosion tests were performed by electrochemical method. Based on these results, it was found that the low-voltage process produces coatings conferring improved corrosion resistance to the tested magnesium alloy.

  10. An experimental study of aluminium electrowinning using a nickel-based hydrogen diffusion anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namboothiri, Sankar; Taylor, Mark P.; Chen, John J.J.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Cooksey, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and formation of water vapour. → Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. → HF emissions can be minimised by conducting the electrolysis at 750 o C. → The nickel based anode surface corroded during electrolysis. → Its application is constrained by the material limitation of the porous anode. - Abstract: Laboratory scale electrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the electrowinning of aluminium using hydrogen diffusion anodes. A potassium-based electrolyte (KF-AlF 3 -Al 2 O 3 ), porous nickel alloy anode and molybdenum disk cathode were used in experiments at 750 o C. Hydrogen gas was supplied to the anode/electrolyte interface through the porous anode. Experiments were conducted in potentiostatic, galvanostatic and galvanodynamic modes. There was a measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and also anode reaction of hydrogen and oxygen ions in the bath to form water vapour was confirmed by the water vapour condensate found at the electrolysis exit gas pipe. Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. The experiments conducted in the galvanodynamic mode suggested that the rate limiter for hydrogen oxidation was the availability of surface hydrogen at the anode/electrolyte interface. The anode surface corroded during electrolysis and impurities were found both in the molten bath and on the cathode.

  11. Ethanol tolerant precious metal free cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmer, Ilena; Zorn, Paul; Weinberger, Stephan; Grimmer, Christoph; Pichler, Birgit; Cermenek, Bernd; Gebetsroither, Florian; Schenk, Alexander; Mautner, Franz-Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective ORR catalysts are presented for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells. • Perovskite based cathode catalysts show high tolerance toward ethanol. • A membrane-free alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell is presented. - Abstract: La 0.7 Sr 0.3 (Fe 0.2 Co 0.8 )O 3 and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 −based cathode catalysts are synthesized by the sol-gel method. These perovskite cathode catalysts are tested in half cell configuration and compared to MnO 2 as reference material in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs). The best performing cathode is tested in single cell setup using a standard carbon supported Pt 0.4 Ru 0.2 based anode. A backside Luggin capillary is used in order to register the anode potential during all measurements. Characteristic processes of the electrodes are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Physical characterizations of the perovskite based cathode catalysts are performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction showing phase pure materials. In half cell setup, La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 shows the highest tolerance toward ethanol with a performance of 614 mA cm −2 at 0.65 V vs. RHE in 6 M KOH and 1 M EtOH at RT. This catalyst outperforms the state-of-the-art precious metal-free MnO 2 catalyst in presence of ethanol. In fuel cell setup, the peak power density is 27.6 mW cm −2 at a cell voltage of 0.345 V and a cathode potential of 0.873 V vs. RHE.

  12. LEVIS active anode lithium ion source development on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Clark, B.F.; Reyes, C.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Carlson, A.L.; Lake, P.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are ongoing on the PBFA-II Accelerator (10 MV typical, 50 ns) to optimize an active lithium ion source in a 15-cm focusing Applied-B ion diode using the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) process. Two laser pulses impinge on a thin (500 nm) Li or Li-bearing alloy on an insulating substrate. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1 μm, 8 ns, 0.1--0.2 J/cm 2 ) creates a thin (∼1 mm) Li vapor, which is then ionized by a 30--60 mJ/cm 2 dye laser tuned to the first resonant transition of Li (670.8 nm). In order to achieve a high-purity Li beam on PBFA-II with LEVIS, it has proven necessary to clean the anode surface in some way. The principal technique has been DC-heating of the anode to temperatures of 150--200 C for typically 5 hours, and for as long as 13 hours, prior to machine firing. Use of a LiAg alloy and YAG energy densities of 200 mJ/cm 2 have yielded beams of Li purity greater than 90%. They authors also plan to test a diode configuration that deposits Li in-situ on the anode surface just prior to the machine shot, as an alternative to DC-heating

  13. Carbon nanotube-supported Au-Pd alloy with cooperative effect of metal nanoparticles and organic ketone/quinone groups as a highly efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiping; Chen, Jiashu; Kang, Jincan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2016-05-21

    Functionalised carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles were highly efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of amines. We achieved the highest turnover frequencies (>1000 h(-1)) for the oxidative homocoupling of benzylamine and the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine. We discovered a cooperative effect between Au-Pd nanoparticles and ketone/quinone groups on CNTs.

  14. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Chai, Y.C. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Bus 813, O& N1, Herestraat 49, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center, Bus 813, O& N1, Herestraat 49, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); 3D Systems — LayerWise NV, Grauwmeer 14, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 — PB2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Dept. Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20 V anodizing time: 30 min to 3 h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500 °C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55 nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500 °C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium

  15. Photoluminescent properties of nanoporous anodic alumina doped with manganese ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasenkova, I.V. [State Research and Production Association ' Optic, Optoelectronic and Laser techniques”, 68 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Mukhurov, N.I., E-mail: n.mukhurov@ifanbel.bas-net.by [State Research and Production Association ' Optic, Optoelectronic and Laser techniques”, 68 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Zhvavyi, S.P.; Kolesnik, E.E. [State Research and Production Association ' Optic, Optoelectronic and Laser techniques”, 68 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Stupak, A.P. [B.I.Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2017-05-15

    The results are presented of a comparative study of photoluminescent (PL) properties of unalloyed and Mn-alloyed porous anodic alumina (PAA) subjected to annealing at temperatures in the range of ГђВў{sub a}=200–1300 °ГђВЎ. The possibility of alloying of PAA with metal atoms is illustrated through an example of Mn atoms, and the effect of this impurity on the optical properties of aluminum oxide is examined. Alloying of PAA with Mn ions leads to the formation of complex defects including manganese ions and oxygen vacancies. The difference observed in the spectral dependences of the PL intensity of alloyed and unalloyed specimens is explained by the change in the valence of manganese ions in the complex defects. A decrease has been discovered in the PL intensity of the PL bands and R-lines of Mn and Cr ions in the α-phase under prolonged UV-exposure of the alloyed samples.

  16. Effectiveness of paper-structured catalyst for the operation of biodiesel-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang-Tuyen, Tran; Kaida, Taku; Sakamoto, Mio; Sasaki, Kazunari; Shiratori, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    Mg/Al-hydrotalcite (HDT)-dispersed paper-structured catalyst (PSC) was prepared by a simple paper-making process. The PSC exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the steam reforming of model biodiesel fuel (BDF), pure oleic acid methyl ester (oleic-FAME, C19H36O2) which is a mono-unsaturated component of practical BDFs. The PSC exhibited fuel conversion comparable to a pelletized catalyst material, here, conventional Ni-zirconia cermet anode for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with less than one-hundredth Ni weight. Performance of electrolyte-supported cell connected with the PSC was evaluated in the feed of oleic-FAME, and stable operation was achieved. After 60 h test, coking was not observed in both SOFC anode and PSC.

  17. Pt-based Thin Films as Efficient and Stable Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamburlini, Eleonora

    at the cathode of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). Herein the fabrication method, which consists of co-sputtering of thin films, is presented in detail, explaining the challenges one must face in order to fabricate oxygen-free Pt-lanthanides and Pt-early transition metals alloys......This thesis presents the fabrication and characterization of Pt-based thin film catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). Gadolinium and Yttrium have been used as alloying materials, in preparation for the replacement of the traditional but economically disadvantageous pure Pt catalysts......, and the proposed solutions. The characterization of the catalysts focused mainly on the electrochemical testing using a Rotating Ring Disk Electrode (RRDE) setup, and includes X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS), Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AR-XPS), Scanning...

  18. Methodology study for the catalyst obtention to low temperature fuel cells (DEFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Emilia Lucena de; Korb, Matias De Angelis; Correa, Patricia dos Santos; Radtke, Claudio; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Rieder, Ester

    2010-01-01

    Different methods to elaboration of catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells (low temperature fuel cells) have been proposed in the literature. The present work aims to study a simplified methodology to obtain Pt-Sn-Ni alloys, used as catalysts in low temperature fuel cells. Impregnation/reduction method was employed to obtain Pt- Sn-Ni alloys supported on carbon, using ethylenoglycol as reductor agent and carbon Vulcan XC72R as support. Different amounts of Pt, Sn e Ni were studied, with the intent to obtain the maximum catalytic effect. The catalysts were obtained in an alkaline range, at 130 deg C, using the proportion ethylenoglycol:water 75/25 v/v. The analytical techniques used in this study was RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy), X Ray Diffraction and Cyclic Voltammetry. (author)

  19. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B.